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Sample records for brillouin scattering enhanced

  1. Stimulated Brillouin scattering enhancement in silicon inverse opal waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, M. J. A.; Wolff, C; Sterke, C. Martijn de; Lapine, M.; Kuhlmey, B. T.; Poulton, C. G.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon is an ideal material for on-chip applications, however its poor acoustic properties limit its performance for important optoacoustic applications, particularly for Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). We theoretically show that silicon inverse opals exhibit a strongly improved acoustic performance that enhances the bulk SBS gain coefficient by more than two orders of magnitude. We also design a waveguide that incorporates silicon inverse opals and which has SBS gain values that are ...

  2. Stimulated Brillouin scattering enhancement in silicon inverse opal waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, M J A; de Sterke, C Martijn; Lapine, M; Kuhlmey, B T; Poulton, C G

    2016-01-01

    Silicon is an ideal material for on-chip applications, however its poor acoustic properties limit its performance for important optoacoustic applications, particularly for Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). We theoretically show that silicon inverse opals exhibit a strongly improved acoustic performance that enhances the bulk SBS gain coefficient by more than two orders of magnitude. We also design a waveguide that incorporates silicon inverse opals and which has SBS gain values that are comparable with chalcogenide glass waveguides. This research opens new directions for opto-acoustic applications in on-chip material systems.

  3. Enhanced Simultaneous Distributed Strain and Temperature Fiber Sensor Employing Spontaneous Brillouin Scattering and Optical Pulse Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, M. A.; Bolognini, G.; Di Pasquale, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we propose the use of optical pulse coding techniques for simultaneous strain and temperature sensing based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering. Optical pulse coding provides a significant receiver signal-to-noise ratio enhancement, allowing for accurate Brillouin intensity and frequency shift measurements at low peak power levels. Due to the cross-sensitivity of these two parameters on both temperature and strain, optical pulse coding improves the temperature and strain resolut...

  4. Brillouin scattering self-cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, O.; Jarschel, P. F.; Espinel, Y. A. V.; Cordeiro, C. M. B.; Mayer Alegre, T. P.; Wiederhecker, G. S.; Dainese, P.

    2016-06-01

    The interaction between light and acoustic phonons is strongly modified in sub-wavelength confinement, and has led to the demonstration and control of Brillouin scattering in photonic structures such as nano-scale optical waveguides and cavities. Besides the small optical mode volume, two physical mechanisms come into play simultaneously: a volume effect caused by the strain-induced refractive index perturbation (known as photo-elasticity), and a surface effect caused by the shift of the optical boundaries due to mechanical vibrations. As a result, proper material and structure engineering allows one to control each contribution individually. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the perfect cancellation of Brillouin scattering arising from Rayleigh acoustic waves by engineering a silica nanowire with exactly opposing photo-elastic and moving-boundary effects. This demonstration provides clear experimental evidence that the interplay between the two mechanisms is a promising tool to precisely control the photon-phonon interaction, enhancing or suppressing it.

  5. Shear Brillouin light scattering microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moonseok; Besner, Sebastien; Ramier, Antoine; Kwok, Sheldon J J; An, Jeesoo; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-11

    Brillouin spectroscopy has been used to characterize shear acoustic phonons in materials. However, conventional instruments had slow acquisition times over 10 min per 1 mW of input optical power, and they required two objective lenses to form a 90° scattering geometry necessary for polarization coupling by shear phonons. Here, we demonstrate a confocal Brillouin microscope capable of detecting both shear and longitudinal phonons with improved speeds and with a single objective lens. Brillouin scattering spectra were measured from polycarbonate, fused quartz, and borosilicate in 1-10 s at an optical power level of 10 mW. The elastic constants, phonon mean free path and the ratio of the Pockels coefficients were determined at microscopic resolution. PMID:26832263

  6. Brillouin Scattering Self-Cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Florez, Omar; Espinel, Yovanny A V; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B; Alegre, Thiago P Mayer; Wiederhecker, Gustavo S; Dainese, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between light and acoustic phonons is strongly modified in sub-wavelength confinement, and has led to the demonstration and control of Brillouin scattering in photonic structures such as nano-scale optical waveguides and cavities. Besides the small optical mode volume, two physical mechanisms come into play simultaneously: a volume effect caused by the strain induced refractive index perturbation (known as photo-elasticity), and a surface effect caused by the shift of the optical boundaries due to mechanical vibrations. As a result proper material and structure engineering allows one to control each contribution individually. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the perfect cancellation of Brillouin scattering by engineering a silica nanowire with exactly opposing photo-elastic and moving-boundary effects. This demonstration provides clear experimental evidence that the interplay between the two mechanisms is a promising tool to precisely control the photon-phonon interaction, enhancin...

  7. Tailorable Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in Nanoscale Silicon Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Heedeuk; Jarecki, Robert; Cox, Jonathan A; Olsson, Roy H; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T

    2013-01-01

    While nanoscale modal confinement radically enhances a variety of nonlinear light-matter interactions within silicon waveguides, traveling-wave stimulated Brillouin scattering nonlinearities have never been observed in silicon nanophotonics. Through a new class of hybrid photonic-phononic waveguides, we demonstrate tailorable traveling-wave forward stimulated Brillouin scattering in nanophotonic silicon waveguides for the first time, yielding 3000 times stronger forward SBS responses than any previous waveguide system. Simulations reveal that a coherent combination of electrostrictive forces and radiation pressures are responsible for greatly enhanced photon-phonon coupling at nano-scales. Highly tailorable Brillouin nonlinearities are produced by engineering the structure of a membrane-suspended waveguide to yield Brillouin resonances from 1 to 18 GHz through high quality-factor (>1000) phonon modes. Such wideband and tailorable stimulated Brillouin scattering in silicon photonics could enable practical real...

  8. Tailorable stimulated Brillouin scattering in nanoscale silicon waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Heedeuk; Qiu, Wenjun; Jarecki, Robert; Cox, Jonathan A.; Olsson, Roy H.; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    While nanoscale modal confinement radically enhances a variety of nonlinear light-matter interactions within silicon waveguides, traveling-wave stimulated Brillouin scattering nonlinearities have never been observed in silicon nanophotonics. Through a new class of hybrid photonic-phononic waveguides, we demonstrate tailorable traveling-wave forward stimulated Brillouin scattering in nanophotonic silicon waveguides for the first time, yielding 3000 times stronger forward SBS responses than any...

  9. Stimulated Brillouin scattering in metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, M J A; de Sterke, C Martijn; Wolff, C; Lapine, M; Poulton, C G

    2016-01-01

    We compute the SBS gain for a metamaterial comprising a cubic lattice of dielectric spheres suspended in a background dielectric material. Theoretical methods are presented to calculate the optical, acoustic, and opto-acoustic parameters that describe the SBS properties of the material at long wavelengths. Using the electromagnetic and strain energy densities we accurately characterise the optical and acoustic properties of the metamaterial. From a combination of energy density methods and perturbation theory, we recover the appropriate terms of the photoelastic tensor for the metamaterial. We demonstrate that electrostriction is not necessarily the dominant mechanism in the enhancement and suppression of the SBS gain coefficient in a metamaterial, and that other parameters, such as the Brillouin linewidth, can dominate instead. Examples are presented that exhibit an order of magnitude enhancement in the SBS gain as well as perfect suppression.

  10. Tailorable stimulated Brillouin scattering in nanoscale silicon waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heedeuk; Qiu, Wenjun; Jarecki, Robert; Cox, Jonathan A; Olsson, Roy H; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale modal confinement is known to radically enhance the effect of intrinsic Kerr and Raman nonlinearities within nanophotonic silicon waveguides. By contrast, stimulated Brillouin-scattering nonlinearities, which involve coherent coupling between guided photon and phonon modes, are stifled in conventional nanophotonics, preventing the realization of a host of Brillouin-based signal-processing technologies in silicon. Here we demonstrate stimulated Brillouin scattering in silicon waveguides, for the first time, through a new class of hybrid photonic-phononic waveguides. Tailorable travelling-wave forward-stimulated Brillouin scattering is realized-with over 1,000 times larger nonlinearity than reported in previous systems-yielding strong Brillouin coupling to phonons from 1 to 18 GHz. Experiments show that radiation pressures, produced by subwavelength modal confinement, yield enhancement of Brillouin nonlinearity beyond those of material nonlinearity alone. In addition, such enhanced and wideband coherent phonon emission paves the way towards the hybridization of silicon photonics, microelectromechanical systems and CMOS signal-processing technologies on chip. PMID:23739586

  11. Unifying Brillouin scattering and cavity optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Van Laer, Raphaël; Baets, Roel; Van Thourhout, Dries

    2015-01-01

    So far, Brillouin scattering and cavity optomechanics were mostly disconnected branches of research. Both deal with photon-phonon coupling, but a number of differences impeded their unambiguous fusion. Here, we reveal a close connection between two parameters of central importance in these fields: the Brillouin gain coefficient $\\tilde{\\mathcal{G}}$ and the zero-point optomechanical coupling rate $g_{0}$. In addition, we derive the dynamical cavity equations from the coupled-mode description of a Brillouin waveguide. This explicit transition shows the unity of optomechanical phenomena, such as stimulated Brillouin scattering and electromagnetically induced transparency, regardless of whether they occur in waveguides or in resonators. Therefore, the fields can no longer be disentangled. We propose an experimental manifestation of the link in silicon photonic nanowires.

  12. Guided-wave Brillouin scattering in air

    CERN Document Server

    Renninger, William H; Rakich, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Here we identify a new form of optomechanical coupling in gas-filled hollow-core fibers. Stimulated forward Brillouin scattering is observed in air in the core of a photonic bandgap fiber. A single resonance is observed at 35 MHz, which corresponds to the first excited axial-radial acoustic mode in the air-filled core. The linewidth and coupling strengths are determined by the acoustic loss and electrostrictive coupling in air, respectively. A simple analytical model, refined by numerical simulations, is developed that accurately predicts the Brillouin coupling strength and frequency from the gas and fiber parameters. Since this form of Brillouin coupling depends strongly on both the acoustic and dispersive optical properties of the gas within the fiber, this new type of optomechanical interaction is highly tailorable. These results allow for forward Brillouin spectroscopy in dilute gases, could be useful for sensing and will present a power and noise limitation for certain applications.

  13. Brillouin amplification and processing of the Rayleigh scattered signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, David; Shacham, Eliashiv; Biton, Moran; Sternklar, Shmuel

    2015-07-15

    Brillouin amplification of Rayleigh scattering is demonstrated using two different configurations. In the first technique, the Rayleigh scattering and amplification occurs simultaneously in the same fiber. In the second technique, the amplification takes place in a second fiber. The differences between the two techniques are delineated. Using the second technique, we demonstrate single-sideband off-resonant Brillouin amplification of the Rayleigh signal. This technique is shown to enhance the SNR of a signal that is due to vibration-induced strain on the fiber. PMID:26176464

  14. Neutron Brillouin scattering in dense fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkerk, P. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands); FINGO Collaboration

    1997-04-01

    Thermal neutron scattering is a typical microscopic probe for investigating dynamics and structure in condensed matter. In contrast, light (Brillouin) scattering with its three orders of magnitude larger wavelength is a typical macroscopic probe. In a series of experiments using the improved small-angle facility of IN5 a significant step forward is made towards reducing the gap between the two. For the first time the transition from the conventional single line in the neutron spectrum scattered by a fluid to the Rayleigh-Brillouin triplet known from light-scattering experiments is clearly and unambiguously observed in the raw neutron data without applying any corrections. Results of these experiments are presented. (author).

  15. Stimulated Brillouin scattering and Brillouin-coupled four-wave-mixing in a silica microbottle resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Asano, Motoki; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Ikuta, Rikizo; Yang, Lan; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We report the first observation of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) with Brillouin lasing, and Brillouin-coupled four-wave-mixing (FWM) in an ultra-high-Q silica microbottle resonator. The Brillouin lasing was observed at the frequency of $\\Omega_B=2\\pi\\times10.4$ GHz with a threshold power of $0.45$ mW. Coupling between Brillouin and FWM was observed in both backward and forward scattering directions with separations of $2\\Omega_B$. At a pump power of $10$ mW, FWM spacing reached to 7th and 9th order anti-Stokes and Stokes, respectively.

  16. A Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectrometer for ultraviolet wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Ziyu; van Duijn, Eric-Jan; Ubachs, Wim; 10.1063/1.4721272

    2012-01-01

    A spectrometer for the measurement of spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering line profiles at ultraviolet wavelengths from gas phase molecules has been developed, employing a high-power frequency-stabilized UV laser with narrow bandwidth (2 MHz). The UV light from a frequency-doubled titanium:sapphire laser is further amplified in an enhancement cavity, delivering a 5 Watt UV-beam propagating through the interaction region inside a scattering cell. The design of the RB-scattering cell allows for measurements at gas pressures in the range 0-4 bar and at stably controlled temperatures from -30 to 70 degree Celsius. A scannable Fabry-Perot analyzer with instrument resolution of 232 MHz probes the Rayleigh-Brillouin profiles. Measurements on N2 and SF6 gases demonstrate the high signal-to-noise ratio achievable with the instrument, at the 1% level at the peak amplitude of the scattering profile.

  17. Unifying Brillouin scattering and cavity optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laer, Raphaël; Baets, Roel; Van Thourhout, Dries

    2016-05-01

    So far, Brillouin scattering and cavity optomechanics have been mostly disconnected branches of research, although both deal with photon-phonon coupling. This begs for the development of a broader theory that contains both fields. Here, we derive the dynamics of optomechanical cavities from that of Brillouin-active waveguides. This explicit transition elucidates the link between phenomena such as Brillouin amplification and electromagnetically induced transparency. It proves that effects familiar from cavity optomechanics all have traveling-wave partners, but not vice versa. We reveal a close connection between two parameters of central importance in these fields: the Brillouin gain coefficient and the zero-point optomechanical coupling rate. This enables comparisons between systems as diverse as ultracold atom clouds, plasmonic Raman cavities, and nanoscale silicon waveguides. In addition, back-of-the-envelope calculations show that unobserved effects, such as photon-assisted amplification of traveling phonons, are now accessible in existing systems. Finally, we formulate both circuit- and cavity-oriented optomechanics in terms of vacuum coupling rates, cooperativities, and gain coefficients, thus reflecting the similarities in the underlying physics.

  18. Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering of carbon dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Ziyu; van de Water, Willem

    2014-01-01

    The spectral lineshape of spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in CO2 is studied in a range of pressures. The spectrum is influenced by the bulk viscosity, which is a relaxation phenomenon involving the internal degrees of freedom of the molecule. The associated relaxation rates can be compared to the frequency shift of the scattered light, which demands precise measurements of the spectral lineshape. We find the value of the bulk viscosity around 5.7 X 10^{-6} kg/(ms) for the range of pressures p= 2-4 bar and for conditions of room temperature.

  19. Brillouin scattering induced transparency and non-reciprocal light storage

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Chun-Hua; Zou, Chang-Ling; Zhang, Yan-Lei; Fu, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can

    2014-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is a very fundamental interaction between light and travelling acoustic waves, which is mainly attributed to the electrostriction and photoelastic effects with the interaction strength being orders of magnitude larger than other nonlinearities. Although various photonic applications for all-optical light controlling based on SBS have been achieved in optical fiber and waveguides, the coherent light-acoustic interaction remains a challenge. Here, we experimentally demonstrated the Brillouin scattering induced transparency (BSIT) in a high quality optical microresonantor. Benefited from the triple-resonance in the whispering gallery cavity, the photon-phonon interaction is enhanced, and enables the light storage to the phonon, which has lifetime up to 10us. In addition, due to the phase matching condition, the stored circulating acoustic phonon can only interact with certain direction light, which leads to non-reciprocal light storage and retrieval. Our work paves the way t...

  20. Short-Pulse Amplification by Strongly-Coupled Brillouin Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Matthew R; Mikhailova, Julia M; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2016-01-01

    We examine the feasibility of strongly-coupled stimulated Brillouin scattering as a mechanism for the plasma-based amplification of sub-picosecond pulses. In particular, we use fluid theory and particle-in-cell simulations to compare the relative advantages of Raman and Brillouin amplification over a broad range of achievable parameters.

  1. Bandwidth reconfigurable microwave photonic filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yongchuan; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Youdi; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Xindong; Liu, Caixia; Ruan, Shengping; Chen, Weiyou

    2015-01-01

    A bandwidth reconfigurable microwave photonic filter is proposed and numerically analyzed employing Brillouin gain spectrum narrowing and broadening. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) process is used to convert the phase modulation to intensity modulation to generate filter passband. Due to the fact that the passband is formed by mapping the Brillouin gain spectrum, bandwidth reconfiguration can be implemented by changing Brillouin gain linewidth. In this paper, both bandwidth reduction and increase are included in a single system and the details of gain spectrum narrowing and broadening are demonstrated. Theoretically, nearly 60% bandwidth reduction and hundreds times of bandwidth increase are achieved as compared to the case without gain spectrum process.

  2. Cascaded forward Brillouin scattering to all Stokes orders

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Christian; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Steel, Michael J; Poulton, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    Inelastic scattering processes such as Brillouin scattering can often function in cascaded regimes and this is likely to occur in certain integrated opto-acoustic devices. We develop a Hamiltonian formalism for cascaded Brillouin scattering valid for both quantum and classical regimes. By regarding Brillouin scattering as the interaction of a single acoustic envelope and a single optical envelope that covers all Stokes and anti-Stokes orders, we obtain a compact model that is well suited for numerical implementation, extension to include other optical nonlinearities or short pulses, and application in the quantum-optics domain. We then theoretically analyze intra-mode forward Brillouin scattering (FBS) for arbitrary waveguides with and without optical dispersion. In the absence of optical dispersion, we find an exact analytical solution. With a perturbative approach, we furthermore solve the case of weak optical dispersion. Our work leads to several key results on intra-mode FBS. For negligible dispersion, we...

  3. Nonstationary stimulated Brillouin scattering in laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is a known phenomenon observed in many laser plasma experiments. In spite of enormous amount of experimental and theoretical works there are some properties of SBS that have no ambiguous interpretation yet. Here we try to explain some characteristic features of SBS taking place in the high intensity laser plasma interaction. Here we compare numerical results with experimental data obtained with use of CO2 laser facility TIR-1. Experiments have been performed under the next parameters of the laser system: energy of up to 100 J, pulse length (FWHM) of 3 ns, contrast ratio larger than 107, wavelength of 10.591 mkm. The NaCl aspherical lens was used to focus the laser beam on the plane massive target. Intensity distribution in the focal plate had near Gaussian distribution with diameter (1/e) of 65 mkm, maximum intensity being 5.*1014 W/cm2. One of the most characteristic features of SBS in these experiments is its nonstationarity. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs

  4. Stimulated Raman-Brillouin scattering processes in magnetoactive semiconductor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple analytical treatment based on hydrodynamic model of plasma is developed to study both steady-state and transient stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering processes (SRS and SBS) in centrosymmetric or weakly non centrosymmetric semiconductors. Gain constants, threshold-pump intensities, and optimum-pulse durations for the onset of Raman and Brillouin instabilities are estimated. Authors have also addressed themselves to the question of behaviour of the transient gain factors (Raman and Brillouin) as function of different physical parameters such as external magnetic field, pump pulse durations etc. The quantitative behaviour of transient gain factors is found to be in agreement with the experimental and other theoretical observations. The analysis explain satisfactorily the competition between stimulated Raman and Brillouin processes in the short and long pulse duration regimes. The highlight of present theory is that both SRS and SBS (steady-state as well as transient) can be studied in centrosymmetric or weakly non centrosymmetric dielectrics using simple classical treatment. (author)

  5. Nonlinear stimulated Brillouin scattering based photonic signal processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minasian, Robert A. [School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Institute of Photonics and Optical Science, University of Sydney, NSW, Sydney, 2006 (Australia)

    2014-10-06

    Recent new methods in photonic signal processing based on stimulated Brillouin scattering, that enable the realization of photonic mixers with high conversion efficiency, ultra-wide continuously tunable high-resolution microwave photonic filters and programmable switchable microwave photonic tunable filters, are presented. These processors provide new capabilities for the realisation of high-performance and high-resolution signal processing.

  6. Nonlinear stimulated Brillouin scattering based photonic signal processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent new methods in photonic signal processing based on stimulated Brillouin scattering, that enable the realization of photonic mixers with high conversion efficiency, ultra-wide continuously tunable high-resolution microwave photonic filters and programmable switchable microwave photonic tunable filters, are presented. These processors provide new capabilities for the realisation of high-performance and high-resolution signal processing

  7. Distributed sensing employing stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Antman, Yair; Thévenaz, Luc; Zadok, Avinoam

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed are methods and devices for distributed sensing of a measurable parameter employing stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber. A frequency-modulated or phase-modulated light wave is transmitted into the optical fiber. A scattered light wave in the optical fiber is monitored for sensing a measurable parameter. In some embodiments, the calculating step may include calculating a distance of a sensed location along the optical fiber using the monitored time of arrival.

  8. Recent Progress in Brillouin Scattering Based Fiber Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brillouin scattering in optical fiber describes the interaction of an electro-magnetic field (photon with a characteristic density variation of the fiber. When the electric field amplitude of an optical beam (so-called pump wave, and another wave is introduced at the downshifted Brillouin frequency (namely Stokes wave, the beating between the pump and Stokes waves creates a modified density change via the electrostriction effect, resulting in so-called the stimulated Brillouin scattering. The density variation is associated with a mechanical acoustic wave; and it may be affected by local temperature, strain, and vibration which induce changes in the fiber effective refractive index and sound velocity. Through the measurement of the static or dynamic changes in Brillouin frequency along the fiber one can realize a distributed fiber sensor for local temperature, strain and vibration over tens or hundreds of kilometers. This paper reviews the progress on improving sensing performance parameters like spatial resolution, sensing length limitation and simultaneous temperature and strain measurement. These kinds of sensors can be used in civil structural monitoring of pipelines, bridges, dams, and railroads for disaster prevention. Analogous to the static Bragg grating, one can write a moving Brillouin grating in fibers, with the lifetime of the acoustic wave. The length of the Brillouin grating can be controlled by the writing pulses at any position in fibers. Such gratings can be used to measure changes in birefringence, which is an important parameter in fiber communications. Applications for this kind of sensor can be found in aerospace, material processing and fine structures.

  9. Extreme temperature sensing using brillouin scattering in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Fellay, Alexandre

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering in silica-based optical fibers may be considered from two different and complementary standpoints. For a physicist, this interaction of light and pressure wave in a material, or equivalently in quantum theory terms between photons and phonons, gives some glimpses of the atomic structure of the solid and of its vibration modes. For an applied engineer, the same phenomenon may be put to good use as a sensing mechanism for distributed measurements, thanks to the dependence of the scattered light on external parameters such as the temperature, the pressure or the strain applied to the fiber. As far as temperature measurements are concerned, Brillouin-based distributed sensors have progressively gained wide recognition as efficient systems, even if their rather high cost still restricts the number of their applications. Yet they are generally used in a relatively narrow temperature range around the usual ambient temperature; in this domain, the frequency of the scattered light incre...

  10. Stimulated Brillouin scatter in a magnetized ionospheric plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, P A; Selcher, C A; Lehmberg, R H; Rodriguez, S P; Thomason, J F; Groves, K M; McCarrick, M J; Frazer, G J

    2010-04-23

    High power electromagnetic waves transmitted from the HAARP facility in Alaska can excite low-frequency electrostatic waves by magnetized stimulated Brillouin scatter. Either an ion-acoustic wave with a frequency less than the ion cyclotron frequency (f(CI)) or an electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) wave just above f(CI) can be produced. The coupled equations describing the magnetized stimulated Brillouin scatter instability show that the production of both ion-acoustic and EIC waves is strongly influenced by the wave propagation relative to the background magnetic field. Experimental observations of stimulated electromagnetic emissions using the HAARP transmitter have confirmed that only ion-acoustic waves are excited for propagation along the magnetic zenith and that EIC waves can only be detected with oblique propagation angles. The ion composition can be obtained from the measured EIC frequency. PMID:20482059

  11. Stimulated Brillouin Scatter in a Magnetized Ionospheric Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High power electromagnetic waves transmitted from the HAARP facility in Alaska can excite low-frequency electrostatic waves by magnetized stimulated Brillouin scatter. Either an ion-acoustic wave with a frequency less than the ion cyclotron frequency (fCI) or an electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) wave just above fCI can be produced. The coupled equations describing the magnetized stimulated Brillouin scatter instability show that the production of both ion-acoustic and EIC waves is strongly influenced by the wave propagation relative to the background magnetic field. Experimental observations of stimulated electromagnetic emissions using the HAARP transmitter have confirmed that only ion-acoustic waves are excited for propagation along the magnetic zenith and that EIC waves can only be detected with oblique propagation angles. The ion composition can be obtained from the measured EIC frequency.

  12. Realistic model for the stimulated Brillouin scattering instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to present a new model describing the stimulated Brillouin scattering instability in an inhomogeneous plasma. This model, called the harmonic decomposition method is based on the decomposition of plasma characteristics like density and speed into their short and long wavelengths components. This model describes: the propagation of the incident and reflected laser wave, the evolution of the sound wave and the hydrodynamic evolution of the plasma on a large scale. The first chapter recalls theoretical concepts concerning the stimulated Brillouin scattering, the filamentation and auto-focusing and introduces the harmonic decomposition method. The second chapter deals with the validation of this method through a comparison with an exact hydrodynamics model. The third chapter presents the interpretation of laser-plasma experiments with this new method. The fourth chapter presents different ways of improving the description by taking into account kinetics effects or a better decomposition of the sound wave. (A.C.)

  13. A New Approach to Cascaded Stimulated Brillouin Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel approach to cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering and frequency comb generation in which the multitude of interacting pump, Stokes, and anti-Stokes optical fields are described by a single forward wave and a single backward wave at a single carrier frequency. The envelopes of these two waves are modulated through coupling to a single acoustic oscillation and through four-wave mixing. Starting from a single pump field, we observe the emergence of a comb of frequencies as the intensity is increased. The set of three differential equations derived here are sufficient to describe the generation of any number of Brillouin sidebands in oscillator systems that would have required hundreds of coupled equations in the standard approach. We test the new approach on some published experiments and find excellent agreement with the results.

  14. Effect of collisions on amplification of laser beams by Brillouin scattering in plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Humphrey, K. A.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Fiuza, F.; Speirs, D. C.; Norreys, P.; Cairns, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; R. Bingham

    2013-01-01

    We report on particle in cell simulations of energy transfer between a laser pump beam and a counter-propagating seed beam using the Brillouin scattering process in uniform plasma including collisions. The results presented show that the ion acoustic waves excited through naturally occurring Brillouin scattering of the pump field are preferentially damped without affecting the driven Brillouin scattering process resulting from the beating of the pump and seed fields together. We find that col...

  15. Signal Processing for Fibre-optic Distributed Sensing Techniques Employing Brillouin Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Shang-hui; LI Li

    2009-01-01

    As fibre optic distributed scattering sensing systems are providing innovative solutions for the monitoring of large structures, Brillouin-based distributed scattering sensing techniques represent a new physical approach for structures health monitoring, which seems extremely promising and is receiving most attentions. This paper comprehensively presents some methods of signal interrogation for fibre optic Brillouin-based distributed scattering sensing technology, especially establishes an accurate Pseudo-Voigt model of Brillouin gain spectrum and gives some results on spectrum analysis and data processing.

  16. Metamaterial control of stimulated Brillouin scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, M J A; de Sterke, C Martijn; Wolff, C; Lapine, M; Poulton, C G

    2016-01-01

    Using full opto-acoustic numerical simulations, we demonstrate enhancement and suppression of the SBS gain coefficient in a metamaterial comprising a subwavelength cubic array of dielectric spheres suspended in a dielectric background material. We develop a general theoretical framework and present several numerical examples for technologically important material combinations. For As$_2$S$_3$ spheres suspended in silicon, we achieve an enhancement of more than one order of magnitude in the SBS gain coefficient compared to pure silicon, and for GaAs spheres in silicon, perfect suppression of SBS is obtained. The gain coefficient for As$_2$S$_3$ glass can also be strongly suppressed by introducing a suspension of amorphous silica spheres. Effective photonic and acoustic parameters are shown to depend in a complex way on the filling fraction, and each have varying influence on the effective gain coefficient of the metamaterial. For the studied combinations of materials, electrostriction is the dominant effect be...

  17. Magnetostatic wave device characterization by Brillouin light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Carl E.; Srinivasan, Gopalan

    1989-02-01

    This final report summarizes the important results of the Brillouin light scattering investigations of magnetic excitations in magnetostatic wave (MSW) devices which were carried out under the RADC contract. The key accomplishments were the observation and characterization of surface waves, forward volume waves, backward volume waves, parametric spin waves, and a new type of evanescent surface wave in yttrium iron garnet film MSW devices. The propagation characteristics for surface wave in Fe, Co-Cr, and Ni-Fe films were also examined, in order to investigate the possible use of such films in MSW devices. Details on technical publications and participating personnel during this contract period are also provided.

  18. Brillouin scattering of light by spin waves in ferromagnetic nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the investigations of spin wave modes of arrays of Ni and Co nanorods using Brillouin light scattering. We have revealed the significant influence of spin wave modes along the nanorod axis in contrast to infinite magnetic nanowires. Unusual optical properties featuring an inverted Stokes/anti-Stokes asymmetry of the Brillouin scattering spectra have been observed. The spectrum of spin wave modes in the nanorod array has been calculated and compared with the experiment. Experimental observations are explained in terms of a combined numerical–analytical approach taking into account both the low aspect ratio of individual magnetic nanorods and dipolar magnetic coupling between the nanorods in the array. The optical studies of spin-wave modes in nanorod metamaterials with low aspect ratio nanorods have revealed new magnetic and magneto-optical properties compared to continuous magnetic films or infinite magnetic nanowires. Such magnetic artificial materials are important class of active metamaterials needed for prospective data storage and signal processing applications.

  19. Brillouin light scattering from surface acoustic waves in a subwavelength-diameter optical fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Lebrun, Sylvie; Pauliat, Gilles; Maillotte, Hervé; Laude, Vincent; Sylvestre, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Brillouin scattering in optical fibres is a fundamental interaction between light and sound with important implications ranging from optical sensors to slow and fast light. In usual optical fibres, light both excites and feels shear and longitudinal bulk elastic waves, giving rise to forward-guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering and backward-stimulated Brillouin scattering. In a subwavelength-diameter optical fibre, the situation changes dramatically, as we here report with the first experimental observation of Brillouin light scattering from surface acoustic waves. These Rayleigh-type surface waves travel the wire surface at a specific velocity of 3,400 m s(-1) and backscatter the light with a Doppler shift of about 6 GHz. As these acoustic resonances are sensitive to surface defects or features, surface acoustic wave Brillouin scattering opens new opportunities for various sensing applications, but also in other domains such as microwave photonics and nonlinear plasmonics. PMID:25341638

  20. Bunching of temporal cavity solitons via forward Brillouin scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Erkintalo, Miro; Jang, Jae K; Coen, Stéphane; Murdoch, Stuart G

    2015-01-01

    We report on the experimental observation of bunching dynamics with temporal cavity solitons in a continuously-driven passive fibre resonator. Specifically, we excite a large number of ultrafast cavity solitons with random temporal separations, and observe in real time how the initially random sequence self-organizes into regularly-spaced aggregates. To explain our experimental observations, we develop a simple theoretical model that allows long-range acoustically-induced interactions between a large number of temporal cavity solitons to be simulated. Significantly, results from our simulations are in excellent agreement with our experimental observations, strongly suggesting that the soliton bunching dynamics arise from forward Brillouin scattering. In addition to confirming prior theoretical analyses and unveiling a new cavity soliton self-organization phenomenon, our findings elucidate the manner in which sound interacts with large ensembles of ultrafast pulses of light.

  1. Coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering as a flow diagnostic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graul, J. S.; Lilly, T. C. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Colorado Colorado Springs, 1420 Austin Bluffs Parkway, Colorado Springs, CO 80918 (United States)

    2014-12-09

    Broadband coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering (CRBS) was used to measure translational gas temperatures for nitrogen at the ambient pressure of 0.8 atm using a purpose-built Fabry-Perot etalon spectrometer. Temperatures derived from the CRBS spectral analysis were compared with experimentally-measured temperatures, and were found to be, on average, within 2% of the experimentally-measured value. Axial flow velocities from a double jet at a pressure ratio of 0.38 were also measured by looking at the Doppler shift of the CRBS line shape. With recent developments in chirped laser technology and the capacity of CRBS to simultaneously provide thermodynamic and bulk flow information, the CRBS line shape acquisition and analysis technique presented here may allow for future time-resolved, characterization of aerospace flows.

  2. Unconventional physical mechanisms between stimulated Brillouin scattering and backward stimulated Raman scattering in liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and the backward stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS) excited by a focused Gaussian laser in liquid water with different attenuation coefficients are investigated experimentally. Experimental results indicate that the relationships between SBS and BSRS are not merely competitive; the former has an obvious amplifying effect on the latter. Also, two different physical mechanisms were discussed in order to explain these phenomena

  3. Dynamic Microwave Photonic Filter Using Separate Carrier Tuning Based on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho J.; Chin S.; Sagues M.; Loayssa A.; Lloret J.; Gasulla I.; Sales S.; Thevenaz L.; Capmany J.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic reconfiguration of a microwave photonic filter by tuning its basic delay based on stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced slow light and optical phase shift of the optical carrier is experimentally implemented. The measurements confirm that the free spectral range of the filter changes when a Brillouin pump is applied. These results demonstrate the potential of the separate carrier technique in microwave photonics applications.

  4. Effect of collisions on amplification of laser beams by Brillouin scattering in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, K. A.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Fiuza, F.; Speirs, D. C.; Norreys, P.; Cairns, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Bingham, R.

    2013-10-01

    We report on particle in cell simulations of energy transfer between a laser pump beam and a counter-propagating seed beam using the Brillouin scattering process in uniform plasma including collisions. The results presented show that the ion acoustic waves excited through naturally occurring Brillouin scattering of the pump field are preferentially damped without affecting the driven Brillouin scattering process resulting from the beating of the pump and seed fields together. We find that collisions, including the effects of Landau damping, allow for a more efficient transfer of energy between the laser beams, and a significant reduction in the amount of seed pre-pulse produced.

  5. Effect of collisions on amplification of laser beams by Brillouin scattering in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on particle in cell simulations of energy transfer between a laser pump beam and a counter-propagating seed beam using the Brillouin scattering process in uniform plasma including collisions. The results presented show that the ion acoustic waves excited through naturally occurring Brillouin scattering of the pump field are preferentially damped without affecting the driven Brillouin scattering process resulting from the beating of the pump and seed fields together. We find that collisions, including the effects of Landau damping, allow for a more efficient transfer of energy between the laser beams, and a significant reduction in the amount of seed pre-pulse produced

  6. Triple-resonant Brillouin light scattering in magneto-optical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Haigh, J A; Ramsay, A J; Ferguson, A J

    2016-01-01

    An enhancement in Brillouin light scattering of optical photons with magnons is demonstrated in magneto-optical whispering gallery mode resonators tuned to a triple resonance point. This occurs when both the input and output optical modes are resonant with those of the whispering gallery resonator, with a separation given by the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency. The identification and excitation of specific optical modes allows us to gain a clear understanding of the mode-matching conditions. A selection rule due to wavevector matching leads to an intrinsic single-sideband excitation. Strong suppression of one sideband is essential for one-to-one frequency mapping in coherent optical-to-microwave conversion.

  7. Stimulated-Brillouin-scattering studies in low-density plasmas using microwave sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in microwave interaction with a plasma, as verified by the satisfaction of the frequency and wavelength matching rules and growth rate, are presented. A small amount of chamber reflectivity causes ion fluctuations due to the standing-wave ponderomotive force, which then serve as an enhanced noise level for the initiation of the instability. Saturation of the backscatter is observed and compared with existing theories. The control of SBS using finite-bandwidth comb-type or random-noise-type pumps is also reported. (author)

  8. True Time Delay on tunable Microwave Photonic Filter based on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho J.; Chin S.; Sagues M.; Loayssa A.; Lloret J.; Gasulla I.; Sales S.; Thevenaz L.; Capmany J.

    2010-01-01

    A dynamically reconfigurable Microwave Photonic Filter based on True Time Delay generated by Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in optical fibers and separate phase shift of the optical carrier has been experimentally demonstrated, resulting in a flexible tunable Free Spectral Range.

  9. Self-Advanced Propagation of Light Pulse in an Optical Fiber Based on Brillouin Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Sanghoon; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel; Thévenaz, Luc

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel method to realize self-induced fast light and signal advancement with no distinct pump source in optical fibers, based on stimulated Brillouin scattering. This scheme will be helpful for real application systems.

  10. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of an electromagnetic wave in weakly magnetized plasma with variably charged dust particles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sourabh Bal; M Bose

    2009-10-01

    We have investigated analytically the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) of an electromagnetic wave in non-dissipative weakly magnetized plasma in the presence of dust particles with variable charge.

  11. Protein dynamics in Brillouin light scattering: Termal denaturation of hen egg white lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanidze, A. V.; Lushnikov, S. G.; Kojima, S.

    2009-09-01

    Thermal denaturation of hen egg white lysozyme has been investigated by Brillouin light scattering in the temperature range from 297 to 350 K. Anomalies in the temperature dependences of velocity and damping of hypersound and also in the behavior of the intensity of Brillouin components for the lysozyme solution at thermal denaturation have been revealed. These anomalies are attributable to phase transformations of the protein in the high-temperature region. It has been shown that Brillouin light scattering is a suitable tool for studying the structural evolution of proteins.

  12. ``Bloch wave'' modification of stimulated Raman by stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, E. S.; Vu, H. X.; DuBois, D. F.; Bezzerides, B.

    2013-03-01

    Using the reduced-description particle-in-cell (RPIC) method, we study the coupling of backward stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS) and backward stimulated Brillouin scattering (BSBS) in regimes where the reflectivity involves the nonlinear behavior of particles trapped in the daughter plasma waves. The temporal envelope of a Langmuir wave (LW) obeys a Schrödinger equation where the potential is the periodic electron density fluctuation resulting from an ion-acoustic wave (IAW). The BSRS-driven LWs in this case have a Bloch wave structure and a modified dispersion due to the BSBS-driven spatially periodic IAW, which includes frequency band gaps at kLW˜kIAW/2˜k0 (kLW, kIAW, and k0 are the wave number of the LW, IAW, and incident pump electromagnetic wave, respectively). This band structure and the associated Bloch wave harmonic components are distinctly observed in RPIC calculations of the electron density fluctuation spectra and this structure may be observable in Thomson scatter. Bloch wave components grow up in the LW spectrum, and are not the result of isolated BSRS. Self-Thomson scattered light from these Bloch wave components can have forward scattering components. The distortion of the LW dispersion curve implies that the usual relationship connecting the frequency shift of the BSRS-scattered light and the density of origin of this light may become inaccurate. The modified LW frequency results in a time-dependent frequency shift that increases as the IAW grows, detunes the BSRS frequency matching condition, and reduces BSRS growth. A dependence of the BSRS reflectivity on the IAW Landau damping results because this damping determines the levels of IAWs. The time-dependent reflectivity in our simulations is characterized by bursts of sub-picosecond pulses of BSRS alternating with multi-ps pulses of BSBS, and BSRS is observed to decline precipitously as soon as SBS begins to grow from low levels. In strong BSBS regimes, the Bloch wave effects in BSRS are

  13. Acoustic confinement and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in integrated optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Poulton, Christopher G; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    We examine the effect of acoustic mode confinement on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in optical waveguides that consist of a guiding core embedded in a solid substrate. We find that SBS can arise due to coupling to acoustic modes in three different regimes. First, the acoustic modes may be guided by total internal reflection; in this case the SBS gain depends directly on the degree of confinement of the acoustic mode in the core, which is in turn determined by the acoustic V-parameter. Second, the acoustic modes may be leaky, but may nevertheless have a sufficiently long lifetime to have a large effect on the SBS gain; the lifetime of acoustic modes in this regime depends not only on the contrast in acoustic properties between the core and the cladding, but is also highly dependent on the waveguide dimensions. Finally SBS may occur due to coupling to free modes, which exist even in the absence of acoustic confinement; we find that the cumulative effect of coupling to these non-confined modes results in signi...

  14. Impact of nonlinear loss on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Christian; Steel, Michael J; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Poulton, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of two-photon absorption (2PA) and fifth-order nonlinear loss such as 2PA-induced free-carrier absorption in semiconductors on the performance of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering devices. We formulate the equations of motion including effective loss coefficients, whose explicit expressions are provided for numerical evaluation in any waveguide geometry. We find that 2PA results in a monotonic, algebraic relationship between amplification, waveguide length and pump power, whereas fifth-order losses lead to a non-monotonic relationship. We define a figure of merit for materials and waveguide designs in the presence of fifth-order losses. From this, we determine the optimal waveguide length for the case of 2PA alone and upper bounds for the total Stokes amplification for the case of 2PA as well as fifth-order losses. The analysis is performed analytically using a small-signal approximation and is compared to numerical solutions of the full nonlinear modal equations.

  15. Modeling of stimulated Brillouin scattering in expanding plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüller, S.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Pesme, D.; Labaune, C.; Bandulet, H.

    2008-05-01

    Numerical simulations of mm-size expanding plasmas have been performed in comparison with recent experiments at the LULI facility. The features of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) are studied for an intense mono-speckle laser beam in continuation of previous work on optically smoothed laser beams. Very good agreement between the theoretical-numerical modeling and the experimental results is found, in particular concerning the SBS activity in the plasma and the backscatter level. The results underline the importance of nonlocal transport effects affecting the onset of self-focusing for temperatures below 1keV. The simulations with the monospeckle beam allow to identify the resonant filament instability [1] and the subsequent loss of coherence of the laser beam as the reason of the observed low-level backscatter levels measured in the experiments. To achieve reliable numerical modeling, a good characterisation of the plasma profiles and the timing with respect to the laser pulse shape, prior to simulations, proves to be extremely important.

  16. Modeling of stimulated Brillouin scattering in expanding plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueller, S; Masson-Laborde, P E; Pesme, D [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS UMR7644, ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Labaune, C; Bandulet, H [LULI, CNRS UMR7605, ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)], E-mail: hueller@cpht.polytechnique.fr

    2008-05-15

    Numerical simulations of mm-size expanding plasmas have been performed in comparison with recent experiments at the LULI facility. The features of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) are studied for an intense mono-speckle laser beam in continuation of previous work on optically smoothed laser beams. Very good agreement between the theoretical-numerical modeling and the experimental results is found, in particular concerning the SBS activity in the plasma and the backscatter level. The results underline the importance of nonlocal transport effects affecting the onset of self-focusing for temperatures below 1keV. The simulations with the monospeckle beam allow to identify the resonant filament instability and the subsequent loss of coherence of the laser beam as the reason of the observed low-level backscatter levels measured in the experiments. To achieve reliable numerical modeling, a good characterisation of the plasma profiles and the timing with respect to the laser pulse shape, prior to simulations, proves to be extremely important.

  17. Design of small core tellurite photonic crystal fiber for slow-light-based application using stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Rim; Salem, Amine Ben; Saini, Than Singh; Kumar, Ajeet; Sinha, Ravindra K.; Zghal, Mourad

    2015-07-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) performances of small core tellurite photonic crystal fibers (PCF) are rigorously studied. We propose a design of tellurite PCF that is used for slow-light-based applications. We developed a two-dimensional finite element mode solver to numerically study the acoustic and optical properties of complex refractive index profiles including tellurite PCF. Our results include the calculation of Brillouin gain spectrum, Brillouin gain coefficient (gB) and Brillouin frequency shift by taking into account the contribution of the higher-order acoustic modes. Several simulations were run by varying the air-filling ratio of various PCF structures to enhance the SBS. The real scanning electron microscope image of a small core of highly nonlinear tellurite fiber is considered. Optimized results show a frequency shift of 8.43 GHz and a Brillouin gain of 9.48×10-11 m/W with a time delay between 21 and 140 ns. Such fibers have drawn much interest because of their capacity for increasing and tailoring the SBS gain.

  18. Ferroelectric Phase Transition and Photoinduced Cooperative Phenomena in Bi-Layered Perovskite Pb2Bi4Ti5O18 Ceramics Studied by Brillouin Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takesada, Masaki; Ueki, Ayaka; Onodera, Akira; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru

    2010-09-01

    The ferroelectric phase transition mechanism and ultraviolet (UV) photoexcition effect have been investigated in the bismuth layered perovskite Pb2Bi4Ti5O18 by Brillouin scattering using a Sandercock-type tandem Fabry-Perot interferometer. The temperature dependences of Brillouin spectra both with and without UV irradiation were observed around phase transition points. The observed Brillouin spectra include a central peak component that shows an anomaly in the ferroelectric phase transition point TC=450 K. The central peak spectra show narrowing under UV irradiation. The correlation length of the ferroelectric dipole fluctuation should be enhanced with the UV irradiation effect below TC.

  19. Direct detection of magnetostatic wave excitations in magnetostatic wave device structures by Brillouin light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, G.; Patton, C. E.

    1985-10-01

    The technique of Brillouin light scattering has been used to detect magnetostatic wave (MSW) excitations in MSW microwave device structures. The present results are for a signal-to-noise enhancer consisting of a microstrip transmission line in contact with a yttrium iron garnet film with the applied magnetic field parallel to the microstrip line. At low input microwave power levels, the MSW spectra at 4 GHz consisted of surface excitations with wave numbers from about 80 to 470/cm, with the propagation direction perpendicular to the microstrip line. At high power levels, parametric half-frequency MSW excitations were observed, accompanied by a decrease in the scattering of the surface MSW excitations at the pump frequency.

  20. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of laser in semiconductor plasma embedded with nano-sized grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high power laser propagating through semiconductor plasma undergoes Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) from the electrostrictively generated acoustic perturbations. We have considered that nano-sized grains (NSGs) ions are embedded in semiconductor plasma by means of ion implantation. The NSGs are bombarded by the surrounding plasma particles and collect electrons. By considering a negative charge on the NSGs, we present an analytically study on the effects of NSGs on threshold field for the onset of SBS and Brillouin gain of generated Brillouin scattered mode. It is found that as the charge on the NSGs builds up, the Brillouin gain is significantly raised and the threshold pump field for the onset of SBS process is lowered

  1. Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in high power fibre lasers and amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Solis, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Fibre sources in high power devices have significant advantages over conventional gas and solid state lasers. However, for applications that require the so-called singlefrequency sources with narrow linewidths, the output power is low mainly because of the problem of the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). A model that accounts for the SBS in dual-clad fibre lasers and amplifiers is presented. This was carried out in order to study the key parameters that affect the Brillouin threshold...

  2. Localized and stationary dynamic gratings via stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase modulated pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Antman, Yair; Primerov, Nikolay; Sancho Dura, Juan; Thévenaz, Luc; Zadok, Avinoam

    2012-01-01

    A novel technique for the localization of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) interaction is proposed, analyzed and demonstrated experimentally. The method relies on the phase modulation of two counter-propagating optical waves by a common pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS), these waves being spectrally detuned by the Brillouin frequency shift. The PRBS symbol duration is much shorter than the acoustic lifetime. The interference between the two modulated waves gives rise to an acoustic grati...

  3. Modeling of the Competition of Stimulated Raman and Brillouin Scattering in LULI Multiple Beam Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. I.; Baldis, H. A.; Berger, R. L.; Williams, E. A.; Labaune, C.

    1999-11-01

    Multiple laser beam experiments with CH target foils at the LULI facility demonstrate anti-correlation of stimulated Brillouin and Raman backscatter (SBS and SRS).(C. Labaune, et al.), Phys. Plasmas 6, 2048 (1999). Detailed Thomson scattering diagnostics show that SBS precedes SRS, that secondary electron plasma waves can accompany SRS appropriate to the Langmuir Decay Instability (LDI), and that with multiple interaction beams the SBS signal in the primary laser beam is reduced while the SRS signal is enhanced and onsets earlier. Analysis and numerical calculations are presented that evaluate the influence of mode coupling (B. Cohen, et al.), Phys. Plasmas 5, 3402 (1998). of SBS and LDI ion waves and local pump depletion in laser hot spots. The modeling suggests that ponderomotive and thermal self-focusing should modify the probability distribution of intense speckles and enhance the local pump depletion and ion wave mode coupling.

  4. [A Brillouin Scattering Spectrum Feature Extraction Based on Flies Optimization Algorithm with Adaptive Mutation and Generalized Regression Neural Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-jun; Liu, Wen-zhe; Fu, Xing-hu; Bi, Wei-hong

    2015-10-01

    According to the high precision extracting characteristics of scattering spectrum in Brillouin optical time domain reflection optical fiber sensing system, this paper proposes a new algorithm based on flies optimization algorithm with adaptive mutation and generalized regression neural network. The method takes advantages of the generalized regression neural network which has the ability of the approximation ability, learning speed and generalization of the model. Moreover, by using the strong search ability of flies optimization algorithm with adaptive mutation, it can enhance the learning ability of the neural network. Thus the fitting degree of Brillouin scattering spectrum and the extraction accuracy of frequency shift is improved. Model of actual Brillouin spectrum are constructed by Gaussian white noise on theoretical spectrum, whose center frequency is 11.213 GHz and the linewidths are 40-50, 30-60 and 20-70 MHz, respectively. Comparing the algorithm with the Levenberg-Marquardt fitting method based on finite element analysis, hybrid algorithm particle swarm optimization, Levenberg-Marquardt and the least square method, the maximum frequency shift error of the new algorithm is 0.4 MHz, the fitting degree is 0.991 2 and the root mean square error is 0.024 1. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has good fitting degree and minimum absolute error. Therefore, the algorithm can be used on distributed optical fiber sensing system based on Brillouin optical time domain reflection, which can improve the fitting of Brillouin scattering spectrum and the precision of frequency shift extraction effectively. PMID:26904844

  5. Widely tunable linear-cavity multiwavelength fiber laser with distributed Brillouin scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Ajiya; M. H. Al-Mansoori; M. A. Mahdi

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a multiple wavelength Brillouin/erbium fiber laser in a linear cavity configuration. The laser cavity is made up of a fiber loop mirror on one end of the resonator and a virtual mirror generated from the distributed stimulated Brillouin scattering effect on the other end. Due to the weak reflectivity provided by the virtual mirror, self-lasing cavity modes are completely suppressed from the laser cavity. At Brillouin pump and 1480-nm pump powers of 2 and 130 mW, respectively, 11 channels of the demonstrated laser with an average total power of 7.13 dBm can freely be tuned over a span of 37-nm wavelength from 1530 to 1567 nm.%@@ We demonstrate a multiple wavelength Brillouin/erbium fiber laser in a linear cavity configuration.The laser cavity is made up of a fiber loop mirror on one end of the resonator and a virtual mirror generated from the distributed stimulated Brillouin scattering effect on the other end.Due to the weak reflectivity provided by the virtual mirror, self-lasing cavity modes are completely suppressed from the laser cavity.At Brillouin pump and 1480-nm pump powers of 2 and 130 mW, respectively, 11 channels of the demonstrated laser with an average total power of 7.13 dBm can freely be tuned over a span of 37-nm wavelength from 1530 to 1567 nm.

  6. Tunable narrowband microwave photonic filter created by stimulated Brillouin scattering from a silicon nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Bedoya, Alvaro; Morrison, Blair; Pagani, Mattia; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate the first, to the best of our knowledge, functional signal processing device based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a silicon nanowire. We use only 1 dB of on-chip stimulated Brillouin scattering gain to create an RF photonic notch filter with 48 dB of suppression, 98 MHz linewidth, and 6 GHz frequency tuning. This device has potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing and establishes the foundation for the first CMOS-compatible high-performance RF photonic filter. PMID:26368735

  7. Stimulated Brillouin scatter and stimulated ion Bernstein scatter during electron gyroharmonic heating experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, H.; Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Samimi, A.; Mahmoudian, A.; Briczinski, S. J.; McCarrick, M. J.

    2013-09-01

    Results of secondary radiation, Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE), produced during ionospheric modification experiments using ground-based high-power radio waves are reported. These results obtained at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility specifically considered the generation of Magnetized Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (MSBS) and Stimulated Ion Bernstein Scatter (SIBS) lines in the SEE spectrum when the transmitter frequency is near harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency. The heater antenna beam angle effect was investigated on MSBS in detail and shows a new spectral line postulated to be generated near the upper hybrid resonance region due to ion acoustic wave interaction. Frequency sweeping experiments near the electron gyroharmonics show for the first time the transition from MSBS to SIBS lines as the heater pump frequency approaches the gyroharmonic. Significantly far from the gyroharmonic, MSBS lines dominate, while close to the gyroharmonic, SIBS lines strengthen while MSBS lines weaken. New possibilities for diagnostic information are discussed in light of these new observations.

  8. Strongly Enhanced Stimulated Brillouin Backscattering in an Electron-Positron Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Matthew R.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Mikhailova, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin backscattering of light is shown to be drastically enhanced in electron-positron plasmas, in contrast to the suppression of stimulated Raman scattering. A generalized theory of three-wave coupling between electromagnetic and plasma waves in two-species plasmas with arbitrary mass ratios, confirmed with a comprehensive set of particle-in-cell simulations, reveals violations of commonly held assumptions about the behavior of electron-positron plasmas. Specifically, in the electron-positron limit three-wave parametric interaction between light and the plasma acoustic wave can occur, and the acoustic wave phase velocity differs from its usually assumed value.

  9. Wave front reversal during nonstationary stimulated Mandel'shtam-Brillouin scattering of focused beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betin, A. A.; Vasilev, A. F.; Kulagin, O. V.; Manishin, V. G.; Iashin, V. E.

    1985-09-01

    Consideration is given to the conditions for the existence and observation of wave front reversal in focused light beams due to nonstationary stimulated Mandel'shtam-Brillouin scattering. Experimental observations were carried out for light beams having small scale spatial inhomogeneities at a wavelength of 1.05 microns. The precision of the wave front reversal is determined, and the reflection coefficients of the Mandel'shtam-Brillouin scattering mirrors are measured with respect to quasi-homogeneous light beams under saturation conditions. The relative duration of the light pulses was t sub i/T2 = 0.15-1 (where T2 is the hypersound relaxation time). It is shown that the maximum duration of the pulses, which were reflected by a stimulated Mandel'shtam-Brillouin mirror, was limited by competing nonlinear breakdown and self-focusing processes. The accuracy of a correction for wave front reversal is also determined.

  10. Stimulated Brillouin scattering during electron gyro-harmonic heating at EISCAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, H. Y.; Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J.; Kosch, M. J.; Senior, A.; Rietveld, M. T.; Yeoman, T. K.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    2015-08-01

    Observations of secondary radiation, stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE), produced during ionospheric modification experiments using ground-based, high-power, high-frequency (HF) radio waves are considered. The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility is capable of generating narrowband SEE in the form of stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS) and stimulated ion Bernstein scatter (SIBS) in the SEE spectrum. Such narrowband SEE spectral lines have not been reported using the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) heater facility before. This work reports the first EISCAT results of narrowband SEE spectra and compares them to SEE previously observed at HAARP during electron gyro-harmonic heating. An analysis of experimental SEE data shows observations of emission lines within 100 Hz of the pump frequency, interpreted as SBS, during the 2012 July EISCAT campaign. Experimental results indicate that SBS strengthens as the pump frequency approaches the third electron gyro-harmonic. Also, for different heater antenna beam angles, the CUTLASS radar backscatter induced by HF radio pumping is suppressed near electron gyro-harmonics, whereas electron temperature enhancement weakens as measured by EISCAT/UHF radar. The main features of these new narrowband EISCAT observations are generally consistent with previous SBS measurements at HAARP.

  11. Improvement of thomson scattering diagnostics using stimulated-Brillouin-scattering-based phase conjugate mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve the measurement performance of incoherent Thomson scattering diagnostics, a high performance phase conjugate mirror based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS-PCM) is applied to a Thomson scattering system for the first time in the JT-60U tokamak. We have demonstrated that a SBS-PCM which uses heavy-fluorocarbon liquid showed a high reflectivity of 95% at a high input-power of 145 W. Using the SBS-PCM, two newly developed methods were employed to increase the amount of scattered light. In the first method, we first developed a new optical design to provide a double-pass scattering scheme with the SBS-PCM. In this new optical design, a laser beam passing through the plasma is reflected by the SBS-PCM, and the reflected beam is returned via the same path by means of the phase conjugate effect, and is then passed through the plasma again, in order to increase the scattered light. A double-pass Thomson scattering scheme using the SBS-PCM was demonstrated in JT-60U ohmic plasma, resulting in an increase of the scattered light by a factor of 1.6, and the reduction of relative error by 2/3 for electron temperature measurement in contrast to single-pass scattering. A multi-pass Thomson scattering scheme is also proposed based on the results of double-pass scattering. It is estimated that multi-pass scattering allows the generation of several times the amount of scattered light, and the reduction of the relative error for electron temperature measurement by 37% in contrast to single-pass scattering. Regarding the second method, a high average-power of YAG laser system was developed by applying the SBS-PCM to a existent diagnostic laser. As a result, the average-power was increased by over 8 times in contrast to the average power of the original system, achieving up to 368 W (7.4 J x 50 Hz). (author)

  12. Brillouin scattering from collective spin waves in magnetic superlattices (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillebrands, B.; Boufelfel, A.; Falco, C.M.; Baumgart, P.; Guentherodt, G.; Zirngiebl, E.; Thompson, J.D.

    1988-04-15

    We report on the observation and the analysis of collective magnetostatic spin-wave excitations in magnetic superlattices. The influence of interface anisotropies, which can become dominant for small modulation wavelengths, is discussed. For the system Fe/Pd we show that Brillouin spectroscopy experiments in combination with the measurement of the saturation magnetization by a SQUID magnetometer give evidence for a magnetic polarization of the Pd spacer layers, as well as for a small negative out-of-plane interface anisotropy constant of K/sub s/ = -0.15 erg/cm/sup 2/.

  13. Brillouin scattering from collective spin waves in magnetic superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillebrands, B.; Boufelfel, A.; Falco, C.M.; Baumgart, P.; Guentherodt, G.; Zirngiebl, E.; Thompson, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    We report on the observation and the analysis of collective magnetostatic spin-wave excitations in magnetic superlattices. The influence of interface anisotropies, which can become dominant for small modulation wavelengths, is discussed. For the system Fe/Pd we show that Brillouin spectroscopy experiments in combination with the measurement of the saturation magnetization by a SQUID magnetometer give evidence for a magnetic polarization of the Pd spacer layers, as well as for a small negative out-of-plane interface anisotropy constant of K/sub s/ = -0.15 erg/cm/sup 2/. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Guided acoustic and optical waves in silicon-on-insulator for Brillouin scattering and optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sarabalis, Christopher J; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H

    2016-01-01

    We numerically study silicon waveguides on silica showing that it is possible to simultaneously guide optical and acoustic waves in the technologically important silicon on insulator (SOI) material system. Thin waveguides, or fins, exhibit geometrically softened mechanical modes at gigahertz frequencies with phase velocities below the Rayleigh velocity in glass, eliminating acoustic radiation losses. We propose slot waveguides on glass with telecom optical frequencies and strong radiation pressure forces resulting in Brillouin gains on the order of 500 and 50,000 1/(Wm) for backward and forward Brillouin scattering, respectively.

  15. Fiber break location technique utilizing stimulated Brillouin scattering effects in optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique of fiber break detection system in optical communication networks is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. This technique is based-on continuous wave light source rather than pulsed source that is commonly deployed in existing techniques. The nonlinear effect of stimulated Brillouin scattering is manipulated to locate the fiber-break position in optical communication networks. This technique enables the utilization of a less-sensitive photodetector to detect the Brillouin Stokes line since its intensity increases with the fiber length in the detectable region. The fiber break location can be determined with accuracy of more than 98% for fiber length less than 50 km using this technique

  16. A simple model of suppressing stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber with frequency-modulated laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple model is developed to study the mechanism of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) suppression with frequency-modulated laser in optical fiber. By taking into account the laser frequency distribution along the fiber induced by frequency modulation, the average effective Brillouin gain is calculated to determine the SBS threshold. Experimental results show agreement with the numerical analysis. The application for SBS suppression in interferometric fiber sensing system is also discussed in this paper. The results show that the maximum input power can be increased effectively by frequency modulation method. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  17. Spectral shape of stimulated Brillouin scattering in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, S.; Sonehara, T.; Tatsu, E.; Koreeda, A.; Saikan, S.

    2015-12-01

    We derived a formula to describe the stimulated Brillouin spectral shape in crystals for various temperatures ranging from room temperature to liquid-helium temperature. We modeled a sample as a one-dimensional system with a finite thickness in which the optically induced phonon propagates, partly interacting with the pump and probe laser beams. When the sample length is shorter than the propagation distance (i.e., the mean free path) of phonons, the spectral shape becomes multipeaked due to the multiple phonon reflections in the sample. Such a situation can be realized in a thin film or a bulk sample at low temperatures. We experimentally measured the Brillouin gain spectra with a multipeak structure in TeO2 and PbMoO4 crystals at low temperatures. We found that these spectra were reproduced by our formula for both the coaxial and off-axis phonon propagations with respect to the laser beams. It was revealed that our formula is very useful in estimating the phonon attenuation coefficient from the observed spectra, which gradually change from Lorentzian shape to a multipeak spectrum with decreasing temperature.

  18. Stimulated Brillouin scattering during electron gyro-harmonic heating at EISCAT

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, H. Y.; Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; S. J. Briczinski; Kosch, M. J.; Senior, A.; Rietveld, M. T.; Yeoman, T. K.; J. M. Ruohoniemi

    2015-01-01

    Published version. Source at http://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-33-983-2015. Observations of secondary radiation, stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE), produced during ionospheric modification experiments using ground-based, high-power, high-frequency (HF) radio waves are considered. The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility is capable of generating narrowband SEE in the form of stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS) and stimulated ion Bernstein scatter (SIBS) in the S...

  19. Wide-range wavevector selectivity of magnon gases in Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Sandweg, C. W.; Jungfleisch, M. B.; Vasyuchka, V I; Serga, A. A.; Clausen, P.; Schultheiss, H.; Hillebrands, B.; Kreisel, A.(University of Colorado, 80309, Boulder, Colorado, USA); Kopietz, P.

    2010-01-01

    Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy is a powerful technique for the study of fast magnetization dynamics with both frequency- and wavevector resolution. Here, we report on a distinct improvement of this spectroscopic technique towards two-dimensional wide-range wavevector selectivity in a backward scattering geometry. Spin-wave wavevectors oriented perpendicular to the bias magnetic field are investigated by tilting the sample within the magnet gap. Wavevectors which are oriented parallel...

  20. Observation of stimulated brillouin scattering in a microwave plasma interaction emperiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering of microwave radiation is investigated in an underdense laboratory plasma. The energy and momentum selection rules are seen to be satisfied for a variety of incident wavelengths (lambda0 = 3 approx. 10 cm) and ion species (He, Ne, Ar and Kr). The threshold power, growth rate and scattered power appear to be consistent with the finite interaction length theory. Saturation of the backscatter is observed and compared with existing theories

  1. Design and analysis of single-mode tellurite photonic crystal fibers for stimulated Brillouin scattering based slow-light generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Varsha; Sharma, Shubham; Saini, Than Singh; Kumar, Ajeet; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically examine two designs of single-mode (i) Er-doped tellurite and (ii) undoped tellurite photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for generation of slow light with tunable features based on stimulated Brillouin scattering. We obtained (i) Brillouin gain up to 91 dB and time delay of ∼145  ns at maximum allowable pump power of ∼775  mW in a 2 m Er-doped tellurite PCF and (ii) Brillouin gain up to ∼88  dB and time delay of ∼154  ns at maximum allowable pump power ∼21  mW in a 100 m undoped tellurite photonic crystal fiber. Simulated results clearly indicate that the doped tellurite PCF with Er enhances the maximum allowable pump power and comparable time delay can be obtained even with reduced photonic crystal fiber length. We believe that the carried out examination and simulation have potential impact on design and development of slow-light-based photonic devices applicable in telecommunication systems, enhancement of optical forces, and quantum computing. PMID:27607250

  2. Nonstationary Mandelstam-Brillouin stimulated scattering of focused light beams under conditions of saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, N. F.; Bespalov, V. I.; Dvoretskii, M. A.; Pasmanik, G. A.

    1983-10-01

    It is shown that with nonstationary Mandelstam-Brillouin stimulated scattering in SF6 (p = 16 atm), wave front reversal occurs over a wide range of changes in the energy of the laser radiation (0.3 to 3 J). The reversal has a large reflectivity (approximately 0.9-0.95) and high precision (approximately 0.95). It is found that the nonstationariness of the Mandelstam-Brillouin scattering leads to time variation in the spatial distribution of the hypersound and laser radiation intensities in the bulk of the nonlinear medium. With a sufficiently high energy of laser radiation, the characteristic region of its attenuation from the scattering by the hypersound into an oncoming Stokes wave is localized near the entrance to the nonlinear medium. As a result, the intensity of the radiation passing through the focal instability decreases sharply, and this aids in eliminating the optical breakdown.

  3. Simulation of stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering in shock ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L.; Li, J.; Liu, W. D.; Yan, R.; Ren, C.

    2016-04-01

    We study stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in shock ignition by comparing fluid and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Under typical parameters for the OMEGA experiments [Theobald et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 102706 (2012)], a series of 1D fluid simulations with laser intensities ranging between 2 × 1015 and 2 × 1016 W/cm2 finds that SBS is the dominant instability, which increases significantly with the incident intensity. Strong pump depletion caused by SBS and SRS limits the transmitted intensity at the 0.17nc to be less than 3.5 × 1015 W/cm2. The PIC simulations show similar physics but with higher saturation levels for SBS and SRS convective modes and stronger pump depletion due to higher seed levels for the electromagnetic fields in PIC codes. Plasma flow profiles are found to be important in proper modeling of SBS and limiting its reflectivity in both the fluid and PIC simulations.

  4. Simulation of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering and Stimulated Raman Scattering In Shock Ignition

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, L; Liu, W D; Yan, R; Ren, C

    2016-01-01

    We study stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in shock ignition by comparing fluid and PIC simulations. Under typical parameters for the OMEGA experiments [Theobald \\emph{et al}., Phys. Plasmas \\textbf{19}, 102706 (2012)], a series of 1D fluid simulations with laser intensities ranging between 2$\\times$10$^{15}$ and 2$\\times$10$^{16}$ W/cm$^2$ finds that SBS is the dominant instability, which increases significantly with the incident intensity. Strong pump depletion caused by SBS and SRS limits the transmitted intensity at the 0.17n$_c$ to be less than 3.5$\\times$10$^{15}$ W/cm$^2$. The PIC simulations show similar physics but with higher saturation levels for SBS and SRS convective modes and stronger pump depletion due to higher seed levels for the electromagnetic fields in PIC codes. Plasma flow profiles are found to be important in proper modeling of SBS and limiting its reflectivity in both the fluid and PIC simulations.

  5. Tunable narrowband microwave photonic filter created by stimulated Brillouin scattering from a Silicon nanowire

    OpenAIRE

    Casas-Bedoya, Alvaro; Morrison, Blair; Pagani, Mattia; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the first functional signal processing device based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a silicon nanowire. We use only 1 dB of on-chip SBS gain to create an RF photonic notch filter with 48 dB of suppression, 98 MHz linewidth, and 6 GHz frequency tuning. This device has potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing and establishes the foundation for the first CMOS-compatible high performance RF photonic filter.

  6. Tunable narrowband microwave photonic filter created by stimulated Brillouin scattering from a silicon nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Bedoya, Alvaro; Morrison, Blair; Pagani, Mattia; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate the first functional signal processing device based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a silicon nanowire. We use only 1 dB of on-chip SBS gain to create an RF photonic notch filter with 48 dB of suppression, 98 MHz linewidth, and 6 GHz frequency tuning. This device has potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing and establishes the foundation for the first CMOS-compatible high performance RF photonic filter.

  7. An ultrawide tunable range single passband microwave photonic filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yongchuan; Guo, Jing; Wu, Kui; Qu, Pengfei; Qi, Huajuan; Liu, Caixia; Ruan, Shengping; Chen, Weiyou; Dong, Wei

    2013-02-11

    A single passband microwave photonic filter with ultrawide tunable range based on stimulated Brillouin scattering is theoretically analyzed. Combining the gain and loss spectrums, tuning range with 44GHz is obtained without crosstalk by introducing two pumps. Adding more pumps, Tuning range multiplying with the multiplication factor equaling to the total quantity of pump can be achieved, which has potential application in microwave and millimeter wave wireless communication systems. PMID:23481728

  8. Stimulated Brillouin scattering for generating an acoustic wave in optical fibers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holík, M.; Mikel, Břetislav; Urban, F.

    Bellingham : SPIE, 2012, 86971I:1-6. ISBN 978-0-8194-9481-8. [CPS 2012. Czech-Polish-Slovak Optical Conference on Wave and Quantum Aspects of Contemporary Optics /18./. Ostravice (CZ), 03.09.2012-07.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010995 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : stimulated Brillouin scattering * acoustic wave * optical fiber Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s

  9. Modeling of the competition of stimulated Raman and Brillouin scatter in multiple beam experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce I.; Baldis, Hector A.; Berger, Richard L.; Estabrook, Kent G.; Williams, Edward A.; Labaune, Christine

    2001-02-01

    Multiple laser beam experiments with plastic target foils at the Laboratoire pour L'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI) facility [Baldis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2957 (1996)] demonstrated anticorrelation of stimulated Brillouin and Raman backscatter (SBS and SRS). Detailed Thomson scattering diagnostics showed that SBS always precedes SRS, that secondary electron plasma waves sometimes accompanied SRS appropriate to the Langmuir Decay Instability (LDI), and that, with multiple interaction laser beams, the SBS direct backscatter signal in the primary laser beam was reduced while the SRS backscatter signal was enhanced and occurred earlier in time. Analysis and numerical calculations are presented here that evaluate the influences on the competition of SBS and SRS, of local pump depletion in laser hot spots due to SBS, of mode coupling of SBS and LDI ion waves, and of optical mixing of secondary and primary laser beams. These influences can be significant. The calculations take into account simple models of the laser beam hot-spot intensity probability distributions and assess whether ponderomotive and thermal self-focusing are significant. Within the limits of the model, which omits several other potentially important nonlinearities, the calculations suggest the effectiveness of local pump depletion, ion wave mode coupling, and optical mixing in affecting the LULI observations.

  10. Detection of nonlinear picosecond acoustic pulses by time-resolved Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In time-resolved Brillouin scattering (also called picosecond ultrasonic interferometry), the time evolution of the spatial Fourier component of an optically excited acoustic strain distribution is monitored. The wave number is determined by the momentum conservation in photon-phonon interaction. For linear acoustic waves propagating in a homogeneous medium, the detected time-domain signal of the optical probe transient reflectivity shows a sinusoidal oscillation at a constant frequency known as the Brillouin frequency. This oscillation is a result of heterodyning the constant reflection from the sample surface with the Brillouin-scattered field. Here, we present an analytical theory for the nonlinear reshaping of a propagating, finite amplitude picosecond acoustic pulse, which results in a time-dependence of the observed frequency. In particular, we examine the conditions under which this information can be used to study the time-evolution of the weak-shock front speed. Depending on the initial strain pulse parameters and the time interval of its nonlinear transformation, our theory predicts the detected frequency to either be monotonically decreasing or oscillating in time. We support these theoretical predictions by comparison with available experimental data. In general, we find that picosecond ultrasonic interferometry of nonlinear acoustic pulses provides access to the nonlinear acoustic properties of a medium spanning most of the GHz frequency range

  11. Tunable and reconfigurable single passband filter using stimulated Brillouin scattering and intensity modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuling; Xiao, Zeyu; Wang, Huanhuan

    2015-07-01

    A tunable and reconfigurable single passband microwave photonic filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and intensity modulation is presented and theoretically analyzed. Three Brillouin pumps with equal intensity are generated by selecting appropriate bias voltages and modulation indices. Then a reconfigurable passband can be achieved by superposition of the three pumps. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed filter has a 22-GHz continuous tuning range with a high out-of-band rejection ratio above 40 dB. The -3-dB bandwidth can be tuned from 12 to 95 MHz, and the flatness is less than 1.5 dB. This technique uses a low-frequency (0 to 35 MHz) modulation signal to realize passband reshaping, and has potential applications in communication and radar systems.

  12. Systematic Brillouin light scattering study of the elastic properties of porous silicon superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy was used to determine elastic properties of porous silicon films and superlattices. The film elastic properties were compared with previously published results and also used as input for an effective elastic medium model (M Grimsditch and F Nizzoli 1986, Phys. Rev. B 33 5891) to predict the elastic constants of porous silicon superlattices with constituent layers comprised of thin copies of the films. Values of superlattice elastic constants c33 and c44 obtained from the model show reasonably good agreement with those determined directly from superlattice Brillouin data while constants c11 and c13 show crude agreement. This partial agreement suggests that the model holds promise as a means for accurately predicting the elastic properties of p-Si SLs. The results of this study show that it is possible to tailor porous silicon superlattices for custom applications as well as further fundamental studies. (paper)

  13. Unified approach to cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering and frequency-comb generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mark; Winful, Herbert G.

    2016-04-01

    We present a unified approach to cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering and frequency-comb generation in which the multitude of interacting pump, Stokes, and anti-Stokes optical fields is described by a single forward wave and a single backward wave at a single carrier frequency. The envelopes of these two waves are modulated through coupling to a single acoustic oscillation and through four-wave mixing. Starting from a single pump field, we observe the emergence of a comb of frequencies as the intensity is increased. The set of three differential equations derived here is sufficient to describe the generation of any number of Brillouin sidebands in oscillator systems that would have required hundreds of coupled equations in the standard approach. We test this approach on some published experiments and find excellent agreement with the results.

  14. A systematic study of Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in air, N2 and O2 gases

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering experiments in air, N2 and O2 have been performed for a wide range of temperatures and pressures at a wavelength of 403 nm and at a 90 degrees scattering angle. Measurements of the Rayleigh-Brillouin spectral scattering profile were conducted at high signal-to-noise ratio for all three species, yielding high-quality spectra unambiguously showing the small differences between scattering in air, and its constituents N2 and O2. Comparison of the experimental spectra with calculations using the Tenti S6 model, developed in 1970s based on linearized kinetic equations for molecular gases, demonstrates that this model is valid to high accuracy. After previous measurements performed at 366 nm, the Tenti S6 model is here verified for a second wavelength of 403 nm. Values for the bulk viscosity for the gases are derived by optimizing the model to the measurements. It is verified that the bulk viscosity parameters obtained from previous experiments at 366 nm, are valid for wavel...

  15. Dual-band bandpass tunable microwave photonic filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-qi; Xiao, Yong-chuan; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Xin-dong

    2016-07-01

    A dual-band bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. Two separated tunable laser sources (TLSs) are employed to generate two passbands by implementing phase modulation to amplitude modulation conversion by using SBS induced sideband amplification. The center frequencies of both passbands can be independently tuned ranging from 1 GHz to 19 GHz. High resolution with 3 dB bandwidth less than 30 MHz and large out-of-band rejection about 40 dB under 25 mW optical pump power are achieved.

  16. Tunable microwave notch filter created by stimulated Brillouin scattering in a silicon chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Bedoya, A.; Morrison, Blair; Pagani, Mattia; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2015-12-01

    We show the first functional signal processing device based on forward stimulated Brillouin scattering from a silicon nanowire. We harness 1dB of SBS gain to create a high performance, energy efficient microwave photonic notch filter. The filter possess 48dB of suppression, 98 MHz linewidth, and is tunable within a 6 GHz bandwidth. This demonstration represents a significant advance in integrated microwave photonics with potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing and establish the foundation towards the first CMOS-compatible high performance RF photonic filter.

  17. Brillouin scattering in glass-forming liquids: q-dependent linewidths and the generalized viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Gomperts, Variyar, and Kivelson [J. Chem. Phys. 98, 31 (1993)] analyzed Brillouin linewidth data for triphenylphosphite and found a striking wave vector dependence which varied strongly with temperature. We present a simple explanation based on a Debye relaxation model from which results similar to theirs are obtained even though the longitudinal viscosity has no intrinsic wave vector dependence. We also explore the quantitative differences between their results and those obtained with the Debye model, and show that these differences can be explained by the two-step structural realaxation dynamics predicted by mode coupling theory and observed in recent neutron- and light-scattering experiments

  18. Investigation of stimulated Brillouin scattering for broadband KrF laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiao-Hui; Lǘ Zhi-Wei; Lin Dian-Yang; Wang Chao; Zhao Xiao-Yan; Tang Xiu-Zhang; Zhang Hai-Feng; Shan Yu-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) numerical mode for broadband multimode KrF laser pump with optical breakdown has been built up in this paper. The basic premises of the model are that KrF spectrum is composed of a number of lines and SBS arises from these lines with coupling to some extent. The broadband SBS threshold strongly depends on pump bandwidth. SBS and optical breakdown occur nearly simultaneously when broadband SBS and breakdown have the same threshold. The decrease of saturation reflectivity for broadband pump radiation is explained with this model. Experimental results agree well with the model.

  19. Observation of spin-wave dispersion in Nd-Fe-B magnets using neutron Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low-energy spin-wave dispersion in polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets was observed using neutron Brillouin scattering (NBS). Low-energy spin-wave excitations for the lowest acoustic spin-wave mode were clearly observed. From the spin-wave dispersion, we were able to determine the spin-wave stiffness constant Dsw (100.0 ± 4.9 meV.Å2) and the exchange stiffness constant A (6.6 ± 0.3 pJ/m)

  20. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Damage of Large-Aperture Fused Silica Grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Wei; ZHENG Wan-Guo; HUANG Wan-Qing; LI Ke-Yu; WANG Fang; FENG Bin; JIA Huai-Ting; LI Fu-Quan; XIANG Yong; JING Feng

    2010-01-01

    @@ Laser induced damage experiment fs carried out on a large aperture laser facility.Severe damage is observed on a large-aperture fused silica grating which presents dense craters on the front surface and six cracks alternatively located at the front and the rear surface.The bizarre fact about the damage on the grating is that,unlike other optics,the damage craters are almost on the front surface.According to observation,damage phenomenon is due to the stimulated Brillouin scattering(SBS)effect occurring in the grating,which includes the transverse SBS,the back SBS and the zigzag SBS.

  1. High frequency organ-pipe modes in amorphous boron carbide observed using surface Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous boron carbide films of 2 micron thickness were deposited at room temperature by a thermal deposition process on single-crystal silicon substrates. The elastic constants of an amorphous B4C film have been successfully measured by surface Brillouin scattering as a function of temperature, in the process, revealing a phase transition at about 350 deg.C. Quantized wave-vector components perpendicular to the film surface associated with organ-pipe modes occurring within the film were used in conjunction with elastodynamic Green's function calculations as well as independent measurement of longitudinal frequency from bulk excitations to extract the elastic constants

  2. Elastic properties of boron carbide films via surface acoustic waves measured by Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, E.; Jimenez-Villacorta, F.; Jimenez Rioboo, R.J.; Prieto, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Marcos, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Munoz-Martin, A.; Prieto, J.E.; Joco, V. [Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-03-15

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity has been determined by high resolution Brillouin light scattering to study the mechano-elastic properties of boron carbide films prepared by radio frequency (RF) sputtering. The comparison of experimentally observed elastic behaviour with simulations made by considering film composition obtained from elastic recoil detection analysis-time of flight (ERDA-ToF) spectroscopy allows establishing that elastic properties are determined by that of crystalline boron carbide with a lessening of the SAW velocity values due to surface oxidation. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. YAG laser performance improved by stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation mirror in thomson scattering diagnostics at JT-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Hidetsugu; Nakatsuka, Masahiro [Osaka Univ., Institute of Laser Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Hatae, Takaki; Kitamura, Shigeru; Kashiwabara, Tsuneo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    An improvement of the output energy of a multistage YAG laser system by using a stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation mirror (PCM) was achieved. The phase conjugation of the optically nonlinear SBS process in a liquid material effectively compensated thermal degradation at an average/peak power amplifier, resulting in an average power increase from 1.5 J at 30 Hz repetition rate to 2.6 J at 50 Hz drive. The beam quality was also recovered without wave front deformation and depolarization resulting in a transfer-limited divergence with a good flat-top pattern in a near field. (author)

  4. YAG laser performance improved by stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation mirror in thomson scattering diagnostics at JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improvement of the output energy of a multistage YAG laser system by using a stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation mirror (PCM) was achieved. The phase conjugation of the optically nonlinear SBS process in a liquid material effectively compensated thermal degradation at an average/peak power amplifier, resulting in an average power increase from 1.5 J at 30 Hz repetition rate to 2.6 J at 50 Hz drive. The beam quality was also recovered without wave front deformation and depolarization resulting in a transfer-limited divergence with a good flat-top pattern in a near field. (author)

  5. Attometer resolution spectral analysis based on polarization pulling assisted Brillouin scattering merged with heterodyne detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preussler, Stefan; Schneider, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Spectral analysis is essential for measuring and monitoring advanced optical communication systems and the characterization of active and passive devices like amplifiers, filters and especially frequency combs. Conventional devices have a limited resolution or tuning range. Therefore, the true spectral shape of the signal remains hidden. In this work, a small part of the signal under test is preselected with help of the polarization pulling effect of stimulated Brillouin scattering where all unwanted spectral components are suppressed. Subsequently, this part is analyzed more deeply through heterodyne detection. Thereby, the local oscillator is generated from a narrow linewidth fiber laser which acts also as pump wave for Brillouin scattering. By scanning the pump wave together with the local oscillator through the signal spectrum, the whole signal is measured. The method is tunable over a broad wavelength range, is not affected by unwanted mixing products and utilizes a conventional narrow bandwidth photo diode. First proof of concept experiments show the measurement of the power spectral density function with a resolution in the attometer or lower kilohertz range at 1550 nm. PMID:26480198

  6. Optimized determination of elastic constants of crystals and their uncertainties from surface Brillouin scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every, A G; Sumanya, C; Mathe, B A; Zhang, X; Comins, J D

    2016-07-01

    Surface Brillouin scattering of light allows the angular-dependent velocities of Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (SAW), pseudo-SAW and longitudinal lateral waves (L) on the surface of an opaque crystal to be measured, and the elastic constants thereby determined. Closed form expressions exist for the surface wave velocities in high symmetry directions on crystallographic symmetry planes, and these have been exploited in the past for obtaining the values of the elastic constants. This paper describes a procedure for obtaining an optimized set of elastic constants from SAW, pseudo-SAW and L velocities measured in arbitrary directions in the (001) and (110) surfaces of cubic crystals. It does so by affecting a linearization of the numerically determined angular-dependent SAW and pseudo-SAW velocities near the best fit, and using analytic expressions for the L velocity. The method also generates covariance ellipsoids, from which the uncertainties in the determined values of the elastic constants can be read off. The method is illustrated using surface Brillouin scattering data to obtain the room-temperature elastic constants C11, C12 and C44 of the cubic crystals VC0.75 and Rh3Nb. PMID:26899728

  7. Single laser pulse compression via strongly coupled stimulated Brillouin scattering in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H.; Wu, Z. H.; Zuo, Y. L.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zhou, K. N.; Su, J. Q.

    2016-07-01

    Laser amplification in plasma, including stimulated Raman scattering amplification and strongly coupled stimulated Brillouin scattering (sc-SBS) amplification, is very promising to generate ultrahigh-power and ultrashort laser pulses. But both are quite complex in experiments: at least three different laser pulses must be prepared; temporal delay and spatial overlap of these three pulses are difficult. We propose a single pulse compression scheme based on sc-SBS in plasma. Only one moderately long laser is applied, the front part of which ionizes the gas to produced plasma, and gets reflected by a plasma mirror at the end of the gas channel. The reflected front quickly depletes the remaining part of the laser by sc-SBS in the self-similar regime. The output laser is much stronger and shorter. This scheme is at first considered theoretically, then validated by using 1D PIC simulations.

  8. Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering profiles of air at different temperatures and pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Ziyu; van de Water, Willem; Ubachs, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Rayleigh Brillouin (RB) scattering profiles for air have been recorded for the temperature range from 255 to 340 K and the pressure range from 640 to 3300 mbar, covering the conditions relevant for the Earth's atmosphere and for planned atmospheric light detection and ranging (LIDAR) missions. The measurements performed at a wavelength of 366.8 nm detect spontaneous RB scattering at a 90 degree scattering angle from a sensitive intracavity setup, delivering scattering profiles at a 1 percent rms noise level or better. The elusive transport coefficient, the bulk viscosity, is effectively derived by a comparing the measurements to the model, yielding an increased trend. The calculated (Tenti S6) line shapes are consistent with experimental data at the level of 2 percent, meeting the requirements for the future RB scattering LIDAR missions in the Earth's atmosphere. However, the systematic 2 percent deviation may imply that the model has a limit to describe the finest details of RB scattering in air. Finally, it...

  9. Bayesian approach to the analysis of neutron Brillouin scattering data on liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Francesco, A.; Guarini, E.; Bafile, U.; Formisano, F.; Scaccia, L.

    2016-08-01

    When the dynamics of liquids and disordered systems at mesoscopic level is investigated by means of inelastic scattering (e.g., neutron or x ray), spectra are often characterized by a poor definition of the excitation lines and spectroscopic features in general and one important issue is to establish how many of these lines need to be included in the modeling function and to estimate their parameters. Furthermore, when strongly damped excitations are present, commonly used and widespread fitting algorithms are particularly affected by the choice of initial values of the parameters. An inadequate choice may lead to an inefficient exploration of the parameter space, resulting in the algorithm getting stuck in a local minimum. In this paper, we present a Bayesian approach to the analysis of neutron Brillouin scattering data in which the number of excitation lines is treated as unknown and estimated along with the other model parameters. We propose a joint estimation procedure based on a reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm, which efficiently explores the parameter space, producing a probabilistic measure to quantify the uncertainty on the number of excitation lines as well as reliable parameter estimates. The method proposed could turn out of great importance in extracting physical information from experimental data, especially when the detection of spectral features is complicated not only because of the properties of the sample, but also because of the limited instrumental resolution and count statistics. The approach is tested on generated data set and then applied to real experimental spectra of neutron Brillouin scattering from a liquid metal, previously analyzed in a more traditional way.

  10. Localized and stationary dynamic gratings via stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase modulated pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Y; Primerov, N; Sancho, J; Thevenaz, L; Zadok, A

    2012-03-26

    A novel technique for the localization of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) interaction is proposed, analyzed and demonstrated experimentally. The method relies on the phase modulation of two counter-propagating optical waves by a common pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS), these waves being spectrally detuned by the Brillouin frequency shift. The PRBS symbol duration is much shorter than the acoustic lifetime. The interference between the two modulated waves gives rise to an acoustic grating that is confined to narrow correlation peaks, as short as 1.7 cm. The separation between neighboring peaks, which is governed by the PRBS length, can be made arbitrarily long. The method is demonstrated in the generation and applications of dynamic gratings in polarization maintaining (PM) fibers. Localized and stationary acoustic gratings are induced by two phase modulated pumps that are polarized along one principal axis of the PM fiber, and interrogated by a third, readout wave which is polarized along the orthogonal axis. Using the proposed technique, we demonstrate the variable delay of 1 ns-long readout pulses by as much as 770 ns. Noise due to reflections from residual off-peak gratings and its implications on the potential variable delay of optical communication data are discussed. The method is equally applicable to the modulation of pump and probe waves in SBS over standard fibers. PMID:22453458

  11. Study on two-cell stimulated Brillouin scattering system with mixture medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HASI Wuliji; L(U) ZhiWei; LI Qiang; BA DeXin; HE WeiMing

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a method of choosing mixture medium in two-cell stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) system to improve the system performance is proposed. The Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) of mixture medium varies with the mixing ratio and thus the difference of the BFS between the two cells can be eliminated. The two-cell SBS system with acetone (C3H6O) in its generator cell and mixture liquid of CCl4/C2Cl4 in its amplifier cell is investigated. The C3H6O has a high optical break- down threshold and the mixture liquid of CCl4/C2Cl4 has a small absorption coefficient and the same BFS as that of C3H6O when the volume fraction of CCl4 is 4%. Compared with two-cell SBS system with the same liquid (C2Cl4) or different liquid (C3H6O and C2Cl4) in generator and amplifier cell, the SBS system with mixture liquid (CCl4/C2Cl4) in amplifier cell and C3H6O in generator cell improves the power-load, energy reflectivity (ER), phase conjugation (PC) fidelity and ER stability.

  12. Dispersion and damping of multi-quantum well polaritons from resonant Brillouin scattering by folded acoustic modes

    OpenAIRE

    Jusserand, B.; Fainstein, A.; Ferreira, R.; Majrab, S.; Lemaitre, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report on confined exciton resonances of acoustic and folded acoustic phonon light scattering in a GaAs/AlAs multi-quantum-well. Significant variations of the line shifts and widths are observed across the resonance and quantitatively reproduced in terms of the polariton dispersion. This high resolution Brillouin study brings new unexpectedly detailed informations on the polariton dynamics in confined systems.

  13. Highly precise distributed Brillouin scattering sensor for structural health monitoring of optical ground wire cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lufan; Ravet, Fabien; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chen, Liang

    2004-07-01

    A distributed Brillouin scattering sensor with high special precision has been developed for the measurement of small damages/cracks of 1.5 cm. The out-layer damaged regions in an optical ground wire (OPGW) cable have been identified successfully by measuring the strain distributions every 5 cm using this technology. The stress increased to 127 kN which corresponds to more than 7500 micro-strain in the fibers. The locations of structural indentations comprising repaired and undamaged regions are found and distinguished using their corresponding strain data. The elongation of repaired region increases with time on 127 kN. These results are quantified in terms of the fiber orientation, stress, and behavior relative to undamaged sections.

  14. Elastic properties of bismuth layer-structure perovskite single crystals studied by brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elastic properties of bismuth layered perovskite compounds, LaxBi4-xTi3O12 (LBT-x) and SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT), were examined at room temperature by Brillouin scattering. Elastic stiffness coefficients, c33 and c44, defined in the pseudotetragonal symmetry, were obtained. The longitudinal sound velocities propagating along the c axis, were 3985 m/s and 3118 m/s for the pure bismuth titanate (BTO) and SBT, respectively. The sound velocity of SBT is very slow and is believed to be related with the weak interlayer bonding of this layer-structure compound. A simple linear chain model showed that the difference in the sound velocity between BTO and SBT is mainly due to the difference in the c axis lattice constant. The sound velocity of LBT-x increased slightly with the increase of x, while c33 seems to be insensitive to x

  15. Depolarized guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Wenjia Elser née; Elser, Dominique; Heim, Bettina; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    By performing quantum-noise-limited optical heterodyne detection, we observe polarization noise in light after propagation through a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We compare the noise spectrum to the one of a standard fiber and find an increase of noise even though the light is mainly transmitted in air in a hollow-core PCF. Combined with our simulation of the acoustic vibrational modes in the hollow-core PCF, we are offering an explanation for the polarization noise with a variation of guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering (GAWBS). Here, instead of modulating the strain in the fiber core as in a solid core fiber, the acoustic vibrations in hollow-core PCF influence the effective refractive index by modulating the geometry of the photonic crystal structure. This induces polarization noise in the light guided by the photonic crystal structure.

  16. Temperature Dependence of Brillouin Light Scattering Spectra of Acoustic Phonons in Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Kevin; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li; Li, Xiaoqin

    2015-03-01

    Thermal management represents an outstanding challenge in many areas of technology. Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. Interest in non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report temperature dependent BLS spectra of silicon, with Raman spectra taken simultaneously for comparison. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons. We determine that the integrated BLS intensity can be used measure the temperature of specific acoustic phonon modes. This work is supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) Thermal Transport Processes Program under Grant CBET-1336968.

  17. Angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of square antidot lattices studied by Brillouin light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brillouin light scattering technique has been exploited to study the angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of squared Permalloy antidot lattice. Frequency dispersion of spin waves has been measured for a set of fixed wave vector magnitudes, while varying the wave vector in-plane orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field. The magnonic band gap between the two most dispersive modes exhibits a minimum value at an angular position, which exclusively depends on the product between the selected wave vector magnitude and the lattice constant of the array. The experimental data are in very good agreement with predictions obtained by dynamical matrix method calculations. The presented results are relevant for magnonic devices where the antidot lattice, acting as a diffraction grating, is exploited to achieve multidirectional spin wave emission

  18. Surface acoustic waves and elastic constants of InN epilayers determined by Brillouin scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Rioboo, R.J.; Prieto, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Cusco, R.; Domenech-Amador, N.; Artus, L. [Institut Jaume Almera, Consell Superior d' Investigacions Cientifiques (CSIC), Lluis Sole i Sabaris s.n., Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Yamaguchi, T.; Nanishi, Y. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    The surface acoustic wave velocity in InN has been experimentally determined by means of Brillouin scattering experiments on c - and m -face epilayers. From simulations based on the Green's function formalism we determine the shear elastic constants c{sub 66} and c{sub 44} and propose a complete set of elastic constants for wurtzite InN. The analysis of the sagittal and azimuthal dependence of the surface acoustic wave velocity indicates a slightly different elastic behavior of the m -face sample that basically affects the c{sub 44} elastic constant. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Time-dependent filamentation and stimulated Brillouin forward scattering in inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulations of the temporal evolution of laser light filamentation and stimulated Brillouin forward scattering (SBFS) in plasmas, under conditions that are relevant to laser fusion, are presented and analyzed. Long term unsteady behavior of filaments is observed to be the norm. Temporal and spatial incoherence due to filamentation and SBFS are impressed upon time-independent incident laser beams. The bandwidth and angular divergence imposed upon the beam increase with the strength of the interaction. In addition, the spectrum of the transmitted light is redshifted by an amount that increases with the interaction strength. Spectral analysis of the transmitted light reveals that SBFS plays a role in the generation of the observed temporal incoherence. Incident beams with some spatial incoherence but no temporal smoothing are compared to those with ab initio temporal beam smoothing (TBS). Under typical conditions, TBS beams will undergo far less angular and spectral spreading and far less SBFS than unsmoothed beams

  20. Competition between the modulation instability and stimulated Brillouin scattering in a broadband slow light device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We observe competition between the modulation instability (MI) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a 9.2 GHz broadband SBS slow light device, in which a standard 20 km long single-mode LEAF fibre is used as the SBS medium. We find that MI is dominant and depletes most of the pump power when we use an intense pump beam at ∼ 1.55 µm, where the LEAF fibre is anomalously dispersive. The dominance of the MI in the LEAF-fibre-based system suppresses the SBS gain, degrading the SBS slow light delay and limiting the SBS gain-bandwidth to 125 dB GHz. In a dispersion-shifted highly nonlinear fibre, the SBS slow light delay is improved due to the suppression of the MI, resulting in a gain-bandwidth product of 344 dB GHz, limited by our available pump power of 0.82 W

  1. Trehalose Bioprotective Effects in Lysozyme Aqueous Solution Studied by Brillouin Scattering and Calorimetric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasanuma, Keita; Seshimo, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Eiji; Ike, Yuji; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-05-01

    The bioprotective effect of trehalose in lysozyme aqueous solutions has been investigated by Brillouin scattering and modulated-temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). MDSC experiments show that the isothermal kinetics of thermally irreversible denaturation can be described by the Arrhenius equation. By the addition of trehalose, the irreversible denaturation of lysozyme is suppressed, and its activation energy is half that of the denaturation without trehalose. The sound velocity of lysozyme-trehalose-water ternary solutions obviously depends on the trehalose concentration. With increasing trehalose concentration, the sound velocity becomes higher because the hydration of trehalose reduces the hydrogen bonds between water molecules. Moreover, hydration around lysozyme molecules increases the sound velocity further. Trehalose molecules tend to aggregate with lysozyme molecules at high trehalose concentrations. The bioprotective effect of trehalose probably originates from the mechanical suppression of conformational fluctuations of lysozyme molecules.

  2. Beam combined laser fusion driver using stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam combination method using stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirrors (SBS-PCMs) is a promising technique for realizing the laser fusion driver with an ultrahigh energy/power laser system operating with a high repetition rate over 10 Hz. For realizing the beam combined laser system, it is necessary to lock/control the phases of SBS beams. In our previous papers, the new phase control technique using the self-generated density modulation was proposed, and its principle has been demonstrated experimentally. However, all the previous works were done without amplifiers. In this work, it has been demonstrated that the phase is stabilized with λ /51 fluctuation by standard deviation during 5,000 laser shots (500 sec.) in the two-beam combination system with amplifiers with 200 mJ total output energy and 10 Hz repletion rate. (author)

  3. Absolute instability of a laser-produced plasma during induced Mandelstam-Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of investigation is to obtain the dependence of increments and frequencies of absolutely growing modes on the main plasma characteristics, laser radiation, as well as the calculation of saturation of the absolute instability of the forced Mandelstam-Brillouin scattering (FMBS) in a laser-produced plasma. A case is considered typical of a laser produced plasma when the primary role is played by density inhomogeneities and recession velocities. Explicit expressions for increments and frequencies of absolute FMBS instabilities in a hot plasma with an inhomogeneous density and recession velocity, are obtained. The absolute instability saturation due to the pumping wave depletion and generation of the second harmonics of ion-acoustic wave is considered

  4. Brillouin Light Scattering study of patterned TiN/SiOC:H/Si structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizka, Jonathan; King, Sean; Antonelli, Andy; Sooryakumar, R.

    2015-03-01

    In order to improve device performance of interconnects, the microelectronics industry utilizes low-k dielectric technology in place of traditional SiO2. Furthermore, titanium nitride (TiN) is being widely used as a hard mask to pattern low k materials such as SiOC:H into desired architectures with acoustic excitations and to measure their mode dispersions for incident light with wave-vector components parallel or perpendicular to the TiN wires. The results of measurements performed on samples with a range of wire dimensions (width/depth) will be presented that include the dependence of the Brillouin peak intensities on the incident and scattered light polarization as well as a model of the mode profiles.

  5. Stimulated Brillouin scattering gain bandwidth reduction and applications in microwave photonics and optical signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preussler, Stefan; Schneider, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is one of the most dominant nonlinear effects in standard single-mode fibers and its unique spectral characteristics, especially the narrow bandwidth, enable many different applications. Most of the applications would benefit from a narrower bandwidth. Different methods for the bandwidth reduction of SBS in optical fibers are presented and discussed. A bandwidth reduction down to 17% of the natural gain can be achieved by the superposition of the gain with two losses or the utilization of a multistage system. Furthermore, applications in the field of microwave photonics and optical signal processing like high-resolution spectroscopy of communication signals, the storage of optical data packets as well as the processing of frequency combs including generation of millimeter waves and ideal sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses are presented.

  6. The damage of the optical components induced by the stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Zi-Ming; Lü Zhi-Wei; Cai Jun-Wei; Ao Shu-Yan; Luo You-Hua

    2006-01-01

    A theory of excitation of ultrasonic waves in the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) process is presented in this paper. By using several reasonable approximations, a numerical calculation of the transient longitudinal SBS shows that large amplitude of acoustic waves can be built up by the nanosecond pulse of high-power laser, which may result in the damage of optical glasses. The maximal density change and the maximal acoustic wave intensity in optical glasses of 5 cm in thickness are calculated by using different parameters of the high-energy laser, such as the intensity, the pulse width, and the wave length. The damage threshold of the optical glasses is about 80 GW/cm2 when using a 1064 nm laser. The dynamic mechanism of SBS is the electrostriction effect of the components coupling with the high-power laser.

  7. Temperature dependence of Brillouin light scattering spectra of acoustic phonons in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. The need for a better understanding of such non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report the measured BLS spectra of silicon at different temperatures. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons

  8. Brillouin light scattering study of spin waves in NiFe/Co exchange spring bilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haldar, Arabinda; Banerjee, Chandrima; Laha, Pinaki; Barman, Anjan, E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in [Thematic Unit of Excellence on Nanodevice Technology, Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2014-04-07

    Spin waves are investigated in Permalloy(Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20})/Cobalt(Co) exchange spring bilayer thin films using Brillouin light scattering (BLS) experiment. The magnetic hysteresis loops measured by magneto-optical Kerr effect show a monotonic decrease in coercivity of the bilayer films with increasing Py thickness. BLS study shows two distinct modes, which are modelled as Damon-Eshbach and perpendicular standing wave modes. Linewidths of the frequency peaks are found to increase significantly with decreasing Py layer thickness. Interfacial roughness causes to fluctuate exchange coupling at the nanoscale regimes and the effect is stronger for thinner Py films. A quantitative analysis of the magnon linewidths shows the presence of strong local exchange coupling field which is much larger compared to macroscopic exchange field.

  9. Angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of square antidot lattices studied by Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IOM-CNR), Sede di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Madami, M.; Carlotti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O. [Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2015-06-29

    The Brillouin light scattering technique has been exploited to study the angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of squared Permalloy antidot lattice. Frequency dispersion of spin waves has been measured for a set of fixed wave vector magnitudes, while varying the wave vector in-plane orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field. The magnonic band gap between the two most dispersive modes exhibits a minimum value at an angular position, which exclusively depends on the product between the selected wave vector magnitude and the lattice constant of the array. The experimental data are in very good agreement with predictions obtained by dynamical matrix method calculations. The presented results are relevant for magnonic devices where the antidot lattice, acting as a diffraction grating, is exploited to achieve multidirectional spin wave emission.

  10. The broad Brillouin doublet and CP of KTaO3, second sound vs. Two-phonon difference scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Low-T Brillouin spectra of the incipient ferroelectric KTaO3 exhibit a broad central peak (CP) (1), and some additional broad Brillouin doublet (BD) (2), that can both relate to phonon-density fluctuations (3). Starting from extensive new high resolution neutron scattering measurements in pure crystals, low lying phonon sheets were modelled in the central part of Brillouin zone. Such a parameterisation was then used in order to analyse those up-mentioned unusual features in teens of two-phonon mechanisms (4). Numerical evaluations show that transverse acoustic (TA) phonons whose normal damping is faster than the BD frequency (ΓDB > ωDB) may produce hydrodynamic second sound (propagation of heat). Moreover, two-phonon difference scattering from low damping thermal TA phonons ((ΓDB DB) can contribute to the spectra with either a sharp or a broader BD, depending on the phonon group velocity and phonon-sheet anisotropy. The position of the doublet is consistent with both mechanisms, but comparing the computed anisotropies with experimental Brillouin and neutron scattering data, one favours the second process. (author)

  11. Brillouin light scattering on MSW excitations in device structures (invited) (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Carl E.

    1987-04-01

    Magnetostatic wave (MSW) propagation in planar magnetic samples has formed the physical basis for most of the MSW device structures which have been developed in recent years. The properties of these waves, however, were accessible only by indirect means, usually in the form of the final device operating characteristics. With the technique of Brillouin light scattering (BLS), it is now possible to measure the dispersion properties and energy flow profiles of MSW excitations in situ in actual device configurations. The technique requires an incident low-power laser beam focused on the surface of the magnetic layer, some collection optics to sample the scattered light, and a sensitive, high-contrast Fabry-Perot interferometer for frequency analysis. In simple terms, one needs simply to ``bounce'' a laser beam off the active magnetic layer in the device in order to probe directly the excitations which make the device work. The technique is noninvasive and independent of any device function which the MSW signals serve. The BLS technique should prove to be a powerful diagnostic tool in the developing technology of MSW devices. The technique is broadband, and is capable of device diagnostics from the low GHz range up to frequencies in the THz regime.

  12. Micro-focused Brillouin light scattering: imaging spin waves at the nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSebastian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Spin waves constitute an important part of research in the field of magnetization dynamics. Spin waves are the elementary excitations of the spin system in a magnetically ordered material state and magnons are their quasi particles. In the following article, we will discuss the optical method of Brillouin light scattering (BLS spectroscopy which is a now a well established tool for the characterization of spin waves. BLS is the inelastic scattering of light from spin waves and confers several benefits: the ability to map the spin wave intensity distribution with spatial resolution and high sensitivity as well as the potential to simultaneously measure the frequency and the wave vector and, therefore, the dispersion properties.For several decades, the field of spin waves gained huge interest by the scientific community due to its relevance regarding fundamental issues of spindynamics in the field of solid states physics. The ongoing research in recent years has put emphasis on the high potential of spin waves regarding information technology. In the emerging field of textit{magnonics}, several concepts for a spin-wave based logic have been proposed and realized. Opposed to charge-based schemes in conventional electronics and spintronics, magnons are charge-free currents of angular momentum, and, therefore, less subject to scattering processes that lead to heating and dissipation. This fact is highlighted by the possibility to utilize spin waves as information carriers in electrically insulating materials. These developments have propelled the quest for ways and mechanisms to guide and manipulate spin-wave transport. In particular, a lot of effort is put into the miniaturization of spin-wave waveguides and the excitation of spin waves in structures with sub-micrometer dimensions.For the further development of potential spin-wave-based devices, the ability to directly observe spin-wave propagation with spatial resolution is crucial. As an optical

  13. Experimental Studies of the Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Instability in the Saturated Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froula, D

    2002-10-29

    An experimental study of the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) instability has investigated the effects of velocity gradients and kinetic effects on the saturation of ion-acoustic waves in a plasma. For intensities less than I < 1.5 x 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}, the SBS instability is moderated primarily by velocity gradients, and for intensities above this threshold, nonlinear trapping is invoked to saturate the instability. We report direct evidence of detuning of SBS by a velocity gradient which was achieved by directly measuring the frequency shift of the SBS driven acoustic wave relative to the local resonant acoustic frequency. Furthermore, a novel use of Thomson scattering has allowed us to gather direct evidence of kinetic effects associated with the SBS process. Specifically, a measured two-fold increase of the ion temperature has been linked with laser beam excitation of ion-acoustic waves to large amplitudes by the SBS instability. Ion-acoustic waves were excited to large amplitude with a 2{omega} 1.2-ns long interaction beam with intensities up to 5 x 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}. The local frequency, amplitude, and spatial range of these waves were measured with a 3{omega} 200ps Thomson-scattering probe beam. These detailed and accurate measurements in well-characterized plasma conditions allow for the first time a direct test of non-linear models of the saturation of SBS. The measured two-fold increase of the ion temperature and its correlation with SBS reactivity measurements is the first quantitative evidence of hot ions created by ion trapping in laser plasmas.

  14. Coherent forward stimulated Brillouin scattering of a spatially incoherent laser beam in a plasma and its effect on beam spray

    OpenAIRE

    Grech, M.; Riazuelo, G.; Pesme, D.; S. Weber; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2008-01-01

    A statistical model for forward stimulated Brillouin scattering (FSBS) is developed for a spatially incoherent, monochromatic, laser beam propagating in a plasma. A threshold for the average power in a speckle is found, well below the self-focusing one, above which the laser beam spatial incoherence can not prevent the coherent growth of FSBS. Three-dimensional simulations confirm its existence and reveal the onset of beam spray above it. From these results, we propose a new figure of merit f...

  15. Incoherent and coherent beam combination for master oscillator/power amplifier system with stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Shi-You; Tian Zhao-Shuo; Shi Xiao-Li; Sun Zheng-He

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we studied incoherent and coherent beam combining for the master oscillator/power amplifier (MOPA) system with stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) mirror.Optic field intensity distributions in the near and fax field are numerically calculated for the two kinds of system.The results show that good beam quality in the far field could be obtained.It provides a theoretical basis for experimental research in the future.

  16. “Bloch wave” modification of stimulated Raman by stimulated Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the reduced-description particle-in-cell (RPIC) method, we study the coupling of backward stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS) and backward stimulated Brillouin scattering (BSBS) in regimes where the reflectivity involves the nonlinear behavior of particles trapped in the daughter plasma waves. The temporal envelope of a Langmuir wave (LW) obeys a Schrödinger equation where the potential is the periodic electron density fluctuation resulting from an ion-acoustic wave (IAW). The BSRS-driven LWs in this case have a Bloch wave structure and a modified dispersion due to the BSBS-driven spatially periodic IAW, which includes frequency band gaps at kLW∼kIAW/2∼k0 (kLW, kIAW, and k0 are the wave number of the LW, IAW, and incident pump electromagnetic wave, respectively). This band structure and the associated Bloch wave harmonic components are distinctly observed in RPIC calculations of the electron density fluctuation spectra and this structure may be observable in Thomson scatter. Bloch wave components grow up in the LW spectrum, and are not the result of isolated BSRS. Self-Thomson scattered light from these Bloch wave components can have forward scattering components. The distortion of the LW dispersion curve implies that the usual relationship connecting the frequency shift of the BSRS-scattered light and the density of origin of this light may become inaccurate. The modified LW frequency results in a time-dependent frequency shift that increases as the IAW grows, detunes the BSRS frequency matching condition, and reduces BSRS growth. A dependence of the BSRS reflectivity on the IAW Landau damping results because this damping determines the levels of IAWs. The time-dependent reflectivity in our simulations is characterized by bursts of sub-picosecond pulses of BSRS alternating with multi-ps pulses of BSBS, and BSRS is observed to decline precipitously as soon as SBS begins to grow from low levels. In strong BSBS regimes, the Bloch wave effects in BSRS are

  17. Observation of the dynamic modes of a magnetic antivortex using Brillouin light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Grant A.; Liu, H. J. Jason; Asmat-Uceda, Martin A.; Haldar, Arabinda; Buchanan, Kristen S.

    2015-08-01

    The dynamic behavior of magnetic antivortices stabilized in patterned pound-key-like microstructures was studied using microfocus Brillouin light scattering (micro-BLS) at frequencies above the gyrotropic mode (>1 GHz ). Micro-BLS spectra obtained as a function of the frequency of a driving microwave field show an intricate spectrum for the antivortex state for an in-plane driving field. Spatial mode profiles for the strongest antivortex resonance frequencies, obtained for samples in the antivortex as well as the single domain states, show that while the symmetry of one of the observed resonances is relatively insensitive to the spin configuration, the antivortex exhibits a unique mode profile for the other. A comparison with micromagnetic simulations shows that the frequency and symmetry of the latter are consistent with one of the antivortex azimuthal modes. Furthermore, the simulations show that this mode involves coupling between the antivortex spin excitations and propagating spin waves in the structure legs, which may be useful for high-wave-number spin-wave generation.

  18. All-optical pulse compression of broadband microwave signal based on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Xin; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Pulse compression processing based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in an optical fiber is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated. Broadband microwave signal is electro-optically modulated onto the pump lightwave that is launched into one end of the fiber. Acoustic wave in the fiber inherits the amplitude and phase information of the pump lightwave and thus the coupling between the acoustic wave and pump lightwave leads to the auto-correlated process of the pump lightwave as well as the modulated microwave signal. Derivation of the SBS coupling equations shows that the short-pulse probe lightwave amplified by the pump lightwave possesses the nature of auto-correlation formula. All-optical pulse compression of the broadband microwave signal is implemented after a subtraction between the detected probe pulse with and without SBS. A proof-of-concept experiment is carried out. The pulse compression of a linear frequency-modulated microwave signal with 1 GHz sweep range at the carrier frequency of 4...

  19. Photonic chip based tunable and reconfigurable narrowband microwave photonic filter using stimulated Brillouin scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Adam; Pant, Ravi; Li, Enbang; Choi, Duk-Yong; Poulton, Christopher G; Fan, Shanhui; Madden, Steve; Luther-Davies, Barry; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2012-08-13

    We report the first demonstration of a photonic chip based dynamically reconfigurable, widely tunable, narrow pass-band, high Q microwave photonic filter (MPF). We exploit stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a 6.5 cm long chalcogenide (As2S3) photonic chip to demonstrate a MPF that exhibited a high quality factor of ~520 and narrow bandwidth and was dynamically reconfigurable and widely tunable. It maintained a stable 3 dB bandwidth of 23 ± 2MHz and amplitude of 20 ± 2 dB over a large frequency tuning range of 2-12 GHz. By tailoring the pump spectrum, we reconfigured the 3 dB bandwidth of the MPF from ~20 MHz to ~40 MHz and tuned the shape factor from 3.5 to 2 resulting in a nearly flat-topped filter profile. This demonstration represents a significant advance in integrated microwave photonics with potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing for RADAR and analogue communications. PMID:23038523

  20. Mode conversion based on forward stimulated Brillouin scattering in a hybrid phononic-photonic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guodong; Zhang, Ruiwen; Sun, Junqiang; Xie, Heng; Gao, Ya; Feng, Danqi; Xiong, Huang

    2014-12-29

    We propose a scheme for on-chip all optical mode conversion based on forward stimulated Brillouin scattering in a hybrid phononic-photonic waveguide. To describe the mode conversion the theoretical model of the FSBS is established by taking into account the radiation pressure and the electrostriction force simultaneously. The numerical simulation is carried out for the mode conversion from the fundamental mode E11x to the higher-order mode E21x. The results indicate that the mode conversion efficiency is affected by the waveguide length and the input pump light power, and the highest efficiency can reach upto 88% by considering the influence of optical and acoustic absorption losses in the hybrid waveguide. Additionally, the conversion bandwidth with approximate 12.5 THz can be achieved in 1550nm communication band. This mode converter on-chip is a promising device in the integrated optical systems, which can effectively increase the capacity of silicon data busses for on-chip optical interconnections. PMID:25607172

  1. Disorder-driven nonequilibrium melting studied by electron diffraction, brillouin scattering, and molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper, a brief overview of the electron diffraction, Brillouin scattering and molecular dynamics studies of radiation-induced amorphization of ordered intermetallic compounds is presented. In these studies, measured changes in the velocity of surface acoustic phonons, lattice constant, and the Bragg-Williams long-range order parameter induced by irradiation were compared with the results of computer simulations of defect-induced amorphization. The results indicate that progressive chemical disordering of the superlattice structure during irradiation is accompanied by an expansion of the lattice and a large change in sound velocity corresponding to a ∼ 50% decrease in the average shear modulus. The onset of amorphization occurs when the average shear modulus of the crystalline compound becomes equal to that of the amorphous phase. This elastic softening criterion for the onset of amorphization and the dependence of the average shear modulus on the long-range-order parameter are in excellent agreement with molecular dynamics simulations. Both the experimental observations and computer simulations confirm the predictions of the generalized Lindemann melting criterion which stipulates that thermodynamic melting of a defective crystal occurs when the sum of the dynamic and static mean-square atomic displacements reaches a critical value identical to that for melting of the defect-free crystal. In this broader view of melting, the crystal-to-glass transformation is a disorder-driven nonequilibrium melting process occurring at temperatures below the Kauzmann isentropic glass-transition temperature

  2. Spectrum parameter estimation in Brillouin scattering distributed temperature sensor based on cuckoo search algorithm combined with the improved differential evolution algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Yu, Chunjuan; Fu, Xinghu; Liu, Wenzhe; Bi, Weihong

    2015-12-01

    In the distributed optical fiber sensing system based on Brillouin scattering, strain and temperature are the main measuring parameters which can be obtained by analyzing the Brillouin center frequency shift. The novel algorithm which combines the cuckoo search algorithm (CS) with the improved differential evolution (IDE) algorithm is proposed for the Brillouin scattering parameter estimation. The CS-IDE algorithm is compared with CS algorithm and analyzed in different situation. The results show that both the CS and CS-IDE algorithm have very good convergence. The analysis reveals that the CS-IDE algorithm can extract the scattering spectrum features with different linear weight ratio, linewidth combination and SNR. Moreover, the BOTDR temperature measuring system based on electron optical frequency shift is set up to verify the effectiveness of the CS-IDE algorithm. Experimental results show that there is a good linear relationship between the Brillouin center frequency shift and temperature changes.

  3. Precise Determination of Brillouin Scattering Spectrum Using a Virtually Imaged Phase Array (VIPA) Spectrometer and Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2016-08-01

    Brillouin spectroscopy is an emerging tool for microscopic optical imaging as it allows noninvasive assessment of viscoelastic properties of materials. The use of atomic-molecular absorption cells as ultra-narrow notch filters allows acquisition of Brillouin spectra from turbid samples despite their strong elastic scattering. However, such systems alter the shapes of the Brillouin lines, making the precise determination of the Brillouin shift difficult. In this report, we propose a simple method for analyzing the Brillouin spectrum using a customized least-square fitting algorithm. The absorption spectrum induced by the atomic-molecular cell was taken into consideration. The capability of the method is confirmed by processing experimental spectroscopic data from the pure water at different temperatures. The accuracy of the measurements of ±1 MHz spectral line shift is experimentally demonstrated. PMID:27296309

  4. Noise sources and competition between stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering: A one-dimensional steady-state approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 1D steady-state model is developed to deal with stimulated scattering processes. The volume and boundary noise sources for scattered light are discussed in detail. Our results indicate that the boundary noise sources may play a significant role in estimating the reflectivity of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). With the capability of our model to deal with broadband scattered light, we find that pump depletion could be the main reason to the anti-correlation between SBS and SRS versus electron density observed in experiments. A simple method is proposed to phenomenologically include the effect of nonlinear saturation mechanisms in our model and reasonable results are obtained

  5. An All-Optical Frequency Up/Down-Converter Utilizing Stimulated Brillouin Scattering In A Trf And Dcf For Rof Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Awang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A frequency up and down conversion is proposed based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS for Radio-over-fiber (RoF system. Microwave frequency up conversion from 2GHz to 12.5GHz and microwave frequency down conversion from 12.5GHz to 1.8GHz with largest Intermediate Frequency (IF power of -32dBm is successfully demonstrated. The up conversion is based on the 1st Stokes of Brillouin fiber laser in Truewave reach fiber (TWF and the down conversion is based on 1st AntiStokes of Brillouin fiber laser in Dispersion compensating fiber (DCF.

  6. An All-Optical Frequency Up/Down-Converter Utilizing Stimulated Brillouin Scattering In A Trf And Dcf For Rof Application

    OpenAIRE

    N. A. Awang; H Ahmad; S. F. Norizan; M.Z. Zulkifli; Z.A. Ghani; S. W. Harun

    2011-01-01

    A frequency up and down conversion is proposed based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) for Radio-over-fiber (RoF) system. Microwave frequency up conversion from 2GHz to 12.5GHz and microwave frequency down conversion from 12.5GHz to 1.8GHz with largest Intermediate Frequency (IF) power of -32dBm is successfully demonstrated. The up conversion is based on the 1st Stokes of Brillouin fiber laser in Truewave reach fiber (TWF) and the down conversion is based on 1st AntiStokes of Brillouin...

  7. Investigation of ionospheric stimulated Brillouin scatter generated at pump frequencies near electron gyroharmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Fu, H.; Briczinski, S. J.; McCarrick, M. J.

    2013-11-01

    Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (SEEs), secondary electromagnetic waves excited by high power electromagnetic waves transmitted into the ionosphere, produced by the Magnetized Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (MSBS) process are investigated. Data from four recent research campaigns at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility is presented in this work. These experiments have provided additional quantitative interpretation of the SEE spectrum produced by MSBS to yield diagnostic measurements of the electron temperature and ion composition in the heated ionosphere. SEE spectral emission lines corresponding to ion acoustic (IA) and electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) mode excitation were observed with a shift in frequency up to a few tens of Hz from the pump frequency for heating near the third harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency 3fce. The threshold of each emission line has been measured by changing the pump wave power. The excitation threshold of IA and EIC emission lines originating at the reflection and upper hybrid altitudes is measured for various beam angles relative to the magnetic field. Variation of strength of MSBS emission lines with pump frequency relative to 3fce and 4fce is also studied. A full wave solution has been used to estimate the amplitude of the electric field at the interaction altitude. The estimated instability threshold using the theoretical model is compared with the threshold of MSBS lines in the experiment and possible diagnostic information for the background ionospheric plasma is discussed. Simultaneous formation of artificial field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) and suppression of the MSBS process is investigated. This technique can be used to estimate the growth time of artificial FAIs which may result in determination of plasma waves and physical process involved in the formation of FAIs.

  8. Initiation and Saturation of Backward Stimulated Raman and Brillouin Scatter in Single Speckles: Influence of Scattered-Light Seeds and Collisional Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Rose, H. A.; Bowers, K. J.; Bergen, B.; Finnegan, S. M.

    2009-11-01

    A suite of 2D and 3D PIC simulations of backward stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering (SRS and SBS) in ICF hohlraum and Trident plasma have been performed on the heterogeneous multi-core supercomputer, Roadrunner. These calculations reveal that the physics governing the nonlinear saturation of SRS in 3D is consistent with that of prior 2D studies [L. Yin, et al. Phys. Rev. Lett., 99, 265004, 2007], but with important differences arising from enhanced diffraction and side loss in 3D compared with 2D. In addition to wavefront bowing of electron plasma waves (EPW), we find that EPW self-focusing also exhibits loss of angular coherence by formation of a filament necklace, a process not available in 2D. These processes in higher dimensions increase the side-loss rate of trapped electrons, increase wave damping, decrease source coherence for backscattered light, and fundamentally limit how much backscatter can occur from a laser speckle. The SRS onset threshold is lower if initiated by SRS seeds compared with the onset threshold if SRS is initiated by thermal electron density fluctuations alone. Furthermore, we show that the presence or absence of SBS may be sensitively determined by collisional heating and transverse electron temperature variations.

  9. Investigation on the effect of beam divergence angle upon output waveform based on stimulated Brillouin scattering optical limiting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hasi Wu-Li-Ji; Lu Huan-Huan; Gong Sheng; Fu Mei-Ling; Lin Zhi-Wei; Lin Dian-Yang; He Wei-Ming

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of beam divergence angle on output waveform based on stimulated Brillouin scattering optical limiting. Output waveforms in the case of different pump divergence angles are numerically simulated,and validated in a Nd:YAG seed-injected laser system. The results indicate that a small pump divergence angle can lead to good interaction between pump and Stokes, and a platform can be easily realized in the transmitted waveform.In contrast, a peak followed by the platform appears when the divergence angle becomes large.

  10. Coherent Tiled 4 Beam Combination by Phase Controlled Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Phase Conjugation Mirrors toward the Practical Laser Fusion Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The coherent beam combination using the phase controlled stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirrors (SBS-PCMs) is one of the promising techniques for the practical laser fusion drivers. Its ability has been demonstrated experimentally through this work. The phase fluctuations of the titled beams are less than 1/25 wavelength even when the amplifiers are inserted and operated in the beam combining system, which means that this new technique can be applied to combine the currently available lasers such as 100 J/ns/10 Hz for a real laser driver module whose output energy is greater than 5 kJ/ns/10 Hz. (author)

  11. Determination of elastic stiffness coefficients of lead zirconate single crystals in the cubic phase by Brillouin light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature dependence of the three independent elastic constants of antiferroelectric lead zirconate single crystals was determined in the cubic, paraelectric phase by Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy. Two longitudinal elastic moduli of C11 and (C11 + C12+2 C44)/2 showed softening upon cooling toward the phase transition temperature, indicating the coupling of the acoustic waves to the polarization fluctuations of the precursor polar clusters. Among the two transverse acoustic modes, C44 was almost constant while (C11-C12)/2 showed a noticeable softening in the paraelectric phase. This was attributed to the acoustic instability of lead zirconate toward the orthorhombic ground state

  12. Phase-locked stimulated Brillouin scattering seeded by a transient acoustic wave excited through an optical interference field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical description of an experimentally-verified scheme leading to a phase-locked stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is presented. It is shown that this phase-locking of the SBS process may have its origin in a transient acoustic standing wave initiated by an arising optical interference field, eventually leading to a stationary density modulation of the medium. An appropriate solution was obtained by solving the acoustic wave-equation with electrostriction as a driving force. As a consequence of the damping term being included in this equation, the acoustic standing wave becomes gradually attenuated and, contrary to the undamped solution published earlier, thus constitutes a truly transient phenomenon.

  13. Study of low-frequency dynamics of short peptides by Brillouin light scattering and Monte-Carlo global energy minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillouin light scattering studies of the behavior of hypersound velocity in solutions of short peptides Asp-Ser, Glu-Asp-Arg, Ala-Glu-Asp-Leu with widely varying concentrations at temperatures ranging from 295 to 360K are presented. As shown by analysis of experimental data and molecular simulation, the dipeptide Asp-Ser is characterized by formation of dimers which decompose at high temperatures. High-concentration solutions of tri- and tetrapeptides form aggregates at high temperatures which are preserved on cooling

  14. Surface enhanced Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Furtak, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    In the course of the development of surface science, advances have been identified with the introduction of new diagnostic probes for analytical characterization of the adsorbates and microscopic structure of surfaces and interfaces. Among the most recently de­ veloped techniques, and one around which a storm of controversy has developed, is what has now been earmarked as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Within this phenomenon, molecules adsorbed onto metal surfaces under certain conditions exhibit an anomalously large interaction cross section for the Raman effect. This makes it possible to observe the detailed vibrational signature of the adsorbate in the ambient phase with an energy resolution much higher than that which is presently available in electron energy loss spectroscopy and when the surface is in contact with a much larger amount of material than that which can be tolerated in infrared absorption experiments. The ability to perform vibrational spectroscopy under these conditions would l...

  15. A Brillouin scattering study of La0.77Ca0.23MnO3 across the metal-insulator transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature-dependent Brillouin scattering studies have been carried out on La0.77Ca0.23MnO3 across the paramagnetic insulator-ferromagnetic metal (I-M) transition (TC ∼ 230 K). The spectra show modes corresponding to a surface Rayleigh wave (SRW) and a high velocity pseudo-surface wave (HVPSAW) along with bulk acoustic waves (B1 and B2). The Brillouin shifts associated with the SRW and HVPSAW increase, whereas the B1 and B2 frequencies decrease, below TC. The temperature dependence of the SRW and HVPSAW modes is related to the increase in the elastic constant C11 across the I-M transition. The decrease in frequency across the I-M transition of the bulk modes is understood to be due to enhanced self-energy corrections as a result of increased magnon-phonon interaction across the I-M transition. Correspondingly, these modes show a large increase in the full width at half maximum (FWHM) as the temperature decreases. We also observe a central peak whose width is maximum at TC

  16. 100km distributed temperature sensor based on coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin back-scatter

    OpenAIRE

    Alahbabi, M.; CHO, Y. T.; Newson, T.P.

    2003-01-01

    We report the longest distributed temperature sensor based on microwave heterodyne detection of the frequency of the anti-Stokes Brillouin signal. At a sensing range of 100km, the temperature accuracy was 8degC, with a spatial resolution of 50m.

  17. Transition from hydrodynamic to fast sound in a He-Ne mixture a neutron Brillouin scattering experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bafile, U; Barocchi, F; Sampoli, M

    2002-01-01

    The presence of a fast-sound mode in the microscopic dynamics of the rare-gas mixture He-Ne, predicted by theoretical studies and molecular-dynamics simulations, was demonstrated by an inelastic neutron scattering experiment. In order to study the transition between the fast and the normal acoustic modes in the hydrodynamic regime, k values lower by about one order of magnitude than in the usual experiments have to be probed. We describe here the results of the first neutron Brillouin scattering experiment performed with this purpose on the same system already investigated at larger k. The results of both experiments, together with those of a new molecular-dynamics simulation, provide a complete and consistent description, still missing so far, of the onset of fast-sound propagation in a binary mixture. (orig.)

  18. Thermally induced amorphous to crystalline transformation of argon ion bombarded GaAs studied with surface Brillouin and Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakata, K.; Wamwangi, D. M.; Sumanya, C.; Mathe, B. A.; Erasmus, R. M.; Naidoo, S. R.; Comins, J. D.

    2012-09-01

    Surface Brillouin scattering (SBS) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to investigate the recrystallisation of an amorphous layer of GaAs created on single crystal (0 0 1) GaAs by ion bombardment with 100 keV argon ions with a fluence of 5 × 1016 ions/cm2 at a temperature of ˜65 °C. Samples were isochronally annealed and the light scattering measurements were performed after each annealing step. The SBS studies confirm structural changes resulting in continuous stiffening of the layer beginning above 200 °C and finally attaining a maximum value above 500 °C. The Raman studies show evidence of full recrystallisation above 500 °C, with the appearance of both LO and TO peaks indicating that the reformed layer is polycrystalline.

  19. The Measurement of Tropospheric Temperature Profiles using Rayleigh-Brillouin Scattering: Results from Laboratory and Atmospheric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witschas, Benjamin; Reitebuch, Oliver; Lemmerz, Christian; Gomez Kableka, Pau; Kondratyev, Sergey; Gu, Ziyu; Ubachs, Wim

    2016-06-01

    In this letter, we suggest a new method for measuring tropospheric temperature profiles using Rayleigh-Brillouin (RB) scattering. We report on laboratory RB scattering measurements in air, demonstrating that temperature can be retrieved from RB spectra with an absolute accuracy of better than 2 K. In addition, we show temperature profiles from 2 km to 15.3 km derived from RB spectra, measured with a high spectral resolution lidar during daytime. A comparison with radiosonde temperature measurements shows reasonable agreement. In cloud-free conditions, the temperature difference reaches up to 5 K within the boundary layer, and is smaller than 2.5 K above. The statistical error of the derived temperatures is between 0.15 K and 1.5 K.

  20. Mechanical properties of low- and high-k dielectric thin films: A surface Brillouin light scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizka, J.; King, S.; Every, A. G.; Sooryakumar, R.

    2016-04-01

    Surface Brillouin light scattering measurements are used to determine the elastic constants of nano-porous low-k SiOC:H (165 nm) and high-k HfO2 (25 nm) as well as BN:H (100 nm) films grown on Si substrates. In addition, the study investigates the mechanical properties of ultra-thin (25 nm) blanket TiN cap layers often used as hard masks for patterning, and their effects on the underlying low-k dielectrics that support a high level of interconnected porosity. Depending on the relative material properties of individual component layers, the acoustic modes manifest as confined, propagating, or damped resonances in the light scattering spectra, thereby enabling the mechanical properties of the ultra-thin films to be determined.

  1. Evidence of plasma fluctuations and their effect on the growth of stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattering in laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reflectivity levels of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in recent large scale length laser plasma experiments is much lower than expected for conditions where the convective gain exponent is expected to be large. Long wavelength velocity fluctuations caused during the plasma formation process, or by parametric instabilities themselves, have been proposed as a mechanism to detune SBS in these experiments and reduce its gain. Evidence of large velocity fluctuation levels is found in the time-resolved SBS spectra from these experiments, and correlates with observed changes in the reflectivity of both SBS and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). The authors present evidence of fluctuations which increase as the plasma density systematically increases, and discuss their effect on the growth of parametric instabilities

  2. Determination of the electron temperature in the modified ionosphere over HAARP using the HF pumped Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (SBS) emission lines

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhardt, P. A.; C. A. Selcher; Lehmberg, R. H.; Rodriguez, S; Thomason, J.; M. McCarrick; Frazer, G.

    2009-01-01

    An ordinary mode electromagnetic wave can decay into an ion acoustic wave and a scattered electromagnetic wave by a process called stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS). The first detection of this process during ionospheric modification with high power radio waves was reported by Norin et al. (2009) using the HAARP transmitter in Alaska. Subsequent experiments have provided additional verification of this process and quantitative interpretation of the scattered wave frequency offsets to yield m...

  3. Effects of material parameter on interaction length to occur optical phase conjugation via stimulated Brillouin scattering in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present formulation using hydrodynamic model and coupled mode scheme of plasmas the interaction length necessary to achieve optical phase conjugation is obtained from steady-state Brillouin gain coefficient for a semiconductor crystal. The analytical investigation of steady-state gain of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is made by assuming that the SBS is resulted from the nonlinear interaction of an intense electromagnetic wave with acoustic perturbation internally generated due to acousto-optic property of the semiconductor crystal. Numerical estimates confirm that when cyclotron frequency is tuned with pump frequency, interaction length is found to be nearly 104 m smaller than that obtained in absence of magnetic filed. Pump intensity and free carrier concentration both helpful in reducing the required interaction length. -- Highlights: ► OPC via SBS is obtained in doped semiconductors. ► Favourable interaction length to occur OPC is obtained. ► Magnetic field reduces interaction length. ► Minimum interaction length is obtained in dispersionless acoustic regime.

  4. Elastic properties of aspirin in its crystalline and glassy phases studied by micro-Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Sei; Ike, Yuji; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-11-01

    The acoustic waves propagating along the direction perpendicular to the (1 0 0) cleavage plane of aspirin crystal were investigated using micro-Brillouin spectroscopy from which C11, C55 and C66 were obtained. The temperature dependence of the longitudinal acoustic waves could be explained by normal anharmonic lattice models, while the transverse acoustic waves showed an abnormal increase in the hypersonic attenuation at low temperatures indicating their coupling to local remnant dynamics. The sound velocity as well as the attenuation of the longitudinal acoustic waves of glassy aspirin showed a substantial change at ˜235 K confirming a transition from glassy to supercooled liquid state in vitreous aspirin.

  5. Brillouin light scattering study of transverse mode coupling in confined yttrium iron garnet/barium strontium titanate multiferroic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the space-resolved Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy we study the transformation of dynamic magnetization patterns in a bilayer multiferroic structure. We show that in the comparison with a single yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film magnetization distribution is transformed in the bilayer structure due to the coupling of waves propagating both in an YIG film (magnetic layer) and in a barium strontium titanate slab (ferroelectric layer). We present a simple electrodynamic model using the numerical finite element method to show the transformation of eigenmode spectrum of confined multiferroic. In particular, we demonstrate that the control over the dynamic magnetization and the transformation of spatial profiles of transverse modes in magnetic film of the bilayer structure can be performed by the tuning of the wavevectors of transverse modes. The studied confined multiferroic stripe can be utilized for fabrication of integrated dual tunable functional devices for magnonic applications

  6. Cascaded gain fibers for increasing output power and the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold of narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, J A; Temyanko, V; Dobler, J T; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Dianov, E M; Peyghambarian, N

    2016-05-20

    We show both experimentally and theoretically a method to increase the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold and output power of narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifiers. This method employs two or more fibers with varying concentrations of the Raman gain material dopant such as GeO2 or P2O5 in silicate-based glasses. These fibers are then cascaded to form an amplifier gain stage, disrupting the buildup of SBS that normally occurs in single continuous fibers. The numerical model shown is applicable to arbitrary amplifier systems for gain stage optimization and increased power scaling. We give experimental results for phosphosilicate fibers that agree well with simulation predictions that support the numerical model used. PMID:27411133

  7. Brillouin light scattering study of transverse mode coupling in confined yttrium iron garnet/barium strontium titanate multiferroic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadovnikov, A. V., E-mail: sadovnikovav@gmail.com; Nikitov, S. A. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Kotel' nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Beginin, E. N.; Bublikov, K. V.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-28

    Using the space-resolved Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy we study the transformation of dynamic magnetization patterns in a bilayer multiferroic structure. We show that in the comparison with a single yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film magnetization distribution is transformed in the bilayer structure due to the coupling of waves propagating both in an YIG film (magnetic layer) and in a barium strontium titanate slab (ferroelectric layer). We present a simple electrodynamic model using the numerical finite element method to show the transformation of eigenmode spectrum of confined multiferroic. In particular, we demonstrate that the control over the dynamic magnetization and the transformation of spatial profiles of transverse modes in magnetic film of the bilayer structure can be performed by the tuning of the wavevectors of transverse modes. The studied confined multiferroic stripe can be utilized for fabrication of integrated dual tunable functional devices for magnonic applications.

  8. Size-dependent magnetization dynamics in individual Ni80Fe20 disk using micro-focused Brillouin Light Scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimon, G.; Adeyeye, A. O.

    2015-09-01

    A direct and systematic investigation of the magnetization dynamics in individual circular Ni80Fe20 disk of diameter (D) in the range from 300 nm to 1 μm measured using micro-focused Brillouin Light Scattering (μ-BLS) spectroscopy is presented. At high field, when the disks are in a single domain state, the resonance frequency of the uniform center mode is observed to reduce with reducing disk's diameter. For D = 300 nm, additional edge and end-domains resonant modes are observed due to size effects. At low field, when the disks are in a vortex state, a systematic increase of resonant frequency of magnetostatic modes in a vortex state with the square root of the disks' aspect ratio (thickness divided by radius) is observed. Such dependence diminishes for disks with larger aspect ratio due to an increasing exchange energy contribution. Micromagnetic simulations are in excellent agreement with the experiments.

  9. Self-focusing induced reduction of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering for the case of monospeckle laser beams interacting with a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Laborde, Paul-Edouard; Hueller, Stefan; Pesme, Denis; Loiseau, Pascal; Labaune, Christine; Bandulet, Heidi

    2008-11-01

    The mechanism explaining the low level of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering observed in laser-plasma experiments with monospeckle laser beams, carried out at the LULI facility, is studied by means of numerical simulations. For the regime where the beam power is well above the self-focusing critical power, simulations carried out with the codes Harmony2D and HERA-ILP (in 2D and 3D geometry respectively), show time-averaged reflectivities of the order of only a few percent. Because of self-focusing and the filament resonant instability, SBS takes only place in self-focused hot spots located in the low-density front part of the plasma. The shortened hot spot sizes and the steepened flow-profile dramatically reduce SBS. This scenario may also applies to the most intense laser hot spots in a spatially smoothed laser beam.

  10. Micromagnetic study of CoPt-SiO2 granular films by spin-wave Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spin-wave Brillouin scattering study of a CoPt-SiO2 granular magnetic recording medium was made. This film contains ferromagnetic CoPt particles in a SiO2 matrix, and has an extremely low medium noise property due to little exchange coupling between magnetic grains. Spin waves of both the propagating surface mode and standing wave mode were found to be excited in granular magnetic films with various microstructures. A possible origin of the spin wave is a magnetostatic coupling between regularly ordered CoPt grains, as reported for artificially patterned magnetic thin films. This result shows two promising features of the CoPt-SiO2 granular film for high density recording medium: It is an ordered media obtained in a self-organizing manner, and it is less influenced by the thermal fluctuation effect, which is a serious problem for current high density magnetic recording. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  11. High temperatures and high pressures Brillouin scattering studies of liquid H(2)O+CO(2) mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Junfeng; Li, Min; Li, Jun; Chen, Rongyan; Duan, Zhenhao; Zhou, Qiang; Li, Fangfei; Cui, Qiliang

    2010-10-21

    The Brillouin scattering spectroscopy studies have been conducted in a diamond anvil cell for a liquid mixtures composed of 95 mol % H(2)O and 5 mol % CO(2) under high temperatures and pressures. The sound velocity, refractive index, density, and adiabatic bulk modulus of the H(2)O+CO(2) mixtures were determined under pressures up to the freezing point at 293, 453, and 575 K. It is found from the experiment that sound velocities of the liquid mixture are substantially lower than those of pure water at 575 K, but not at lower temperatures. We presented an empirical relation of the density in terms of pressure and temperature. Our results show that liquid H(2)O+CO(2) mixtures are more compressible than water obtained from an existing equation of state of at 453 and 575 K. PMID:20969409

  12. Stimulated Brillouin scattering phase-locking using a transient acoustic standing wave excited through an optical interference field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Analytical description of an experimentally verified scheme leading to a phase-locked stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), used in a laser beam combination systems, is presented. The essential condition for the phase-locking effect for SBS is the fixation of the starting position and time of the acoustic Brillouin wave. It is shown that the starting position fixation of this acoustic wave may have its origin in a transient acoustic standing wave initiated by an arising optical interference field produced by the back-seeding concave mirror. This interference field leads to a stationary density modulation of the medium. However, the way to the formation of this density modulation leads via the acoustic standing wave. An appropriate solution, in the form of the standing wave, was obtained from solving the acoustic wave-equation using the electrostriction as a driving force. As a consequence of the damping term included in this equation the acoustic standing wave becomes gradually attenuated and contrary to the undamped solution published earlier, thus constitutes a truly transient phenomenon. Using a mathematical formalism similar to that which is used for the SBS description in the case of a random phase, the coupled equations describing the phase-locked SBS were derived. Contrary to the case without the back-seeding mirror, where the wave chosen from the thermal noise background subsequently plays the role of a trigger of the stimulated process, in this case it is replaced by the transient standing wave produced as a consequence of the presence of an optical interference field arisen in the focal region of the back-seeding concave mirror.

  13. Monitoring the distributed impact wave on a concrete slab due to the traffic based on polarization dependence on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time to our knowledge, distributed impact waves due to the highway traffic on concrete slabs reinforced with FRP bars are monitored in real time using stimulated Brillouin scattering. The impact wave is caused by the traffic passing on the highway pavement at high speed (>100 km h−1), which induced pressure on the concrete slabs, and in turn created a local birefringence change, leading to variation of the local state of polarization change (SOP). The pump and probe waves of the stimulated Brillouin scattering 'see' the SOP change and react with a decrease of the Brillouin gain or loss signal, when the pump and probe waves have the same input polarization state. The frequency difference between the pump and probe waves are locked at the static-strain-related Brillouin frequency. Optical fiber was embedded throughout the concrete pavement continuously reinforced with FRP bars in Highway 40 East, Montréal, Quebec to detect impact waves caused by cars and trucks passing on these pavements at a sampling rate of 10 kHz. A spatial resolution of 2 m was used over a sensing length of 300 m

  14. Effect of large effective area fiber length on the performance of forward-backward scattering combination multiwavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we experimentally demonstrate the effect of large effective area fiber length on the performance of a multiwavelength Brillouin–Raman fiber laser in which the forward and backward generated Stokes lines due to Brillouin scattering are combined together through a 3 dB coupler. Thus, the demonstrated laser is dubbed a forward–backward scattering combination multiwavelength Brillouin–Raman fiber laser (FBSC-MBRFL). This laser system utilizes a large effective area fiber and a dispersion compensating fiber that act as Brillouin and Raman gain media, respectively. It is demonstrated that by employing forward pumping schemes, the demonstrated laser system is capable of generating a good flat amplitude Brillouin Stokes line with an average optical to noise ratio of 17 dB along the spectral spans. However, the backward pumping scheme is able to produced high bandwidth spans. At the optimal large effective area fiber length of 50 km, a Raman pump power of 1100 mW at Brillouin pump wavelengths of 1550 mm and 1560 nm is identified to produce the maximum bandwidth with values of approximately 28.45 nm and 24.08 nm, respectively. (paper)

  15. Two-dimensional studies of stimulated Brillouin scattering, filamentation, and self-focusing instabilities of laser light in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parametric interaction of an intense laser beam with ion plasma modes in a two-dimensional Cartesian geometry has been studied for the first time by avoiding the paraxial optics approximation. This model allows investigation of the competition between forward, sideward, and backward stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) along with filamentation and self-focusing instabilities. It is shown that the SBS saturation level, the angular distribution of transmitted and scattered light, and their temporal dependence are governed mainly by two control parameters: the backward SBS gain coefficient G, and the ratio αsf of the incident beam power to its critical value for the onset of self-focusing. In the case of large values of G approx-gt 15, backward SBS dominates and prevents both self-focusing and forward SBS. For smaller values of G, the interaction exhibits a complex oscillatory behavior, which corresponds to the competition between backward and forward SBS for αsf approx-lt 1, and involves also self-focusing for higher beam intensities

  16. Stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering from a randomized laser beam in large inhomogeneous collisional plasmas. I. Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, J.; Labaune, C.; Depierreux, S.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Baldis, H. A.

    2000-11-01

    Experiments have been conducted at the LULI (Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses) multibeam laser facility to study in detail stimulated Brillouin (SBS) and Raman (SRS) scattering from an intense (mean average intensity up to 1014W/cm2) long (600 ps full width at half-maximum) laser beam interacting with thin exploded plastic foils. The plasmas are well characterized and the vacuum laser intensity distribution is well known due to using either random phase plates or polarization smoothing. Direct and simultaneous Thomson scattering measurements of the associated plasma waves allow us to obtain detailed information about the SBS and SRS temporal evolution and spatial localization. These data are being used to benchmark a statistical model of SBS and SRS from self-focused speckles. The results of this comparison will be presented in a companion paper. The analysis shows that both SBS and SRS are originated from self-focused speckles and reveals that plasma heating has an important effect on speckle self-focusing.

  17. On the dominant and subdominant behavior of stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering driven by nonuniform laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a number of experiments, stimulated Brillouin (SBS) or Raman backscattering (SRS) has been observed to be much more vigorous than the other although the expectations based on linear gain exponents are that they should both be reflecting large amounts of incident light. Multidimensional fluid simulations of the growth and saturation of these two instabilities driven by a nonuniform incident laser beam are presented. On the fast time scale, the nonlinear saturation occurs via an anomalous damping inspired by fundamental studies of Langmuir turbulence [D. F. DuBois et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 41, 1531 (1996)] and acoustic wave turbulence [B. I. Cohen et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 956 (1997)]. Over a longer time scale, SRS and SBS are limited by quasilinear processes such as flows induced by the transfer of momentum from the light to the plasma and ion temperature increases caused by a loss of light energy in SBS. The simulations show a reduction of the SBS reflectivity under conditions of strong SRS reflectivity even if the laser energy is not depleted. The recent observations of decreasing SBS reflectivity with increasing plasma density [D. S. Montgomery, Phys. Plasmas 5, 1973 (1998)] are shown to be consistent with linear theory and nonlinear simulations of SBS provided the increasing levels of SRS are included. Because the reflectivity is produced by scattering in intense hotspots, where the local reflectivity can be very large, the SBS and SRS can be anticorrelated even when the total scattering is quite modest. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  18. On the dominant and subdominant behavior of stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering driven by nonuniform laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, R. L.; Still, C. H.; Williams, E. A.; Langdon, A. B.

    1998-12-01

    In a number of experiments, stimulated Brillouin (SBS) or Raman backscattering (SRS) has been observed to be much more vigorous than the other although the expectations based on linear gain exponents are that they should both be reflecting large amounts of incident light. Multidimensional fluid simulations of the growth and saturation of these two instabilities driven by a nonuniform incident laser beam are presented. On the fast time scale, the nonlinear saturation occurs via an anomalous damping inspired by fundamental studies of Langmuir turbulence [D. F. DuBois et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 41, 1531 (1996)] and acoustic wave turbulence [B. I. Cohen et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 956 (1997)]. Over a longer time scale, SRS and SBS are limited by quasilinear processes such as flows induced by the transfer of momentum from the light to the plasma and ion temperature increases caused by a loss of light energy in SBS. The simulations show a reduction of the SBS reflectivity under conditions of strong SRS reflectivity even if the laser energy is not depleted. The recent observations of decreasing SBS reflectivity with increasing plasma density [D. S. Montgomery, Phys. Plasmas 5, 1973 (1998)] are shown to be consistent with linear theory and nonlinear simulations of SBS provided the increasing levels of SRS are included. Because the reflectivity is produced by scattering in intense hotspots, where the local reflectivity can be very large, the SBS and SRS can be anticorrelated even when the total scattering is quite modest.

  19. Low power, chip-based stimulated Brillouin scattering microwave photonic filter with ultrahigh selectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Marpaung, David; Pagani, Mattia; Pant, Ravi; Choi, Duk-Yong; Luther-Davies, Barry; Madden, Steve J; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    Highly selective and reconfigurable microwave filters are of great importance in radio-frequency signal processing. Microwave photonic (MWP) filters are of particular interest, as they offer flexible reconfiguration and an order of magnitude higher frequency tuning range than electronic filters. However, all MWP filters to date have been limited by trade-offs between key parameters such as tuning range, resolution, and suppression. This problem is exacerbated in the case of integrated MWP filters, blocking the path to compact, high performance filters. Here we show the first chip-based MWP band-stop filter with ultra-high suppression, high resolution in the MHz range, and 0-30 GHz frequency tuning. This record performance was achieved using an ultra-low Brillouin gain from a compact photonic chip and a novel approach of optical resonance-assisted RF signal cancellation. The results point to new ways of creating energy-efficient and reconfigurable integrated MWP signal processors for wireless communications an...

  20. Fermi states and anisotropy of Brillouin zone scattering in the decagonal Al-Ni-Co quasicrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalev, V. A.; Gröning, O.; Widmer, R.; Dil, J. H.; Bisti, F.; Lev, L. L.; Schmitt, T.; Strocov, V. N.

    2015-10-01

    Quasicrystals (QCs) are intermetallic alloys that have excellent long-range order but lack translational symmetry in at least one dimension. The valence band electronic structure near the Fermi energy EF in such materials is of special interest since it has a direct relation to their unusual physical properties. However, the Fermi surface (FS) topology as well as the mechanism of QC structure stabilization are still under debate. Here we report the first observation of the three-dimensional FS and valence band dispersions near EF in decagonal Al70Ni20Co10 (d-AlNiCo) QCs using soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We show that the FS, formed by dispersive Al sp-states, has a multicomponent character due to a large contribution from high-order bands. Moreover, we discover that the magnitude of the gap at the FS related to the interaction with Brillouin zone boundary (Hume-Rothery gap) critically differs for the periodic and quasiperiodic directions.

  1. Study on two-cell stimulated Brillouin scattering system with mixture medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HASI; Wuliji

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,a method of choosing mixture medium in two-cell stimulated Brillouinscattering(SBS)system to improve the system performance is proposed.The Brillouin frequency shift(BFS)of mixture medium varies with the mixing ratio andthus the difference of the BFS between the two cells can be eliminated.The two-cellSBS system with acetone(C3H6O)in its generator cell and mixture liquid ofCCl4/C2Cl4 in its amplifier cell is investigated.The C3H6O has a high optical breakdown threshold and the mixture liquid of CCl4/C2Cl4 has a small absorption coeffi-cient and the same BFS as that of C3H6O when the volume fraction of CCl4 is 4%.Compared with two-cell SBS system with the same liquid(C2Cl4)or different liquid(C3H6O and C2Cl4)in generator and amplifier cell,the SBS system with mixture liq-uid(CCl4/C2Cl4)in amplifier cell and C3H6O in generator cell improves thepower-load,energy reflectivity(ER),phase conjugation(PC)fidelity and ER stabil-ity.

  2. True-time delay line with separate carrier tuning using dual-parallel MZM and stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced slow light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhu, Ning Hua; Wang, Li Xian; Wang, Jia Sheng; Liu, Jian Guo; Liu, Yu; Qi, Xiao Qiong; Xie, Liang; Chen, Wei; Wang, Xin; Han, Wei

    2011-06-20

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel tunable true-time delay line with separate carrier tuning using dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator and stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced slow light. The phase of the optical carrier can be continuously and precisely controlled by simply adjusting the dc bias of the dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator. In addition, both the slow light and single-sideband modulation can be simultaneously achieved in the stimulated Brillouin scattering process with three types of configuration. Finally, the true-time delay technique is clearly verified by a two-tap incoherent microwave photonic filter as the free spectral range of the filter is changed. PMID:21716468

  3. An experimental investigation of stimulated Brillouin scattering in laser-produced plasmas relevant to inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, K.S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (US)

    1993-02-11

    Despite the apparent simplicity of controlled fusion, there are many phenomena which have prevented its achievement. One phenomenon is laser-plasma instabilities. An investigation of one such instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), is reported here. SBS is a parametric process whereby an electromagnetic wave (the parent wave) decays into another electromagnetic wave and an ion acoustic wave (the daughter waves). SBS impedes controlled fusion since it can scatter much or all of the incident laser light, resulting in poor drive symmetry and inefficient laser-plasma coupling. It is widely believed that SBS becomes convectively unstable--that is, it grows as it traverses the plasma. Though it has yet to be definitively tested, convective theory is often invoked to explain experimental observations, even when one or more of the theory`s assumptions are violated. In contrast, the experiments reported here not only obeyed the assumptions of the theory, but were also conducted in plasmas with peak densities well below quarter-critical density. This prevented other competing or coexisting phenomena from occurring, thereby providing clearly interpretable results. These are the first SBS experiments that were designed to be both a clear test of linear convective theory and pertinent to controlled fusion research. A crucial part of this series of experiments was the development of a new instrument, the Multiple Angle Time Resolving Spectrometer (MATRS). MATRS has the unique capability of both spectrally and temporally resolving absolute levels of scattered light at many angles simultaneously, and is the first of its kind used in laser-plasma experiments. A detailed comparison of the theoretical predictions and the experimental observations is made.

  4. An experimental investigation of stimulated Brillouin scattering in laser-produced plasmas relevant to inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the apparent simplicity of controlled fusion, there are many phenomena which have prevented its achievement. One phenomenon is laser-plasma instabilities. An investigation of one such instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), is reported here. SBS is a parametric process whereby an electromagnetic wave (the parent wave) decays into another electromagnetic wave and an ion acoustic wave (the daughter waves). SBS impedes controlled fusion since it can scatter much or all of the incident laser light, resulting in poor drive symmetry and inefficient laser-plasma coupling. It is widely believed that SBS becomes convectively unstable--that is, it grows as it traverses the plasma. Though it has yet to be definitively tested, convective theory is often invoked to explain experimental observations, even when one or more of the theory's assumptions are violated. In contrast, the experiments reported here not only obeyed the assumptions of the theory, but were also conducted in plasmas with peak densities well below quarter-critical density. This prevented other competing or coexisting phenomena from occurring, thereby providing clearly interpretable results. These are the first SBS experiments that were designed to be both a clear test of linear convective theory and pertinent to controlled fusion research. A crucial part of this series of experiments was the development of a new instrument, the Multiple Angle Time Resolving Spectrometer (MATRS). MATRS has the unique capability of both spectrally and temporally resolving absolute levels of scattered light at many angles simultaneously, and is the first of its kind used in laser-plasma experiments. A detailed comparison of the theoretical predictions and the experimental observations is made

  5. Threshold level and gain of forward stimulated Brillouin scattering in a forward pumped s-band discrete DCF fibers Raman amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-feng; ZHANG Zai-xuan; DAI Bi-zhi; LI Chen-xia; INSOO S.KIM

    2006-01-01

    Amplification effect of forward stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) lines on the forward pumped s-band discrete DCF fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) has been studied.Pump threshold power of the forward first order Stokes SBS (FSB1- ),second order Stokes SBS (FSB2-) and third order SBS (FSB3-) in the forward pumped FRA are 1.5 mW,1.4 mW and 1.7 mW,respectively.The Stokes SBS lines are amplified by FRA and fiber Brillouin amplifier (FBA) at the same time.Gain of amplification is given as GA=GR·GB,where GR is Raman gain and GB is Brillouin gain.Saturation gain of FSB1-,FSB2- and FSB3- are about 52 dB,65 dB and 65 dB,respectively.The saturation Raman gain of 10 km DCF forward FRA is about 14 dB,so Brillouin gain of FSB1-,FSB2- and FSB3- are about 38 dB,51 dB and 51 dB,respectively.The forward cascaded SBS lines have been observed.

  6. Micro-focused Brillouin light scattering study of the magnetization dynamics driven by Spin Hall effect in a transversely magnetized NiFe nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madami, M., E-mail: marco.madami@fisica.unipg.it; Carlotti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (CNR-IOM), Unità di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Moriyama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Ono, T. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Siracusano, G.; Finocchio, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering, University of Messina, Messina (Italy); Carpentieri, M. [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Politecnico of Bari, Bari (Italy)

    2015-05-07

    We employed micro-focused Brillouin light scattering to study the amplification of the thermal spin wave eigenmodes by means of a pure spin current, generated by the spin-Hall effect, in a transversely magnetized Pt(4 nm)/NiFe(4 nm)/SiO{sub 2}(5 nm) layered nanowire with lateral dimensions 500 × 2750 nm{sup 2}. The frequency and the cross section of both the center (fundamental) and the edge spin wave modes have been measured as a function of the intensity of the injected dc electric current. The frequency of both modes exhibits a clear redshift while their cross section is greatly enhanced on increasing the intensity of the injected dc. A threshold-like behavior is observed for a value of the injected dc of 2.8 mA. Interestingly, an additional mode, localized in the central part of the nanowire, appears at higher frequency on increasing the intensity of the injected dc above the threshold value. Micromagnetic simulations were used to quantitatively reproduce the experimental results and to investigate the complex non-linear dynamics induced by the spin-Hall effect, including the modification of the spatial profile of the spin wave modes and the appearance of the extra mode above the threshold.

  7. Elastic anomaly and order-disorder nature of multiferroic barium sodium niobate studied by broadband brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successive phase transitions of multiferroic barium sodium niobate, Ba2NaNb5O15 (BNN), were studied by Brillouin scattering. The LA, TA modes, and central peak were measured in a large temperature range from room temperature up to 750 °C. In the vicinity of a ferroelectric phase transition at about TC = 585 °C from the prototypic tetragonal 4/mmm to ferroelectric 4mm phases, elastic anomaly was observed for LA and TA modes. In addition, the order-disorder nature was observed by the temperature dependence of a central peak. For further cooling another elastic anomaly was also observed in the vicinity of a ferroelastic incommensurate phase transition at about TIC = 285 °C into orthorhombic 2mm phase with the appearance of incommensurate modulation. The large thermal hysteresis of elastic anomaly near TIC can be attributed the typical feature of the type III incommensurate phase transition predicted recently by Ishibashi and Iwata (2013 J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 82 044703)

  8. Stimulated Brillouin scattering reduction induced by self-focusing for a single laser speckle interacting with an expanding plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Depierreux, S.; Loiseau, P. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon Cedex (France); Hüller, S.; Pesme, D. [Centre de Physique Théorique (CPHT), CNRS, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Labaune, Ch. [LULI, CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bandulet, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    The origin of the low level of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) observed in laser-plasma experiments carried out with a single laser speckle is investigated by means of three-dimensional simulations and modeling in the limit when the laser beam power P is well above the critical power for ponderomotive self-focusing We find that the order of magnitude of the time averaged reflectivities, together with the temporal and spatial SBS localization observed in our simulations, are correctly reproduced by our modeling. It is observed that, after a short transient stage, SBS reaches a significant level only (i) as long as the incident laser pulse is increasing in amplitude and (ii) in a single self-focused speckle located in the low-density front part of the plasma. In order to describe self-focusing in an inhomogeneous expanding plasma, we have derived a new Lagrangian density describing this process. Using then a variational approach, our model reproduces the position and the peak intensity of the self-focusing hot spot in the front part of the plasma density profile as well as the local density depletion in this hot spot. The knowledge of these parameters then makes it possible to estimate the spatial amplification of SBS as a function of the laser beam power and consequently to explain the experimentally observed SBS reflectivity, considerably reduced with respect to standard theory in the regime of large laser beam power.

  9. Determination of the electron temperature in the modified ionosphere over HAARP using the HF pumped Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (SBS emission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bernhardt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An ordinary mode electromagnetic wave can decay into an ion acoustic wave and a scattered electromagnetic wave by a process called stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS. The first detection of this process during ionospheric modification with high power radio waves was reported by Norin et al. (2009 using the HAARP transmitter in Alaska. Subsequent experiments have provided additional verification of this process and quantitative interpretation of the scattered wave frequency offsets to yield measurements of the electron temperatures in the heated ionosphere. Using the SBS technique, electron temperatures between 3000 and 4000 K were measured over the HAARP facility. The matching conditions for decay of the high frequency pump wave show that in addition to the production of an ion-acoustic wave, an electrostatic ion cyclotron wave may also be produced by the generalized SBS processes. Based on the matching condition theory, the first profiles of the scattered wave amplitude are produced using the stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS matching conditions. These profiles are consistent with maximum ionospheric interactions at the upper-hybrid resonance height and at a region just below the plasma resonance altitude where the pump wave electric fields reach their maximum values.

  10. Study of a dynamical plasma response in laser filamentation induced in silica glasses in presence of stimulated Brillouin scattering and in KDP crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the role of an inertial plasma response produced by laser pulses in self-focusing regime. This phenomenon is coupled with Brillouin nonlinearities for nanosecond pulses in silica glasses and excites various ionization channels for femtosecond pulses. We start by deriving the propagation equations accounting for filamentation due to optical Kerr effect and stimulated Brillouin scattering in the presence of a dynamical plasma response. Then, we present numerical results on the nonlinear propagation of large-scaled laser beams. These results validate the anti-Brillouin system adopted on the MegaJoule laser (LMJ). Next, we present numerical and theoretical results on filamentation of nanosecond light pulses operating in the ultraviolet and infrared range in fused silica. Emphasis is put on the action of a dynamical plasma response. For a single wave, we develop a variational analysis which reproduces global propagation features for a quasistationary balance between self-focusing and plasma defocusing. However, such a quasistationary balance breaks up through modulational instabilities induced by plasma feedback on the pump wave. We show that phase modulations suppress both stimulated Brillouin scattering and plasma instabilities. Finally, we study numerically the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond pulses in fused silica and KDP. First, we show that the presence of defects involving less photons for exciting electrons from the valence band to the conduction band promotes higher filamentation intensity levels. Secondly, we compare the filamentation dynamics in silica and KDP crystal. The ionization model for KDP crystals takes into account the presence of defects and the electron-hole dynamics. We show that the propagation dynamics in silica and KDP are almost identical at equivalent ratios of input power over the critical power for self-focusing. (author)

  11. Toward a new lower limit for the minimum scattering vector on the very small angle neutron scattering spectrometer at Laboratoire Leon Brillouin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brulet, A.; Thevenot, V.; Lairez, D.; Desert, S. [CEA Saclay, CEA-CNRS, UMR12, Lab Leon Brillouin, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Lecommandoux, S.; Agut, W. [Univ Bordeaux 1, ENSCPB CNRS, Lab Chim Polymeres Organ, F-33607 Pessac (France); Armes, S.P.; Du, J. [Univ Sheffield, Dept Chem, Sheffield S3 7HF (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    The main characteristics of the very small angle neutron scattering spectrometer (VSANS) under construction at the Laboratoire Leon Brillouin are a multibeam pinhole collimator converging onto an image plate detector. By combining tiny collimation (diaphragms of around 1 or 2 mm in diameter) with the small pixel size of the detector (0.15 * 0.15 mm), very high resolution measurements can be achieved. The resolution function of the instrument contains a contribution from gravity, which is reduced by the intermediate masks of the collimator. Owing to the relatively short length of the VSANS instrument (around 14 m), this effect remains weak, in good agreement with the predictions. With a prototype multibeam collimator, an incident wavelength of 0.9 nm and the detector located at 6 m from the sample, it is possible to access q values as low as 4 * 10{sup -3} nm{sup -1} with very high q resolution. Promising preliminary experiments with high q resolution are reported, which open up new fields to the SANS technique. (authors)

  12. Experimental analysis on the rapid measurement of a high precision Brillouin scattering spectrum in water using a Fabry-Pérot etalon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Fan, Qiming; Ma, Yong; Yao, Yuan; Li, Hao; Huang, Jun; Liang, Kun

    2016-05-01

    The Brillouin lidar system with a Fabry-Pérot (F-P) etalon has been widely used in remote sensing to study ocean characteristics such as temperature, sound speed, etc. In this system, the measurement error stemming from the spectral broadening of an F-P etalon was typically neglected in applications where high measurement accuracy was not essential. In this paper, an integration method on radius and a convolution method on frequency are proposed to remove the broadening effect and improve the measurement accuracy, respectively. Experiments of underwater Brillouin scattering show that both fitting methods effectively reduce the measurement error due to the transmission function of an F-P etalon. A temperature accuracy of 0.1 °C and a salinity accuracy of 0.5‰ were achieved. Moreover, with the convolution method, the computational cost was reduced to 3 s, which enables rapid measurement of Brillouin shift and linewidth and makes the on-line remote sensing applications possible.

  13. Peculiar effective elastic anisotropy of nanometric multilayers studied by surface Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurie, D.; Djemia, P.; Castelnau, O.; Brenner, R.; Belliard, L.; Le Bourhis, E.; Goudeau, Ph; Renault, P.-O.

    2015-12-01

    We show in this paper by using a two-scale transition model that the elastic anisotropy of a thin film specimen can be tuned by appropriate stacking design. The anisotropic behaviour is illustrated for two monophase thin films, namely W which is perfectly elastically isotropic and Au which is strongly elastically anisotropic, and for a nanometric W/Au multilayers. The experimental measurements show that the model capture the elastic anisotropy rather well even for a nanometric multilayer stacking (period of 12 nm) and that the elastic anisotropy of W/Au multilayer is more pronounced than the ones of the two components for a fraction of 50%. This enhanced anisotropy is discussed in view of the multilayer microstructure.

  14. Brillouin light scattering study of Co$_{2}$Cr$_{0.6}$Fe$_{0.4}$Al and Co$_{2}$FeAl Heusler compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Gaier, O.; Hamrle, J.; Trudel, S; Parra, A. Conca; Hillebrands, B.; Arbelo, E.; Herbort, C.; Jourdan, M

    2008-01-01

    The thermal magnonic spectra of Co$_{2}$Cr$_{0.6}$Fe$_{0.4}$Al (CCFA) and Co$_2$FeAl were investigated using Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy (BLS). For CCFA, the exchange constant A (exchange stiffness D) is found to be 0.48 $\\mu$erg/cm (203 meV A$^2$), while for Co$_2$FeAl the corresponding values of 1.55 $\\mu$erg/cm (370 meV A$^2$) were found. The observed asymmetry in the BLS spectra between the Stokes and anti-Stokes frequencies was assigned to an interplay between the asymmetrica...

  15. Relaxation phenomena in supercooled liquid and glassy acetaminophen studied by dielectric, photon correlation and Brillouin light scattering spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyun-Joung; Kim, Tae Hyun; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2013-01-01

    Relaxation phenomena and acoustic properties of acetaminophen in the glassy and supercooled liquid phase were studied by dielectric, photon correlation and Brillouin spectroscopies. Dielectric and photon correlation studies revealed the structural relaxation process while a new relaxation process was found by dielectric measurement in a much lower frequency range. The acoustic anomalies clearly indicated a glass transition at 293 K and some remnant localized motions in the glassy phase that contributed to the acoustic damping. Partial crystallization in the supercooled liquid phase was signified at temperatures above 318 K by drastic changes in the Brillouin spectrum and decrease in the dielectric strength.

  16. Highly Repetitive Laser Inertial fusion driver with Tiled Coherent Beam Combination Laser using Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Phase Conjugation Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In these days, the energy problem is serious in the world. It is necessary to develop a new source of the sustainable energy. In these sustainable energy sources, fusion energy is the most promised energy source. Especially, the laser inertial fusion energy is easy to maintain and easy to increase its scale. However, there are 3 hot problems to achieve the laser inertial fusion energy. To achieve the LIFE, it is necessary to develop 2.5 kJ/10 ns at 10 Hz laser. The Second problem is target injection with high repetition rate and high accuracy. We need to inject the fuel target to the centre of a chamber with accuracy to 20 μm after the fusion reaction. The third problem is the target window coating due to debris from the target implosion. The first and the second problems can be resolved simply by coherent beam combination laser using Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Phase Conjugation Mirrors (SBS-PCM). The 4-beam combination system is built to prove its feasibility to laser inertial fusion energy driver. The input energy of the each sub-beam is 1.032 ± 0.027 mJ, and the output energy of sub-beam is 402.3 ± 1.21 mJ. The standard deviations of the phase differences between the reference beam and other beams were measured to be less than λ/13, during 2,500 shots (250 s), and we will get it better than λ/20 soon. The coherent beam combination using SBS-PCM has additional advantages in LIFE reactor system. In the fusion reaction, target injection is one of the serious problems. The repetition rate of the target injection is ∼ 10 Hz, and the target speed is around 400 m/s. We need the accuracy of target position to 20 μm. Because of the turbulent flow after the prior fusion reaction, it is impossible to inject the target with the accuracy to more than 20 μm. This method can give the accuracy to less than 1 μm even when the turbulence exists in the reactor chamber. In this paper, the authors introduce the tiled coherent beam combining laser using SBS

  17. Correlation-based continuous-wave technique for optical fiber distributed strain measurement using Brillouin scattering (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotate, Kazuo

    2005-05-01

    We have been developing "fiber optic nerve systems" for "smart structures and smart materials", in which an optical fiber acts as sensor to measure distribution of strain along it. The original technology, "Brillouin Optical Correlation Domain Analysis: BOCDA" has been proposed and developed to analyze the distributed strain along the fiber by use of synthesis of correlation characteristics of continuous lightwave. Adopting this technology, "fiber optic nerve systems" with quite a high spatial resolution and measurement speed, have been established.

  18. Noise and dynamics in forward Brillouin interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kharel, Prashanta; Renninger, William; Rakich, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the spatio-temporal dynamics of spontaneous and stimulated forward Brillouin scattering. This general treatment incorporates the optomechanical coupling produced by boundary-induced radiation pressures (boundary motion) and material-induced electrostrictive forces (photo-elastic effects), permitting straightforward application to a range of emerging micro- and nano-scale optomechanical systems. Through a self-consistent fully coupled nonlinear treatment, developed within a general Hamiltonian framework, we establish the connection between the power spectral density of spontaneously scattered light in forward Brillouin interactions and the nonlinear coupling strength. We show that, in sharp contrast to backward Brillouin scattering, noise-initiated stimulated forward Brillouin scattering is forbidden in the majority of experimental systems. In fact, the single-pass gain, which characterizes the threshold for energy transfer in back-scattering processes, is negative for a large class o...

  19. High-average-power green laser using Nd:YAG amplifier with stimulated Brillouin scattering phase-conjugate pulse-cleaning mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubakimoto, Koji; Yoshida, Hidetsugu; Miyanaga, Noriaki

    2016-06-13

    We present a high-average-power green laser based on second harmonic conversion of a laser diode-pumped master oscillator Nd:YAG power amplifier system. The power amplifier chain includes a stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) cell that was used a phase-conjugate mirror to double-pass scheme. That suppresses the thermal phase distortion and compresses the pulse duration. The fundamental beam output power was 670 W with a pulse width of 7.9 ns. A second harmonic power of 335 W with a 4.8-ns pulse width and 80-mJ pulse energy was produced using a LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal. PMID:27410277

  20. Development of low-temperature and high-pressure Brillouin scattering spectroscopy and its application to the solid I form of hydrogen sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new experimental system has been developed for low-temperature and high-pressure Brillouin scattering measurements. The new system allows us to investigate the elastic properties of samples in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) down to liquid N2 temperature (∼ 80 K). In contrast to the case in our conventional technique, the optics in the system can be rotated for measuring the direction dependence of acoustic velocities of the samples in the DAC fixed in the cryostat. The new experimental technique was applied to the solid I form of hydrogen sulphide (H2S). As a result, three ratios of elastic constants to density were successfully determined at P = 3.70 GPa, T = 240 K: C11 /ρ = 16.4, C12 /ρ = 12.4, C44 /ρ = 7.57 x 106 m2 s-2. These values are almost the same as those obtained at room temperature

  1. Surface Brillouin scattering measurement of the elastic constants of single crystal InAs{sub 0.91}Sb{sub 0.09}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotane, L M; Comins, J D; Every, A G [Materials Physics Research Institute, School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Botha, J R, E-mail: Lesias.Kotane@wits.ac.z [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2011-01-01

    Surface Brillouin scattering of light has been used to measure the angular dependence of the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW), pseudo surface acoustic wave (PSAW) and longitudinal lateral wave (LLW) speeds in a (100)-oriented single crystal of the ternary semiconductor alloy InAs{sub 0.91}Sb{sub 0.09}. The wave speed measurements have been used to determine the room temperature values of the elastic constants C{sub 11}, C{sub 12} and C{sub 44} of the alloy. A simple and robust fitting procedure has been implemented for recovering the elastic constants, in which the merit function is constructed from explicit secular functions that determine the surface and lateral wave speeds in the [001] and [011] crystallographic directions. In the fitting, relatively larger weighting factors have been assigned to the SAW and PSAW data because of the greater precision with which the surface modes can be measured as compared with the lateral wave.

  2. Surface Brillouin scattering measurement of the elastic constants of single crystal InAs0.91Sb0.09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface Brillouin scattering of light has been used to measure the angular dependence of the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW), pseudo surface acoustic wave (PSAW) and longitudinal lateral wave (LLW) speeds in a (100)-oriented single crystal of the ternary semiconductor alloy InAs0.91Sb0.09. The wave speed measurements have been used to determine the room temperature values of the elastic constants C11, C12 and C44 of the alloy. A simple and robust fitting procedure has been implemented for recovering the elastic constants, in which the merit function is constructed from explicit secular functions that determine the surface and lateral wave speeds in the [001] and [011] crystallographic directions. In the fitting, relatively larger weighting factors have been assigned to the SAW and PSAW data because of the greater precision with which the surface modes can be measured as compared with the lateral wave.

  3. Brillouin light scattering study of Co2Cr0.6Fe0.4Al and Co2FeAl Heusler compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal magnonic spectra of Co2Cr0.6Fe0.4Al (CCFA) and Co2FeAl were investigated using Brillouin light scattering (BLS) spectroscopy. For CCFA, the exchange constant A (exchange stiffness D) is found to be 0.48 ± 0.04 μerg cm-1 (203 ± 16 meV A2), while for Co2FeAl the corresponding values of 1.55 ± 0.05 μerg cm-1 (370 ± 10 meV A2) were found. The observed asymmetry in the BLS spectra between the Stokes and anti-Stokes frequencies was assigned to an interplay between the asymmetrical profiles of hybridized Damon-Esbach and perpendicular standing spin-wave modes, combined with the optical sensitivity of the BLS signal to the upper side of the CCFA or Co2FeAl film.

  4. Brillouin Cooling in a Linear Waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yin-Chung; Bahl, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Brillouin scattering is rarely considered as a mechanism that can cause cooling of a material due to the thermodynamic dominance of Stokes scattering in most practical systems. However, it has been shown in experiments on resonators that net phonon annihilation through anti-Stokes Brillouin scattering can be enabled by means of a suitable set of optical and acoustic states. The cooling of traveling phonons in a linear waveguide, on the other hand, could lead to the exciting future prospect of manipulating unidirectional heat fluxes and even the nonreciprocal transport of quantum information via phonons. In this work, we present the first analysis of the conditions under which Brillouin cooling may be achieved in a linear waveguide. We analyze the three-wave mixing interaction between the optical and acoustic modes that participate in forward Brillouin scattering, and reveal the key regimes of operation for the process. Our calculations indicate that measurable cooling may occur in state-of-the-art systems whe...

  5. SELECTION OF BRILLOUIN SHIFT DISCRIMINATOR FOR BRILLOUIN LIDAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴东; 刘智深

    2002-01-01

    For the measurement of vertical profiles of sound speed in the sea using laser excited Brillouin scattering, a high-resolution measurement of Brillouin frequency shift is required. In this work, a molecular absorption cell was selec ted as the frequency shift discriminator and several kinds of absorption gases were tri ed. It was found that the strong line (#1095) of 127I2 at 18783.3297 cm-1 and two absorption lines of 129I2 located at the two sides of the #1095 line of 127 I2 could be used as frequency shift discriminator to detect the changes of the Brillouin frequency s hift. This selection is the best one within the range from 532.0131 nm to 532.5154 nm. But it is not perfect and there is a lot of work to do before its practical application.

  6. SELECTION OF BRILLOUIN SHIFT DISCRIMINATOR FOR BRILLOUIN LIDAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴东; 刘智深

    2002-01-01

    For the measurement of vertical profiles of sound speed in the sea using laser excited Brillouin scattering, a high-resolution measurement of Brillouin frequency shift is required. In this work, a molecular absorption cell was selected as the frequency shift discriminator and several kinds of absorption gases were tried. It was found that the strong line ( # 1095) of 127 I2 at 18783. 3297 cm-1 and two absorption lines of 129 I2 located at the two sides of the # 1095 line of 127 I2 could be used as frequency shift discriminator to detect the changes of the Brillouin frequency shift. This selection is the best one within the range from 532.0131 run to 532.5154 nm. But it is not perfect and there is a lot of work to do before its practical application.

  7. Noise and dynamics in forward Brillouin interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharel, P.; Behunin, R. O.; Renninger, W. H.; Rakich, P. T.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of spontaneous and stimulated forward Brillouin scattering. This general treatment incorporates the optomechanical coupling produced by boundary-induced radiation pressures (boundary motion) and material-induced electrostrictive forces (photoelastic effects), permitting straightforward application to a range of emerging micro- and nanoscale optomechanical systems. Through a self-consistent fully coupled nonlinear treatment, developed within a general Hamiltonian framework, we establish the connection between the power spectral density of spontaneously scattered light in forward Brillouin interactions and the nonlinear coupling strength. We show that, in sharp contrast to backward Brillouin scattering, noise-initiated stimulated forward Brillouin scattering is forbidden in the majority of experimental systems. In fact, the single-pass gain, which characterizes the threshold for energy transfer in back-scattering processes, is negative for a large class of forward Brillouin devices. Beyond this frequent experimental case, we explore mechanisms for dispersive symmetry breaking that lead to amplification and dynamics reminiscent of backward Brillouin scattering.

  8. An unusual pulse compression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in water%水中受激布里渊散射脉冲的反常压缩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 李金增

    2014-01-01

    受激布里渊散射(SBS)具有脉冲压缩的特性,受激布里渊散射的脉冲宽度随着抽运能量的增大而变小,在水中可以达到几百皮秒的量级。本文在实验上观察到一种受激布里渊散射的脉冲宽度随抽运能量增大而变大的现象,这里称之为反常压缩。 SBS的脉冲反常压缩和脉冲压缩与抽运光的强弱会聚情况有关。利用数值模拟,模拟了强弱会聚情况下抽运光在水中的传输规律,强弱会聚情况的抽运光对受激布里渊散射形成的有效增益长度不同:抽运光强会聚时有效增益长度短,形成SBS脉冲宽度的反常压缩;弱会聚时有效增益长度长,也就是正常的SBS脉冲压缩。%Pulse compression is an important property of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), and the SBS pulse duration becomes smaller with the increase of pump energy. An unusual pulse compression was investigated of the stimulated Brillouin scattering in water, it was found that the SBS pulse duration becomes larger as the pump energy increases. The pulse duration of SBS alters differently with the change of pump energy in strong focusing and weak focusing. Numerical simulation of pump light transmission in water cell has been made to explain the unusual pulse compression phenomena. Different real gain lengths in strong and weak focusing make different SBS pulse compression.

  9. Current trends in laser fusion driver and beam combination laser systems using stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirrors for a fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser facilities in the world have been developing flash-lamp-pumped ultrahigh-energy solid-state lasers for fusion research and high-repetition diode-pumped solid-state lasers to act as commercial fusion drivers. A commercial laser fusion driver requires a high-energy beam with a total energy of several megajoules per pulse in several nanoseconds with a ∼10-Hz repetition rate. However, current laser technologies have limitations in raising the beam energy when operating with a high repetition rate, which is necessary for a commercial fusion driver to function properly. The beam combination laser system, which that uses stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirrors, is a promising candidate for a fusion driver because it can obtain both a high energy and a high repetition rate with separate amplifications. For the realization of the beam combination laser system, a self-phase control technique was proposed for the coherent beam combined output, and its principle was demonstrated experimentally.

  10. Development of low-temperature and high-pressure Brillouin scattering spectroscopy and its application to the solid I form of hydrogen sulphide

    CERN Document Server

    Murase, S; Sasaki, S; Kume, T; Shimizu, H

    2002-01-01

    A new experimental system has been developed for low-temperature and high-pressure Brillouin scattering measurements. The new system allows us to investigate the elastic properties of samples in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) down to liquid N sub 2 temperature (approx 80 K). In contrast to the case in our conventional technique, the optics in the system can be rotated for measuring the direction dependence of acoustic velocities of the samples in the DAC fixed in the cryostat. The new experimental technique was applied to the solid I form of hydrogen sulphide (H sub 2 S). As a result, three ratios of elastic constants to density were successfully determined at P = 3.70 GPa, T = 240 K: C sub 1 sub 1 /rho = 16.4, C sub 1 sub 2 /rho = 12.4, C sub 4 sub 4 /rho = 7.57 x 10 sup 6 m sup 2 s sup - sup 2. These values are almost the same as those obtained at room temperature.

  11. Multi-dimensional dynamics of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a laser speckle: Ion acoustic wave bowing, breakup, and laser-seeded two-ion-wave decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, B. J.; Yin, L.; Bowers, K. J.; Bergen, B.

    2016-03-01

    Two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in laser speckle geometry have been analyzed to evaluate the relative importance of competing nonlinear processes in the evolution and saturation of SBS. It is found that ion-trapping-induced wavefront bowing and breakup of ion acoustic waves (IAW) and the associated side-loss of trapped ions dominate electron-trapping-induced IAW wavefront bowing and breakup, as well as the two-ion-wave decay instability over a range of Z Te/Ti conditions and incident laser intensities. In the simulations, the latter instability does not govern the nonlinear saturation of SBS; however, evidence of two-ion-wave decay is seen, appearing as a modulation of the ion acoustic wavefronts. This modulation is periodic in the laser polarization plane, anti-symmetric across the speckle axis, and of a wavenumber matching that of the incident laser pulse. A simple analytic model is provided for how spatial "imprinting" from a high frequency inhomogeneity (in this case, the density modulation from the laser) in an unstable system with continuum eigenmodes can selectively amplify modes with wavenumbers that match that of the inhomogeneity.

  12. Mechanical spectra of glass-forming liquids. II. Gigahertz-frequency longitudinal and shear acoustic dynamics in glycerol and DC704 studied by time-domain Brillouin scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieber, Christoph; Hecksher, Tina; Pezeril, Thomas; Torchinsky, Darius H; Dyre, Jeppe C; Nelson, Keith A

    2013-03-28

    This paper presents and discusses the temperature and frequency dependence of the longitudinal and shear viscoelastic response at MHz and GHz frequencies of the intermediate glass former glycerol and the fragile glass former tetramethyl-tetraphenyl-trisiloxane (DC704). Measurements were performed using the recently developed time-domain Brillouin scattering technique, in which acoustic waves are generated optically, propagated through nm thin liquid layers of different thicknesses, and detected optically after transmission into a transparent detection substrate. This allows for a determination of the frequency dependence of the speed of sound and the sound-wave attenuation. When the data are converted into mechanical moduli, a linear relationship between longitudinal and shear acoustic moduli is revealed, which is consistent with the generalized Cauchy relation. In glycerol, the temperature dependence of the shear acoustic relaxation time agrees well with literature data for dielectric measurements. In DC704, combining the new data with data from measurements obtained previously by piezo-ceramic transducers yields figures showing the longitudinal and shear sound velocities at frequencies from mHz to GHz over an extended range of temperatures. The shoving model's prediction for the relaxation time's temperature dependence is fairly well obeyed for both liquids as demonstrated from a plot with no adjustable parameters. Finally, we show that for both liquids the instantaneous shear modulus follows an exponential temperature dependence to a good approximation, as predicted by Granato's interstitialcy model. PMID:23556795

  13. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering and Biophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Katrin

    2001-03-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a phenomenon resulting in strongly increased Raman signals from molecules which have been attached to metallic nanostructures such as colloidal silver or gold particles. The effect combines the structural information content of a vibrational spectroscopy with extremely high sensitivity and in some cases, it showes promise in overcoming the low-sensitivity problems inherent in Raman spectroscopy. Cross sections effective in SERS can reach 10 16 to 10 15 cm2 per molecule corresponding to enhancement factors of about fourteen orders of magnitude compared with “normal” non-resonant Raman scattering. Such extremely large cross sections are sufficient for single molecule Raman spectroscopy. The high sensitivity and particularly the single molecule capabilities open up exciting perspectives for SERS as tool for basic research in biophysics, biochemistry and in laboratory medicine, where it allows to study extremely small amounts of biolomedically relevant molecules in order to understand development of diseases, treatment and therapy control based on molecular structural information at the single molecule level. The most spectacular applications might appear in rapidly spectroscopic characterization of specific DNA fragments down to structurally sensitive detection of single bases in order to elucidate the human genome sequence without any labeling technology. I will briefly introduce the SERS effect and report experiments with Raman scattering of single molecules. Potential and limitations of surface-enhanced Raman techniques as a tool in biophysics and biomedical spectroscopy will be considered.

  14. Tip enhanced Raman scattering: plasmonic enhancements for nanoscale chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Zachary D.; Marr, James M.; Wang, Hao

    2014-04-01

    Tip enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) is an emerging technique that uses a metalized scanning probe microscope tip to spatially localize electric fields that enhances Raman scattering enabling chemical imaging on nanometer dimensions. Arising from the same principles as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), TERS offers unique advantages associated with controling the size, shape, and location of the enhancing nanostructure. In this article we discuss the correlations between current understanding of SERS and how this relates to TERS, as well as how TERS provides new understanding and insights. The relationship between plasmon resonances and Raman enhancements is emphasized as the key to obtaining optimal TERS results. Applications of TERS, including chemical analysis of carbon nanotubes, organic molecules, inorganic crystals, nucleic acids, proteins, cells and organisms, are used to illustrate the information that can be gained. Under ideal conditions TERS is capable of single molecule sensitivity and sub-nanometer spatial resolution. The ability to control plasmonic enhancements for chemical analysis suggests new experiments and opportunities to understand molecular composition and interactions on the nanoscale.

  15. Stimulated Brillouin side-scattering of the beat wave excited by two counter-propagating X-mode lasers in magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Kanika; Sajal, Vivek, E-mail: vsajal@rediffmail.com; Kumar, Ravindra; Sharma, Navneet K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida 201307, Uttar Pradesh (India); Baliyan, Sweta [Department of Physics, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110021 (India)

    2015-06-15

    The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) of nonresonant beat mode in the presence of static magnetic field is investigated in a plasma. Two counter-propagating lasers of frequencies (ω{sub 1} and ω{sub 2}) and wave vectors (k{sub 1} and k{sub 2}) drive a nonresonant space charge beat mode at the phase matching condition of frequency ω{sub 0}≈ω{sub 1}∼ω{sub 2} and wave number k{sup →}{sub 0}≈k{sup →}{sub 1}+k{sup →}{sub 2}. The driver wave parametrically excites a pair of ion acoustic wave (ω,k{sup →}) and a sideband electromagnetic wave (ω{sub 3},k{sup →}{sub 3}). The beat wave couples with the sideband electromagnetic wave to exert a nonlinear ponderomotive force at the frequency of ion acoustic wave. Density perturbations due to ion acoustic wave and ponderomotive force couple with the oscillatory motion of plasma electron due to velocity of beat wave to give rise to a nonlinear current (by feedback mechanism) responsible for the growth of sideband wave at resonance. The growth rate of SBS was reduced (from ∼10{sup 12}s{sup −1} to 10{sup 10}s{sup −1}) by applying a transverse static magnetic field ∼90 T. The present study can be useful for the excitation of fast plasma waves (for the purpose of electron acceleration) by two counter-propagating laser beams.

  16. Experimental investigation of the stimulated Brillouin scattering growth and saturation at 526 and 351 nm for direct drive and shock ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depierreux, S.; Loiseau, P.; Tassin, V.; Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Goyon, C. [CEA DAM DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Michel, D. T.; Yahia, V. [CEA DAM DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Stenz, C. [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351 cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence cedex (France); Labaune, C. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2012-01-15

    We have designed experiments to study the effect of the laser wavelength (0.527 versus 0.351 {mu}m) on the coupling efficiency in plasma conditions relevant to compression and shock ignition (SI) schemes in different intensity regimes. A difficult issue was to produce interaction conditions that are equivalent for the two wavelengths. This was obtained by using plasma preformed from a solid target with a plasma-preforming beam at the same wavelength as the interaction beam. This produced an almost exponential density profile from vacuum to the critical density of the interaction beam in which all interaction mechanisms are taken into account. The growth and saturation of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) have been measured at the two wavelengths, in backward as well as in near-backward directions. We have found that the SBS intensity threshold is {approx}1.5 times higher at 3{omega} than at 2{omega} in agreement with the I{lambda} dependence of the SBS gain. The SBS behaviour is very well reproduced by the linear calculations of the postprocessor PIRANAH, giving us confidence that we have a good control of the relevance of the experimental conditions for the study of the laser wavelength effect on laser-plasma coupling. When SBS reaches the saturation regime, same levels of reflectivity are measured at 2 and 3{omega}. Numerical simulations were performed with the paraxial code HERA to study the contribution of the fluid mechanisms in the saturation of SBS, showing that pump depletion and interplay with filamentation are likely to be the most important processes in SBS saturation for these conditions. This scenario also applies to the SBS of shock ignition high-intensity beams.

  17. Stimulated Brillouin processes in crystals and glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic physics and material properties needed to describe and predict the Brillouin gain for a variety of materials have been investigated. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has identified transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) as an important limiting mechanism in high power laser fusion systems. At sufficiently high laser intensities, SBS drives acoustic vibrations that can damage optical components. SRI has performed measurements and developed the corresponding theory for stimulated Brillouin gain spectroscopy in anisotropic crystals. Absolute Brillouin steady-state gain coefficients, linewidths, and frequency shifts have been determined at 532 nm for a number of optical materials of interest to LLNL. This knowledge can be used to select optical materials and devise suppression schemes that will allow much higher laser fluences to be used in laser fusion

  18. Cascaded Brillouin lasing in monolithic barium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the observation of stimulated Brillouin scattering and lasing at 1550 nm in barium fluoride (BaF2) crystal. Brillouin lasing was achieved with ultra-high quality (Q) factor monolithic whispering gallery mode mm-size disk resonators. Overmoded resonators were specifically used to provide cavity resonances for both the pump and all Brillouin Stokes waves. Single and multiple Brillouin Stokes radiations with frequency shift ranging from 8.2 GHz up to 49 GHz have been generated through cascaded Brillouin lasing. BaF2 resonator-based Brillouin lasing can find potential applications for high-coherence lasers and microwave photonics

  19. Cascaded Brillouin lasing in monolithic barium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Guoping; Saleh, Khaldoun; Martinenghi, Romain; Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Sylvestre, Thibaut; Chembo, Yanne K

    2015-01-01

    We report the observation of stimulated Brillouin scattering and lasing at 1550~nm in barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) crystal. Brillouin lasing was achieved with ultra-high quality ($Q$) factor monolithic whispering gallery mode (WGM) mm-size disk resonators. Overmoded resonators were specifically used to provide cavity resonances for both the pump and all Brillouin Stokes waves. Single and multiple Brillouin Stokes radiations with frequency shift ranging from $8.2$ GHz up to $49$ GHz have been generated through cascaded Brillouin lasing. BaF$_2$ resonator-based Brillouin lasing can find potential applications for high-coherence lasers and microwave photonics.

  20. Cascaded Brillouin lasing in monolithic barium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Guoping; Diallo, Souleymane; Saleh, Khaldoun; Martinenghi, Romain; Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Sylvestre, Thibaut; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2015-01-01

    We report the observation of stimulated Brillouin scattering and lasing at 1550~nm in barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) crystal. Brillouin lasing was achieved with ultra-high quality ($Q$) factor monolithic whispering gallery mode (WGM) mm-size disk resonators. Overmoded resonators were specifically used to provide cavity resonances for both the pump and all Brillouin Stokes waves. Single and multiple Brillouin Stokes radiations with frequency shift ranging from $8.2$ GHz up to $49$ GHz have been gen...

  1. Effects of electric field on acoustic properties of 0.83Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) -0.17PbTiO3 single crystals studied by Brillouin light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Kojima, Seiji

    2013-03-01

    Relaxor-based ferroelectric Pb[(Mg1/3Nb2/3)1-x Tix]O3 (PMN-xPT) single crystals have attracted great attention because of their exceptionally strong piezoelectric properties. This peculiar characteristic was attributed to the rotation of polarization directions and structural complexity. In this study, the phase transition behaviors of PMN-17PT single crystals have been investigated under an electric field applied along [001] by micro-Brillouin scattering. PMN-17PT single crystals were grown by the modified Bridgeman method. The two (001) surfaces were Au-coated to apply the electric field, and the coating was thin enough to allow the incident beam to transmit without much loss. The electric field of different values was applied to the sample along the [001] direction, and the Brillouin scattering spectrum was measured under both field-heating (FH) and field-cooling (FC) conditions. The electric field of 1kV/cm induced a new longitudinal acoustic (LA) mode component along with a broad Brillouin peak evolving continuously from the paraelectric phase during both FC and FH processes. This was attributed to the remnant polar nanoregions that were not aligned under the electric field due to quenched random fields. However, the splitting of the LA mode did not appear when the electric field was over 2kV/cm indicating a clear structural phase transition. This research was supported in part by the Marubun Research Promotion Foundation and Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0010497).

  2. Spatially resolved Brillouin spectroscopy to determine the rheological properties of the eye lens

    OpenAIRE

    Reiß, Stephan; Burau, Gerolf; Stachs, Oliver; Guthoff, Rudolf; Stolz, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    Presbyopia is closely associated with the loss of accommodation, and hence with a decline in the viscoelastic properties of the human eye lens. In this article we describe a method for obtaining spatially resolved in vivo measurements of the rheological properties of the eye lens, based on the spectroscopic analysis of spontaneous Brillouin scattering using a virtually imaged phased array (VIPA). The multi-pass configuration enhances resolution to the extent that measurements are possible in ...

  3. Nanopillars array for surface enhanced Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.P. Chang, A; Bora, M; Nguyen, H T; Behymer, E M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Carter, J C; Bond, T C

    2011-04-14

    The authors present a new class of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. Two types of nanopillars within this class are discussed: vertical pillars and tapered pillars. For the vertical pillars, the gap between each pair of nanopillars is small enough (< 50 nm) such that highly confined plasmonic cavity resonances are supported between the pillars when light is incident upon them, and the anti-nodes of these resonances act as three-dimensional hotspots for SERS. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of 1,2 bis-(4-pyridyl)-ethylene (BPE), benzenethiol (BT) monolayer and toluene vapor. The results show that SERS enhancement factor of over 0.5 x 10{sup 9} can be achieved, and BPE can be detected down to femto-molar concentration level. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors such as volatile organic compounds.

  4. Dynamic stimulated Brillouin scattering analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djupsöbacka, A.; Jacobsen, Gunnar; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2000-01-01

    We present a new simple analysis - including the effect of spontaneous emission - of the (dynamic) influence of SBS on the detected receiver eye diagram. It applies in principle for general types of modulation formats such as the digital formats of ASK, FSK, and PSK. The analysis is formulated fo...

  5. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Stimulated-Brillouin-scattering compression of pulses from an Nd : YAG laser with a short cavity and measurement of the nonradiative relaxation time of the lower active level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzelis, R.; Dementjev, Aleksandr S.; Kosenko, E. K.; Murauskas, E.

    1995-06-01

    A short (~11 cm) cavity of an Nd : YAG laser was Q-switched by LiF : \\mathrm F^-_2 and GSGG : Cr3+ : Cr4+ : Nd3+ crystals. This resulted in stable generation of short (~2.5 ns) pulses with energies in excess of 6 mJ. Pulses with ~300 and ~150 mJ energies for the first and second harmonics, respectively, and of ~100 ps duration were obtained at the output of a stimulated-Brillouin-scattering compressor and a three-pass Nd : YAG amplifier. A study of the gain recovery after passage of a short saturating pulse through the active element yielded the upper limit (1 ns) of the nonradiative relaxation time of the 4I11/2 lower active level of the neodymium ion.

  6. Scattering Suppression and Absorption Enhancement in Contour Nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    Onal, E Doruk

    2015-01-01

    The expanding application spectrum of plasmonic nanoantennas demand versatile design approaches to tailor the antenna properties for specific requirements. The design efforts primarily concentrate on shifting the operation wavelength or enhancing the local fields by manipulating the size and shape of the nanoantenna. Here, we propose a design path to control the absorption and scattering characteristics of a dipole nanoantenna by introducing a hollow region inside the nanostructure. The resulting contour geometry can significantly suppress the scattering of the dipole nanoantenna and enhance its absorption simultaneously. Both the dipole and the contour dipole nanoantenna couple to equivalent amount of the incident radiation. The dipole nanoantenna scatters 84% of the coupled power (absorbs the remaining 16%) whereas the contour dipole structure scatters only 28% of the coupled power (absorbs the remaining 72%). This constitutes the transformation from scatter to absorber nanoantenna. The scattering of a cont...

  7. Variable delay using stationary and localized Brillouin dynamic gratings

    OpenAIRE

    Antman, Yair; Primerov, Nikolay; Sancho Dura, Juan; Thévenaz, Luc; Zadok, Avinoam

    2012-01-01

    Reflections from movable, dynamic acoustic gratings in polarization maintaining (PM) fibers are employed in the long variable delay of periodic, isolated pulses. The gratings are introduced by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) interaction between two counter-propagating pump waves, which are spectrally detuned by the Brillouin frequency shift of the PM fiber and are both polarized along one of its principal axes. The gratings are interrogated by the reflections of read-out signals that ar...

  8. Enhanced ionized impurity scattering in nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jung Hyun; Lee, Seok-Hee; Shin, Mincheol

    2013-06-01

    The electronic resistivity in silicon nanowires is investigated by taking into account scattering as well as the donor deactivation from the dielectric mismatch. The effects of poorly screened dopant atoms from the dielectric mismatch and variable carrier density in nanowires are found to play a crucial role in determining the nanowire resistivity. Using Green's function method within the self-consistent Born approximation, it is shown that donor deactivation and ionized impurity scattering combined with the charged interface traps successfully to explain the increase in the resistivity of Si nanowires while reducing the radius, measured by Björk et al. [Nature Nanotech. 4, 103 (2009)].

  9. Resonant Raman Scattering from Silicon Nanoparticles Enhanced by Magnetic Response

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, Pavel A; Milichko, Valentin A; Makarov, Sergey V; Mukhin, Ivan S; Samusev, Anton K; Krasnok, Alexander E; Belov, Pavel A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of optical response with high-index dielectric nanoparticles is attributed to the excitation of their Mie-type magnetic and electric resonances. Here we study Raman scattering from crystalline silicon nanoparticles and reveal that magnetic dipole modes have much stronger effect on the scattering than electric modes of the same order. We demonstrate experimentally a 140-fold enhancement of Raman signal from individual silicon spherical nanoparticles at the magnetic dipole resonance. Our results confirm the importance of the optically-induced magnetic response of subwavelength dielectric nanoparticles for enhancing light-matter interactions.

  10. Resonant Raman scattering from silicon nanoparticles enhanced by magnetic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Pavel A; Baranov, Denis G; Milichko, Valentin A; Makarov, Sergey V; Mukhin, Ivan S; Samusev, Anton K; Krasnok, Alexander E; Belov, Pavel A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2016-05-01

    Enhancement of optical response with high-index dielectric nanoparticles is attributed to the excitation of their Mie-type magnetic and electric resonances. Here we study Raman scattering from crystalline silicon nanoparticles and reveal that magnetic dipole modes have a much stronger effect on the scattering than electric modes of the same order. We demonstrate experimentally a 140-fold enhancement of the Raman signal from individual silicon spherical nanoparticles at the magnetic dipole resonance. Our results confirm the importance of the optically-induced magnetic response of subwavelength dielectric nanoparticles for enhancing light-matter interactions. PMID:27113352

  11. Optical Torque from Enhanced Scattering by Multipolar Plasmonic Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Yoonkyung E; Jin, Dafei; Fang, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the optical angular momentum transfer from a circularly polarized plane wave to thin metal nanoparticles of different rotational symmetries. While absorption has been regarded as the predominant mechanism of torque generation on the nanoscale, we demonstrate numerically how the contribution from scattering can be enhanced by using multipolar plasmon resonance. The multipolar modes in non-circular particles can convert the angular momentum carried by the scattered field, thereby producing scattering-dominant optical torque, while a circularly symmetric particle cannot. Our results show that the optical torque induced by resonant scattering can contribute to 80% of the total optical torque in gold particles. This scattering-dominant torque generation is extremely mode-specific, and deserves to be distinguished from the absorption-dominant mechanism. Our findings might have applications in optical manipulation on the nanoscale as well as new designs in plasmonics and metamateria...

  12. Resonantly enhanced Bragg-scattering spectroscopy of an atomic transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xudong; Qiao, Cuifang; Li, Chuanliang; Chen, Fenghua

    2016-07-01

    A novel resonantly enhanced Bragg-scattering (REBS) spectroscopy from a population difference grating (PDG) is reported. The PDG is formed by a standing-wave (SW) pump field, which periodically modulates the space population distributions of two levels in the 87Rb D1 line. Then, a probe beam, having identical frequency and orthogonal polarization with the SW pump field, is Bragg-scattered by the PDG. The research achievement shows that the Bragg-scattered light is strongest at an atomic transition, and forms an REBS spectrum with a high signal-to-noise ratio and sub-natural linewidth. The observed REBS can be applied in precise frequency measurements.

  13. Resonant Raman scattering from silicon nanoparticles enhanced by magnetic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Pavel A.; Baranov, Denis G.; Milichko, Valentin A.; Makarov, Sergey V.; Mukhin, Ivan S.; Samusev, Anton K.; Krasnok, Alexander E.; Belov, Pavel A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2016-05-01

    Enhancement of optical response with high-index dielectric nanoparticles is attributed to the excitation of their Mie-type magnetic and electric resonances. Here we study Raman scattering from crystalline silicon nanoparticles and reveal that magnetic dipole modes have a much stronger effect on the scattering than electric modes of the same order. We demonstrate experimentally a 140-fold enhancement of the Raman signal from individual silicon spherical nanoparticles at the magnetic dipole resonance. Our results confirm the importance of the optically-induced magnetic response of subwavelength dielectric nanoparticles for enhancing light-matter interactions.Enhancement of optical response with high-index dielectric nanoparticles is attributed to the excitation of their Mie-type magnetic and electric resonances. Here we study Raman scattering from crystalline silicon nanoparticles and reveal that magnetic dipole modes have a much stronger effect on the scattering than electric modes of the same order. We demonstrate experimentally a 140-fold enhancement of the Raman signal from individual silicon spherical nanoparticles at the magnetic dipole resonance. Our results confirm the importance of the optically-induced magnetic response of subwavelength dielectric nanoparticles for enhancing light-matter interactions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07965a

  14. UV Irradiance Enhancements by Scattering of Solar Radiation from Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Feister

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Scattering of solar radiation by clouds can reduce or enhance solar global irradiance compared to cloudless-sky irradiance at the Earth’s surface. Cloud effects to global irradiance can be described by Cloud Modification Factors (CMF. Depending on strength and duration, irradiance enhancements affect the energy balance of the surface and gain of solar power for electric energy generation. In the ultraviolet region, they increase the risk for damage to living organisms. Wavelength-dependent CMFs have been shown to reach 1.5 even in the UV-B region at low altitudes. Ground-based solar radiation measurements in the high Andes region at altitudes up to 5917 m a.s.l showed cloud-induced irradiance enhancements. While UV-A enhancements were explained by cloud scattering, both radiation scattering from clouds and Negative Ozone Anomalies (NOA have been discussed to have caused short-time enhancement of UV-B irradiance. Based on scenarios using published CMF and additional spectroradiometric measurements at a low-altitude site, the contribution of cloud scattering to the UV-B irradiance enhancement in the Andes region has been estimated. The range of UV index estimates converted from measured UV-B and UV-A irradiance and modeled cloudless-sky ratios UV-B/erythemal UV is compatible with an earlier estimate of an extreme UV index value of 43 derived for the high Andes.

  15. Enhanced noise and Raman scattering in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of Raman scattering from laser-produced plasma have shown a number of puzzling features. These can be explained by assuming the presence of a bump-on-tail electron distribution created by pulses of fast electrons arising from instabilities at the critical (n/sub c/) or the quarter-critical (n/sub c//4) surface. Experiments using thin foils, in which the target density drops below n/sub c/ and even n/sub c//4 early in the laser pulse, have continued to show the same agreement as is seen for thick targets between the observed Raman spectrum and the predictions of this theory. This raises the issue of the time scale on which such directed pulses of fast electrons can continue to exist in the plasma after their source at n/sub c/ or n/sub c//4 disappears. We show that the classical degradation process is quite slow (of the order of 100 ps or more). Collective processes would appear to broaden and flatten the beam on a faster time scale. However, inclusion of finite spatial size strongly reduces the effect. Furthermore, we will show that broadening of the beam has little effect on the predicted spectrum

  16. Brillouin light scattering study of Co{sub 2}Cr{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.4}Al and Co{sub 2}FeAl Heusler compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaier, O; Hamrle, J; Trudel, S; Conca Parra, A; Hillebrands, B [Fachbereich Physik and Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse 56, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Arbelo, E; Herbort, C; Jourdan, M, E-mail: gaier@physik.uni-kl.d [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2009-04-21

    The thermal magnonic spectra of Co{sub 2}Cr{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.4}Al (CCFA) and Co{sub 2}FeAl were investigated using Brillouin light scattering (BLS) spectroscopy. For CCFA, the exchange constant A (exchange stiffness D) is found to be 0.48 {+-} 0.04 {mu}erg cm{sup -1} (203 {+-} 16 meV A{sup 2}), while for Co{sub 2}FeAl the corresponding values of 1.55 {+-} 0.05 {mu}erg cm{sup -1} (370 {+-} 10 meV A{sup 2}) were found. The observed asymmetry in the BLS spectra between the Stokes and anti-Stokes frequencies was assigned to an interplay between the asymmetrical profiles of hybridized Damon-Esbach and perpendicular standing spin-wave modes, combined with the optical sensitivity of the BLS signal to the upper side of the CCFA or Co{sub 2}FeAl film.

  17. High-extinction virtually imaged phased array-based Brillouin spectroscopy of turbid biological media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Antonio; Zhang, Jitao; Shao, Peng; Yun, Seok Hyun; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2016-05-01

    Brillouin microscopy has recently emerged as a powerful technique to characterize the mechanical properties of biological tissue, cell, and biomaterials. However, the potential of Brillouin microscopy is currently limited to transparent samples, because Brillouin spectrometers do not have sufficient spectral extinction to reject the predominant non-Brillouin scattered light of turbid media. To overcome this issue, we combined a multi-pass Fabry-Perot interferometer with a two-stage virtually imaged phased array spectrometer. The Fabry-Perot etalon acts as an ultra-narrow band-pass filter for Brillouin light with high spectral extinction and low loss. We report background-free Brillouin spectra from Intralipid solutions and up to 100 μm deep within chicken muscle tissue.

  18. High-extinction VIPA-based Brillouin spectroscopy of turbid biological media

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, Antonio; Shao, Peng; Yun, Seok Hyun; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Brillouin microscopy has recently emerged as powerful technique to characterize the mechanical properties of biological tissue, cell and biomaterials. However, the potential of Brillouin microscopy is currently limited to transparent samples, because Brillouin spectrometers do not have sufficient spectral extinction to reject the predominant non-Brillouin scattered light of turbid media. To overcome this issue, we developed a spectrometer composed of a two VIPA stages and a multi-pass Fabry-Perot interferometer. The Fabry-Perot etalon acts as an ultra-narrow band-pass filter for Brillouin light with high spectral extinction and low loss. We report background-free Brillouin spectra from Intralipid solutions and up to 100 microns deep within chicken muscle tissue.

  19. Cascaded Brillouin lasing in monolithic barium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guoping, E-mail: guoping.lin@femto-st.fr; Diallo, Souleymane; Saleh, Khaldoun; Martinenghi, Romain; Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Sylvestre, Thibaut; Chembo, Yanne K. [Optics Department, FEMTO-ST Institute (CNRS UMR6174), 25030 Besançon (France)

    2014-12-08

    We report the observation of stimulated Brillouin scattering and lasing at 1550 nm in barium fluoride (BaF{sub 2}) crystal. Brillouin lasing was achieved with ultra-high quality (Q) factor monolithic whispering gallery mode mm-size disk resonators. Overmoded resonators were specifically used to provide cavity resonances for both the pump and all Brillouin Stokes waves. Single and multiple Brillouin Stokes radiations with frequency shift ranging from 8.2 GHz up to 49 GHz have been generated through cascaded Brillouin lasing. BaF{sub 2} resonator-based Brillouin lasing can find potential applications for high-coherence lasers and microwave photonics.

  20. Graphene-Enhanced Raman Scattering from the Adenine Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgov, Leonid; Pidhirnyi, Denys; Dovbeshko, Galyna; Lebedieva, Tetiana; Kiisk, Valter; Heinsalu, Siim; Lange, Sven; Jaaniso, Raivo; Sildos, Ilmo

    2016-12-01

    An enhanced Raman scattering from a thin layer of adenine molecules deposited on graphene substrate was detected. The value of enhancement depends on the photon energy of the exciting light. The benzene ring in the structure of adenine molecule suggests π-stacking of adenine molecule on top of graphene. So, it is proposed that the enhancement in the adenine Raman signal is explained by the resonance electron transfer from the Fermi level of graphene to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of adenine. PMID:27075339

  1. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Physics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kneipp, Katrin; Kneipp, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Almost 30 years after the first reports on surface-enhanced Raman signals, the phenomenon of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is now well established. Yet, explaining the enhancement of a spectroscopic signal by fouteen orders of magnitude continues to attract the attention of physicists and chemists alike. And, at the same time and rapidly growing, SERS is becoming a very useful spectroscopic tool with exciting applications in many fields. SERS gained particular interest after single-molecule Raman spectroscopy had been demonstrated. This bookl summarizes and discusses present theoretical approaches that explain the phenomenon of SERS and reports on new and exciting experiments and applications of the fascinating spectroscopic effect.

  2. Graphene-Enhanced Raman Scattering from the Adenine Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgov, Leonid; Pidhirnyi, Denys; Dovbeshko, Galyna; Lebedieva, Tetiana; Kiisk, Valter; Heinsalu, Siim; Lange, Sven; Jaaniso, Raivo; Sildos, Ilmo

    2016-04-01

    An enhanced Raman scattering from a thin layer of adenine molecules deposited on graphene substrate was detected. The value of enhancement depends on the photon energy of the exciting light. The benzene ring in the structure of adenine molecule suggests π-stacking of adenine molecule on top of graphene. So, it is proposed that the enhancement in the adenine Raman signal is explained by the resonance electron transfer from the Fermi level of graphene to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of adenine.

  3. Enhanced intervalley scattering in artificially stacked double-layer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated artificially stacked double-layer graphene by sequentially transferring graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. The double-layer graphene was characterized by Raman spectroscopy and transport measurements. A weak localization effect was observed for different charge carrier densities and temperatures. The obtained intervalley scattering rate was unusually high compared to normal Bernal-stacked bilayer or single-layer graphene. The sharp point defects, local deformation, or bending of graphene plane required for intervalley scattering from one Dirac cone to another seemed to be enhanced by the artificially stacked graphene layers. (paper)

  4. Fano Resonance Enhanced Nonreciprocal Absorption and Scattering of Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Hopkins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We reveal that asymmetric plasmonic nanostructures can exhibit significantly different absorption and scattering properties for light that propagates in opposite directions, despite the conservation of total extinction. We analytically demonstrate that this is a consequence of nonorthogonality of eigenmodes of the system. This results in the necessity for modal interference with potential enhancement via Fano resonances. Based on our theory, we propose a stacked nanocross design whose optical response exhibits an abrupt change between absorption and scattering cross-sections for plane waves propagating in opposite directions. This work thereby proposes the use of Fano resonances to employ nanostructures for measuring and distinguishing optical signals coming from opposite directions.

  5. Enhanced ion backscattering near 1800 scattering angles in the two-atom scattering model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical two-atom scattering model has been developed to treat the recent discovery of the enhancement near 1800 of Rutherford backscattering yields from disordered solids. In contrast to conventional calculations of Rutherford backscattering that treat scattering from a single atom only (the backscattering atom), the present model includes the interaction of a second atom lying between the target surface and the backscattering atom. The projectile ion makes a glancing collision with this second atom both before and after it is backscattered. A weighted average is made over all possible positions of this second atom. The model predicts an enhancement effect whose physical origin arises from the tolerance of path for those ions whose ingoing and outgoing trajectories lie in the vicinity of the critical impact parameter. Results using Moliere scattering show how the yield enhancement depends on ion energy, backscattering depth, exit angle, scattering potential, atomic numbers of the projectile and target, and target density. In the model the critical impact parameter and critical angle play important roles. It is shown that these quantities depend on a single dimensionless parameter and formulas accurate to better than 1% are given for them

  6. Brillouin suppression in a fiber optical parametric amplifier by combining temperature distribution and phase modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Carsten Vandel;

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation.......We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation....

  7. Ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection in common fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shikuan; Dai, Xianming; Stogin, Birgitt Boschitsch; Wong, Tak-Sing

    2015-01-01

    Many analytes in real-life samples, such as body fluids, soil contaminants, and explosives, are dispersed in liquid, solid, or air phases. However, it remains a challenge to create a platform to detect these analytes in all of these phases with high sensitivity and specificity. Here, we demonstrate a universal platform termed slippery liquid-infused porous surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SLIPSERS) that enables the enrichment and delivery of analytes originating from various phases into sur...

  8. Nanostructured surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates for explosives detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Stenbaek; Olsen, Jesper Kenneth; Boisen, Anja;

    2010-01-01

    Here we present a method for trace detection of explosives in the gas phase using novel surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy substrates. Novel substrates that produce an exceptionally large enhancement of the Raman effect were used to amplify the Raman signal of explosives...... molecules adsorbed onto the substrate. The substrates were fabricated in a cleanroom process which only requires two steps to produce well controlled nano-sized high aspect ratio metal pillars. These substrates had superior chemical sensing performance in addition to a more cost effective fabrication...

  9. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-11-03

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  10. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanotrenches and nanoholes

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2012-04-01

    Dependent effects on edge-to-edge distance and incidence polarization in surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) were studied in detection of 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPy) molecules absorbed on gold nanotrenches and nanoholes. The gold nanostructures with controllable size and period were fabricated using electron-beam lithography. Large SERS enhancement in detection of 4-MPy molecules on both nanostructred substrates was observed. The SERS enhancement increased exponentially with decrease of edge to-edge distance for both the nanotrenches and nanoholes while keeping the sizes of the nanotrenches and nanoholes unchanged. Investigation of polarization dependence showed that the SERS enhancement of nanotrenches was much more sensitive to the incidence polarizations than that of nanoholes. © 2012 American Scientific Publishers.

  11. Multibeam seeded brillouin sidescatter in inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, D; Michel, P; Ralph, J E; Divol, L; Ross, J S; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Kritcher, A L; Hinkel, D E; Moody, J D

    2015-03-27

    We present the first observations of multibeam weakly seeded Brillouin sidescatter in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. Two seeding mechanisms have been identified and quantified: specular reflections ("glint") from opposite hemisphere beams, and Brillouin backscatter from neighboring beams with a different angle of incidence. Seeded sidescatter can dominate the overall coupling losses, so understanding this process is crucial for proper accounting of energy deposition and drive symmetry. Glint-seeded scattered light could also be used to probe hydrodynamic conditions inside ICF targets. PMID:25860748

  12. Superscattering-enhanced narrow band forward scattering antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡德骄; 张志友; 杜惊雷

    2015-01-01

    We present a narrow band forward scattering optical antenna which is based on the excitation of distinctive whispering gallery modes (WGMs). The antenna is composed of three coaxial cylinder layers:a dielectric layer is sandwiched between a metallic core and cladding. Owing to the destructive interference between the scattering of the outer metallic cladding and the WGM in the backward direction, the power fl ow in the forward direction is increased. Simulation and analysis show that in proper geometry conditions, the cavity can be tuned into a superscattering state. At this state, both the zeroth and the first order of WGM are excited and contribute to the total scattering. It is shown that the power ratio (power towards backward divided by power towards forward ) can be enhanced to about 27 times larger than that for a non-resonant position by the superscattering. Owing to the confinement of the cladding to WGMs, the wavelength range of effective forward scattering is considerably narrow (about 15 nm).

  13. A new configuration of multi-wavelength Brillouin fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-wavelength laser is demonstrated using stimulated Brillouin scattering in a single-mode fiber with a feedback loop using two couplers and an optical circulator. This Brillouin fiber laser can operate at any wavelength depending on the Brillouin pump (BP) wavelength used. With a BP of 14 dBm, approximately 8 to 10 BFL lines are obtained in both forward and backward directions respectively with a line spacing of 0.16 nm. The use of the 99/1 coupler and 50/50 coupler gives the highest power and number of lines for the forward and backward outputs respectively. The maximum Stokes power obtained is approximately 8.0 dBm. The anti-Stokes lines are also obtained due to four wave mixing and bidirectional operation. The combination of forward and backward output can generate a larger number of lines with channel spacing of 0.08 nm

  14. Electromagnetic field in matter. Surface enhanced Raman scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Apostol

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The polarization and magnetization degrees of freedom are included in the general treatment of the electromagnetic field in matter, and their governing equations are given. Particular cases of solutions are discussed for polarizable, non-magnetic matter, including quasi-static fields, surface plasmons, propagation, zero-point fluctuations of the eigenmodes, especially for a semi-infinite homogeneous body (half-space. The van der Waals London-Casimir force acting between a neutral nano-particle and a half-space is computed and the response of this electromagnetically coupled system to an external field is given, with relevance for the surface enhanced Raman scattering.

  15. Detection of volatile organic compounds using surface enhanced Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, A S; Maiti, A; Ileri, N; Bora, M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Bond, T C

    2012-03-22

    The authors present the detection of volatile organic compounds directly in their vapor phase by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. The type of nanopillars is known as the tapered pillars. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of toluene vapor. The results show that SERS signal from a toluene vapor concentration of ppm level can be achieved, and the toluene vapor can be detected within minutes of exposing the SERS substrate to the vapor. A simple adsorption model is developed which gives results matching the experimental data. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors.

  16. Theoretical analysis of the relationship between the Brillouin gain coefficient and the strain in the optical-fiber sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Wu-qin; JIA Zhen-hong

    2008-01-01

    The relation between the power of the Brillouin signal and the swain is one of the bases of the distributed fiber sensors of temperature and strain. The coefficient of the Brillouin gain can be changed by the temperature and the strain that will affect the power of the Brillouin scattering. The relation between the change of the Brillouin gain coefficient and the strain is thought to be linear by many researchers. However, it is not always linear based on the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. Therefore, errors will be caused if the relation between the change of the Brillouin gain coefficient and the strain is regarded as to be linear approximately for measuring the temperature and the strain. For this reason, the influence of thep arameters on the Brillouin gain coefficient is proposed through theoretical analysis and numerical simulation.

  17. Enhanced Thomson scattering theory applied to eight experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The onset of an instability, such as the 2ω/sub p/ at the n/sub c//4 surface, usually leads to wave breaking and the emission of hot electron pulses which can profoundly influence instability thresholds and scattering behavior elsewhere in the plasma. In particular, enhanced Thomson scattering (via the plasma line) can occur, and this has been used to explain the observation of the SRS instability well below the theoretical threshold. A simple model of the hot electron pulses based on measured values of the hot and cold electron temperatures, T/sub h/ and T/sub c/, has yielded good agreement with experimental observation of the Raman spectral frequency bands. The agreement has continued, even for experiments which are clearly above the SRS threshold, with the enhanced noise likely acting as a ''seed'' for the SRS growth. We will show details of the successful comparison of this theory with six experiments carried out on SHIVA, ARGUS, NOVETTE(2), and GDL(2), and also with an upscattering feature seen at Garching. In addition, a recent experiment using 6 beams of OMEGA (at 0.35μ) will be discussed, and compared with the theory. The report is comprised of viewgraphs of the talks

  18. ESTIMATION OF SOUNDING ABILITY OF A BRILLOUIN LIDAR IN THE EAST CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴东; 宋小全; 刘智深

    2001-01-01

    Vertical profiles of sound speed in the sea can be measured by using laser excited Brillouin scattering. In this paper the dependence of the accuracy of sound speed measurement on the accuracy of the Brillouin shift measurement is analyzed. We calculated the maximum detecting depths of sound speed to an accuracy of 1 m/s by lidar with different laser pulse energy, platform altitude, telescope aperture and lidar effective attenuation coefficient. The estimation of sounding ability in the East China Sea is made in some stations. These data can be used in the design of Brillouin Lidar for the China Sea.

  19. Temperature dependence of surface enhanced Raman scattering on C70

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ying; Zhang Zhenlong; DU Yinxiao; DONG Hua; MO Yujun

    2005-01-01

    The temperature dependence of surface enhanced Raman scattering of the C70 molecule is reported.The Raman scattering of C70 molecules adsorbed on the surface of a silver mirror was measured at different temperatures. The experimental results indicate that the relative intensities of the Raman features vary with the temperature of the sample. When the temperature decreases from room temperature to 0℃, the relative intensities of certain Raman bands decrease abruptly. If we take the strongest band 1565cm-1 as a standard value 100, the greatest decrease approaches to 43%. However, with the further decrease in the temperature these relative intensities increase and resume the value at room temperature. And such a temperature dependence is reversible. Our results show that the adsorption state of the C70 molecules on the silver surface around 0℃changes greatly with the temperature, resulting in a decrease in relative intensities for some main Raman features of C70molecule. When the temperature is lower than 0℃, the adsorption state changes continually and more slowly. Synchronously, eight new Raman featu res, which have not ever been reported in literature, are observed in our experiment and this enriches the basic information of the vibrational modes for C70 molecule.

  20. Raman and Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering of Chlorophenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Wei; SHANG Xiao-hong; LU Yong; LIU Bing-bing; WANG Xu

    2011-01-01

    Raman spectrum is a powerful analytical tool for determining the chemical information of compounds.In this study,we obtained analytical results of chlorophenols(CPs) molecules including 4-chlorophenol(4-CP),2,6-dichlorophenol(2,6-DCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol(2,4,6-TCP) on the surface of Ag dendrites by surface-enhanced Raman scattering(SERS) spectra.SEM images indicate that the SERS substrate of Ag dendrites is composed of a large number of polygonal nanocrystallites,which self-assembled into a 3D hierarchical structure.It was found that there were distinct differences for those three molecules from Raman and SERS spectra.This indicates that SERS could be a new tool of detection technique regarding trace amounts of CPs.

  1. Ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection in common fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shikuan; Dai, Xianming; Stogin, Birgitt Boschitsch; Wong, Tak-Sing

    2016-01-12

    Detecting target analytes with high specificity and sensitivity in any fluid is of fundamental importance to analytical science and technology. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has proven to be capable of detecting single molecules with high specificity, but achieving single-molecule sensitivity in any highly diluted solutions remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a universal platform that allows for the enrichment and delivery of analytes into the SERS-sensitive sites in both aqueous and nonaqueous fluids, and its subsequent quantitative detection of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) down to ∼75 fM level (10(-15) mol⋅L(-1)). Our platform, termed slippery liquid-infused porous surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SLIPSERS), is based on a slippery, omniphobic substrate that enables the complete concentration of analytes and SERS substrates (e.g., Au nanoparticles) within an evaporating liquid droplet. Combining our SLIPSERS platform with a SERS mapping technique, we have systematically quantified the probability, p(c), of detecting R6G molecules at concentrations c ranging from 750 fM (p > 90%) down to 75 aM (10(-18) mol⋅L(-1)) levels (p ≤ 1.4%). The ability to detect analytes down to attomolar level is the lowest limit of detection for any SERS-based detection reported thus far. We have shown that analytes present in liquid, solid, or air phases can be extracted using a suitable liquid solvent and subsequently detected through SLIPSERS. Based on this platform, we have further demonstrated ultrasensitive detection of chemical and biological molecules as well as environmental contaminants within a broad range of common fluids for potential applications related to analytical chemistry, molecular diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and national security. PMID:26719413

  2. Smart surface-enhanced Raman scattering traceable drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Tang, Yonghong; Dai, Sheng; Kleitz, Freddy; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2016-06-01

    A novel smart nanoparticle-based system has been developed for tracking intracellular drug delivery through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This new drug delivery system (DDS) shows targeted cytotoxicity towards cancer cells via pH-cleavable covalent carboxylic hydrazone links and the SERS tracing capability based on gold@silica nanocarriers. Doxorubicin, as a model anticancer drug, was employed to compare SERS with conventional fluorescence tracing approaches. It is evident that SERS demonstrates higher sensitivity and resolution, revealing intracellular details, as the strengths of the original Raman signals can be amplified by SERS. Importantly, non-destructive SERS will provide the designed DDS with great autonomy and potential to study the dynamic procedures of non-fluorescent drug delivery into living cells.A novel smart nanoparticle-based system has been developed for tracking intracellular drug delivery through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This new drug delivery system (DDS) shows targeted cytotoxicity towards cancer cells via pH-cleavable covalent carboxylic hydrazone links and the SERS tracing capability based on gold@silica nanocarriers. Doxorubicin, as a model anticancer drug, was employed to compare SERS with conventional fluorescence tracing approaches. It is evident that SERS demonstrates higher sensitivity and resolution, revealing intracellular details, as the strengths of the original Raman signals can be amplified by SERS. Importantly, non-destructive SERS will provide the designed DDS with great autonomy and potential to study the dynamic procedures of non-fluorescent drug delivery into living cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03869g

  3. Quasi distributed hybrid Brillouin fiber laser sensor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid quasi distributed sensing system combining point fiber Bragg gratings and long integral Brillouin scattering transducers is presented. It is able to measure global temperature changes along the sensing line as well as punctual changes at the critical locations of the structure. A 20 km proof-of-concept system has been experimentally demonstrated with a temperature resolution of 0.47 °C. (paper)

  4. Brillouin distributed sensing using localized and stationary dynamic gratings

    OpenAIRE

    Primerov, Nikolay; Antman, Yair; Sancho Dura, Juan; Zadok, Avinoam; Thévenaz, Luc

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we apply a recent technique for the generation of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) dynamic gratings that are both localized and stationary to realize high-resolution distributed temperature sensing. The gratings generation method relies on the phase modulation of two pump waves by a common pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS), with a symbol duration that is much shorter than the acoustic lifetime. This way the acoustic wave can efficiently build up in the medium at discrete lo...

  5. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensing on black silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervinskas, Gediminas; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Hartley, Jennifer S.; Stoddart, Paul R.; Juodkazis, Saulius [Centre for Micro-Photonics and Industrial Research Institute Swinburne, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC (Australia); The Australian National Fabrication Facility-ANFF, Victoria node, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC (Australia); Kandasamy, Sasikaran [Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Fahim, Narges F. [Centre for Micro-Photonics and Industrial Research Institute Swinburne, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    Reactive ion etching was used to fabricate black-Si over the entire surface area of 4-inch Si wafers. After 20 min of the plasma treatment, surface reflection well below 2% was achieved over the 300-1000 nm spectral range. The spikes of the black-Si substrates were coated by gold, resulting in an island film for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing. A detection limit of 1 x 10{sup -6} M (at count rate > 10{sup 2} s{sup -1}. mW{sup -1}) was achieved for rhodamine 6G in aqueous solution when drop cast onto a {proportional_to} 100-nm-thick Au coating. The sensitivity increases for thicker coatings. A mixed mobile-on-immobile platform for SERS sensing is introduced by using dog-bone Au nanoparticles on the Au/black-Si substrate. The SERS intensity shows a non-linear dependence on the solid angle (numerical aperture of excitation/collection optics) for a thick gold coating that exhibits a 10 times higher enhancement. This shows promise for augmented sensitivity in SERS applications. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Resonantly scattering crystals and surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine coherence effects from forming a crystal of resonant scatterers by generalising the Fano model for autoionising resonances in electron scattering from atoms to a lattice of such scatterers. (We have in mind the case of neutron scattering from nuclei.) We solve this problem to yield two branches to the dispersion relation for the neutron in general and three when the resonance coincides with a Brillouin Zone boundary. The 'width' of the resonance is enhanced over the isolated nucleus, the best candidate for observation being the 2eV 185Re resonance near the Bragg condition. We use these results to calculate the reflection coefficient from a surface, revealing total external reflection near resonance. We discuss experimental feasibility in both the neutron and electron cases. (author)

  7. High Sensitivity Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection of Tryptophan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandakkathara, Archana

    Raman spectroscopy has the capability of providing detailed information about molecular structure, but the extremely small cross section of Raman scattering prevents this technique from applications requiring high sensitivity. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on the other hand provides strongly increased Raman signal from molecules attached to metallic nanostructures. SERS is thus a promising technique for high sensitivity analytical applications. One particular area of interest is the application of such techniques for the analysis of the composition of biological cells. However, there are issues which have to be addressed in order to make SERS a reliable technique such as the optimization of conditions for any given analyte, understanding the kinetic processes of binding of the target molecules to the nanostructures and understanding the evolution and coagulation of the nanostructures, in the case of colloidal solutions. The latter processes introduce a delay time for the observation of maximum enhancement factors which must be taken into account for any given implementation of SERS. In the present thesis the goal was to develop very sensitive SERS techniques for the measurement of biomolecules of interest for analysis of the contents of cells. The techniques explored could be eventually be applicable to microfluidic systems with the ultimate goal of analyzing the molecular constituents of single cells. SERS study of different amino acids and organic dyes were performed during the course of this thesis. A high sensitivity detection system based on SERS has been developed and spectrum from tryptophan (Trp) amino acid at very low concentration (10-8 M) has been detected. The concentration at which good quality SERS spectra could be detected from Trp is 4 orders of magnitude smaller than that previously reported in literature. It has shown that at such low concentrations the SERS spectra of Trp are qualitatively distinct from the spectra commonly reported in

  8. Enhanced Raman Scattering from Aromatic Dithiols Electrosprayed into Plasmonic Nanojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Johnson, Grant E.; Novikova, Irina V.; Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; Evans, James E.; Zamkov, Mikhail; Laskin, Julia; Hess, Wayne P.

    2015-12-01

    We describe surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) experiments in which molecular coverage is systematically varied from 3.8 x 105 to 3.8 x 102 to 0.38 molecules/μm2 using electrospray deposition of ethanolic 4,4’-dimercaptostilbene (DMS) solutions. The plasmonic SERS substrate used herein consists of a well-characterized 2-dimensional (2D) array of silver nanospheres [see El-Khoury et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2014, 141, 214308], previously shown to feature uniform topography and plasmonic response, as well as intense SERS activity. When compared to their ensemble averaged analogues, the spatially and temporally averaged spectra of a single molecule exhibit several unique features including: (i) distinct relative intensities of the observable Raman-active vibrational states, (ii) more pronounced SERS backgrounds, and (iii) broader Raman lines indicative of faster vibrational dephasing. The first observation may be understood on the basis of an intuitive physical picture in which removal of averaging over multiple molecules exposes the tensorial nature of Raman scattering. When an oriented single molecule gives rise to the recorded SERS spectra, the relative orientation of the molecule with respect to vector components of the local electric field determines the relative intensities of the observable vibrational states. Using a single molecule SERS framework described herein, we derive a unique molecular orientation in which a single DMS molecule is isolated at a nanojunction formed between two silver nanospheres in the 2D array. The DMS molecule is found lying nearly flat with respect to the metal surface. The derived orientation of a single molecule at a plasmonic nanojunction is consistent with observations (ii) and (iii). In particular, a careful inspection of the temporal spectral variations along the recorded single molecule SERS time sequences reveals that the time-averaged SERS backgrounds arise from individual molecular events, marked by broadened SERS

  9. Stable and tunable self-seeded multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with higher OSNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hui; Yang, Ruilan; Shen, Xiao; Wei, Wei

    2016-07-01

    A stable and tunable self-seeded multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (BEFL) is designed and demonstrated based on a Single-Mode-Multimode-Single-Mode (SMS) fiber filter. The SMS filter is fabricated by splicing a 15 cm long multimode fiber between two single mode fibers. The self-excited Brillouin pump is internally achieved by cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in the single mode fiber. By applying axial strain (from 0 to 466.7 μɛ) to the SMS filter with the same step of 66.7 μɛ , the multiwavelength of the output laser is tuned from 1553.58 to 1559.79 nm correspondingly, and the tunable range is 6.21 nm. The generation of up to 16 Brillouin Stokes wavelengths with 30 dB optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) are obtained.

  10. Ultra-narrow linewidth single longitudinal mode Brillouin fiber ring laser using highly nonlinear fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter, we demonstrate a single longitudinal mode (SLM) Brillouin fiber laser by using highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) as the nonlinear medium in which the stimulated Brillouin scattering effect takes place. The first Stokes line is generated at a threshold power of 18 dBm with a wavelength shift 0.08 nm from the Brillouin pump. The signal-to-noise ratio of the first Stokes line is measured to be ∼58 dB. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of a 0.7 kHz ultra-narrow linewidth of an SLM Brillouin fiber laser, using HNLF as the nonlinear medium, which features a simple cavity configuration. (letter)

  11. Brillouin shifted third harmonic generation of a laser in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of Brillouin shifted resonant third harmonic generation of an intense laser of finite spot size in a plasma is investigated. The laser of frequency ω0 and wave number k-vector0 excites an ion acoustic wave of frequency ω≅kcs and wave number k-vector≅2k-vector0, where cs is the ion acoustic speed, in the primary stimulated Brillouin scattering process. The laser also exerts a second harmonic ponderomotive force on electrons. This imparts them an oscillatory velocity v2ω0,2k0. This velocity beats with the electron density perturbation associated with the ion acoustic wave to produce a density perturbation at Brillouin shifted second harmonic. This perturbation couples with the oscillatory velocity vω0,k0 due to the laser to produce Brillouin shifted third harmonic current density and the radiation field. The phase matching is satisfied when plasma density is two third critical.

  12. Single-site surface-enhanced Raman scattering beyond spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Mai; Yasuda, Satoshi; Murakoshi, Kei

    2016-04-01

    Recent progress in the observation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is reviewed to examine the possibility of finding a novel route for the effective photoexcitation of materials. The importance of well-controlled SERS experiments on a single molecule at a single site is discussed based on the difference in the information obtained from ensemble SERS measurements using multiple active sites with an uncontrolled number of molecules. A single-molecule SERS observation performed at a mechanically controllable breaking junction with a simultaneous conductivity measurement provides clear evidence of the drastic changes both in the intensity and in the Raman mode selectivity of the electromagnetic field generated by localized surface plasmon resonance. Careful control of the field at a few-nanometer-wide gap of a metal nanodimer results in the modification of the selection rule of electronic excitation of an isolated single-walled carbon nanotube. The examples shown in this review suggest that a single-site SERS observation could be used as a novel tool to find, develop, and implement applications of plasmon-induced photoexcitation of materials.

  13. Tip-enhanced Raman scattering of bacillus subtilis spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusciano, G.; Zito, G.; Pesce, G.; Sasso, A.; Isticato, R.; Ricca, E.

    2015-07-01

    Understanding of the complex interactions of molecules at biological interfaces is a fundamental issue in biochemistry, biotechnology as well as biomedicine. A plethora of biological processes are ruled by the molecular texture of cellular membrane: cellular communications, drug transportations and cellular recognition are just a few examples of such chemically-mediated processes. Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering (TERS) is a novel, Raman-based technique which is ideally suited for this purpose. TERS relies on the combination of scanning probe microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The basic idea is the use of a metalled tip as a sort of optical nano-antenna, which gives place to SERS effect close to the tip end. Herein, we present the application of TERS to analyze the surface of Bacillus subtilis spores. The choice of this biological systems is related to the fact that a number of reasons support the use of spores as a mucosal delivery system. The remarkable and well-documented resistance of spores to various environmental and toxic effects make them clear potentials as a novel, surface-display system. Our experimental outcomes demonstrate that TERS is able to provide a nano-scale chemical imaging of spore surface. Moreover, we demonstrate that TERS allows differentiation between wilde-type spore and genetically modified strains. These results hold promise for the characterization and optimization of spore surface for drug-delivery applications.

  14. Fingerprinting CBRNE materials using surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Jane F.; Spencer, Kevin M.; Sylvia, James M.

    2008-04-01

    One approach to CBRNE detection is analytical monitoring with portable spectroscopy systems. Such a technique needs to work in adverse environments, be amenable to use by field operators, and, given the sensitive nature of the target materials, should have an extremely rapid response time with no false negatives. This research demonstrates that surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is capable of detecting ppb levels of CBRNE materials with high sensitivity and no false positives. We present reproducible and selective detection using novel SERS structures that exhibit an inherently uniform surface morphology, leading to rapid, reproducible manufacturing. Our work includes receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves for the detection of both conventional and improvised nitro explosives at low signal-to-noise ratios. We also present the detection of added CBRNE materials including chemical and biological agents as well as nuclear enriching materials. Our expertise extends to instrumentation of portable, robust Raman spectrographs that can be packaged with our sensors for a versatile security tool with applications extending from points of entry to points of production, from people to objects and freight.

  15. Using Back-Scattering to Enhance Efficiency in Neutron Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Kittelmann, Thomas; Klinkby, Esben; Cai, Xiao Xiao; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Hall-Wilton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The principle of using strongly scattering materials to recover efficiency in neutron detectors, via back-scattering of unconverted thermal neutrons, is discussed in general. Feasibility of the method is illustrated through Geant4-based simulations of a specific setup involving a moderator-like material placed behind a single layered boron-10 thin film gaseous detector.

  16. Effects of Ion-Ion Collisions and Inhomogeneity in Two-Dimensional Kinetic Ion Simulations of Stimulated Brillouin Backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B I; Divol, L; Langdon, A B; Williams, E A

    2005-10-17

    Two-dimensional simulations with the BZOHAR [B.I. Cohen, B.F. Lasinski, A.B. Langdon, and E.A. Williams, Phys. Plasmas 4, 956 (1997)] hybrid code (kinetic particle ions and Boltzmann fluid electrons) have been used to investigate the saturation of stimulated Brillouin backscatter (SBBS) instability including the effects of ion-ion collisions and inhomogeneity. Ion-ion collisions tend to increase ion-wave dissipation, which decreases the gain exponent for stimulated Brillouin backscattering; and the peak Brillouin backscatter reflectivities tend to decrease with increasing collisionality in the simulations. Two types of Langevin-operator, ion-ion collision models were implemented in the simulations. In both models used the collisions are functions of the local ion temperature and density, but the collisions have no velocity dependence in the first model. In the second model, the collisions are also functions of the energy of the ion that is being scattered so as to represent a Fokker-Planck collision operator. Collisions decorrelate the ions from the acoustic waves in SBS, which disrupts ion trapping in the acoustic wave. Nevertheless, ion trapping leading to a hot ion tail and two-dimensional physics that allows the SBS ion waves to nonlinearly scatter remain robust saturation mechanisms for SBBS in a high-gain limit over a range of ion collisionality. SBS backscatter in the presence of a spatially nonuniform plasma flow is also investigated. Simulations show that depending on the sign of the spatial gradient of the flow relative to the backscatter, ion trapping effects that produce a nonlinear frequency shift can enhance (auto-resonance) or decrease (anti-auto-resonance) reflectivities in agreement with theoretical arguments.

  17. Super-virtual Interferometric Separation and Enhancement of Back-scattered Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen

    2015-08-19

    Back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect near-surface reflectors with steep dips. A robust surface-wave migration requires the prior separation of the back-scattered surface-wave events from the data. This separation is often difficult to implement because the back-scattered surface waves are masked by the incident surface waves. We mitigate this problem by using a super-virtual interferometric method to enhance and separate the back-scattered surface waves. The key idea is to calculate the virtual back-scattered surface waves by stacking the resulting virtual correlated and convolved traces associated with the incident and back-scattered waves. Stacking the virtual back-scattered surface waves improves their signal-to-noise ratio and separates the back-scattered surface-waves from the incident field. Both synthetic and field data results validate the robustness of this method.

  18. Detection of SRS produced electron plasma waves by the use of enhanced Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast electrons have been observed to eject from a preformed plasma during laser-plasma interactions and have been measured to be Maxwellian with a temperature ranging from 29 keV to 105 keV. The laser-plasma interaction is conducted in a preformed plasma, generated by two opposing shock tubes, at densities well below the quarter critical density of the laser driver. In this situation the only two parametric decay processes allowed are the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) process and the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) process. This leaves the electron plasma wave (EPW) as the most likely candidate for generating the fast electrons, since it is the only electrostatic wave in both decay processes. Simple trapping of the electrons into the EPW at wave matching conditions in the SRS process, predicts that the electrons are ejected out of the plasma with energies of 5 keV corresponding to the phase velocity of the wave. Therefore the observed fast electrons cannot be explained by simple trapping of the electrons into the electrostatic daughter wave of the SRS process. (author) 2 refs., 4 figs

  19. Scanning angle Raman spectroscopy: Investigation of Raman scatter enhancement techniques for chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Matthew W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis outlines advancements in Raman scatter enhancement techniques by applying evanescent fields, standing-waves (waveguides) and surface enhancements to increase the generated mean square electric field, which is directly related to the intensity of Raman scattering. These techniques are accomplished by employing scanning angle Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A 1064 nm multichannel Raman spectrometer is discussed for chemical analysis of lignin. Extending dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy to 1064 nm reduces the fluorescence interference that can mask the weaker Raman scattering. Overall, these techniques help address the major obstacles in Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include the inherently weak Raman cross section and susceptibility to fluorescence interference.

  20. Applying an optical space-time coding method to enhance light scattering signals in microfluidic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Zhe; Wu, Tsung-Feng; Pion-Tonachini, Luca; Qiao, Wen; Zhao, Chao; Liu, Zhiwen; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    An “optical space-time coding method” was applied to microfluidic devices to detect the forward and large angle light scattering signals for unlabelled bead and cell detection. Because of the enhanced sensitivity by this method, silicon pin photoreceivers can be used to detect both forward scattering (FS) and large angle (45–60°) scattering (LAS) signals, the latter of which has been traditionally detected by a photomultiplier tube. This method yields significant improvements in coefficients ...

  1. Enhancement factor statistics of surface enhanced Raman scattering in multiscale heterostructures of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Gianluigi; Rusciano, Giulia; Sasso, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Suitable metal nanostructures may induce surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement factors (EFs) large-enough to reach single-molecule sensitivity. However, the gap hot-spot EF probability density function (PDF) has the character of a long-tail distribution, which dramatically mines the reproducibility of SERS experiments. Herein, we carry out electrodynamic calculations based on a 3D finite element method of two plasmonic nanostructures, combined with Monte Carlo simulations of the EF statistics under different external conditions. We compare the PDF produced by a homodimer of nanoparticles with that provided by a self-similar trimer. We show that the PDF is sensitive to the spatial distribution of near-field enhancement specifically supported by the nanostructure geometry. Breaking the symmetry of the plasmonic system is responsible for inducing particular modulations of the PDF tail resembling a multiple Poisson distribution. We also study the influence that molecular diffusion towards the hottest hot-spot, or selective hot-spot targeting, might have on the EF PDF. Our results quantitatively assess the possibility of designing the response of a SERS substrate so as to contain the intrinsic EF PDF variance and significantly improving, in principle, the reproducibility of SERS experiments. PMID:27497573

  2. Enhancement factor statistics of surface enhanced Raman scattering in multiscale heterostructures of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Gianluigi; Rusciano, Giulia; Sasso, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Suitable metal nanostructures may induce surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement factors (EFs) large-enough to reach single-molecule sensitivity. However, the gap hot-spot EF probability density function (PDF) has the character of a long-tail distribution, which dramatically mines the reproducibility of SERS experiments. Herein, we carry out electrodynamic calculations based on a 3D finite element method of two plasmonic nanostructures, combined with Monte Carlo simulations of the EF statistics under different external conditions. We compare the PDF produced by a homodimer of nanoparticles with that provided by a self-similar trimer. We show that the PDF is sensitive to the spatial distribution of near-field enhancement specifically supported by the nanostructure geometry. Breaking the symmetry of the plasmonic system is responsible for inducing particular modulations of the PDF tail resembling a multiple Poisson distribution. We also study the influence that molecular diffusion towards the hottest hot-spot, or selective hot-spot targeting, might have on the EF PDF. Our results quantitatively assess the possibility of designing the response of a SERS substrate so as to contain the intrinsic EF PDF variance and significantly improving, in principle, the reproducibility of SERS experiments.

  3. Limits on Enhanced Radio Wave Scattering by Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Spitler, Laura G.; Spangler, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    We report multifrequency observations with the NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the compact radio sources J0128+6306 and J0547+2721, which are viewed through the supernova remnants G127.1+0.5 and S147, respectively. Observations were made at frequencies of 1.427, 1.667, 2.271, and 4.987 GHz. The lines of sight to these sources pass through the shock wave and upstream and downstream turbulent layers of their respective supernova remnants, and thus might detect cosmic-ray generated turbulence produced during the Fermi acceleration process. For both sources, we detect interstellar scattering, characterized by a component of the angular size which scales as the square of the observing wavelength. The magnitude of the scattering is characterized by an effective scattering angular size theta_S0 at a frequency of 1 GHz of 13.2 +/- 2.6 milliarcseconds (mas) for J0128+6306 and 6.7 +/- 2.2 mas for J0547+2721. These angular sizes are consistent with the ``incidental'' scattering for any line of sight out of the g...

  4. Optical wavefront shaping for the enhancement of Raman signal in scattering media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jonathan V.; Throckmorton, Graham A.; Hokr, Brett H.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2016-03-01

    The ability to non-invasively focus light through scattering media has significant applications in many fields ranging from nanotechnology to deep tissue sensing. Until recently, the multiple light scattering events that occur in complex media such as biological tissue have inhibited the focusing ability and penetration depth of optical tools. Through the use of optical wavefront shaping, the spatial distortions due to these scattering events can be corrected, and the incident light can be focused through the scattering medium. Here, we demonstrate that wavefront shaping can be used to non-invasively enhance the Raman signal of a material through a scattering medium. Raman signal enhancement was achieved using backscattered light and a continuous sequential algorithm. Our results show the potential of wavefront shaping as an important addition to non-invasive detection techniques.

  5. THE INTERFACE POLYCARBONATE-GLASS : A THEORETICAL STUDY OF BRILLOUIN SPECTRA AND PHOTOELASTIC PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Nizzoli, F.; A Franchini; Santoro, G.

    1984-01-01

    We present calculations of surface waves and Brillouin scattering intensity for polycarbonate films supported by a pyrex substrate in the thickness range 0-0.6 µm. Comparison between calculated and experimental spectra shows that it is possible to obtain accurate information concerning the thickness of the film and the value and sign of the photoelastic constants.

  6. KrF laser amplifier with phase-conjugate Brillouin retroreflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, M C

    1982-09-01

    We have demonstrated the use of phase-conjugate stimulated Brillouin scattering mirrors to produce high-quality, short-pulse KrF laser beams from angular multiplexed and regenerative amplifiers. The mirror was also shown to isolate systems optically from amplifier spontaneous emission. Automatic alignment of targets using this mirror as a retroreflector was also demonstrated. PMID:19714043

  7. Suppression of stimulated Brillouin instability of a beat-wave of two lasers in multiple-ion-species plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Pinki; Gupta, D. N., E-mail: dngupta@physics.du.ac.in; Avinash, K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Stimulated Brillouin instability of a beat-wave of two lasers in plasmas with multiple-ion-species (negative-ions) was studied. The inclusion of negative-ions affects the growth of ion-acoustic wave in Brillouin scattering. Thus, the growth rate of instability is suppressed significantly by the density of negative-ions. To obey the phase-matching condition, the growth rate of the instability attains a maxima for an appropriate scattering angle (angle between the pump and scattered sideband waves). This study would be technologically important to have diagnostics in low-temperature plasmas.

  8. A workshop on enhanced national capability for neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, Alan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rhyne, James J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lewis, Paul S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    This two-day workshop will engage the international neutron scattering community to vet and improve the Lujan Center Strategic Plan 2007-2013 (SP07). Sponsored by the LANL SC Program Office and the University of California, the workshop will be hosted by LANSCE Professor Sunny Sinha (UCSD). Endorsement by the Spallation Neutron Source will be requested. The discussion will focus on the role that the Lujan Center will play in the national neutron scattering landscape assuming full utilization of beamlines, a refurbished LANSCE, and a 1.4-MW SNS. Because the Lujan Strategic Plan is intended to set the stage for the Signature Facility era at LANSCE, there will be some discussion of the long-pulse spallation source at Los Alamos. Breakout groups will cover several new instrument concepts, upgrades to present instruments, expanded sample environment capabilities, and a look to the future. The workshop is in keeping with a request by BES to update the Lujan strategic plan in coordination with the SNS and the broader neutron community. Workshop invitees will be drawn from the LANSCE User Group and a broad cross section of the US, European, and Pacific Rim neutron scattering research communities.

  9. Detection of cracks in a reinforced concrete beam using distributed Brillouin fibre sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of using distributed Brillouin fibre sensors to detect crack formation in a simply supported reinforced concrete beam subjected to four-point loading. A Brillouin multiple-peak fitting method was used to enhance the spatial and strain resolutions of the measurements. By doing this, the distributed strain profile along the beam was determined with a 5 cm read-out resolution in comparison with the 15 cm spatial resolution of the fibres. The location of the cracks was identified by locating the positions in the strain profile where the strain suddenly changes, by searching for the maximum compressive or tensile peaks in the Brillouin frequency spectrum, as opposed to conventional strain reading, which focuses solely on the maximum Brillouin peak. The amplitude of the Brillouin peak for the suddenly changed strain (crack) was found to be smaller than half of the amplitude of the maximum Brillouin peak at the maximum strain location corresponding to the average strain of the material, which would have been neglected by standard peak or area fitting methods, especially for fine cracks or the initial crack build-up period

  10. Brillouin study of phonons, magnons and magnetoelastic coupling in the antiferromagnet KNiF3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganot, F.; Dugautier, S.; Moch, P.; Nouet, J.

    1981-03-01

    Brillouin scattering by magnons and acoustic phonons in KNiF3 has been studied as function of the temperature. At low temperature, we observe unusually large splittings of the phonon Brillouin lines, related to the multidomains structure of the samples. Using our determination of the anisotropy constant, K = 1.1×104 erg/cm3, we calculate from the splitting of the longitudinal [1, 1, 0] phonon a magnetoelastic coefficient ‖b2‖ = 3.3×107 erg/cm3. We also study the domains reorientation under an applied magnetic field.

  11. Tunable plasmonic enhancement of light scattering and absorption in graphene-coated subwavelength wires

    CERN Document Server

    Riso, Máximo; Depine, Ricardo A

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic response of subwavelength wires coated with a graphene monolayer illuminated by a linearly polarized plane waves is investigated. The results show that the scattering and extintion cross-sections of the coated wire can be dramatically enhanced when the incident radiation resonantly excites localized surface plasmons. The enhancements occur for p--polarized incident waves and for excitation frequencies that correspond to complex poles in the coefficients of the multipole expansion for the scattered field. By dynamically tuning the chemical potential of graphene, the spectral position of the enhancements can be chosen over a wide range.

  12. Strongly enhanced Raman scattering of graphene by a single gold nanorod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yingbo; Shen, Hongming; Cheng, Yuqing [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lu, Guowei, E-mail: guowei.lu@pku.edu.cn; Gong, Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-08-03

    Individual gold nanorods (AuNRs) and monolayer graphene hybrid system is investigated experimentally. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal of the graphene is observed due to a single AuNR with enhancement factor up to ∼1000-fold. The SERS intensity is strongly polarization dependent and the enhancement effect varies with the detuning between the excitation laser and the AuNR resonance. The SERS effect is highest when the resonant wavelength of the AuNRs matches well with the excitation light. By correlating the scattering and photoluminescence, it is demonstrated that the conventional background in SERS ascribes to the photon emission of metallic nanostructures.

  13. Ion-acoustic solitary waves and spectrally uniform scattering cross section enhancements

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ekeberg; Wannberg, G.; Eliasson, L; Stasiewicz, K.

    2010-01-01

    Spectra measured by incoherent scatter radars are formed predominantly by scattering of the incident signal off ion-acoustic and Langmuir waves in the ionosphere. Occasionally, the upshifted and/or downshifted lines produced by the ion-acoustic waves are enhanced well above thermal levels and referred to as naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines. In this paper, we study another kind of enhancement, which is spectrally uniform over the whole ion-line, i.e. the up- and downshifted shoulder and t...

  14. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from finite arrays of gold nano-patches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We experimentally investigate the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response of a 2D-periodic array of square gold nano-patches, functionalized by means of a conjugated, rigid thiol. We measure a Raman signal enhancement up to 200 times more intense compared to other plasmon-based nanostructures functionalized with the same molecule, and show that the enhancement is not strictly correlated to the presence of plasmonic resonances. The agreement between experimental and theoretical results reveals the importance of a full-wave analysis based on the inclusion of the actual scattering cross section of the molecule. The proposed numerical approach may serve not only as a tool to predict the enhancement of Raman signal scattered from strongly resonant nanostructure but also as an effective instrument to engineer SERS platforms that target specific molecules.

  15. Absorption Enhancement by Light Scattering for Solar Energy Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeshkumar Mupparapu

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, I discuss few novel approaches to enhance the light-matter interaction, which have applications in solar energy. Enhancement of absorption/ fluorescence is a topic of immense interest in recent years for its importance in various fields: bio-sensing and diagnostics, solar energy, imaging, forensics, etc.. Often, applications involving fluorescence are quite low efficient, and which is mainly attributed to poor fluorescence from constituent fluorescent molecul...

  16. Tunable multiwavelength Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser with intra-cavity pre-amplified Brillouin pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have demonstrated a new configuration of Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser, in which the Brillouin pump is pre-amplified within the laser cavity before entering the single-mode fiber. By using this simple scheme, a lower external Brillouin pump power is required to create the Brillouin gain and suppresses the laser cavity modes. The proposed laser structure exhibits a wide tuning range of 13 nm from 1597 nm to 1610 nm with 1480 nm pump power of 100 mW. The number of channels obtained within this wavelength range is 14 channels with 0.089 nm spacing

  17. Regions for Brillouin seed pulse growth in relativistic laser-plasma interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, G.; Schluck, F.; Spatschek, K. H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Parametric plasma processes received renewed interest in the context of generating ultraintense and ultrashort laser pulses up to the exawatt-zetawatt regime. For Brillouin scattering and seed pulse amplification at high intensities, the strong coupling regime is of special interest. The intensity-driven low-frequency modes depend on the amplitudes of the laser fields. It is investigated here how these modes develop in the relativistic regime. Then, a unified treatment of Raman and Brillouin processes becomes necessary. Assuming circular polarization, it is shown that with increasing intensity an overlap of the originally different Raman, Brillouin, and modulational instability branches occurs. Numerical simulations with a linearized Maxwell-fluid code confirm the analytically predicted behavior.

  18. Regions for Brillouin seed pulse growth in relativistic laser-plasma interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, G.; Schluck, F.; Spatschek, K. H.

    2012-09-01

    Parametric plasma processes received renewed interest in the context of generating ultraintense and ultrashort laser pulses up to the exawatt-zetawatt regime. For Brillouin scattering and seed pulse amplification at high intensities, the strong coupling regime is of special interest. The intensity-driven low-frequency modes depend on the amplitudes of the laser fields. It is investigated here how these modes develop in the relativistic regime. Then, a unified treatment of Raman and Brillouin processes becomes necessary. Assuming circular polarization, it is shown that with increasing intensity an overlap of the originally different Raman, Brillouin, and modulational instability branches occurs. Numerical simulations with a linearized Maxwell-fluid code confirm the analytically predicted behavior.

  19. Regions for Brillouin seed pulse growth in relativistic laser-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parametric plasma processes received renewed interest in the context of generating ultraintense and ultrashort laser pulses up to the exawatt-zetawatt regime. For Brillouin scattering and seed pulse amplification at high intensities, the strong coupling regime is of special interest. The intensity-driven low-frequency modes depend on the amplitudes of the laser fields. It is investigated here how these modes develop in the relativistic regime. Then, a unified treatment of Raman and Brillouin processes becomes necessary. Assuming circular polarization, it is shown that with increasing intensity an overlap of the originally different Raman, Brillouin, and modulational instability branches occurs. Numerical simulations with a linearized Maxwell-fluid code confirm the analytically predicted behavior.

  20. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Enhancement Factor Improvement in a 11.6-GHz-Linewidth 1.5-kW Yb-Doped Fiber Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang-Bo, Liu; Yi-Feng, Yang; Jian-Hua, Wang; Ye, Zheng; Xiao-Long, Chen; Kai, Liu; Chun, Zhao; Yun-Feng, Qi; Bing, He; Jun, Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos U1330134, 61308024 and 11174305, the National High-Technology Research and Development Program of China under Grant No 2014AA041901, and the Shanghai Natural Science Foundation under Grant No 11ZR1441400.

  1. Advantages and Artifacts of Higher Order Modes in Nanoparticle Enhanced Back-Scattering Raman Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Zachary D.; Stephan J. Stranick; Levin, Ira W.

    2009-01-01

    In order to facilitate nanoparticle enhanced Raman imaging of complicated biological specimens, we have examined the use of higher order modes with radial and azimuthal polarizations focused onto a Au nanoparticle AFM tip utilizing a back-scattering reflection configuration. When comparing the Raman intensity profiles with the observed sample topography, the radial polarized configuration demonstrates enhanced spatial resolution. This enhanced resolution results from the direction of the indu...

  2. Nonlinear Brillouin amplification of finite-duration seeds in the strong coupling regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, D–40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Parametric plasma processes received renewed interest in the context of generating ultra-intense and ultra-short laser pulses up to the exawatt-zetawatt regime. Both Raman as well as Brillouin amplifications of seed pulses were proposed. Here, we investigate Brillouin processes in the one-dimensional (1D) backscattering geometry with the help of numerical simulations. For optimal seed amplification, Brillouin scattering is considered in the so called strong coupling (sc) regime. Special emphasis lies on the dependence of the amplification process on the finite duration of the initial seed pulses. First, the standard plane-wave instability predictions are generalized to pulse models, and the changes of initial seed pulse forms due to parametric instabilities are investigated. Three-wave-interaction results are compared to predictions by a new (kinetic) Vlasov code. The calculations are then extended to the nonlinear region with pump depletion. Generation of different seed layers is interpreted by self-similar solutions of the three-wave interaction model. Similar to Raman amplification, shadowing of the rear layers by the leading layers of the seed occurs. The shadowing is more pronounced for initially broad seed pulses. The effect is quantified for Brillouin amplification. Kinetic Vlasov simulations agree with the three-wave interaction predictions and thereby affirm the universal validity of self-similar layer formation during Brillouin seed amplification in the strong coupling regime.

  3. Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with 4 millimeter resolution based on amplified spontaneous emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Raphael; London, Yosef; Antman, Yair; Zadok, Avi

    2014-05-19

    A new technique for Brillouin scattering-based, distributed fiber-optic measurements of temperature and strain is proposed, analyzed, simulated, and demonstrated. Broadband Brillouin pump and signal waves are drawn from the filtered amplified spontaneous emission of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, providing high spatial resolution. The reconstruction of the position-dependent Brillouin gain spectra along 5 cm of a silica single-mode fiber under test, with a spatial resolution of 4 mm, is experimentally demonstrated using a 25 GHz-wide amplified spontaneous emission source. A 4 mm-long localized hot spot is identified by the measurements. The uncertainty in the reconstruction of the local Brillouin frequency shift is ± 1.5 MHz. The single correlation peak between the pump and signal is scanned along a fiber under test using a mechanical variable delay line. The analysis of the expected spatial resolution and the measurement signal-to-noise ratio is provided. The measurement principle is supported by numerical simulations of the stimulated acoustic field as a function of position and time. Unlike most other Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis configurations, the proposed scheme is not restricted by the bandwidth of available electro-optic modulators, microwave synthesizers, or pattern generators. Resolution is scalable to less than one millimeter in highly nonlinear media. PMID:24921326

  4. Nanoengineering and characterization of gold dipole nanoantennas with enhanced integrated scattering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissert, Matthias D.; Schell, Andreas W.; Ilin, Konstantin S.; Siegel, Michael; Eisler, Hans-Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we present our approach for engineering gold dipole nanoantennas. Using electron-beam lithography we have been able to produce arrays of single gold antennas with dimensions from 70 to 300 nm total length with a highly reproducible nanoengineering protocol. Characterizing these gold nanoantenna architectures by optical means via dark-field microscopy and scattering spectroscopy gives the linear optical response function as a figure-of-merit for the antenna resonances, spectral linewidth and integrated scattering intensity. We observe an enhanced integrated scattering probability for two arm gold dipole nanoantennas with an antenna feed gap compared to antennas of the size of one arm without a gap.

  5. Nanoengineering and characterization of gold dipole nanoantennas with enhanced integrated scattering properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present our approach for engineering gold dipole nanoantennas. Using electron-beam lithography we have been able to produce arrays of single gold antennas with dimensions from 70 to 300 nm total length with a highly reproducible nanoengineering protocol. Characterizing these gold nanoantenna architectures by optical means via dark-field microscopy and scattering spectroscopy gives the linear optical response function as a figure-of-merit for the antenna resonances, spectral linewidth and integrated scattering intensity. We observe an enhanced integrated scattering probability for two arm gold dipole nanoantennas with an antenna feed gap compared to antennas of the size of one arm without a gap.

  6. Asphaltene detection using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, O O; Edilbi, A N F; Brolly, C; Muirhead, D; Parnell, J; Stacey, R; Bowden, S A

    2015-04-28

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy using a gold substrate and excitation at 514 nm can detect sub parts per million quantities of asphaltene and thereby petroleum. This simple format and sensitivity make it transformative for applications including sample triage, flow assurance, environmental protection and analysis of unique one of a kind materials. PMID:25812164

  7. Plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence and Raman scattering by metal nanotips

    OpenAIRE

    Cade, N. I.; Culfaz, F.; Eligal, L.; Ritman-Meer, T.; Huang, F-M.; Festy, F; Richards, D.

    2008-01-01

    We report modifications to the optical properties of fluorophores in the vicinity of noble metal nanotips. The fluorescence from small clusters of quantum dots has been imaged using an apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope. When a sharp gold tip is brought close to the sample surface, a strong distance-dependent enhancement of the quantum dot fluorescence is observed, leading to a simultaneous increase in optical resolution. These results are consistent with simulations of the e...

  8. Brillouin resonance broadening due to structural variations in nanoscale waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Christian; Steel, Michael J; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Poulton, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of structural variations (that is slowly varying geometry aberrations and internal strain fields) on the resonance width and shape of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in nanoscale waveguides. We find that they lead to an inhomogeneous resonance broadening through two distinct mechanisms: firstly, the acoustic frequency is directly influenced via mechanical nonlinearities; secondly, the optical wave numbers are influenced via the opto-mechanical nonlinearity leading to an additional acoustic frequency shift via the phase-matching condition. We find that this second mechanism is proportional to the opto-mechanical coupling and, hence, related to the SBS-gain itself. It is absent in intra-mode forward SBS, while it plays a significant role in backward scattering. In backward SBS increasing the opto-acoustic overlap beyond a threshold defined by the fabrication tolerances will therefore no longer yield the expected quadratic increase in overall Stokes amplification. Our results can be tra...

  9. Electromagnetic Enhancement Factor of Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering of Rh6G Molecules on Au Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jaetae; Kim, Wanjoong; Jung, Sungsoo

    2009-05-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of molecules on nanometals has been intensively studied for technical application of bio-chemical sensing. Among physical origins of SERS enhancement, the electromagnetic effect is the most fundamental contribution of SERS enhancement. Relevant REF of C-C stretching mode of Rh6G near 1511 cm-1 was shown two-order enhancement with 5-nm Au colloidal nanoparticles. The REF was greatly enhanced up to ˜six orders with ˜35 nm Au particles, and was enhanced ˜five orders with 40-nm Au nanoparticles. The reduction of REF with smaller sizes is possibly due to the scattering of conduction electrons on particles surfaces; that with larger sizes is probably due to tips or complex structures. This work at Hampton University was supported by the National Science Foundation (HRD-0734635, HRD-0630372, and ESI-0426328/002) and the U.S. Army Research Office (W911NF-07-1-0608).

  10. Enhanced Raman scattering of graphene on Ag nanoislands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wei; HUANG ZhiYi; ZHOU YingHui; CAI WeiWei; KANG JunYong

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Ag nanoislands on the Raman of graphene was investigated in this work.Compared with that on the bare silicon wafer,Raman enhancement was observed in the graphene film that covered on Ag/Si surface with nanoscale Ag islands,which would be induced by the localized plasmon resonance in Ag nanostructures.The interaction between the graphene sheet and Ag/Si substrate was further studied.The peak shift and line shape of Raman spectroscopy indicated a nonuniform strain distribution in the Ag/Si supported graphene film.

  11. Microwave photonic filter using multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with double-Brillouin-frequency shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, K. K.; Yeo, K. S.; Shee, Y. G.

    2015-04-01

    A microwave photonic filter based on double-Brillouin-frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (BEFL) is experimentally demonstrated. The filter selectivity can be easily adjusted by tuning and apodizing the optical taps generated from the multiwavelength BEFL. Reconfiguration of different frequency responses are demonstrated.

  12. Microwave photonic filter using multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with double-Brillouin-frequency shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loh, K. K.; Yeo, K. S.; Shee, Y. G. [Integrated Lightwave Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    A microwave photonic filter based on double-Brillouin-frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (BEFL) is experimentally demonstrated. The filter selectivity can be easily adjusted by tuning and apodizing the optical taps generated from the multiwavelength BEFL. Reconfiguration of different frequency responses are demonstrated.

  13. Microwave photonic filter using multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with double-Brillouin-frequency shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microwave photonic filter based on double-Brillouin-frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (BEFL) is experimentally demonstrated. The filter selectivity can be easily adjusted by tuning and apodizing the optical taps generated from the multiwavelength BEFL. Reconfiguration of different frequency responses are demonstrated

  14. Single-crystal Brillouin spectroscopy with CO{sub 2} laser heating and variable q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jin S.; Bass, Jay D. [Department of Geology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Zhu, Gaohua [Materials Research Department, Toyota Research Institute of North America, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We describe a Brillouin spectroscopy system integrated with CO{sub 2} laser-heating and Raman spectroscopic capabilities. Temperature is determined by measurements of the grey-body thermal radiation emitted by the hot sample, with the system response calibrated relative to a standard tungsten ribbon lamp. High-pressure laser-heating Brillouin scattering measurements of acoustic velocities on liquid water and ice compressed in a diamond-anvil cell were performed at temperatures up to 2500 ± 150 K at high pressure. Single-crystal laser-heating Brillouin measurements were made on the (111) plane of San Carlos olivine at ∼13 GPa, 1300 ± 200 K. The pressure as measured by ruby fluorescence is shown to be within ±0.5 GPa of the pressure on the olivine sample during laser heating when KCl and KBr are used as pressure-transmitting media. In addition, the system is designed for continuously variable scattering angles from forward scattering (near 0° scattering angle) up to near back scattering (∼141°). This novel setup allows us to probe a wide range of wave vectors q for investigation of phonon dispersion on, for example, crystals with large unit cells (on the scale of hundreds of nm)

  15. Single-crystal Brillouin spectroscopy with CO2 laser heating and variable q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a Brillouin spectroscopy system integrated with CO2 laser-heating and Raman spectroscopic capabilities. Temperature is determined by measurements of the grey-body thermal radiation emitted by the hot sample, with the system response calibrated relative to a standard tungsten ribbon lamp. High-pressure laser-heating Brillouin scattering measurements of acoustic velocities on liquid water and ice compressed in a diamond-anvil cell were performed at temperatures up to 2500 ± 150 K at high pressure. Single-crystal laser-heating Brillouin measurements were made on the (111) plane of San Carlos olivine at ∼13 GPa, 1300 ± 200 K. The pressure as measured by ruby fluorescence is shown to be within ±0.5 GPa of the pressure on the olivine sample during laser heating when KCl and KBr are used as pressure-transmitting media. In addition, the system is designed for continuously variable scattering angles from forward scattering (near 0° scattering angle) up to near back scattering (∼141°). This novel setup allows us to probe a wide range of wave vectors q for investigation of phonon dispersion on, for example, crystals with large unit cells (on the scale of hundreds of nm)

  16. Single-crystal Brillouin spectroscopy with CO2 laser heating and variable q

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin S.; Bass, Jay D.; Zhu, Gaohua

    2015-06-01

    We describe a Brillouin spectroscopy system integrated with CO2 laser-heating and Raman spectroscopic capabilities. Temperature is determined by measurements of the grey-body thermal radiation emitted by the hot sample, with the system response calibrated relative to a standard tungsten ribbon lamp. High-pressure laser-heating Brillouin scattering measurements of acoustic velocities on liquid water and ice compressed in a diamond-anvil cell were performed at temperatures up to 2500 ± 150 K at high pressure. Single-crystal laser-heating Brillouin measurements were made on the (111) plane of San Carlos olivine at ˜13 GPa, 1300 ± 200 K. The pressure as measured by ruby fluorescence is shown to be within ±0.5 GPa of the pressure on the olivine sample during laser heating when KCl and KBr are used as pressure-transmitting media. In addition, the system is designed for continuously variable scattering angles from forward scattering (near 0° scattering angle) up to near back scattering (˜141°). This novel setup allows us to probe a wide range of wave vectors q for investigation of phonon dispersion on, for example, crystals with large unit cells (on the scale of hundreds of nm).

  17. Development of a Raman spectrometer to study surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman spectroscopy is an important tool, which provides enormous information on the vibrational and structural details of materials. This understanding is not only interesting due to its fundamental importance, but also of considerable importance in optoelectronics and device applications of these materials in nanotechnology. In this report, we begin with a brief introduction on the Raman effect and various Raman scattering techniques, followed by a detailed discussion on the development of an instrument with home-built collection optics attachment. This Raman system consists of a pulsed laser excitation source, a sample compartment, collection optics to collect the scattered light, a notch filter to reject the intense laser light, a monochromator to disperse the scattered light and a detector to detect the Raman signal. After calibrating the Raman spectrometer with standard solvents, we present our results on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) investigations on three different kinds of chemical systems. (author)

  18. Enhanced stabilisation of trapped electron modes by collisional energy scattering in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collisional stabilisation via energy scattering and pitch-angle scattering of micro-instabilities in tokamak plasmas is investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations with a special emphasis on the often neglected energy scattering operator. It is shown that in the linear regime energy scattering has a negligible effect on Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) modes but enhances the stabilisation of Trapped Electron Modes (TEM) in presence of nonzero ion temperature and density gradients. This stabilisation is sensitive to the model used for the energy restoring term in the collision operator. The contributions of parallel and drift motion to the total growth rate in velocity space are used to characterize the complex stabilisation mechanisms behind pitch-angle and energy scattering for a range of relevant parameters such as the magnetic shear, the collisionality, the logarithmic density gradient, and the logarithmic ion temperature gradient. It is shown that depending on these parameters, energy scattering stabilisation of TEM can be either due to a decrease of the contribution from drifting trapped electrons or to an increase of the contribution from the parallel motion of passing electrons. Finally, for a standard ITG/TEM case, the effect of energy scattering on the nonlinear heat and particle fluxes is investigated

  19. Two-loop enhancement factor for $1/Q$ corrections to event shapes in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the two-loop enhancement factors for our earlier one-loop calculations of leading ($1/Q$) power corrections to the mean values of some event shape variables in deep inelastic lepton scattering. The enhancement is found to be equal to the universal ''Milan factor'' for those shape variables considered, provided the one-loop calculation is performed in a particular way. As a result, the phenomenology of power corrections to DIS event shapes remains largely unaffected. (author)

  20. Electroless Gold-Modified Diatoms as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannico, Marianna; Rea, Ilaria; Chandrasekaran, Soundarrajan; Musto, Pellegrino; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; De Stefano, Luca

    2016-06-01

    Porous biosilica from diatom frustules is well known for its peculiar optical and mechanical properties. In this work, gold-coated diatom frustules are used as low-cost, ready available, functional support for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Due to the morphology of the nanostructured surface and the smoothness of gold deposition via an electroless process, an enhancement factor for the p-mercaptoaniline Raman signal of the order of 105 is obtained.

  1. Electroless Gold-Modified Diatoms as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannico, Marianna; Rea, Ilaria; Chandrasekaran, Soundarrajan; Musto, Pellegrino; Voelcker, Nicolas H; De Stefano, Luca

    2016-12-01

    Porous biosilica from diatom frustules is well known for its peculiar optical and mechanical properties. In this work, gold-coated diatom frustules are used as low-cost, ready available, functional support for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Due to the morphology of the nanostructured surface and the smoothness of gold deposition via an electroless process, an enhancement factor for the p-mercaptoaniline Raman signal of the order of 10(5) is obtained. PMID:27356562

  2. Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering from Molecules Adsorbed on Mixed Silver/Gold Nanoparticle Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jing-huai; HUANG Yun-xia; LI Xia; DOU Xiao-ming

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction Since the first discovery of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering(SERS) from pyridine molecules adsorbed at roughened silver electrodes in 1974 by Fleischmann et al.[1],the research of SERS has made tremendous progress in applications of it to various fields of science and technology[2-8].

  3. Multimodality Raman and photoacoustic imaging of surface-enhanced-Raman-scattering-targeted tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Paproski, Robert J.; Shao, Peng; Forbrich, Alexander; Lewis, John D.; Zemp, Roger J.

    2016-02-01

    A multimodality Raman and photoacoustic imaging system is presented. This system has ultralow background and can detect tumor cells labeled with modified surface-enhanced-Raman-scattering (SERS) nanoparticles in vivo. Photoacoustic imaging provides microvascular context and can potentially be used to guide magnetic trapping of circulating tumor cells for SERS detection in animal models.

  4. Stable silver/biopolymer hybrid plasmonic nanostructures for high performance surface enhanced raman scattering (SERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver/biopolymer nanoparticles were prepared by adding 100 mg silver nitrate to 2% polyvinyl alcohol solution and reduced the silver nitrate into silver ion using 2 % trisodium citrate for high performance Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrates. Optical properties of nanoparticle were ...

  5. Optical tomography of fluorophores in dense scattering media based on ultrasound-enhanced chemiluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter proposes and demonstrates ultrasound-combined optical imaging in dense scattering media. A peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence system that includes fluorophores to chemically excite the pigment is stimulated by ultrasound irradiation with power of less than 0.14 W/cm2. Using focused ultrasound, the chemiluminescence is selectively spatially enhanced, which leads to imaging of the pigment when embedded in a light-scattering medium via scanning of the focal point. The ultrasonically enhanced intensity of the chemiluminescence depends on the base intensity of the chemiluminescence without the applied ultrasound irradiation, which thereby enables quantitative determination of the fluorophore concentration. The authors demonstrate the potential of this method to resolve chemiluminescent targets in a dense scattering medium that is comparable to biological tissue. An image was acquired of a chemiluminescent target that included indocyanine green as the fluorophore embedded at a depth of 20 mm in an Intralipid-10% 200 ml/l solution scattering medium (the reduced scattering coefficient was estimated to be approximately 1.3 mm−1), indicating the potential for expansion of this technique for use in biological applications

  6. Optical tomography of fluorophores in dense scattering media based on ultrasound-enhanced chemiluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Masaki, E-mail: masaki@tohtech.ac.jp; Kikuchi, Naoto; Sato, Akihiro [Department of Electronics and Intelligent Systems, Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai 982-8577 (Japan)

    2015-01-12

    This letter proposes and demonstrates ultrasound-combined optical imaging in dense scattering media. A peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence system that includes fluorophores to chemically excite the pigment is stimulated by ultrasound irradiation with power of less than 0.14 W/cm{sup 2}. Using focused ultrasound, the chemiluminescence is selectively spatially enhanced, which leads to imaging of the pigment when embedded in a light-scattering medium via scanning of the focal point. The ultrasonically enhanced intensity of the chemiluminescence depends on the base intensity of the chemiluminescence without the applied ultrasound irradiation, which thereby enables quantitative determination of the fluorophore concentration. The authors demonstrate the potential of this method to resolve chemiluminescent targets in a dense scattering medium that is comparable to biological tissue. An image was acquired of a chemiluminescent target that included indocyanine green as the fluorophore embedded at a depth of 20 mm in an Intralipid-10% 200 ml/l solution scattering medium (the reduced scattering coefficient was estimated to be approximately 1.3 mm{sup −1}), indicating the potential for expansion of this technique for use in biological applications.

  7. Brillouin distributed sensing using localized and stationary dynamic gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primerov, Nikolay; Antman, Yair; Sancho, Juan; Zadok, Avi; Thevenaz, Luc

    2012-04-01

    In this work, we apply a recent technique for the generation of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) dynamic gratings that are both localized and stationary to realize high-resolution distributed temperature sensing. The gratings generation method relies on the phase modulation of two pump waves by a common pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS), with a symbol duration that is much shorter than the acoustic lifetime. This way the acoustic wave can efficiently build up in the medium at discrete locations only, where the phase difference between the two waves does not temporarily vary. The separation between neighboring correlation peaks can be made arbitrarily long. Using the proposed method, we experimentally demonstrate distributed temperature sensing with 5 cm resolution, based on modifications to both the local birefringence and the local Brillouin frequency shift in polarization maintaining fibers. The localization method does not require wideband detection and can generate the grating at any random position along the fiber, with complete flexibility. The phase-coding method is equally applicable to high-resolution SBS distributed sensing over standard fibers.

  8. Ion-acoustic solitary waves and spectrally uniform scattering cross section enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ekeberg

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Spectra measured by incoherent scatter radars are formed predominantly by scattering of the incident signal off ion-acoustic and Langmuir waves in the ionosphere. Occasionally, the upshifted and/or downshifted lines produced by the ion-acoustic waves are enhanced well above thermal levels and referred to as naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines. In this paper, we study another kind of enhancement, which is spectrally uniform over the whole ion-line, i.e. the up- and downshifted shoulder and the spectral valley in between. Based on observations made with the EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR facility, we investigate the transient and spectrally uniform power enhancements, which can be explained by ion-acoustic solitary waves. We use a theory of nonlinear waves in a magnetized plasma to determine the properties of such waves and evaluate their effects on scattered signals measured by ESR. We suggest a new mechanism that can explain backscattered power enhancements by one order of magnitude above the thermal level and show that it is consistent with observations.

  9. Aggregation-Enhanced Raman Scattering by a Water-Soluble Porphyrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, Daniel L.

    1995-01-01

    Much interest in our laboratory has focused on aggregation of organic compounds, particularly cyanine dyes and porphyrins. For this discussion we have applied absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies to characterize aggregated TSPP (tetrakis-(p-sulfonatophynyl) porphyrin) in aqueous solution. Based on concentration, pH and ionic strength dependence of TSPP absorption, we deduce that aggregation evolves through the formation of TSPP diacid and that the diacid is the repeating unit in the aggregate. The Raman bands of TSPP in strongly acidic solution lead us further to conclude that vibrations of adjacent molecules are perturbed in a fashion that is consistent with the pyrrolic ring in the porphinato macrocycle being ruffled, and that two aggregate arrangements occur: specifically J- and H-type aggregates. Furthermore, aggregation enhancement is advanced as a viable mechanism to explain enhanced Raman Scattering for homogeneous aqueous phase TSPP, where the surface-enhancement mechanism is not applicable.

  10. Resonant enhancement of Raman scattering in metamaterials with hybrid electromagnetic and plasmonic resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Guddala, Sriram; Ramakrishna, S Anantha

    2016-01-01

    A tri-layer metamaterial perfect absorber of light, consisting of (Al/ZnS/Al) films with the top aluminium layer patterned as an array of circular disk nanoantennas, is investigated for resonantly enhancing Raman scattering from C-60 fullerene molecules deposited on the metamaterial. The metamaterial is designed to have resonant bands due to plasmonic and electromagnetic resonances at the Raman pump frequency (725 nm) as well as Stokes emission bands. The Raman scattering from C60 on the metamaterial with resonantly matched bands is measured to be enhanced by an order of magnitude more than from C60 on metamaterials with off-resonant absorption bands peaked at 1090 nm. The Raman pump is significantly enhanced due to the resonance with a propagating surface plasmon band, while the highly impedance matched electromagnetic resonance is expected to couple out the Raman emission efficiently. The nature and hybridization of the plasmonic and electromagnetic resonances to form compound resonances are investigated by...

  11. Enhancement of Scattering Efficiency and Development of Optical Magnetometer Using Quantum Measurement Set Up

    CERN Document Server

    Raja, Sufi O

    2016-01-01

    Quantum measurement principle is employed to detect water quality and presence of nano-colloids. The setup uses spatially low coherent light source, for which the outcome of measurement is dependent on the presence of a reflecting surface and a linear polarizer. The introduction of a reflecting surface induces enhanced side scattering. The enhancement has specific patterns for pure water, ions and nanoparticles and can be employed to detect refractive index of liquids at high sensitivity. The differential enhancement can be used as an optical magnetometer that sensitively senses magnetic moments of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles at concentration untenable by other measurement techniques.

  12. Micro-Brillouin spectroscopy mapping of the residual density field induced by Vickers indentation in a soda-lime silicate glass

    OpenAIRE

    H. Tran; Clément, S.; Vialla, R.; Vandembroucq, D.; Rufflé, B.

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution Brillouin scattering is used to achieve 3-dimensional maps of the longitudinal acoustic mode frequency shift in soda-lime silicate glasses subject to Vickers indentations. Assuming that residual stress-induced effects are simply proportional to density changes, residual densification fields are obtained. The density gradient is nearly isotropic, confirming earlier optical observations made on a similar glass. The results show that Brillouin micro-spectroscopy opens the way to ...

  13. Enhanced Thermoelectric Power in Graphene: Violation of the Mott Relation by Inelastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Fereshte; Xie, Hong-Yi; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Foster, Matthew S.; Kim, Philip

    2016-04-01

    We report the enhancement of the thermoelectric power (TEP) in graphene with extremely low disorder. At high temperature we observe that the TEP is substantially larger than the prediction of the Mott relation, approaching to the hydrodynamic limit due to strong inelastic scattering among the charge carriers. However, closer to room temperature the inelastic carrier-optical-phonon scattering becomes more significant and limits the TEP below the hydrodynamic prediction. We support our observation by employing a Boltzmann theory incorporating disorder, electron interactions, and optical phonons.

  14. [The High Precision Analysis Research of Multichannel BOTDR Scattering Spectral Information Based on the TTDF and CNS Algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-jun; Liu, Wen-zhe; Fu, Xing-hu; Bi, Wei-hong

    2015-07-01

    Traditional BOTDR optical fiber sensing system uses single channel sensing fiber to measure the information features. Uncontrolled factors such as cross-sensitivity can lead to a lower scattering spectrum fitting precision and make the information analysis deflection get worse. Therefore, a BOTDR system for detecting the multichannel sensor information at the same time is proposed. Also it provides a scattering spectrum analysis method for multichannel Brillouin optical time-domain reflection (BOT-DR) sensing system in order to extract high precision spectrum feature. This method combines the three times data fusion (TTDF) and the cuckoo Newton search (CNS) algorithm. First, according to the rule of Dixon and Grubbs criteria, the method uses the ability of TTDF algorithm in data fusion to eliminate the influence of abnormal value and reduce the error signal. Second, it uses the Cuckoo Newton search algorithm to improve the spectrum fitting and enhance the accuracy of Brillouin scattering spectrum information analysis. We can obtain the global optimal solution by smart cuckoo search. By using the optimal solution as the initial value of Newton algorithm for local optimization, it can ensure the spectrum fitting precision. The information extraction at different linewidths is analyzed in temperature information scattering spectrum under the condition of linear weight ratio of 1:9. The variances of the multichannel data fusion is about 0.0030, the center frequency of scattering spectrum is 11.213 GHz and the temperature error is less than 0.15 K. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the algorithm can be used in multichannel distributed optical fiber sensing system based on Brillouin optical time domain reflection. It can improve the accuracy of multichannel sensing signals and the precision of Brillouin scattering spectrum analysis effectively. PMID:26717729

  15. Interfacing whispering-gallery microresonators and free space light with cavity enhanced Rayleigh scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Jiangang; Yilmaz, Huzeyfe; Peng, Bo; Dong, Mark; Tomes, Matthew; Carmon, Tal; Yang, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode resonators (WGMRs) take advantage of strong light confinement and long photon lifetime for applications in sensing, optomechanics, microlasers and quantum optics. However, their rotational symmetry and low radiation loss impede energy exchange between WGMs and the surrounding. As a result, free-space coupling of light into and from WGMRs is very challenging. In previous schemes, resonators are intentionally deformed to break circular symmetry to enable free-space coupling of carefully aligned focused light, which comes with bulky size and alignment issue that hinder the realization of compact WGMR applications. Here, we report a new class of nanocouplers based on cavity enhanced Rayleigh scattering from nano-scatterer(s) on resonator surface, and demonstrate whispering gallery microlaser by free-space optical pumping of an Ytterbium doped silica microtoroid via the scatterers. This new scheme will not only expand the range of applications enabled by WGMRs, but also provide a possible r...

  16. Enhanced nonlinear imaging through scattering media using transmission matrix based wavefront shaping

    CERN Document Server

    de Aguiar, Hilton B; Brasselet, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the tremendous progresses in wavefront control through or inside complex scattering media, several limitations prevent reaching practical feasibility for nonlinear imaging in biological tissues. While the optimization of nonlinear signals might suffer from low signal to noise conditions and from possible artifacts at large penetration depths, it has nevertheless been largely used in the multiple scattering regime since it provides a guide star mechanism as well as an intrinsic compensation for spatiotemporal distortions. Here, we demonstrate the benefit of Transmission Matrix (TM) based approaches under broadband illumination conditions, to perform nonlinear imaging. Using ultrashort pulse illumination with spectral bandwidth comparable but still lower than the spectral width of the scattering medium, we show strong nonlinear enhancements of several orders of magnitude, through thicknesses of a few transport mean free paths, which corresponds to millimeters in biological tissues. Linear TM refocusing ...

  17. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanorod pairs with interconnection bars of different widths

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2012-08-01

    We demonstrate that surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement could be tuned by adjusting the width of a connection bar at the bottom of a gold nanorod pair. Arrays of gold nanorod pairs with interconnection bars of different widths at the bottom of the interspace were fabricated by electron-beam lithography and used for the SERS study. Rhodamine 6G (R6G) was used as the probe molecule for the SERS. In addition to the large SERS enhancement observed in the nanostructured substrates, the SERS enhancement increases as the width of the connection bar increases. This result provides an important method for tuning SERS enhancement. Numerical simulations of electromagnetic properties on the nanostructures were performed with CST Microwave Studio, and the results correspond well with the experimental observations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Raman scattering enhanced within the plasmonic gap between an isolated Ag triangular nanoplate and Ag film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuanguo; Jiang, Kang; Zhang, Lan; Wang, Yong; Mao, Lei; Zeng, Jie; Lu, Yonghua; Wang, Pei

    2016-04-22

    Enhanced electromagnetic field in the tiny gaps between metallic nanostructures holds great promise in optical applications. Herein, we report novel out-of-plane nanogaps composed of micrometer-sized Ag triangular nanoplates (AgTN) on Ag films. Notably, the new coupled plasmonic structure can dramatically enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by visible laser excitation, although the micrometer-sized AgTN has localized plasmon resonance at infrared wavelength. This enhancement is derived from the gap plasmon polariton between the AgTN and Ag film, which is excited via the antenna effect of the corner and edge of the AgTN. Systematic SERS studies indicated that the plasmon enhancement was on the order of corner > edge > face. These results were further verified by theoretical simulations. Our device paves the way for rational design of sensitive SERS substrates by judiciously choosing appropriate nanoparticles and optimizing the gap distance. PMID:26939539

  19. High-resolution Brillouin fiber sensing using random phase coding of the pump and probe waves

    OpenAIRE

    Antman, Yair; Primerov, Nikolay; Thévenaz, Luc; Zadok, Avinoam

    2012-01-01

    Distributed temperature measurements with 1.2 cm resolution based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in standard fibers are reported. High resolution is achieved by phase-coding both pump and probe waves with a high-rate, pseudo-random binary phase code. The SBS interaction is effectively confined to narrow correlation peaks. The separation between adjacent peaks, signifying the unambiguous measurement range, scales with the length of the modulation code and can therefore be made arbitr...

  20. Brillouin lasing in whispering gallery micro-resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, B.; Breunig, I.

    2015-12-01

    Thresholds of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in solid-state whispering gallery mode (WGM) microresonators are analyzed. It is shown that the SBS interaction is substantially different here from that known in the bulk case and in the case of water droplet resonators. The reason is the absence of pure longitudinal acoustic WGMs owing to strong coupling of the longitudinal (l) and transverse (t) acoustic displacements at the surface of the resonator. As a result, a considerable increase of the SBS thresholds takes place, and the lowest thresholds correspond to the hybrid tl-modes with very large radial indices. Nevertheless, the thresholds lie in the μW range of the pump power. Dependence of the SBS power thresholds on the modal numbers and the possibility of self-tuning to the SBS resonance are analyzed.

  1. Beyond the Brillouin limit with the Penning Fusion Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several years ago, it was proposed that a dense non-neutral plasma could be produced in a Penning trap. Nonneutral plasmas have excellent confinement, and such a dense plasma might produce simultaneously high density and good confinement. Recently, this theoretical conjecture has been demonstrated in a small (3 mm radius) electron experiment, PFX (Penning Fusion Experiment). Densities up to 35 times the Brillouin density (limiting number density in a static trap) have been inferred from the observed strong (100:1) spherical focusing. Electrons are injected at low energy from a single pole of the sphere. A surprising observation is the self-organization of the system into a spherical state, which occurs precisely when the trap parameters are adjusted to produce a spherical well. This organization is caused by a bootstrapping mechanism which produces a hysteresis. Observations of energy-scattered electrons confirm the existence of a dense spherical focus. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  2. Dual-microcavity narrow-linewidth Brillouin laser

    CERN Document Server

    Loh, William; Baynes, Frederick; Cole, Daniel; Quinlan, Franklyn; Lee, Hansuek; Vahala, Kerry; Papp, Scott; Diddams, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Ultralow noise, yet tunable lasers are a revolutionary tool in precision spectroscopy, displacement measurements at the standard quantum limit, and the development of advanced optical atomic clocks. Further applications include LIDAR, coherent communications, frequency synthesis, and precision sensors of strain, motion, and temperature. While all applications benefit from lower frequency noise, many also require a laser that is robust and compact. Here, we introduce a dual-microcavity laser that leverages one chip-integrable silica microresonator to generate tunable 1550 nm laser light via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and a second microresonator for frequency stabilization of the SBS light. This configuration reduces the fractional frequency noise to $7.8\\times10^{-14} 1/\\sqrt{Hz}$ at 10 Hz offset, which is a new regime of noise performance for a microresonator-based laser. Our system also features terahertz tunability and the potential for chip-level integration. We demonstrate the utility of our du...

  3. Enhancing Localized Evaporation through Separated Light Absorbing Centers and Scattering Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dengwu; Duan, Haoze; Yu, Shengtao; Zhang, Yao; He, Jiaqing; Quan, Xiaojun; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Wu, Jianbo; Song, Chengyi; Deng, Tao

    2015-11-01

    This report investigates the enhancement of localized evaporation via separated light absorbing particles (plasmonic absorbers) and scattering particles (polystyrene nanoparticles). Evaporation has been considered as one of the most important phase-change processes in modern industries. To improve the efficiency of evaporation, one of the most feasible methods is to localize heat at the top water layer rather than heating the bulk water. In this work, the mixture of purely light absorptive plasmonic nanostructures such as gold nanoparticles and purely scattering particles (polystyrene nanoparticles) are employed to confine the incident light at the top of the solution and convert light to heat. Different concentrations of both the light absorbing centers and the light scattering centers were evaluated and the evaporation performance can be largely enhanced with the balance between absorbing centers and scattering centers. The findings in this study not only provide a new way to improve evaporation efficiency in plasmonic particle-based solution, but also shed lights on the design of new solar-driven localized evaporation systems.

  4. Coexistence of Scattering Enhancement and Suppression by Plasmonic Cavity Modes in Loaded Dimer Gap-Antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Meili; Han, Dezhuan; Gao, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nanoantenna is of promising applications in optical sensing, single-molecular detection, and enhancement of optical nonlinear effect, surface optical spectroscopy, photochemistry, photoemission, photovoltaics, etc. Here we show that in a carefully-designed dimer gap-antenna made by two metallic nanorods, the longitudinal plasmon antenna mode (AM) of bonding dipoles can compete with the transverse plasmonic cavity modes (CMs), yielding dramatically enhanced or suppressed scattering efficiency, depending on the CMs symmetry characteristics (e.g., the radial order n and the azimuthal quantum number m ). More specifically, it is demonstrated that an appropriately loaded gap layer enables substantial excitation of toroidal moment and its strong interaction with the AM dipole moment, resulting in Fano- or electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like profile in the scattering spectrum. However, for CMs with nonzero azimuthal number, the spectrum features a cumulative signature of the respective AM a...

  5. Raman scattering enhancement in photon-plasmon resonance mediated metal-dielectric microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, we report the photon-plasmon interaction scheme and enhanced field strengths resulted into the amplification of phonon in a novel microcavity. A metal-dielectric microcavity, with unified cavity photonic mode and localized surface plasmon resonances, is visualized by impregnating the gold nanoparticles into the deep see-through nano-sized pores of porous silicon microcavity. The intense optical field strengths resulting from the photon-plasmon interactions are probed by both resonant and non-resonant Raman scattering experiments. Due to photon-plasmon-phonon interaction mechanism, several orders of enhancement in the intensity of scattered Raman Stokes photon (at 500 cm−1) are observed. Our metal nanoparticle-microcavity hybrid system shows the potential to improve the sensing figure of merit as well as the applications of plasmonics for optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and related technologies

  6. Raman scattering enhancement in photon-plasmon resonance mediated metal-dielectric microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guddala, Sriram; Narayana Rao, D., E-mail: dnr.laserlab@gmail.com, E-mail: dnrsp@uohyd.ernet.in [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046 (India); Dwivedi, Vindesh K.; Vijaya Prakash, G. [Nanophotonics Laboratory, Department of Physics, IIT Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2013-12-14

    Here, we report the photon-plasmon interaction scheme and enhanced field strengths resulted into the amplification of phonon in a novel microcavity. A metal-dielectric microcavity, with unified cavity photonic mode and localized surface plasmon resonances, is visualized by impregnating the gold nanoparticles into the deep see-through nano-sized pores of porous silicon microcavity. The intense optical field strengths resulting from the photon-plasmon interactions are probed by both resonant and non-resonant Raman scattering experiments. Due to photon-plasmon-phonon interaction mechanism, several orders of enhancement in the intensity of scattered Raman Stokes photon (at 500 cm{sup −1}) are observed. Our metal nanoparticle-microcavity hybrid system shows the potential to improve the sensing figure of merit as well as the applications of plasmonics for optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and related technologies.

  7. Deflection, spraying and induced scattering of intense laser beams in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations into laser beam spraying, deflection and induced scattering in plasmas are presented. Recent calculations and experiments on beam spraying due to filamentation are discussed. A simple model is presented for an enhanced beam deflection associated with nearly sonic plasma flow transverse to the beam. This model provides useful insights on the laser beam deflection, its scaling and the importance of self-consistent profile modifications. Finally, some discussion is given of recent experiments demonstrating the interplay between stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering. (Author)

  8. Deflection, spraying, and induced scattering of intense laser beams in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations into laser beam spraying, deflection, and induced scattering in plasmas are presented. Recent calculations and experiments on beam spraying due to filamentation are discussed. A simple model is presented for an enhanced beam deflection associated with nearly sonic plasma flow transverse to the beam. This model provides useful insights on the laser beam deflection, its scaling and the importance of self-consistent profile modifications. Finally, some discussion is given of recent experiments demonstrating the interplay between stimulated.Raman and Brillouin scattering

  9. Variable delay using stationary and localized Brillouin dynamic gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Yair; Primerov, Nikolay; Sancho, Juan; Thévenaz, Luc; Zadok, Avi

    2012-03-01

    Reflections from movable, dynamic acoustic gratings in polarization maintaining (PM) fibers are employed in the long variable delay of periodic, isolated pulses. The gratings are introduced by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) interaction between two counter-propagating pump waves, which are spectrally detuned by the Brillouin frequency shift of the PM fiber and are both polarized along one of its principal axes. The gratings are interrogated by the reflections of read-out signals that are polarized along the orthogonal principal axis. High-rate phase modulation of both pump waves by a pseudo-random binary sequence introduces dynamic gratings that are both localized and stationary, at specific locations in which the modulated pumps are correlated. The separation between adjacent correlation peaks can be made arbitrarily long. Long variable delays are readily obtained by scanning the grating along the fiber, via changing either the length or the rate of the modulation sequence. At the same time, the short length of the gratings, on the order of a cm, accommodates the delay of broadband pulses. The technique is therefore free of the delay-times-bandwidth product limitation that undermines the performance of SBS-based 'slow light' delay: we report the delay 1-ns long pulses by as much as 770 ns. In addition, the combined reflections from two dynamic gratings with a variable separation are used to implement radio-frequency photonic filters of tunable free spectral range. At the current stage, the technique is restricted by noise from residual scattering that takes place outside of the correlation peaks. Hence, it is thus far limited to the processing of repetitive signals, for which the noise may be effectively averaged out.

  10. Image combination enhancement method for X-ray compton back-scattering security inspection body scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for X-ray Compton Back-Scattering (CBS) body scanner, image clearness is very important for the performance of detecting the contraband hidden on the body. A new image combination enhancement method is provided based on characteristics of CBS body images and points of human vision. After processed by this method, the CBS image will be obviously improved with clear levels, distinct outline and uniform background. (authors)

  11. Ultra thin films of nanocrystalline Ge studied by AFM and interference enhanced Raman scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Balaji, S.; S. Mohan; Muthu, DVS; Sood, AK

    2003-01-01

    Initial growth stages of the ultra thin films of germanium (Ge) prepared by ion beam sputter deposition have been studied using atomic force microscope (AFM) and interference enhanced Raman scattering. The growth of the films follows Volmer–Weber growth mechanism. Analysis of the AFM images shows that Ostwald ripening of the grains occurs as the thickness of the film increases. Raman spectra of the Ge films reveal phonon confinement along the growth direction and show that the misfit str...

  12. A study of surface enhanced Raman scattering for furfural adsorbed on silver surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ting-jian; Li, Peng-wei; Shang, Zhi-guo; Zhang, Ling; He, Ting-chao; Mo, Yu-jun

    2008-02-01

    The normal Raman spectrum (NRS) and the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum of furfural in silver colloid were recorded and analyzed in this paper. The assignment of these bands to furfural molecules was performed by density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The data of the SERS by comparing with the one of NRS show that furfural molecules are adsorbed on the silver surface via the nonbonding electrons of the carbonyl oxygen.

  13. Use of surface-enhanced Raman scattering as a prognostic indicator of acute kidney transplant rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Jingmao; Zaw, Thet; Cardona, Iliana; Hosnain, Mujtaba; Garg, Neha; Lefkowitz, Heather R.; Tolias, Peter; Du, Henry

    2015-01-01

    We report an early, noninvasive and rapid prognostic method of predicting potential acute kidney dysfunction using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Our analysis was performed on urine samples collected prospectively from 58 kidney transplant patients using a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) as the excitation source. All abnormal kidney function episodes (three acute rejections and two acute kidney failures that were eventually diagnosed independently by clinical biopsy) consistently exhibited ...

  14. Fiber sensors for molecular detection using Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xuan

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, highly sensitive optical fiber sensors based on Raman spectroscopy (RS) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are studied with focus on applications in various chemical and biological detections. In particular, two main categories of optical fibers have been used as the sensing platforms: one is the conventional multimode optical fiber and the other is the hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF). For the conventional multimode optical fiber, we've developed two...

  15. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Study on Graphene-Coated Metallic Nanostructure Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Qingzhen; Wang, Bei; Bossard, Jeremy A.; Kiraly, Brian; Zeng, Yong; Chiang, I-Kao; Jensen, Lasse; Werner, Douglas H.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-01-01

    Graphene, which has a linear electronic band structure, is widely considered as a semimetal. In the present study, we combine graphene with conventional metallic surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates to achieve higher sensitivity of SERS detection. We synthesize high-quality, single-layer graphene sheets by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and transfer them from copper foils to gold nanostructures, i.e., nanoparticle or nanohole arrays. SERS measurements are carried out on methyl...

  16. Development of nanoscale polarization fluctuations in relaxor-based (1-x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 ferroelectrics studied by Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Shinya; Hidaka, Yuki; Kojima, Seiji; Bokov, Alexei A.; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2013-01-01

    The precursor dynamics of ferroelectric phase transitions in relaxor-based ferroelectric (1-x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 single crystals, with x=0.07, 0.10, and 0.12, were investigated using inelastic light scattering from a longitudinal acoustic phonon. An acoustic anomaly in a broad temperature range, which is characteristic of relaxor ferroelectrics, was observed. We describe the anomalies in the paraelectric phase by assuming local piezoelectric coupling inside polar nanoregions, which are surrounded by a nonpolar matrix. On the basis of local piezoelectric coupling, a relaxation time τ and a dynamic characteristic length L of the order-parameter (polarization) fluctuations were determined to be in the order of 10-13 s and 10-9 m, respectively. The τ and L values increase sharply upon cooling from high temperatures but more gradually below the intermediate temperature T* (=493-510K). This result implies that the local polarization fluctuations grow rapidly upon cooling down to above T* and the growth rate decreases below T*. The inflexion point of this growth process in the paraelectric phase is related to the characteristic properties of relaxor-based solid solutions.

  17. High-speed elasticity-specific nonlinear Brillouin imaging/sensing via time-resolved optical (BISTRO) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Ballman, Charles W.; Petrov, Georgi I.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2016-03-01

    Viscoelastic properties of living cells are often directly related to the cell types and their physiological conditions. Unfortunately, all the currently existing methods for analysis of viscoelastic properties of cells, such as micropipette aspiration, atomic force microscopy and optical tweezers are intrinsically slow, limiting their applicability to study large population of cells, which are often needed for either fundamental or clinical studies. In this report, by incorporating the concept of impulsive stimulated Brillouin scattering (ISBS), we report a Brillouin Imaging and Sensing system via Time-Resolved Optical (BISTRO) measurements. We will prove the principle of the BISTRO system by presenting example microscopic measurements and flow/cell cytometry results [1].

  18. An analysis at mesospheric coherent-scatter power enhancements during solar flare events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    Solar flares produce increases in coherent-scatter power from the mesosphere due to the increase in free electrons produced by X-ray photoionization. Thirteen such power enhancements were observed at Urbana. When such an enhancement occurs at an altitude containing a turbulence layer with constant strength, the relative enhancement of electon density is estimated from the enhancement in power. Such estimates of enchanced electron density are compared with estimates of the X-ray photoionization at that altitude, deduced from geostationary satellite measurements. It is found that possible types ion-chemical reaction scheme may be distinguished, and the nonflare ion-pair production function may be estimated. The type of ion-chemical scheme and the nonflare ion-production function are shown to depend on the solar zenith angle.

  19. A scatter correction method for contrast-enhanced dual-energy digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yihuan; Peng, Boyu; Lau, Beverly A.; Hu, Yue-Houng; Scaduto, David A.; Zhao, Wei; Gindi, Gene

    2015-08-01

    Contrast-enhanced dual energy digital breast tomosynthesis (CE-DE-DBT) is designed to image iodinated masses while suppressing breast anatomical background. Scatter is a problem, especially for high energy acquisition, in that it causes severe cupping artifact and iodine quantitation errors. We propose a patient specific scatter correction (SC) algorithm for CE-DE-DBT. The empirical algorithm works by interpolating scatter data outside the breast shadow into an estimate within the breast shadow. The interpolated estimate is further improved by operations that use an easily obtainable (from phantoms) table of scatter-to-primary-ratios (SPR)—a single SPR value for each breast thickness and acquisition angle. We validated our SC algorithm for two breast emulating phantoms by comparing SPR from our SC algorithm to that measured using a beam-passing pinhole array plate. The error in our SC computed SPR, averaged over acquisition angle and image location, was about 5%, with slightly worse errors for thicker phantoms. The SC projection data, reconstructed using OS-SART, showed a large degree of decupping. We also observed that SC removed the dependence of iodine quantitation on phantom thickness. We applied the SC algorithm to a CE-DE-mammographic patient image with a biopsy confirmed tumor at the breast periphery. In the image without SC, the contrast enhanced tumor was masked by the cupping artifact. With our SC, the tumor was easily visible. An interpolation-based SC was proposed by (Siewerdsen et al 2006 Med. Phys. 33 187-97) for cone-beam CT (CBCT), but our algorithm and application differ in several respects. Other relevant SC techniques include Monte-Carlo and convolution-based methods for CBCT, storage of a precomputed library of scatter maps for DBT, and patient acquisition with a beam-passing pinhole array for breast CT. Our SC algorithm can be accomplished in clinically acceptable times, requires no additional imaging hardware or extra patient dose and is

  20. Plasmon-resonant Raman spectroscopy in metallic nanoparticles: Surface-enhanced scattering by electronic excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles, R.; Bayle, M.; Benzo, P.; Benassayag, G.; Bonafos, C.; Cacciato, G.; Privitera, V.

    2015-11-01

    Since the discovery of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) 40 years ago, the origin of the "background" that is systematically observed in SERS spectra has remained questionable. To deeply analyze this phenomenon, plasmon-resonant Raman scattering was recorded under specific experimental conditions on a panel of composite multilayer samples containing noble metal (Ag and Au) nanoparticles. Stokes, anti-Stokes, and wide, including very low, frequency ranges have been explored. The effects of temperature, size (in the nm range), embedding medium (SiO2, Si3N4, or TiO2) or ligands have been successively analyzed. Both lattice (Lamb modes and bulk phonons) and electron (plasmon mode and electron-hole excitations) dynamics have been investigated. This work confirms that in Ag-based nanoplasmonics composite layers, only Raman scattering by single-particle electronic excitations accounts for the background. This latter appears as an intrinsic phenomenon independently of the presence of molecules on the metallic surface. Its spectral shape is well described by revisiting a model developed in the 1990s for analyzing electron scattering in dirty metals, and used later in superconductors. The gs factor, that determines the effective mean-free path of free carriers, is evaluated, gsexpt=0.33 ±0.04 , in good agreement with a recent evaluation based on time-dependent local density approximation gstheor=0.32 . Confinement and interface roughness effects at the nanometer range thus appear crucial to understand and control SERS enhancement and more generally plasmon-enhanced processes on metallic surfaces.

  1. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering reveals adsorption of mitoxantrone on plasma membrane of living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy was applied to analyze mitoxantrone (MTX) adsorption on the plasma membrane microenvironment of sensitive (HCT-116 S) or BCRP/MXR-type resistant (HCT-116 R) cells. The addition of silver colloid to MTX-treated cells revealed an enhanced Raman scattering of MTX. Addition of extracellular DNA induced a total extinction of MTX Raman intensity for both cell lines, which revealed an adsorption of MTX on plasma membrane. A threefold higher MTX Raman intensity was observed for HCT-116 R, suggesting a tight MTX adsorption in the plasma membrane microenvironment. Fluorescence confocal microscopy confirmed a relative MTX emission around plasma membrane for HCT-116 R. After 30 min at 4 deg. C, a threefold decrease of the MTX Raman scattering was observed for HCT-116 R, contrary to HCT-116 S. Permeation with benzyl alcohol revealed a threefold decrease of membrane MTX adsorption on HCT-116 R, exclusively. This additional MTX adsorption should correspond to the drug bound to an unstable site on the HCT-116 R membrane. This study showed that SERS spectroscopy could be a direct method to reveal drug adsorption to the membrane environment of living cells

  2. Considerations of stimulated sideward scattering in NIF ignition-scale hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruer, William

    2009-11-01

    It's prudent to consider the possibility of stimulated Raman and Brillouin sideward scattering in NIF ignition-scale hohlraums. NIF beam spots are quite large (with diameter >1mm), and the gradient threshold intensities for these instabilities are rather low. Some simple calculations are given for the convective gain of sideward scattering assuming heavily-damped electrostatic waves. A possible enhancement of sideward scattering in the azimuthal direction is examined. Various ways to detect sideward scattering and its effects are discussed. For seeded angular scattering in the region where the laser beams overlap, see recent calculations by P. Michel et. al.footnotetextP. Michel et. al., 39^th Anomalous Absorption Conference, Bodega Bay, CA (June 14-19, 2009)

  3. Enhanced photoluminescence of Si nanocrystals-doped cellulose nanofibers by plasmonic light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the development of bio-compatible cellulose nanofibers doped with light emitting silicon nanocrystals and Au nanoparticles via facile electrospinning. By performing photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy as a function of excitation wavelength, we demonstrate plasmon-enhanced PL by a factor of 2.2 with negligible non-radiative quenching due to plasmon-enhanced scattering of excitation light from Au nanoparticles to silicon nanocrystals inside the nanofibers. These findings provide an alternative approach for the development of plasmon-enhanced active systems integrated within the compact nanofiber geometry. Furthermore, bio-compatible light-emitting nanofibers prepared by a cost-effective solution-based processing are very promising platforms for biophotonic applications such as fluorescence sensing and imaging

  4. 3D Ag/ZnO hybrids for sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chenyue; Xu, Chunxiang; Lu, Junfeng; Li, Zhaohui; Tian, Zhengshan

    2016-03-01

    To combine the surface plasma resonance of metal and local field enhancement in metal/semiconductor interface, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on a ZnO nanorod array which was grown by hydrothermally on carbon fibers. The construction of dimensional (3D) Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrate is used for the sensitive detection of organic pollutants with the advantages such as facile synthesis, short detection time and low cost. The hybrid substrate was manifested a high sensitivity to phenol red at a lower concentration of 1 × 10-9 M and a higher enhancement factor of 3.18 × 109. Moreover, the ZnO nanostructures decorated with Ag NPs were demonstrated self-cleaning function under UV irradiation via photocatalytic degradation of the analytic molecules. The fabrication process of the materials and sensors, optimization of the SERS behaviors for different sized Ag NPs, the mechanism of SERS and recovery were presented with a detailed discussion.

  5. High-density metallic nanogaps fabricated on solid substrates used for surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gang; Li, Hai; Wu, Shixin; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Hua

    2012-02-01

    The Raman signal of adsorbed molecules can be significantly enhanced by utilizing metallic structures with high-density Raman hot spots used as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. In this work, we develop a simple, convenient and tunable method to fabricate high-density Ag or Au nanogaps on Si wafers. These nanogaps can serve as Raman hot spots, leading to dramatic enhancement of the Raman signal. The high-density nanogaps can be formed by repeating the electroless deposition of Ag NPs (or Au NPs) and coating of p-aminothiophenol (PATP, a Raman probe) on the deposited Ag NPs (or Au NPs) through the self-assembly process. After removal of PATP by O(2) plasma, the as-fabricated SERS substrate can be reused for the detection of other molecules. PMID:22159183

  6. Improved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on arrays of gold quasi-3D nanoholes

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2012-10-04

    Arrays of gold quasi-3D nanoholes were proposed and fabricated as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). By detecting rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules, the gold quasi-3D nanoholes demonstrated an SERS intensity that was 25-62 times higher than that of two-dimensional nanoholes with the same geometrical shapes and periodicities. The larger SERS enhancement of the quasi-3D nanoholes is attributed to the enhanced electromagnetic field on the top-layer nanohole, the bottom nanodiscs and the field coupling between the two layers. In addition, the investigation of the shape dependence of the SERS on the quasi-3D nanoholes demonstrated that the quadratic, circular, triangular and rhombic holes exhibited different SERS properties. Numerical simulations of the electromagnetic properties on the nanostructures were performed with CST Microwave Studio, and the results agree with the experimental observations. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Resonant surface enhancement of Raman scattering of Ag nanoparticles on silicon substrates fabricated by dc sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) were deposited onto silicon substrates by direct current (dc) magnetron sputtering. The influences of sputtering power and sputtering time on the AgNP film morphology were studied using atomic force microscopy. The particle size was successfully tuned from 19 nm to 53 nm by varying the sputtering time at a dc power of 10 W. When Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) was used as the probe molecule, the AgNP films showed significant surface enhanced Raman scattering effect. In particular, it is found that larger particles show stronger enhancement for lower concentrations of R6G while smaller particles display stronger enhancement for higher concentrations of R6G.

  8. Enhanced photoluminescence of Si nanocrystals-doped cellulose nanofibers by plasmonic light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Zhang, Ran [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 Saint Mary' s Street, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States); Reinhard, Björn M. [Department of Chemistry and Photonics Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Fujii, Minoru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Perotto, Giovanni; Marelli, Benedetto; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Physics, Tufts University, 4 Colby Street, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States); Dal Negro, Luca, E-mail: dalnegro@bu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 Saint Mary' s Street, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States)

    2015-07-27

    We report the development of bio-compatible cellulose nanofibers doped with light emitting silicon nanocrystals and Au nanoparticles via facile electrospinning. By performing photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy as a function of excitation wavelength, we demonstrate plasmon-enhanced PL by a factor of 2.2 with negligible non-radiative quenching due to plasmon-enhanced scattering of excitation light from Au nanoparticles to silicon nanocrystals inside the nanofibers. These findings provide an alternative approach for the development of plasmon-enhanced active systems integrated within the compact nanofiber geometry. Furthermore, bio-compatible light-emitting nanofibers prepared by a cost-effective solution-based processing are very promising platforms for biophotonic applications such as fluorescence sensing and imaging.

  9. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Study on Graphene-Coated Metallic Nanostructure Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qingzhen; Wang, Bei; Bossard, Jeremy A.; Kiraly, Brian; Zeng, Yong; Chiang, I-Kao; Jensen, Lasse; Werner, Douglas H.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    Graphene, which has a linear electronic band structure, is widely considered as a semimetal. In the present study, we combine graphene with conventional metallic surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates to achieve higher sensitivity of SERS detection. We synthesize high-quality, single-layer graphene sheets by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and transfer them from copper foils to gold nanostructures, i.e., nanoparticle or nanohole arrays. SERS measurements are carried out on methylene blue (MB) molecules. The combined graphene nanostructure substrates show about threefold or ninefold enhancement in the Raman signal of MB, compared with the bare nanohole or nanoparticle substrates, respectively. The difference in the enhancement factors is explained by the different morphologies of graphene on the two substrates with the aid of numerical simulations. Our study indicates that applying graphene to SERS substrates can be an effective way to improve the sensitivity of conventional metallic SERS substrates. PMID:24772200

  10. Measured and predicted aerosol light scattering enhancement factors at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fierz-Schmidhauser

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambient relative humidity (RH determines the water content of atmospheric aerosol particles and thus has an important influence on the amount of visible light scattered by particles. The RH dependence of the particle light scattering coefficient (σsp is therefore an important variable for climate forcing calculations. We used a humidification system for a nephelometer which allows for the measurement of σsp at a defined RH in the range of 20–95%. In this paper we present measurements of light scattering enhancement factors f(RH=σsp(RH/σsp(dry from a 1-month campaign (May 2008 at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland. At this site, f(RH=85% varied between 1.2 and 3.3. Measured f(RH agreed well with f(RH calculated with Mie theory using measurements of the size distribution, chemical composition and hygroscopic diameter growth factors as input. Good f(RH predictions at RH<85% were also obtained with a simplified model, which uses the Ångström exponent of σsp(dry as input. RH influences further intensive optical aerosol properties. The backscatter fraction decreased by about 30% from 0.128 to 0.089, and the single scattering albedo increased on average by 0.05 at 85% RH compared to dry conditions. These changes in σsp, backscatter fraction and single scattering albedo have a distinct impact on the radiative forcing of the Jungfraujoch aerosol.

  11. Measured and predicted aerosol light scattering enhancement factors at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fierz-Schmidhauser

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ambient relative humidity (RH determines the water content of atmospheric aerosol particles and thus has an important influence on the amount of visible light scattered by particles. The RH dependence of the particle light scattering coefficient (σsp is therefore an important variable for climate forcing calculations. We used a humidification system for a nephelometer which allows for the measurement of σsp at a defined RH in the range of 20–95%. In this paper we present measurements of light scattering enhancement factors f(RH=σsp(RH/σsp(dry from a 1-month campaign (May 2008 at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland. Measurements at the Jungfraujoch are representative for the lower free troposphere above Central Europe. For this aerosol type hardly any information about the f(RH is available so far. At this site, f(RH=85% varied between 1.2 and 3.3. Measured f(RH agreed well with f(RH calculated with Mie theory using measurements of the size distribution, chemical composition and hygroscopic diameter growth factors as input. Good f(RH predictions at RH<85% were also obtained with a simplified model, which uses the Ångström exponent of σsp(dry as input. RH influences further intensive optical aerosol properties. The backscatter fraction decreased by about 30% from 0.128 to 0.089, and the single scattering albedo increased on average by 0.05 at 85% RH compared to dry conditions. These changes in σsp, backscatter fraction and single scattering albedo have a distinct impact on the radiative forcing of the Jungfraujoch aerosol.

  12. A plasmonic staircase nano-antenna device with strong electric field enhancement for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a staircase plasmonic nano-antenna device is analysed both theoretically and experimentally. The tapered nano-antenna cavity with a grating leads to electric field enhancement factor (EF) as high as 31 close to 830 nm. The integration of a metallic grating aids the coupling of light coming from the vertical direction to the nano-antenna, increasing the electric field in the nano-antenna by a factor of 3. The smallest air gap width between the metallic regions of the fabricated nano-antenna is about 35 nm, fabricated using focused ion beam system. The small air gaps in the nano-antennas can generate very high intensity electric fields which can be used in applications in biological sensing and imaging, nanoparticle manipulations and enhancement of nonlinear effects. In this paper, to experimentally demonstrate that with the integration of a well designed grating and reflectors, the resonance inside the nano-antenna cavity is increased significantly, we exploit one application of this device: the enhancement of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The present structure can lead to SERS EFs above 1 million. (paper)

  13. Resonance scattering of radio waves in the acoustically disturbed ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that acoustic waves are excited in the atmosphere for a variety of reasons, including seismic oscillations of the earth's surface as a result of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, explosions, and in the operation of other powerful sources of natural or artificial origin. When sound waves are sufficiently intense, they can create disturbances in the electron density at ionospheric heights. In this paper, we consider the properties of radio wave scattering off such disturbances created by infrasound waves, i.e., we consider Mandel'shtam-Brillouin scattering in the ionosphere. The authors discuss the possibility of a radiophysical enhancement of the effect connected with the phenomenon of resonance scattering of the radiowaves off the disturbances created in the medium by the acoustic wave

  14. Raman scattering enhanced by plasmonic clusters and its application to single-molecule imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical response of the linear Au8 cluster is investigated by the linear response theory based on the density functional theory. It is revealed that the observed many peaks in the visible region originate from the interaction of the ideal plasmonic excitation along the molecular axis with the background d-electron excitations, i.e., the Landau damping. In spite of the existence of the damping, the Raman scattering is shown to be enhanced remarkably by the incident light resonant to the visible excitations. The novel imaging experiment with the atomic resolution is proposed by utilizing a plasmonic cluster as the probing tip

  15. Use of surface-enhanced Raman scattering as a prognostic indicator of acute kidney transplant rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jingmao; Zaw, Thet; Cardona, Iliana; Hosnain, Mujtaba; Garg, Neha; Lefkowitz, Heather R.; Tolias, Peter; Du, Henry

    2015-01-01

    We report an early, noninvasive and rapid prognostic method of predicting potential acute kidney dysfunction using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Our analysis was performed on urine samples collected prospectively from 58 kidney transplant patients using a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) as the excitation source. All abnormal kidney function episodes (three acute rejections and two acute kidney failures that were eventually diagnosed independently by clinical biopsy) consistently exhibited unique SERS spectral features in just one day following the transplant surgery. These results suggested that SERS analysis provides an early and more specific indication to kidney function than the clinically used biomarker, serum creatinine (sCr). PMID:25798301

  16. High-sensitivity pesticide detection using particle-enhanced resonant Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Bikas; Saito, Yuika; Verma, Prabhat

    2016-03-01

    The use of pesticides in agriculture has raised concerns, as even a small residual of pesticide on food can be harmful. It is therefore of great importance to develop a robust technique to detect tiny amounts of pesticides. Although Raman spectroscopy is frequently used for chemical identification, it is not suitable for extremely low molecular concentrations. We propose a technique called particle-enhanced resonant Raman spectroscopy to detect extremely low concentrations of pesticides, where gold nanoparticles of desired plasmonic resonance are synthesized to match the resonance in Raman scattering. We successfully demonstrated the detection of extremely low amounts of pesticides on oranges.

  17. Explosive and chemical threat detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakonen, Aron; Andersson, Per Ola; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk;

    2015-01-01

    of ultra-low quantities of hazardous compounds at remote locations for anti-terror purposes and monitoring of environmental sanitation of dumped or left behind toxic substances and explosives. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is one of todays most interesting and rapidly developing methods...... for label-free ultrasensitive vibrational "fingerprinting" of a variety of molecular compounds. Performance highlights include attomolar detection of TNT and DNT explosives, a sensitivity that few, if any, other technique can compete with. Moreover, instrumentation needed for SERS analysis are becoming...

  18. Ultra thin films of nanocrystalline Ge studied by AFM and interference enhanced Raman scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Balaji; S Mohan; D V S Muthu; A K Sood

    2003-10-01

    Initial growth stages of the ultra thin films of germanium (Ge) prepared by ion beam sputter deposition have been studied using atomic force microscope (AFM) and interference enhanced Raman scattering. The growth of the films follows Volmer-Weber growth mechanism. Analysis of the AFM images shows that Ostwald ripening of the grains occurs as the thickness of the film increases. Raman spectra of the Ge films reveal phonon confinement along the growth direction and show that the misfit strain is relieved for film thickness greater than 4 nm.

  19. Improved surface-enhanced Raman scattering of patterned gold nanoparticles deposited on silicon nanoporous pillar arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Weifen, E-mail: gingerwfj@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Mathematics and Information Science, North China Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Li Xingfu; Cai Hongtao [Department of Mathematics and Information Science, North China Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Li Xinjian [Department of Physics and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2011-07-01

    Large-area silicon nanoporous pillar arrays (Si-NPA) uniformly coated with gold nanoparticles was synthesized, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering of rhodamine 6G adsorbed on these gold nanoparticles were studied and compared. It's found that Au/Si-NPA substrate has a significantly high Raman signal sensitivity and good homogeneity. These are attributed to gold nanoparticles with narrow particle-size distribution uniformly coated on the surface and to the enlarged specific surface area for adsorption of target molecules brought by the porous silicon pillars.

  20. Detection of circulating tumor cells using targeted surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles and magnetic enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Paproski, Robert J.; Moore, Ronald; Zemp, Roger

    2014-05-01

    While more than 90% of cancer deaths are due to metastases, our ability to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is limited by low numbers of these cells in the blood and factors confounding specificity of detection. We propose a magnetic enrichment and detection technique for detecting CTCs with high specificity. We targeted both magnetic and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles to cancer cells. Only cells that are dual-labeled with both kinds of nanoparticles demonstrate an increasing SERS signal over time due to magnetic trapping.

  1. Preparation of metal nanoparticles for surface enhanced Raman scattering by laser ablation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, silver and copper nanoparticles were prepared in clean and biologically-friendly liquids by laser ablation. The average size of nanoparticles ranges from 3 to 30 nm. These nanoparticles were used to fabricate nanostructured substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurement. Raman spectra were measured by a Micro-Raman spectrophotometer. The results show that gold, silver and copper nanoparticle substrates fabricated by our method are effective for SERS studies. SERS was also obtained when using gold, silver and copper nanoparticle colloid prepared by laser ablation

  2. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of biospecies on anodized aluminum oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Smirnov, A. I.; Hahn, D.; Grebel, H.

    2007-06-01

    Traditionally, aluminum and anodized aluminum oxide films (AAO) are not the platforms of choice for surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS) experiments despite of the aluminum's large negative permittivity value. Here we examine the usefulness of aluminum and nanoporous alumina platforms for detecting soft biospecies ranging from bacterial spores to protein markers. We used these flat platforms to examine SERS of a model protein (cytochrome c from bovine heart tissue) and bacterial cells (spores of Bacillus subtilis ATCC13933 used as Anthrax simulant) and demonstrated clear Raman amplification.

  3. Applying an optical space-time coding method to enhance light scattering signals in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Zhe; Wu, Tsung-Feng; Pion-Tonachini, Luca; Qiao, Wen; Zhao, Chao; Liu, Zhiwen; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2011-09-01

    An "optical space-time coding method" was applied to microfluidic devices to detect the forward and large angle light scattering signals for unlabelled bead and cell detection. Because of the enhanced sensitivity by this method, silicon pin photoreceivers can be used to detect both forward scattering (FS) and large angle (45-60°) scattering (LAS) signals, the latter of which has been traditionally detected by a photomultiplier tube. This method yields significant improvements in coefficients of variation (CV), producing CVs of 3.95% to 10.05% for FS and 7.97% to 26.12% for LAS with 15 μm, 10 μm, and 5 μm beads. These are among the best values ever demonstrated with microfluidic devices. The optical space-time coding method also enables us to measure the speed and position of each particle, producing valuable information for the design and assessment of microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices such as flow cytometers and complete blood count devices. PMID:21915241

  4. Interfacing whispering-gallery microresonators and free space light with cavity enhanced Rayleigh scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiangang; Özdemir, Şahin K.; Yilmaz, Huzeyfe; Peng, Bo; Dong, Mark; Tomes, Matthew; Carmon, Tal; Yang, Lan

    2014-09-01

    Whispering gallery mode resonators (WGMRs) take advantage of strong light confinement and long photon lifetime for applications in sensing, optomechanics, microlasers and quantum optics. However, their rotational symmetry and low radiation loss impede energy exchange between WGMs and the surrounding. As a result, free-space coupling of light into and from WGMRs is very challenging. In previous schemes, resonators are intentionally deformed to break circular symmetry to enable free-space coupling of carefully aligned focused light, which comes with bulky size and alignment issues that hinder the realization of compact WGMR applications. Here, we report a new class of nanocouplers based on cavity enhanced Rayleigh scattering from nano-scatterer(s) on resonator surface, and demonstrate whispering gallery microlaser by free-space optical pumping of an Ytterbium doped silica microtoroid via the scatterers. This new scheme will not only expand the range of applications enabled by WGMRs, but also provide a possible route to integrate them into solar powered green photonics.

  5. Coherent phonon and surface-enhanced Raman scattering dynamics in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Jun, E-mail: jun@ynu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Katayama, Ikufumi; Shudo, Ken-ichi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Kitajima, Masahiro [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, National Defense Academy, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8686 (Japan); LxRay, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8172 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We have demonstrated coherent phonon and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dynamics of carbon-related materials: gold (Au) deposited graphite and benzenethiol (BT) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) adsorbed on Au film with roughness. Using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy with the enhanced electric field via Au hemispheres or Au film with nanoscale roughness, transient behaviors of high frequency phonons located at surface/interface were sensitively detected. In Au deposited graphite, the electric field near graphite surface around Au nanoparticles, whose typical diameter is ∼10 nm, is strongly enhanced. As a result, the disorder-induced mode (D-mode) near the surface was clearly observed. In BT-SAM, the nanoscale roughness of the Au film might contribute to the amplitude enhancement of coherent vibrations up to the detected level. From these results, we believe that coherent SERS spectroscopy will open the door to observe coherent phonon dynamics even at the level of monolayer and single molecules for future. - Highlights: • Coherent phonon spectroscopy with 7.5 fs laser pulse is utilized to measure SERS dynamics. • Au nanostructures were used to enhance coherent vibrations in graphite/self-assembled monolayer. • D-mode coherent phonon in graphite was sensitively detected due to SERS via Au nanostructures. • High frequency vibrations in benzenethiol self-assembled monolayer were detected due to SERS.

  6. A scatter correction method for contrast-enhanced dual-energy digital breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contrast-enhanced dual energy digital breast tomosynthesis (CE-DE-DBT) is designed to image iodinated masses while suppressing breast anatomical background. Scatter is a problem, especially for high energy acquisition, in that it causes severe cupping artifact and iodine quantitation errors. We propose a patient specific scatter correction (SC) algorithm for CE-DE-DBT. The empirical algorithm works by interpolating scatter data outside the breast shadow into an estimate within the breast shadow. The interpolated estimate is further improved by operations that use an easily obtainable (from phantoms) table of scatter-to-primary-ratios (SPR)—a single SPR value for each breast thickness and acquisition angle. We validated our SC algorithm for two breast emulating phantoms by comparing SPR from our SC algorithm to that measured using a beam-passing pinhole array plate. The error in our SC computed SPR, averaged over acquisition angle and image location, was about 5%, with slightly worse errors for thicker phantoms. The SC projection data, reconstructed using OS-SART, showed a large degree of decupping. We also observed that SC removed the dependence of iodine quantitation on phantom thickness. We applied the SC algorithm to a CE-DE-mammographic patient image with a biopsy confirmed tumor at the breast periphery. In the image without SC, the contrast enhanced tumor was masked by the cupping artifact. With our SC, the tumor was easily visible. An interpolation-based SC was proposed by (Siewerdsen et al 2006 Med. Phys. 33 187–97) for cone-beam CT (CBCT), but our algorithm and application differ in several respects. Other relevant SC techniques include Monte-Carlo and convolution-based methods for CBCT, storage of a precomputed library of scatter maps for DBT, and patient acquisition with a beam-passing pinhole array for breast CT. Our SC algorithm can be accomplished in clinically acceptable times, requires no additional imaging hardware or extra patient dose and is

  7. Using Brillouin fiber-optic ring laser to provide base station with uplink optical carrier in a 10 GHz radio over fiber system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao-shuo; LIN Ru-jian; YE Jia-jun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a 10 GHz radio over fiber system is analyzed. The Brillouin fiber-optic ring laser is used in the center station (CS) to suppress the optical carrier for the modulation depth enhancement. Simultaneously, the Stockes waveinduced by the Brillouin amplification injects and locks the Fabry-Perot (FP) laser to output a signal-mode optical source,which works as the uplink optical carrier.

  8. Brillouin resonance broadening due to structural variations in nanoscale waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, C.; Van Laer, R.; Steel, M. J.; Eggleton, B. J.; Poulton, C. G.

    2016-02-01

    We study the impact of structural variations (that is slowly varying geometry aberrations and internal strain fields) on the width and shape of the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) resonance in nanoscale waveguides. We find that they lead to an inhomogeneous resonance broadening through two distinct mechanisms: firstly, the acoustic frequency is directly influenced via mechanical nonlinearities; secondly, the optical wave numbers are influenced via the opto-mechanical nonlinearity leading to an additional acoustic frequency shift via the phase-matching condition. We find that this second mechanism is proportional to the opto-mechanical coupling and, hence, related to the SBS-gain itself. It is absent in intra-mode forward SBS, while it plays a significant role in backward scattering. In backward SBS increasing the opto-acoustic overlap beyond a threshold defined by the fabrication tolerances will therefore no longer yield the expected quadratic increase in overall Stokes amplification. Finally, we illustrate in a numerical example that in backward SBS and inter-mode forward SBS the existence of two broadening mechanisms with opposite sign also opens the possibility to compensate the effect of geometry-induced broadening. Our results can be transferred to other micro- and nano-structured waveguide geometries such as photonic crystal fibres.

  9. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering spectroscopy of single R6G molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zeng-Hui; Liu Li; Wang Gui-Ying; Xu Zhi-Zhan

    2006-01-01

    Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) adsorbed on colloidal silver clusters has been studied. Based on the great enhancement of the Raman signal and the quench of the fluorescence, the SERRS spectra of R6G were recorded for the samples of dye colloidal solution with different concentrations. Spectral inhomogeneity behaviours from single molecules in the dried sample films were observed with complementary evidences, such as spectral polarization, spectral diffusion, intensity fluctuation of vibrational lines and even "breathing" of the molecules. Sequential spectra observed from a liquid sample with an average of 0.3 dye molecules in the probed volume exhibited the expected Poisson distribution for actually measuring 0, 1 or 2 molecules. Difference between the SERRS spectra of R6G excited by linearly and circularly polarized light were experimentally measured.

  10. Immunoassay utilizing biochemistry reaction product via surface-enhanced Raman scattering in near field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Haiying; NI Yi; JIANG Wei; LUO Peiqing; HUANG Meizheng; YIN Guangzhong; DOU Xiaoming

    2005-01-01

    We propose here a kind of applications of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to immunology. It is a new enzyme immunoassay based on SERS. In the proposed system, antibody immobilized on a solid substrate reacts with antigen, which binds with another antibody labeled with peroxidase. If this immunocomplex is subjected to reaction with o-phenylenediamine and hydrogenperoxide, azoaniline is generated. This azo compound is adsorbed on a silver colloid and only the azo compound gives a strong surface-enhanced resonance Raman (SERRS) spectrum. A linear relationship was observed between the peak intensity of the N=N stretching band and the concentration of antigen, revealing that one can determine the concentration of antigen by the SERRS measurement of the reaction product. The detection limit of this SERS enzyme immunoassay method was found to be about 10-15 mol/L.

  11. Electron-beam lithography of gold nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2012-10-26

    The fabrication of nanostructured substrates with precisely controlled geometries and arrangements plays an important role in studies of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Here, we present two processes based on electron-beam lithography to fabricate gold nanostructures for SERS. One process involves making use of metal lift-off and the other involves the use of the plasma etching. These two processes allow the successful fabrication of gold nanostructures with various kinds of geometrical shapes and different periodic arrangements. 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPy) and Rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules are used to probe SERS signals on the nanostructures. The SERS investigations on the nanostructured substrates demonstrate that the gold nanostructured substrates have resulted in large SERS enhancement, which is highly dependent on the geometrical shapes and arrangements of the gold nanostructures. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. Reactive ion etching-assisted surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurements on the single nanoparticle level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-nanoparticle surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurement is of essential importance for both fundamental research and practical applications. In this work, we develop a class of single-particle SERS approaches, i.e., reactive ion etching (RIE)-assisted SERS measurements correlated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) strategy (RIE/SERS/SEM), enabling precise and high-resolution identification of single gold nanoparticle (AuNP) in facile and reliable manners. By using AuNP-coated silicon wafer and quartz glass slide as models, we further employ the developed RIE/SERS/SEM method for interrogating the relationship between SERS substrates and enhancement factor (EF) on the single particle level. Together with theoretical calculation using an established finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method, we demonstrate silicon wafer as superior SERS substrates, facilitating improvement of EF values.

  13. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity of niobium surface after irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Victor G. [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, 5 James Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, BAS, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Vlakhov, Emil S. [Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, BAS, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Stan, George E.; Socol, Marcela [National Institute of Material Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele-Ilfov (Romania); Zamfirescu, Marian; Albu, Catalina; Mihailescu, Natalia; Negut, Irina; Luculescu, Catalin; Ristoscu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Ion N., E-mail: ion.mihailescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele-Ilfov (Romania)

    2015-11-28

    The chemical modification of the niobium (Nb) surface after irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses was investigated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The physical-chemical analyses indicated that the laser treatment results in oxidation of the Nb surface, as well as in the formation of Nb hydrides. Remarkably, after the samples' washing in ethanol, a strong Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) signal originating from the toluene residual traces was evidenced. Further, it was observed that the laser irradiated Nb surface is able to provide a SERS enhancement of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 3} times for rhodamine 6G solutions. Thus, for the first time it was shown that Nb/Nb oxide surfaces could exhibit SERS functionality, and so one can expect applications in biological/biochemical screening or for sensing of dangerous environmental substances.

  14. Metal-coated magnetic nanoparticles for surface enhanced Raman scattering studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Pavan Kumar; N Rangarajan; B Sonia; P Deepika; Nashiour Rohman; Chandrabhas Narayana

    2011-04-01

    We report the optimization and usage of surfactantless, water dispersible Ag and Au-coated –Fe2O3 nanoparticles for applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). These nanoparticles, with plasmonic as well as super paramagnetic properties exhibit Raman enhancement factors of the order of 106 (105) for Ag (Au) coating, which are on par with the conventional Ag and Au nanoparticles. Raman markers like 2-naphthalenethiol, rhodamine-B and rhodamine-6G have been adsorbed to these nanoparticles and tested for nonresonant SERS at low concentrations. Further, to confirm the robustness of Ag-coated nanoparticles, we have performed temperaturedependent SERS in the temperature range of 77–473 K. The adsorbed molecules exhibit stable SERS spectra except at temperatures >323 K, where the thermal desorption of test molecule (naphthalenethiol) were evident. The magnetic properties of these nanoparticles combined with SERS provide a wide range of applications.

  15. Polarization Dependence of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering on a Single Dielectric Nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our measurements of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS on Ga2O3 dielectric nanowires (NWs core/silver composites indicate that the SERS enhancement is highly dependent on the polarization direction of the incident laser light. The polarization dependence of the SERS signal with respect to the direction of a single NW was studied by changing the incident light angle. Further investigations demonstrate that the SERS intensity is not only dependent on the direction and wavelength of the incident light, but also on the species of the SERS active molecule. The largest signals were observed on an NW when the incident 514.5 nm light was polarized perpendicular to the length of the NW, while the opposite phenomenon was observed at the wavelength of 785 nm. Our theoretical simulations of the polarization dependence at 514.5 nm and 785 nm are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  16. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity of niobium surface after irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical modification of the niobium (Nb) surface after irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses was investigated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The physical-chemical analyses indicated that the laser treatment results in oxidation of the Nb surface, as well as in the formation of Nb hydrides. Remarkably, after the samples' washing in ethanol, a strong Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) signal originating from the toluene residual traces was evidenced. Further, it was observed that the laser irradiated Nb surface is able to provide a SERS enhancement of ∼1.3 × 103 times for rhodamine 6G solutions. Thus, for the first time it was shown that Nb/Nb oxide surfaces could exhibit SERS functionality, and so one can expect applications in biological/biochemical screening or for sensing of dangerous environmental substances

  17. Preparation and surface enhanced Raman scattering behavior of Ag-coated C{sub 60} nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Shi-Zhao; Yin, Die-er; Li, Xiangqing; Mu, Jin, E-mail: mujin@sit.edu.cn

    2013-12-01

    Ag-coated C{sub 60} nanoclusters were prepared and characterized with X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm measurement. The Ag-coated C{sub 60} nanoclusters were assembled on the glass substrate to form a thin film using the layer-by-layer technique. Meanwhile, the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of musk xylene adsorbed on the film of Ag-coated C{sub 60} nanoclusters was explored. The results indicated that the film of Ag-coated C{sub 60} nanoclusters was a unique SERS-active substrate with a detection limit of 10{sup −9} mol L{sup −1} for musk xylene. Furthermore, the surface enhanced mechanisms were discussed preliminarily.

  18. Preparation and surface enhanced Raman scattering behavior of Ag-coated C60 nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ag-coated C60 nanoclusters were prepared and characterized with X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm measurement. The Ag-coated C60 nanoclusters were assembled on the glass substrate to form a thin film using the layer-by-layer technique. Meanwhile, the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of musk xylene adsorbed on the film of Ag-coated C60 nanoclusters was explored. The results indicated that the film of Ag-coated C60 nanoclusters was a unique SERS-active substrate with a detection limit of 10−9 mol L−1 for musk xylene. Furthermore, the surface enhanced mechanisms were discussed preliminarily.

  19. Formation Regularities of Plasmonic Silver Nanostructures on Porous Silicon for Effective Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandarenka, Hanna V; Girel, Kseniya V; Bondarenko, Vitaly P; Khodasevich, Inna A; Panarin, Andrei Yu; Terekhov, Sergei N

    2016-12-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures demonstrating an activity in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy have been fabricated by an immersion deposition of silver nanoparticles from silver salt solution on mesoporous silicon (meso-PS). The SERS signal intensity has been found to follow the periodical repacking of the silver nanoparticles, which grow according to the Volmer-Weber mechanism. The ratio of silver salt concentration and immersion time substantially manages the SERS intensity. It has been established that optimal conditions of nanostructured silver layers formation for a maximal Raman enhancement can be chosen taking into account a special parameter called effective time: a product of the silver salt concentration on the immersion deposition time. The detection limit for porphyrin molecules CuTMPyP4 adsorbed on the silvered PS has been evaluated as 10(-11) M. PMID:27209406

  20. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection for chemical and biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Stokes, David L.; Wabuyele, Musundi B.; Griffin, Guy D.; Vass, Arpad A.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2004-07-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of chemical agent simulants such as dimethyl methylphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMP), diethyl phosphoramidate (DEPA), and 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (CEES), and biological agent simulants such as bacillus globigii (BG), erwinia herbicola (EH), and bacillus thuringiensis (BT) were obtained from silver oxide film-deposited substrates. Thin AgO films ranging in thickness from 50 nm to 250 nm were produced by chemical bath deposition onto glass slides. Further Raman intensity enhancements were noticed in UV irradiated surfaces due to photo-induced Ag nanocluster formation, which may provide a possible route to producing highly useful plasmonic sensors for the detection of chemical and biological agents upon visible light illumination.

  1. Polyvinylpyrrolidone- (PVP-) coated silver aggregates for high performance surface-enhanced Raman scattering in living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biocompatible and stable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probe has been successfully synthesized through a simple route with silver aggregates. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), a biocompatible polymer, was utilized to control the aggregation process and improve the chemical stability of the aggregates. Extinction spectroscopy and TEM results show the aggregation degree and core-shell structure of the probe. It is found that when we employ 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4MBA), crystal violet (CV), Rhodamine 6G (R6G) or 4,4'-bipyridine molecules as Raman reporters, the SERS signal from the proposed probe can remain at a high level under aggressive chemical environments, even after being incorporated into living cells. In comparison with the traditional probes without the PVP shell, the new ones exhibit strong surface-enhanced effects and low toxicity towards living cells. We demonstrate that the PVP-coated silver aggregates are highly SERS effective, for which the fabrication protocol is advantageous in its simplicity and reproducibility.

  2. Biocompatible surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanotags for in vivo cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Animesh; Jana, Santanu; Das, Raj Kumar; Chang, Young Tae

    2014-03-01

    The advancement of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is significantly increasing as an ultra-sensitive sensing technology in biomedical research. In this review, we focus on the most recent developments of biocompatible nanoprobes for cancer research. First, we discuss coating approaches to enhance the biocompatibility of SERS substrate and Raman reporters. Furthermore, interesting ligands such as antibodies, aptamers and polypeptides are attached to the surface of nanotags for targeting the cancerous cells in vitro. The unique multiplexing capabilities of the SERS technique have been applied for simultaneous multiple target recognition. Finally, these noninvasive, ultrasensitive tools are mostly highlighted for in vivo tumor detection. Potential application of SERS nanotags in therapeutic study and the possibility of SERS nanotags in biomedical applications are outlined briefly in this review. PMID:24746194

  3. Detection of nerve gases using surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates with high droplet adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakonen, Aron; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Andersson, Per Ola; Juhlin, Lars; Svedendahl, Mikael; Boisen, Anja; Käll, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Threats from chemical warfare agents, commonly known as nerve gases, constitute a serious security issue of increasing global concern because of surging terrorist activity worldwide. However, nerve gases are difficult to detect using current analytical tools and outside dedicated laboratories. Here we demonstrate that surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) can be used for sensitive detection of femtomol quantities of two nerve gases, VX and Tabun, using a handheld Raman device and SERS substrates consisting of flexible gold-covered Si nanopillars. The substrate surface exhibits high droplet adhesion and nanopillar clustering due to elasto-capillary forces, resulting in enrichment of target molecules in plasmonic hot-spots with high Raman enhancement. The results may pave the way for strategic life-saving SERS detection of chemical warfare agents in the field.Threats from chemical warfare agents, commonly known as nerve gases, constitute a serious security issue of increasing global concern because of surging terrorist activity worldwide. However, nerve gases are difficult to detect using current analytical tools and outside dedicated laboratories. Here we demonstrate that surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) can be used for sensitive detection of femtomol quantities of two nerve gases, VX and Tabun, using a handheld Raman device and SERS substrates consisting of flexible gold-covered Si nanopillars. The substrate surface exhibits high droplet adhesion and nanopillar clustering due to elasto-capillary forces, resulting in enrichment of target molecules in plasmonic hot-spots with high Raman enhancement. The results may pave the way for strategic life-saving SERS detection of chemical warfare agents in the field. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06524k

  4. Dimensional scale effects on surface enhanced Raman scattering efficiency of self-assembled silver nanoparticle clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) from micrometric metallic nanoparticle aggregates is presented. The sample is obtained from the self-assembly on glass slides of micro-clusters of silver nanoparticles (60 and 100 nm diameter), functionalized with the organic molecule 4-aminothiophenol in water solution. For nanoparticle clusters at the micron scale, a maximum enhancement factor of 109 is estimated from the SERS over the Raman intensity ratio normalized to the single molecule contribution. Atomic force microscopy, correlated to spatially resolved Raman measurements, allows highlighting the connection between morphology and efficiency of the plasmonic system. The correlation between geometric features and SERS response of the metallic structures reveals a linear trend of the cluster maximum scattered intensity as a function of the surface area of the aggregate. On given clusters, the intensity turns out to be also influenced by the number of stacking planes of the aggregate, thus suggesting a plasmonic waveguide effect. The linear dependence results weakened for the largest area clusters, suggesting 30 μm2 as the upper limit for exploiting the coherence over large scale of the plasmonic response.

  5. Dimensional scale effects on surface enhanced Raman scattering efficiency of self-assembled silver nanoparticle clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasolato, C. [Dip. Fisica, Università Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Center for Life Nanoscience@Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, V.le Regina Elena, 291, 00185 Rome (Italy); Domenici, F., E-mail: fabiodomenici@gmail.com, E-mail: paolo.postorino@roma1.infn.it; De Angelis, L.; Luongo, F.; Postorino, P., E-mail: fabiodomenici@gmail.com, E-mail: paolo.postorino@roma1.infn.it [Dip. Fisica, Università Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Sennato, S. [Dip. Fisica, Università Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); CNR-IPCS UOS Roma, Dip. Fisica, Università Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Mura, F. [Dip. Scienze di Base Applicate all' Ingegneria, Università Sapienza, Via A. Scarpa, 16, 00185 Rome (Italy); Costantini, F. [Dip. Ingegneria Astronautica Elettrica ed Energetica, Università Sapienza, Via Eudossiana, 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Bordi, F. [Dip. Fisica, Università Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Center for Life Nanoscience@Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, V.le Regina Elena, 291, 00185 Rome (Italy); CNR-IPCS UOS Roma, Dip. Fisica, Università Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2014-08-18

    A study of the Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) from micrometric metallic nanoparticle aggregates is presented. The sample is obtained from the self-assembly on glass slides of micro-clusters of silver nanoparticles (60 and 100 nm diameter), functionalized with the organic molecule 4-aminothiophenol in water solution. For nanoparticle clusters at the micron scale, a maximum enhancement factor of 10{sup 9} is estimated from the SERS over the Raman intensity ratio normalized to the single molecule contribution. Atomic force microscopy, correlated to spatially resolved Raman measurements, allows highlighting the connection between morphology and efficiency of the plasmonic system. The correlation between geometric features and SERS response of the metallic structures reveals a linear trend of the cluster maximum scattered intensity as a function of the surface area of the aggregate. On given clusters, the intensity turns out to be also influenced by the number of stacking planes of the aggregate, thus suggesting a plasmonic waveguide effect. The linear dependence results weakened for the largest area clusters, suggesting 30 μm{sup 2} as the upper limit for exploiting the coherence over large scale of the plasmonic response.

  6. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates fabricated using electroless plating on polymer-templated nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantz, Kyle C; Haynes, Christy L

    2008-06-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has great potential as an analytical technique based on the unique molecular signatures presented even by structurally similar analyte species and the minimal interference of scattering from water when sampling in aqueous environments. Unfortunately, analytical SERS applications have been restricted on the basis of limitations in substrate design. Herein, we present a simple SERS substrate that exploits electroless deposition onto a nanoparticle-seeded polymer scaffold that can be fabricated quickly and without specialized equipment. The polymer-templated nanostructures have stable enhancement factors that are comparable to the traditional silver film over nanospheres (AgFON) substrate, broad localized surface plasmon resonance spectra that allow various Raman excitation wavelengths to be utilized, and tolerance for both aqueous and organic environments, even after 5 day exposure. These polymer-templated nanostructures have an advantage over the AgFON substrate based on the ease of fabrication; specifically, the ability to generate fresh SERS substrates outside the laboratory environment will facilitate the application of SERS to new analytical spectroscopy applications. PMID:18461977

  7. Self-assembly of mildly reduced graphene oxide monolayer for enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fenping; Wu, Shang; Wang, Yanbin; Wu, Lan; Yuan, Peilin; Wang, Xia

    2016-05-01

    Graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) has attracted much attention recently. In present study, monolayer of chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets was chemically bonded on Si substrates and their possible applications in Raman scattering were investigated. In comparison with the mechanically exfoliated graphene, mildly reduced graphene oxide (MR-GO) monolayer is a better substrate to quench the fluorescence (FL) signals and simultaneously enhance the Raman signals of adsorbed Rhodamin 6G (R6G) molecules. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectra indicate that π-π stacking and the residual polarized oxygen groups on MRGO surface, which can produce a strong local electric field under laser excitation, are mainly responsible for the excellent GERS effect of MR-GO substrate, while the charge transfer between R6G and MR-GO has a relatively low contribution for GERS effect. Our results not only provide a new approach to realize sensitive GERS substrate, but also are helpful for improving the fundamental understanding of GERS effect on RGO substrate.

  8. Dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering from Calf thymus DNA on anions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from Calf thymus DNA on anions is investigated.With the silver colloid,the bands at 732,960 and 1333 cm-1 for adenine (A),1466 cm-1 for deoxyribose,and 1652 cm-1 for the C=O group of thymine (T) are observably enhanced.With the presence of the Cl- or SO42- anions,the bands at 732 and 1326/1329 cm-1 for the symmetric stretching and skeletal vibrational modes of adenine (A) are dramatically enhanced,and the enhancement effect with the SO24- ion is more than that with the Cl- ion.The experimental results show that the DNA molecule can be adsorbed on the silver colloid particles through the C6N and N7 of adenine (A),the C=O of thymine (T) and deoxyribose.Moreover,the formed hydrogen bonding of the Cl- or S2O4- ions to the C6NH2 group of adenine (A) can induce larger C6N electronegativity,which is favor for the C6N/N7 cooperative adsorption on the (Ag)+n colloid particles.

  9. Surface enhanced Raman scattering for detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, Will; Bhattacharjee, Arunima; Darvishzadeh-Varcheie, Mahsa; Lu, Ying; Hochbaum, Allon; Capolino, Filippo; Whiteson, Katrine; Ragan, Regina

    2015-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), a biofilm forming bacterium, commonly affects cystic fibrosis, burn victims, and immunocompromised patients. PA produces pyocyanin, an aromatic, redox active, secondary metabolite as part of its quorum sensing signaling system activated during biofilm formation. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors composed of Au nanospheres chemically assembled into clusters on diblock copolymer templates were fabricated and the ability to detect pyocyanin to monitor biofilm formation was investigated. Electromagnetic full wave simulations of clusters observed in scanning electron microcopy images show that the localized surface plasmon resonance wavelength is 696 nm for a dimer with a gap spacing of 1 nm in an average dielectric environment of the polymer and analyte; the local electric field enhancement is on the order of 400 at resonance, relative to free space. SERS data acquired at 785 nm excitation from a monolayer of benzenethiol on fabricated samples was compared with Raman data of pure benzenethiol and enhancement factors as large as 8×109 were calculated that are consistent with simulated field enhancements. Using this system, the limit of detection of pyocyanin in pure gradients was determined to be 10 parts per billion. In SERS data of the supernatant from the time dependent growth of PA shaking cultures, pyocyanin vibrational modes were clearly observable during the logarithmic growth phase corresponding to activation of genes related to biofilm formation. These results pave the way for the use of SERS sensors for the early detection of biofilm formation, leading to reduced healthcare costs and better patient outcomes.

  10. Mildly reduced graphene oxide-Ag nanoparticle hybrid films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaocheng; Tay, Beng Kang; Li, Junshuai; Tan, Dunlin; Tan, Chong Wei; Liang, Kun

    2012-04-01

    Large-area mildly reduced graphene oxide (MR-GO) monolayer films were self-assembled on SiO2/Si surfaces via an amidation reaction strategy. With the MR-GO as templates, MR-GO-Ag nanoparticle (MR-GO-Ag NP) hybrid films were synthesized by immersing the MR-GO monolayer into a silver salt solution with sodium citrate as a reducing agent under UV illumination. SEM image indicated that Ag NPs with small interparticle gap are uniformly distributed on the MR-GO monolayer. Raman spectra demonstrated that the MR-GO monolayer beneath the Ag NPs can effectively quench the fluorescence signal emitted from the Ag films and dye molecules under laser excitation, resulting in a chemical enhancement (CM). The Ag NPs with narrow gap provided numerous hot spots, which are closely related with electromagnetic mechanism (EM), and were believed to remarkably enhance the Raman signal of the molecules. Due to the co-contribution of the CM and EM effects as well as the coordination mechanism between the MR-GO and Ag NPs, the MR-GO-Ag NP hybrid films showed more excellent Raman signal enhancement performance than that of either Ag films or MR-GO monolayer alone. This will further enrich the application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering in molecule detection.

  11. Controllable Silver Plating on Silica for Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lei; HAN Xiao-xia; YANG Jing-xiu; ZHOU Ji; LU Zhi-cheng; SONG Wei; ZHAO Bing; XU Wei-qing; OZAKI Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    We proposed a facile and rapid method for preparing silica-silver core-shell(SSCS) substrates to use Ag electroless plating on SiO2@Au-seed particles.UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectrometer and SEM were employed to monitor the reaction process of the formation of Ag on the surfaces of silica beads,and the optical resonance of the substrate could shift from visible to NIR region.It has been found that surface-enhanced Raman scattering(SERS)enhancement changes with the electroless plating time and the SSCS substrate with the plating time of 90 s(90SSCS)shows the strongest SERS response under the laser excitation at 514.5 nm.Signals collected over multiple spots and substrate of rhodamine 6G(R6G) resulted in a relative standard deviation(RSD) of 9.75%.The calculated enhancement factor(EF) was approximately 105-106.SSCS substrate exhibits high SERS performance,which is due to electromagnetic SERS enhancement with additional localization field within closely packed Ag nanoparticles decorated on the SiO2 nanoparticles.And this substrate presents tunable and broad localized surface plasmon resonance(LSPR),so this method may open a new way for SERS studies with other laser excitation.

  12. Gold split-ring resonators (SRRs) as substrates for surface-enhanced raman scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2013-10-24

    We used gold split ring resonators (SRRs) as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The arrays of SRRs were fabricated by electron-beam lithography in combination with plasma etching. In the detection of rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules, SERS enhancement factors of the order of 105 was achieved. This SERS enhancement increased as the size of the split gap decrease as a consequence of the matching between the resonance wavelength of the SRRs and the excitation wavelength of SERS. As the size of the split gap decreased, the localized surface plasmon resonance shifted to near the excitation wavelength and, thus, resulted in the increase in the electric field on the nanostructures. We used finite integration method (FIT) to simulate numerically the electromagnetic properties of the SRRs. The results of the simulation agreed well with our experimental observations. We anticipate this work will provide an approach to manipulate the SERS enhancement by modulating the size of split gap with SRRs without affecting the area and structural arrangement. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Aerosol light-scattering enhancement due to water uptake during TCAP campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Titos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol optical properties were measured by the DOE/ARM (US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurements Program Mobile Facility in the framework of the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP deployed at Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for a~one year period (from summer 2012 to summer 2013. Measured optical properties included aerosol light-absorption coefficient (σap at low relative humidity (RH and aerosol light-scattering coefficient (σsp at low and at RH values varying from 30 to 85%, approximately. Calculated variables included the single scattering albedo (SSA, the scattering Ångström exponent (SAE and the scattering enhancement factor (f(RH. Over the period of measurement, f(RH = 80% had a mean value of 1.9 ± 0.3 and 1.8 ± 0.4 in the PM10 and PM1 fractions, respectively. Higher f(RH = 80% values were observed for wind directions from 0–180° (marine sector together with high SSA and low SAE values. The wind sector from 225 to 315° was identified as an anthropogenically-influenced sector, and it was characterized by smaller, darker and less hygroscopic aerosols. For the marine sector, f(RH = 80% was 2.2 compared with a value of 1.8 obtained for the anthropogenically-influenced sector. The air-mass backward trajectory analysis agreed well with the wind sector analysis. It shows low cluster to cluster variability except for air-masses coming from the Atlantic Ocean that showed higher hygroscopicity. Knowledge of the effect of RH on aerosol optical properties is of great importance for climate forcing calculations and for comparison of in-situ measurements with satellite and remote sensing retrievals. In this sense, predictive capability of f(RH for use in climate models would be enhanced if other aerosol parameters could be used as proxies to estimate hygroscopic growth. Toward this goal, we propose an exponential equation that successfully estimates aerosol hygroscopicity as a function of SSA at Cape Cod. Further work is needed to

  14. The electromagnetic Brillouin precursor in one-dimensional photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitham, R.; Hoenders, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    We have calculated the electromagnetic Brillouin precursor that arises in a one-dimensional photonic crystal that consists of two homogeneous slabs which each have a single electron resonance. This forerunner is compared with the Brillouin precursor that arises in a homogeneous double-electron reson

  15. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold quasi-3D nanostructure and 2D nanohole arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method was developed to fabricate unique gold quasi-3D plasmonic nanostructures on poly(dimethylsiloxane) PDMS and 2D nanohole arrays on silicon as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates using electron beam lithography (EBL) with negative tone resist Ma-N 2403 and soft lithography. The size and shape of nanopillars fabricated by EBL were well controlled via different beam conditions. An enhancement factor (EF) as high as 6.4 x 105 was obtained for 4-mercaptopyridine molecules adsorbed on the gold quasi-3D nanostructure array on PDMS with 400 nm diameter, 100 nm spacing and 300 nm depth, while no enhancement was observed for the gold 2D nanohole array on silicon with the same diameter and spacing. The experimental results were confirmed by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations. Furthermore, the calculated total electric fields showed that the strong SERS exhibited by the gold quasi-3D nanostructure arrays on PDMS is due to the strong localized electric fields at the gold-air interface of the bottom gold nanodisc. The strong and reproducible SERS spectroscopy for molecules adsorbed on precisely controlled gold quasi-3D nanostructure arrays on PDMS makes it possible for the integration of SERS-active nanopatterns into microfluidic devices as chemical and biological sensors with molecular specificity.

  16. Analysis of temporal evolution of quantum dot surface chemistry by surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, İlker; Gresback, Ryan; Nozaki, Tomohiro; van de Sanden, Mauritius C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal evolution of surface chemistry during oxidation of silicon quantum dot (Si-QD) surfaces were probed using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). A monolayer of hydrogen and chlorine terminated plasma-synthesized Si-QDs were spin-coated on silver oxide thin films. A clearly enhanced signal of surface modes, including Si-Clx and Si-Hx modes were observed from as-synthesized Si-QDs as a result of the plasmonic enhancement of the Raman signal at Si-QD/silver oxide interface. Upon oxidation, a gradual decrease of Si-Clx and Si-Hx modes, and an emergence of Si-Ox and Si-O-Hx modes have been observed. In addition, first, second and third transverse optical modes of Si-QDs were also observed in the SERS spectra, revealing information on the crystalline morphology of Si-QDs. An absence of any of the abovementioned spectral features, but only the first transverse optical mode of Si-QDs from thick Si-QD films validated that the spectral features observed from Si-QDs on silver oxide thin films are originated from the SERS effect. These results indicate that real-time SERS is a powerful diagnostic tool and a novel approach to probe the dynamic surface/interface chemistry of quantum dots, especially when they involve in oxidative, catalytic, and electrochemical surface/interface reactions. PMID:27389331

  17. Tuning the surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of gold nanocubes by silver coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shu-Jun; Zhu, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Colloidal gold nanocubes coated with a silver nanoshell have been synthesized via the seed mediated growth method. By changing the volume of gold seed and silver nitrate, both the edge length of gold nanocube and the thickness of silver shell could be fine-tuned. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of these core-shell structural Au-Ag bimetallic nanocubes has also been investigated by using the rhodamine 6G (R6G) as Raman active probe. It has been found the SERS activity of the silver-coated gold nanocubes greatly depends on their geometry factors. By decreasing the edge length of gold nanocubes or increasing the silver coating thickness, the SERS activity has been greatly enhanced. By comparing with other Raman bands of R6G, the enhancement of the Raman peak corresponding to the Csbnd Csbnd C ring in-plane vibration mode is more sensitive to the geometries of the nanostructure. These improved SERS properties of silver-coated gold nanocubes provide potential application for biologic and chemical sensing based on Raman spectroanalysis.

  18. Can surface-enhanced Raman scattering serve as a channel for strong optical pumping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslett, T. L.; Tay, L.; Moskovits, M.

    2000-07-01

    The surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of a number of dye and colorless molecules adsorbed on deposited coloidal silver films were systematically studied as a function of power and position using a Raman microscope. The anti-Stokes portions of the spectra of the dyes reproducibly show line intensities much greater than what is expected on the basis of the equilibrium population of the excited vibrational states, even at the lowest incident light intensities used. This behavior was observed previously and attributed to optical pumping of vibrationally excited states of the molecules by unusually intense surface-enhanced Raman transitions, [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2444 (1996)] suggesting either uncommonly large Raman cross-sections or very intense local field strengths exceeding those encountered in the most powerful currently available lasers. Based on this work, however, we ascribe the apparently large anti-Stokes intensities primarily to a difference in the Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman cross-sections resulting from resonance or pre-resonance Raman processes in the adsorbate-surface complex rather than to strongly nonequilibrium populations in the molecular vibrational states. Finally, we observed no significant inhomogeneity in the Raman enhancement in the images of the deposited silver coloid samples down to spatial resolutions of ˜1 μm.

  19. Enhancement of scattering and reflectance properties of plasma-sprayed alumina coatings by controlling the porosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma-spraying process generates materials with typical, porous and complex, microstructures. Inspired by dielectric multilayer mirrors (DMMs), thermal sprayed media may be used in the field of optics, particularly for making scattering and reflecting coatings suitable for a large range of wavelengths. In fact, pores inside plasma sprayed matrix create numerous optical index discontinuities, similarly to the gaps created in DMMs, in order to obtain high reflectivity. The porosity of coatings microstructure can be customized by selection of plasma sprayed process parameters. This study aimed to optimize scattering and reflectance properties in porous alumina by the control of spray parameters resulting in the optimized porosity. A self-supporting bi-layer with a diffuse reflectance over 90% over a large band of wavelengths was obtained. The first layer (micro-structured), which is thick enough to support the free standing, was prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The second layer (nano-structured) was manufactured by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) over the first layer in order to enhance the reflectance at short wavelengths. (authors)

  20. Imaging of Keratoconic and normal human cornea with a Brillouin imaging system (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besner, Sebastien; Shao, Peng; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Pineda, Roberto; Yun, Seok-Hyun (Andy)

    2016-03-01

    Keratoconus is a degenerative disorder of the eye characterized by human cornea thinning and morphological change to a more conical shape. Current diagnosis of this disease relies on topographic imaging of the cornea. Early and differential diagnosis is difficult. In keratoconus, mechanical properties are found to be compromised. A clinically available invasive technique capable of measuring the mechanical properties of the cornea is of significant importance for understanding the mechanism of keratoconus development and improve detection and intervention in keratoconus. The capability of Brillouin imaging to detect local longitudinal modulus in human cornea has been demonstrated previously. We report our non-contact, non-invasive, clinically viable Brillouin imaging system engineered to evaluate mechanical properties human cornea in vivo. The system takes advantage of a highly dispersive 2-stage virtually imaged phased array (VIPA) to detect weak Brillouin scattering signal from biological samples. With a 1.5-mW light beam from a 780-nm single-wavelength laser source, the system is able to detect Brillouin frequency shift of a single point in human cornea less than 0.3 second, at a 5μm/30μm lateral/axial resolution. Sensitivity of the system was quantified to be ~ 10 MHz. A-scans at different sample locations on a human cornea with a motorized human interface. We imaged both normal and keratoconic human corneas with this system. Whereas no significantly difference were observed outside keratocnic cones compared with normal cornea, a highly statistically significantly decrease was found in the cone regions.

  1. Darkfield microspectroscopy of nanostructures on silver tip-enhanced Raman scattering probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tamitake; Yamamoto, Yuko S.; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Kitahama, Yasutaka; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    We report an evaluation method employing darkfield microspectroscopy for silver probes used in tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS). By adjusting the darkfield illumination, the diffracted light from the probe outlines disappears and the diffracted light from the surface nanostructures and tips of the probes appears as colorful spots. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that the spectral variations in these spots reflect the shapes of the surface nanostructures. The tip curvatures correlate to the spectral maxima of their spots. Temporal color changes in the spots indicate the deterioration due to the oxidation of the silver surfaces. These results show that the proposed method is useful for in situ evaluation of plasmonic properties of TERS probes.

  2. Surface enhanced Raman scattering, antibacterial and antifungal active triangular gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, S. L.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2013-02-01

    Shape controlled syntheses of gold nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as their optical, electronic, magnetic and biological properties are strongly dependent on the size and shape of the particles. Here is a report on the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth reduced gold nanoparticles consisting of triangular and spherical like particles, using 2-aminothiophenol (2-ATP) and crystal violet (CV) as probe molecules. Nanoparticles prepared with a minimum leaf broth concentration, having a greater number of triangular like particles exhibit a SERS activity of the order of 107. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibit efficient antibacterial activity against the tested gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Investigations on the antifungal activity of the synthesized nanoparticles against Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum positive is also discussed.

  3. Darkfield microspectroscopy of nanostructures on silver tip-enhanced Raman scattering probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an evaluation method employing darkfield microspectroscopy for silver probes used in tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS). By adjusting the darkfield illumination, the diffracted light from the probe outlines disappears and the diffracted light from the surface nanostructures and tips of the probes appears as colorful spots. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that the spectral variations in these spots reflect the shapes of the surface nanostructures. The tip curvatures correlate to the spectral maxima of their spots. Temporal color changes in the spots indicate the deterioration due to the oxidation of the silver surfaces. These results show that the proposed method is useful for in situ evaluation of plasmonic properties of TERS probes

  4. Perforated nanocap array: Facile fabrication process and efficient surface enhanced Raman scattering with fluorescence suppression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun; Huang Li-Qing; Tong Hui-Min; Zhai Li-Peng; Yuan Lin; Zhao Li-Hua; Zhang Wei-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Recently,individual reduced-symmetry metal nanostructures and their plasmonic properties have been studied extensively.However,little attention has been paid to the approach to fabricating ordered reduced-symmetry metal nanostructure arrays.In this paper,a novel perforated silver nanocap array with high surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity and fluorescence suppression is reported.The array is fabricated by electron beam evaporating Ag onto the perforated barrier layer side of a hard anodization (HA) anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template.The morphology and optical property of the perforated silver nanocap array are characterized by an atomic force microscope (AFM),a scanning electron microscope (SEM),and absorption spectra.The results of SERS measurements reveal that the perforated silver nanocap array offers high SERS activity and fluorescence suppression compared with an imperforated silver nanocap array.

  5. Nanotag-enabled photonic crystal fiber as quantitative surface-enhanced Raman scattering optofluidic platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core-shell nanotags that are active in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and entrapped with thiocyanate (SCN) label molecules were immobilized in the air channels of suspended-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) to impart quantitative capacity to SERS-based PCF optofluidic sensing platform. The Raman intensity of Rhodamine 6G increases with concentration, whereas the intensity of SCN remains constant when measured using this platform. The signal from the SCN label can be used as an internal reference to establish calibration for quantitative measurements of analytes of unknown concentrations. The long optical path-length PCF optofluidic platform integrated with SERS-active core-shell nanotags holds significant promise for sensitive quantitative chem/bio measurements with the added benefit of small sampling volume. The dependence of SERS intensity on the nanotag coverage density and PCF length was interpreted based on numerical-analytical simulations

  6. Fabrication of highly homogeneous surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates using Ag ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenqing; Xiao, Xiangheng; Dai, Zhigao; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Li; Mei, Fei; Zhang, Xingang; Jiang, Changzhong

    2016-06-29

    In recent times, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has attracted attention for its excellent potential application in chemical and biological detection. In this work, we demonstrate that a highly homogeneous SERS substrate can be realized by Ag ion implantation and the subsequent annealing process. Both the implantation and annealing parameters have been optimized for a high sensitivity SERS substrate. The SERS measurement indicates that a sample implanted by 20 kV Ag ions with a dosage of 3  ×  10(16) ions cm(-2) exhibits the highest SERS activity. In addition, the SERS activity of the Ag-implanted substrates depends highly on the annealing temperature and time. Since none of the fabrication processes contain chemical reactions, our substrate is a clean system without any chemical residues. PMID:27167880

  7. Air stable colloidal copper nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and their surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Thekkathu; Leon Prasanth, K.; Sreedhar, Bojja

    2016-03-01

    Air stable colloidal copper nanoparticles are synthesized by a simple chemical reduction method using octadecylsilane as a reducing agent and octadecylamine as a stabilizing agent in toluene without any inert gas. The formation of nanosized copper was confirmed by its characteristic surface plasmon absorption peaks in UV-visible spectra. The transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images show that the resulting copper nanoparticles are distributed uniformly with a narrow size distribution. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated that the obtained copper nanoparticles are single crystalline nanoparticles. Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopic data suggested that the silane Si-H is responsible for the reduction of copper ions. And also the resulting colloidal copper nanoparticles exhibit large surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals.

  8. Gelatin-stabilized copper nanoparticles: Synthesis, morphology, and their surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelatin-stabilized spherical-shaped copper nanoparticles are synthesized by a simple chemical reaction. The synthesis is performed by the reduction of copper (II) salt with hydrazine in aqueous solution under atmospheric air in the presence of gelatin as capping agent. Advantages of the synthetic method include its production of water dispersible copper nanoparticles at room temperature under no inert atmosphere and making the synthesis more environmental friendly. The synthesized copper nanoparticles are investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results demonstrate that the amount of gelatin is important for the formation of the copper nanoparticles. The resulting colloidal copper nanoparticles exhibit large surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals

  9. Darkfield microspectroscopy of nanostructures on silver tip-enhanced Raman scattering probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Tamitake, E-mail: tamitake-itou@aist.go.jp [Nano-Bioanalysis Team, Health Technology Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Takamatsu, Kagawa 761-0395 (Japan); Yamamoto, Yuko S., E-mail: yamayulab@gmail.com [Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, Kagawa University, Takamatsu, Kagawa 761-0396 (Japan); Suzuki, Toshiaki [UNISOKU Co. Ltd., 2-4-3 Kasugano, Hirakata, Osaka 573-0131 (Japan); Kitahama, Yasutaka; Ozaki, Yukihiro [Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan)

    2016-01-11

    We report an evaluation method employing darkfield microspectroscopy for silver probes used in tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS). By adjusting the darkfield illumination, the diffracted light from the probe outlines disappears and the diffracted light from the surface nanostructures and tips of the probes appears as colorful spots. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that the spectral variations in these spots reflect the shapes of the surface nanostructures. The tip curvatures correlate to the spectral maxima of their spots. Temporal color changes in the spots indicate the deterioration due to the oxidation of the silver surfaces. These results show that the proposed method is useful for in situ evaluation of plasmonic properties of TERS probes.

  10. Silicon nanowire arrays coated with electroless Ag for increased surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Li, Meicheng; Fu, Pengfei; Li, Ruike; Gu, Tiansheng; Huang, Rui; Chen, Zhao; Jiang, Bing; Li, Yingfeng

    2015-05-01

    The ordered Ag nanorod (AgNR) arrays are fabricated through a simple electroless deposition technique using the isolated Si nanowire (SiNW) arrays as the Ag-grown scaffold. The AgNR arrays have the single-crystallized structure and the plasmonic crystal feature. It is found that the formation of the AgNR arrays is strongly dependent on the filling ratio of SiNWs. A mechanism is proposed based on the selective nucleation and the synergistic growth of Ag nanoparticles on the top of the SiNWs. Moreover, the special AgNR arrays grown on the substrate of SiNWs exhibit a detection sensitivity of 10-15M for rhodamine 6G molecules, which have the potential application to the highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensors.

  11. A nanoforest structure for practical surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nanoforest structure for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrates is fabricated and analyzed. The detailed morphology of the resulting structure can be easily controlled by modifying the process parameters such as initial gold layer thickness and etching time. The applicability of the nanoforest substrate as a label-free SERS immunosensor is demonstrated using influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Selective binding of the H1N1 surface antigen and the anti-H1 antibody is directly detected by the SERS signal differences. Simple fabrication and high throughput with strong in-plane hot-spots imply that the nanoforest structure can be a practical sensing component of a chip-based SERS sensing system. (paper)

  12. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of patterned copper nanostructure electrolessly plated on arrayed nanoporous silicon pillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Weifen; Shan Wenwen; Ling Hong; Wang Yusheng [Department of Mathematics and Information Science, North China Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Cao Yanxia [College of Materials Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, People' s Republic of China (China); Li Xinjian, E-mail: gingerwfj@yahoo.com.c [Department of Physics and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2010-10-20

    A new synthesized composite structure, a patterned copper/silicon nanoporous pillar array (Cu/Si-NPA) made by depositing Cu on Si-NPA using an immersion plating method, can be used as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. Its surface component and morphology were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. It was found that the surface was Cu with two kinds of crystal structures: a continuous film composed of Cu nanocrystallites covering the Si-NPA, and a quasi-regular, interconnected network composed of loop-chains of Cu crystallites, with the size in the range of several tens of nanometer to 300 nm, surrounding the porous Si pillars. The composite structure is strongly SERS active using rhodamine 6G as probe molecules, which is mainly due to the patterned hierarchical Cu structure.

  13. Selective resonance enhancement of Raman scattering intensity in photoinduced nonradiative charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairamov, B. Kh.

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports on the formation of complexes consisting of isolated free-standing crystalline semiconductor quantum dots, for example, nc-Si/SiO2, functionalized by short oligonucleotides, for example, the single-stranded system d(20G, 20T). Here, d are deoxyribonucleotides, G and T are guanine and thymine nucleotides, respectively. It has been found that these complexes are unique objects for the elucidation of the specific features in the manifestation of new quantum-size effects in biomacromolecules. It has been demonstrated that the possibility exists of detecting and recording, in such complexes of biomacromolecules, spectrally selective resonance enhancement of Raman scattering intensity in fluctuations of nucleotide molecules due to coherent nonradiative transfer of a photoexcited electron and a hole at the interface of the complex. This dynamic optical imaging of spectral responses can be of applied interest for the development of nanobiophotonic technologies.

  14. Label-Free Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Approach for High-Throughput Screening of Biocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westley, Chloe; Xu, Yun; Carnell, Andrew J; Turner, Nicholas J; Goodacre, Royston

    2016-06-01

    Biocatalyst discovery and directed evolution are central to many pharmaceutical research programs, yet the lack of robust high-throughput screening methods for large libraries of enzyme variants generated (typically 10(6)-10(8)) has hampered progress and slowed enzyme optimization. We have developed a label-free generally applicable approach based on Raman spectroscopy which results in significant reductions in acquisition times (>30-fold). Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is employed to monitor the enzyme-catalyzed conversion by xanthine oxidase of hypoxanthine to xanthine to uric acid. This approach measures the substrates and products directly and does not require chromogenic substrates or lengthy chromatography, was successfully benchmarked against HPLC, and shows high levels of accuracy and reproducibility. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this SERS approach has utility in monitoring enzyme inhibition illustrating additional medical significance to this high-throughput screening method. PMID:27132981

  15. Highly stable gelatin layer-protected gold nanoparticles as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changwon; Zhang, Peng

    2014-06-01

    Amine and carboxylic groups rich gelatin was used as reducing and stabilizing agent to form highly stable gold nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications. The size of the particle was determined to be 13 nm by TEM with mono-dispersity. The size of the gold nanoparticles was little affected by the initial gelatin concentration. The gelatin-gold nanoparticles show strong SERS activity with Rhodamine 6G and Ruthenium bipyridine as reporter molecules. Both carboxylic acid groups and amine groups were identified by FT-IR to be present on the gelatin-gold nanoparticle surface, providing the possibility of further conjugation with other molecules. The gelatin-protected gold nanoparticles prepared by this simple, green, method displayed very good solubility and stability in many solvents, and good monodispersity, all desirable features as good SERS substrates. PMID:24738391

  16. Synthesis and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Property of Pentagonal Dodecahedral Au Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjung; Jeong, Gyoung Hwa; Lee, Young Wook; Han, Sang Woo [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    We have presented for the first time the synthesis method for the generation of PD Au NCs bound by 12 high-index facets. Precise tuning of the NC growth habit by adjusting the chain length as well as the relative amount of PVP is the key to the formation of this unprecedented structure. The prepared NCs exhibited efficient SERS properties due to their exposed high-energy facets. Since the synthesized NCs have unique structural and optical properties, they can be used as functional materials in a number of optical and catalytic applications. The controlled synthesis of polyhedral Au nanocrystals (NCs) has attracted tremendous research interest in the past decades due to their promising applications in a variety of fields, such as plasmonics, sensors, electronics, catalysis, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)

  17. Silicon nanowire arrays coated with electroless Ag for increased surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Bai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ordered Ag nanorod (AgNR arrays are fabricated through a simple electroless deposition technique using the isolated Si nanowire (SiNW arrays as the Ag-grown scaffold. The AgNR arrays have the single-crystallized structure and the plasmonic crystal feature. It is found that the formation of the AgNR arrays is strongly dependent on the filling ratio of SiNWs. A mechanism is proposed based on the selective nucleation and the synergistic growth of Ag nanoparticles on the top of the SiNWs. Moreover, the special AgNR arrays grown on the substrate of SiNWs exhibit a detection sensitivity of 10−15M for rhodamine 6G molecules, which have the potential application to the highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensors.

  18. Analysis of drugs illegally added into Chinese traditional patent medicine using surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Huang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Wenfang; Cheng, Zeneng; Chen, Chuanpin; Yin, Lihui

    2013-01-01

    Illegal chemicals, which could cause unpredictable side effects, may be added into traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for a rapid healing effect. In this report, a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) analysis method for five kinds of illegally added drugs (rosiglitazone maleate, phenformin hydrochloride, metformin hydrochloride, pioglitazone hydrochloride and sibutramine hydrochloride) in Chinese traditional patent medicine (CTPM) has been demonstrated, including simultaneous detections of drug mixtures with CTPM. Silver colloidal, prepared by a sodium citrate reaction, was used as a SERS substrate. The optimum pH condition for each drug has also been explored because of its combined effect on protonation, surface charge, repulsion of an analyte and nanoparticles. Furthermore, the simultaneous detection of two or three kinds of these chemicals has been carried out. Characteristic peaks are employed for qualitative analysis. This is the first research using SERS for the analysis of drug mixtures in CTPM without any separation process. PMID:24107564

  19. Tip-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy: Recent advance in tip production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yasuhiko; Walke, Peter; De Feyter, Steven; Uji-i, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) microscopy is a technique that combines the chemical sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy with the resolving power of scanning probe microscopy. The key component of any TERS setup is a plasmonically-active noble metal tip, which serves to couple far-field incident radiation with the near-field. Thus, the design and implementation of reproducible probes are crucial for the continued development of TERS as a tool for nanoscopic analysis. Here we discuss conventional methods for the fabrication of TERS-ready tips, highlighting the problems therein, as well as detailing more recent developments to improve reducibility. In addition, the idea of remote excitation-TERS is enlightened upon, whereby TERS sensitivity is further improved by using propagating surface plasmons to separate the incident radiation from the tip apex, as well as how this can be incorporated into the fabrication process.

  20. Nanotag-enabled photonic crystal fiber as quantitative surface-enhanced Raman scattering optofluidic platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkhasova, Polina; Chen, Hui; Kanka, Jiri; Mergo, Pawel; Du, Henry

    2015-02-01

    Core-shell nanotags that are active in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and entrapped with thiocyanate (SCN) label molecules were immobilized in the air channels of suspended-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) to impart quantitative capacity to SERS-based PCF optofluidic sensing platform. The Raman intensity of Rhodamine 6G increases with concentration, whereas the intensity of SCN remains constant when measured using this platform. The signal from the SCN label can be used as an internal reference to establish calibration for quantitative measurements of analytes of unknown concentrations. The long optical path-length PCF optofluidic platform integrated with SERS-active core-shell nanotags holds significant promise for sensitive quantitative chem/bio measurements with the added benefit of small sampling volume. The dependence of SERS intensity on the nanotag coverage density and PCF length was interpreted based on numerical-analytical simulations.

  1. Nanotag-enabled photonic crystal fiber as quantitative surface-enhanced Raman scattering optofluidic platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkhasova, Polina; Chen, Hui; Du, Henry, E-mail: hdu@stevens.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States); Kanka, Jiri [Institute of Photonics and Electronics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Chaberska 57, 182 31 Prague (Czech Republic); Mergo, Pawel [Department of Optical Fibres Technology, Maria Curie-Sklodovska University, PI. M. Currie-Sklodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-02-16

    Core-shell nanotags that are active in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and entrapped with thiocyanate (SCN) label molecules were immobilized in the air channels of suspended-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) to impart quantitative capacity to SERS-based PCF optofluidic sensing platform. The Raman intensity of Rhodamine 6G increases with concentration, whereas the intensity of SCN remains constant when measured using this platform. The signal from the SCN label can be used as an internal reference to establish calibration for quantitative measurements of analytes of unknown concentrations. The long optical path-length PCF optofluidic platform integrated with SERS-active core-shell nanotags holds significant promise for sensitive quantitative chem/bio measurements with the added benefit of small sampling volume. The dependence of SERS intensity on the nanotag coverage density and PCF length was interpreted based on numerical-analytical simulations.

  2. Synthesis and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Property of Pentagonal Dodecahedral Au Nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have presented for the first time the synthesis method for the generation of PD Au NCs bound by 12 high-index facets. Precise tuning of the NC growth habit by adjusting the chain length as well as the relative amount of PVP is the key to the formation of this unprecedented structure. The prepared NCs exhibited efficient SERS properties due to their exposed high-energy facets. Since the synthesized NCs have unique structural and optical properties, they can be used as functional materials in a number of optical and catalytic applications. The controlled synthesis of polyhedral Au nanocrystals (NCs) has attracted tremendous research interest in the past decades due to their promising applications in a variety of fields, such as plasmonics, sensors, electronics, catalysis, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)

  3. Improvement of the optical imaging of objects in a strongly scattering medium by means of contrast-enhancing dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of enhancing the contrast of optical images in a strongly scattering medium by means of luminescent and absorbing dyes, topical in laser tomography, is examined. Preparations based on diphthalocyanine compounds were selected on the grounds of their tropism and resistance to the action of heat and light. Images with enhanced contrast in model scattering media (an aqueous solution of milk and margarine) were obtained in the IR region of the spectrum using the radiation of a picosecond neodymium laser. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  4. A theoretical framework for absorption (dichroism) and the resonance-enhanced scattering of x-rays by magnetic materials: I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovesey, Stephen W.; Balcar, Ewald

    1996-12-01

    The scattering length common to the attenuation coefficient and cross-sections for the resonance-enhanced scattering of x-rays suffers from a dependence on a spectrum of virtual, intermediate states which contain next to no useful information about the environment of the atoms. It is the dependence of the scattering length on intermediate states that sets the x-ray techniques apart from neutron scattering and other techniques which directly probe properties of magnetic materials, and limits the usefulness of physical intuition in the interpretation of empirical x-ray data. As a step toward a legible interpretation, in a language of standard atomic variables, an investigation is reported of a modified scattering length constructed to possess a structure similar to the scattering length for magnetic neutron scattering, namely, it has the mathematical structure of a spherical tensor operator, to which all Racah's methods for electrons in an open valence shell can be applied. In the process of reaching this goal, the influence of the intermediate states on the scattering length is reduced by summing over a limited set of quantum numbers for the intermediate states. Topics covered in the investigation include the attenuation coefficient for x-rays passing through a foil of magnetic material, dichroism, and the cross-sections for resonance-enhanced elastic (Bragg) and inelastic scattering of x-rays by magnetic materials. The treatment of polarization in the primary beam admits states of partial polarization, described by a Stokes vector. Both jj-coupling and Russell - Saunders coupling schemes for the valence states are explored.

  5. All solid-state diode pumped Nd:YAG MOPA with stimulated Brillouin phase conjugate mirror

    OpenAIRE

    Offerhaus, H.L.; Godfried, H.P.; Witteman, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    At the Nederlands Centrum voor Laser Research (NCLR) a 1 kHz diode-pumped Nd:YAG Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) chain with a Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) Phase Conjugate mirror is designed and operated. A small Brewster angle Nd:YAG slab (2 by 2 by 20 mm) is side pumped with 200 μs diode pulses in a stable oscillator. The oscillator is Q-switched and injection seeded with a commercial diode pumped single frequency CW Nd:YAG laser. The output consists of single-transverse, s...

  6. Long term structural health monitoring by Brillouin fibre-optic sensing: a real case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the results of a long term structural health monitoring (SHM) test campaign performed on a concrete bridge. A one-year test campaign was performed by a portable prototype instrument based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a single-mode optical fibre. The optical fibre sensor was attached along one arch of the bridge using two types of adhesive for comparison purposes. The attached fibre was able to provide the strain distribution along the structure during the one-year test campaign, with a spatial resolution of 1 m. A crack was revealed and correctly localized by the distributed sensor. (paper)

  7. Low-noise Brillouin random fiber laser with a random grating-based resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanping; Gao, Song; Lu, Ping; Mihailov, Stephen; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2016-07-15

    A novel Brillouin random fiber laser (BRFL) with the random grating-based Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator is proposed and demonstrated. Significantly enhanced random feedback from the femtosecond laser-fabricated random grating overwhelms the Rayleigh backscattering, which leads to efficient Brillouin gain for the lasing modes and reduced lasing threshold. Compared to the intensity and frequency noises of the Rayleigh feedback resonator, those of the proposed random laser are effectively suppressed due to the reduced resonating modes and mode competition resulting from the random grating-formed filters. Using the heterodyne technique, the linewidth of the coherent random lasing spike is measured to be ∼45.8  Hz. PMID:27420494

  8. Beyond the Brillouin limit with the Penning fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several years ago, it was proposed that a dense nonneutral plasma could be produced in a Penning trap. Nonneutral plasmas have excellent confinement. Thus, such a dense plasma might produce simultaneously high density and good confinement (as needed for fusion). Recently, this theoretical conjecture has been demonstrated in a small (3 mm radius) electron experiment (PFX). Densities up to 35 times the Brillouin density (limiting number density in a static trap) have been inferred from the observed strong (100:1) spherical focussing. Electrons are injected at low energy from a single pole of the sphere. A surprising observation is the self-organization of the system into a spherical state, which occurs precisely when the trap parameters are adjusted to produce a spherical well. This organization is observed by a bootstrapping which produces a hysteresis. Additional observations which confirm the dense spherical focus are energy-scattered electrons and deflections of an electron probe beam by the space charge of the central focus

  9. Microresonator Brillouin Laser Stabilization Using a Microfabricated Rubidium Cell

    CERN Document Server

    Loh, William; Leopardi, Holly F; Fortier, Tara M; Quinlan, Frank; Kitching, John; Papp, Scott B; Diddams, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    We frequency stabilize the output of a miniature stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) laser to rubidium atoms in a microfabricated cell to realize a laser system with frequency stability at the $10^{-11}$ level over seven decades in averaging time. In addition, our system has the advantages of robustness, low cost and the potential for integration that would lead to still further miniaturization. The SBS laser operating at 1560 nm exhibits a spectral linewidth of 820 Hz, but its frequency drifts over a few MHz on the 1 hour timescale. By locking the second harmonic of the SBS laser to the Rb reference, we reduce this drift by a factor of $10^3$ to the level of a few kHz over the course of an hour. For our combined SBS and Rb laser system, we measure a frequency noise of $4\\times10^4$ $Hz^2/Hz$ at 10 Hz offset frequency which rapidly rolls off to a level of 0.2 $Hz^2/Hz$ at 100 kHz offset. The corresponding Allan deviation is $\\leq2\\times10^{-11}$ for averaging times spanning $10^{-4}$ to $10^3$ s. By optical...

  10. Terahertz-wave parametric gain of stimulated polariton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takida, Yuma; Shikata, Jun-ichi; Nawata, Kouji; Tokizane, Yu; Han, Zhengli; Koyama, Mio; Notake, Takashi; Hayashi, Shin'ichiro; Minamide, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    We have experimentally determined the terahertz- (THz-) wave parametric gain of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) by phonon-polaritons in LiNb O3 . Our approach is based on ultrabright THz-wave generation from SRS under stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression with subnanosecond pump pulses. To obtain the frequency dependence of the parametric gain, we measured the crystal-length dependence of the THz-wave output directly using a surface-coupling configuration. We found that the product of the parametric gain and the threshold crystal length is constant throughout the tuning range. Our result provides a physical basis for the design and performance enhancement of SRS-based ultrabright tabletop THz-wave sources for various applications.

  11. Toward development of a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based cancer diagnostic immunoassay panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Jennifer H; Granger, Michael C; Firpo, Matthew A; Mulvihill, Sean J; Porter, Marc D

    2013-01-21

    Proteomic analyses of readily obtained human fluids (e.g., serum, urine, and saliva) indicate that the diagnosis of complex diseases will be enhanced by the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers from such samples. This paper describes the development of a nanoparticle-based multiplexed platform that has the potential for simultaneous read-out of large numbers of biomolecules. For this purpose, we have chosen pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) as a test bed for diagnosis and prognosis. PA is a devastating form of cancer in which an estimated 86% of diagnoses resulted in death in the United States in 2010. The high mortality rate is due, in part, to the asymptomatic development of the disease and the dearth of sensitive diagnostics available for early detection. One promising route lies in the development of a serum biomarker panel that can generate a signature unique to early stage PA. We describe the design and development of a proof-of-concept PA biomarker immunoassay array coupled with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) as a sensitive readout method. PMID:23150876

  12. Silver nanoaggregates on chitosan functionalized graphene oxide for high-performance surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Mingming; Liu, Zhiming; Li, Shaoxin; Yang, Biwen; Zhang, Wen; Qin, Xiaochu; Guo, Zhouyi

    2013-07-01

    Herein we describe a self-assembly synthesis of graphene oxide/Ag nanoparticles nano-composites (GO/CS/AgNPs) by non-covalent attachment of AgNPs to chitosan (CS) functionalized graphene oxide (GO) sheets. The negatively charged AgNPs are prone to form aggregates on GO/CS via electrostatic interaction, which is extremely beneficial to the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of aromatic molecules. Taking advantage of the enrichment of target molecules on GO, the obtained hybrids exhibit strong SERS activity to aromatic molecules (trypan blue and methylene blue). Furthermore, SERS signals of a negatively charged molecule (trypan blue) are stronger than signals of a positively charged molecule (methylene blue) due to the different adsorption capacity of GO/CS/AgNPs for the two opposite charged molecules through electrostatic interaction. Moreover, GO/CS/AgNPs remarkably enhance the main peaks of l-phenylalanine, in comparison with the silver nanoparticles, showing great potential for biomedical applications. PMID:23816129

  13. Analysis of polymer surfaces and thin-film coatings with Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    McAnally, G D

    2001-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the analysis and characterisation of polymer surfaces. The Raman and SERS spectra from a PET film are presented. The SERS spectra from the related polyester PBT and from the monomer DMT are identical to PET, showing that only the aromatic signals are enhanced. Evidence from other compounds is presented to show that loss of the carbonyl stretch (1725 cm sup - sup 1) from the spectra is due to a chemical interaction between the silver and surface carbonyl groups. The interaction of other polymer functional groups with silver is discussed. A comparison of Raman and SERS spectra collected from three faces of a single crystal shows the SERS spectra are depolarised. AFM images of the silver films used to obtain SERS are presented. They consist of regular islands of silver, fused together to form a complete film. The stability and reproducibility and of these surfaces is assessed. Band assignments for the SERS spectrum of PET are ...

  14. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering active gold nanostructure fabricated by photochemical reaction of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition of gold nanoparticles in an electroplating solution containing gold (I) trisodium disulphite under synchrotron X-ray radiation was investigated. The nanoparticles grew and aggregated into clusters with increasing radiation time. This behavior is explained by evaluating the effect of Derjaguin-Landau-Verweyand-Overbeek (DLVO) interactions combining repulsive electrostatic and attractive van der Waals forces on the particle deposition process. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of 4,4′ -bipyridine (4bpy) in aqueous solution was measured using gold nanoparticles immobilized on silicon substrates under systematically-varied X-ray exposure. The substrates provided an in situ SERS spectrum for 1 nM 4bpy. This demonstration creates new opportunities for chemical and environmental analyses through simple SERS measurements. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles were produced by photochemical reaction of synchrotron radiation. • The gold nanoparticles grew and aggregated into the higher-order nanostructure. • The behavior is qualitatively explained by analytical estimation. • The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of 4,4′-bipyridine (4bpy) was demonstrated. • The substrate fabricated in a suitable condition provides in situ SERS for 1 nM 4bpy

  15. Highly efficient construction of oriented sandwich structures for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to solve the problem of low achievement in fabricating sandwich surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. We demonstrated a highly efficient sandwich structure by the oriented assembly of metal nanoparticles (NPs) on a periodic hexagonal array of metal nanoprisms with 1,4-benzenedithiol (1,4-BDT) as linkers. The metal nanoprism array was prepared by vacuum deposition of metal on a close-packed polystyrene nanosphere pre-patterned substrate. The metal nanoprism array presents different surface properties from the pits left from the removal of polystyrene nanospheres, which causes linkers to selectively adsorb on the metal nanoprism array and sequentially leads to the oriented immobilization of the second-layer metal NPs, avoiding mismatched orientation. These sandwich SERS substrates were characterized by extinction spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy and their enhancement activity was evaluated under different excitation wavelengths. The sandwich structure greatly increases the achievement of ‘hot spots’ to almost 100% of all the metal nanoprisms and enables a large amplification of SERS signals by a factor of ten. This method has the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency, high throughput, controllability and high reproducibility. It has significance in both the study of SERS substrates and the development of plasmonic devices. (paper)

  16. Detection of amino acid neurotransmitters by surface enhanced Raman scattering and hollow core photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vidhu S.; Khetani, Altaf; Monfared, Ali Momenpour T.; Smith, Brett; Anis, Hanan; Trudeau, Vance L.

    2012-03-01

    The present work explores the feasibility of using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for detecting the neurotransmitters such as glutamate (GLU) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). These amino acid neurotransmitters that respectively mediate fast excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain, are important for neuroendocrine control, and upsets in their synthesis are also linked to epilepsy. Our SERS-based detection scheme enabled the detection of low amounts of GLU (10-7 M) and GABA (10-4 M). It may complement existing techniques for characterizing such kinds of neurotransmitters that include high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or mass spectrography (MS). This is mainly because SERS has other advantages such as ease of sample preparation, molecular specificity and sensitivity, thus making it potentially applicable to characterization of experimental brain extracts or clinical diagnostic samples of cerebrospinal fluid and saliva. Using hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) further enhanced the Raman signal relative to that in a standard cuvette providing sensitive detection of GLU and GABA in micro-litre volume of aqueous solutions.

  17. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering of Silicon Nanocrystals in a Silica Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Sergei; Khriachtchev, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is an intriguing effect, efficiency of which depends on many factors and whose applicability to a given system is not obvious before the experiment. The motivation of the present work is to demonstrate the SERS effect on silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) embedded in silica, the material of high technological importance. Using the Ag overlayer method, we have found the SERS effect for this material. The best result is obtained for Ag layers of a weight thickness of 12 nm, whose surface plasmons are in a resonance with the laser wavelength (488 nm). The enhancement obtained for the Raman signal from 3-4-nm Si-nc in a 40-nm SiOx film is above 100. The SERS effect is about twice stronger for ultra-small Si-nc (~1 nm) and/or disordered silicon compared to Si-nc with sizes of 3-4 nm. The SERS measurements with an Ag overlayer allow detecting silicon crystallization for ultra-thin SiOx films and/or for very low Si excess and suppress the Raman signal from the substrate and the photoluminescence of the film. PMID:27256615

  18. Two-Step Centrifugation Method for Subpicomolar Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuye; Liu, Wenfang; Chen, Chuanpin

    2016-05-01

    The potentiality of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to detect ultralow concentrations of analyte has attracted much attention in detection of trace components in both medicinal and environmental samples. However, detection at trace concentration usually requires sophisticated systems. Here, we present an ultrasensitive and facile SERS approach, a two-step centrifugation method, which achieved a detection limit of 500 fM with phenformin hydrochloride and risperidone as acidic and alkaline analyte, respectively. This method consists of two steps: (1) centrifuging colloidal silver to increase nanoparticles' concentration and to remove small-size nanoparticles, thus increasing the chance of analyte adsorption on large nanoparticles that have strong SERS activity; (2) centrifuging samples after the analytes were mixed with nanoparticles. After the first centrifugation and mixing with aqueous analyte, the colloidal silver is either flocculated (for high-concentration samples) or forms a nanoparticle-analyte complex (for low-concentration samples). Until the second centrifugation, the concentration of analyte and hot-spot formation is significantly increased, and thus a high SERS enhancement factor is obtained. In short, the two-step centrifugation method overcomes drawbacks of the traditional method, which demands not only sophisticated operation but also expensive instruments, to fully exploit the potential of SERS detection. PMID:27064074

  19. Sub-100 nm gold nanohole-enhanced Raman scattering on flexible PDMS sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Ongko, Andry; Kim, Ho Young; Yim, Sang-Gu; Jeon, Geumhye; Jeong, Hee Jin; Lee, Seungwoo; Kwak, Minseok; Yang, Seung Yun

    2016-08-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a highly sensitive vibrational spectroscopy technique enabling detection of multiple analytes at the molecular level in a nondestructive and rapid manner. In this work, we introduce a new approach to fabricate deep subwavelength-scaled (sub-100 nm) metallic nanohole arrays (quasi-3D metallic nanoholes) on flexible and highly efficient SERS substrates. Target structures have been fabricated using a two-step process consisting of (i) direct pattern transfer of spin-coated polymer films onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates by plasma etching with transferred anodic aluminum oxide masks, and (ii) producing SERS-active substrates by functionalization of the etched polymeric films followed by Au deposition. Such an all-dry, top-down lithographic approach enables on-demand patterning of SERS-active metallic nanoholes with high structural fidelity even onto flexible and stretchable substrates, thus making possible multiple sensing modes in a versatile fashion. For example, metallic nanoholes on flexible PDMS substrates are highly amenable to their integration with curved glass sticks, which can be used in optical fiber-integrated SERS systems. Au surfaces immobilized by probe DNA molecules show a selective enhancement of Raman scattering with Cy5-labeled complementary DNA (as compared to flat Au surfaces), demonstrating the potential of using the quasi-3D Au nanohole arrays for bio-sensing applications.

  20. Sub-100 nm gold nanohole-enhanced Raman scattering on flexible PDMS sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Ongko, Andry; Kim, Ho Young; Yim, Sang-Gu; Jeon, Geumhye; Jeong, Hee Jin; Lee, Seungwoo; Kwak, Minseok; Yang, Seung Yun

    2016-08-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a highly sensitive vibrational spectroscopy technique enabling detection of multiple analytes at the molecular level in a nondestructive and rapid manner. In this work, we introduce a new approach to fabricate deep subwavelength-scaled (sub-100 nm) metallic nanohole arrays (quasi-3D metallic nanoholes) on flexible and highly efficient SERS substrates. Target structures have been fabricated using a two-step process consisting of (i) direct pattern transfer of spin-coated polymer films onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates by plasma etching with transferred anodic aluminum oxide masks, and (ii) producing SERS-active substrates by functionalization of the etched polymeric films followed by Au deposition. Such an all-dry, top-down lithographic approach enables on-demand patterning of SERS-active metallic nanoholes with high structural fidelity even onto flexible and stretchable substrates, thus making possible multiple sensing modes in a versatile fashion. For example, metallic nanoholes on flexible PDMS substrates are highly amenable to their integration with curved glass sticks, which can be used in optical fiber-integrated SERS systems. Au surfaces immobilized by probe DNA molecules show a selective enhancement of Raman scattering with Cy5-labeled complementary DNA (as compared to flat Au surfaces), demonstrating the potential of using the quasi-3D Au nanohole arrays for bio-sensing applications. PMID:27334794

  1. Novel fabrication of Ag thin film on glass for efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyoung Kun; Yoon, Jae Keun; Kim, Kwan

    2006-02-14

    This paper describes a very simple electroless-plating method used to prepare optically tunable nanostructured Ag films. Very stable Ag films can be reproducibly fabricated simply by soaking glass substrates in ethanolic solutions of AgNO3 and butylamine. The grain size of silver can be readily controlled to range from 20 to 150 nm, and these nanostructural features correlated well with their UV/vis absorption characteristics, as well as with their surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities. It is also very advantageous that the Ag films prepared exhibit very even SERS activity over an area up to hundreds thousand square-micrometers, and the enhancement factor estimated using benzenethiol as a prototype adsorbate reaches approximately 2 x 10(5). Since the proposed method is cost-effective and is suitable for the mass production of diverse Ag films irrespective of the shapes of the underlying substrates, it is expected to play a significant role in the development of surface plasmon-based analytical devices. PMID:16460083

  2. Surfactant size effect on surface-enhanced Raman scattering intensity from silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Doo Ri; Chang, Sung-Jin; Huh, Yun Suk; Han, Young-Kyu; Lee, You-Jin; Yi, Gi-Ra; Kim, Soohyun; Lee, Gaehang

    2013-08-01

    We report on the synthesis of two types of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and the influence of adsorbed surfactant size on the NP surface for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. Both particles were of similar size and morphology but were covered by surfactants of different sizes; one surfactant was sodium citrate (molecular weight: 258) and the other was sodium polyacrylate (molecular weight: 2100). For SERS measurement, 4-mecapobenzoic acid and 4-naphthalene thiol as Raman-active dyes were immobilized on the surface of each AgNP. The signals from Raman-active dyes on AgNPs covered with citrate displayed 10 times higher intensity than those from polyacrylate-stabilized AgNPs. Elemental analysis (EA) revealed that the average weight percentage of sulfur is 0.94 wt% and 0.12 wt% for citrate-stabilized and polyacrylate-stabilized AgNPs, respectively. The sulfur content difference was attributed to the size of the existing surfactant influencing the ligand exchange by steric hindrance and subsequently the amount of sulfur content of the particles. These experimental results suggest that the size of initial surfactant should be taken into account when synthesizing a metal particle for enhancing SERS signal. PMID:23882845

  3. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering of Silicon Nanocrystals in a Silica Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Sergei; Khriachtchev, Leonid

    2016-06-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is an intriguing effect, efficiency of which depends on many factors and whose applicability to a given system is not obvious before the experiment. The motivation of the present work is to demonstrate the SERS effect on silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) embedded in silica, the material of high technological importance. Using the Ag overlayer method, we have found the SERS effect for this material. The best result is obtained for Ag layers of a weight thickness of 12 nm, whose surface plasmons are in a resonance with the laser wavelength (488 nm). The enhancement obtained for the Raman signal from 3–4-nm Si-nc in a 40-nm SiOx film is above 100. The SERS effect is about twice stronger for ultra-small Si-nc (~1 nm) and/or disordered silicon compared to Si-nc with sizes of 3–4 nm. The SERS measurements with an Ag overlayer allow detecting silicon crystallization for ultra-thin SiOx films and/or for very low Si excess and suppress the Raman signal from the substrate and the photoluminescence of the film.

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering active gold nanostructure fabricated by photochemical reaction of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Akinobu, E-mail: yamaguti@lasti.u-hyogo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Advance Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Koto, Kamigori, Ako, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan); Matsumoto, Takeshi [Laboratory of Advance Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Koto, Kamigori, Ako, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan); Okada, Ikuo; Sakurai, Ikuya [Synchrotoron Radiation Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Utsumi, Yuichi [Laboratory of Advance Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Koto, Kamigori, Ako, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    The deposition of gold nanoparticles in an electroplating solution containing gold (I) trisodium disulphite under synchrotron X-ray radiation was investigated. The nanoparticles grew and aggregated into clusters with increasing radiation time. This behavior is explained by evaluating the effect of Derjaguin-Landau-Verweyand-Overbeek (DLVO) interactions combining repulsive electrostatic and attractive van der Waals forces on the particle deposition process. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of 4,4′ -bipyridine (4bpy) in aqueous solution was measured using gold nanoparticles immobilized on silicon substrates under systematically-varied X-ray exposure. The substrates provided an in situ SERS spectrum for 1 nM 4bpy. This demonstration creates new opportunities for chemical and environmental analyses through simple SERS measurements. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles were produced by photochemical reaction of synchrotron radiation. • The gold nanoparticles grew and aggregated into the higher-order nanostructure. • The behavior is qualitatively explained by analytical estimation. • The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of 4,4′-bipyridine (4bpy) was demonstrated. • The substrate fabricated in a suitable condition provides in situ SERS for 1 nM 4bpy.

  5. Near-Field Hot Spots in Gold Nanoplasmonic Templates and Their Use for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensing Application

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Prasanta

    2014-01-01

    Finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is adapted to investigate near-field enhancement effects on plasmonic structures (patterned in gold film) such as concentric rings with small separation, square, and rectangle. The near-fields effect on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is typically studied on square and rectangular structures. These metal structures are fabricated by laser interference lithography. Raman active molecules (Rhodamine 6G in PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate)) are s...

  6. Enhancement of Raman light scattering in dye-labeled cell membrane on metal-containing conducting polymer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grushevskaya, H. V.; Krylova, N. G.; Lipnevich, I. V.; Orekhovskaja, T. I.; Egorova, V. P.; Shulitski, B. G.

    2016-03-01

    An enhanced Raman spectroscopy method based on a plasmon resonance in ultrathin metal-containing LB-film deposited on nanoporous anodic alumina supports has been proposed. This material has been utilized to enhance Raman scattering of light in fluorescent-labeled subcellular membrane structures. It has been shown that the plasmon resonance between vibrational modes of the organometallic complexes monolayers and dye-labeled subcellular structures happens. It makes possible to detect interactions between living cell monolayers and an extracellular matrix.

  7. Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering and Visible Extinction Spectroscopy of Copper Chlorophyllin: An Upper Level Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Cheryl S.; Reim, Candace Lawson; Sirois, John J.; House, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced chemistry students are introduced to surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) by studying how sodium copper chlorophyllin (CuChl) adsorbs onto silver colloids (CuChl/Ag) as a function of pH. Using both SERRS and visible extinction spectroscopy, the extent of CuChl adsorption and colloidal aggregation are monitored. Initially at…

  8. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Activity of Ag/graphene/polymer Nanocomposite Films Synthesized by Laser Ablation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Siljanovska Petreska, G.; Blazevska-Gilev, J.; Fajgar, Radek; Tomovska, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 564, AUG 1 (2014), s. 115-120. ISSN 0040-6090 Grant ostatní: NATO SfP(US) 984399 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : laser ablation * surface-enhanced raman scattering * nanocomposites * graphene * rhodamine 6G Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 1.759, year: 2014

  9. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of multiple viral antigens using magnetic capture of SERS-active nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A highly sensitive immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy has been developed for multiplex detection of surface envelope and capsid antigens of the viral zoonotic pathogens West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Detection was mediated by antibo...

  10. Adsorption and Vibrational Study of Folic Acid on Gold Nanopillar Structures Using Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Rozo, Ciro E.;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of adsorption and vibrational features of folic acid, using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). A gold-capped silicon nanopillar (Au NP) with a height of 600 nm and a width of 120 nm was utilized to study the vibrational features of FA molecules adsorbed on the n...

  11. Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing by correlation-based continuous-wave technique: cm-order spatial resolution and dynamic strain measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotate, Kazuo; Ong, Sean S.

    2002-09-01

    This paper describes a novel correlation-based technique for fiber optic distributed strain sensors using Brillouin scattering. Conventional Brillouin-based sensors utilize a pulsed-pump similar to that of OTDR and are capable of distributed strain sensing over large distances, but suffer an inherent spatial resolution limit of around 1m. In addition, unlike FBG-based strain sensors which are competent of measuring dynamic strain, the pulse-based Brillouin sensors have large measurement times of several minutes, making them inadequate for dynamic strain measurements. On the other hand, using the correlation-based continuous-wave technique, we have achieved static distributed strain measurements of up to 1cm spatial resolution, and dynamic strain measurements of up to 8.8Hz from a 5cm strained section.

  12. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) for Detection in Immunoassays: applications, fundamentals, and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoassays have been utilized for the detection of biological analytes for several decades. Many formats and detection strategies have been explored, each having unique advantages and disadvantages. More recently, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been introduced as a readout method for immunoassays, and has shown great potential to meet many key analytical figures of merit. This technology is in its infancy and this dissertation explores the diversity of this method as well as the mechanism responsible for surface enhancement. Approaches to reduce assay times are also investigated. Implementing the knowledge gained from these studies will lead to a more sensitive immunoassay requiring less time than its predecessors. This dissertation is organized into six sections. The first section includes a literature review of the previous work that led to this dissertation. A general overview of the different approaches to immunoassays is given, outlining the strengths and weaknesses of each. Included is a detailed review of binding kinetics, which is central for decreasing assay times. Next, the theoretical underpinnings of SERS is reviewed at its current level of understanding. Past work has argued that surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the enhancing substrate influences the SERS signal; therefore, the SPR of the extrinsic Raman labels (ERLs) utilized in our SERS-based immunoassay is discussed. Four original research chapters follow the Introduction, each presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 2 modifies a SERS-based immunoassay previously developed in our group, extending it to the low-level detection of viral pathogens and demonstrating its versatility in terms of analyte type, Chapter 3 investigates the influence of ERL size, material composition, and separation distance between the ERLs and capture substrate on the SERS signal. This chapter links SPR with SERS enhancement factors and is consistent with many of the results from theoretical treatments

  13. Surface enhanced Raman scattering SERS as novel readout principle for immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. In the past decade, high through-put screening methods using microarray technologies have been applied as miniaturized analytical tools in modern biology. An unprecedented capability for the simultaneous analysis of thousands of biochemical interactions can now be provided. Analytes such as biomolecules including DNA/RNA and oligonucleotides, proteins, peptides, carbohydrates, toxins and microorganisms have been characterized in water, tissue and blood samples. In fact, one of the first microarray applications, which was able to detect thousand-fold in parallel, included the analysis of labeled target DNA. Raman Spectroscopy (RS), as vibrational spectroscopy, provides highly specific information and is, compared to IR spectroscopy, more appropriate for analyzing biological molecules in aqueous samples. All biologically relevant molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids exhibit distinct Raman spectral features by yielding molecular fingerprints. However, conventional RS is hampered for biomolecular characterization by its limited sensitivity. With Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS), signal enhancement occurs in the presence of metal colloids and allows detection down to the single molecule level. We are investigating on a label-free detection principle of microorganisms on microarray, using SERS. SERS offers the advantages of reduced assay times, simpler handling and lower reactant volumes compared to methods where the target molecules are labeled. It can also reveal additional information on the analytes, e.g. the physiological state or the stain of microorganisms. Our microarray immunosensor is a multiplex flow-through system which utilises a heterogeneous platform where the recognition takes place. This matrix is based on immobilized antibodies connected to an amino-modified surface by micro-printing or microstructuring processes. The major difference between the used microarray system and

  14. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) for Detection in Immunoassays: applications, fundamentals, and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremy Daniel Driskell

    2006-08-09

    Immunoassays have been utilized for the detection of biological analytes for several decades. Many formats and detection strategies have been explored, each having unique advantages and disadvantages. More recently, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been introduced as a readout method for immunoassays, and has shown great potential to meet many key analytical figures of merit. This technology is in its infancy and this dissertation explores the diversity of this method as well as the mechanism responsible for surface enhancement. Approaches to reduce assay times are also investigated. Implementing the knowledge gained from these studies will lead to a more sensitive immunoassay requiring less time than its predecessors. This dissertation is organized into six sections. The first section includes a literature review of the previous work that led to this dissertation. A general overview of the different approaches to immunoassays is given, outlining the strengths and weaknesses of each. Included is a detailed review of binding kinetics, which is central for decreasing assay times. Next, the theoretical underpinnings of SERS is reviewed at its current level of understanding. Past work has argued that surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the enhancing substrate influences the SERS signal; therefore, the SPR of the extrinsic Raman labels (ERLs) utilized in our SERS-based immunoassay is discussed. Four original research chapters follow the Introduction, each presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 2 modifies a SERS-based immunoassay previously developed in our group, extending it to the low-level detection of viral pathogens and demonstrating its versatility in terms of analyte type, Chapter 3 investigates the influence of ERL size, material composition, and separation distance between the ERLs and capture substrate on the SERS signal. This chapter links SPR with SERS enhancement factors and is consistent with many of the results from theoretical treatments

  15. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) characterization of trace organoarsenic antimicrobials using silver/polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olavarría-Fullerton, Jenifier; Wells, Sabrina; Ortiz-Rivera, William; Sepaniak, Michael J; De Jesús, Marco A

    2011-04-01

    Organoarsenic drugs such as roxarsone and 4-arsanilic acid are poultry feed additives widely used in US broilers to prevent coccidosis and to enhance growth and pigmentation. Despite their veterinary benefits there has been growing concern about their use because over 90% of these drugs are released intact into litter, which is often sold as a fertilizing supplement. The biochemical degradation of these antimicrobials in the litter matrix can release significant amounts of soluble As(III) and As(V) to the environment, representing a potential environmental risk. Silver/polydimethylsiloxane (Ag/PDMS) nanocomposites are a class of surfaceenhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates that have proven effective for the sensitive, reproducible, and field-adaptable detection of aromatic acids in water. The work presented herein uses for the first time Ag/PDMS nanocomposites as substrates for the detection and characterization of trace amounts of roxarsone, 4-arsanilic acid, and acetarsone in water. The results gathered in this study show that organoarsenic species are distributed into the PDMS surface where the arsonic acid binds onto the embedded silver nanoparticles, enhancing its characteristic 792 cm(-1) stretching band. The chemisorption of the drugs to the metal facilitates its detection and characterization in the parts per million to parts per billion range. An extensive analysis of the distinct spectroscopic features of each drug is presented with emphasis on the interactions of the arsonic acid, amino, and nitro groups with the metal surface. The benefits of SERS based methods for the study of arsenic drugs are also discussed. PMID:21396190

  16. Ultrasensitive molecular sensor using N-doped graphene through enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Simin; dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Carvalho, Bruno R.; Lv, Ruitao; Li, Qing; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Elías, Ana Laura; Lei, Yu; Perea-López, Nestor; Endo, Morinobu; Pan, Minghu; Pimenta, Marcos A.; Terrones, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    As a novel and efficient surface analysis technique, graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. In particular, chemically doped graphene exhibits improved GERS effects when compared with pristine graphene for certain dyes, and it can be used to efficiently detect trace amounts of molecules. However, the GERS mechanism remains an open question. We present a comprehensive study on the GERS effect of pristine graphene and nitrogen-doped graphene. By controlling nitrogen doping, the Fermi level (EF) of graphene shifts, and if this shift aligns with the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of a molecule, charge transfer is enhanced, thus significantly amplifying the molecule’s vibrational Raman modes. We confirmed these findings using different organic fluorescent molecules: rhodamine B, crystal violet, and methylene blue. The Raman signals from these dye molecules can be detected even for concentrations as low as 10−11 M, thus providing outstanding molecular sensing capabilities. To explain our results, these nitrogen-doped graphene-molecule systems were modeled using dispersion-corrected density functional theory. Furthermore, we demonstrated that it is possible to determine the gaps between the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO) of different molecules when different laser excitations are used. Our simulated Raman spectra of the molecules also suggest that the measured Raman shifts come from the dyes that have an extra electron. This work demonstrates that nitrogen-doped graphene has enormous potential as a substrate when detecting low concentrations of molecules and could also allow for an effective identification of their HOMO-LUMO gaps. PMID:27532043

  17. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering of Bacteria in Microwells Constructed from Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çulha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole bacterial cell characterization is critically important for fast bacterial identification. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS is proven to be powerful technique to serve such a goal. In this study, the characterization of whole bacterial cells in the microwells constructed from colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs with “convective-assembly” method is reported. The proper size of the microwells for the model bacteria, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus cohnii, is determined to be 1.2 μm from their electron microscopy images. A minimum dilution factor of 20 is necessary for the bacterial samples collected from growth media to diminish the bacterial aggregation to place the bacterial cells into the microwells. The constructed microwell structures are tested for their bacterial SERS performance and compared to the SERS spectra obtained from the samples prepared with a simple mixing of bacteria and AgNPs for the same bacteria. The results indicate that microwell structures not only improve the spectral quality but also increase the reproducibility of the SERS spectra.

  18. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of monolayer MX2 with metallic nano particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duan; Wu, Ye-Cun; Yang, Mei; Liu, Xiao; Coileáin, Cormac Ó.; Abid, Mourad; Abid, Mohamed; Wang, Jing-Jing; Shvets, Igor; Xu, Hongjun; Chun, Byong Sun; Liu, Huajun; Wu, Han-Chun

    2016-07-01

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S) exhibit remarkable electronic and optical properties, making them candidates for application within flexible nano-optoelectronics. The ability to achieve a high optical signal, while quantitatively monitoring strain in real-time is the key requirement for applications in flexible sensing and photonics devices. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) allows us to achieve both simultaneously. However, the SERS depends crucially on the size and shape of the metallic nanoparticles (NPs), which have a large impact on its detection sensitivity. Here, we investigated the SERS of monolayer MX2, with particular attention paid to the effect of the distribution of the metallic NPs. We show that the SERS depends crucially on the distribution of the metallic NPs and also the phonon mode of the MX2. Moreover, strong coupling between MX2 and metallic NPs, through surface plasmon excitation, results in splitting of the and modes and an additional peak becomes apparent. For a WS2-Ag system the intensity of the additional peak increases exponentially with local strain, which opens another interesting window to quantitatively measure the local strain using SERS. Our experimental study may be useful for the application of monolayer MX2 in flexible nano-optoelectronics.

  19. Plasmofluidic single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering from dynamic assembly of plasmonic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Partha Pratim; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Tripathi, Ravi P. N.; Dasgupta, Arindam; Kumar, G. V. Pavan

    2014-07-01

    Single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SM-SERS) is one of the vital applications of plasmonic nanoparticles. The SM-SERS sensitivity critically depends on plasmonic hot-spots created at the vicinity of such nanoparticles. In conventional fluid-phase SM-SERS experiments, plasmonic hot-spots are facilitated by chemical aggregation of nanoparticles. Such aggregation is usually irreversible, and hence, nanoparticles cannot be re-dispersed in the fluid for further use. Here, we show how to combine SM-SERS with plasmon polariton-assisted, reversible assembly of plasmonic nanoparticles at an unstructured metal-fluid interface. One of the unique features of our method is that we use a single evanescent-wave optical excitation for nanoparticle assembly, manipulation and SM-SERS measurements. Furthermore, by utilizing dual excitation of plasmons at metal-fluid interface, we create interacting assemblies of metal nanoparticles, which may be further harnessed in dynamic lithography of dispersed nanostructures. Our work will have implications in realizing optically addressable, plasmofluidic, single-molecule detection platforms.

  20. Highly sensitive detection of clenbuterol using competitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Guichi [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Hu Yongjun, E-mail: yjhu@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Gao Jiao; Zhong Liang [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2011-07-04

    Graphical abstract: Schemes of SERS nanoprobes preparation (a) and competitive SERS immunoassay for clenbuterol (b). Highlights: > A new method for clenbuterol detection by the use of a competitive SERS immunoassay has been developed. > 4,4'-Dipyridyl is chosen as the Raman reporter due to its fast-labeled, nontoxic and bifunctional properties. > The present method could detect clenbuterol over a wide dynamic concentration range and exhibit significant specificity in real samples. > The technique is more sensitive and simpler than the conventional method ELISA. - Abstract: In this report, we present a novel approach to detect clenbuterol based on competitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) immunoassay. Herein, a SERS nanoprobe that relies on gold nanoparticle (GNP) is labeled by 4,4'-dipyridyl (DP) and clenbuterol antibody, respectively. The detection of clenbuterol is carried out by competitive binding between free clenbuterol and clenbuterol-BSA fastened on the substrate with their antibody labeled on SERS nanoprobes. The present method allows us to detect clenbuterol over a much wider concentration range (0.1-100 pg mL{sup -1}) with a lower limit of detection (ca. 0.1 pg mL{sup -1}) than the conventional methods. Furthermore, by the use of this new competitive SERS immunoassay, the clenbuterol-BSA (antigen) is chosen to fasten on the substrate instead of the clenbuterol antibody, which could reduce the cost of the assay. Results demonstrate that the proposed method has the wide potential applications in food safety and agonist control.

  1. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of monolayer MX2 with metallic nano particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duan; Wu, Ye-Cun; Yang, Mei; Liu, Xiao; Coileáin, Cormac Ó; Abid, Mourad; Abid, Mohamed; Wang, Jing-Jing; Shvets, Igor; Xu, Hongjun; Chun, Byong Sun; Liu, Huajun; Wu, Han-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S) exhibit remarkable electronic and optical properties, making them candidates for application within flexible nano-optoelectronics. The ability to achieve a high optical signal, while quantitatively monitoring strain in real-time is the key requirement for applications in flexible sensing and photonics devices. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) allows us to achieve both simultaneously. However, the SERS depends crucially on the size and shape of the metallic nanoparticles (NPs), which have a large impact on its detection sensitivity. Here, we investigated the SERS of monolayer MX2, with particular attention paid to the effect of the distribution of the metallic NPs. We show that the SERS depends crucially on the distribution of the metallic NPs and also the phonon mode of the MX2. Moreover, strong coupling between MX2 and metallic NPs, through surface plasmon excitation, results in splitting of the and modes and an additional peak becomes apparent. For a WS2-Ag system the intensity of the additional peak increases exponentially with local strain, which opens another interesting window to quantitatively measure the local strain using SERS. Our experimental study may be useful for the application of monolayer MX2 in flexible nano-optoelectronics. PMID:27457808

  2. Decoration of silicon nanowires with silver nanoparticles for ultrasensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Andrea, Cristiano; Lo Faro, Maria J.; Bertino, Giulia; Ossi, Paolo M.; Neri, Fortunato; Trusso, Sebastiano; Musumeci, Paolo; Galli, Matteo; Cioffi, Nicola; Irrera, Alessia; Priolo, Francesco; Fazio, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Silicon nanowires (Si NWs), produced by the chemical etching technique, were decorated with silver nanoparticles (NPs) produced at room temperature by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Silver NPs were obtained by means of nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of a target in the presence of a controlled Ar atmosphere. Two different laser pulse numbers and Si NWs having different lengths were used to change the NP number density on the Si NW surface. The resulting Ag NP morphologies were studied by scanning electron microscopy imaging. The results show that this industrially compatible technological approach allows the coverage of the Si NW walls with Ag NPs with a strong control of the NP size distribution and spatial arrangement. The obtained Ag NP decorated Si NWs are free from chemicals contamination and there is no need of post deposition high temperature processes. The optical properties of Si NW arrays were investigated by reflectance spectroscopy that showed the presence of a plasmon related absorption peak, whose position and width is dependent on the Ag NP surface morphology. Coupling the huge surface-to-volume ratio of Si NW arrays with the plasmonic properties of silver nanoparticles resulted in a 3D structure suitable for very sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications, as demonstrated by the detection of Rhodamine 6G in aqueous solution at a concentration level of 10‑8 M.

  3. Development of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy monitoring of fuel markers to prevent fraud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Timothy; Clarkson, John; White, Peter C.; Meakin, Nicholas; McDonald, Ken

    2013-05-01

    Governments often tax fuel products to generate revenues to support and stimulate their economies. They also subsidize the cost of essential fuel products. Fuel taxation and subsidization practices are both subject to fraud. Oil marketing companies also suffer from fuel fraud with loss of legitimate sales and additional quality and liability issues. The use of an advanced marking system to identify and control fraud has been shown to be effective in controlling illegal activity. DeCipher has developed surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy as its lead technology for measuring markers in fuel to identify and control malpractice. SERS has many advantages that make it highly suitable for this purpose. The SERS instruments are portable and can be used to monitor fuel at any point in the supply chain. SERS shows high specificity for the marker, with no false positives. Multiple markers can also be detected in a single SERS analysis allowing, for example, specific regional monitoring of fuel. The SERS analysis from fuel is also quick, clear and decisive, with a measurement time of less than 5 minutes. We will present results highlighting our development of the use of a highly stable silver colloid as a SERS substrate to measure the markers at ppb levels. Preliminary results from the use of a solid state SERS substrate to measure fuel markers will also be presented.

  4. Highly sensitive and reproducible silicon-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensors for real applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Houyu; Jiang, Xiangxu; He, Yao

    2016-08-15

    During the past few decades, thanks to silicon nanomaterials' outstanding electronic/optical/mechanical properties, large surface-to-volume ratio, abundant surface chemistry, facile tailorability and good compatibility with modern semiconductor industry, different dimensional silicon nanostructures have been widely employed for rationally designing and fabricating high-performance surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors for the detection of various chemical and biological species. Among these, two-dimensional silicon nanostructures made of metal nanoparticle-modified silicon wafers and three-dimensional silicon nanostructures made of metal nanoparticle-decorated SiNW arrays are of particular interest, and have been extensively exploited as promising silicon-based SERS-active substrates for the construction of high-performance SERS sensors. With an aim to retrospect these important and exciting achievements, we herein focus on reviewing recent representative studies on silicon-based SERS sensors for sensing applications from a broad perspective and possible future direction, promoting readers' awareness of these novel powerful silicon-based SERS sensing technologies. Firstly, we summarize the two unique merits of silicon-based SERS sensors, and those are high sensitivity and good reproducibility. Next, we present recent advances of two- and three-dimensional silicon-based SERS sensors, especially for real applications. Finally, we discuss the major challenges and prospects for the development of silicon-based SERS sensors. PMID:27414500

  5. A Nanosensor for TNT Detection Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymers and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikella E. Hankus

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on a new sensor strategy that integrates molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs with surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS. The sensor was developed to detect the explosive, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT. Micron thick films of sol gel-derived xerogels were deposited on a SERS-active surface as the sensing layer. Xerogels were molecularly imprinted for TNT using non-covalent interactions with the polymer matrix. Binding of the TNT within the polymer matrix results in unique SERS bands, which allow for detection and identification of the molecule in the MIP. This MIP-SERS sensor exhibits an apparent dissociation constant of (2.3 ± 0.3 × 10−5 M for TNT and a 3 µM detection limit. The response to TNT is reversible and the sensor is stable for at least 6 months. Key challenges, including developing a MIP formulation that is stable and integrated with the SERS substrate, and ensuring the MIP does not mask the spectral features of the target analyte through SERS polymer background, were successfully met. The results also suggest the MIP-SERS protocol can be extended to other target analytes of interest.

  6. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  7. Streptococcus suis II immunoassay based on thorny gold nanoparticles and surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Han, Heyou; Luo, Zhihui

    2012-03-01

    An immunoassay based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy was developed to detect muramidase released protein (MRP) antibody against Streptococcus suis II (SS2) utilizing thorny gold nanoparticles (tAuNPs) as SERS substrates. Initially, tAuNPs with multi-branches were prepared by the seed-mediated growth method in the absence of templates and surfactants, facilitating p-mercaptobenzoic acid (pMBA) conjugation covalently onto the tAuNPs through S-Au bonds. The obtained immuno-SERS tag affording strong Raman signals made it possible to establish an application of indirect detection of the MRP antibody against SS2 with a sandwich assay at a highly sensitive level. The Raman intensity at 1588 cm(-1) was proportional to the logarithm of the concentration of MRP antibody in the range of 10 pg mL(-1) to 0.1 μg mL(-1). The detection sensitivity was significantly improved to 0.1 pg mL(-1) by using the immuno-SERS tags. Furthermore, the proposed SERS approach was applied to detect MRP antibody in pig serum samples, and the results agreed well with those of ELISA, indicating great potential for clinical application in diagnostic immunoassays. PMID:22282767

  8. Chloride ion-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of biotin on the silver surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper, the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique was employed to study the SERS spectra of biotin molecules formed on the silver surface. The adsorption geometries of biotin molecules on the silver surface were analyzed based on the SERS data. It can be found that most vibration modes show a Raman shift in silver sol after the addition of sodium chloride solution. In addition, The Raman signals of biotin become weaker and weaker with the increase of the concentration of sodium chloride. This may be due to that the interaction between chloride ions and silver particles is stronger than the interaction between biotin molecules and silver particles. When the concentration of sodium chloride in silver colloid is higher than 0.05mol/L, superfluous chloride ions may form an absorption layer so that biotin can not be adsorbed on silver surface directly. The changes in intensity and profile shape in the SERS spectra suggest different adsorption behavior and surface-coverage of biotin on silver surface. The SERS spectra of biotin suggest that the contribution of the charge transfer mechanism to SERS may be dominant.

  9. Tapered Optical Fiber Probe Assembled with Plasmonic Nanostructures for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhulin; Lei, Xing; Liu, Ye; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Zhaoming; Mao, Qinghe; Meng, Guowen

    2015-08-12

    Optical fiber-Raman devices integrated with plasmonic nanostructures have promising potentials for in situ probing remote liquid samples and biological samples. In this system, the fiber probe is required to simultaneously demonstrate stable surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals and high sensitivity toward the target species. Here we demonstrate a generic approach to integrate presynthesized plasmonic nanostructures with tapered fiber probes that are prepared by a dipping-etching method, through reversed electrostatic attraction between the silane couple agent modified silica fiber probe and the nanostructures. Using this approach, both negatively and positively charged plasmonic nanostructures with various morphologies (such as Au nanosphere, Ag nanocube, Au nanorod, Au@Ag core-shell nanorod) can be stably assembled on the tapered silica fiber probes. Attributed to the electrostatic force between the plasmonic units and the fiber surface, the nanostructures do not disperse in liquid samples easily, making the relative standard deviation of SERS signals as low as 2% in analyte solution. Importantly, the detection sensitivity of the system can be optimized by adjusting the cone angle (from 3.6° to 22°) and the morphology of nanostructures assembled on the fiber. Thus, the nanostructures-sensitized optical fiber-Raman probes show great potentials in the applications of SERS-based environmental detection of liquid samples. PMID:26186260

  10. Nanoimprinted Patterned Pillar Substrates for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juhong; Li, Yinyong; Huang, Kang; Wang, Panxue; He, Lili; Carter, Kenneth R; Nugen, Sam R

    2015-10-01

    A pragmatic method to deposit silver nanoparticles on polydopamine-coated nanoimprinted pillars for use as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates was developed. Pillar arrays consisting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) that ranged in diameter from 300 to 500 nm were fabricated using nanoimprint lithography. The arrays had periodicities from 0.6 to 4.0 μm. A polydopamine layer was coated on the pillars in order to facilitate the reduction of silver ions to create silver nucleation sites during the electroless deposition of sliver nanoparticles. The size and density of silver nanoparticles were controlled by adjusting the growth time for the optimization of the SERS performance. The size of the surface-adhered nanoparticles ranged between 75 and 175 nm, and the average particle density was ∼30 particles per μm(2). These functionalized arrays had a high sensitivity and excellent signal reproducibility for the SERS-based detection of 4-methoxybenzoic acid. The substrates were also able to allow the SERS-based differentiation of three types of bacteriophages (λ, T3, and T7). PMID:26402032

  11. Solving very large scattering problems using a parallel PWTD-enhanced surface integral equation solver

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2013-07-01

    The computational complexity and memory requirements of multilevel plane wave time domain (PWTD)-accelerated marching-on-in-time (MOT)-based surface integral equation (SIE) solvers scale as O(NtNs(log 2)Ns) and O(Ns 1.5); here N t and Ns denote numbers of temporal and spatial basis functions discretizing the current [Shanker et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 51, 628-641, 2003]. In the past, serial versions of these solvers have been successfully applied to the analysis of scattering from perfect electrically conducting as well as homogeneous penetrable targets involving up to Ns ≈ 0.5 × 106 and Nt ≈ 10 3. To solve larger problems, parallel PWTD-enhanced MOT solvers are called for. Even though a simple parallelization strategy was demonstrated in the context of electromagnetic compatibility analysis [M. Lu et al., in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. AP-S, 4, 4212-4215, 2004], by and large, progress in this area has been slow. The lack of progress can be attributed wholesale to difficulties associated with the construction of a scalable PWTD kernel. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. High surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of BN nanosheets–Ag nanoparticles hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shanshan; Zhang, Zhaochun, E-mail: zhangzhaochun@shu.edu.cn; Zhao, Jun; Zheng, Houli

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Boron nitride–silver nanohybrid was acquired through a liquid-phase reducing route. • The composite shown a high-quality SERS activity. • 2-Mercaptobenzimidazole was chemisorbed on silver surface in vertical orientation. -- Abstract: A facile liquid-phase reducing route was developed to modify boron nitride (BN) nanosheets with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in order to fabricate BN–AgNPs hybrids with high surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity. The layered structure and morphology of BN–AgNPs nanohybrids were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible were used for studying optical properties and surface plasmon resonance applied to the optical sensor. The SERS of adsorbed 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (MBI) molecule was investigated which shown that the BN–AgNPs substrate exhibited a very strong SERS activity, offering a great potential application in molecular probe sensor. On the basis of the analysis of SERS and the Raman surface selection rules, we could draw a conclusion that the MBI molecule was adsorbed upright on the AgNPs surface through the sulphur and nitrogen atoms. What is more, the cyclic voltammetry experiment indicated the electrochemically irreversible behavior of BN–AgNPs nanohybrids in KCl solution.

  13. A sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering enzyme-catalyzed immunoassay of respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lei; Zhen, Shu Jun; Wan, Xiao Yan; Gao, Peng Fei; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory viruses have become a major global health challenge which would benefit from advances in screening methods for early diagnosis. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important pathogen causing severe lower respiratory tract infections. Here we present a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enzyme-catalyzed immunoassay of RSV by employing peroxidase substrate 3, 3'-5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as Raman molecule. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) attached to the detection antibody in a novel sandwich immunoassay catalyzes the oxidation of TMB by H2O2 to give a radical cation (TMB(+)), which could be easily adsorbed on the negatively charged surface of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through electrostatic interaction, inducing the aggregation of AgNPs and thus giving a strong SERS signal. A linear relationship was obtained between the Raman intensity and the amount of RSV in the range from 0.5 to 20 pg/mL, and the minimum detectable concentration of this SERS-based enzyme immunoassay was 0.05 pg/mL, which was 20 times lower than that found in the colorimetric method. PMID:26653454

  14. Derivatization reaction-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for detection of trace acetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Chen, Zhuo; Zheng, Chengbin; Lee, Yong-Ill; Hou, Xiandeng; Wu, Li; Tian, Yunfei

    2016-08-01

    A facile method was developed for determination of trace volatile acetone by coupling a derivatization reaction to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). With iodide modified Ag nanoparticles (Ag IMNPs) as the SERS substrate, acetone without obvious Raman signal could be converted to SERS-sensitive species via a chemical derivatization reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH). In addition, acetone can be effectively separated from liquid phase with a purge-sampling device and then any serious interference from sample matrices can be significantly reduced. The optimal conditions for the derivatization reaction and the SERS analysis were investigated in detail, and the selectivity and reproducibility of this method were also evaluated. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for acetone was 5mgL(-1) or 0.09mM (3σ). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 80mgL(-1) acetone (n=9) was 1.7%. This method was successfully used for the determination of acetone in artificial urine and human urine samples with spiked recoveries ranging from 92% to 110%. The present method is convenient, sensitive, selective, reliable and suitable for analysis of trace acetone, and it could have a promising clinical application in early diabetes diagnosis. PMID:27216660

  15. Fabrication and evolution of multilayer silver nanofilms for surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensing of arsenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jinwei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS has recently been investigated extensively for chemical and biomolecular sensing. Multilayer silver (Ag nanofilms deposited on glass slides by a simple electroless deposition process have been fabricated as active substrates (Ag/GL substrates for arsenate SERS sensing. The nanostructures and layer characteristics of the multilayer Ag films could be tuned by varying the concentrations of reactants (AgNO3/BuNH2 and reaction time. A Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs double-layer was formed by directly reducing Ag+ ions on the glass surfaces, while a top layer (3rd-layer of Ag dendrites was deposited on the double-layer by self-assembling AgNPs or AgNPs aggregates which had already formed in the suspension. The SERS spectra of arsenate showed that characteristic SERS bands of arsenate appear at approximately 780 and 420 cm-1, and the former possesses higher SERS intensity. By comparing the peak heights of the approximately 780 cm-1 band of the SERS spectra, the optimal Ag/GL substrate has been obtained for the most sensitive SERS sensing of arsenate. Using this optimal substrate, the limit of detection (LOD of arsenate was determined to be approximately 5 μg·l-1.

  16. Multifunctional porous silicon nanopillar arrays: antireflection, superhydrophobicity, photoluminescence, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have fabricated porous silicon nanopillar arrays over large areas with a rapid, simple, and low-cost technique. The porous silicon nanopillars show unique longitudinal features along their entire length and have porosity with dimensions on the single-nanometer scale. Both Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence data were used to determine the nanocrystallite size to be <3 nm. The porous silicon nanopillar arrays also maintained excellent ensemble properties, reducing reflection nearly fivefold from planar silicon in the visible range without any optimization, and approaching superhydrophobic behavior with increasing aspect ratio, demonstrating contact angles up to 138°. Finally, the porous silicon nanopillar arrays were made into sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates by depositing metal onto the pillars. The SERS performance of the substrates was demonstrated using a chemical dye Rhodamine 6G. With their multitude of properties (i.e., antireflection, superhydrophobicity, photoluminescence, and sensitive SERS), the porous silicon nanopillar arrays described here can be valuable in applications such as solar harvesting, electrochemical cells, self-cleaning devices, and dynamic biological monitoring. (paper)

  17. Surface modification of silver nanofilms for improved perchlorate detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jumin; Han, Mei-Juan; Li, Jinwei; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2012-07-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), as one of the most sensitive spectroscopic analysis methods, has been investigated extensively for the detection of environmental contaminants in recent years. In this work, we reported the new development of robust SERS substrates for rapid and sensitive sensing of aqueous perchlorate, a widespread environmental contaminant. The fabrication of the substrates consisted of two simple steps: (a) formation of Ag nanofilms on Cu and surface-roughened Cu foils (Ag/Cu and Ag/rCu nanofilms) using a controllable and inexpensive one-step electroless plating process, and (b) surface modification of the Ag nanofilms with cysteamine (Cys) self-assembly monolayer (SAM) (Cys-Ag/Cu and Cys-Ag/rCu substrates). Due to the strong affinity of -NH(3)(+) groups of the Cys molecules for perchlorate ions, the rapid SERS detection of perchlorate has been realized with a limit of detection (LOD) down to 5 μg L(-1) (ppb) for aqueous samples without need for drying. Various calibration curves with good linear relationships were obtained, indicating the quantification potential of SERS analysis of perchlorate using these new substrates. It was found that the neutral pH yielded the maximum SERS signals, and 85% of original sensitivity was remained in 5 days of storage time in the air, indicating the substrates are fairly stable. Within 10 regeneration-reuse cycles, the SERS signals of perchlorate kept in the range of 85-105% of the original value, verifying its reusability. PMID:22494687

  18. Highly sensitive detection of clenbuterol using competitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Schemes of SERS nanoprobes preparation (a) and competitive SERS immunoassay for clenbuterol (b). Highlights: → A new method for clenbuterol detection by the use of a competitive SERS immunoassay has been developed. → 4,4'-Dipyridyl is chosen as the Raman reporter due to its fast-labeled, nontoxic and bifunctional properties. → The present method could detect clenbuterol over a wide dynamic concentration range and exhibit significant specificity in real samples. → The technique is more sensitive and simpler than the conventional method ELISA. - Abstract: In this report, we present a novel approach to detect clenbuterol based on competitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) immunoassay. Herein, a SERS nanoprobe that relies on gold nanoparticle (GNP) is labeled by 4,4'-dipyridyl (DP) and clenbuterol antibody, respectively. The detection of clenbuterol is carried out by competitive binding between free clenbuterol and clenbuterol-BSA fastened on the substrate with their antibody labeled on SERS nanoprobes. The present method allows us to detect clenbuterol over a much wider concentration range (0.1-100 pg mL-1) with a lower limit of detection (ca. 0.1 pg mL-1) than the conventional methods. Furthermore, by the use of this new competitive SERS immunoassay, the clenbuterol-BSA (antigen) is chosen to fasten on the substrate instead of the clenbuterol antibody, which could reduce the cost of the assay. Results demonstrate that the proposed method has the wide potential applications in food safety and agonist control.

  19. A rapid method to authenticate vegetable oils through surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ming Yang; Zhang, Xin; Ren, Hai Rui; Liu, Luo; Zhao, Yong Mei; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Zheng Long; Liu, Li Min; Xu, Hai Jun

    2016-03-01

    Vegetable oils are essential in our daily diet. Among various vegetable oils, the major difference lies in the composition of fatty acids, including unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). USFA include oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA), while SFA are mainly palmitic acid (PA). In this study, the most typical and abundant USFA present with PA in vegetable oils were quantified. More importantly, certain proportional relationships between the integrated intensities of peaks centered at 1656 cm‑1 (S1656) in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of different USFA were confirmed. Therefore, the LA or ALA content could be converted into an equivalent virtual OA content enabling the characterization of the USFA content in vegetable oils using the equivalent total OA content. In combination with the S1656 of pure OA and using peanut, sesame, and soybean oils as examples, the ranges of S1656 corresponding to the National Standards of China were established to allow the rapid authentication of vegetable oils. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analyses verified the accuracy of the method, with relative errors of less than 5%. Moreover, this method can be extended to other detection fields, such as diseases.

  20. In vitro detection of beta amyloid exploiting surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using a nanofluidic biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Melodie E.; Chou, I.-Hsien; Beier, Hope T.; Wang, Miao; Kameoka, Jun; Good, Theresa A.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2008-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia, affects 4.5 million people according to the 2000 US census and is expected to triple to 13.2 million by the year 2050. Since no definitive pre-mortem tests exist to distinguish AD from mild cognitive impairment due to the natural aging process, we focus on detecting the beta amyloid (Aβ) protein, the primary component of the senile plaques characteristic of AD. We specifically detect cytotoxic species of Aβ by exploiting surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Using a nanofluidic device with a bottleneck shape (a microchannel leading into a nanochannel); we trapped gold colloid particles (60 nm) at the entrance to the nanochannel, with Aβ restricted within the interstices between the aggregated nanoparticles. The continuous flow generated from pumping the solution into the device produced size-dependent trapping of the gold colloid particles, resulting in a high density of aggregated nanoparticles at this precise region, creating localized "hot spots" in the interstitial region between nanoparticles, and shifting the plasmon resonance to the near infrared region, in resonance with incident laser wavelength. With this robust sensing platform, we were able to obtain concentration-dependent SERS spectra of Aβ and of different proteins present in the cerebrospinal fluid of healthy people and people with Alzheimer's disease.