Sample records for brillouin light scattering

  1. Light beating spectroscopy of Brillouin scattering in gases and solids (United States)

    Yogi, Takeshi; Sakai, Keiji; Takagi, Kenshiro


    The experimental system of optical beating spectroscopy was improved, and the increased sensitivity and frequency resolution were demonstrated in the Brillouin scattering experiments in solids, crown glass (BK7), and polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA), and also in gases, air, and nitrogen. For their weak light scattering ability, these substances are very tough specimens for Brillouin scattering studies, and the classical spectrometer of Fabry-Pérot étalon has been so far used for the frequency analysis. The phonon peaks were observed with the present light beating system in BK7 at room temperature over the wave number range from k /2π=1.03×104to8.84×104m-1 (corresponding frequency from 61.6to548MHz), and the spectra were fitted with Gaussian curves since a condenser lens in the incident light path caused a large instrumental width that overwhelmed the intrinsic phonon width. The spectra in PMMA were analyzed with Voigt functions. The dispersion relations obtained in these solids were in good agreement with the literature values of ultrasonic velocity. The spectra in air were well fitted with Lorentzian curve representing the phonon lifetime, and the absorption as well as the phase velocity was obtained.

  2. Brillouin light scattering from shear waves in an epoxy resin through the glass transition (United States)

    Comez, L.; Fioretto, D.; Verdini, L.; Rolla, P. A.


    The temperature dependences of the characteristic frequency and lifetime of hypersonic transverse acoustic waves in the epoxy system EPON 828 have been probed by means of the Brillouin light scattering technique. Evidence has been found of a very broad dispersion region, together with a discontinuity close to the glass transition temperature 0953-8984/9/19/016/img7. For temperatures higher than 0953-8984/9/19/016/img7, the shear loss data obtained from Brillouin spectra are in quantitative agreement with dielectric data for the same system. For lower temperatures, the Brillouin data deviate from the dielectric ones, the former being more sensitive to the secondary relaxation processes.

  3. Spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering of ultraviolet light in nitrogen, dry and moist air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witschas, B.; Vieitez, M.O.; van Duijn, E.-J.; Reitebuch, O.; Van de Water, W.; Ubachs, W.M.G.


    Atmospheric lidar techniques for the measurement of wind, temperature, and optical properties of aerosols rely on the exact knowledge of the spectral line shape of the scattered laser light on molecules. We report on spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering measurements in the ultraviolet at a

  4. Theoretical analysis and experiment performance of slow-light based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyan; Zhong, Kun; Zhang, Ru; Lang, Peilin


    Slow light technology will play a key role in future all-optical communication. The slow-light technology based on stimulated Brillouin scattering has become a research highlight because of its additional advantages, such as compatibility of the devices with existing telecommunication systems, room-temperature operation, and tunable at arbitrary wavelengths. According to the propagation of a cw pulse through a Brillouin fiber amplifier, whose frequency is near the Stokes resonance, via three-wave coupling equations, both pump depletion and fiber losses taken into consideration, the principle of how slow-light effect based on stimulated Brillouin scattering produced and the mathematical expression of time delay are strictly deduced. A delay of 8 ns is obtained when the input Stokes pulse is 200ns and the SBS (stimulated Brillouin scattering) gain G is ~18 in our designed experiment of SBS slow-light system. Then the extent of transformation from pump waves to Stokes waves is measured using MATLAB numerical simulation according to the experiment dates, based on the relation between output pump light power and input pump light power and also the relation between output Stokes light power and input pump light power. And the relation between the input light power and propagation distance is discussed as well. Finally the relation between slow light pulse delay and SBS gain is also obtained.

  5. Coherent self-heterodyne detection of spontaneously Brillouin-scattered light waves in a single-mode fiber (United States)

    Shimizu, Kaoru; Horiguchi, Tsuneo; Koyamada, Yahei; Kurashima, Toshio


    Time-domain reflectometry of spontaneous Brillouin scattering in a single-mode optical fiber is performed with a coherent self-heterodyne detection system containing a recently proposed external frequency translator and a single light-wave source. The light wave is divided into probe and reference light waves. The frequency of the probe light wave is upconverted by the translator by an amount approximately equal to the Brillouin frequency shift. The frequency-converted probe is launched into the fiber and spontaneously Brillouin scattered. As the frequency of the scattered probe is downconverted to near that of the reference light wave, coherent self-heterodyne detection of spontaneous Brillouin scattering becomes possible without having to use a fast-speed detector.

  6. Light scattering by a nematic liquid crystal droplet: Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loiko, V. A., E-mail:; Konkolovich, A. V.; Miskevich, A. A. [National Academy of Science of Belarus, Stepanov Institute of Physics (Belarus)


    Light scattering by an optically anisotropic liquid crystal (LC) droplet of a nematic in an isotropic polymer matrix is considered in the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) approximation. General relations are obtained for elements of the amplitude matrix of light scattering by a droplet of arbitrary shape and for the structure of the director field. Analytic expressions for the amplitude matrices are derived for spherical LC droplets with a uniformly oriented structure of local optical axes for strictly forward and strictly backward scattering. The efficiency factors of extinction and backward scattering for a spherical nonabsorbing LC droplet depending on the LC optical anisotropy, refractive index of the polymer, illumination conditions, and orientation of the optical axis of the droplet are analyzed. Verification of the obtained solutions has been performed.

  7. Elastic properties of boron carbide films via surface acoustic waves measured by Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, E.; Jimenez-Villacorta, F.; Jimenez Rioboo, R.J.; Prieto, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Marcos, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Munoz-Martin, A.; Prieto, J.E.; Joco, V. [Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)


    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity has been determined by high resolution Brillouin light scattering to study the mechano-elastic properties of boron carbide films prepared by radio frequency (RF) sputtering. The comparison of experimentally observed elastic behaviour with simulations made by considering film composition obtained from elastic recoil detection analysis-time of flight (ERDA-ToF) spectroscopy allows establishing that elastic properties are determined by that of crystalline boron carbide with a lessening of the SAW velocity values due to surface oxidation. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Observation of magnons in Mn2Au films by inelastic Brillouin and Raman light scattering (United States)

    Arana, M.; Estrada, F.; Maior, D. S.; Mendes, J. B. S.; Fernandez-Outon, L. E.; Macedo, W. A. A.; Barthem, V. M. T. S.; Givord, D.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S. M.


    The intermetallic antiferromagnetic compound Mn2Au has been attracting considerable interest for antiferromagnetic spintronics due to its high Néel temperature and strong spin-orbit coupling. We report on the experimental investigation of the zero-wave number magnon frequencies in Mn2Au films using Brillouin and Raman inelastic light scattering techniques. The derived effective anisotropy field values are in close agreement with theoretical calculations. With the values of the anisotropy and exchange fields, the full magnon dispersion curves in Mn2Au were calculated. Due to the weak in-plane anisotropy, the k ˜ 0 frequency of the lower magnon branch, 121 GHz, is among the lowest for 3D antiferromagnets, suggesting that Mn2Au is a good candidate for realizing the generation of spin currents by antiferromagnetic resonance driven spin-pumping, as proposed theoretically.

  9. Angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of square antidot lattices studied by Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IOM-CNR), Sede di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Madami, M.; Carlotti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O. [Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)


    The Brillouin light scattering technique has been exploited to study the angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of squared Permalloy antidot lattice. Frequency dispersion of spin waves has been measured for a set of fixed wave vector magnitudes, while varying the wave vector in-plane orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field. The magnonic band gap between the two most dispersive modes exhibits a minimum value at an angular position, which exclusively depends on the product between the selected wave vector magnitude and the lattice constant of the array. The experimental data are in very good agreement with predictions obtained by dynamical matrix method calculations. The presented results are relevant for magnonic devices where the antidot lattice, acting as a diffraction grating, is exploited to achieve multidirectional spin wave emission.

  10. Micro-focused Brillouin light scattering: imaging spin waves at the nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSebastian


    Full Text Available Spin waves constitute an important part of research in the field of magnetization dynamics. Spin waves are the elementary excitations of the spin system in a magnetically ordered material state and magnons are their quasi particles. In the following article, we will discuss the optical method of Brillouin light scattering (BLS spectroscopy which is a now a well established tool for the characterization of spin waves. BLS is the inelastic scattering of light from spin waves and confers several benefits: the ability to map the spin wave intensity distribution with spatial resolution and high sensitivity as well as the potential to simultaneously measure the frequency and the wave vector and, therefore, the dispersion properties.For several decades, the field of spin waves gained huge interest by the scientific community due to its relevance regarding fundamental issues of spindynamics in the field of solid states physics. The ongoing research in recent years has put emphasis on the high potential of spin waves regarding information technology. In the emerging field of textit{magnonics}, several concepts for a spin-wave based logic have been proposed and realized. Opposed to charge-based schemes in conventional electronics and spintronics, magnons are charge-free currents of angular momentum, and, therefore, less subject to scattering processes that lead to heating and dissipation. This fact is highlighted by the possibility to utilize spin waves as information carriers in electrically insulating materials. These developments have propelled the quest for ways and mechanisms to guide and manipulate spin-wave transport. In particular, a lot of effort is put into the miniaturization of spin-wave waveguides and the excitation of spin waves in structures with sub-micrometer dimensions.For the further development of potential spin-wave-based devices, the ability to directly observe spin-wave propagation with spatial resolution is crucial. As an optical

  11. Tunable slow light via stimulated Brillouin scattering at 2 μm based on Tm-doped fiber amplifiers. (United States)

    Wang, Xiong; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Hu; Liu, Zejin


    We present a slow light system based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) at 2 μm. A single-frequency fiber laser with Tm-doped fiber amplifiers was used to generate the SBS signal laser and the Brillouin pump light at 1.971 μm. The maximum delay time reaches 16 ns for pulses with 43-ns width, and the pulse width is broadened to 56.4 ns. The maximum delay time for 57-ns pulses reaches 33.4 ns, and the pulse width is broadened to 77.6 ns. The relative delays are 0.37 and 0.58 for 43 and 57 ns pulses, respectively. This is the first demonstration, as far as we know, on a slow light system at 2 μm, which may be substantial for future optical communications and LIDAR systems employing laser sources near 2-μm band.

  12. Optical Sensors Using Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (United States)

    Christensen, Caleb A (Inventor); Zavriyev, Anton (Inventor)


    A method for enhancing a sensitivity of an optical sensor having an optical cavity counter-propagates beams of pump light within the optical cavity to produce scattered light based on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). The properties of the pump light are selected to generate fast-light conditions for the scattered light, such that the scattered light includes counter-propagating beams of fast light. The method prevents the pump light from resonating within the optical cavity, while allowing the scattered light to resonate within the optical cavity. At least portions of the scattered light are interfered outside of the optical cavity to produce a beat note for a measurement of the optical sensor. The disclosed method is particularly applicable to optical gyroscopes.

  13. Neutron Brillouin scattering in dense fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkerk, P. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands); FINGO Collaboration


    Thermal neutron scattering is a typical microscopic probe for investigating dynamics and structure in condensed matter. In contrast, light (Brillouin) scattering with its three orders of magnitude larger wavelength is a typical macroscopic probe. In a series of experiments using the improved small-angle facility of IN5 a significant step forward is made towards reducing the gap between the two. For the first time the transition from the conventional single line in the neutron spectrum scattered by a fluid to the Rayleigh-Brillouin triplet known from light-scattering experiments is clearly and unambiguously observed in the raw neutron data without applying any corrections. Results of these experiments are presented. (author).

  14. Collective stimulated Brillouin scatter

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkevich, Alexander O; Rose, Harvey A


    We develop a statistical theory of stimulated Brillouin backscatter (BSBS) of a spatially and temporally partially incoherent laser beam for laser fusion relevant plasma. We find a new collective regime of BSBS which has a much larger threshold than the classical threshold of a coherent beam in long-scale-length laser fusion plasma. We identify two contributions to BSBS convective instability increment. The first is collective with intensity threshold independent of the laser correlation time and controlled by diffraction. The second is independent of diffraction, it grows with increase of the correlation time and does not have an intensity threshold. The instability threshold is inside the typical parameter region of National Ignition Facility (NIF). We also find that the bandwidth of KrF-laser-based fusion systems would be large enough to allow additional suppression of BSBS.

  15. Design and analysis of single-mode tellurite photonic crystal fibers for stimulated Brillouin scattering based slow-light generation. (United States)

    Jain, Varsha; Sharma, Shubham; Saini, Than Singh; Kumar, Ajeet; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar


    We theoretically examine two designs of single-mode (i) Er-doped tellurite and (ii) undoped tellurite photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for generation of slow light with tunable features based on stimulated Brillouin scattering. We obtained (i) Brillouin gain up to 91 dB and time delay of ∼145  ns at maximum allowable pump power of ∼775  mW in a 2 m Er-doped tellurite PCF and (ii) Brillouin gain up to ∼88  dB and time delay of ∼154  ns at maximum allowable pump power ∼21  mW in a 100 m undoped tellurite photonic crystal fiber. Simulated results clearly indicate that the doped tellurite PCF with Er enhances the maximum allowable pump power and comparable time delay can be obtained even with reduced photonic crystal fiber length. We believe that the carried out examination and simulation have potential impact on design and development of slow-light-based photonic devices applicable in telecommunication systems, enhancement of optical forces, and quantum computing.

  16. Influence of KF substitution on the ferroelectric phase transition of lead titanate single crystals studied by Brillouin light scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonhyeop Shin


    Full Text Available The elastic properties of KF-substituted perovskite lead titanate (PbTiO3 were investigated by dielectric measurements and Brillouin light scattering. The ferroelectric phase transition occurred at substantially lower temperature due to KF substitution, which was attributed to the modification of the covalency in Pb–O and Ti–O bonds. The longitudinal acoustic (LA mode of KF-substituted PbTiO3 showed a frequency softening in the paraelectric phase, which was accompanied by increasing acoustic damping. This indicated that polarization fluctuations responsible for the acoustic anomalies were enhanced by KF substitution.

  17. True-time delay line with separate carrier tuning using dual-parallel MZM and stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced slow light. (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhu, Ning Hua; Wang, Li Xian; Wang, Jia Sheng; Liu, Jian Guo; Liu, Yu; Qi, Xiao Qiong; Xie, Liang; Chen, Wei; Wang, Xin; Han, Wei


    We experimentally demonstrate a novel tunable true-time delay line with separate carrier tuning using dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator and stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced slow light. The phase of the optical carrier can be continuously and precisely controlled by simply adjusting the dc bias of the dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator. In addition, both the slow light and single-sideband modulation can be simultaneously achieved in the stimulated Brillouin scattering process with three types of configuration. Finally, the true-time delay technique is clearly verified by a two-tap incoherent microwave photonic filter as the free spectral range of the filter is changed.

  18. Theory of magnetic surface anisotropy and exchange effects in the Brillouin scattering of light by magnetostatic spin waves (invited) (United States)

    Rado, G. T.; Hicken, R. J.


    A new theory of the Brillouin shift in the inelastic scattering of light by magnetostatic spin waves is presented. Contrary to previous work, the present calculations do include exchange effects and treat the magnetic surface anisotropy constants Ks and Kss directly rather than via the stratagem of effective volume anisotropies. The experimental data for {110} Fe on W are explained about as well by the present theory as by previous work. A detailed analysis reveals the previously unnoticed fact that the signs of Ks and Kss for (1¯10) Fe on W are opposite to those for (1¯10) Fe on GaAs. Some new spin-wave modes arising from exchange are predicted and shown to occur outside the frequency range which has been investigated experimentally. A quantitative explanation is proposed for the occasional applicability of a theory based on effective volume anisotropies and zero exchange.

  19. Tailorable Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in Nanoscale Silicon Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Heedeuk; Jarecki, Robert; Cox, Jonathan A; Olsson, Roy H; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T


    While nanoscale modal confinement radically enhances a variety of nonlinear light-matter interactions within silicon waveguides, traveling-wave stimulated Brillouin scattering nonlinearities have never been observed in silicon nanophotonics. Through a new class of hybrid photonic-phononic waveguides, we demonstrate tailorable traveling-wave forward stimulated Brillouin scattering in nanophotonic silicon waveguides for the first time, yielding 3000 times stronger forward SBS responses than any previous waveguide system. Simulations reveal that a coherent combination of electrostrictive forces and radiation pressures are responsible for greatly enhanced photon-phonon coupling at nano-scales. Highly tailorable Brillouin nonlinearities are produced by engineering the structure of a membrane-suspended waveguide to yield Brillouin resonances from 1 to 18 GHz through high quality-factor (>1000) phonon modes. Such wideband and tailorable stimulated Brillouin scattering in silicon photonics could enable practical real...

  20. Spontaneous Brillouin scattering in a microdroplet (United States)

    Ching, S. C.; Leung, P. T.; Young, K.


    Spontaneous Brillouin scattering in a micrometer-sized liquid droplet is analyzed from first principles, using the spherical-wave normal-mode basis. Instead of the conservation of linear momentum, this interaction is governed by a selection rule due to the conservation of angular momentum. The Brillouin spectrum is then calculated, both for observation at a given angle and for the sum over all angles, and compared with scattering in a bulk medium. Special attention is paid to the case where the incident and scattered radiation fall on an electromagnetic resonance of the droplet. The analysis lays the foundation for formulating stimulated Brillouin scattering in the same system.

  1. Localized spin-wave modes in a triangular magnetic element studied by micro-focused Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, S.; Kwon, J.-H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Grünberg, P. [Grünberg Center for Magnetic Nanomaterials, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, B.K., E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Direct evidence of localized mode in a triangular nano-magnet using μ-BLS. • Localized regions are identified by the internal field distribution. • The spatially resolved measurement was performed to obtain 2-D intensity map. • Spin modes in same positions can be distinguish comparing with simulated spectrum. • Localized modes were identified by comparing with the simulated spatial profiles. - Abstract: Localized spin-wave modes, which were thermally excited at a specific position in a triangular magnetic element, were investigated using micro-focused Brillouin light scattering in two saturated states, the buckle and Y-states, with an applied magnetic field of 0.24 T parallel and perpendicular to the basal edge, respectively. The measured frequency spectrum at a specific beam spot position, rather than an integrated spectrum, was analyzed by comparing it with the simulation data at a precisely selected position within the beam spot area. The analyzed results were used to plot a two-dimensional intensity map and simulation spatial profile to verify the validity of the analysis. From the analysis process, two localized spin-wave modes in a triangular magnetic element were successfully identified near the apex region in the buckle state and near the basal edge region in the Y-state.

  2. High-speed Brillouin imaging via continuous-wave stimulated Brillouin scattering (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Remer, Itay; Bilenca, Alberto


    Brillouin spectroscopy is a noncontact technique for characterizing the mechanical properties of materials. Typically, Brillouin spectrometers have been realized using scanning Fabry-Perot spectrometers that measure, with long acquisition times, spontaneous Brillouin scattering from the samples. In the last few years, the use of virtually imaged phase array (VIPA) etalons for constructing Brillouin spectrometers has enabled to acquire spontaneous Brillouin spectra times. We will show that this improvement, combined with micrometer-step-size spatial scanning of the sample, provides precise Brillouin profiles of layered liquids at 30-milliseconds pixel-dwell-time, facilitating Brillouin profilometry analysis of materials at high speed.

  3. Rayleigh-Brillouin Scattering in Binary-Gas Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Z.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Marques, W.; van der Water, W.


    Precise measurements are performed on spectral line shapes of spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in mixtures of the noble gases Ar and Kr, with He. Admixture of a light He atomic fraction results in marked changes of the spectra, although in all experiments He is merely a spectator atom: it

  4. A Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectrometer for ultraviolet wavelengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Z.Y.; Vieitez, M.O.; van Duijn, E.J.; Ubachs, W.M.G.


    A spectrometer for the measurement of spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin (RB) scattering line profiles at ultraviolet wavelengths from gas phase molecules has been developed, employing a high-power frequency-stabilized UV-laser with narrow bandwidth (2 MHz). The UV-light from a frequency-doubled

  5. Coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin scattering for distributed temperature sensing using a Brillouin laser (United States)

    Lecoeuche, V.; Webb, David J.; Pannell, Christopher N.; Jackson, David A.


    Distributed temperature sensors based on Brillouin scattering are attractive because they offer very large sensing length. The intensity of spontaneous Brillouin scattering is directly proportional to the temperature of the fiber, and permits a measurement independent of the strain applied to it. We report on a novel system to detect this signal, incorporating a mode-locked Brillouin fiber ring laser.

  6. On-chip inter-modal Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Kittlaus, Eric A.; Otterstrom, Nils T.; Rakich, Peter T.


    Brillouin nonlinearities--which result from coupling between photons and acoustic phonons--are exceedingly weak in conventional nanophotonic silicon waveguides. Only recently have Brillouin interactions been transformed into the strongest and most tailorable nonlinear interactions in silicon using a new class of optomechanical waveguides that control both light and sound. In this paper, we use a multi-mode optomechanical waveguide to create stimulated Brillouin scattering between light-fields guided in distinct spatial modes of an integrated waveguide for the first time. This interaction, termed stimulated inter-modal Brillouin scattering, decouples Stokes and anti-Stokes processes to enable single-sideband amplification and dynamics that permit near-unity power conversion. Using integrated mode multiplexers to address separate optical modes, we show that circulators and narrowband filters are not necessary to separate pump and signal waves. We also demonstrate net optical amplification and Brillouin energy transfer as the basis for flexible on-chip light sources, amplifiers, nonreciprocal devices and signal-processing technologies.

  7. Extreme temperature sensing using brillouin scattering in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Fellay, Alexandre

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering in silica-based optical fibers may be considered from two different and complementary standpoints. For a physicist, this interaction of light and pressure wave in a material, or equivalently in quantum theory terms between photons and phonons, gives some glimpses of the atomic structure of the solid and of its vibration modes. For an applied engineer, the same phenomenon may be put to good use as a sensing mechanism for distributed measurements, thanks to the dependence of the scattered light on external parameters such as the temperature, the pressure or the strain applied to the fiber. As far as temperature measurements are concerned, Brillouin-based distributed sensors have progressively gained wide recognition as efficient systems, even if their rather high cost still restricts the number of their applications. Yet they are generally used in a relatively narrow temperature range around the usual ambient temperature; in this domain, the frequency of the scattered light incre...

  8. Stimulated Brillouin scattering in metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, M J A; de Sterke, C Martijn; Wolff, C; Lapine, M; Poulton, C G


    We compute the SBS gain for a metamaterial comprising a cubic lattice of dielectric spheres suspended in a background dielectric material. Theoretical methods are presented to calculate the optical, acoustic, and opto-acoustic parameters that describe the SBS properties of the material at long wavelengths. Using the electromagnetic and strain energy densities we accurately characterise the optical and acoustic properties of the metamaterial. From a combination of energy density methods and perturbation theory, we recover the appropriate terms of the photoelastic tensor for the metamaterial. We demonstrate that electrostriction is not necessarily the dominant mechanism in the enhancement and suppression of the SBS gain coefficient in a metamaterial, and that other parameters, such as the Brillouin linewidth, can dominate instead. Examples are presented that exhibit an order of magnitude enhancement in the SBS gain as well as perfect suppression.

  9. High-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering spectroscopy at 780 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Remer


    Full Text Available We demonstrate a high-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS spectroscopy system that is able to acquire stimulated Brillouin gain point-spectra in water samples and Intralipid tissue phantoms over 2 GHz within 10 ms and 100 ms, respectively, showing a 10-100 fold increase in acquisition rates over current frequency-domain SBS spectrometers. This improvement was accomplished by integrating an ultra-narrowband hot rubidium-85 vapor notch filter in a simplified frequency-domain SBS spectrometer comprising nearly counter-propagating continuous-wave pump-probe light at 780 nm and conventional single-modulation lock-in detection. The optical notch filter significantly suppressed stray pump light, enabling detection of stimulated Brillouin gain spectra with substantially improved acquisition times at adequate signal-to-noise ratios (∼25 dB in water samples and ∼15 dB in tissue phantoms. These results represent an important step towards the use of SBS spectroscopy for high-speed measurements of Brillouin gain resonances in scattering and non-scattering samples.

  10. Stimulated Brillouin scattering revisited: Strong coupling regime and Rabi splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Huy, Kien Phan; Tchahame, Joel Cabrel; Sylvestre, Thibaut


    Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical waveguides is a fundamental interaction between light and acoustic waves mediated by electrostriction and photoelasticity. In this paper, we revisit the usual theory of this inelastic scattering process to get a joint system in which the acoustic wave is strongly coupled to the interference pattern between the optical waves. We show in particular that, when the optoacoustic coupling rate is comparable to the phonon damping rate, the system enters in the strong coupling regime, giving rise to avoided crossing of the dispersion curve and Rabi-like splitting. We further find that optoacoustic Rabi splitting could in principle be observed using backward stimulated Brillouin scattering in sub-wavelength diameter tapered optical fibers with moderate peak pump power.

  11. Coherent and spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in atomic and molecular gases and gas mixtures


    Vieitez, MO; van Duijn; Ubachs, W.; Witschas, B.; Meijer, A.; Wijn, De, JR; Dam, NJ Nico; Water, van de, W Willem


    We study Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in gases of N2, O2, and SF6 molecules, Kr atoms, and He-Xe and He-CO2 mixtures at pressures ranging from 1 to 3 bar and using two different experimental setups. In one setup, we measure spectra of light scattered by thermal density fluctuations (spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering); in the second setup density waves are induced in the overlap region of two counterpropagating laser beams (coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering).We compare measured s...

  12. Cascaded forward Brillouin scattering to all Stokes orders

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Christian; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Steel, Michael J; Poulton, Christopher G


    Inelastic scattering processes such as Brillouin scattering can often function in cascaded regimes and this is likely to occur in certain integrated opto-acoustic devices. We develop a Hamiltonian formalism for cascaded Brillouin scattering valid for both quantum and classical regimes. By regarding Brillouin scattering as the interaction of a single acoustic envelope and a single optical envelope that covers all Stokes and anti-Stokes orders, we obtain a compact model that is well suited for numerical implementation, extension to include other optical nonlinearities or short pulses, and application in the quantum-optics domain. We then theoretically analyze intra-mode forward Brillouin scattering (FBS) for arbitrary waveguides with and without optical dispersion. In the absence of optical dispersion, we find an exact analytical solution. With a perturbative approach, we furthermore solve the case of weak optical dispersion. Our work leads to several key results on intra-mode FBS. For negligible dispersion, we...

  13. Dependence of Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction on Layer Thicknesses in Ta /Co -Fe -B /TaOx Heterostructures from Brillouin Light Scattering (United States)

    Chaurasiya, Avinash Kumar; Choudhury, Samiran; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Barman, Anjan


    The interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (IDMI) has recently drawn extensive research interest due to its fundamental role in stabilizing chiral spin textures in ultrathin ferromagnets, which are suitable candidates for future magnetic-memory devices. Here, we explore the ferromagnetic and heavy-metal layer-thickness dependence of IDMI in technologically important Ta /Co20Fe60B20/TaOx heterostructures by measuring nonreciprocity in spin-wave frequency using the Brillouin light-scattering technique. The observed value of the IDMI constant agrees with that obtained from a separate measurement of in-plane angular dependence of frequency nonreciprocity, which is also in good agreement with the theory predicted by Cortes-Ortuno and Landeros. Linear scaling behavior of IDMI with the inverse of Co-Fe-B thicknesses suggests that IDMI originates primarily from the interface in these heterostructures, whereas we observe a weak dependence of Ta thickness on the strength of IDMI. Importantly, the observed value of the IDMI constant is reasonably large by a factor of 3 compared to annealed Ta /Co -Fe -B /MgO heterostructures. We propose that the observation of large IDMI is likely due to the absence of boron diffusion towards the Ta /Co -Fe -B interface as the heterostructures are as deposited. Our detailed investigation opens up a route to designing thin-film heterostructures with the tailored IDMI constant for controlling Skyrmion-based magnetic-memory devices.

  14. Combined Brillouin light scattering and microwave absorption study of magnon-photon coupling in a split-ring resonator/YIG film system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, S., E-mail:; Maier-Flaig, H.; Weiler, M. [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Straße 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Gross, R.; Huebl, H.; Goennenwein, S. T. B. [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Straße 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), 80799 Munich (Germany); Hu, C.-M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T2N2 (Canada)


    Microfocused Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and microwave absorption (MA) are used to study magnon-photon coupling in a system consisting of a split-ring microwave resonator and an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film. The split-ring resonator is defined by optical lithography and loaded with a 1 μm-thick YIG film grown by liquid phase epitaxy. BLS and MA spectra of the hybrid system are simultaneously recorded as a function of the applied magnetic field magnitude and microwave excitation frequency. Strong coupling of the magnon and microwave resonator modes is found with a coupling strength of g{sub eff} /2π = 63 MHz. The combined BLS and MA data allow us to study the continuous transition of the hybridized modes from a purely magnonic to a purely photonic mode by varying the applied magnetic field and microwave frequency. Furthermore, the BLS data represent an up-conversion of the microwave frequency coupling to optical frequencies.

  15. Micro-focused Brillouin light scattering study of the magnetization dynamics driven by Spin Hall effect in a transversely magnetized NiFe nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madami, M., E-mail:; Carlotti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (CNR-IOM), Unità di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Moriyama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Ono, T. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Siracusano, G.; Finocchio, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering, University of Messina, Messina (Italy); Carpentieri, M. [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Politecnico of Bari, Bari (Italy)


    We employed micro-focused Brillouin light scattering to study the amplification of the thermal spin wave eigenmodes by means of a pure spin current, generated by the spin-Hall effect, in a transversely magnetized Pt(4 nm)/NiFe(4 nm)/SiO{sub 2}(5 nm) layered nanowire with lateral dimensions 500 × 2750 nm{sup 2}. The frequency and the cross section of both the center (fundamental) and the edge spin wave modes have been measured as a function of the intensity of the injected dc electric current. The frequency of both modes exhibits a clear redshift while their cross section is greatly enhanced on increasing the intensity of the injected dc. A threshold-like behavior is observed for a value of the injected dc of 2.8 mA. Interestingly, an additional mode, localized in the central part of the nanowire, appears at higher frequency on increasing the intensity of the injected dc above the threshold value. Micromagnetic simulations were used to quantitatively reproduce the experimental results and to investigate the complex non-linear dynamics induced by the spin-Hall effect, including the modification of the spatial profile of the spin wave modes and the appearance of the extra mode above the threshold.

  16. Spontaneous and stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode silica optical fibers (United States)

    Yeniay, Aydin

    This thesis describes an experimental investigation of Brillouin scattering in silica based single mode optical fibers at IR communication wavelengths (λ = 1550nm). We have investigated the scattering process in spontaneous and stimulated regimes by taking into account of the gain spectrum evolution, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold and polarization properties using laser sources with different spectral lineshapes. We have shown that several acoustic resonance modes, depending on the waveguide properties, exist in the spontaneous regime, but they decay as the process becomes stimulated. In the stimulated regime, only the main Brillouin peak persists with a linewidth approximately 10 times narrower than that in the spontaneous regime. Our results on the linewidth narrowing are in an agreement with the theory, which considers thermal noise fluctuations as the origin of Brillouin scattering in undepleted-pump regime. Moreover, we have found that the lineshape of the SBS light is identical to the input laser lineshape, with a resolution bandwidth that is equal to the SBS linewidth of the medium (7-12 MHz), which makes SBS a practical tool for laser linewidth measurements. In the study of polarization properties of Brillouin scattering, we specifically determined the SBS threshold and Degree of Polarization (DOP) of Brillouin light with respect to the state of polarization (SOP) and DOP of the input laser source. It is found that, for linearly polarized input signal (100% DOP); Rayleigh and Spontaneous Brillouin scattered signals have the DOP of 33%, while the Stimulated Brillouin scattered light has a DOP of 95%. On the other hand, for a depolarized input signal (DOP of 0%); Rayleigh, Spontaneous and Stimulated Brillouin scattered light have the same DOP of 5%. We also found that the depolarized signal yields 1dB higher SBS threshold than the polarized signal as oppose to earlier prediction of 3dB. A possible explanation for the discrepancy is given by

  17. Coherent and spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in atomic and molecular gases and gas mixtures (United States)

    Vieitez, M. O.; van Duijn, E. J.; Ubachs, W.; Witschas, B.; Meijer, A.; de Wijn, A. S.; Dam, N. J.; van de Water, W.


    We study Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in gases of N2, O2, and SF6 molecules, Kr atoms, and He-Xe and He-CO2 mixtures at pressures ranging from 1 to 3 bar and using two different experimental setups. In one setup, we measure spectra of light scattered by thermal density fluctuations (spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering); in the second setup density waves are induced in the overlap region of two counterpropagating laser beams (coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering). We compare measured spectra to the Tenti models and to a recent model for mixtures. We find new values of the bulk viscosity, which is a parameter in line-shape models that allows for internal degrees of freedom. Both experiments agree on the value of the bulk viscosity. Our results indicate a need for new line-shape models for mixtures of molecules with internal degrees of freedom.

  18. High-accuracy Brillouin frequency shift measurement system based on stimulated Brillouin scattering phase shift (United States)

    Li, Yongqian; An, Qi; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Lixin


    A high-accuracy Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) measurement system for vector Brillouin optical time-domain analysis-based temperature sensor is proposed, in which double sideband modulation is used and the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) gain and loss processes work together to generate a superimposed SBS phase-shift spectrum. The measurement principle is analyzed by mathematical modeling and the proof-of-concept experiment is performed by using a 100-m long standard single-mode fiber. The theoretical and experimental results reveal that the temperature sensitivity of BFS obtained from the measured SBS phase-shift spectrum is 1.059 MHz/°C, and the measurement error of temperature is only half that in traditional single sideband-based system, which indicates that the proposed technique can realize high-accuracy temperature measurement and have huge potential in the field of long-distance and high-accuracy sensing.

  19. Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering profiles of air at different temperatures and pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Z.; Witschas, B.; van der Water, W.; Ubachs, W.M.G.


    Rayleigh-Brillouin (RB) scattering profiles for air have been recorded for the temperature range from 255 to 340 K and the pressure range from 640 to 3300 mbar, covering the conditions relevant for the Earth's atmosphere and for planned atmospheric light detection and ranging (LIDAR) missions. The

  20. Investigation of spontaneous Brillouin scattering generation based on non-adiabatic microfibres (United States)

    Zarei, A.; Jasim, A. A.; Harun, S. W.; Ahmad, H.


    Brillouin Stokes and anti-Stokes generation is successfully demonstrated in backward direction using a non-adiabatic microfibre as the gain medium. The Stokes light wavelength is up-shifted by 0.088 nm (10 GHz) from the BP wavelength as monitored by using an optical spectrum analyzer. The Brillouin scattering can also be enhanced by employing a microfibre based inline Mach-Zehnder interferometer (IMZI) as the gain medium due to its stronger multimode interference effect. It is shown that the microfibre geometry plays an important role in the spontaneous Brillouin scattering generation and gain bandwidth broadening due to its effect on irritation of the acoustic modes inside the microfibre.

  1. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of elliptical laser beam in collisionless plasma (United States)

    Singh, Arvinder; Walia, Keshav


    This paper presents an investigation of self-focusing of elliptical laser beam in collisionless plasma and its effect on stimulated Brillouin scattering. The pump beam interacts with a pre-excited ion-acoustic wave leading to Brillouin back-scattered process. The transverse intensity gradient of a pump beam generates a ponderomotive force, which modifies the background plasma density profile in a direction transverse to pump beam axis. This modification in density effects the incident laser beam, ion-acoustic wave and back-scattered beam. Non-linear differential equations for the beam width parameters of pump laser beam, ion-acoustic wave and back-scattered beam are set up and solved numerically. It is observed from the analysis that the focusing of waves enhances the SBS back-reflectivity.

  2. Phase-locking in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Büttner, Thomas F S; Steel, M J; Hudson, Darren D; Eggleton, Benjamin J


    Cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is a complex nonlinear optical process that results in the generation of several optical waves that are frequency shifted by an acoustic resonance frequency. Four-wave mixing (FWM) between these Brillouin shifted optical waves can create an equally spaced optical frequency comb with a stable spectral phase, i.e. a Brillouin frequency comb (BFC). Here, we investigate phase-locking of the spectral components of BFCs, considering FWM interactions arising from the Kerr-nonlinearity as well as from coupling by the acoustic field. Deriving for the first time the coupled-mode equations that include all relevant nonlinear interactions, we examine the contribution of the various nonlinear processes to phase-locking, and show that different regimes can be obtained that depend on the length scale on which the field amplitudes vary.

  3. Recent progress in Brillouin scattering based fiber sensors. (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoyi; Chen, Liang


    Brillouin scattering in optical fiber describes the interaction of an electro-magnetic field (photon) with a characteristic density variation of the fiber. When the electric field amplitude of an optical beam (so-called pump wave), and another wave is introduced at the downshifted Brillouin frequency (namely Stokes wave), the beating between the pump and Stokes waves creates a modified density change via the electrostriction effect, resulting in so-called the stimulated Brillouin scattering. The density variation is associated with a mechanical acoustic wave; and it may be affected by local temperature, strain, and vibration which induce changes in the fiber effective refractive index and sound velocity. Through the measurement of the static or dynamic changes in Brillouin frequency along the fiber one can realize a distributed fiber sensor for local temperature, strain and vibration over tens or hundreds of kilometers. This paper reviews the progress on improving sensing performance parameters like spatial resolution, sensing length limitation and simultaneous temperature and strain measurement. These kinds of sensors can be used in civil structural monitoring of pipelines, bridges, dams, and railroads for disaster prevention. Analogous to the static Bragg grating, one can write a moving Brillouin grating in fibers, with the lifetime of the acoustic wave. The length of the Brillouin grating can be controlled by the writing pulses at any position in fibers. Such gratings can be used to measure changes in birefringence, which is an important parameter in fiber communications. Applications for this kind of sensor can be found in aerospace, material processing and fine structures.

  4. Recent Progress in Brillouin Scattering Based Fiber Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen


    Full Text Available Brillouin scattering in optical fiber describes the interaction of an electro-magnetic field (photon with a characteristic density variation of the fiber. When the electric field amplitude of an optical beam (so-called pump wave, and another wave is introduced at the downshifted Brillouin frequency (namely Stokes wave, the beating between the pump and Stokes waves creates a modified density change via the electrostriction effect, resulting in so-called the stimulated Brillouin scattering. The density variation is associated with a mechanical acoustic wave; and it may be affected by local temperature, strain, and vibration which induce changes in the fiber effective refractive index and sound velocity. Through the measurement of the static or dynamic changes in Brillouin frequency along the fiber one can realize a distributed fiber sensor for local temperature, strain and vibration over tens or hundreds of kilometers. This paper reviews the progress on improving sensing performance parameters like spatial resolution, sensing length limitation and simultaneous temperature and strain measurement. These kinds of sensors can be used in civil structural monitoring of pipelines, bridges, dams, and railroads for disaster prevention. Analogous to the static Bragg grating, one can write a moving Brillouin grating in fibers, with the lifetime of the acoustic wave. The length of the Brillouin grating can be controlled by the writing pulses at any position in fibers. Such gratings can be used to measure changes in birefringence, which is an important parameter in fiber communications. Applications for this kind of sensor can be found in aerospace, material processing and fine structures.

  5. Spontaneous Brillouin Scattering Modelling and Measurement in Various Axisymetric Optical Fibres


    V. Lanticq; Gabet, R.; AUGUSTE, JL; DELEPINE LESOILLE, S; Fortier, S.; Jaouen, Y.


    We describe a computation method of spontaneous Brillouin scattering process using a simple original acoustic mode analysis. Numerical results have been compared with measured Brillouin spectra for two different commercially available fibres.

  6. Tunable stimulated Brillouin scattering in hybrid polymer-chalcogenide tapered fibers (United States)

    Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Ahmad, Raja; Rochette, Martin; Laude, Vincent; Maillotte, Hervé; Sylvestre, Thibaut


    We investigate Brillouin scattering in hybrid As2Se3 PMMA tapered fiber and demonstrate that Brillouin frequency shift can be widely tuned over a broad radio-frequency range by varying the core diameter of the optical tapered fiber.

  7. Short-Pulse Amplification by Strongly-Coupled Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (United States)

    Edwards, Matthew; Jia, Qing; Mikhailova, Julia; Fisch, Nathaniel


    We examine the feasibility of strongly-coupled stimulated Brillouin scattering as a mechanism for the plasma-based amplification of sub-picosecond pulses. Fluid theory and particle-in-cell calculations are used to compare the relative advantages of Raman and Brillouin amplification over a broad range of parameters, with a focus on determining the maximum amplified pulse intensities and minimum durations that can be achieved. Amplification of short-wavelength pulses is considered in detail, with particular emphasis on the practical development of plasma-based x-ray amplifiers. Our results suggest that Brillouin scattering may allow amplification of shorter wavelength light than Raman scattering, but that at optical frequencies better performance is generally realized with Raman amplification, as strongly-coupled Brillouin scattering has limited capacity for amplifying sub-picosecond pulses. This work was supported by NNSA Grant No. DENA0002948 and AFOSR Grant No. FA9550-15-1-0391. M.R.E. gratefully acknowledges the support of the NSF through a Graduate Research Fellowship.

  8. Transformation-optics simulation method for stimulated Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Zecca, Roberto; Bowen, Patrick T.; Smith, David R.; Larouche, Stéphane


    We develop an approach to enable the full-wave simulation of stimulated Brillouin scattering and related phenomena in a frequency-domain, finite-element environment. The method uses transformation-optics techniques to implement a time-harmonic coordinate transform that reconciles the different frames of reference used by electromagnetic and mechanical finite-element solvers. We show how this strategy can be successfully applied to bulk and guided systems, comparing the results with the predictions of established theory.

  9. Stimulated Brillouin scatter and stimulated ion Bernstein scatter during electron gyroharmonic heating experiments (United States)

    Fu, H.; Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Samimi, A.; Mahmoudian, A.; Briczinski, S. J.; McCarrick, M. J.


    Results of secondary radiation, Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE), produced during ionospheric modification experiments using ground-based high-power radio waves are reported. These results obtained at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility specifically considered the generation of Magnetized Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (MSBS) and Stimulated Ion Bernstein Scatter (SIBS) lines in the SEE spectrum when the transmitter frequency is near harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency. The heater antenna beam angle effect was investigated on MSBS in detail and shows a new spectral line postulated to be generated near the upper hybrid resonance region due to ion acoustic wave interaction. Frequency sweeping experiments near the electron gyroharmonics show for the first time the transition from MSBS to SIBS lines as the heater pump frequency approaches the gyroharmonic. Significantly far from the gyroharmonic, MSBS lines dominate, while close to the gyroharmonic, SIBS lines strengthen while MSBS lines weaken. New possibilities for diagnostic information are discussed in light of these new observations.

  10. Time-domain Brillouin scattering for the determination of laser-induced temperature gradients in liquids (United States)

    Chaban, Ievgeniia; Shin, Hyun D.; Klieber, Christoph; Busselez, Rémi; Gusev, Vitalyi E.; Nelson, Keith A.; Pezeril, Thomas


    We present an optical technique based on ultrafast photoacoustics to determine the local temperature distribution profile in liquid samples in contact with a laser heated optical transducer. This ultrafast pump-probe experiment uses time-domain Brillouin scattering (TDBS) to locally determine the light scattering frequency shift. As the temperature influences the Brillouin scattering frequency, the TDBS signal probes the local laser-induced temperature distribution in the liquid. We demonstrate the relevance and the sensitivity of this technique for the measurement of the absolute laser-induced temperature gradient of a glass forming liquid prototype, glycerol, at different laser pump powers—i.e., different steady state background temperatures. Complementarily, our experiments illustrate how this TDBS technique can be applied to measure thermal diffusion in complex multilayer systems in contact with a surrounding liquid.

  11. Broad-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers


    Gonzalez Herraez, M.; Song, Kwang-Yong; Thévenaz, Luc


    We experimentally demonstrate that Brillouin slow light with an arbitrary large bandwidth can be readily obtained in conventional optical fibers using a simple and inexpensive pump spectral broadening technique.

  12. Stimulated Brillouin scattering materials, experimental design and applications: A review (United States)

    Bai, Zhenxu; Yuan, Hang; Liu, Zhaohong; Xu, Pengbai; Gao, Qilin; Williams, Robert J.; Kitzler, Ondrej; Mildren, Richard P.; Wang, Yulei; Lu, Zhiwei


    Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), as one type of third-order nonlinear optics effect, is extensively exploited and rapidly developed in the field of lasers and optoelectronics. A large number of theoretical and experimental studies on SBS have been carried out in the past decades. Especially, the exploration of new SBS materials and new types of SBS modulation methods have been engaged simultaneously, as the properties of different materials have great influence on the SBS performance such as generation threshold, Brillouin amplification efficiency, frequency shift, breakdown threshold, etc. This article provides a comprehensive review of the characteristics of different types of SBS materials, SBS applications, experimental design methods, as well as the parameter optimization method, which is expected to provide reference and guidance to SBS related experiments.

  13. Wideband dectection of spontaneous Brillouin scattering spectrum in Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry (United States)

    Lu, Yuangang; Dou, Rongrong; Zhang, Xuping


    Brillouin Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR) is attracting significant attention due to its immense potential applications in temperature or strain monitoring. Conventional BOTDR system based on Spontaneous Brillouin Scattering Spectrum(SBSS) narrow-band detection is not only time-consuming but also controlling complicated. To overcome the drawbacks of the conventional detection method, a new SBSS wideband detection method is proposed in this paper. In the new detection method, the whole SBSS is captured by use of a wideband receiver in a single measurement, and Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) signal processing algorithm is used to obtain the SBSS. The configuration of a heterodyne detection BOTDR system based on SBSS wideband detection is presented, and the data processing method, the spatial resolution of the system and the measurement time is discussed. The BOTDR system based on SBSS wideband detection has been demonstrated, and a temperature resolution of 3°C and a spatial resolution of 2 m have been achieved. The measurement time is only about one-tenth that of conventional narrow-band detection method.

  14. Stimulated Brillouin scattering enhancement in silicon inverse opal waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, M J A; de Sterke, C Martijn; Lapine, M; Kuhlmey, B T; Poulton, C G


    Silicon is an ideal material for on-chip applications, however its poor acoustic properties limit its performance for important optoacoustic applications, particularly for Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). We theoretically show that silicon inverse opals exhibit a strongly improved acoustic performance that enhances the bulk SBS gain coefficient by more than two orders of magnitude. We also design a waveguide that incorporates silicon inverse opals and which has SBS gain values that are comparable with chalcogenide glass waveguides. This research opens new directions for opto-acoustic applications in on-chip material systems.

  15. Measurement of spontaneous Brillouin scattering in optical fiber with a fiber Bragg grating Sagnac loop (United States)

    Ou, Zhonghua; Zhang, Lixun; Dai, Zhiyong; Liu, Yongzhi


    A novel method for direct optical detection of spontaneous Brillouin scattering in optical fiber by using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) Sagnac loop is introduced. The transmission character as an optical filter of FBG Sagnac loop is investigated theoretically. The filter which is based on an asymmetric grating Sagnac loop is manufactured and used in the measurement of spontaneous Brillouin scattering sensing system, and the separation of backscattered spontaneous Brillouin from Rayleigh is achieved effectively. It is demonstrated that the fiber grating Sagnac loop filter can be applied in the distributed sensing system based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering.

  16. Analysis of the spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectra of N2 (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Xia, Ruxiao; He, Xingdao; Zhang, Xinyi; Yu, Huan


    The influence of different pressures, temperatures, scattering angles and incident wavelengths to the relative intensity of the Brillouin peaks to the Rayleigh peak and the Brillouin shift in the spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering (SRBS) spectra of N2 is analyzed by using the Tenti S6 model. A system for detecting the SRBS spectra of gas is also introduced in this paper. The SRBS spectra of N2 at different pressures with the incident wavelength of 532nm, the temperature of 300K and the scattering angle of 90° have been measured, the experiment results are well agreed to the simulations.

  17. Distributed fiber temperature and strain sensor using coherent radio-frequency detection of spontaneous Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Geng, Jihong; Staines, Sean; Blake, Mike; Jiang, Shibin


    A novel technique that enables coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin scattering in the radio-frequency (<500 MHz) region with excellent long-term stability has been demonstrated for distributed measurements of temperature and strain in long fiber. An actively stabilized single-frequency Brillouin fiber laser with extremely low phase noise and intensity noise is used as a well-defined, frequency-shifted local oscillator for the heterodyne detection, yielding measurements of spontaneous Brillouin scattering with high frequency stability. Based on this approach, a highly stable real-time fiber sensor for distributed measurements of both temperature and strain over long fiber has been developed utilizing advanced digital signal processing techniques.

  18. Impact of nonlinear loss on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Christian; Steel, Michael J; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Poulton, Christopher G


    We study the impact of two-photon absorption (2PA) and fifth-order nonlinear loss such as 2PA-induced free-carrier absorption in semiconductors on the performance of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering devices. We formulate the equations of motion including effective loss coefficients, whose explicit expressions are provided for numerical evaluation in any waveguide geometry. We find that 2PA results in a monotonic, algebraic relationship between amplification, waveguide length and pump power, whereas fifth-order losses lead to a non-monotonic relationship. We define a figure of merit for materials and waveguide designs in the presence of fifth-order losses. From this, we determine the optimal waveguide length for the case of 2PA alone and upper bounds for the total Stokes amplification for the case of 2PA as well as fifth-order losses. The analysis is performed analytically using a small-signal approximation and is compared to numerical solutions of the full nonlinear modal equations.

  19. Acoustic confinement and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in integrated optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Poulton, Christopher G; Eggleton, Benjamin J


    We examine the effect of acoustic mode confinement on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in optical waveguides that consist of a guiding core embedded in a solid substrate. We find that SBS can arise due to coupling to acoustic modes in three different regimes. First, the acoustic modes may be guided by total internal reflection; in this case the SBS gain depends directly on the degree of confinement of the acoustic mode in the core, which is in turn determined by the acoustic V-parameter. Second, the acoustic modes may be leaky, but may nevertheless have a sufficiently long lifetime to have a large effect on the SBS gain; the lifetime of acoustic modes in this regime depends not only on the contrast in acoustic properties between the core and the cladding, but is also highly dependent on the waveguide dimensions. Finally SBS may occur due to coupling to free modes, which exist even in the absence of acoustic confinement; we find that the cumulative effect of coupling to these non-confined modes results in signi...

  20. Temperature-dependent bulk viscosity of nitrogen gas determined from spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Z.; Ubachs, W.M.G.


    Values for the bulk viscosity ηb of molecular nitrogen gas (N2) were derived from spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering at ultraviolet wavelengths (λ = 366.8 nm) and at a 90° scattering angle. Analysis of the scattering profiles yields values showing a linear increasing trend, ranging from η

  1. Application of Morlet wavelet in the extraction of Brillouin scattering signal envelope (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Huang, Cha-xiang; Zhou, Li


    The Brillouin scattering light signal is a wideband signal containing a lot of phase noises and amplitude noises. And the envelope of the Brillouin scattering signal will include some characteristics due to the influences of temperature and strain change on the sensing fiber. In order to obtain the useful temperature and strain change information, the amplitude demodulation of the noise signal should be conducted, and at the same time, it is necessary to effectively suppress the signal noise. In this paper, Morlet wavelet has been used to do the envelope detection since it has band-pass filtering function and signal demodulation function provided by the orthogonal characteristic between real part and imaginary part. Moreover, the Morlet wavelet function has the characteristic of time-frequency analysis, and it can analyze envelope of the signal and extract characteristic of the signal in the whole frequency range by changing the scale factor and translation factor. Meanwhile, it can also suppress the signal noise effectively. The simulation model has been built to verify the validity of envelope demodulation principle by Morlet wavelet algorithm. Theory analysis and experiment show the algorithm is reasonable and efficient.

  2. Enhanced Simultaneous Distributed Strain and Temperature Fiber Sensor Employing Spontaneous Brillouin Scattering and Optical Pulse Coding


    Soto, M A; Bolognini, G.; Di Pasquale, F.


    In this work, we propose the use of optical pulse coding techniques for simultaneous strain and temperature sensing based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering. Optical pulse coding provides a significant receiver signal-to-noise ratio enhancement, allowing for accurate Brillouin intensity and frequency shift measurements at low peak power levels. Due to the cross-sensitivity of these two parameters on both temperature and strain, optical pulse coding improves the temperature and strain resolut...

  3. Brillouin scattering, piezobirefringence, and dispersion of photoelastic coefficients of CdS and ZnO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berkowicz, R.; Skettrup, Torben


    We have measured the dispersion of the Brillouin scattering from acoustoelectrical domains in CdS and ZnO. These spectra are compared with the birefringence spectra obtained by applying uniaxial stress. The resonant cancellation of the Brillouin scattering occurs at the spectral position of the i......We have measured the dispersion of the Brillouin scattering from acoustoelectrical domains in CdS and ZnO. These spectra are compared with the birefringence spectra obtained by applying uniaxial stress. The resonant cancellation of the Brillouin scattering occurs at the spectral position...... of the isotropic point of the stress-induced birefringence. From these spectra it is concluded that the Brillouin scattering in CdS and ZnO is determined by elasto-optic effects alone. The spectra of some of the photoelastic coefficients have been determined. A model dielectric constant is derived where both....... It is found that the exchange interaction between the excitons may change the values of the photoelastic coefficients in ZnO about 10%....

  4. Statistical properties of the Stokes signal in stimulated Brillouin scattering pulse compressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velchev, I.; Ubachs, W.M.G.


    Spontaneous scattering noise is incorporated as a build-up source in a fully transient stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) model. This powerful simulation tool is successfully applied for a quantitative investigation of the fluctuations in the output pulse duration of SBS pulse compressors. The

  5. Experiments on spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in air


    Witschas, Benjamin


    Atmospheric lidar techniques for the measurement of wind, temperature, and optical properties of aerosols as well as non-intrusive measurement techniques for temperature, density and bulk velocity in gas flow rely on the exact knowledge of the spectral line shape of the scattered laser light on molecules. The best model currently available to describe these line shapes is the Tenti S6 model which, however, has not yet been validated in air. In this thesis, high-precision spontaneous Rayle...

  6. Electron Gyro-Harmonic Effects on Ionospheric Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (United States)


    and piezoelectric semiconductor plasmas, as well as in various biological applications. Due to recent advances , active space experiments using high...27709-2211 Brillouin, SBS, emission lines, pump frequency stepping, cyclotron , EIC, airglow, upper hybrid REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR...fiber optics, and piezoelectric semiconductor plasmas, as well as in various biological applications. Due to recent advances , active space experiments

  7. Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering profiles of air at different temperatures and pressures. (United States)

    Gu, Ziyu; Witschas, Benjamin; van de Water, Willem; Ubachs, Wim


    Rayleigh-Brillouin (RB) scattering profiles for air have been recorded for the temperature range from 255 to 340 K and the pressure range from 640 to 3300 mbar, covering the conditions relevant for the Earth's atmosphere and for planned atmospheric light detection and ranging (LIDAR) missions. The measurements performed at a wavelength of λ=366.8 nm detect spontaneous RB scattering at a 90° scattering angle from a sensitive intracavity setup, delivering scattering profiles at a 1% rms noise level or better. The experimental results have been compared to a kinetic line-shape model, the acclaimed Tenti S6 model, considered to be most appropriate for such conditions, under the assumption that air can be treated as an effective single-component gas with temperature-scaled values for the relevant macroscopic transport coefficients. The elusive transport coefficient, the bulk viscosity η(b), is effectively derived by a comparing the measurements to the model, yielding an increased trend from 1.0 to 2.5×10(-5) kg·m(-1)·s(-1) for the temperature interval. The calculated (Tenti S6) line shapes are consistent with experimental data at the level of 2%, meeting the requirements for the future RB-scattering LIDAR missions in the Earth's atmosphere. However, the systematic 2% deviation may imply that the model has a limit to describe the finest details of RB scattering in air. Finally, it is demonstrated that the RB scattering data in combination with the Tenti S6 model can be used to retrieve the actual gas temperatures.

  8. Temperature-dependent bulk viscosity of nitrogen gas determined from spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering


    Gu, Ziyu; Ubachs, Wim


    Values for the bulk viscosity of molecular nitrogen gas (N2) were derived from spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin (RB) scattering at ultraviolet wavelengths (366.8 nm) and at a 90 degree scattering angle. Analysis of the scattering profiles yield values showing a linear increasing trend in the temperature interval from 255 K to 340 K. The present values, pertaining to hypersound acoustics at frequencies in the GHz domain, are found to be in agreement with results from acoustic attenuation experim...

  9. Stimulated Brillouin scattering in the field of a two-dimensionally localized pumping wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solikhov, D. K., E-mail: [Tajik National University, Faculty of Physics (Tajikistan); Dvinin, S. A., E-mail: [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)


    Stimulated Brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in the field of a two-dimensionally localized pump wave at arbitrary scattering angles in the regime of forward scattering is analyzed. Spatial variations in the amplitudes of interacting waves are studied for different values of the pump field and different dimensions of the pump wave localization region. The intensity of scattered radiation is determined as a function of the scattering angle and the dimensions of the pump wave localization region. It is shown that the intensity increases with increasing scattering angle.

  10. Anti-Stokes scattering and Stokes scattering of stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade in high-intensity laser-plasmas interaction (United States)

    Feng, Qingsong; Zheng, Chunyang; Liu, Zhanjun; Xiao, Chengzhuo; Wang, Qing; Cao, Lihua; He, Xiantu


    The anti-Stokes scattering and Stokes scattering in stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) cascade have been researched by the Vlasov-Maxwell simulation. In the high-intensity laser-plasmas interaction, the stimulated anti-Stokes Brillouin scattering (SABS) will occur after the second stage SBS rescattering. The mechanism of SABS has been put forward to explain this phenomenon. In the early time of SBS evolution, only the first stage SBS appears, and the total SBS reflectivity comes from the first stage SBS. However, when the high-stage SBS and SABS occur, the SBS reflectivity will appear a burst behavior, and the total reflectivity comes from the SBS cascade and SABS superimposition. The SABS will compete with the SBS rescattering to determine the total SBS reflectivity. Thus, the SBS rescattering including the SABS is an important saturation mechanism of SBS, and should be taken into account in the high-intensity laser-plasmas interaction. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11375032, 11575035, 11475030 and 11435011), National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB834101) and Science Challenge Project, No. TZ2016005.

  11. Study of mid IR fiber transmission and mode patterns under laser induced stimulated Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Yu, C.; Chong, Yat C.; Zhou, Hongyi


    Mid IR fiber transmission and exit radiation mode patterns at various incident CO2 laser power levels appear to be effective diagnostic tools for monitoring laser induced stimulated Brillouin scattering in various mid IR fibers. Such processes are deemed to be essential mechanisms for fiber-optic amplifiers and switches as potential replacements of current repeaters and bistable devices.

  12. Observation of depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering in partially uncoated optical fibers (United States)

    Hayashi, Neisei; Set, Sze Yun; Yamashita, Shinji


    We observed the depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering (GAWBS) spectrum in a highly nonlinear fiber with a partially side-stripped polymer coat. The linewidth of the GAWBS spectral line at 941 MHz was measured to be 6.4 MHz, which was 0.9 times that of a coated fiber.

  13. Brillouin scattering and diffracted MOKE from arrays of dots and anti-dots.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsditch, M.; Guedes, I.; Vavassori, P.; Metlushko, V.; Ilic, B.; Neuzil, P.; Kumar, R.


    The magnetic properties of nano-arrays have been investigated using Brillouin scattering, MOKE and Diffracted-MOKE techniques. The anisotropies in negative arrays are found to be due to the shape of the holes and not due to the array itself. The D-MOKE results allow us to extract the domain pattern at remanence.

  14. Highly sensitive measurement of submicron waveguides based on Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Godet, Adrien; Ndao, Abdoulaye; Sylvestre, Thibaut; Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Phan Huy, Kien


    Fabrication and characterization of submicron optical waveguides is one of the major challenges in modern photonics, as they find many applications from optical sensors to plasmonic devices. Here we report on a novel technique that allows for a complete and precise characterization of silica optical nanofibers. Our method relies on the Brillouin backscattering spectrum analysis that directly depends on the waveguide geometry. Our method was applied to several fiber tapers with diameter ranging from 500 nm to 3 μm. Results were compared to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and numerical simulations with very good agreement and similar sensitivity.

  15. Distributed optical fibre sensors based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering employing multimode Fabry-Pérot lasers


    Soto, M A; Bolognini, G.; Di Pasquale, F.


    Proposed and characterised is the use of multi-longitudinal mode Fabry-Perot laser sources, in distributed optical fibre sensors based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering, for simultaneous strain and temperature measurements. Experimental results show that, by using such multi-longitudinal mode lasers, it is possible to measure the Brillouin spectrum, even if the overall laser spectral linewidth is larger than the Brillouin frequency shift. In this case, a suitable receiver scheme, combining ...

  16. Effect of crystalline family and orientation on stimulated Brillouin scattering in whispering-gallery mode resonators. (United States)

    Diallo, Souleymane; Aubry, Jean-Pierre; Chembo, Yanne K


    Ultra-high Q whispering-gallery mode resonators pumped by a continuous-wave laser are known to enhance stimulated Brillouin scattering when optimal resonance and phase-matching conditions are met. In crystalline resonators, this process depends critically on the crystal orientation and family, which impose the elastic constants defining the velocity of the acoustic waves. In this article, we investigate the effect of crystalline orientation and family on this velocity which is proportional to the Brillouin frequency down-shift. In particular, the study is based on the development of a model and numerical simulations of acoustic wave velocities that propagate along the periphery of four fluoride crystals, namely calcium, magnesium, lithium and barium fluoride. We find that depending on the crystal and its orientation, the frequency excursion around the Brillouin offset can vary from few tens of kHz to more than a GHz.

  17. Modeling of Brillouin scattering in long-distance fiber optic links with bidirectional optical amplifiers (United States)

    Salwik, Karol; Śliwczyński, Łukasz; Krehlik, Przemysław


    For the dissemination of precise signals from atomic clocks (like e.g. cesium clocks/fountains, H-masers or optical clocks) an optical link operating bi-directionally over the same fiber is essential. In such a link stimulated Brillouin scattering is one of the non-linear effects that may reduce the power of forward optical signal and convert it into the noise that propagates in the backward direction. In the link that uses a number of bi-directional optical amplifiers, the conditions that trigger the Brillouin scattering process may occur relatively easily because of large effective length for the scattering process. Thus in the design phase of the link, checking of the conditions for Brillouin scattering should be a part of optimization procedure (i.e. optimizing bi-directional amplifiers gains). In the paper we consider the mathematical model of the stimulated Brillouin scattering in the long distance, fiber optic links with multiple bidirectional optical amplifiers. The model was implemented in Matlab and consists of the coupled differential equations describing the propagation of pump and scattered signals that develops due to spontaneous scattering. The presence of bi-directional optical amplifiers is modeled as point-like discontinuity of the α parameter that is used to represent the attenuation of the fiber. These discontinuities create an extra level of difficulty when numerically solving the coupled equations (the problem is stiff) so special algorithm is presented that iteratively searches for the solution. The obtained results were compared with the measurements of the real link to confirm the correctness of the solution.

  18. Simulation of stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering in shock ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, L.; Li, J.; Liu, W. D.; Yan, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Ren, C., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)


    We study stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in shock ignition by comparing fluid and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Under typical parameters for the OMEGA experiments [Theobald et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 102706 (2012)], a series of 1D fluid simulations with laser intensities ranging between 2 × 10{sup 15} and 2 × 10{sup 16 }W/cm{sup 2} finds that SBS is the dominant instability, which increases significantly with the incident intensity. Strong pump depletion caused by SBS and SRS limits the transmitted intensity at the 0.17n{sub c} to be less than 3.5 × 10{sup 15 }W/cm{sup 2}. The PIC simulations show similar physics but with higher saturation levels for SBS and SRS convective modes and stronger pump depletion due to higher seed levels for the electromagnetic fields in PIC codes. Plasma flow profiles are found to be important in proper modeling of SBS and limiting its reflectivity in both the fluid and PIC simulations.

  19. Temperature-dependent bulk viscosity of nitrogen gas determined from spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Gu, Ziyu; Ubachs, Wim


    Values for the bulk viscosity of molecular nitrogen gas (N2) were derived from spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin (RB) scattering at ultraviolet wavelengths (366.8 nm) and at a 90 degree scattering angle. Analysis of the scattering profiles yield values showing a linear increasing trend in the temperature interval from 255 K to 340 K. The present values, pertaining to hypersound acoustics at frequencies in the GHz domain, are found to be in agreement with results from acoustic attenuation experiments in N2 performed at MHz frequencies.

  20. Spiral Propagation of Polymer Optical Fiber Fuse Accompanied by Spontaneous Burst and Its Real-Time Monitoring Using Brillouin Scattering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Hayashi, Neisei; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kentaro


    .... We then develop a new method of detecting the location of the propagating POF fuse remotely and non visually in real time using Brillouin scattering, which can be clearly observed at such a high power density...

  1. Gain-assisted superluminal propagation in tellurite glass fiber based on stimulated Brillouin scattering. (United States)

    Song, Kwang Yong; Abedin, Kazi S; Hotate, Kazuo


    We demonstrate superluminal propagation of optical pulses with amplification in optical fibers based on stimulated Brillouin scattering. A triple gain peak configuration is used for the generation of narrowband anomalous dispersion in 2 m tellurite glass fiber, where the group index change as much as -1.19 is achieved with 6.9 dB amplification in 34 ns Gaussian pulses, leading to the group index of 0.84.

  2. Steady-State Noise Analysis of Spontaneous and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in Optical Fibers (United States)

    Jenkins, R. Brian; Sova, Raymond M.; Joseph, Richard I.


    In this paper, we present a steady-state theoretical and experimental analysis of the noise resulting from spontaneous and stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber. Wave equations are derived and solved that describe the evolution of the pump and Stokes waves along the fiber. Experiments and numerical results demonstrate the validity of the theory, either when a Stokes wave is launched at the end of the fiber or when the noise in the Stokes wave is spontaneously generated.

  3. Effective suppression of amplified spontaneous emission by stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation (United States)

    Ni, C. K.; Kung, A. H.


    Backward stimulated Brillouin scattering was used to control the growth of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), reducing the unwanted emission in a pulse-amplified cw Ti:sapphire laser system from 22% to less than 1 \\times 10-4 in the final output. Suppression of ASE substantially improved the spectral quality of the laser and broadened the range over which the laser is useful. The output duration was compressed, but the pulse remained nearly transform limited.

  4. Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in SF6 in the kinetic regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yuanqing; Yu, Yin; Liang, Kun; Marques, Wilson; van de Water, Willem; Ubachs, Wim


    Rayleigh-Brillouin spectral profiles are measured with a laser-based scatterometry setup for a 90° scattering angle at a high signal-to-noise ratio (r.m.s. noise below 0.15% w.r.t. peak intensity) in sulfur-hexafluoride gas for pressures in the range 0.2–5 bar and for a wavelength of λ=403.0 nm. The

  5. Tunable narrowband microwave photonic filter created by stimulated Brillouin scattering from a Silicon nanowire

    CERN Document Server

    Casas-Bedoya, Alvaro; Pagani, Mattia; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J


    We demonstrate the first functional signal processing device based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a silicon nanowire. We use only 1 dB of on-chip SBS gain to create an RF photonic notch filter with 48 dB of suppression, 98 MHz linewidth, and 6 GHz frequency tuning. This device has potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing and establishes the foundation for the first CMOS-compatible high performance RF photonic filter.

  6. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of an electromagnetic wave in weakly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The importance of the laser–plasma interaction becomes an active field of research in the laser-fusion experiments, charged particle acceleration experiments, X-ray generation, propagation of EM waves in ionosphere etc. and the stimulated Bril- louin scattering (SBS) plays an important role in laser–plasma interaction as it.

  7. Low-threshold stimulated Brillouin scattering in high-Q whispering gallery mode tellurite microspheres. (United States)

    Guo, Changlei; Che, Kaijun; Zhang, Pan; Wu, Jinshu; Huang, Yantang; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping


    We demonstrate the first observation of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a high-Q whispering gallery mode tellurite microsphere. Tellurite glass with composition of 70TeO₂-20ZnO-5Na₂O-5La₂O₃ (molar ratio) was prepared in-house using a melt-quenching technique. Moreover, tellurite microspheres with Q in excess of 13 millions at 1550 nm were fabricated by melting tellurite microwires using a CO₂ laser. By pumping the tellurite microspheres with a tunable single frequency laser, SBS is further realized with a threshold as low as 0.58 mW. At last, the beat notes between the pump and the Stokes signals were measured, which indicated the Brillouin frequency shift is at the 8.2 GHz band for our tellurite glass. Our results could propel significant applications utilizing SBS by employing tellurite microspheres.

  8. Influence of modulation instability on distributed optical fiber sensors based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Alahbabi, Mohamed N.; Cho, Yuh Tat; Newson, Trevor P.; Wait, Peter C.; Hartog, Arthur H.


    The performance of distributed fiber sensors based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering is largely determined by the peak power governed by nonlinear thresholds that can be launched into the sensing fiber. Our investigations show that, in long-range (>20-km) sensors that use a standard single-mode fiber operating at 1.5 μm, modulation instability can limit the acceptable pulse power to below 100 mW. Using a nonzero dispersion-shifted fiber with negative dispersion we can avoid this problem and obtain a ninefold increase in launched power.

  9. Effective suppression of amplified spontaneous emission by stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, C.K.; Kung, A.H. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-166, Taipei 10764 (Taiwan)


    Backward stimulated Brillouin scattering was used to control the growth of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), reducing the unwanted emission in a pulse-amplified cw Ti:sapphire laser system from 22{percent} to less than 1{times}10{sup {minus}4} in the final output. Suppression of ASE substantially improved the spectral quality of the laser and broadened the range over which the laser is useful. The output duration was compressed, but the pulse remained nearly transform limited. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  10. Formal selection rules for Brillouin scattering in integrated waveguides and structured fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, C; Poulton, C G


    We derive formal selection rules for Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) in structured waveguides. Using a group-theoretical approach, we show how the waveguide symmetry determines which optical and acoustic modes interact for both forward and backward SBS. We present a general framework for determining this interaction and give important examples for SBS in waveguides with rectangular, triangular and hexagonal symmetry. The important role played by degeneracy of the optical modes is illustrated. These selection rules are important for SBS-based device design and for a full understanding the physics of SBS in structured waveguides.

  11. Distributed Strain Measurement along a Concrete Beam via Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Bernini


    Full Text Available The structural strain measurement of tension and compression in a 4 m long concrete beam was demonstrated with a distributed fiber-optic sensor portable system based on Brillouin scattering. Strain measurements provided by the fiber-optic sensor permitted to detect the formation of a crack in the beam resulting from the external applied load. The sensor system is valuable for structural monitoring applications, enabling the long-term performance and health of structures to be efficiently monitored.

  12. Nonlinear Fluid Simulation Study of Stimulated Raman and Brillouin Scatterings in Shock Ignition (United States)

    Ren, Chuang; Hao, Liang; Yan, Rui; Li, Jun; Liu, Wenda


    We developed a new nonlinear fluid laser-plasma-instability code FLAME using a multi-fluid plasma model combined with full electromagnetic wave equations. The completed one-dimensional (1D) version of FLAME was used to study laser-plasma instabilities in shock ignition. The simulations results showed that absolute Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) modes growing near the quarter-critical surface were saturated by Langmuir-wave Decay Instabilities (LDI) and pump depletion. The ion-acoustic waves from LDI acted as seeds of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS), which displayed a bursting pattern and caused strong pump depletion. Re-scattering of SRS was also observed in a high temperature case. These results largely agreed with corresponding Particle-in-Cell simulations. Work funded by DOE (DE-SC0012316), NSF (PHY-1314734), NSFC (11642020, 11621202), and Science Challenge Project (No. JCKY2016212A505).

  13. A systematic study of Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in air, N₂, and O₂ gases. (United States)

    Gu, Ziyu; Ubachs, Wim


    Spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering experiments in air, N2, and O2 have been performed for a wide range of temperatures and pressures at a wavelength of 403 nm and at a 90° scattering angle. Measurements of the Rayleigh-Brillouin spectral scattering profile were conducted at high signal-to-noise ratio for all three species, yielding high-quality spectra unambiguously showing the small differences between scattering in air, and its constituents N2 and O2. Comparison of the experimental spectra with calculations using the Tenti S6 model, developed in the 1970s based on linearized kinetic equations for molecular gases, demonstrates that this model is valid to high accuracy for N2 and O2, as well as for air. After previous measurements performed at 366 nm, the Tenti S6 model is here verified for a second wavelength of 403 nm, and for the pressure-temperature parameter space covered in the present study (250-340 K and 0.6-3 bars). In the application of the Tenti S6 model, based on the transport coefficients of the gases, such as thermal conductivity κ, internal specific heat capacity c(int) and shear viscosity η, as well as their temperature dependencies taken as inputs, values for the more elusive bulk viscosity η(b) for the gases are derived by optimizing the model to the measurements. It is verified that the bulk viscosity parameters obtained from previous experiments at 366 nm are valid for wavelengths of 403 nm. Also for air, which is treated as a single-component gas with effective gas transport coefficients, the Tenti S6 treatment is validated for 403 nm as for the previously used wavelength of 366 nm, yielding an accurate model description of the scattering profiles for a range of temperatures and pressures, including those of relevance for atmospheric studies. It is concluded that the Tenti S6 model, further verified in the present study, is applicable to LIDAR applications for exploring the wind velocity and the temperature profile distributions of

  14. Demonstration of an ultraviolet stimulated Brillouin scattering pulse compressed hundred picosecond laser in LiB3O5 crystals (United States)

    Bai, Zhenxu; Wang, Yulei; Lu, Zhiwei; Jiang, Li; Yuan, Hang; Liu, Zhaohong


    A hundred picosecond ultraviolet (UV) laser is demonstrated with a pulse duration of less than 200 ps and peak power of 0.6 GW. With a hundred picosecond stimulated Brillouin scattering compressed pulse as the fundamental light, the UV output at 355 nm is obtained by extra-cavity sum-frequency-mixing in two LiB3O5 crystals. Maximum UV energy was 100 mJ when the incident energy was 280 mJ, yielding an optical-to-optical efficiency of 35.7%. This result is of interest for the generation of high energy sub-nanosecond UV lasers which finds applications in shock ignition and industrial processing.

  15. Brillouin Spectroscopy Data Base for Biological Threats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubel, Glenn


    .... Brillouin scattering from DNA, ovalbumen, the Bacillus spores globigii and thuringiensis were measured to determine the feasibility of biological material discrimination using Brillouin scattering...

  16. [Research on and application of hybrid optimization algorithm in Brillouin scattering spectrum parameter extraction problem]. (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-jun; Zhang, Shu-guo; Fu, Guang-wei; Li, Da; Liu, Yin; Bi, Wei-hong


    This paper presents a novel algorithm which blends optimize particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm according to the probability. This novel algorithm can be used for Pseudo-Voigt type of Brillouin scattering spectrum to improve the degree of fitting and precision of shift extraction. This algorithm uses PSO algorithm as the main frame. First, PSO algorithm is used in global search, after a certain number of optimization every time there generates a random probability rand (0, 1). If rand (0, 1) is less than or equal to the predetermined probability P, the optimal solution obtained by PSO algorithm will be used as the initial value of LM algorithm. Then LM algorithm is used in local depth search and the solution of LM algorithm is used to replace the previous PSO algorithm for optimal solutions. Again the PSO algorithm is used for global search. If rand (0, 1) was greater than P, PSO algorithm is still used in search, waiting the next optimization to generate random probability rand (0, 1) to judge. Two kinds of algorithms are alternatively used to obtain ideal global optimal solution. Simulation analysis and experimental results show that the new algorithm overcomes the shortcomings of single algorithm and improves the degree of fitting and precision of frequency shift extraction in Brillouin scattering spectrum, and fully prove that the new method is practical and feasible.

  17. Techno-economic study of the value of high stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold single-mode fiber utilization in fiber-to-the-home access networks (United States)

    Vaughn, Mark D.; Boh Ruffin, A.; Kobyakov, Andrey; Woodfin, Andrew; Mazzali, Claudio; Whitman, Robert; Boskovic, Aleksandra; Wagner, Richard E.; Kozischek, David; Meis, David


    Cost modeling reveals that deployment of fibers with a high stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold in fiber-to-the-home access networks can reduce material and labor expenditures by more than 20%. Theory and measurements of the high stimulated Brillouin scattering fiber are presented to demonstrate its employability.

  18. Single laser pulse compression via strongly coupled stimulated Brillouin scattering in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, H.; Wu, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. M. [Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-988, Mianyang 621900 (China); Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 919-988, Mianyang 621900 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zuo, Y. L.; Zhou, K. N.; Su, J. Q., E-mail: [Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-988, Mianyang 621900 (China); Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 919-988, Mianyang 621900 (China)


    Laser amplification in plasma, including stimulated Raman scattering amplification and strongly coupled stimulated Brillouin scattering (sc-SBS) amplification, is very promising to generate ultrahigh-power and ultrashort laser pulses. But both are quite complex in experiments: at least three different laser pulses must be prepared; temporal delay and spatial overlap of these three pulses are difficult. We propose a single pulse compression scheme based on sc-SBS in plasma. Only one moderately long laser is applied, the front part of which ionizes the gas to produced plasma, and gets reflected by a plasma mirror at the end of the gas channel. The reflected front quickly depletes the remaining part of the laser by sc-SBS in the self-similar regime. The output laser is much stronger and shorter. This scheme is at first considered theoretically, then validated by using 1D PIC simulations.

  19. Light scattering reviews 8 radiative transfer and light scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A


    Light scattering review (vol 8) is aimed at the presentation of recent advances in radiative transfer and light scattering optics. The topics to be covered include: scattering of light by irregularly shaped particles suspended in atmosphere (dust, ice crystals), light scattering by particles much larger as compared the wavelength of incident radiation, atmospheric radiative forcing, astrophysical radiative transfer, radiative transfer and optical imaging in biological media, radiative transfer of polarized light, numerical aspects of radiative transfer.

  20. Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression in optical fibers by hydrogen-loading technique (United States)

    Kong, Fanting; Dong, Liang


    Further power scaling of single frequency fiber lasers is of significant interests for many scientific and defense applications. It is currently limited by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). In recent years, a variety of techniques have been investigated for the suppression of SBS in optical fibers. A notable example is to design transverse acoustic properties of optical fibers in order to minimize optical and acoustic mode overlap. It was pointed out recently that SBS suppression from such transverse acoustic tailoring is limited when considering the existence of acoustic leaky modes. We demonstrate, for the first time, a post-processing technique where hydrogen is diffused in to a fiber core and then locally and permanently bonded to core glass by a subsequent UV exposure. Large local acoustic property can be altered this way for significant SBS suppression. It is also possible to use this technique to implement precisely tailored acoustic properties along a fiber for more optimized SBS suppression in a fiber amplifier. Change in Brillouin Stokes frequency of ~320MHz at 1.064μm has been demonstrated using hydrogen, corresponding to a SBS suppression of ~8dB. Much higher SBS suppression is possible at higher hydrogen concentrations.

  1. Suppression of Brillouin scattering in fibre-optical parametric amplifier by applying temperature control and phase modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Carsten Vandel


    An increased gain in a fibre-optical parametric amplifier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering is demonstrated by applying a temperature distribution along the fibre for a fixed phase modulation of the pump. The temperature distribution slightly impacts the gain spectrum....

  2. Temperature coefficient of sideband frequency produced by polarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering in highly nonlinear fibers (United States)

    Hayashi, Neisei; Suzuki, Kohei; Set, Sze Yun; Yamashita, Shinji


    We measured the temperature dependence of the polarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering (GAWBS) spectrum using a highly nonlinear fiber. The temperature coefficient is 168 kHz/K, which is 1.7 times larger than that of small-core photonic crystal fibers. This result indicates that highly temperature-sensitive GAWBS-based sensing is feasible.

  3. Impact Wave Monitoring in Soil Using a Dynamic Fiber Sensor Based on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Cui


    Full Text Available The impact wave response of soil due to a ball drop is monitored on a 30.5 cm by 30.5 cm square soil box using a fiber sensor with dynamic strain sensing capability. The experiments are conducted in real time using a simple one-laser one-modulator configuration with stimulated Brillouin scattering. The embedded BOTDA sensor grid successfully monitored the distribution and evolution of the inner strains of a sand bed during a mass impact on its surface. The measurement of the distributed dynamic strains was possible in several milliseconds and with 1 cm actual location resolution. This paper presents a time-domain signal analysis utilized for determining the dynamic strains in embedded fiber sensor. The results demonstrate the method to be a promising one for detection of subsurface vibration and movement in geotechnical Structure Health Monitoring (SHM.

  4. Effects of modulated pulse format on spontaneous Brillouin scattering spectrum and BOTDR sensing system (United States)

    Hao, Yunqi; Ye, Qing; Pan, Zhengqing; Cai, Haiwen; Qu, Ronghui; Yang, Zhongmin


    The signal noise ratio (SNR) enhancement effects of spontaneous Brillouin scattering spectrum on Brilloluin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR) sensing system have been analyzed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally through changing the modulated pulse format. With the same pulse width or same spatial resolution, the SNR is larger for triangular pulse. Take the width of 200 ns as an illustration, the SNRs of the coherent detection power spectrum for trapezoidal pulse and triangular pulse increase 3 dB and 4.8 dB relative to that of rectangular pulse respectively. The corresponding spectral linewidthes are narrowed and the sensing distances are also increased by about two times from the rectangular pulse to the triangular pulse. This phenomenon will be helpful to improve the spatial resolution or achieve longer sensing distance in the BOTDR sensing system at the same systemic conditions.

  5. Stimulated Brillouin scattering continuous wave phase conjugation in step-index fiber optics. (United States)

    Massey, Steven M; Spring, Justin B; Russell, Timothy H


    Continuous wave (CW) stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation in step-index optical fibers was studied experimentally and modeled as a function of fiber length. A phase conjugate fidelity over 80% was measured from SBS in a 40 m fiber using a pinhole technique. Fidelity decreases with fiber length, and a fiber with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.06 was found to generate good phase conjugation fidelity over longer lengths than a fiber with 0.13 NA. Modeling and experiment support previous work showing the maximum interaction length which yields a high fidelity phase conjugate beam is inversely proportional to the fiber NA(2), but find that fidelity remains high over much longer fiber lengths than previous models calculated. Conditions for SBS beam cleanup in step-index fibers are discussed.

  6. Light scattering by magnons in whispering gallery mode cavities (United States)

    Sharma, Sanchar; Blanter, Yaroslav M.; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.


    Brillouin light scattering is an established technique to study magnons, the elementary excitations of a magnet. Its efficiency can be enhanced by cavities that concentrate the light intensity. Here, we theoretically study inelastic scattering of photons by a magnetic sphere that supports optical whispering gallery modes in a plane normal to the magnetization. Magnons with low angular momenta scatter the light in the forward direction with a pronounced asymmetry in the Stokes and the anti-Stokes scattering strength, consistent with earlier studies. Magnons with large angular momenta constitute Damon-Eschbach modes which are shown to inelastically reflect light. The reflection spectrum contains either a Stokes or anti-Stokes peak, depending on the direction of the magnetization, a selection rule that can be explained by the chirality of the Damon-Eshbach magnons. The controllable energy transfer can be used to manage the thermodynamics of the magnet by light.

  7. Critical fluid light scattering (United States)

    Gammon, Robert W.


    The objective is to measure the decay rates of critical density fluctuations in a simple fluid (xenon) very near its liquid-vapor critical point using laser light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Such experiments were severely limited on Earth by the presence of gravity which causes large density gradients in the sample when the compressibility diverges approaching the critical point. The goal is to measure fluctuation decay rates at least two decades closer to the critical point than is possible on earth, with a resolution of 3 microK. This will require loading the sample to 0.1 percent of the critical density and taking data as close as 100 microK to the critical temperature. The minimum mission time of 100 hours will allow a complete range of temperature points to be covered, limited by the thermal response of the sample. Other technical problems have to be addressed such as multiple scattering and the effect of wetting layers. The experiment entails measurement of the scattering intensity fluctuation decay rate at two angles for each temperature and simultaneously recording the scattering intensities and sample turbidity (from the transmission). The analyzed intensity and turbidity data gives the correlation length at each temperature and locates the critical temperature. The fluctuation decay rate data from these measurements will provide a severe test of the generalized hydrodynamic theories of transport coefficients in the critical regions. When compared to equivalent data from binary liquid critical mixtures they will test the universality of critical dynamics.

  8. Stimulated Brillouin scattering during electron gyro-harmonic heating at EISCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Fu


    Full Text Available Observations of secondary radiation, stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE, produced during ionospheric modification experiments using ground-based, high-power, high-frequency (HF radio waves are considered. The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP facility is capable of generating narrowband SEE in the form of stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS and stimulated ion Bernstein scatter (SIBS in the SEE spectrum. Such narrowband SEE spectral lines have not been reported using the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT heater facility before. This work reports the first EISCAT results of narrowband SEE spectra and compares them to SEE previously observed at HAARP during electron gyro-harmonic heating. An analysis of experimental SEE data shows observations of emission lines within 100 Hz of the pump frequency, interpreted as SBS, during the 2012 July EISCAT campaign. Experimental results indicate that SBS strengthens as the pump frequency approaches the third electron gyro-harmonic. Also, for different heater antenna beam angles, the CUTLASS radar backscatter induced by HF radio pumping is suppressed near electron gyro-harmonics, whereas electron temperature enhancement weakens as measured by EISCAT/UHF radar. The main features of these new narrowband EISCAT observations are generally consistent with previous SBS measurements at HAARP.

  9. An experimental investigation of stimulated Brillouin scattering in laser-produced plasmas relevant to inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Keith Stanley [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    Despite the apparent simplicity of controlled fusion, there are many phenomena which have prevented its achievement. One phenomenon is laser-plasma instabilities. An investigation of one such instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), is reported here. SBS is a parametric process whereby an electromagnetic wave (the parent wave) decays into another electromagnetic wave and an ion acoustic wave (the daughter waves). SBS impedes controlled fusion since it can scatter much or all of the incident laser light, resulting in poor drive symmetry and inefficient laser-plasma coupling. It is widely believed that SBS becomes convectively unstable--that is, it grows as it traverses the plasma. Though it has yet to be definitively tested, convective theory is often invoked to explain experimental observations, even when one or more of the theory`s assumptions are violated. In contrast, the experiments reported here not only obeyed the assumptions of the theory, but were also conducted in plasmas with peak densities well below quarter-critical density. This prevented other competing or coexisting phenomena from occurring, thereby providing clearly interpretable results. These are the first SBS experiments that were designed to be both a clear test of linear convective theory and pertinent to controlled fusion research. A crucial part of this series of experiments was the development of a new instrument, the Multiple Angle Time Resolving Spectrometer (MATRS). MATRS has the unique capability of both spectrally and temporally resolving absolute levels of scattered light at many angles simultaneously, and is the first of its kind used in laser-plasma experiments. A detailed comparison of the theoretical predictions and the experimental observations is made.

  10. Elastic Characterization of Transparent and Opaque Films, Multilayers and Acoustic Resonators by Surface Brillouin Scattering: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Carlotti


    Full Text Available There is currently a renewed interest in the development of experimental methods to achieve the elastic characterization of thin films, multilayers and acoustic resonators operating in the GHz range of frequencies. The potentialities of surface Brillouin light scattering (surf-BLS for this aim are reviewed in this paper, addressing the various situations that may occur for the different types of structures. In particular, the experimental methodology and the amount of information that can be obtained depending on the transparency or opacity of the film material, as well as on the ratio between the film thickness and the light wavelength, are discussed. A generalization to the case of multilayered samples is also provided, together with an outlook on the capability of the recently developed micro-focused scanning version of the surf-BLS technique, which opens new opportunities for the imaging of the spatial profile of the acoustic field in acoustic resonators and in artificially patterned metamaterials, such as phononic crystals.

  11. Change in the scattering spectrum of laser radiation in a plasma on transition from spontaneous to stimulated Mandelstam--Brillouin scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burunov, E.A.; Malyshev, G.M.; Razdobarin, G.T.; Semyonov, V.V.; Folomkin, I.P.


    The spectrum of radiation scattered by ion-sound plasma oscillations is obtained under conditions when the power density of the laser radiation is close to the threshold value for Mandelstam--Brillouin stimulated scattering. An additional maximum arises in the longwave range of the scattering spectrum when the laser power exceeds the threshold value. The width of the additional maximum indicates that damping of the stimulated oscillations is weak. When the threshold power is exceeded by several times, the intensity of the scattered radiation exceeds that of scattering by thermal oscillations by 15 to 20 percent.

  12. A new design for simultaneous temperature and strain measurement with spontaneous Raman and Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Chen, Fuchang; Chen, Bai; Lin, Zunqi


    We design a new system for simultaneous distributed measurement of temperature and strain based on both spontaneous Raman and Brillouin backscattered signals. The Raman signal can determine the temperature. Although the Brillouin frequency shift is dependent on both temperature and strain of fiber, once the temperature is determined from the Raman signal, the strain can then be computed from the frequency measurement of the Brillouin signal.

  13. Temperature and strain dependence of Brillouin scattering in chalcogenide optical microwires


    Beugnot, J-C; Jeannin, C; Tchahame, J,; Godet, A; Ndao, A; Sylvestre, T; Ahmad, R; Rochette, M


    International audience; We report the measurement of Brillouin spectrum in polymer-coated chalcogenide microwire as a function of temperature and strain variation. We show a negative variation of Brillouin frequency shift. The coating strongly modify the Brillouin frequency due to temperature. OCIS codes: 060.4370, 190.3270, 190.5890 Chalcogenide-glass fibers offer a unique set of optical properties presenting an excellent platform for development of highly nonlinear optical devices for all-o...

  14. Experimental Studies of the Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Instability in the Saturated Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froula, Dustin Henry [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    An experimental study of the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) instability has investigated the effects of velocity gradients and kinetic effects on the saturation of ion-acoustic waves in a plasma. For intensities less than I < 1.5 x 1015 W cm-2, the SBS instability is moderated primarily by velocity gradients, and for intensities above this threshold, nonlinear trapping is invoked to saturate the instability. We report direct evidence of detuning of SBS by a velocity gradient which was achieved by directly measuring the frequency shift of the SBS driven acoustic wave relative to the local resonant acoustic frequency. Furthermore, a novel use of Thomson scattering has allowed us to gather direct evidence of kinetic effects associated with the SBS process. Specifically, a measured two-fold increase of the ion temperature has been linked with laser beam excitation of ion-acoustic waves to large amplitudes by the SBS instability. Ion-acoustic waves were excited to large amplitude with a 2Ω 1.2-ns long interaction beam with intensities up to 5 x 1015 W cm-2. The local frequency, amplitude, and spatial range of these waves were measured with a 3Ω 200ps Thomson-scattering probe beam. These detailed and accurate measurements in well-characterized plasma conditions allow for the first time a direct test of non-linear models of the saturation of SBS. The measured two-fold increase of the ion temperature and its correlation with SBS reactivity measurements is the first quantitative evidence of hot ions created by ion trapping in laser plasmas.

  15. Multifunctional microwave photonic signal processor based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator and stimulated Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Shi, Zhan; Wang, Ling; Yang, Cheng Wu; Li, Ming; Zhu, Ning Hua; Li, Wei


    We report a multifunctional microwave photonic signal processor based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator and stimulated Brillouin scattering. The signal processor acts as a microwave photonic filter (MPF) and microwave photonic phase shifter (MPS) simultaneously. The MPF and MPS can be tuned separately. Experimental results demonstrate that the central frequency of the bandpass MPF is tunable from 3 to 18 GHz while the MPS in the passband of the MPF is continuously adjustable over 360 deg.

  16. Determination of the kinetic coefficients of a gas in a supersonic jet from Brillouin spontaneous scattering spectra (United States)

    Anisimov, Yu. I.; Kosykh, N. B.; Mashek, I. Ch.


    The mean free path and the shear viscosity of molecular nitrogen are determined in a rarefied supersonic jet using the Brillouin spontaneous scattering technique. By examples of sub-and supersonic jets, the measured kinetic coefficients are shown to agree with the tabulated values of these parameters. These results are obtained using laser radiation, whose output power, which restricts the signal-to-noise ratio, is as low as 50 mW.

  17. High temperature surface Brillouin scattering study of mechanical properties of boron-doped epitaxial polysilicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Mathe


    Full Text Available A study of the mechanical properties of a boron-doped epitaxial polysilicon layer deposited on a Si (100 substrate specimen has been carried out by surface Brillouin scattering at high temperatures. This type of specimen is widely used in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS. By accumulating spectra with the Rayleigh mode and the Lamb continuum the isotropic elastic constants C44 and C11 were obtained, from which the values of the bulk, shear and Young’s moduli and Poisson’s ratio for the layer were determined over a range of temperatures from 20 °C to 110 °C. By contrast, an examination of the literature on polycrystalline silicon shows that other methods each provide a limited range of the above properties and thus additional experiments and techniques were needed. The SBS method is applicable to other polycrystalline materials such as silicon carbide, silicon nitride, silicon germanium and amorphous diamond that have also been used for MEMS applications.

  18. Light scattering by small particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hulst, H C van de


    ""A must for researchers using the techniques of light scattering."" ? S. C. Snowdon, Journal of the Franklin InstituteThe measurement of light scattering of independent, homogeneous particles has many useful applications in physical chemistry, meteorology and astronomy. There is, however, a sizeable gap between the abstract formulae related to electromagnetic-wave-scattering phenomena, and the computation of reliable figures and curves. Dr. van de Hulst's book enables researchers to bridge that gap. The product of twelve years of work, it is an exhaustive study of light-scattering properties

  19. Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement with combined spontaneous Raman and Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Alahbabi, M. N.; Cho, Y. T.; Newson, T. P.


    We report on a novel method for simultaneous distributed measurement of temperature and strain based on spatially resolving both spontaneous Raman and Brillouin backscattered anti-Stokes signals. The magnitude of the intensity of the anti-Stokes Raman signal permits the determination of the temperature. The Brillouin frequency shift is dependent on both the temperature and the strain of the fiber; once the temperature has been determined from the Raman signal, the strain can then be computed from the frequency measurement of the Brillouin signal.

  20. Simultaneous distributed measurements of temperature and strain using spontaneous Raman and Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Alahbabi, M. N.; Cho, Y. T.; Newson, Trevor P.


    We report on a novel method for simultaneous distributed measurement of the temperature and strain in an optical fiber based on spatially resolving the anti-Stokes signals of both the spontaneous Raman and Brillouin backscattered signals.

  1. CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: Spectrum evolutions of spontaneous and pump-depleted stimulated Brillouin scatterings in liquid media (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Lü, Zhi-Wei; He, Wei-Ming; Hasi, Wu-Li-Ji; Zhang, Zan


    A theoretical model for calculating spontaneous and stimulated Brillouin scattering(SBS) spectra is described. An empirical formula for the Stokes output spectral linewidth, a function of spontaneous Brillouin linewidth and the exponential gain coefficient, is obtained by the calculated data fitting. The formula holds true for two cases involving pump undepletion and depletion. The lineshape change from spontaneous to highly pump-depleted SBS spectra is also investigated. The result shows that for the pump power below the SBS threshold, the Stokes output spectral lineshape evolves from Lorentzian to approximately Gaussian as the pump power increases. For the pump power near or beyond the threshold, the SBS spectrum is in the form of a steady Gaussian profile, and the spectral linewidth comes to a certain value about 7 times narrower than the spontaneous one. The theoretical results are experimentally demonstrated by using several common liquid media.

  2. Stimulated Brillouin scattering in highly birefringent multimode tapered chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber for distributed optical sensors (Retraction Notice) (United States)

    Baili, Amira; Cherif, Rim; Zghal, Mourad


    This paper, originally published on September 15, 2016, was retracted from the SPIE Digital Library on October 5, 2016, due to a high degree of similarity between specific portions of the text of the paper to the following publications: J. Tchahame, J. Beugnot, A. Kudlinski, and T. Sylvestre, "Multimode Brillouin spectrum in a long tapered birefringent photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 40, 4281-4284 (2015). doi: 10.1364/OL.40.004281 W. W. Ke, X. J. Wang and X. Tang, "Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Model in Multi-Mode Fiber Lasers," in IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 305-314, Sept.-Oct. 2014. doi: 10.1109/JSTQE.2014.2303256.

  3. Brillouin Light Scattering studies of magnetic thin films and multilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, P R T


    crystal films. The films were grown on GaAs substrates and the BLS data gathered was analysed using derived expressions containing cubic and uniaxial anisotropy terms, the latter being derived here from first principals. 3. A series of FeCo alloy films deposited to thicknesses ranging from 46 A to 1000 A. The parameter of interest was the sample thickness below which the sample magnetization was found to be less that that of the bulk material. The BLS results were analysed using the Damon and Eshbach Surface mode expression. 4. The magnetic properties of an Fe/Cr trilayer wedge as a function of interlayer (Cr) spacer thickness. The transition from Antiferromagnetic to Ferromagnetic coupling was observed as function of Cr spacer thickness. BLS measurements at low and high field were correlated with features of the magnetization curves. 5. A series of 3 Co/Pt multilayers as a function of applied field. The results have yielded magnetization values for the films that are much lower than those of bulk Co. This wa...

  4. Investigation of ionospheric stimulated Brillouin scatter generated at pump frequencies near electron gyroharmonics (United States)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Fu, H.; Briczinski, S. J.; McCarrick, M. J.


    Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (SEEs), secondary electromagnetic waves excited by high power electromagnetic waves transmitted into the ionosphere, produced by the Magnetized Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (MSBS) process are investigated. Data from four recent research campaigns at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility is presented in this work. These experiments have provided additional quantitative interpretation of the SEE spectrum produced by MSBS to yield diagnostic measurements of the electron temperature and ion composition in the heated ionosphere. SEE spectral emission lines corresponding to ion acoustic (IA) and electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) mode excitation were observed with a shift in frequency up to a few tens of Hz from the pump frequency for heating near the third harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency 3fce. The threshold of each emission line has been measured by changing the pump wave power. The excitation threshold of IA and EIC emission lines originating at the reflection and upper hybrid altitudes is measured for various beam angles relative to the magnetic field. Variation of strength of MSBS emission lines with pump frequency relative to 3fce and 4fce is also studied. A full wave solution has been used to estimate the amplitude of the electric field at the interaction altitude. The estimated instability threshold using the theoretical model is compared with the threshold of MSBS lines in the experiment and possible diagnostic information for the background ionospheric plasma is discussed. Simultaneous formation of artificial field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) and suppression of the MSBS process is investigated. This technique can be used to estimate the growth time of artificial FAIs which may result in determination of plasma waves and physical process involved in the formation of FAIs.

  5. Light scattering reviews 9 light scattering and radiative transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A


    This book details modern methods of the radiative transfer theory. It presents recent advances in light scattering (measurements and theory) and highlights the newest developments in remote sensing of aerosol and cloud properties.

  6. Synthetic Fourier transform light scattering. (United States)

    Lee, Kyeoreh; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Youngchan; Hillman, Timothy R; Min, Bumki; Park, Yongkeun


    We present synthetic Fourier transform light scattering, a method for measuring extended angle-resolved light scattering (ARLS) from individual microscopic samples. By measuring the light fields scattered from the sample plane and numerically synthesizing them in Fourier space, the angle range of the ARLS patterns is extended up to twice the numerical aperture of the imaging system with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Extended ARLS patterns of individual microscopic polystyrene beads, healthy human red blood cells (RBCs), and Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized RBCs are presented.

  7. Experimental investigation of the phase conjugation efficiency of a XeCl laser beam in the case of stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychkov, IU.I.; Losev, V.F.; Panchenko, IU.N. (Inst. Sil' notochnoi Elektroniki, Tomsk (Russian Federation))


    Phase conjugation of a XeCl laser beam with spectral line widths of 2 and 0.4 nm depending on conditions of the beam focusing in a cell containing heptane is experimentally studied. Data obtained indicate that the phase conjugation efficiency was greater than 90 percent. The scattered beam contained not only the stimulated Brillouin scattering component but also a second component which was not frequency shifted. The ratio of these components depends on the geometry used to couple the pump beam into the nonlinear medium and on the intensity of the beam. Stimulated Brillouin scattering is performed using phase conjugation. 9 refs.

  8. Light scattering by soap films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrij, A.

    A theory is constructed describing the scattering from a liquid film (e.g., a soap film) of a light beam polarized normal to the plane of incidence. This scattering is due to the small irregular corrugations caused by thermal motion. The interference of the reflected incident beam with its multiple

  9. Scattering of light by crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, William


    This authoritative graduate-level text describes inelastic light scattering by crystals and its use in the investigation of solid-state excitation, with experimental techniques common to all types of excitation. 1978 edition.

  10. Direct Measurements of an increased threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering with polarization smoothing in ignition hohlraum plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froula, D; Divol, L; Berger, R L; London, R; Meezan, N; Neumayer, P; Ross, J S; Stagnito, S; Suter, L; Glenzer, S H; Strozzi, D


    We demonstrate a significant reduction of stimulated Brillouin scattering by polarization smoothing. The intensity threshold is measured to increase by a factor of 1.7 {+-} 0.2 when polarization smoothing is applied. The results were obtained in a high-temperature (T{sub 3} {approx_equal} 3 keV) hohlraum plasma where filamentation is negligible in determining the backscatter threshold. These results are explained by an analytical model relevant to ICF plasma conditions that modifies the linear gain exponent to account for polarization smoothing.

  11. Anomalous field-induced effects in the sound velocity in lead magnesium niobate probed by micro-Brillouin scattering


    Lushnikov, S. G.; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Kojima, Seiji


    Field-induced changes in Brillouin scattering spectra of the PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 relaxor ferroelectric have been examined in the vicinity of a diffuse phase transition under a dc electric field oriented along the [111] direction. It has been established that the transition into an electric-field-induced ferroelectric phase is accompanied by a step-like anomaly in the sound velocity of the quasilongitudinal acoustic phonon (QLA) propagating along the [110] direction. The changes in QLA phonon veloc...

  12. Essential criteria for efficient pulse amplification via Raman and Brillouin scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Trines, R M G M; Webb, E; Vieira, J; Fiuza, F; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O; Sadler, J; Ratan, N; Ceurvorst, L; Kasim, M F; Tabak, M; Froula, D; Haberberger, D; Norreys, P A; Cairns, R A; Bingham, R


    Raman and Brillouin amplification are two schemes for amplifying and compressing short laser pulses in plasma. Analytical models have already been derived for both schemes, but the full consequences of these models are little known or used. Here, we present new criteria that govern the evolution of the attractor solution for the seed pulse in Raman and Brillouin amplification, and show how the initial laser pulses need to be shaped to control the properties of the final amplified seed and improve the amplification efficiency.

  13. Self-Focusing of Elliptical Laser Beam in Collisional Plasma and Its Effect on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Process (United States)

    Singh, Arvinder; Walia, Keshav


    This paper presents an investigation of self-focusing of elliptical laser beam in a collisional plasma and its effect on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) process. The non-linearity arising through non-uniform heating leads to redistribution of carriers, which modifies the background plasma density profile in a direction transverse to pump beam axis. This modification affects the incident laser beam, ion-acoustic wave and back scattered beam. Non-linear differential equations for the beam width parameters of the pump laser beam, ion-acoustic wave and back scattered beam are set up and solved numerically. It is observed from the analysis that the focusing of waves greatly enhances the SBS back-reflectivity.

  14. Surface Brillouin scattering measurement of the elastic constants of single crystal InAs{sub 0.91}Sb{sub 0.09}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotane, L M; Comins, J D; Every, A G [Materials Physics Research Institute, School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Botha, J R, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)


    Surface Brillouin scattering of light has been used to measure the angular dependence of the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW), pseudo surface acoustic wave (PSAW) and longitudinal lateral wave (LLW) speeds in a (100)-oriented single crystal of the ternary semiconductor alloy InAs{sub 0.91}Sb{sub 0.09}. The wave speed measurements have been used to determine the room temperature values of the elastic constants C{sub 11}, C{sub 12} and C{sub 44} of the alloy. A simple and robust fitting procedure has been implemented for recovering the elastic constants, in which the merit function is constructed from explicit secular functions that determine the surface and lateral wave speeds in the [001] and [011] crystallographic directions. In the fitting, relatively larger weighting factors have been assigned to the SAW and PSAW data because of the greater precision with which the surface modes can be measured as compared with the lateral wave.

  15. Light Scattering in Solid IX

    CERN Document Server

    Cardona, Manuel


    This is the ninth volume of a well-established series in which expert practitioners discuss topical aspects of light scattering in solids. It reviews recent developments concerning mainly semiconductor nanostructures and inelastic x-ray scattering, including both coherent time-domain and spontaneous scattering studies. In the past few years, light scattering has become one of the most important research and characterization methods for studying carbon nanotubes and semiconducting quantum dots, and a crucial tool for exploring the coupled exciton--photon system in semiconductor cavities. Among the novel techniques discussed in this volume are pump--probe ultrafast measurements and those which use synchrotron radiation as light source. The book addresses improvements in the intensity, beam quality and time synchronization of modern synchrotron sources, which made it possible to measure the phonon dispersion in very small samples and to determine electronic energy bands as well as enabling real-time observations...

  16. Scattered light characterization of FORTIS (United States)

    McCandliss, Stephan R.; Carter, Anna; Redwine, Keith; Teste, Stephane; Pelton, Russell; Hagopian, John; Kutyrev, Alexander; Li, Mary J.; Moseley, S. Harvey


    We describe our efforts to build a Wide-Field Lyman alpha Geocoronal simulator (WFLaGs) for characterizing the end-to-end sensitivity of FORTIS (Far-UV Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy) to scattered Lyman α emission from outside of the nominal (1/2 degree)2 field-of-view. WFLaGs is a 50 mm diameter F/1 aluminum parabolic collimator fed by a hollow cathode discharge lamp with a 80 mm clear MgF2 window housed in a vacuum skin. It creates emission over a 10 degree FOV. WFLaGS will allow us to validate and refine a recently developed scattered light model and verify our scatter light mitigation strategies, which will incorporate low scatter baffle materials, and possibly 3-d printed light traps, covering exposed scatter centers. We present measurements of scattering intensity of Lyman alpha as a function of angle with respect to the specular reflectance direction for several candidate baffle materials. Initial testing of WFLaGs will be described.

  17. Power limits and a figure of merit for stimulated Brillouin scattering in the presence of third and fifth order loss

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Christian; Steel, Michael J; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Poulton, Christopher G


    We derive a set of design guidelines and a figure of merit to aid the engineering process of on-chip waveguides for strong Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). To this end, we examine the impact of several types of loss on the total amplification of the Stokes wave that can be achieved via SBS. We account for linear loss and nonlinear loss of third order (two-photon absorption, 2PA) and fifth order, most notably 2PA-induced free carrier absorption (FCA). From this, we derive an upper bound for the output power of continuous-wave Brillouin-lasers and show that the optimal operating conditions and maximal realisable Stokes amplification of any given waveguide structure are determined by a dimensionless parameter $\\mathcal{F}$ involving the SBS-gain and all loss parameters. We provide simple expressions for optimal pump power, waveguide length and realisable amplification and demonstrate their utility in two example systems. Notably, we find that 2PA-induced FCA is a serious limitation to SBS in silicon and ge...

  18. Laser light scattering basic principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Benjamin


    Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, this text introduces the interdisciplinary area of laser light scattering, focusing chiefly on theoretical concepts of quasielastic laser scattering.

  19. Elastic properties of aspirin in its crystalline and glassy phases studied by micro-Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Sei; Ike, Yuji; Kojima, Seiji


    The acoustic waves propagating along the direction perpendicular to the (1 0 0) cleavage plane of aspirin crystal were investigated using micro-Brillouin spectroscopy from which C11, C55 and C66 were obtained. The temperature dependence of the longitudinal acoustic waves could be explained by normal anharmonic lattice models, while the transverse acoustic waves showed an abnormal increase in the hypersonic attenuation at low temperatures indicating their coupling to local remnant dynamics. The sound velocity as well as the attenuation of the longitudinal acoustic waves of glassy aspirin showed a substantial change at ˜235 K confirming a transition from glassy to supercooled liquid state in vitreous aspirin.

  20. High-extinction VIPA-based Brillouin spectroscopy of turbid biological media

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, Antonio; Shao, Peng; Yun, Seok Hyun; Scarcelli, Giuliano


    Brillouin microscopy has recently emerged as powerful technique to characterize the mechanical properties of biological tissue, cell and biomaterials. However, the potential of Brillouin microscopy is currently limited to transparent samples, because Brillouin spectrometers do not have sufficient spectral extinction to reject the predominant non-Brillouin scattered light of turbid media. To overcome this issue, we developed a spectrometer composed of a two VIPA stages and a multi-pass Fabry-Perot interferometer. The Fabry-Perot etalon acts as an ultra-narrow band-pass filter for Brillouin light with high spectral extinction and low loss. We report background-free Brillouin spectra from Intralipid solutions and up to 100 microns deep within chicken muscle tissue.

  1. High temperatures and high pressures Brillouin scattering studies of liquid H(2)O+CO(2) mixtures. (United States)

    Qin, Junfeng; Li, Min; Li, Jun; Chen, Rongyan; Duan, Zhenhao; Zhou, Qiang; Li, Fangfei; Cui, Qiliang


    The Brillouin scattering spectroscopy studies have been conducted in a diamond anvil cell for a liquid mixtures composed of 95 mol % H(2)O and 5 mol % CO(2) under high temperatures and pressures. The sound velocity, refractive index, density, and adiabatic bulk modulus of the H(2)O+CO(2) mixtures were determined under pressures up to the freezing point at 293, 453, and 575 K. It is found from the experiment that sound velocities of the liquid mixture are substantially lower than those of pure water at 575 K, but not at lower temperatures. We presented an empirical relation of the density in terms of pressure and temperature. Our results show that liquid H(2)O+CO(2) mixtures are more compressible than water obtained from an existing equation of state of at 453 and 575 K.

  2. Experimental Analysis of Steel Beams Subjected to Fire Enhanced by Brillouin Scattering-Based Fiber Optic Sensor Data. (United States)

    Bao, Yi; Chen, Yizheng; Hoehler, Matthew S; Smith, Christopher M; Bundy, Matthew; Chen, Genda


    This paper presents high temperature measurements using a Brillouin scattering-based fiber optic sensor and the application of the measured temperatures and building code recommended material parameters into enhanced thermomechanical analysis of simply supported steel beams subjected to combined thermal and mechanical loading. The distributed temperature sensor captures detailed, nonuniform temperature distributions that are compared locally with thermocouple measurements with less than 4.7% average difference at 95% confidence level. The simulated strains and deflections are validated using measurements from a second distributed fiber optic (strain) sensor and two linear potentiometers, respectively. The results demonstrate that the temperature-dependent material properties specified in the four investigated building codes lead to strain predictions with less than 13% average error at 95% confidence level and that the Europe building code provided the best predictions. However, the implicit consideration of creep in Europe is insufficient when the beam temperature exceeds 800°C.

  3. The elastic constants and related properties of the epsilon polymorph of the energetic material CL-20 determined by Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Haycraft, James J.


    The acoustic phonons of the epsilon polymorph of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo [,9.03,11] dodecane (ɛ-CL-20) have been studied using Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. Analysis of the acoustic phonon velocities allowed determination of the complete stiffness tensor for this energetic material. The results are compared to a theoretical determination of the ɛ-CL-20 elastic constants, bulk moduli, and shear moduli. The observed ordering of elastic constants, C22>C33>C11, is noted to be different from other nitramine energetic materials. Finally, the elasticity of ɛ-CL-20 is compared to recently published reports on cyclotrimethylene trinitramine's (RDX) elasticity and the beta polymorph of cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine's (β-HMX) elasticity.

  4. The role of the global phase in the spatio-temporal evolution of strong-coupling Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Amiranoff, F.; Riconda, C.; Chiaramello, M.; Lancia, L.; Marquès, J. R.; Weber, S.


    The role of the global phase in the spatio-temporal evolution of the 3-wave coupled equations for backscattering is analyzed in the strong-coupling regime of Brillouin scattering. This is of particular interest for controlled backscattering in the case of plasma-based amplification to produce short and intense laser pulses. It is shown that the analysis of the envelope equations of the three waves involved, pump, seed, and ion wave, in terms of phase and amplitude fully describes the coupling dynamics. In particular, it helps understanding the role of the chirp of the laser beams and of the plasma density profile. The results can be used to optimize or quench the coupling mechanism. It is found that the directionality of the energy transfer is imposed by the phase relation at the leading edge of the pulse. This actually ensures continued energy transfer even if the intensity of the seed pulse is already higher than the pump pulse intensity.

  5. Brillouin Optical Microscopy for Corneal Biomechanics (United States)

    Scarcelli, Giuliano; Pineda, Roberto


    Purpose. The mechanical properties of corneal tissue are linked to prevalent ocular diseases and therapeutic procedures. Brillouin microscopy is a novel optical technology that enables three-dimensional mechanical imaging. In this study, the feasibility of this noncontact technique was tested for in situ quantitative assessment of the biomechanical properties of the cornea. Methods. Brillouin light-scattering involves a spectral shift proportional to the longitudinal modulus of elasticity of the tissue. A 532-nm single-frequency laser and a custom-developed ultrahigh-resolution spectrometer were used to measure the Brillouin frequency. Confocal scanning was used to perform Brillouin elasticity imaging of the corneas of whole bovine eyes. The longitudinal modulus of the bovine corneas was compared before and after riboflavin corneal collagen photo-cross-linking. The Brillouin measurements were then compared with conventional stress–strain mechanical test results. Results. High-resolution Brillouin images of the cornea were obtained, revealing a striking depth-dependent variation of the elastic modulus across the cornea. Along the central axis, the Brillouin frequency shift varied gradually from 8.2 GHz in the epithelium to 7.5 GHz near the endothelium. The coefficients of the down slope were measured to be approximately 1.09, 0.32, and 2.94 GHz/mm in the anterior, posterior, and innermost stroma, respectively. On riboflavin collagen cross-linking, marked changes in the axial Brillouin profiles (P biomechanical properties of cornea in situ with high spatial resolution. This novel technique has the potential for use in clinical diagnostics and treatment monitoring. PMID:22159012

  6. NONLINEAR OPTICS: Statistical analysis of the parameters of stimulated Brillouin scattering under conditions of stimulated emission from spontaneous noise (United States)

    Dianov, Evgenii M.; Karasik, Aleksandr Ya; Luchnikov, A. V.; Senatorov, A. K.


    A description is given of a new approach to an analysis of the statistics of fluctuations of stimulated scattering which are due to the noise nature of spontaneous radiation. The approach is based on amplification of spontaneous noise in a given excitation field under conditions of stimulated Brillouin scattering (STBS) and on a statistical analysis of noise fluctuations by two methods: in real time and after a fixed time delay when the number of realizations is large. A report is given of experiments carried out at T = 300 K in long single-mode glass fiber waveguides where a transverse distribution of optical fields could be controlled rigorously and kept constant throughout the zone of interaction between the waves. An exponential distribution of the stimulated scattering intensity was established, indicating constancy of the exponential statistics of fluctuations of the intensity of spontaneous radiation in the course of its amplification. This made it possible to calculate the STBS emission spectrum. A determination of the STBS gain increment demonstrated a good agreement between the theory and experiment. A time relationship established between the pump intensity spectrum and the emission spectrum made it possible to find the relaxation time of hypersound in a glassy medium.

  7. Light Scattering Spectroscopy: From Elastic to Inelastic (United States)

    Perelman, Lev T.; Modell, Mark D.; Vitkin, Edward; Hanlon, Eugene B.

    This chapter reviews light scattering spectroscopic techniques in which coherent effects are critical because they define the structure of the spectrum. In the case of elastic light scattering spectroscopy, the targets themselves, such as aerosol particles in environmental science or cells and subcellular organelles in biomedical applications, play the role of microscopic optical resonators. In the case of inelastic light scattering spectroscopy or Raman spectroscopy, the spectrum is created due to light scattering from vibrations in molecules or optical phonons in solids. We will show that light scattering spectroscopic techniques, both elastic and inelastic, are emerging as very useful tools in material and environmental science and in biomedicine.

  8. Light scattering near phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Cummins, HZ


    Since the development of the laser in the early 1960's, light scattering has played an increasingly crucial role in the investigation of many types of phase transitions and the published work in this field is now widely dispersed in a large number of books and journals.A comprehensive overview of contemporary theoretical and experimental research in this field is presented here. The reviews are written by authors who have actively contributed to the developments that have taken place in both Eastern and Western countries.

  9. Lowering backward Raman and Brillouin scattering in waveguide Raman wavelength converters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phan Huy, Min Châu; Delaye, Philippe; Pauliat, Gilles; Dubreuil, Nicolas; Gérôme, Frédéric; Debord, Benoît; Benabid, Fetah; Lebrun, Sylvie


    .... However, and depending on the pulse duration, the optimization of Raman converters turns to be rather challenging since the desired forward Raman scattering may compete with counter-propagating...

  10. Pump spectral linewidth influence on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and self-termination behavior of SRS in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Guang S.; Kuzmin, Andrey; Prasad, Paras N. [The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)


    The threshold, temporal behavior, and conversion efficiency of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SBS) in three liquids (benzene, hexane, and dimethyl sulfoxide) and two crystals (calcite and barium nitrate) have been investigated under three largely different spectral linewidth conditions. Pumped with 532-nm and nanosecond duration laser pulses of ≤ 0.01 cm{sup -1} linewidth, only SBS can be generated in all tested liquids with a high nonlinear reflectivity. However when the pump spectral linewidth is ∝0.07 cm{sup -1} or ∝0.8 cm{sup -1}, both SBS and SRS can be observed in benzene while only SRS can be generated in dimethyl sulfoxide; in all these cases SRS is the dominant contribution to the stimulated scattering but the efficiency values are drastically decreased due to the self-termination behavior of SRS in liquids, which arises from the thermal self-defocusing of both pump beam and SRS beam owing to Stokes-shift related opto-heating effect. In contrast, for SRS process in the two crystals, the thermal self-defocusing influence is negligible benefitting from their much greater thermal conductivity, and a higher conversion efficiency of SRS generation can be retained under all three pump conditions. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. pF3D Simulations of Large Outer-Beam Brillouin Scattering from NIF Rugby Hohlraums (United States)

    Langer, Steven; Strozzi, David; Chapman, Thomas; Amendt, Peter


    We assess the cause of large outer-beam stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a NIF shot with a rugby-shaped hohlraum, which has less wall surface loss and thus higher x-ray drive than a cylindrical hohlraum of the same radius. This shot differed from a prior rugby shot with low SBS in three ways: outer beam pointing, split-pointing of the four beams within each outer-beam quadruplet, and a small amount of neon added to the hohlraum helium fill gas. We use pF3D, a massively-parallel, paraxial-envelope laser plasma interaction code, with plasma profiles from the radiation-hydrodynamics code Lasnex. We determine which change between the two shots increased the SBS by adding them one at a time to the simulations. We compare the simulations to experimental data for total SBS power, its spatial distribution at the lens, and the SBS spectrum. For each shot, we use profiles from Lasnex simulations with and without a model for mix at the hohlraum wall-gas interface. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Release number LLNL-ABS-674893.

  12. Scattering theory of stochastic electromagnetic light waves. (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhao, Daomu


    We generalize scattering theory to stochastic electromagnetic light waves. It is shown that when a stochastic electromagnetic light wave is scattered from a medium, the properties of the scattered field can be characterized by a 3 x 3 cross-spectral density matrix. An example of scattering of a spatially coherent electromagnetic light wave from a deterministic medium is discussed. Some interesting phenomena emerge, including the changes of the spectral degree of coherence and of the spectral degree of polarization of the scattered field.

  13. Biological cell classification by multiangle light scattering (United States)

    Salzman, G.C.; Crowell, J.M.; Mullaney, P.F.


    The specification is directed to an apparatus and method for detecting light scattering from a biological cell. Light, preferably from a coherent source of radiation, intercepts an individual biological cell in a stream of cells passing through the beam. Light scattered from the cell is detected at a selected number of angles between 0 and 90/sup 0/ to the longitudinal axis of the beam with a circular array of light responsive elements which produce signals representative of the intensity of light incident thereon. Signals from the elements are processed to determine the light-scattering pattern of the cell and therefrom its identity.

  14. Non-label bioimaging utilizing scattering lights (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Ichimura, Taro; Fujita, Hideaki


    Optical microscopy is an indispensable tool for medical and life sciences. Especially, the microscopes utilized with scattering light offer a detailed internal observation of living specimens in real time because of their non-labeling and non-invasive capability. We here focus on two kinds of scattering lights, Raman scattering light and second harmonic generation light. Raman scattering light includes the information of all the molecular vibration modes of the molecules, and can be used to distinguish types and/or state of cell. Second harmonic generation light is derived from electric polarity of proteins in the specimen, and enables to detect their structural change. In this conference, we would like to introduce our challenges to extract biological information from those scattering lights.

  15. Determination of the electron temperature in the modified ionosphere over HAARP using the HF pumped Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (SBS emission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bernhardt


    Full Text Available An ordinary mode electromagnetic wave can decay into an ion acoustic wave and a scattered electromagnetic wave by a process called stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS. The first detection of this process during ionospheric modification with high power radio waves was reported by Norin et al. (2009 using the HAARP transmitter in Alaska. Subsequent experiments have provided additional verification of this process and quantitative interpretation of the scattered wave frequency offsets to yield measurements of the electron temperatures in the heated ionosphere. Using the SBS technique, electron temperatures between 3000 and 4000 K were measured over the HAARP facility. The matching conditions for decay of the high frequency pump wave show that in addition to the production of an ion-acoustic wave, an electrostatic ion cyclotron wave may also be produced by the generalized SBS processes. Based on the matching condition theory, the first profiles of the scattered wave amplitude are produced using the stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS matching conditions. These profiles are consistent with maximum ionospheric interactions at the upper-hybrid resonance height and at a region just below the plasma resonance altitude where the pump wave electric fields reach their maximum values.

  16. The Amsterdam-Granada Light Scattering Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Guirado, D.; Dabrowska, D.D.; Volten, H.; Hovenier, J.W.


    The Amsterdam Light Scattering Database proved to be a very successful way of promoting the use of the data obtained with the Amsterdam Light Scattering apparatus at optical wavelengths. Many different research groups around the world made use of the experimental data. After the closing down of the

  17. Scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kerker, Milton


    The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation discusses the theory of electromagnetic scattering and describes some practical applications. The book reviews electromagnetic waves, optics, the interrelationships of main physical quantities and the physical concepts of optics, including Maxwell's equations, polarization, geometrical optics, interference, and diffraction. The text explains the Rayleigh2 theory of scattering by small dielectric spheres, the Bessel functions, and the Legendre functions. The author also explains how the scattering functions for a homogenous sphere chan

  18. Toward a new lower limit for the minimum scattering vector on the very small angle neutron scattering spectrometer at Laboratoire Leon Brillouin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brulet, A.; Thevenot, V.; Lairez, D.; Desert, S. [CEA Saclay, CEA-CNRS, UMR12, Lab Leon Brillouin, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Lecommandoux, S.; Agut, W. [Univ Bordeaux 1, ENSCPB CNRS, Lab Chim Polymeres Organ, F-33607 Pessac (France); Armes, S.P.; Du, J. [Univ Sheffield, Dept Chem, Sheffield S3 7HF (United Kingdom)


    The main characteristics of the very small angle neutron scattering spectrometer (VSANS) under construction at the Laboratoire Leon Brillouin are a multibeam pinhole collimator converging onto an image plate detector. By combining tiny collimation (diaphragms of around 1 or 2 mm in diameter) with the small pixel size of the detector (0.15 * 0.15 mm), very high resolution measurements can be achieved. The resolution function of the instrument contains a contribution from gravity, which is reduced by the intermediate masks of the collimator. Owing to the relatively short length of the VSANS instrument (around 14 m), this effect remains weak, in good agreement with the predictions. With a prototype multibeam collimator, an incident wavelength of 0.9 nm and the detector located at 6 m from the sample, it is possible to access q values as low as 4 * 10{sup -3} nm{sup -1} with very high q resolution. Promising preliminary experiments with high q resolution are reported, which open up new fields to the SANS technique. (authors)

  19. Investigating the Threshold and Strength of Emission Lines Generated by Magnetized Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (MSBS) using HAARP facilities (United States)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Scales, W.; Bernhardt, P. A.


    The High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Gakona, Alaska provides effective radiated powers in the megawatt range that have allowed researchers to study many non-linear effects of wave-plasma interactions. Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) is of interest to the ionospheric community for its diagnostic purposes. In recent HAARP heating experiments, it has been shown that during the Magnetized Stimulated Brillouin Scattering MSBS instability, the pumped electromagnetic wave may decay into an electromagnetic wave and a low frequency electrostatic wave (either ion acoustic IA wave or electrostatic ion cyclotron EIC wave). According to the matching conditions, the O-mode electromagnetic wave can excite either an ion-acoustic wave with a frequency less than the ion cyclotron frequency that propagates along the magnetic field or an electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) wave with frequency just above the ion cyclotron frequency that propagates at an angle with respect to the magnetic field. Using Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) spectral features, side bands which extend above and below the pump frequency can yield significant diagnostics for the modified ionosphere. It has been shown that the IA wave frequency offsets can be used to measure electron temperature in the heated ionosphere and EIC wave offsets can be used as a sensitive method to determine the ion species by measuring ion mass using the ion gyro-frequency offset. In this presentation the results of SEE experiment at 2010 PARS summer school and 2011 SSRC will be discussed. The experiment was performed at the 3rd electron gyro harmonic with frequency sweeping, power stepping and beam angle variation. Three diagnostics were implemented to study the SEE. There were 1) A 4 channel spectrum analyzer SEE receiver, 2) the University of Alaska SuperDARN radar facility and, 3) the MUIR incoherent scatter radar. The experimental results aimed to show the threshold for transmitter power

  20. Radiofrequency encoded angular-resolved light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckley, Brandon W.; Akbari, Najva; Diebold, Eric D.


    The sensitive, specific, and label-free classification of microscopic cells and organisms is one of the outstanding problems in biology. Today, instruments such as the flow cytometer use a combination of light scatter measurements at two distinct angles to infer the size and internal complexity...... of cells at rates of more than 10,000 per second. However, by examining the entire angular light scattering spectrum it is possible to classify cells with higher resolution and specificity. Current approaches to performing these angular spectrum measurements all have significant throughput limitations...... Encoded Angular-resolved Light Scattering (REALS), this technique multiplexes angular light scattering in the radiofrequency domain, such that a single photodetector captures the entire scattering spectrum from a particle over approximately 100 discrete incident angles on a single shot basis. As a proof...

  1. Long-range distributed temperature and strain optical fibre sensor based on the coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin scattering with in-line Raman amplification (United States)

    Alahbabi, Mohamed N.; Tat Cho, Yuh; Newson, Trevor P.


    We report an extended range distributed temperature and strain optical fibre sensor based on the coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin scattering combined with Raman amplification. The Raman amplification was achieved within the sensing fibre using either co- or counter-propagating Raman pump configuration with respect to the probe pulse and experiments were conducted to investigate the optimum pump and probe power combination. Using Brillouin frequency shift measurements with co-propagating Raman pump configuration, a temperature resolution of 1.7 °C with a 20 m spatial resolution at 100 km was achieved. With the counter-propagating pump configuration, a temperature resolution of 5 °C with a 50 m spatial resolution at 150 km was achieved. Measuring both the power and frequency of the Brillouin signal, a simultaneous temperature and strain measurement was performed over 50 km using co-propagating Raman pump. Temperature and strain resolutions of 3.5 °C and 85 μɛ with 5 m spatial resolution were achieved.

  2. Light scattering in ophthalmic research (United States)

    Tuchin, Valery V.


    In the overview optical models of cornea, sclera, and crystalline lens humor will be presented. On the basis of these models eye tissue transmittance spectra and scattering indicatrices for the main informative elements of the mueller matrix will be analyzed. This paper will discuss some problems of eye tissue optical characteristics control, and possibilities and perspectives of elastic scattering spectroscopy in cataract diagnostics.

  3. Fast-light Enhanced Brillouin Laser Based Active Fiber Optics Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Rotation and Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Minchuan; Fouda, Mohamed; Condon, Nicholas; Scheuer, Jacob; Shahriar, Selim M


    We have developed a conceptual design for an Active Fast Light Fiber Optic Sensor (AFLIFOS) that can perform simultaneously or separately as a gyroscope (differential mode effect) and a sensor for acceleration, strain, and other common mode effects. Two Brillouin lasers in opposite directions and separated in frequency by several free spectral ranges are used for this sensor. By coupling two auxiliary resonators to the primary fiber resonator, we produce superluminal effects for two laser modes. We develop a detailed theoretical model for optimizing the design of the AFLIFOS, and show that the enhancement factor of the sensitivity is $\\sim{187}$ and $\\sim{-187}$, respectively for the two Brillouin lasers under the optimized condition, when the effective change in perimeter of the primary fiber resonator is 0.1nm, corresponding to a rotation rate of 0.4 deg/sec for a ring resonator with radius 1m. It may be possible to get much higher enhancement by adjusting the parameters such as the perimeters and the coupl...

  4. Amplified Spontaneous Emission Reduction by Use of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering: 2-ns Pulses from a Ti:Al 2 O 3 Amplifier chain (United States)

    Ni, Chi-Kung; Kung, A. H.


    We constructed a cw Ti:Al2 O3 master oscillator -dye preamplifier -Ti:Al2 O3 power amplifier system that generates <2-ns, 100-mJ pulses. The system is tunable from 750 to 890 nm and has a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The output pulse has a near Fourier-transform-limited bandwidth of ~240 MHz. Backward stimulated Brillouin scattering is used to control the growth of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The content of ASE in the final output is under our detection limit ( <10-4 ) for the entire tuning range.

  5. Amplified Spontaneous Emission Reduction by Use of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering: 2-ns Pulses from a Ti:Al(2)O(3) Amplifier chain. (United States)

    Ni, C K; Kung, A H


    We constructed a cw Ti:Al(2)O(3) master oscillator-dye preamplifier-Ti:Al(2)O(3) power amplifier system that generates <2-ns, 100-mJ pulses. The system is tunable from 750 to 890 nm and has a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The output pulse has a near Fourier-transform-limited bandwidth of ~240 MHz. Backward stimulated Brillouin scattering is used to control the growth of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The content of ASE in the final output is under our detection limit (<10(-4)) for the entire tuning range.

  6. Multibeam seeded brillouin sidescatter in inertial confinement fusion experiments. (United States)

    Turnbull, D; Michel, P; Ralph, J E; Divol, L; Ross, J S; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Kritcher, A L; Hinkel, D E; Moody, J D


    We present the first observations of multibeam weakly seeded Brillouin sidescatter in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. Two seeding mechanisms have been identified and quantified: specular reflections ("glint") from opposite hemisphere beams, and Brillouin backscatter from neighboring beams with a different angle of incidence. Seeded sidescatter can dominate the overall coupling losses, so understanding this process is crucial for proper accounting of energy deposition and drive symmetry. Glint-seeded scattered light could also be used to probe hydrodynamic conditions inside ICF targets.

  7. Fluctuations in doubly scattered laser light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswijk, F.C. van; Smith, U.L.


    Fluctuations in laser light, doubly scattered by brownian particles, were analysed by measuring the spectral noise power of the photodetector current. Scattering took place at two spatially separated systems of spherical particles. Analytic expressions for the field and intensity correlations are

  8. The Amsterdam-Granada Light Scattering Database (United States)

    Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Guirado, D.; Dabrowska, D. D.; Volten, H.; Hovenier, J. W.


    The Amsterdam Light Scattering Database proved to be a very successful way of promoting the use of the data obtained with the Amsterdam Light Scattering apparatus at optical wavelengths. Many different research groups around the world made use of the experimental data. After the closing down of the Dutch scattering apparatus, a modernized and improved descendant, the IAA Cosmic Dust Laboratory (CoDuLab), has been constructed at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA) in Granada, Spain. The first results of this instrument for water droplets and for two samples of clay particles have been published. We would now like to make these data also available to the community in digital form by introducing a new light scattering database, the Amsterdam-Granada Light Scattering Database ( By combining the data from the two instruments in one database we ensure the continued availability of the old data, and we prevent fragmentation of important data over different databases. In this paper we present the Amsterdam-Granada Light Scattering Database.

  9. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) Suppression and Long Delivery Fibers at the Multikilowatt Level with Chirped Seed Lasers (United States)


    seed can be made to follow a triangular waveform in time, spanning up to 100 nm, larger than the entire Yb gain spectrum.Error! Bookmark not defined...due to a temperature variation is well known.Error! Bookmark not defined. The large difference between the spatial variation of Brillouin frequency

  10. Coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin scattering combined with Raman amplification for long range distributed temperature and strain measurements (United States)

    Alahbabi, M. N.; Cho, Y. T.; Newson, T. P.


    Brillouin intensity and frequency measurements achieved temperature and strain to be unambiguously resolved with resolutions of 3.5°C and 85 μɛ at 50km. Frequency only measurements, achieved temperature or strain resolution of 1.7°C and 35 μɛ at 100km.

  11. Ultrasonic trap for light scattering measurement (United States)

    Barton, Petr; Pavlu, Jiri


    Light scattering is complex phenomenon occurring widely in space environments, including the dense dusty clouds, nebulas or even the upper atmosphere of the Earth. However, when the size of the dust (or of other scattering center) is close to the incident light wavelength, theoretical determination is difficult. In such case, Mie theory is to be used but there is a lack of the material constants for most space-related materials. For experimental measurement of light scattering, we designed unique apparatus, based on ultrasonic trap. Using acoustic levitation we are able to capture the dust grain in midair, irradiate it with laser, and observe scattering directly with goniometer-mounted photodiode. Advantage of this approach is ability to measure directly in the air (thus, no need for the carrier medium) and possibility to study non-spherical particles. Since the trap development is nearly finished and initial experiments are carried out, the paper presents first tests on water droplets.

  12. Spatial quantum correlations in multiple scattered light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodahl, P.; Mosk, Allard; Lagendijk, Aart


    We predict a new spatial quantum correlation in light propagating through a multiple scattering random medium. The correlation depends on the quantum state of the light illuminating the medium, is infinite in range, and dominates over classical mesoscopic intensity correlations. The spatial quantum

  13. The Whiteness of Things and Light Scattering (United States)

    Gratton, L. M.; Lopez-Arias, T.; Calza, G.; Oss, S.


    We discuss some simple experiments dealing with intriguing properties of light and its interaction with matter. In particular, we show how to emphasize that light reflection, refraction and scattering can provide a proper, physical description of human perception of the "colour" white. These experiments can be used in the classroom with an enquiry…

  14. Brillouin scattering, DSC, dielectric and X-ray diffraction studies of phase transitions in antiferroelectric PbHfO{sub 3}:Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mączka, Mirosław, E-mail: [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland); Kim, Tae Hyun [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Gągor, Anna [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland); Jankowska-Sumara, Irena [Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Kraków (Poland); Majchrowski, Andrzej [Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Kojima, Seiji [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Phase transition mechanisms were studied in antiferroelectric PbHf{sub 0.975}Sn{sub 0.025}O{sub 3.} • Acoustic phonons showed anomalies at 472 and 426 K due to phase transitions. • Brillouin data showed evidence for presence of polar clusters in paraelectric phase. • An order-disorder mechanism of the PE to AFE2 transition was proved. - Abstract: Specific heat, dielectric, powder X-ray diffraction and Brillouin scattering studies of phase transitions in antiferroelectric PbHf{sub 0.975}Sn{sub 0.025}O{sub 3} crystal were performed. The specific heat data revealed clear anomalies at T{sub 1} = 473.5 and T{sub 2} = 426.3 K on cooling, which could be attributed to onset of first order phase transitions from the paraelectric (PE) phase to an intermediate antiferroelectric phase (AFE2) and the AFE2 phase to another antiferroelectric phase (AFE1), respectively. The estimated entropy changes at T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} pointed to mainly an order-disorder and displacive character of these transitions, respectively. X-ray diffraction data showed a complex superstructure of the intermediate phase with a = 11.895(6) Å, b = 11.936(4) Å, c = 8.223(3) Å at 453 K. Brillouin studies revealed pronounced softening of longitudinal acoustic (LA) mode in the PE phase associated with its broadening. The broadening and softening exhibited maximum values at T{sub 1}. Additional acoustic anomalies, that is, abrupt frequency shifts for LA and transverse acoustic (TA) modes were also observed at T{sub 2}. Brillouin scattering data also showed presence of a broad central peak (CP) that exhibited highest intensity at T{sub 1}. The observed temperature dependences of acoustic modes and CP indicate order-disorder character of the FE to AFE2 phase transition and importance of polar precursor clusters in the PE phase. The obtained data also suggest that the intermediate antiferroelectric phases in Sn{sup 4+} doped PbHfO{sub 3} and PbZrO{sub 3} may have very similar structures

  15. Significance of coherent Rayleigh noise in fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering (United States)

    DeSouza, K.


    The temperature resolution of a fibre-optic distributed temperature sensor based on taking the ratio of the temperature sensitive backscattered spontaneous Brillouin signal to the corresponding Rayleigh signal depends on the optical signal-to-noise of the receiver system and the amplitude fluctuations in the Rayleigh signal. The amplitude fluctuations or coherent Rayleigh noise have been investigated experimentally as a function of detection bandwidth, source bandwidth and spatial resolution and showed good agreement with theory.

  16. Phonon anharmonicity in zirconium tungstate single crystal investigated by broadband light scattering (United States)

    Oishi, Eiichi; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Katayama, Daisuke; Koreeda, Akitoshi; Nagakubo, Akira; Ogi, Hirotsugu


    We measured light scattering in a single crystal of ZrW2O8 (ZWO) in the frequency range between 0.1 and 1100 cm-1 and in the temperature range between 3.5 and 300 K. From the temperature dependence of the optical and acoustic phonon frequencies, we found that low-frequency phonon modes below 100 cm-1 have large relative temperature coefficients (total anharmonicity values). The longitudinal acoustic mode, whose Brillouin light scattering has not been reported thus far, was found to have the largest negative total anharmonicity in a wide temperature range, indicating the possibility that the acoustic modes, as well as the low-frequency optical modes that are associated with the motions of WO4 and ZrO6 polyhedra, should contribute to the negative thermal expansion of ZWO.

  17. Light scattering by aggregated red blood cells (United States)

    Tsinopoulos, Stephanos V.; Sellountos, Euripides J.; Polyzos, Demosthenes


    In low flow rates, red blood cells (RBCs) fasten together along their axis of symmetry and form a so-called rouleaux. The scattering of He-Ne laser light by a rouleau consisting of n (2 less-than-or-equal n less-than-or-equal 8) average-sized RBCs is investigated. The interaction problem is treated numerically by means of an advanced axisymmetric boundary element--fast Fourier transform methodology. The scattering problem of one RBC was solved first, and the results showed that the influence of the RBC's membrane on the scattering patterns is negligible. Thus the rouleau is modeled as an axisymmetric, homogeneous, low-contrast dielectric cylinder, on the surface of which appears, owing to aggregated RBCs, a periodic roughness along the direction of symmetry. The direction of the incident laser light is considered to be perpendicular to the scatterer's axis of symmetry. The differential scattering cross sections in both perpendicular and parallel scattering planes and for all the scattering angles are calculated and presented in detail.

  18. Confocal light scattering and absorption spectroscopic microscopy (United States)

    Qiu, Le; Vitkin, Edward; Salahuddin, Saira; Zaman, Munir M.; Andersson, Charlotte; Freedman, Steven D.; Hanlon, Eugene B.; Itzkan, Irving; Perelman, Lev T.


    We have developed a novel optical method for observing submicron intracellular structures in living cells which is called confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic (CLASS) microscopy. It combines confocal microscopy, a well-established high-resolution microscopic technique, with light scattering spectroscopy (LSS). CLASS microscopy requires no exogenous labels and is capable of imaging and continuously monitoring individual viable cells, enabling the observation of cell and organelle functioning at scales on the order of 100 nm. In addition, it provides not only size information but also information about the biochemical and physical properties of the cell.

  19. Light scattering instrumentation for micro gravity research (United States)

    Wyatt, Philip J.


    The analysis of light scattered from an ensemble of particles has long been a preferred method for characterizing their physical properties. Instrumentation to perform the measurements which forms the basis for such analysis is available in many forms based upon a variety of different experimental techniques. A system is presented which is singularly applicable for making many types of measurements in a microgravity environment. The commercial version of this device, the DAWN-F, has been used in many labs throughout the world to perform analyses of particular importance for both research and production. Light scattering theory is reviewed and the structure and function of the system is described.

  20. Higher moments of scattered light fields by heterodyne analysis (United States)

    Harris, M.; Paerson, G. N.; Hill, C. A.; Vaughan, J. M.


    A simple scattering experiment employing heterodyne detection and operating in Gaussian scattering regime (with large number of illuminated independent scatterers) is shown to yield experimental values of higher-order moments of scattered light intensity distribution in agreement with theoretical predictions. This permits assessment of Gaussian behavior. Laser light scattering from a rotating glass screen is used in the study.

  1. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M


    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  2. Light Scattering Tools for Cosmic Dust Modeling (United States)

    Il'in, V. B.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Farafonov, V. G.; Henning, Th.; Perelman, A. Ya.

    Because cosmic dust grains vary significantly in both morphology and chemical composition, it is necessary to develop different light scattering tools to analyze their scattering properties and to reconcile these properties with observations. We present a set of recently developed tools which includes a database of optical constants of materials of astronomical interest, exact and approximate methods and numerical codes using various models of a non-spherical inhomogeneous scatterer, a database of optical properties of non-spherical particles, a new approach to find a solution of ill-posed inverse problems in optics, and an original polarized radiation-transfer code applicable to 3D media populated by aligned non-spherical scatterers.

  3. Mechanical spectra of glass-forming liquids. II. Gigahertz-frequency longitudinal and shear acoustic dynamics in glycerol and DC704 studied by time-domain Brillouin scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klieber, Christoph; Hecksher, Tina; Pezeril, Thomas


    of the frequency dependence of the speed of sound and the sound-wave attenuation. When the data are converted into mechanical moduli, a linear relationship between longitudinal and shear acoustic moduli is revealed, which is consistent with the generalized Cauchy relation. In glycerol, the temperature dependence......This paper presents and discusses the temperature and frequency dependence of the longitudinal and shear viscoelastic response at MHz and GHz frequencies of the intermediate glass former glycerol and the fragile glass former tetramethyl-tetraphenyl-trisiloxane (DC704). Measurements were performed...... using the recently developed time-domain Brillouin scattering technique, in which acoustic waves are generated optically, propagated through nm thin liquid layers of different thicknesses, and detected optically after transmission into a transparent detection substrate. This allows for a determination...

  4. Light-like scattering in quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J. [Niels Bohr International Academy & Discovery Center, Niels Bohr Institute,University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen Ø, DK-2100 (Denmark); Donoghue, John F. [Department of Physics-LGRT, University of Massachusetts,Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States); Holstein, Barry R. [Department of Physics-LGRT, University of Massachusetts,Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA, 93016 (United States); Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre [CEA, DSM, Institut de Physique Théorique, IPhT, CNRS MPPU, URA2306,Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, F-91191 (France)


    We consider scattering in quantum gravity and derive long-range classical and quantum contributions to the scattering of light-like bosons and fermions (spin-0, spin-(1/2), spin-1) from an external massive scalar field, such as the Sun or a black hole. This is achieved by treating general relativity as an effective field theory and identifying the non-analytic pieces of the one-loop gravitational scattering amplitude. It is emphasized throughout the paper how modern amplitude techniques, involving spinor-helicity variables, unitarity, and squaring relations in gravity enable much simplified computations. We directly verify, as predicted by general relativity, that all classical effects in our computation are universal (in the context of matter type and statistics). Using an eikonal procedure we confirm the post-Newtonian general relativity correction for light-like bending around large stellar objects. We also comment on treating effects from quantum ℏ dependent terms using the same eikonal method.

  5. Dynamic light scattering study of microemulsion (United States)

    Sharifi, Soheil; Alavi, Alireza


    Brownian motion is a subject of renewed interest since the development of photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) in the last decade. The dynamic properties of microemulsions and colloidal systems are studied by measuring the relaxation of concentration fluctuations. The mixture of C12E5nanoemulsion with PEG have been studied by small-angle X-ray scattering and dynamic light scattering in order to determine structure and dynamic of the system. Light scattering experiment shown an exponential relaxation for pure C12E5 nanoemulsion that the shape of the relaxation change with increasing of polymer concentration in the C12E5 nanoemulsion, that relaxation becomes non-exponential, which demonstrates increase of cooperatively in the C12E5 nanoemulsion.

  6. Light Scattering based detection of food pathogens (United States)

    The current methods for detecting foodborne pathogens are mostly destructive (i.e., samples need to be pretreated), and require time, personnel, and laboratories for analyses. Optical methods including light scattering based techniques have gained a lot of attention recently due to its their rapid a...

  7. Protoplanetary disks and exoplanets in scattered light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, T.


    High-contrast imaging facilitates the direct detection of protoplanetary disks in scattered light and self-luminous exoplanets on long-period orbits. The combined power of extreme adaptive optics and differential imaging techniques delivers high spatial resolution images of disk morphologies down to

  8. Aerosol light-scattering in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, H.M. ten; Veefkind, J.P.; Waijers-IJpelaan, A.; Hage, J.C. van der


    The relation between the (midday) aerosol light-scattering and the concentrations of nitrate and sulfate has been assessed at a site near the coast of the North Sea in The Netherlands. Midday was selected for the measurements because this is the time at which the aerosol is most effective in the

  9. Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering in Ophthalmology (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.

    The eye is not just a "window to the soul"; it can also be a "window to the human body." The eye is built like a camera. Light which travels from the cornea to the retina traverses through tissues that are representative of nearly every tissue type and fluid type in the human body. Therefore, it is possible to diagnose ocular and systemic diseases through the eye. Quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) also known as dynamic light scattering (DLS) is a laboratory technique routinely used in the characterization of macromolecular dispersions. QELS instrumentation has now become more compact, sensitive, flexible, and easy to use. These developments have made QELS/DLS an important tool in ophthalmic research where disease can be detected early and noninvasively before the clinical symptoms appear.

  10. Probing colloidal particle aggregation by light scattering. (United States)

    Trefalt, Gregor; Szilagyi, Istvan; Oncsik, Tamas; Sadeghpour, Amin; Borkovec, Michal


    The present article reviews recent progress in the measurement of aggregation rates in colloidal suspensions by light scattering. Time-resolved light scattering offers the possibility to measure absolute aggregation rate constants for homoaggregation as well as heteroaggregation processes. We further discuss the typical concentration dependencies of the aggregation rate constants on additives. Addition of simple salts containing monovalent counterions leads to screening of the electrostatic repulsion of the charged particles and a transition from slow to rapid aggregation. Addition of salts containing multivalent counterions may lead to a charge reversal, which results in a sequence of two instability regions. Heteroaggregation rates between oppositely charged particles decrease with increasing salt level. This decrease is caused by screening of the electrostatic attraction between these particles.

  11. Laser Light Scattering by Shock Waves (United States)

    Panda, J.; Adamovsky, G.


    Scattering of coherent light as it propagates parallel to a shock wave, formed in front of a bluff cylindrical body placed in a supersonic stream, is studied experimentally and numerically. Two incident optical fields are considered. First, a large diameter collimated beam is allowed to pass through the shock containing flow. The light intensity distribution in the resultant shadowgraph image, measured by a low light CCD camera, shows well-defined fringes upstream and downstream of the shadow cast by the shock. In the second situation, a narrow laser beam is brought to a grazing incidence on the shock and the scattered light, which appears as a diverging sheet from the point of interaction, is visualized and measured on a screen placed normal to the laser path. Experiments are conducted on shocks formed at various free-stream Mach numbers, M, and total pressures, P(sub 0). It is found that the widths of the shock shadows in a shadowgraph image become independent of M and P(sub 0) when plotted against the jump in the refractive index, (Delta)n, created across the shock. The total scattered light measured from the narrow laser beam and shock interaction also follows the same trend. In the numerical part of the study, the shock is assumed to be a 'phase object', which introduces phase difference between the upstream and downstream propagating parts of the light disturbances. For a given shape and (Delta)n of the bow shock the phase and amplitude modulations are first calculated by ray tracing. The wave front is then propagated to the screen using the Fresnet diffraction equation. The calculated intensity distribution, for both of the incident optical fields, shows good agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products (United States)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie


    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  13. Theory of diffusive light scattering cancellation cloaking

    CERN Document Server

    Farhat, Mohamed; Guenneau, Sebastien; Bagci, Hakan; Salama, Khaled Nabil; Alu, Andrea


    We report on a new concept of cloaking objects in diffusive light regime using the paradigm of the scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking techniques. We show numerically that an object can be made completely invisible to diffusive photon density waves, by tailoring the diffusivity constant of the spherical shell enclosing the object. This means that photons' flow outside the object and the cloak made of these spherical shells behaves as if the object were not present. Diffusive light invisibility may open new vistas in hiding hot spots in infrared thermography or tissue imaging.

  14. Color stimuli perception in presence of light scattering


    OZONLINSH, Maris; Ikaunieks, Gatis; Karitans, Varis; Colomb, Michèle


    Perception of different color contrast stimuli was studied in the presence of light scattering: in a fog chamber in Clermont-Ferrand and in laboratory conditions where light scattering of similar levels was obtained, using different light scattering eye occluders. Blue (shortest wavelength) light is scattered in fog to the greatest extent, causing deterioration of vision quality especially for the monochromatic blue stimuli.However, for the color stimuli presented on a white backgrou...

  15. ATLAS Event Display: Light-by-Light Scattering

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration


    An event display of light-by-light scattering in ultra-peripheral lead+lead collisions at 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The event 461251458 from run 287931 recorded on 13 December 2015 at 09:51:07 is shown. Two back-to-back photons with an invariant mass of 24 GeV with no additional activity in the detector are presented. All calorimeter cells with E>500 MeV are shown.

  16. Light scattering of thin azobenzene side-chain polyester layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Á.; Lörincz, E.; Ramanujam, P.S.


    Light scattering properties of liquid crystalline and amorphous azobenzene side-chain polyester layers used for optical data storage were examined by means of transmissive scatterometry. Comparative experiments show that the amorphous polyester has significantly lower light scattering characteris...... for the domain size in thin liquid crystalline polyester layers being responsible for the dominant light scattering. The characteristic domain Sizes obtained from the Fourier transformation of polarization microscopic Pictures confirm these values.......Light scattering properties of liquid crystalline and amorphous azobenzene side-chain polyester layers used for optical data storage were examined by means of transmissive scatterometry. Comparative experiments show that the amorphous polyester has significantly lower light scattering...... characteristics than the liquid crystalline polyester. The amorphous samples have negligible polarization part orthogonal to the incident beam. the liquid crystalline samples have relative high orthogonal polarization part in light scattering, The light scattering results can be used to give a lower limit...

  17. Elastic properties of nc-TiN /a-Si3N4 and nc-TiN /a-BN nanocomposite films by surface Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Manghnani, Murli H.; Tkachev, Sergey N.; Zinin, Pavel V.; Glorieoux, Christ; Karvankova, Pavla; Veprek, Stan


    The hardness of nanocomposite (nc) films developed recently appears to reach the hardness of diamond. High hardness is commonly attributed to the granular structure of nanocomposites (Hall-Petch effect) [E. O. Hall, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. B 64, 747 (1951); N. J. Petch, J. Iron Steel Inst. 174, 25 (1953)]. However, grain size in nanocomposites is generally small (5-15nm) and falls in the region where the Hall-Petch effect does not apply. The objective of the present study is to report the elastic properties of the superhard nanocomposites determined by means of surface Brillouin scattering (SBS), and to compare the results with those obtained by nanoindentation. Two types of nanocomposite films were studied: nc-TiN /a-Si3N4 and nc-TiN /a-BN. The SBS measurements presented yield values of Young's modulus significantly larger than those obtained from the slope of unloading indentation curve. This discrepancy is attributed to the lack of the validity of the assumptions behind the Sneddon's derivation of the formula used for the calculation of the Young's modulus from the indentation data.

  18. A Brillouin scattering study of hydrous basaltic glasses: the effect of H2O on their elastic behavior and implications for the densities of basaltic melts (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Yang, De-Bin; Liu, Jun-Xiu; Hu, Bo; Xie, Hong-Sen; Li, Fang-Fei; Yu, Yang; Xu, Wen-Liang; Gao, Chun-Xiao


    Hydrous basalt glasses with water contents of 0-6.82% were synthesized using a multi-anvil press at 1.0-2.0 GPa and 1200-1400 °C. The starting materials were natural Mesozoic basalts from the eastern North China Craton (NCC). Their sound velocities and elastic properties were measured by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. The longitudinal ( V P) and shear ( V S) wave velocities decreased with increasing water content. Increasing the synthesis pressure resulted in the glass becoming denser, and finally led to an increase in V P. As the degree of depolymerization increased, the V P, V S, and shear and bulk moduli of the hydrous basalt glasses decreased, whereas the adiabatic compressibility increased. The partial molar volumes of water (ν) under ambient conditions were independent of composition, having values of 11.6 ± 0.8, 10.9 ± 0.6 and 11.5 ± 0.5 cm3/mol for the FX (Feixian), FW (Fuxin), and SHT (Sihetun) basalt glasses, respectively. However, the {{V}_{{{{H}}_{{2}}}{O}}} values measured at elevated temperatures and pressures are increasing with increasing temperature or decreasing pressure. The contrasting densities of these hydrous basalt melts with those previously reported for mid-ocean ridge basalt and preliminary reference Earth model data indicate that hydrous basalt melts may not maintain gravitational stability at the base of the upper mantle.

  19. Fourier transform light scattering angular spectroscopy using digital inline holography. (United States)

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, YongKeun


    A simple and practical method for measuring the angle-resolved light scattering (ARLS) from individual objects is reported. Employing the principle of inline holography and a Fourier transform light scattering technique, both the static and dynamic scattering patterns from individual micrometer-sized objects can be effectively and quantitatively obtained. First, the light scattering measurements were performed on individual polystyrene beads, from which the refractive index and diameter of each bead were retrieved. Also, the measurements of the static and dynamic light scattering from intact human red blood cells are demonstrated. Using the present method, an existing microscope can be directly transformed into a precise instrument for ARLS measurements.

  20. Looking for Dust-Scattering Light Echoes (United States)

    Mills, Brianna; Heinz, Sebastian; Corrales, Lia


    Galactic X-ray transient sources such as neutron stars or black holes sometimes undergo an outburst in X-rays. Ring structures have been observed around three such sources, produced by the X-ray photons being scattered by interstellar dust grains along our line of sight. These dust-scattering light echoes have proven to be a useful tool for measuring and constraining Galactic distances, mapping the dust structure of the Milky Way, and determining the dust composition in the clouds producing the echo. Detectable light echoes require a sufficient quantity of dust along our line of sight, as well as bright, short-lived Galactic X-ray flares. Using data from the Monitor of All-Sky X-ray Image (MAXI) on-board the International Space Station, we ran a peak finding algorithm in Python to look for characteristic flare events. Each flare was characterized by its fluence, the integrated flux of the flare over time. We measured the distribution of flare fluences to show how many observably bright flares were recorded by MAXI. This work provides a parent set for dust echo searches in archival X-ray data and will inform observing strategies with current and future X-ray missions such as Athena and Lynx.

  1. On stimulated scattering of laser light in inertial fusion energy targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, Lj [National Inst. for Fusion Science, The Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Skoric, M.M. [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Ishiguro, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Theory and Computer Simulation Center, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Sato, T. [JAMSTEC, Earth Simulator Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)


    Propagation of a laser light through regions of an underdense plasma is an active research topic in laser fusion. In particular, a large effort has been invested in studies of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) which can reflect laser energy and produce energetic particles to preheat a fusion energy target. Experiments, theory and simulations agree on a complex interplay between various laser-plasma instabilities. By particle-in-cell simulations of an underdense electron-plasma, we have found, apart from the standard SRS, a strong backscattering near the electron plasma frequency at densities beyond the quarter critical. This novel instability, recognized in recent experiments as stimulated laser scattering on a trapped electron-acoustic mode (SEAS), is absent from a classical theory of laser-parametric instabilities. A parametric excitation of SEAS instability, is explained by a three-wave resonant decay of the incident laser light into a standing backscattered wave and a slow trapped electron acoustic wave ({omega} < {omega}{sub p}). Large SEAS pulsations, eventually suppressed by relativistic heating of electrons, are observed in our simulations. This phenomenon seems relevant to future hohlraum target and fast ignition experiments. (author)

  2. Fourier-transform light scattering of individual colloidal clusters. (United States)

    Yu, HyeonSeung; Park, HyunJoo; Kim, Youngchan; Kim, Mahn Won; Park, YongKeun


    We present measurements of the scalar-field light scattering of individual dimer, trimer, and tetrahedron shapes among colloidal clusters. By measuring the electric field with quantitative phase imaging at the sample plane and then numerically propagating to the far-field scattering plane, the two-dimensional light-scattering patterns from individual colloidal clusters are effectively and precisely retrieved. The measured scattering patterns are consistent with simulated patterns calculated from the generalized multiparticle Mie solution.

  3. Factors affecting intraocular light scattering from different color straylight sources (United States)

    Ikaunieks, Gatis; Ozolinsh, Maris


    Important optical parameter of the eye is intraocular light scattering. Straylight can reduce visual acuity, contrast sensitivity. It is one of the main factors for glare, especially for drivers at night, when there is light source some distance away from the fixation point. There are many factors, which can affect amount of light scattering in the eye. To assess the effect of the color of the straylight source on retinal image quality at different light scattering levels, retinal straylight was measured with and without light scattering occluder. Red, green and blue colors were choosed for straylight source. Psychophysical and electrophysiological methods were used to evaluate light scattering effect on perception on different color stimuli. Results show that straylight values are the greatest for blue color with and without light scattering occluder. In measurements without light scattering occluder ratio of straylight values for red and green color are different between subjects. Using light scattering occluder straylight values for green color are greater than for red color. Optical and anatomical factors which can induce these spectral variations are discussed. Psychophysical and electrophysiological methods showed the similar changes in results with straylight values when light scattering were increased.

  4. Angle-resolved light scattering of individual rod-shaped bacteria based on Fourier transform light scattering (United States)

    Jo, Youngju; Jung, Jaehwang; Lee, Jee Woong; Shin, Della; Park, Hyunjoo; Nam, Ki Tae; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, Yongkeun


    Two-dimensional angle-resolved light scattering maps of individual rod-shaped bacteria are measured at the single-cell level. Using quantitative phase imaging and Fourier transform light scattering techniques, the light scattering patterns of individual bacteria in four rod-shaped species (Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus casei, Synechococcus elongatus, and Escherichia coli) are measured with unprecedented sensitivity in a broad angular range from -70° to 70°. The measured light scattering patterns are analyzed along the two principal axes of rod-shaped bacteria in order to systematically investigate the species-specific characteristics of anisotropic light scattering. In addition, the cellular dry mass of individual bacteria is calculated and used to demonstrate that the cell-to-cell variations in light scattering within bacterial species is related to the cellular dry mass and growth.

  5. Angle-resolved light scattering of individual rod-shaped bacteria based on Fourier transform light scattering. (United States)

    Jo, YoungJu; Jung, JaeHwang; Lee, Jee Woong; Shin, Della; Park, HyunJoo; Nam, Ki Tae; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, YongKeun


    Two-dimensional angle-resolved light scattering maps of individual rod-shaped bacteria are measured at the single-cell level. Using quantitative phase imaging and Fourier transform light scattering techniques, the light scattering patterns of individual bacteria in four rod-shaped species (Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus casei, Synechococcus elongatus, and Escherichia coli) are measured with unprecedented sensitivity in a broad angular range from -70° to 70°. The measured light scattering patterns are analyzed along the two principal axes of rod-shaped bacteria in order to systematically investigate the species-specific characteristics of anisotropic light scattering. In addition, the cellular dry mass of individual bacteria is calculated and used to demonstrate that the cell-to-cell variations in light scattering within bacterial species is related to the cellular dry mass and growth.

  6. Modeling fluorescent light distributions in scattering media (United States)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Jacques, Steven L.


    It is hoped that the non-invasive optical characterization of physiological features of normal and diseased epithelia can be assessed through the fluorescent emission of such tissues. With a high percentage of cancers arising in the epithelium, the characterization of carcinogenesis in such tissues is imperative. Fluorescent emission from the epithelium, e.g. oral mucosa, has been shown to be sensitive to physiological features, such as cellular morphology, and the amount and types of biochemical agents present in the tissue. Efforts to distinguish the spectral signatures of diseased and healthy states of tissues from fluorescence have been confounded by the distortion of the intrinsic fluorescent signature as a result of wavelength dependent absorption and scattering within the tissue. Theoretical models of light propagation in biological media are required for understanding the distortion of the intrinsic fluorescence arising from compromised tissues. In this work we model the distortion of the intrinsic fluorescence emitted from a tissue with wavelength dependent optical properties, arising from varying blood and water content, using the radiative transport equation. As an example, we demonstrate the ability of blood and water content to distort the signal of a white light source as it is embedded deeper into a tissue.

  7. Fundamentals of ophthalmic diagnostical methods based on laser light scattering (United States)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Semyonova, Tatjana N.; Tatarintsev, Sergey N.; Babkova, N. L.


    The basic principles of light scattering methods which should be very useful for ophthalmic disease diagnostics and monitoring are discussed. As an example a human eye lens tissue was considered. Angular-dependent scattering spectra and scattering matrix elements M12, M33, M34 and M44 are suggested as informative parameters for eye lens aging and cataract monitoring.

  8. Light scattering studies on solutions containing calcium phosphates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, T.P.; Bruyn, P.L. de

    A number of light scattering experiments was performed on calcium and phosphate containing solutions at pH 8.33 and 26°C. Supplementary information was obtained by means of dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The measurements prove that

  9. Study of erythrocyte membrane fluctuation using light scattering analysis (United States)

    Lee, Hoyoon; Lee, Sangyun; Park, YongKeun; Shin, Sehyun


    It is commonly known that alteration of erythrocyte deformability lead to serious microcirculatory diseases such as retinopathy, nephropathy, etc. Various methods and technologies have been developed to diagnose such membrane properties of erythrocytes. In this study, we developed an innovative method to measure hemorheological characteristics of the erythrocyte membrane using a light scattering analysis with simplified optic setting and multi-cell analysis as well. Light scattering intensity through multiple erythrocytes and its power density spectrum were obtained. The results of light scattering analyses were compared in healthy control and artificially hardened sample which was treated with glutaraldehyde. These results were further compared with conventional assays to measure deformable property in hemorheology. We found that light scattering information would reflect the disturbance of membrane fluctuation in artificially damaged erythrocytes. Therefore, measuring fluctuation of erythrocyte membrane using light scattering signal could facilitate simple and precise diagnose of pathological state on erythrocyte as well as related complications.

  10. Picosecond ultrasonics in single cells: Interface step motion for thin animal cells and Brillouin scattering for thick vegetal cells (United States)

    Ducousso, M.; Dehoux, T.; Audoin, B.; Zouani, O.; Chollet, C.; Durrieu, M. C.


    The measurement of the mechanical properties of single biological cells using a picosecond laser-ultrasonic method is proposed. A pump-probe set-up based on ultrafast laser (100 fs pulses) is used to generate and detect acoustic frequencies in the GHz range in a cell on a metallic substrate. The time resolution is about 1 ps and the laser focusing allows a 1 μm lateral resolution. We carry out experiments in both animal and vegetal cells. A semi-analytical simulation model of the physical phenomena involved in experiments is presented. The coupled heat and stress equations are solved including a thermal boundary resistance at the cell/substrate interface and strong acoustic absorption. The optical detection resulting from the interaction between the acoustic wave and the laser light is also modelled. Simulations allow the analysis of experimental signals in both vegetal and animal cells. The results support the potentialities of the non-invasive technique for bioengineering and medical applications.

  11. Picosecond ultrasonics in single cells: Interface step motion for thin animal cells and Brillouin scattering for thick vegetal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducousso, M; Dehoux, T; Audoin, B [Universite de Bordeaux, CNRS, UMR 5469, Talence, F-33405 (France); Zouani, O; Chollet, C; Durrieu, M C, E-mail: [Universite de Bordeaux, INSERM, U 577, Bordeaux, F-33000 (France)


    The measurement of the mechanical properties of single biological cells using a picosecond laser-ultrasonic method is proposed. A pump-probe set-up based on ultrafast laser (100 fs pulses) is used to generate and detect acoustic frequencies in the GHz range in a cell on a metallic substrate. The time resolution is about 1 ps and the laser focusing allows a 1 {mu}m lateral resolution. We carry out experiments in both animal and vegetal cells. A semi-analytical simulation model of the physical phenomena involved in experiments is presented. The coupled heat and stress equations are solved including a thermal boundary resistance at the cell/substrate interface and strong acoustic absorption. The optical detection resulting from the interaction between the acoustic wave and the laser light is also modelled. Simulations allow the analysis of experimental signals in both vegetal and animal cells. The results support the potentialities of the non-invasive technique for bioengineering and medical applications.

  12. Positron Production in Multiphoton Light-by-Light Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffas, Thomas


    We present the results of an experimental study on e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production during the collision of a low emittance 46.6 GeV electron beam with terawatt laser pulses from a Nd:glass laser at 527 nm wavelength and with linear polarization. The experiment was conducted at the Final Focus Test Beam facility in the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Results with a 49.1 GeV electron beam are also included. A signal of 106 {+-} 14 positrons for the 46.6 GeV electron beam case and of 22 {+-} 10 positrons for the 49.1 GcV case above background, has been detected. We interpret the positrons as the products of a two-step process during which laser photons are backscattered to high energy gamma photons that absorb in their turn several laser photons in order to produce a e{sup +}e{sup -} pair. The data compare well with the existing theoretical models. This is the first observation in the laboratory of inelastic Light-by-Light scattering with only real photons. Alternatively, the data are interpreted as a manifestation of the spontaneous breakdown of the vacuum under the influence of an intense external alternating electric field.

  13. Evaluation of aggregate stability of Haplic Stagnosols using dynamic light scattering, phase analysis light scattering and color coordinates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Artemyeva, Z.; Žigová, Anna; Kirillova, N.; Šťastný, Martin; Holubík, O.; Podrázký, V.


    Roč. 63, č. 13 (2017), s. 1838-1851 ISSN 0365-0340 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : land use * aggregate stability * organo- clay complexes * dynamic light scattering * phase analysis light scattering * color coordinates Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 2.137, year: 2016

  14. Stimulated Raman scattering excited by incoherent light in plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhao


    Full Text Available Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS excited by incoherent light is studied via particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that a large bandwidth of incoherent light can reduce the growth of SRS and electron heating considerably in the linear stage. However, different components of the incoherent light can be coupled by the Langmuir waves, so that stimulated Raman backward scattering can develop. When the bandwidth of incoherent light is larger than the Langmuir wave frequency, forward SRS can be seeded between different components of the incoherent light. The incoherent light can only increase the time duration for nonlinear saturation but cannot diminish the saturation level obviously.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 juin 2012 ... dynamic instability arising in a fiber lasers as a consequence of Brillouin effect. The effect of Brillouin back scattering is theoretically analysed by two-coupled modes laser model. We consider the Fabry-Perot fiber ..... pumped high power fiber lasers. Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics & Materials. 2009 ...

  16. Cascaded Brillouin lasing in monolithic barium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Guoping; Saleh, Khaldoun; Martinenghi, Romain; Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Sylvestre, Thibaut; Chembo, Yanne K


    We report the observation of stimulated Brillouin scattering and lasing at 1550~nm in barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) crystal. Brillouin lasing was achieved with ultra-high quality ($Q$) factor monolithic whispering gallery mode (WGM) mm-size disk resonators. Overmoded resonators were specifically used to provide cavity resonances for both the pump and all Brillouin Stokes waves. Single and multiple Brillouin Stokes radiations with frequency shift ranging from $8.2$ GHz up to $49$ GHz have been generated through cascaded Brillouin lasing. BaF$_2$ resonator-based Brillouin lasing can find potential applications for high-coherence lasers and microwave photonics.

  17. Absorption and scattering of light by small particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bohren, Craig F


    Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles. Treating absorption and scattering in equal measure, this self-contained, interdisciplinary study examines and illustrates how small particles absorb and scatter light. The authors emphasize that any discussion of the optical behavior of small particles is inseparable from a full understanding of the optical behavior of the parent material-bulk matter. To divorce one concept from the other is to render any study on scattering theory seriously incomplete. Special features and important topics covered in this book include:. * Classical theor

  18. Light scattering by nonspherical particles theory, measurements, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mishchenko, Michael I; Travis, Larry D


    There is hardly a field of science or engineering that does not have some interest in light scattering by small particles. For example, this subject is important to climatology because the energy budget for the Earth's atmosphere is strongly affected by scattering of solar radiation by cloud and aerosol particles, and the whole discipline of remote sensing relies largely on analyzing the parameters of radiation scattered by aerosols, clouds, and precipitation. The scattering of light by spherical particles can be easily computed using the conventional Mie theory. However, most small solid part

  19. Investigation of the effect of scattering agent and scattering albedo on modulated light propagation in water. (United States)

    Mullen, Linda; Alley, Derek; Cochenour, Brandon


    A recent paper described experiments completed to study the effect of scattering on the propagation of modulated light in laboratory tank water [Appl. Opt.48, 2607 (2009)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.48.002607]. Those measurements were limited to a specific scattering agent (Maalox antacid) with a fixed scattering albedo (0.95). The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of different scattering agents and scattering albedos on modulated light propagation in water. The results show that the scattering albedo affects the number of attenuation lengths that the modulated optical signal propagates without distortion, while the type of scattering agent affects the degree to which the modulation is distorted with increasing attenuation length. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  20. Monte Carlo, small angle light scattering, and dynamic light scattering studies of dilute polymer solutions (United States)

    McNamara, Joseph E.

    The adsorption of negatively charged polymer, negative/neutral block copolymer and a polyampholyte to patterned surfaces is investigated using off-lattice Monte Carlo simulations. The surface is decorated by stripe and checkerboard patterns of mixed charges. The polymer has periodic charge segments, which potentially match the periodicity of the surface pattern. Results show that the chain entropy of a flexible polymer disrupts and prevents full pattern recognition. Quantities such as average adsorption energy and the radii of gyration of the adsorbed polymer are calculated and found to be dictated by the size of the surface pattern and its correlation to the polymer charge density. We performed small angle light scattering on dilute-solution-grown polyethylene crystals grown from quenches in para-xylene. The quench depths ranged from 60 to 85°C for 0.05 wt.% and 0.1 wt.% linear-low-polydispersity polyethylenes. We found asymmetric scattering patterns for the lower temperature quenches to 65°C, and symmetric scattering patterns for the higher temperature quenches to 80°C. There is a smooth transition from asymmetric to symmetric scattering as we change the quench depth. The correlation lengths d=2pi/qmax corresponding to the peaks of intensity versus q ranged from 15 to 30 mum. We find evidence that these length scales correspond to assemblies of single polyethylene crystals. Also, we have performed dynamic light scattering on solutions of sodium-poly(styrene-sulfonate) (NaPSS) and poly(ethylene-oxide) (PEO) in water with BaCl2. The fast mode ( Dfast) and slow mode (Dslow) diffusion coefficients were measured as a function of polymer concentration for both polymers in dilute solution. We found that the diffusion coefficients remained relatively constant in the concentration regimes investigated and Dfast and Dslow for both polymers differed by about 1½ orders of magnitude: 1.1 x 10-6 cm2/s versus 7.8 x 10-8 cm2/s for NaPSS and 6.7 x 10-7 cm2/s versus 4.2 x 10

  1. Light scattering by particles in water theoretical and experimental foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasz, Miroslaw


    Light scattering-based methods are used to characterize small particles suspended in water in a wide range of disciplines ranging from oceanography, through medicine, to industry. The scope and accuracy of these methods steadily increases with the progress in light scattering research. This book focuses on the theoretical and experimental foundations of the study and modeling of light scattering by particles in water and critically evaluates the key constraints of light scattering models. It begins with a brief review of the relevant theoretical fundamentals of the interaction of light with condensed matter, followed by an extended discussion of the basic optical properties of pure water and seawater and the physical principles that explain them. The book continues with a discussion of key optical features of the pure water/seawater and the most common components of natural waters. In order to clarify and put in focus some of the basic physical principles and most important features of the experimental data o...

  2. Dynamic stimulated Brillouin scattering analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djupsöbacka, A.; Jacobsen, Gunnar; Tromborg, Bjarne


    We present a new simple analysis - including the effect of spontaneous emission - of the (dynamic) influence of SBS on the detected receiver eye diagram. It applies in principle for general types of modulation formats such as the digital formats of ASK, FSK, and PSK. The analysis is formulated...

  3. Light Scattering by Optically Soft Particles Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Subodh K


    The present monograph deals with a particular class of approximation methods in the context of light scattering by small particles. This class of approximations has been termed as eikonal or soft particle approximations. The eikonal approximation was studied extensively in the potential scattering and then adopted in optical scattering problems. In this context, the eikonal and other soft particle approximations pertain to scatterers whose relative refractive index compared to surrounding medium is close to unity. The study of these approximations is very important because soft particles occur abundantly in nature. For example, the particles that occur in ocean optics, biomedical optics, atmospheric optics and in many industrial applications can be classified as soft particles. This book was written in recognition of the long-standing and current interest in the field of scattering approximations for soft particles. It should prove to be a useful addition for researchers in the field of light scattering.

  4. Novel Quantum Effects in Light Scattering from Cold Trapped Atoms (United States)

    Orlowski, A.; Gajda, M.; Krekora, P.; Glauber, R. J.; Mostowski, J.

    Both far off-resonance and resonant scattering of light from single atoms trapped by 3D harmonic potentials has thoroughly been studied. Novel effects are predicted for different physical regimes. We have shown that dynamics of the atomic center-of-mass strongly influences the scattering cross section. Possibility of using spectrum of the scattered light in far-off-resonance regime to nondestructively measure the temperature of ultracold atoms is advocated: off-resonance scattering can be used as an `optical thermometer'. The realistic Compton-like regime in resonant scattering has been investigated in detail. Another interesting quantum effect in resonant regime, which has not been discussed here due to the lack of space, is the time resolved scattering, showing up when the atom can remain in the excited state long enough to make many trips back and forth in the trap before emitting a photon. The possibility of the experimental observation of the predicted effects is now being scrutinized.

  5. Interactive directional subsurface scattering and transport of emergent light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Mosegaard, Jesper


    need to store elements of irradiance from specific directions. To include changes in subsurface scattering due to changes in the direction of the incident light, we instead sample incident radiance and store scattered radiosity. This enables us to accommodate not only the common distance......-based analytical models for subsurface scattering but also directional models. In addition, our method enables easy extraction of virtual point lights for transporting emergent light to the rest of the scene. Our method requires neither preprocessing nor texture parameterization of the translucent objects....... To build our maps of scattered radiosity, we progressively render the model from different directions using an importance sampling pattern based on the optical properties of the material. We obtain interactive frame rates, our subsurface scattering results are close to ground truth, and our technique...

  6. Characterization of Platelet Concentrates Using Dynamic Light Scattering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Labrie, Audrey; Marshall, Andrea; Bedi, Harjot; Maurer-Spurej, Elisabeth


    .... ThromboLUX is a non-invasive, optical test utilizing dynamic light scattering to characterize a platelet sample by the relative quantity of platelets, microparticles, and other particles present in the sample...

  7. Light scattering from polymer solutions and nanoparticle dispersions

    CERN Document Server

    Schärtl, Wolfgang; Janca, Josef


    Light scattering is a very powerful method to characterize the structure of polymers and nanoparticles in solution. Recent technical developments have strongly enhanced the possible applications of this technique, overcoming previous limitations like sample turbidity or insufficient experimental time scales. However, despite their importance, these new developments have not yet been presented in a comprehensive form. In addition, and maybe even more important to the broad audience, there lacks a simple-to-read textbook for students and non-experts interested in the basic principles and fundamental techniques of light scattering. As part of the Springer Laboratory series, this book tries not only to provide such a simple-to-read and illustrative textbook about the seemingly very complicated topic of light scattering from polymers and nanoparticles in dilute solution, but also intends to cover some of the newest technical developments in experimental light scattering.

  8. Angular resolved light scattering microscopy on human chromosomes (United States)

    Müller, Dennis; Stark, Julian; Kienle, Alwin


    Angular resolved scattering light measurements on chromosomes are compared to Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) simulations using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) based geometrical models. This could present a novel, marker-free method for human chromosome karyotyping.

  9. Synthesis of aerogel tiles with high light scattering length

    CERN Document Server

    Danilyuk, A F; Okunev, A G; Onuchin, A P; Shaurman, S A


    The possibility of aerogel tiles production for RICH detectors is described. Monolithic blocks of silica aerogel were synthesized by two-step sol-gel processing of tetraethoxysilane Si(OEt) sub 4 followed by high temperature supercritical drying with organic solvent. The important characteristic of aerogel is the light scattering length. In the wide range of refraction indexes the light scattering length exceeds 4 cm at 400 nm.

  10. Scaling in light scattering by sharp conical metal tips

    CERN Document Server

    Pors, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I


    Using the electrostatic approximation, we analyze electromagnetic fields scattered by sharp conical metal tips, which are illuminated with light polarized along the tip axis. We establish scaling relations for the scattered field amplitude and phase, whose validity is verified with numerical simulations. Analytic expressions for the wavelength, at which the scattered field near the tip changes its direction, and field decay near the tip extremity are obtained, relating these characteristics to the cone angle and metal permittivity. The results obtained have important implications to various tip-enhanced phenomena, ranging from Raman and scattering near-field imaging to photoemission spectroscopy and nano-optical trapping.

  11. Application of light scattering to coatings a user's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Diebold, Michael P


    The book begins with the fundamentals of light scattering, first by individual particles, then by small groups of particles, and finally by the trillions of particles present in a real-life paint film. From there, Dr. Diebold focuses on application of these fundamentals to paint formulation. The scope includes both theory and practice with an emphasis on application (from both performance and cost standpoints). The book gives a clear understanding of light scattering principles and application of these principles to paint formulation (with a focus on TiO2 - the strongest scattering material a

  12. Backward elastic light scattering of malaria infected red blood cells (United States)

    Lee, Seungjun; Lu, Wei


    We investigated the backward light scattering pattern of healthy and malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) parasitized red blood cells. The spectrum could clearly distinguish between predominant ring stage infected blood cells and healthy blood cells. Further, we found that infected samples mixed with different stages of P. falciparum showed different signals, suggesting that even variance in parasite stages could also be detected by the spectrum. These results together with the backward scattering technique suggest the potential of non-invasive diagnosis of malaria through light scattering of blood cells near the surface of human body, such as using eyes or skin surface.

  13. Scattering of light from the liquid scintillator used in SNO+ (United States)

    Major, Timothy


    SNO+ is a double-beta decay experiment currently under construction in Sudbury, Ontario. It will contain approximately a kiloton of liquid scintillator loaded with a neodymium isotope that it is thought may undergo neutrinoless double-beta decay. To simulate events and to interpret data, it is important to understand how light scatters in the liquid scintillator, including the angular distribution of scattered photons. This talk will highlight the status of SNO+ and discuss a measurement of the distribution of scattered light from a sample of liquid scintillator.

  14. Early detection of precancer using Polarized Light Scattering Spectroscopy (United States)

    Gurjar, Rajan; Backman, Vadim; Itzkan, Irving; Dasari, Ramachandra; Perelman, Lev; Feld, Michael; Badizadegan, Kamran


    We have developed a light scattering technique to detect early pre-cancerous changes in the tissues which, line the epithelial surfaces of the body. The majority of cancers are epithelial in nature. We use light reflection spectroscopy to observe the earliest sign, the enlargement of the index of the cells which, line this layer. Our method is based on the feature that single scattering in the backward direction retains the polarization of the light incident on nucleus in the epithelial layer whereas multiple scattering destroys the polarization. Collecting the backscattering spectral intensities of both polarizations, and taking their difference, we extract the single scattering component. The signals are analyzed to extract the nuclear density, size and the relative refractive index. The experimental results will be presented to illustrate the physical basis of the technique, and its biological application.


    Gotterer, Gerald S.; Thompson, Thomas E.; Lehninger, Albert L.


    Angular light-scattering studies have been carried out on suspensions of isolated rat liver mitochondria. The angular scatter pattern has a large forward component, typical of large particles. Changes in dissymmetry and in the intensity of light scattered at 90° have been correlated with changes in optical density during the course of mitochondrial swelling and contraction. Such changes can be measured at mitochondrial concentrations much below those required for optical density measurements. Changes in mitochondrial geometry caused by factors "leaking" from mitochondria, not detectable by optical density measurements, have been demonstrated by measuring changes in dissymmetry. Angular light-scattering measurements therefore offer the advantages of increased sensitivity and of added indices of changes in mitochondrial conformation. PMID:19866589

  16. Characterization of light scattering in translucent ceramics (United States)

    Illarramendi, M. A.; Aramburu, I.; Fernandez, J.; Balda, R.; Williams, S. N.; Adegoke, J. A.; Noginov, M. A.


    We have obtained expressions for the reflectance and transmittance of a scattering medium with weak absorption in terms of a diffusion model, where the source is an incoming beam, whose intensity exponentially decays along the propagation path. We have applied three experimental techniques, one of which is based on the developed model, to determine the transport mean-free-path in translucent samples of Nd:YAG ceramics.

  17. Quantum noise frequency correlations of multiply scattered light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter


    Frequency correlations in multiply scattered light that are present in quantum fluctuations are investigated. The speckle correlations for quantum and classical noise are compared and are found to depend markedly differently on optical frequency, which was confirmed in a recent experiment....... Furthermore, novel mesoscopic correlations are predicted that depend on the photon statistics of the incoming light....

  18. Comparative Study of Light Scattering from Hepatoma Cells and Hepatocytes (United States)

    Lin, Xiaogang; Wang, Rongrong; Guo, Yongcai; Gao, Chao; Guo, Xiaoen


    Primary liver cancer is one of the highest mortality malignant tumors in the world. China is a high occurrence area of primary liver cancer. Diagnosis of liver cancer, especially early diagnosis, is essential for improving patients' survival. Light scattering and measuring method is an emerging technology developed in recent decades, which has attracted a large number of biomedical researchers due to its advantages, such as fast, simple, high accuracy, good repeatability, and non-destructive. The hypothesis of this project is that there may be some different light scattering information between hepatoma cells and hepatocyte. Combined with the advantages of the dynamic light scattering method and the biological cytology, an experimental scheme to measure the light scattering information of cells was formulated. Hepatoma cells and hepatic cells were irradiated by a semiconductor laser (532 nm). And the Brookhaven BI-200SM wide-angle light scattering device and temperature control apparatus were adopted. The light scattering information of hepatoma cells and hepatic cells in vitro within the 15°C to 30°C temperature range was processed by a BI-9000AT digital autocorrelator. The following points were found: (a) the scattering intensities of human hepatic cells and hepatoma cells are nearly not affected by the temperature factor, and the former is always greater than the latter and (b) the relaxation time of hepatoma cells is longer than that of hepatic cells, and both the relaxation time are shortened with increasing temperature from 15°C to 25°C. It can be concluded that hepatoma cells could absorb more incident light than hepatic cells. The reason may be that there exists more protein and nucleic acid in cancerous cells than normal cells. Furthermore, based on the length relaxation time, a conclusion can be inferred that the Brownian movement of cancer cells is greater.

  19. Optical memory effect from polarized Laguerre-Gaussian light beam in light-scattering turbid media (United States)

    Shumyatsky, Pavel; Milione, Giovanni; Alfano, Robert R.


    Propagation effects of polarized Laguerre-Gaussian light with different orbital angular momentum (L) in turbid media are described. The optical memory effect in scattering media consisting of small and large size (compared to the wavelength) scatterers is investigated for scattered polarized light. Imaging using polarized laser modes with a varying orbital strength L-parameter was performed. The backscattered image quality (contrast) was enhanced by more than an order of magnitude using circularly polarized light when the concentration of scatterers was close to invisibility of the object.

  20. Light Scattering by Surface Tension Waves. (United States)

    Weisbuch, G.; Garbay, F.


    This simple and inexpensive experiment is an illustration of the physical concepts of interaction between light and surface tension waves, and provides a new method of measuring surface tension. (Author/GA)

  1. Electrical generation of stationary light in random scattering media (United States)

    Redmond, S. M.; Armstrong, G. L.; Chan, H.-Y.; Mattson, E.; Mock, A.; Li, B.; Potts, J. R.; Cui, M.; Rand, S. C.; Oliveira, S. L.; Marchal, J.; Hinklin, T.; Laine, R. M.


    In recent years there has been great interest in controlling the speed of propagation of electromagnetic waves. In gases and crystals, coherent techniques have been applied to alter the speed of light without changing the physical or chemical structure of the medium. Also, light transmitted by highly disordered solids has exhibited signatures of Anderson localization, indicating the existence of a regime of ``stopped'' light that is mediated by random elastic scattering. However, to date, light has not been generated in a random medium as a pointlike excitation that is fixed in space from the outset. Here we report experimental evidence for the electrical generation and confinement of light within nanosized volumes of a random dielectric scattering medium in which a population inversion has been established, and discuss the properties of these novel light sources.

  2. Adenovirus Particle Quantification in Cell Lysates Using Light Scattering. (United States)

    Hohl, Adrian; Ramms, Anne Sophie; Dohmen, Christian; Mantwill, Klaus; Bielmeier, Andrea; Kolk, Andreas; Ruppert, Andreas; Nawroth, Roman; Holm, Per Sonne


    Adenoviral vector production for therapeutic applications is a well-established routine process. However, current methods for measurement of adenovirus particle titers as a quality characteristic require highly purified virus preparations. While purified virus is typically obtained in the last step of downstream purification, rapid and reliable methods for adenovirus particle quantification in intermediate products and crude lysates to allow for optimization and validation of cell cultures and intermediate downstream processing steps are currently not at hand. Light scattering is an established process to measure virus particles' size, though due to cell impurities, adequate quantification of adenovirus particles in cell lysates by light scattering has been impossible until today. This report describes a new method using light scattering to measure virus concentration in nonpurified cell lysates. Here we report application of light scattering, a routine method to measure virus particle size, to virus quantification in enzymatically conditioned crude lysates. Samples are incubated with phospholipase A2 and benzonase and filtered through a 0.22 μm filter cartridge prior to quantification by light scattering. Our results show that this treatment provides a precise method for fast and easy determination of total adenovirus particle numbers in cell lysates and is useful to monitor virus recovery throughout all downstream processing.

  3. Using light scattering to determine the stoichiometry of protein complexes. (United States)

    Mogridge, Jeremy


    The stoichiometry of a protein complex can be calculated from an accurate measurement of the complex's molecular weight. Multiangle laser light scattering in combination with size exclusion chromatography and interferometric refractometry provides a powerful means for determining the molecular weights of proteins and protein complexes. In contrast to conventional size exclusion chromatography and analytical centrifugation, measurements do not rely on the use of molecular weight standards and are not affected by the shape of the proteins. The technique is based on the direct relationship between the amount of light scattered by a protein in solution, and the product of its concentration and molecular weight. A typical experimental configuration includes a size exclusion column to fractionate the sample, a light scattering detector to measure scattered light, and an interferometric refractometer to measure protein concentration. The determination of the molecular weight of an anthrax toxin complex will be used to illustrate how multiangle laser light scattering can be used to determine the stoichiometry of protein complexes.

  4. Investigation of ferrofluid nanostructure by laser light scattering: medical applications (United States)

    Nepomnyashchaya, E. K.; Velichko, E. N.; Pleshakov, I. V.; Aksenov, E. T.; Savchenko, E. A.


    Investigation of ferrofluids nanostructure by the laser light scattering technique is presented. Experimental studies involved measurements of the intensity of the laser radiation scattered by ferrofluid particles in interaction with albumin and under the influence of magnetic field. The effects of the magnitude and duration of the applied magnetic field on the formation of aggregates of magnetic nanoparticles and also the influence of magnetic fluids of different concentrations on blood proteins are considered. The findings may be useful for medical applications.

  5. An experimental study of light scattering by large, irregular particles (United States)

    Mcguire, Audrey F.; Hapke, Bruce W.


    The intensity and polarization of light scattered by a variety of types of artificial partices large compared to the wavelength were measured as a function of phase angle. Shape, surface roughness, absorption coefficient, and internal scattering coefficient were varied systematically and their effects studied. Scattering by clear, smooth-surfaced spheres is in quantitative agreement with the predictions of the geometrical optics (ray theory) approximation to physical optics (Mie theory). The phase functions of almost all of the particles measured have both forward and backward scattering lobes. A two-parameter, double Henyey-Greenstein function generally provides reasonably good descriptions of the data, while keeping the number of free parameters to the minimum necessary. On a double Henyey- Greenstein parameter plot all of the particles fall into an L-shaped area of restricted size in which the location is characteristic of the particle type. Formalisms based on the equivalent slab model are also given for estimating the scattering efficiency of a large, irregular particle. For most dielectric particles the transmitted, forward scattered light is partially negatively polarized. It is this component that is respopnsible for the well-known maximum in the polarization curves of planetary regoliths at phase angles around 100 deg. For phase angles between about 30 deg and 70 deg the internally scattered light is found to be randomly polarized in the particles studied here, so that the only contribution to the second component of the Stokes vector is by Fresnel reflection from the particle surface. If this empirical result is general, measurement of the second Stokes vector of the light scattered from a regolith at these angles may provide a method of remotely measuring the mean refractive index.

  6. Multiple Scattering of Light in Superdiffusive Media (United States)

    Bertolotti, Jacopo; Vynck, Kevin; Wiersma, Diederik S.


    Light transport in superdiffusive media of finite size is studied theoretically. The intensity Green’s function for a slab geometry is found by discretizing the fractional diffusion equation and employing the eigenfunction expansion method. Truncated step length distributions and complex boundary conditions are considered. The profile of a coherent backscattering cone is calculated in the superdiffusion approximation.

  7. Resonance light scattering determination of metallothioneins using levofloxacin-palladium complex as a light scattering probe (United States)

    Xue, Jin-Hua; Qian, Qiu-Mei; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Meng, Xia-Ling; Liu, Lu


    A novel method of resonance light scattering (RLS) was developed for the analysis of trace metallothioneins (MTs) in human urine. In a CH3COOH-CH3COONa buffer solution of pH 4.5, the formation of a complex between levofloxacin (LEV)-Pd and MTs led to enhance the RLS intensity of the system, and the enhanced RLS intensity at 468 nm was proportional to the concentration of MTs in the range of 0.059-22.4 μg mL-1. The linear regression equation was ΔI = 127.5 ρ (μg mL-1)-88.02 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9992, and the detection limit of 17.8 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation and the average recovery were 3.8-5.4% (n = 11) and 92.15%, respectively. The proposed method is convenient, reliable and sensitive, and has been used successfully for the determination of trace MTs in human urine samples.

  8. Color stimuli perception in presence of light scattering. (United States)

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Colomb, Michéle; Ikaunieks, Gatis; Karitans, Varis


    Perception of different color contrast stimuli was studied in the presence of light scattering: in a fog chamber in Clermont-Ferrand and in laboratory conditions where light scattering of similar levels was obtained, using different light scattering eye occluders. Blue (shortest wavelength) light is scattered in fog to the greatest extent, causing deterioration of vision quality especially for the monochromatic blue stimuli. However, for the color stimuli presented on a white background, visual acuity in fog for blue Landolt-C optotypes was higher than for red and green optotypes on the white background. The luminance of color Landolt-C optotypes presented on a LCD screen was chosen corresponding to the blue, green, and red color contributions in achromatic white stimuli (computer digital R, G, or B values for chromatic stimuli equal to RGB values in the achromatic white background) that results in the greatest luminance contrast for the white-blue stimuli, thus advancing the visual acuity for the white-blue stimuli. Besides such blue stimuli on the white background are displayed with a uniform, spatially unmodulated distribution of the screen blue phosphor emission over the entire area of the screen including the stimulus C optotype area. It follows that scattering, which has the greatest effect on the blue component of screen luminance, has the least effect on the perception of white-blue stimuli.

  9. Compton scattering of twisted light: Angular distribution and polarization of scattered photons (United States)

    Stock, S.; Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.; Seipt, D.


    Compton scattering of twisted photons is investigated within a nonrelativistic framework using first-order perturbation theory. We formulate the problem in the density-matrix theory, which enables one to gain new insights into scattering processes of twisted particles by exploiting the symmetries of the system. In particular, we analyze how the angular distribution and polarization of the scattered photons are affected by the parameters of the initial beam such as the opening angle and the projection of orbital angular momentum. We present analytical and numerical results for the angular distribution and the polarization of Compton scattered photons for initially twisted light and compare them with the standard case of plane-wave light.

  10. An empirical correction for moderate multiple scattering in super-heterodyne light scattering (United States)

    Botin, Denis; Mapa, Ludmila Marotta; Schweinfurth, Holger; Sieber, Bastian; Wittenberg, Christopher; Palberg, Thomas


    Frequency domain super-heterodyne laser light scattering is utilized in a low angle integral measurement configuration to determine flow and diffusion in charged sphere suspensions showing moderate to strong multiple scattering. We introduce an empirical correction to subtract the multiple scattering background and isolate the singly scattered light. We demonstrate the excellent feasibility of this simple approach for turbid suspensions of transmittance T ≥ 0.4. We study the particle concentration dependence of the electro-kinetic mobility in low salt aqueous suspension over an extended concentration regime and observe a maximum at intermediate concentrations. We further use our scheme for measurements of the self-diffusion coefficients in the fluid samples in the absence or presence of shear, as well as in polycrystalline samples during crystallization and coarsening. We discuss the scope and limits of our approach as well as possible future applications.

  11. S-band multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser utilizing fiber Bragg grating and Raman amplifier in the ring cavity (United States)

    Anwar, Nur Elina; Ahmad Hambali, N. A. M.; Sohaimi, M. Syazwan; M. Shahimin, M.; A. Wahid, M. H.; Yusof, N. Roshidah; Malek, A. Zakiah


    This paper is focusing on simulation and analyzed of S-band multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser performance utilizing fiber Bragg grating and Raman amplifier in ring cavity by using Optisystem software. Raman amplifieraverage power model is employed for signal amplification. This laser system is operates in S-band wavelength region due to vast demanding on transmitting the information. Multi-wavelength fiber lasers based on hybrid Brillouin-Raman gain configuration supported by Rayleigh scattering effect have attracted significant research interest due to its ability to produced multi-wavelength signals from a single light source. In multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber, single mode fiber is utilized as the nonlinear gain medium. From output results, 90 % output coupling ratio has ability to provide the maximum average output power of 43 dBm at Brillouin pump power of 20 dBm and Raman pump power of 14 dBm. Furthermore, multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser utilizing fiber Bragg grating and Raman amplifier is capable of generated 7 Brillouin Stokes signals at 1480 nm, 1510 nm and 1530 nm.

  12. Dynamic light scattering with applications to chemistry, biology, and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Berne, Bruce J


    Lasers play an increasingly important role in a variety of detection techniques, making inelastic light scattering a tool of growing value in the investigation of dynamic and structural problems in chemistry, biology, and physics. Until the initial publication of this work, however, no monograph treated the principles behind current developments in the field.This volume presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles underlying laser light scattering, focusing on the time dependence of fluctuations in fluid systems; it also serves as an introduction to the theory of time correlation f

  13. Dynamic Light Scattering Signal Conditioning for Data Processing (United States)

    Rei, Silviu; Chicea, Dan; Ilie, Beriliu; Olaru, Sorin


    When performing data acquisition for a Dynamic Light Scattering experiment, one of the most important aspect is the filtering and conditioning of the electrical signal. The signal is amplified first and then fed as input for the analog digital convertor. As a result a digital time series is obtained. The frequency spectrum is computed by the logical unit offering the basis for further Dynamic Light Scattering analysis methods. This paper presents a simple setup that can accomplish the signal conditioning and conversion to a digital time series.

  14. Inelastic light scattering in low dimensional semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Watt, M


    frequencies of the surface phonon peaks showed good agreement with calculated frequencies based on vibrations in small, geometrically-regular crystals. The main contribution of this work is the study of the surface phonons of the GaAs quantum cylinders. This is the first time that surface phonons have been observed in small fabricated samples: all previous work has involved specially-prepared crystalline powders or else comparatively large slab geometries. The conclusion that can be drawn from this work is that the cylinders are not only well-defined (as observed from the SEM micrographs) but they are also crystalline. The implication is that such structures can now be fabricated at a sufficiently high level to allow progress in prototype devices such as the quantum dot laser. Raman scattering is a powerful technique with which to study the lattice vibrations of semiconductors. Investigations of the phonons of GalnAs-InP heterostructures have shown that although the phonons in GalnAs quantum wells resembled t...

  15. Dual-microcavity narrow-linewidth Brillouin laser

    CERN Document Server

    Loh, William; Baynes, Frederick; Cole, Daniel; Quinlan, Franklyn; Lee, Hansuek; Vahala, Kerry; Papp, Scott; Diddams, Scott


    Ultralow noise, yet tunable lasers are a revolutionary tool in precision spectroscopy, displacement measurements at the standard quantum limit, and the development of advanced optical atomic clocks. Further applications include LIDAR, coherent communications, frequency synthesis, and precision sensors of strain, motion, and temperature. While all applications benefit from lower frequency noise, many also require a laser that is robust and compact. Here, we introduce a dual-microcavity laser that leverages one chip-integrable silica microresonator to generate tunable 1550 nm laser light via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and a second microresonator for frequency stabilization of the SBS light. This configuration reduces the fractional frequency noise to $7.8\\times10^{-14} 1/\\sqrt{Hz}$ at 10 Hz offset, which is a new regime of noise performance for a microresonator-based laser. Our system also features terahertz tunability and the potential for chip-level integration. We demonstrate the utility of our du...

  16. How to distinguish scattered and absorbed light from re-emitted light for white LEDs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meretska, Maryna; Lagendijk, Aart; Thyrrestrup Nielsen, Henri; Mosk, Allard; IJzerman, Wilbert; Vos, Willem L.


    We have studied the light transport through phosphor diffuser plates that are used in commercial solid-state lighting modules (Fortimo). These polymer plates contain YAG:Ce+3 phosphor particles that scatter, absorb and re-emit incident light in the visible wavelength range (400-700 nm). To

  17. Engineering of light confinement in strongly scattering disordered media


    Riboli, F; Caselli, N; Vignolini, S; Intonti, F; Vynck, K; Barthelemy, VMP Veronique; Gerardino, A; Balet, LP Laurent; Li, L Ligui = Lianhe; Fiore, A Andrea; Gurioli, M; Wiersma, DS


    Disordered photonic materials can di use and localize light through random multiple scattering, o ering opportunities to study mesoscopic phenomena, control light–matter interactions, and provide new strategies for photonic applications. Light transport in such media is governed by photonic modes characterized by resonances with finite spectral width and spatial extent. Considerable steps have been made recently towards control over the transport using wavefront shaping techniques. The select...

  18. Dynamic light scattering study of peanut agglutinin: Size, shape and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 5. Dynamic light scattering study of peanut agglutinin: Size, shape and urea denaturation ... Peanut agglutinin (PNA) is a homotetrameric protein with a unique open quaternary structure. PNA shows non-two state profile in chaotrope induced denaturation. It passes ...

  19. Quasi-elastic laser light scattering study of polyacrylamide hydrogel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels immersed in water and aqueous NaCl solutions were investigated for their structure and dynamics using static and quasi-elastic laser light scattering (QELS) techniques. Ensemble-averaged electric field correlation function (, ) obtained from the non-ergodic analysis of ...

  20. HeNe-laser light scattering by human dental enamel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, [No Value; tenBosch, JJ; Groenhuis, RAJ


    Knowledge of the optical properties of tooth enamel and an understanding of the origin of these properties are necessary for the development of new optical methods for caries diagnosis and the measurement of tooth color. We measured the scattering intensity functions for HeNe-laser light of 80- to

  1. Light scattering of PMMA latex particles in benzene: structural effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, E.A.; Vrij, A.


    Intra- and interparticle structural effects were studied in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) latex dispersions in a nonpolar solvent with the technique of light scattering. The required transparency of the dispersions was attained by a close matching of the refractive index of PMMA and solvent, for

  2. Quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of quadrature squeezed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter


    Propagating quadrature squeezed light through a multiple scattering random medium is found to induce pronounced spatial quantum correlations that have no classical analogue. The correlations are revealed in the number of photons transported through the sample that can be measured from the intensity...


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    an exceptionally clear crystal of gypsum have been able to reproduce a photograph showing the six components with the main line of unaltered. * In his valedictory lecture to the Central College Physical Society on the 25th of. February 1938, Sir C. V. Raman remarked that the study of light scattering in crystals should yield ...

  4. Using Light Scattering to Track, Characterize and Manipulate Colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrum, P.D.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829897


    A new technique is developed to analyze in-line Digital Holographic Microscopy images, making it possible to characterize, and track colloidal particles in three dimensions at unprecedented accuracy. We took digital snapshots of the interference pattern between the light scattered by micrometer

  5. Parasitic light scattered by complex optical coatings: modelization and metrology (United States)

    Zerrad, Myriam; Lequime, Michel; Liukaityte, Simona; Amra, Claude


    Optical components realized for space applications have to be mastered in term of parasitic light. This paper present the last improvements performed at the Institute Fresnel to predict and measure scattering losses of optical components with a special care to complex optical coatings. Agreement between numerical models and metrology is now excellent. Some examples will be presented.

  6. Multiple light scattering and absorption in reef-building corals. (United States)

    Terán, Emiliano; Méndez, Eugenio R; Enríquez, Susana; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto


    We present an experimental and numerical study of the effects of multiple scattering on the optical properties of reef-building corals. For this, we propose a simplified optical model of the coral and describe in some detail methods for characterizing the coral skeleton and the layer containing the symbiotic algae. The model is used to study the absorption of light by the layer of tissue containing the microalgae by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that, through scattering, the skeleton homogenizes and enhances the light environment in which the symbionts live. We also present results that illustrate the modification of the internal light environment when the corals loose symbionts or pigmentation.

  7. Measurement of bone mineral density via light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Matcher, Stephen John; Attenburrow, Don P [Biomedical Physics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)


    In this study we have investigated the potential of optical techniques to monitor changes in bone mineral density (BMD) via changes in scattering coefficient. For each of five bone samples, diffuse reflection and transmission coefficients were measured over the wavelength range 520-960 nm using an integrating sphere and CCD spectrometer. These were converted into optical absorption and scattering coefficients using a Monte Carlo inversion procedure. Measurements were made on samples immersed in formic acid solution for different lengths of time in order to investigate the effect of reduction in BMD on the optical properties. After full demineralization, the optical scattering coefficient fell by a factor 4. From the observed degree of fluctuation of the measurements, we estimate that BMD could be measured with an accuracy of 7% if optical scattering can be measured with an accuracy of 10%. We also report preliminary measurements of bone scattering using optical coherence tomography (OCT). An inter-side variability of 3% is obtained on dry samples with and without overlying periosteum. These results suggest that minimally invasive techniques for measuring optical scattering, such as OCT, may have a role in monitoring regional changes in BMD. This could be an important advance in our understanding of bone remodelling and its relationship to osteoarthritis. Both the integrating sphere and OCT measurements also suggest that light transport in bone is spatially anisotropic. OCT was used to assess probability of obtaining results in vivo.

  8. Quantum Interference and Entanglement Induced by Multiple Scattering of Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Mortensen, Asger; Lodahl, Peter


    We report on the effects of quantum interference induced by the transmission of an arbitrary number of optical quantum states through a multiple-scattering medium. We identify the role of quantum interference on the photon correlations and the degree of continuous variable entanglement between two...... output modes. It is shown that quantum interference survives averaging over all ensembles of disorder and manifests itself as increased photon correlations due to photon antibunching. Furthermore, the existence of continuous variable entanglement correlations in a volume speckle pattern is predicted. Our...... results suggest that multiple scattering provides a promising way of coherently interfering many independent quantum states of light of potential use in quantum information processing....

  9. Dust grain characterization — Direct measurement of light scattering (United States)

    BartoÅ, P.; Pavlů, J.


    Dust grains play a key role in dusty plasma since they interact with the plasma we can use them to study plasma itself. The grains are illuminated by visible light (e.g., a laser sheet) and the situation is captured with camera. Despite of simplicity, light scattering on similar-to-wavelength sized grains is complex phenomenon. Interaction of the electromagnetic wave with material has to be computed with respect to Maxwell equations — analytic solution is nowadays available only for several selected shapes like sphere, coated sphere, or infinite cylinder. Moreover, material constants needed for computations are usually unknown. For computation result verification and material constant determination, we designed and developed a device directly measur­ing light scattering profiles. Single dust grains are trapped in the ultrasonic field (so called "acoustic levitation") and illuminated by the laser beam. Scattered light is then measured by a photodiode mounted on rotating platform. Synchronous detection is employed for a noise reduction. This setup brings several benefits against conventional methods: (1) it works in the free air, (2) the measured grain is captured for a long time, and (3) the grain could be of arbitrary shape.

  10. Feasibility of field-based light scattering spectroscopy (United States)

    Yang, Changhuei; Perelman, Lev T.; Wax, Adam; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.


    Light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) is a new technique capable of accurately measuring the features of nuclei and other cellular organelles in situ. We present the considerations required to implement and interpret field- based detection in LSS, where the scattered electric field is detected interferometrically, and demonstrate that the technique is experimentally feasible. A theoretical formalism for modeling field-based LSS signals based on Mie scattering is presented. Phase-front uniformity is shown to play an important and novel role. Results of heterodyne experiments with polystyrene microspheres that localize LSS signals to a region about 30 micrometers in axial extent are reported. In addition, differences between field-based LSS and the earlier intensity-based LSS are discussed.

  11. Multiple light scattering in multilayered media: theory, experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A. da; Andraud, C.; Charron, E.; Stout, B.; Lafait, J


    The model presented here is based on the resolution of the radiative transfer equation, by the Discrete Ordinate Method, in the steady-state domain. A matricial formulation leads to the resolution of the problem of light scattering through multislabs, with index mismatch at each interface. In that way, the angular distribution of out-going fluxes is obtained. A complete dissociation between volume and interfaces behaviors allows the introduction of elaborated theories to describe them properly. An analytical scattering theory based on the T-matrix formalism is introduced to account for interactions between scatterers, when high volume fractions are considered. Theoretical calculations are compared with experiments obtained with a spectro-scatterometer.

  12. Coherent multiple light scattering in Faraday active materials (United States)

    Schertel, L.; Aubry, G. J.; Aegerter, C. M.; Maret, G.


    Wave propagation in multiple scattering media shows various kinds of coherent phenomena such as coherent backscattering [1, 2] or Anderson localization [3], both of which are intimately connected to the concept of reciprocity. Manipulating reciprocity in such media is a powerful tool to study these phenomena in experiments [4]. Here we discuss the manipulation of reciprocity in reflection and transmission geometry for the case of light propagation in magneto-optical media. We show new experiments on coherent backscattering and speckle correlations in strongly scattering samples containing Faraday active materials (CeF3) with transport mean free path in the μm range, at low temperatures (T < 10 K) and high fields (B = 18 T). Under such conditions we observe the effect of a Faraday rotation saturation in multiple scattering measurements.

  13. Light source distribution and scattering phase function influence light transport in diffuse multi-layered media (United States)

    Vaudelle, Fabrice; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre; Askoura, Mohamed Lamine


    Red and near-Infrared light is often used as a useful diagnostic and imaging probe for highly scattering media such as biological tissues, fruits and vegetables. Part of diffusively reflected light gives interesting information related to the tissue subsurface, whereas light recorded at further distances may probe deeper into the interrogated turbid tissues. However, modelling diffusive events occurring at short source-detector distances requires to consider both the distribution of the light sources and the scattering phase functions. In this report, a modified Monte Carlo model is used to compute light transport in curved and multi-layered tissue samples which are covered with a thin and highly diffusing tissue layer. Different light source distributions (ballistic, diffuse or Lambertian) are tested with specific scattering phase functions (modified or not modified Henyey-Greenstein, Gegenbauer and Mie) to compute the amount of backscattered and transmitted light in apple and human skin structures. Comparisons between simulation results and experiments carried out with a multispectral imaging setup confirm the soundness of the theoretical strategy and may explain the role of the skin on light transport in whole and half-cut apples. Other computational results show that a Lambertian source distribution combined with a Henyey-Greenstein phase function provides a higher photon density in the stratum corneum than in the upper dermis layer. Furthermore, it is also shown that the scattering phase function may affect the shape and the magnitude of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution (BRDF) exhibited at the skin surface.

  14. Brillouin, Prof. Leon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1939 Honorary. Brillouin, Prof. Leon. Date of birth: 7 August 1889. Date of death: 4 October 1969 ... Posted on 21 December 2017. ASTROPHYSICS: An Observational View of the Universe. Math Art and Design: MAD about Math, Math Education and Outreach. Math and Finance ...

  15. Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean (United States)

    Stramski, Dariusz; Kiefer, Dale A.

    Recent enumeration and identification of marine particles that are less than 2μm in diameter, suggests that they may be the major source of light scattering in the open ocean. The living components of these small particles include viruses, heterotrophic and photoautotrophic bacteria and the smallest eucaryotic cells. In order to examine the relative contribution by these (and other) microorganisms to scattering, we have calculated a budget for both the total scattering and backscattering coefficients (at 550nm) of suspended particles. This budget is determined by calculating the product of the numerical concentration of particles of a given category and the scattering cross-section of that category. Values for this product are then compared to values for the particulate scattering coefficients predicted by the models of GORDON and MOREL (1983) and MOREL (1988). In order to make such a comparison, we have estimated both the total scattering and backscattering cross-section of various microbial components that include viruses, heterotrophic bacteria, prochlorophytes, cyanobacteria, ultrananoplankton (2-8μm), larger nanoplankton (8-20μm) and microplankton (>20 μm). Such determinations are based upon Mie scattering calculations and measurements of the cell size distribution and the absorption and scattering coefficients of microbial cultures. In addition, we have gathered published information on the numerical concentration of living and detrial marine particles in the size range from 0.03 to 100μm. The results of such a study are summarized as follows. The size distribution of microorganisms in the ocean roughly obeys an inverse 4th power law over three orders of magnitude in cell diameter, from 0.2 to 100μm. Thus, the size distribution of living organisms is similar to that for total particulate matter as determined by electronic particle counters. For representative values of refractive index, it appears that most of the scattering in the sea comes from

  16. Supercontinuum Light Sources for Hyperspectral Subsurface Laser Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus


    A materials structural and chemical composition influences its optical scattering properties. In this paper we investigate the use of subsurface laser scattering (SLS) for inferring structural and chemical information of food products. We have constructed a computer vision system based on a super......A materials structural and chemical composition influences its optical scattering properties. In this paper we investigate the use of subsurface laser scattering (SLS) for inferring structural and chemical information of food products. We have constructed a computer vision system based...... on a supercontinuum laser light source and an Acousto- Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) to provide a collimated light source, which can be tuned to any wavelength in the range from 480 to 900 nm. We present the newly developed hyperspectral vision system together with a proof-of-principle study of its ability...... to discriminate between dairy products with either similar chemical or structural composition. The combined vision system is a new way for industrial food inspection allowing non-intrusive online process inspection of parameters that is hard with existing technology....

  17. Dynamic light scattering on bioconjugated laser generated gold nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Zimbone

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs conjugated to DNA are widely used for biomedical targeting and sensing applications. DNA functionalization is easily reached on laser generated gold nanoparticles because of their unique surface chemistry, not reproducible by other methods. In this context, we present an extensive investigation concerning the attachment of DNA to the surface of laser generated nanoparticles using Dynamic Light Scattering and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The DNA conjugation is highlighted by the increase of the hydrodynamic radius and by the UV-Vis spectra behavior. Our investigation indicates that Dynamic Light Scattering is a suitable analytical tool to evidence, directly and qualitatively, the binding between a DNA molecule and a gold nanoparticle, therefore it is ideal to monitor changes in the conjugation process when experimental conditions are varied.

  18. Parhelic-like circle from light scattering in Plateau borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail:; Tufaile, A.P.B.


    We are reporting a new simple optical element to generate halos. We have observed interesting patterns of light scattering in Plateau borders in foams. In analogy to the atmospheric phenomena known as parhelic circle, sun dogs, and sun pillars, we have named the features of the patterns observed as parlaseric circle, laser dogs, and laser pillars. The triangular symmetry of the Plateau borders is analogous to the hexagonal symmetry of ice crystals which produce these atmospheric phenomena. Working with one Plateau border at a time, we have observed wave optics phenomena that are not perceived in the atmospheric phenomena, such as diffraction and interference. - Highlights: • We obtained halo formation from light scattering in a Plateau border using an experiment. • We explained halo formation using geometrical theory of diffraction. • An optical element based on a Plateau border is proposed. • We compared some aspects of the parhelic circle with the parlaseric circle.

  19. Multivariate analysis of light scattering spectra of liquid dairy products (United States)

    Khodasevich, M. A.


    Visible light scattering spectra from the surface layer of samples of commercial liquid dairy products are recorded with a colorimeter. The principal component method is used to analyze these spectra. Vectors representing the samples of dairy products in a multidimensional space of spectral counts are projected onto a three-dimensional subspace of principal components. The magnitudes of these projections are found to depend on the type of dairy product.

  20. Visible light scatter as quantitative information source on milk constituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melentieva, Anastasiya; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Bogomolov, Andrey


    VISIBLE LIGHT SCATTER AS A QUANTITATIVE INFORMATION SOURCE ON MILK CONSTITUENTS A. Melenteva 1, S. Kucheryavski 2, A. Bogomolov 1,31Samara State Technical University, Molodogvardeyskaya Street 244, 443100 Samara, Russia. 2Aalborg University, campus Esbjerg, Niels Bohrs vej 8, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmar...... research area are presented and discussed. References: [1] A. Bogomolov, S. Dietrich, B. Boldrini, R.W. Kessler, Food Chemistry (2012), doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.077....

  1. Factors affecting light scatter in contact lens wearers. (United States)

    Elliott, D B; Mitchell, S; Whitaker, D


    We measured forward light scatter at 3.5, 10, and 28 degrees using a portable stray light meter. Subjects included 66 normal subjects (age range 19 to 79 years), 17 established hydrophilic contact lens wearers, and 15 rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lens wearers. Contact lens deposits were measured using a modified Rudko procedure and a Leitz/Wild Makroscope M240. Corneal health was assessed using slitlamp biomicroscopy. Results showed a significant increase in light scatter with age, particularly after the age of 40 years. Stray light scores were significantly lower in pigmented non-Caucasian subjects, particularly at larger angles. The stray light scores were significantly greater in contact lens wearers than in age-matched normals, but were not found to correlate with the amount of lens deposits. Scores from hydrophilic lens wearers after removal of their lenses were significantly higher than results from RGP wearers after removal of their lenses and from age-matched normals. This suggests the presence of subclinical corneal edema in some of these subjects.

  2. Application of orthogonal light scattering for routine screening of lymphocyte samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; de Grooth, B.G.; van Berkel, W.; ten Napel, C.H.H.; Greve, Jan


    Orthogonal and forward light-scattering properties of lymphocytes were measured from patients with different lymphocytic diseases in order to determine the potential value of light scattering as a screening device. Monitoring of orthogonal light scattering of lymphocytes of a B-cell chronic

  3. Engineering of light confinement in strongly scattering disordered media. (United States)

    Riboli, Francesco; Caselli, Niccolò; Vignolini, Silvia; Intonti, Francesca; Vynck, Kevin; Barthelemy, Pierre; Gerardino, Annamaria; Balet, Laurent; Li, Lianhe H; Fiore, Andrea; Gurioli, Massimo; Wiersma, Diederik S


    Disordered photonic materials can diffuse and localize light through random multiple scattering, offering opportunities to study mesoscopic phenomena, control light-matter interactions, and provide new strategies for photonic applications. Light transport in such media is governed by photonic modes characterized by resonances with finite spectral width and spatial extent. Considerable steps have been made recently towards control over the transport using wavefront shaping techniques. The selective engineering of individual modes, however, has been addressed only theoretically. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the possibility to engineer the confinement and the mutual interaction of modes in a two-dimensional disordered photonic structure. The strong light confinement is achieved at the fabrication stage by an optimization of the structure, and an accurate and local tuning of the mode resonance frequencies is achieved via post-fabrication processes. To show the versatility of our technique, we selectively control the detuning between overlapping localized modes and observe both frequency crossing and anti-crossing behaviours, thereby paving the way for the creation of open transmission channels in strongly scattering media.

  4. Efficient Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Plasmonic Scattering Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothberg, Lewis


    Our project addressed the DOE MYPP 2020 goal to improve light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to 75% (Core task 6.3). As noted in the 2010 MYPP, “the greatest opportunity for improvement is in the extraction of light from [OLED] panels”. There are many approaches to avoiding waveguiding limitations intrinsic to the planar OLED structure including use of textured substrates, microcavity designs and incorporating scattering layers into the device structure. We have chosen to pursue scattering layers since it addresses the largest source of loss which is waveguiding in the OLED itself. Scattering layers also have the potential to be relatively robust to color, polarization and angular distributions. We note that this can be combined with textured or microlens decorated substrates to achieve additional enhancement.

  5. Ultraviolet refractometry using field-based light scattering spectroscopy (United States)

    Fu, Dan; Choi, Wonshik; Sung, Yongjin; Oh, Seungeun; Yaqoob, Zahid; Park, YongKeun; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.


    Accurate refractive index measurement in the deep ultraviolet (UV) range is important for the separate quantification of biomolecules such as proteins and DNA in biology. This task is demanding and has not been fully exploited so far. Here we report a new method of measuring refractive index using field-based light scattering spectroscopy, which is applicable to any wavelength range and suitable for both solutions and homogenous objects with well-defined shape such as microspheres. The angular scattering distribution of single microspheres immersed in homogeneous media is measured over the wavelength range 260 to 315 nm using quantitative phase microscopy. By least square fitting the observed scattering distribution with Mie scattering theory, the refractive index of either the sphere or the immersion medium can be determined provided that one is known a priori. Using this method, we have measured the refractive index dispersion of SiO2 spheres and bovine serum albumin (BSA) solutions in the deep UV region. Specific refractive index increments of BSA are also extracted. Typical accuracy of the present refractive index technique is ≤0.003. The precision of refractive index measurements is ≤0.002 and that of specific refractive index increment determination is ≤0.01 mL/g. PMID:20372622

  6. Focusing light through scattering media by transmission matrix inversion. (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Ruan, Haowen; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Haojiang; Yang, Changhuei


    Focusing light through scattering media has broad applications in optical imaging, manipulation and therapy. The contrast of the focus can be quantified by peak-to-background intensity ratio (PBR). Here, we theoretically and numerically show that by using a transmission matrix inversion method to achieve focusing, within a limited field of view and under a low noise condition in transmission matrix measurements, the PBR of the focus can be higher than that achieved by conventional methods such as optical phase conjugation or feedback-based wavefront shaping. Experimentally, using a phase-modulation spatial light modulator, we increase the PBR by 66% over that achieved by conventional methods based on phase conjugation. In addition, we demonstrate that, within a limited field of view and under a low noise condition in transmission matrix measurements, our matrix inversion method enables light focusing to multiple foci with greater fidelity than those of conventional methods.

  7. Design of Wide-Band Frequency Shift Technology by Using Compact Brillouin Fiber Laser for Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometry Sensing System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yunqi Hao; Qing Ye; Zhengqing Pan; Fei Yang; Haiwen Cai; Ronghui Qu; Qinyuan Zhang; Zhongmin Yang


    ...) is larger than 50 dB and the laser linewidth is about 3.1 kHz. Applying the BFL to the BOTDR system, the measured results show that the beat frequency between the spontaneous Brillouin scattering (SBS...

  8. LIGHT SOURCE: TW Laser system for Thomson scattering X-ray light source at Tsinghua University (United States)

    Yan, Li-Xm; Du, Ying-Chao; Du, Qiang; Li, Ren-Kai; Hua, Jian-Fei; Huang, Wen-Hui; Tang, Chuan-Xiang


    A TW (Tera Watt) laser system based on Ti:sapphire mainly for the Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray light source (TTX) is being built. Both UV (ultraviolet) laser pulse for driving the photocathode radio-frequency (RF) gun and the IR (infrared) laser pulse as the electron-beam-scattered-light are provided by the system. Efforts have also been made in laser pulse shaping and laser beam transport to optimize the high-brightness electron beam production by the photocathode RF gun.

  9. Neutron and light scattering studies of polymers adsorbed on laponite

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, A R J


    The adsorption of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and various poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (Pluronic) copolymers onto the synthetic clay Laponite, was investigated using Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The Laponite particles are anisotropic, with a relatively high aspect ratio; but are the same order of magnitude in size as the polymer radius of gyration. Consequently, the particles present a radically different adsorption geometry compared to a locally planar interface, that is assumed by the majority of adsorption studies. The PEO homo-polymer formed thin layers, with the layer thickness being much smaller on the face than on the edge of the particle. Furthermore, the face thickness remained constant with increasing molecular weight, unlike the edge thickness, which grew with a small power law dependence on the molecular weight. Although the hydrodynamic thicknesses (DLS) were larger than those observed with SANS, the layer thicknesses ...

  10. Resonant depolarized dynamic light scattering of silver nanoplatelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimbone, M., E-mail: [CNR-IMM (Italy); Messina, E. [IPCF-CNR Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici (Italy); Compagnini, G.; Fragalà, M. E. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche (Italy); Calcagno, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia (Italy)


    Polarized and depolarized dynamic light scattering (DDLS) methodology was carried out on silver nanoplatelets showing strong plasmon-enhanced scattering. The hydrodynamic properties of the nanoparticles were determined by measuring the translation diffusion coefficient for “out resonant” condition and the rotational diffusion coefficient for “in resonant” condition. The results have been interpreted by applying an oblate ellipsoidal model, which allows a direct evaluation of nanoplatelets’ size and shape in agreement with scanning electron microscopy. The characterised nanoplatelets reveal a transversal size of 20 nm and a longitudinal length in the range 65–92 nm. Our investigation shows that DDLS in resonant condition is a simple and powerful technique to determine the size and shape of plasmonic nanoparticles and it can be successfully applied to characterise the dynamics of metallic nanoplatelets.

  11. The role of cellular environment in dynamic light scattering (United States)

    An, Ran; Jeong, Kwan; Turek, John; Nolte, David


    We have developed motility contrast imaging (MCI) as a coherence-domain volumetric imaging approach that uses subcellular dynamics as an endogenous imaging contrast agent of living tissue. Fluctuation spectroscopy analysis of dynamic light scattering (DLS) from 3-D tissue has identified functional frequency bands related to organelle transport, membrane undulations and cell shape change. In this paper, we track the behavior of dynamic light scattering as we bridge the gap between the two extremes of 2-D cell culture on the one hand, and 3-D tissue spheroids on the other. In a light backscattering geometry, we capture speckle from 2-D cell culture consisting of isolated cells or planar rafts of cells on cell-culture surfaces. DLS from that cell culture shows differences and lower sensitivity to intra-cellular dynamics compared with the 3-D tissue. The motility contrast is weak in this limit. As the cellular density increases to cover the surface, the motility contrast increases. As environmental perturbations or pharmaceuticals are applied, the fluctuation spectral response becomes more dramatic as the dimensionality of the cellular aggregations increases. We show that changing optical thickness of the cellular-to-tissue targets usually causes characteristic frequency shifts in the spectrograms, while changing cellular dimensionality causes characteristic frequencies to be enhanced or suppressed.

  12. Dynamic light scattering in veterinary medicine: refinement of diagnostic criteria (United States)

    Dubin, Stephen; Zietz, Stanley; Gabriel, Karl L.; Gabriel, David; DellaVecchia, Michael A.; Ansari, Rafat R.


    In dynamic light scattering (DLS), the structure or material of interest, suspended in a fluid, is illuminated by a beam of laser light and the scattered light is interpreted in terms of diffusion coefficient, particle size or its distribution. DLS has shown clear promise as a non-invasive, objective and precise diagnostic modality for investigation of lens opacity (cataract) and other medical and toxicological problems. The clinical potential of LDS has been demonstrated in several species both in vivo and in vitro. In many clinical cases, discernment between normal and diseased patients is possible by simple inspection of the particle size distribution. However a more rigorous and sensitive classification scheme is needed, particularly for evaluation of therapy and estimation of tissue injury. The data supplied by DLS investigation is inherently multivariate and its most efficient interpretation requires a multivariate approach which includes the variability among specimens as well as any correlation among the variables (e.g. across the particle size distribution). We present a brief review of DLS methodology, illustrative data and our efforts toward a diagnostic classification scheme. In particular we will describe application of the Mahalanobis distance and related statistical methods to DLS data.

  13. Wide-field imaging through scattering media by scattered light fluorescence microscopy (United States)

    Zhou, Yulan; Li, Xun


    To obtain images through scattering media, scattered light fluorescence (SLF) microscopy that utilizes the optical memory effect has been developed. However, the small field of view (FOV) of SLF microscopy limits its application. In this paper, we have introduced a re-modulation method to achieve wide-field imaging through scattering media by SLF microscopy. In the re-modulation method, to raster scan the focus across the object plane, the incident wavefront is re-modulated via a spatial light modulator (SLM) in the updated phase compensation calculated using the optimized iterative algorithm. Compared with the conventional optical memory effect method, the re-modulation method can greatly increase the FOV of a SLF microscope. With the phase compensation theoretically calculated, the process of updating the phase compensation of a high speed SLM is fast. The re-modulation method does not increase the imaging time. The re-modulation method is, therefore, expected to make SLF microscopy have much wider applications in biology, medicine and physiology.

  14. Influence of low concentrations of scatterers and signal detection time on the results of their measurements using dynamic light scattering (United States)

    Bunkin, N. F.; Shkirin, A. V.; Suyazov, N. V.; Chaikov, L. L.; Chirikov, S. N.; Kirichenko, M. N.; Nikiforov, S. D.; Tymper, S. I.


    The influence of limited detection time on the form of the autocorrelation function (ACF) has been analysed for measurements in low-concentration suspensions by dynamic light scattering with allowance for the spatial distribution of the laser beam intensity. The general view of the ACF of the scattered light intensity is obtained for a Gaussian beam and a finite measurement time. The results of the theoretical analysis are compared with the experimental data and the results obtained by computer simulation of the scattering from an ensemble of particles involved in Brownian motion in a Gaussian beam. It is shown that, in the case of low suspension concentrations, the ACF distortions related to finite detection time lead to underestimation of the particle sizes and occurrence of an artefact peak in the distribution of the scattered light intensity over scatterer sizes. An empirical dependence of the measured size of particles on their number in the scattering volume is found.

  15. Longitudinal W boson scattering in a light scalar top scenario (United States)

    Ishiwata, Koji; Yonekura, Yuki


    Scalar tops in the supersymmetric model affect the potential of the standard model-like Higgs at the quantum level. In light of the equivalence theorem, the deviation of the potential from the standard model can be traced by longitudinal gauge bosons. In this work, high-energy longitudinal W boson scattering is studied in a TeV-scale scalar top scenario. O (1 - 10 %) deviation from the standard model prediction in the differential cross section is found, depending on whether the observed Higgs mass is explained only by scalar tops or by additional contributions at a higher scale.

  16. Spectator-Tagged Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering on Light Nuclei


    Armstrong, Whitney; Arrington, John; Cloët, Ian; Freese, Adam; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hattawy, Mohammad; Riordan, Seamus; Johnston, Sereres; Potteveld, David; Reimer, Paul; Ye, Zhihong; Ball, Jacques; Defurne, Maxime; Garcon, Michel; Moutarde, Herve


    The three-dimensional picture of quarks and gluons in the proton is set to be revealed through Deeply virtual Compton scattering while a critically important puzzle in the one-dimensional picture remains, namely, the origins of the EMC effect. Incoherent nuclear DVCS, i.e. DVCS on a nucleon inside a nucleus, can reveal the 3D partonic structure of the bound nucleon and shed a new light on the EMC effect. However, the Fermi motion of the struck nucleon, off-shell effects and final-state intera...

  17. Polarized scattered light from self-luminous exoplanets. Three-dimensional scattering radiative transfer with ARTES (United States)

    Stolker, T.; Min, M.; Stam, D. M.; Mollière, P.; Dominik, C.; Waters, L. B. F. M.


    Context. Direct imaging has paved the way for atmospheric characterization of young and self-luminous gas giants. Scattering in a horizontally-inhomogeneous atmosphere causes the disk-integrated polarization of the thermal radiation to be linearly polarized, possibly detectable with the newest generation of high-contrast imaging instruments. Aims: We aim to investigate the effect of latitudinal and longitudinal cloud variations, circumplanetary disks, atmospheric oblateness, and cloud particle properties on the integrated degree and direction of polarization in the near-infrared. We want to understand how 3D atmospheric asymmetries affect the polarization signal in order to assess the potential of infrared polarimetry for direct imaging observations of planetary-mass companions. Methods: We have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code (ARTES) for scattered light simulations in (exo)planetary atmospheres. The code is applicable to calculations of reflected light and thermal radiation in a spherical grid with a parameterized distribution of gas, clouds, hazes, and circumplanetary material. A gray atmosphere approximation is used for the thermal structure. Results: The disk-integrated degree of polarization of a horizontally-inhomogeneous atmosphere is maximal when the planet is flattened, the optical thickness of the equatorial clouds is large compared to the polar clouds, and the clouds are located at high altitude. For a flattened planet, the integrated polarization can both increase or decrease with respect to a spherical planet which depends on the horizontal distribution and optical thickness of the clouds. The direction of polarization can be either parallel or perpendicular to the projected direction of the rotation axis when clouds are zonally distributed. Rayleigh scattering by submicron-sized cloud particles will maximize the polarimetric signal whereas the integrated degree of polarization is significantly reduced with micron

  18. Correlation and image recognition with surface-scattered light. (United States)

    Christie, S; Kvasnik, F


    Image recognition by use of coherent optical processors and light diffusely scattered from the surface of an optically rough object is reported. A theoretical description is presented and shows that the image speckles are carriers for the Fourier spectra of the object at the matched spatial-filter plane. Experimental results of optical autocorrelation and cross correlation are given. The change in the intensity of the correlation peak that arises from the translation and the rotation of objects and from the lateral and axial movements of the matched filter are examined. The system is shown to be tolerant to misalignments in the positions of the object and matched filter. It is also shown that, when diffuse light is input into the coherent optical processor, the position of the Fourier plane is no longer precisely defined and spatial multiplexing would be possible.

  19. Investigating the Microstructure of Carbopol by Light Scattering (United States)

    Lee, David; Bailey, Arthur; Frisken, Barbara


    Carbopol, a family of cross-linked acrylic acid-based polymers and a well-known thickener used in personal care, household and industrial products, is often used as a model yield-stress fluid because it is transparent and its rheological properties can be precisely tuned by sample preparation conditions. Carbopol dispersions behave as an elastic solid but they will flow when the applied stress exceeds a sample-dependent yield value. Both the yield stress phenomena and the range of potential applications recommend study of the microscopic structure and properties of yield stress fluids as this will lead to a fundamental understanding of this behaviour. Light scattering experiments investigating Carbopol ETD2050 dispersed in water have revealed that the Carbopol microstructure consists of a highly cross-linked inner region surrounded by a lightly cross-linked outer region. Experiments also show that the length scales and mass fractal dimension depend on the sample concentration and pH.

  20. Viscoelasticity of amyloid plaques in transgenic mouse brain studied by Brillouin microspectroscopy and correlative Raman analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mattana


    Full Text Available Amyloidopathy is one of the most prominent hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the leading cause of dementia worldwide, and is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the brain parenchyma. The plaques consist of abnormal deposits mainly composed of an aggregation-prone protein fragment, β-amyloid 1-40/1-42, into the extracellular matrix. Brillouin microspectroscopy is an all-optical contactless technique that is based on the interaction between visible light and longitudinal acoustic waves or phonons, giving access to the viscoelasticity of a sample on a subcellular scale. Here, we describe the first application of micromechanical mapping based on Brillouin scattering spectroscopy to probe the stiffness of individual amyloid plaques in the hippocampal part of the brain of a β-amyloid overexpressing transgenic mouse. Correlative analysis based on Brillouin and Raman microspectroscopy showed that amyloid plaques have a complex structure with a rigid core of β-pleated sheet conformation (β-amyloid protein surrounded by a softer ring-shaped region richer in lipids and other protein conformations. These preliminary results give a new insight into the plaque biophysics and biomechanics, and a valuable contrast mechanism for the study and diagnosis of amyloidopathy.

  1. Galactic Latitude Dependence of Near-infrared Diffuse Galactic Light: Thermal Emission or Scattered Light? (United States)

    Sano, K.; Matsuura, S.


    Near-infrared (IR) diffuse Galactic light (DGL) consists of scattered light and thermal emission from interstellar dust grains illuminated by the interstellar radiation field (ISRF). At 1.25 and 2.2 μ {{m}}, a recent observational study shows that intensity ratios of the DGL to interstellar 100 μ {{m}} dust emission steeply decrease toward high Galactic latitudes (b). In this paper, we investigate the origin(s) of the b-dependence on the basis of models of thermal emission and scattered light. Combining a thermal emission model with the regional variation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance observed with Planck, we show that the contribution of the near-IR thermal emission component to the observed DGL is lower than ∼ 20 % . We also examine the b-dependence of the scattered light, assuming a plane–parallel Galaxy with smooth distributions of the ISRF and dust density along the vertical direction, and assuming a scattering phase function according to a recently developed model of interstellar dust. We normalize the scattered light intensity to the 100 μ {{m}} intensity corrected for deviation from the cosecant-b law according to the Planck observation. As the result, the present model that considers the b-dependence of dust and the ISRF properties can account for the observed b-dependence of the near-IR DGL. However, the uncertainty in the correction for the 100 μ {{m}} emission is large, and other normalizing quantities may be appropriate for a more robust analysis of the DGL.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birnstiel, Tilman; Andrews, Sean M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pinilla, Paola; Kama, Mihkel, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands)


    Recent imaging of protoplanetary disks with high resolution and contrast have revealed a striking variety of substructure. Of particular interest are cases where near-infrared scattered light images show evidence for low-intensity annular “gaps.” The origins of such structures are still uncertain, but the interaction of the gas disk with planets is a common interpretation. We study the impact that the evolution of the solid material can have on the observable properties of disks in a simple scenario without any gravitational or hydrodynamical disturbances to the gas disk structure. Even with a smooth and continuous gas density profile, we find that the scattered light emission produced by small dust grains can exhibit ring-like depressions similar to those presented in recent observations. The physical mechanisms responsible for these features rely on the inefficient fragmentation of dust particles. The occurrence and position of the proposed “gap” features depend most strongly on the dust-to-gas ratio, the fragmentation threshold velocity, the strength of the turbulence, and the age of the disk, and should be generic (at some radius) for typically adopted disk parameters. The same physical processes can affect the thermal emission at optically thin wavelengths (∼1 mm), although the behavior can be more complex; unlike for disk–planet interactions, a “gap” should not be present at these longer wavelengths.

  3. Fining of Red Wine Monitored by Multiple Light Scattering. (United States)

    Ferrentino, Giovanna; Ramezani, Mohsen; Morozova, Ksenia; Hafner, Daniela; Pedri, Ulrich; Pixner, Konrad; Scampicchio, Matteo


    This work describes a new approach based on multiple light scattering to study red wine clarification processes. The whole spectral signal (1933 backscattering points along the length of each sample vial) were fitted by a multivariate kinetic model that was built with a three-step mechanism, implying (1) adsorption of wine colloids to fining agents, (2) aggregation into larger particles, and (3) sedimentation. Each step is characterized by a reaction rate constant. According to the first reaction, the results showed that gelatin was the most efficient fining agent, concerning the main objective, which was the clarification of the wine, and consequently the increase in its limpidity. Such a trend was also discussed in relation to the results achieved by nephelometry, total phenols, ζ-potential, color, sensory, and electronic nose analyses. Also, higher concentrations of the fining agent (from 5 to 30 g/100 L) or higher temperatures (from 10 to 20 °C) sped up the process. Finally, the advantage of using the whole spectral signal vs classical univariate approaches was demonstrated by comparing the uncertainty associated with the rate constants of the proposed kinetic model. Overall, multiple light scattering technique showed a great potential for studying fining processes compared to classical univariate approaches.

  4. Online submicron particle sizing by dynamic light scattering using autodilution (United States)

    Nicoli, David F.; Elings, V. B.


    Efficient production of a wide range of commercial products based on submicron colloidal dispersions would benefit from instrumentation for online particle sizing, permitting real time monitoring and control of the particle size distribution. Recent advances in the technology of dynamic light scattering (DLS), especially improvements in algorithms for inversion of the intensity autocorrelation function, have made it ideally suited to the measurement of simple particle size distributions in the difficult submicron region. Crucial to the success of an online DSL based instrument is a simple mechanism for automatically sampling and diluting the starting concentrated sample suspension, yielding a final concentration which is optimal for the light scattering measurement. A proprietary method and apparatus was developed for performing this function, designed to be used with a DLS based particle sizing instrument. A PC/AT computer is used as a smart controller for the valves in the sampler diluter, as well as an input-output communicator, video display and data storage device. Quantitative results are presented for a latex suspension and an oil-in-water emulsion.

  5. Synthesis and nonlinear light scattering of microemulsions and nanoparticle suspensions (United States)

    Salazar-Alvarez, German; Björkman, Eva; Lopes, Cesar; Eriksson, Anders; Svensson, Sören; Muhammed, Mamoun


    Microemulsions composed of normal or inverse micellar solutions and aqueous suspensions of pristine (uncoated) or silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles, mainly γ-Fe2O3, were synthesised and their optical limiting properties investigated. The microemulsions are colorless solutions with high transparency for visible wavelengths while the aqueous suspensions of iron oxide are of pale yellow colour. Optical limiting experiments performed in 2 mm cells using a f/5 optical system with a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser delivering 5 ns pulses with 10 Hz repetition rate, showed clamping levels of ˜3 μJ for the suspensions of both pristine and silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. A strong photoinduced nonlinear light scattering was observed for the water-in-oil microemulsion and the aqueous suspensions of nanoparticles while oil-in-water microemulsions did not show a significant nonlinear effect. Measurements carried out using an integrating sphere further verified that the photoinduced nonlinear light scattering is the dominating nonlinear mechanism while the nonlinear absorption of iron oxide nanoparticles is negligible at 532 nm.

  6. Flow speed measurement using two-point collective light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeier, N.P


    Measurements of turbulence in plasmas and fluids using the technique of collective light scattering have always been plagued by very poor spatial resolution. In 1994, a novel two-point collective light scattering system for the measurement of transport in a fusion plasma was proposed. This diagnostic method was design for a great improvement of the spatial resolution, without sacrificing accuracy in the velocity measurement. The system was installed at the W7-AS steallartor in Garching, Germany, in 1996, and has been operating since. This master thesis is an investigation of the possible application of this new method to the measurement of flow speeds in normal fluids, in particular air, although the results presented in this work have significance for the plasma measurements as well. The main goal of the project was the experimental verification of previous theoretical predictions. However, the theoretical considerations presented in the thesis show that the method can only be hoped to work for flows that are almost laminar and shearless, which makes it of very small practical interest. Furthermore, this result also implies that the diagnostic at W7-AS cannot be expected to give the results originally hoped for. (au) 1 tab., 51 ills., 29 refs.

  7. Off-axis phonon and photon propagation in porous silicon superlattices studied by Brillouin spectroscopy and optical reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, L. C., E-mail:; Andrews, G. T., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, Newfoundland A1B 3X7 (Canada)


    Brillouin light scattering experiments and optical reflectance measurements were performed on a pair of porous silicon-based optical Bragg mirrors which had constituent layer porosity ratios close to unity. For off-axis propagation, the phononic and photonic band structures of the samples were modeled as a series of intersecting linear dispersion curves. Zone-folding was observed for the longitudinal bulk acoustic phonon and the frequency of the probed zone-folded longitudinal phonon was shown to be dependent on the propagation direction as well as the folding order of the mode branch. There was no conclusive evidence of coupling between the transverse and the folded longitudinal modes. Two additional observed Brillouin peaks were attributed to the Rayleigh surface mode and a possible pseudo-surface mode. Both of these modes were dispersive, with the velocity increasing as the wavevector decreased.

  8. Polyelectrolyte Conformation, Interactions and Hydrodynamics as Studied by Light Scattering. (United States)

    Ghosh, Snehasish

    Polyelectrolyte conformation, interactions and hydrodynamics show a marked dependence on the ionic strength (C_{rm s}) of the medium, the concentration (C_{rm p}) of the polymer itself and their charge density (xi). The apparent electrostatic persistence length obtained from static light scattering varied approximately as the inverse square root of C _{rm s} for highly pure, high molecular weight hyaluronate (HA) as well as for variably ionized acrylamide/sodium acrylate copolymers (NaPAA), and linearly with xi. The experimental values of persistence length and second virial coefficient (A_2) are compared to predictions from theories based on the Debye-Huckel approximation for the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and on excluded-volume. Although the mean square radius of gyration () depended strongly on C _{rm s}. decreasing with increasing C_{rm s} for both HA and NaPAA indicating clear evidence of polyion expansion, dynamic light scattering values of the translational diffusion coefficient (D) remains constant when extrapolated to infinite polymer concentration for both the polymers. The behavior of D is compared to predictions from coupled mode theory in the linear limit. The effects of NaOH on the conformations, interactions, diffusion and hydrolysis rates of HA are characterized in detail using static, dynamic and time-dependent light scattering supplemented by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). For the HA , A_2 and the hydrolysis rates all resemble superposing titration curves, while the D remains independent of both the concentration of NaOH, and the contraction of . The indication is that the interactions, conformations and the hydrolysis rates are all controlled by the titration of the HA hydroxyl groups by the NaOH to yield -O ^-, which (i) destroys single strand hydrogen bonds, leading to de-stiffening and contraction of the HA coil and a large decrease in intermolecular interaction, and (ii) slowly depolymerizes HA. The experimental results of HA

  9. Analysis of optical pulse coding in spontaneous Brillouin-based distributed temperature sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcelo A. Soto; Gabriele Bolognini; Fabrizio Di Pasquale


    A theoretical and experimental analysis of optical pulse coding techniques applied to distributed optical fiber temperature sensors based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering using the Landau-Placzek ratio (LPR...

  10. Light scattering study of zinc oxide nanoparticles for the application of its anti-bacterial property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Roy


    Full Text Available Investigations on the anti-bacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles on Staphylococcus aureus were made by using bio-technical method. Light scattering properties of these particles were studied as a function of scattering angle by using a versatile laboratory light scattering setup in order to find the scattering profile of ZnO nanoparticles and also the mode of action of these particles on bacterial property.

  11. Characterization of aniosotropic nano-particles by using depolarized dynamic light scattering in the near field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogioli, D.; Salerno, D.; Cassina, V.; Sacanna, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311471676; Philipse, A.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073532894; Croccolo, F.; Mantegazza, F.


    Light scattering techniques are widely used in many fields of condensed and soft matter physics. Usually these methods are based on the study of the scattered light in the far field. Recently, a new family of near field detection schemes has been developed, mainly for the study of small angle light

  12. Light scattering by planetary-regolith analog samples: computational results (United States)

    Väisänen, Timo; Markkanen, Johannes; Hadamcik, Edith; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Lasue, Jeremie; Blum, Jürgen; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri


    We compute light scattering by a planetary-regolith analog surface. The corresponding experimental work is from Hadamcik et al. [1] with the PROGRA2-surf [2] device measuring the polarization of dust particles. The analog samples are low density (volume fraction 0.15 ± 0.03) agglomerates produced by random ballistic deposition of almost equisized silica spheres (refractive index n=1.5 and diameter 1.45 ± 0.06 µm). Computations are carried out with the recently developed codes entitled Radiative Transfer with Reciprocal Transactions (R2T2) and Radiative Transfer Coherent Backscattering with incoherent interactions (RT-CB-ic). Both codes incorporate the so-called incoherent treatment which enhances the applicability of the radiative transfer as shown by Muinonen et al. [3]. As a preliminary result, we have computed scattering from a large spherical medium with the RT-CB-ic using equal-sized particles with diameters of 1.45 microns. The preliminary results have shown that the qualitative characteristics are similar for the computed and measured intensity and polarization curves but that there are still deviations between the characteristics. We plan to remove the deviations by incorporating a size distribution of particles (1.45 ± 0.02 microns) and detailed information about the volume density profile within the analog surface. Acknowledgments: We acknowledge the ERC Advanced Grant no. 320773 entitled Scattering and Absorption of Electromagnetic Waves in Particulate Media (SAEMPL). Computational resources were provided by CSC - IT Centre for Science Ltd, Finland. References: [1] Hadamcik E. et al. (2007), JQSRT, 106, 74-89 [2] Levasseur-Regourd A.C. et al. (2015), Polarimetry of stars and planetary systems, CUP, 61-80 [3] Muinonen K. et al. (2016), extended abstract for EMTS.

  13. Fractal analysis of photoinduced light-scattering patterns in stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals (United States)

    Sidorov, N. V.; Manukovskaya, D. V.; Palatnikov, M. N.


    We have analyzed the fractal dimension of photoinduced light-scattering patterns in stoichiometric lithium niobate single crystals of different genesis and, based on this analysis, we have investigated the dynamics of manifestation of laser-induced defects in different layers of the photoinduced light-scattering pattern in these crystals. Energy transfer between photoinduced light-scattering layers has been revealed. We have shown that, as distinct from the method of investigation of the photoinduced light scattering by measuring the time dynamics of the opening angle of the indicatrix of the speckle structure of the photoinduced light scattering, the investigation of the time dynamics of the fractal dimension of different layers of the photoinduced light-scattering pattern makes it possible to register particular features of time changes of the order of laser-induced defects in the crystal.

  14. Dielectric and metal target identification based on polarized light scattering analysis: a numerical study (United States)

    Yan, Zhen-Gang; Sun, Weiping; Ren, Meng; Lv, Hongpeng; Li, Jie; Xue, Liang; Yan, Keding; Wang, Shouyu


    In order to quantitatively analyze scattering from two dimensional randomly rough Gaussian surfaces, Kirchhoff approximation method is adopted in numerical calculation for analyzing full angular Stokes vectors of light scattering. With studying both the p- and s-polarized scattering fields from various materials such as metals and dielectrics, it is found that V components of scattering light from metals and dielectrics are different. Via analytical calculation according to slope probability density, the V component difference is attributed to refractive index of materials. Both numerical and analytical calculations prove the V component difference in light scattering can act as a criterion for metal and dielectric identification.

  15. Brillouin suppression in a fiber optical parametric amplifier by combining temperature distribution and phase modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Carsten Vandel


    We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation.......We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation....

  16. Light Scattering By Nonspherical Particles: Current Status and Challenging Issues (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)


    Quantitative analyses of remote sensing measurements of aerosols, clouds, precipitation, and particulate surfaces as well as computations of the Earth's radiation balance require detailed understanding of the interaction of small particles with light and other electromagnetic radiation. The convenient availability of the Lorenz-Mie theory has led to a widespread practice of treating all particles as if they were spheres. However, many natural and anthropogenic particles have nonspherical shapes, and the accumulated knowledge suggests that their scattering and radiative properties can be dramatically different from those of equivalent spheres. This presentation will summarize the recent significant progress achieved in the area of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical particles and outline major problems that still await solution. The talk will cover the following specific topics: (1) comparison of most widely used exact and approximate theoretical techniques; (2) outline of laboratory and field measurement techniques; (3) compare theory and experiment; (4) need for a statistical approach in dealing with natural particles; (5) remote sensing and radiative transfer applications; and (6) major unsolved problems.

  17. Light scattering by lunar-like particle size distributions (United States)

    Goguen, Jay D.


    A fundamental input to models of light scattering from planetary regoliths is the mean phase function of the regolith particles. Using the known size distribution for typical lunar soils, the mean phase function and mean linear polarization for a regolith volume element of spherical particles of any composition were calculated from Mie theory. The two contour plots given here summarize the changes in the mean phase function and linear polarization with changes in the real part of the complex index of refraction, n - ik, for k equals 0.01, the visible wavelength 0.55 micrometers, and the particle size distribution of the typical mature lunar soil 72141. A second figure is a similar index-phase surface, except with k equals 0.1. The index-phase surfaces from this survey are a first order description of scattering by lunar-like regoliths of spherical particles of arbitrary composition. They form the basis of functions that span a large range of parameter-space.

  18. 2D Static Light Scattering for Dairy Based Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke

    are evaluated and discussed. There is a major emphasis on using 2DSLS to discriminate between different protein microstructures in yogurt products. This potentially allows for process control, in relation to microstructure, during yogurt manufacture. As microstructure is critical for consumer acceptability......, this specific process control can be highly beneficial. To provide suitable reference measures on the actual microstructure, we investigate how to quantify micrographs of yogurts objectively. We provide a comparative study, that includes a broad range of different image texture descriptors.......Throughout this thesis we investigate a recently introduced optical technique denoted 2D static light scattering (2DSLS). The technique is remote sensing, non-invasive, highly flexible, and appears to be well suited for in-line process control. Moreover, the output signal contains contributions...

  19. Scattering light interference from liquid crystal polymer dispersion films (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Yen; Tsai, Ming-Shann; Lin, Chi-Huang; Fuh, Andy Y.


    The Quetelet-type ring pattern is observed in liquid crystal polymer dispersion (LCPD) films. The clusters of the polymer network and liquid crystal (LC) domains with different director axes in the LCPD films serve as scatterers. Cells with unidirectional and multidirectional rubbins are fabricated. Experimental results show that the polarization of incident light, the applied voltage and the ambient temperature significantly affect the ring intensities. However, the contribution of the LC domains is not evident until the voltage is applied. Finally, rubbing the cells in multiple directions reveals that measurement of the Quetelet-type ring intensity can be used to readily identify the orientation of the liquid crystals. This finding also reveals that the LCs in an LCPD mixture are aligned closer to the final rubbing direction than are pure LCs in a multidirectional rubbed cell. A simple model was proposed to explain the observations.

  20. Manipulating scattering of ultracold atoms with light-induced dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail eLemeshko


    Full Text Available Recently it has been shown that pairs of atoms can form metastable bonds due to non-conservative forces induced by dissipation [Lemeshko&Weimer, Nature Comm. textbf{4}, 2230 (2013]. Here we study the dynamics of interaction-induced coherent population trapping -- the process responsible for the formation of dissipatively bound molecules. We derive the effective dissipative potentials induced between ultracold atoms by laser light, and study the time evolution of the scattering states. We demonstrate that binding occurs on short timescales of $sim10~mu$s, even if the initial kinetic energy of the atoms significantly exceeds the depth of the dissipative potential. Dissipatively-bound molecules with preordained bond lengths and vibrational wavefunctions can be created and detected in current experiments with ultracold atoms.

  1. Collective stimulated Brillouin backscatter

    CERN Document Server

    Lushnikov, Pavel M


    We develop the statistical theory of the stimulated Brillouin backscatter (BSBS) instability of a spatially and temporally partially incoherent laser beam for laser fusion relevant plasma. We find a new regime of BSBS which has a much larger threshold than the classical threshold of a coherent beam in long-scale-length laser fusion plasma. Instability is collective because it does not depend on the dynamics of isolated speckles of laser intensity, but rather depends on averaged beam intensity. We identify convective and absolute instability regimes. Well above the incoherent threshold the coherent instability growth rate is recovered. The threshold of convective instability is inside the typical parameter region of National Ignition Facility (NIF) designs although current NIF bandwidth is not large enough to insure dominance of collective instability and suggests lower instability threshold due to speckle contribution. In contrast, we estimate that the bandwidth of KrF-laser-based fusion systems would be larg...

  2. Spatial quantum correlations induced by random multiple scattering of quadrature squeezed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter


    The authors demonstrates that spatial quantum correlations are induced by multiple scattering of quadrature squeezed light through a random medium. As a consequence, light scattered along two different directions by the random medium will not be independent, but be correlated to an extent that ca...... only be described by a quantum mechanical theory for multiple scattering. The spatial quantum correlation is revealed in the fluctuations of the total intensity transmission or reflection through the multiple scattering medium.......The authors demonstrates that spatial quantum correlations are induced by multiple scattering of quadrature squeezed light through a random medium. As a consequence, light scattered along two different directions by the random medium will not be independent, but be correlated to an extent that can...

  3. Measurements of strong correlations in the transport of light through strongly scattering materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbulut, D.


    In this thesis, we study light transport through multiple scattering random photonic materials. Light incident on such materials undergoes many scattering events before exiting the material. The relation between the incident and the transmitted fields is determined by the optical transmission matrix

  4. Discrimination of human cytotoxic lymphocytes from regulatory and B-lymphocytes by orthogonal light scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; de Grooth, B.G.; ten Napel, C.H.H.; van Berkel, W.; Greve, Jan


    Light scattering properties of human lymphocyte subpopulations selected by immunofluorescence were studied with a flow cytometer. Regulatory and B-lymphocytes showed a low orthogonal light scatter signal, whereas cytotoxic lymphocytes identified with leu-7, leu-11 and leu-15 revealed a large

  5. Numerical analysis of space-weathering effects on light scattering by asteroid surfaces (United States)

    Markkanen, J.; Martikainen, J.; Penttilä, A.; Muinonen, K.


    We have developed a novel radiative transfer (RT) / geometric optics (GO) numerical approach which allows us to model space-weathering effects on light scattering by planetary surfaces. Our analysis show that the space weathering has a major impact on light-scattering features of asteroids at the visible wavelengths.

  6. The polarization of light scattered by small particles: a personal review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenier, J.W.


    A personal review of the author's field of research is presented at the occasion of his receipt of the first Van de Hulst Light-Scattering Award. Special attention is given to the relation between the author's work and the contributions of Professor H.C. van de Hulst to the field of light scattering

  7. A rotational diffusion coefficient of the 70s ribosome determined by depolarized laser light scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruining, J.; Fijnaut, H.M.

    We have obtained a rotational diffusion coefficient of the 70S ribosome isolated from Escherichia-coli (MRE-600), from the depolarized light scattering spectrum measured by photon correlation spectroscopy. The intensity correlation function of depolarized scattered light contains contributions due

  8. Optical evaluation of Fricke xylenol orange gel by light scattered at 90 degrees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svoboda, J; Alwan, R; Guermeur, F; Makovicka, L; Bailly, Y [IRMA/ENISYS/FEMTO-ST UMR 6174 CNRS, Universite de Franche-Comte, Pole Universitaire, BP 71427, 25211 Montbeliard Cedex (France); Spevacek, V; Cechak, T [Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, Praha 1, 115 19 (Czech Republic); Martin, E [Department of Radiotherapy, CH Belfort-Montbeliard, 25209 Montbeliard (France)], E-mail:


    This communication presents optical method for evaluation of Fricke xylenol gel (FXG) using light scattered at 90 degrees to initial direction. Although Fricke gel is predominantly absorbing, gelatine matrix scatters enough light which could be collected and related to dose delivered to gel. Initials experiments were oriented to determination applicability of this approach.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Anharmonic phonon contributions to Raman scattering in locally anharmonic crystal systems in the framework of the pseudospin-electron model with tunneling splitting of levels are investigated. The case of strong pseudospin-electron coupling is considered. Pseudospin and electron contributions to scattering are taken into account. Frequency dependences of Raman scattering intensity for different values of model parameters and for different polarization of scattering and incident light are investigated.

  10. Portable bacterial identification system based on elastic light scatter patterns. (United States)

    Bae, Euiwon; Ying, Dawei; Kramer, Donald; Patsekin, Valery; Rajwa, Bartek; Holdman, Cheryl; Sturgis, Jennifer; Davisson, V Jo; Robinson, J Paul


    Conventional diagnosis and identification of bacteria requires shipment of samples to a laboratory for genetic and biochemical analysis. This process can take days and imposes significant delay to action in situations where timely intervention can save lives and reduce associated costs. To enable faster response to an outbreak, a low-cost, small-footprint, portable microbial-identification instrument using forward scatterometry has been developed. This device, weighing 9 lb and measuring 12 × 6 × 10.5 in., utilizes elastic light scatter (ELS) patterns to accurately capture bacterial colony characteristics and delivers the classification results via wireless access. The overall system consists of two CCD cameras, one rotational and one translational stage, and a 635-nm laser diode. Various software algorithms such as Hough transform, 2-D geometric moments, and the traveling salesman problem (TSP) have been implemented to provide colony count and circularity, centering process, and minimized travel time among colonies. Experiments were conducted with four bacteria genera using pure and mixed plate and as proof of principle a field test was conducted in four different locations where the average classification rate ranged between 95 and 100%.

  11. Portable bacterial identification system based on elastic light scatter patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae Euiwon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional diagnosis and identification of bacteria requires shipment of samples to a laboratory for genetic and biochemical analysis. This process can take days and imposes significant delay to action in situations where timely intervention can save lives and reduce associated costs. To enable faster response to an outbreak, a low-cost, small-footprint, portable microbial-identification instrument using forward scatterometry has been developed. Results This device, weighing 9 lb and measuring 12 × 6 × 10.5 in., utilizes elastic light scatter (ELS patterns to accurately capture bacterial colony characteristics and delivers the classification results via wireless access. The overall system consists of two CCD cameras, one rotational and one translational stage, and a 635-nm laser diode. Various software algorithms such as Hough transform, 2-D geometric moments, and the traveling salesman problem (TSP have been implemented to provide colony count and circularity, centering process, and minimized travel time among colonies. Conclusions Experiments were conducted with four bacteria genera using pure and mixed plate and as proof of principle a field test was conducted in four different locations where the average classification rate ranged between 95 and 100%.

  12. Physiological and pathological clinical conditions and light scattering in brain (United States)

    Kurata, Tsuyoshi; Iwata, Sachiko; Tsuda, Kennosuke; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Saikusa, Mamoru; Hara, Naoko; Oda, Motoki; Ohmae, Etsuko; Araki, Yuko; Sugioka, Takashi; Takashima, Sachio; Iwata, Osuke


    MRI of preterm infants at term commonly reveals subtle brain lesions such as diffuse white matter injury, which are linked with later cognitive impairments. The timing and mechanism of such injury remains unclear. The reduced scattering coefficient of near-infrared light (μs’) has been shown to correlate linearly with gestational age in neonates. To identify clinical variables associated with brain μs’, 60 preterm and full-term infants were studied within 7 days of birth. Dependence of μs’ obtained from the frontal head on clinical variables was assessed. In the univariate analysis, smaller μs’ was associated with antenatal glucocorticoid, emergency Caesarean section, requirement for mechanical ventilation, smaller gestational age, smaller body sizes, low 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, higher cord blood pH and PO2, and higher blood HCO3- at the time of study. Multivariate analysis revealed that smaller gestational age, requirement for mechanical ventilation, and higher HCO3- at the time of study were correlated with smaller μs’. Brain μs’ depended on variables associated with physiological maturation and pathological conditions of the brain. Further longitudinal studies may help identify pathological events and clinical conditions responsible for subtle brain injury and subsequent cognitive impairments following preterm birth.

  13. Light scattering studies of irradiated {kappa}- and {iota}-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, L.V. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan) and Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)]. E-mail:; Nasimova, I.R. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Physics Department, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Aranilla, C.T. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Shibayama, M. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan)]. E-mail:


    The relationships between the molecular weight (Mw) and the characteristic decay time distribution function G({gamma}) of irradiated kappa ({kappa}-) and iota ({iota}-) carrageenan were studied by static and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Mw and the characteristic decay time ({gamma}{sup -1}) are both steep decreasing exponential function with radiation dose. The dynamic behavior of irradiated {iota}-carrageenan was compared to irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan by DLS. The intensity correlation function of both carrageenans shifted towards shorter relaxation times with increasing radiation dose. Irradiated {iota}-carrageenan like {kappa}-carrageenan exhibits power law behavior at 0-50 kGy (at 0.05-0.1M KCl) indicating similar gelation behaviors. The temperature at which transition from coil to helix takes place (conformational transition temperature) decreases with increasing irradiation dose. A new faster relaxation mode appears at around 0.1-1 ms for both carrageenans between 100 and 150 kGy. Maximum peak height for this mode is at 100 kGy which corresponds to the optimum biological activity of {kappa}- and {iota}-carrageenan.

  14. Validation of in-line surface characterization by light scattering in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    The suitability of a commercial scattered light sensor for in-line characterization of fine surfaces in the roughness range Sa 1 – 30 nm generated by the Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) was investigated and validated. A number of surfaces were generated and directly measured with the scattered light...... sensor on the machine in a shop floor environment. Scattered light roughness measurements of the whole surfaces were performed to investigate the measurement method suitability for 100% quality control. For comparison, the surfaces were measured with reference optical instruments in laboratory conditions....... Comparison of the scattered light measurements results taken on the machine with the reference optical roughness measurements taken in laboratory demonstrate the capability of the scattered light sensor for robust in-line surface characterization. This allows for the RAP process control by proper process...

  15. Changes in the spectrum of light scattered from a rough dielectric film on a metal surface (United States)

    Gu, Zu-Han


    Theoretical calculations have shown that in order to obtain changes in the spectrum of light scattered from a randomly rough surface that are large enough to be observed experimentally, this spectrum should be measured at angles of scattering in the near vicinity of features in the scattering pattern whose angular positions depend strongly on the frequency of the incident light. A scattering system that possessses such features is a dielectric film deposited on the planar surface of a reflecting substrate whose illuminated surface is a 2D randomly rough surface. When the dielectric surface is weakly rough, coherent light scattered from this system consists of speckle spots that arrange themselves into concentric interference rings, called Selenyi rings, centered at the normal to the mean surfaces. The angular positions of these rings (intensity maxima) are independent of the angle of incidence of the incident light. When the dielectric surface is strongly rough the angular positions of these rings now depend on the angle of incidence, and they are called Quetelet rings. The angular positions of both types of rings depend strongly on the wavelength of the incident light. Therefore, the spectrum of the scattered light, measured at a scattering angle close to the position of one of these rings, can differ significantly from that of the incident light. In this paper we study experimentally the scattering of light from the system just described, namely a dielectric film deposited on the planar surface of a metallic substrate, when the illuminated surface of the film is a 2D randomly rough surface. We find large changes in the spectrum of the scattered light at scattering angles in the neighborhood of the fringes in the scattering pattern to which this system gives rise.

  16. Light Conversion and Scattering in UV Protective Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grancarić Ana Marija


    Full Text Available The primary cause of skin cancer is believed to be a long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation in the population. It is believed that in childhood and adolescence 80% of UV-R gets absorbed, whilst in the remaining 20% gets absorbed later in the lifetime. This suggests that proper and early photoprotection may reduce the risk of subsequent occurrence of skin cancer. Textile and clothing are the most suitable interface between environment and human body. It can show UV protection, but in most cases it does not provide full sun screening properties. UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such as type of fibre, fabric surface and construction, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agent (FWA, UV-B protective agents, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. Based on electronically excited state by energy of UV-R (usually 340-370 nm, the molecules of FWAs show the phenomenon of fluorescence giving to white textiles high whiteness of outstanding brightness by reemitting the energy at the blue region (typically 420-470 nm of the spectrum. By absorbing UV-A radiation, optical brightened fabrics transform this radiation into blue fluorescence, which leads to better UV protection. Natural zeolites are rock-forming, microporous silicate minerals. Applied as nanoparticles to textile surface, it scatters the UV-R resulting in lower UV-A and UV-B transmission. If applied with other UV absorbing agents, e.g. FWAs, synergistic effect occurs. Silicones are inert, synthetic compounds with a variety of forms and uses. It provides a unique soft touch, is very resistant to washing and improves the property of fabric to protect against UV radiation. Therefore, the UV protective properties of cotton fabric achieved by light conversion and scattering was researched in this paper. For that purpose, the stilbene-derived FWAs were applied on cotton fabric in wide concentration

  17. Metamaterial control of stimulated Brillouin scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, M J A; de Sterke, C Martijn; Wolff, C; Lapine, M; Poulton, C G


    Using full opto-acoustic numerical simulations, we demonstrate enhancement and suppression of the SBS gain coefficient in a metamaterial comprising a subwavelength cubic array of dielectric spheres suspended in a dielectric background material. We develop a general theoretical framework and present several numerical examples for technologically important material combinations. For As$_2$S$_3$ spheres suspended in silicon, we achieve an enhancement of more than one order of magnitude in the SBS gain coefficient compared to pure silicon, and for GaAs spheres in silicon, perfect suppression of SBS is obtained. The gain coefficient for As$_2$S$_3$ glass can also be strongly suppressed by introducing a suspension of amorphous silica spheres. Effective photonic and acoustic parameters are shown to depend in a complex way on the filling fraction, and each have varying influence on the effective gain coefficient of the metamaterial. For the studied combinations of materials, electrostriction is the dominant effect be...

  18. Spectroscopic study of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene for liquid scintillator neutrino detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiang, E-mail: [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, 430072, Wuhan (China); Liu, Qian, E-mail: [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China); Han, Junbo [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Zhenyu [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, 430072, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Xuan; Ding, Yayun [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China); Zheng, Yangheng [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China); Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun; Wang, Yifang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China)


    We have set up a light scattering spectrometer to study the depolarization of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene. The scattering spectra show that the depolarized part of light scattering is due to Rayleigh scattering. The additional depolarized Rayleigh scattering can make the effective transparency of linear alkylbenzene much better than expected. Therefore, sufficient scintillation photons can transmit through large liquid scintillator detector, such as that of the JUNO experiment. Our study is crucial to achieving an unprecedented energy resolution of 3 %/√(E(MeV)) required for the JUNO experiment to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. The spectroscopic method can also be used to examine the depolarization of other organic solvents used in neutrino experiments.

  19. Chiral symmetry and dispersion relations: from $\\pi \\pi$ scattering to hadronic light-by-light.

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    Chiral symmetry provides strong constraints on hadronic matrix elements at low energy, which are most efficiently derived with chiral perturbation theory. As an effective quantum field theory the latter also accounts for rescattering or unitarity effects, albeit only perturbatively, via the loop expansion. In cases where rescattering effects are important it becomes necessary to go beyond the perturbative expansion, e.g. by using dispersion relations. A matching between the chiral and the dispersive representation provides in several cases results of high precision. I will discuss this approach with the help of a few examples, like $\\pi \\pi$ scattering (which has been tested successfully by CERN experiments like NA48/2 and DIRAC), $\\eta \\to 3 \\pi$ and the hadronic light-by-light contribution to $(g-2)_\\mu$. For the latter quantity the implementation of the dispersive approach has opened up the way to a model-independent calculation and the concrete possibility to significantly reduce the theoretical uncertain...

  20. arXiv Light-by-Light Scattering Constraint on Born-Infeld Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; You, Tevong


    The recent measurement by ATLAS of light-by-light scattering in LHC Pb-Pb collisions is the first direct evidence for this basic process. We find that it excludes a range of the mass scale of a nonlinear Born-Infeld extension of QED that is ≲100  GeV, a much stronger constraint than those derived previously. In the case of a Born-Infeld extension of the standard model in which the U(1)Y hypercharge gauge symmetry is realized nonlinearly, the limit on the corresponding mass reach is ∼90  GeV, which, in turn, imposes a lower limit of ≳11  TeV on the magnetic monopole mass in such a U(1)Y Born-Infeld theory.

  1. Observing light-by-light scattering at the Large Hadron Collider. (United States)

    d'Enterria, David; da Silveira, Gustavo G


    Elastic light-by-light scattering (γγ→γγ) is open to study at the Large Hadron Collider thanks to the large quasireal photon fluxes available in electromagnetic interactions of protons (p) and lead (Pb) ions. The γγ→γγ cross sections for diphoton masses m(γγ)>5 GeV amount to 12 fb, 26 pb, and 35 nb in p-p, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies √(s(NN))=14, 8.8, and 5.5 TeV, respectively. Such a measurement has no substantial background in Pb-Pb collisions where one expects about 20 signal events per run, after typical detector acceptance and reconstruction efficiency selections.

  2. Intraocular light scatter, reflections, fluorescence and absorption: what we see in the slit lamp. (United States)

    van den Berg, Thomas J T P


    Much knowledge has been collected over the past 20 years about light scattering in the eye- in particular in the eye lens- and its visual effect, called straylight. It is the purpose of this review to discuss how these insights can be applied to understanding the slit lamp image. The slit lamp image mainly results from back scattering, whereas the effects on vision result mainly from forward scatter. Forward scatter originates from particles of about wavelength size distributed throughout the lens. Most of the slit lamp image originates from small particle scatter (Rayleigh scatter). For a population of middle aged lenses it will be shown that both these scatter components remove around 10% of the light from the direct beam. For slit lamp observation close to the reflection angles, zones of discontinuity (Wasserspalten) at anterior and posterior parts of the lens show up as rough surface reflections. All these light scatter effects increase with age, but the correlations with age, and also between the different components, are weak. For retro-illumination imaging it will be argued that the density or opacity seen in areas of cortical or posterior subcapsular cataract show up because of light scattering, not because of light loss. NOTES: (1) Light scatter must not be confused with aberrations. Light penetrating the eye is divided into two parts: a relatively small part is scattered, and removed from the direct beam. Most of the light is not scattered, but continues as the direct beam. This non-scattered part is the basis for functional imaging, but its quality is under the control of aberrations. Aberrations deflect light mainly over small angles (light scatter is important because of the straylight effects over large angles (>1°), causing problems like glare and hazy vision. (2) The slit lamp image in older lenses and nuclear cataract is strongly influenced by absorption. However, this effect is greatly exaggerated by the light path lengths concerned. This

  3. Measuring the dynamics of structural changes in biological macromolecules from light scattering data (United States)

    Johnson, Adriel D.


    Examining techniques to study the dynamics of structural changes in various molecules has been an ongoing goal of the space program. Knowing how these phenomena occur in biological systems is fundamental to understanding what is necessary for life to remain functional in the space environment. A hierarchy of biological organization is functionally described when cells join together small organic molecules to form larger and more complex molecules. Characterizing the architecture of a particular macromolecule helps determine how that molecule works in the living cell and is basic to the diversity of life. Understanding this arrangement involves the correlation of the structure of macromolecules with their functions. A light scattering photometer was developed for detecting continuous measurement of the angular spectrum of light scattered by dynamically changing systems. The analysis of light scattered by biological macromolecules can be used to determine concentration, size, shape, molecular weight, and structural changes of cells, such as erythrocytes. Some light scattering photometers can collect and store 120 angular scattering spectra per minute, with an angular resolution of 0.2 deg which can be displayed with computer graphics. The light scattering photometer does the following: functions to produce and detect scattered light; determines scatter angles; and collects, stores, and analyzes data.

  4. Light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses with surface light scattering removed from cadaver eyes. (United States)

    Werner, Liliana; Morris, Caleb; Liu, Erica; Stallings, Shannon; Floyd, Anne; Ollerton, Andrew; Leishman, Lisa; Bodnar, Zachary


    To assess the potential effect of surface light scattering on light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) with or without a blue-light filter. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Intraocular lenses were obtained from human cadavers (49 IOLs total; 36 with blue-light filter) and from finished-goods inventory (controls). The IOLs were removed from cadaver eyes and the power and model matched to unused controls. After surface proteins were removed, the IOLs were hydrated for 24 hours at room temperature. Surface light scattering was measured with a Scheimpflug camera (EAS-1000 Anterior Segment Analysis System). Light transmittance was measured with a Lambda 35 UV/Vis spectrophotometer (single-beam configuration; RSA-PE-20 integrating sphere). Hydrated scatter values ranged from 4.8 to 202.5 computer-compatible tape (CCT) units for explanted IOLs with blue-light filter and 1.5 to 11.8 CCT units for controls; values ranged from 6.0 to 137.5 CCT units for explanted IOLs without a blue-light filter and 3.5 to 9.6 CCT units for controls. In both groups, there was a tendency toward increasing scatter values with increasing postoperative time. No differences in light transmittance were observed between explanted IOLs and controls in both groups (IOLs with blue-light filter: P=.407; IOL with no blue-light filter: P=.487; both paired t test). Although surface light scattering of explanted IOLs was significantly higher than that of controls and appeared to increase with time, no effect was observed on light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic IOLs with or without a blue-light filter. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Condensation nucleation light scattering detection for capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Szostek, B; Koropchak, J A


    We describe two means for interfacing condensation nucleation light scattering detection to capillary electrophoresis (CE). With the first method, a fused-silica capillary was used for the separation and the CE was grounded through a Nafion membrane that also connected the system to a microconcentric pneumatic nebulizer. Limits of detection (LODs) for underivatized amino acids were at the low microgram per milliliter level, and separation efficiencies were ∼9 times lower than the optimum predicted for these species based on the injection plug width and axial dispersion by diffusion. LODs were limited by background nonvolatiles resulting from dissolution of fused silica at the high pHs used for the separations. An alternate system employed PEEK capillaries which acted as the separation capillary and also as the inner nebulizer capillary. In this case, the exit end of the capillary was coated with conductive paint which extended to the tip of the nebulizer, was in contact with the CE buffer, and was grounded to complete the CE circuit. Response was nonlinear and the separation efficiency of this system was somewhat lower than that for the Nafion membrane system. Response as peak heights for all of the amino acids and peptides studied was nearly identical on a mass basis. With this system, much lower background signals were obtained, and as a result, LODs for underivatized amino acids and peptides were below the 1 μg/mL level, corresponding to less than 10 pg or less than 100 fmol injected. Both systems were fairly simple, effective means to generate aerosols with the low flows of CE and should be applicable to interfacing of other aerosol-based detectors with CE.

  6. Multimode Brillouin spectrum in a long tapered birefringent photonic crystal fiber. (United States)

    Tchahame, Joël Cabrel; Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Sylvestre, Thibaut


    We investigate the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a long tapered birefringent solid-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and compare our results with a similar but untapered PCF. It is shown that the taper generates a broadband and multipeaked Brillouin spectrum, while significantly increasing the threshold power. Furthermore, we observe that the strong fiber birefringence gives rise to a frequency shift of the Brillouin spectrum which increases along the fiber. Numerical simulations are also presented to account for the taper effect and the birefringence. Our findings open a new means to control or inhibit the SBS by tapering photonic crystal fibers.

  7. Finite-difference time domain solution of light scattering by arbitrarily shaped particles and surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Sun, Wenbo


    This chapter reviews the fundamental methods and some of the applications of the three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique for the modeling of light scattering by arbitrarily shaped dielectric particles and surfaces. The emphasis is on the details of the FDTD algorithms...... for particle and surface scattering calculations and the uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML) absorbing boundary conditions for truncation of the FDTD grid. We show that the FDTD approach has a significant potential for studying the light scattering by cloud, dust, and biological particles. The applications...... of the FDTD approach for beam scattering by arbitrarily shaped surfaces are also discussed....

  8. Critical behavior of 2,6-dimethylpyridine-water: Measurements of specific heat, dynamic light scattering, and shear viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaev, S. Z.; Behrends, R.; Heimburg, Thomas Rainer


    2,6-dimethylpyridine-water, specific heat, dynamic light scattering, shear viscosity Udgivelsesdato: 14 April......2,6-dimethylpyridine-water, specific heat, dynamic light scattering, shear viscosity Udgivelsesdato: 14 April...

  9. Scattering matrix measurements and light-scattering calculations of calcite particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Dabrowska


    Full Text Available We present measurements of the complete scattering matrix as a function of the scattering angle of a sample of calcite particles collected near Lecce, Italy. The measurements are done at a wavelength of 647 nm in the scattering angle range 3°−177°. FESEM and SEM images show that the sample consists largely of flake-like particles. Ten different flake-like geometries are randomly generated and their scattering properties are simulated with DDA for sizes from 0.1 μm to 1 μm. Some preliminary comparisons of the simulations and the measurements are shown.

  10. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation with multi-angle light scattering and quasi-elastic light scattering for characterization of polymersomes: comparison with classical techniques. (United States)

    Till, Ugo; Gaucher-Delmas, Mireille; Saint-Aguet, Pascale; Hamon, Glenn; Marty, Jean-Daniel; Chassenieux, Christophe; Payré, Bruno; Goudounèche, Dominique; Mingotaud, Anne-Françoise; Violleau, Frédéric


    Polymersomes formed from amphiphilic block copolymers, such as poly(ethyleneoxide-b-ε-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) or poly(ethyleneoxide-b-methylmethacrylate), were characterized by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS), multi-angle light scattering (MALS), and refractive index detection, leading to the determination of their size, shape, and molecular weight. The method was cross-examined with more classical ones, like batch dynamic and static light scattering, electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The results show good complementarities between all the techniques; asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation being the most pertinent one when the sample exhibits several different types of population.

  11. Stimulated light emission and inelastic scattering by a classical linear system of rotating particles. (United States)

    Asenjo-Garcia, Ana; Manjavacas, Alejandro; de Abajo, F Javier García


    The rotational dynamics of particles subject to external illumination is found to produce light amplification and inelastic scattering at high rotation velocities. Light emission at frequencies shifted with respect to the incident light by twice the rotation frequency dominates over elastic scattering within a wide range of light and rotation frequencies. Remarkably, net amplification of the incident light is produced in this classical linear system via stimulated emission. Large optically induced acceleration rates are predicted in vacuum accompanied by moderate heating of the particle, thus supporting the possibility of observing these effects under extreme rotation conditions. © 2011 American Physical Society

  12. Condition for far-zone spectral isotropy of an electromagnetic light wave on weak scattering. (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhao, Daomu


    The far-zone spectral isotropy of an electromagnetic light wave on scattering has been discussed. It is shown that a sufficient condition for the far-zone spectral isotropy of an electromagnetic light wave on scattering can be expressed by the following two requirements: the two-point correlation function of the dielectric susceptibility of the scattering medium obeys the so-called scaling law, and the normalized spectrum of the incident light wave has the same distribution along the two perpendicular directions.

  13. Optical Imaging of Cells with Gold Nanoparticle Clusters as Light Scattering Contrast Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan


    This chapter has two main objectives. First, to review a number of examples illustrating the application of the FDTD approach to the modeling of some typical light scattering configurations that could be associated with flow cytometry. Second, to provide a thorough discussion of these new...... developments in advanced cytometry research by pointing out potential new research directions. A brief description of the FDTD method focusing on the features associated with its application to modeling of light scattering and OPCM cell imaging experiments is provided. The examples include light scattering...

  14. Scattering of Sculpted Light in Intact Brain Tissue, with implications for Optogenetics (United States)

    Favre-Bulle, Itia A.; Preece, Daryl; Nieminen, Timo A.; Heap, Lucy A.; Scott, Ethan K.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina


    Optogenetics uses light to control and observe the activity of neurons, often using a focused laser beam. As brain tissue is a scattering medium, beams are distorted and spread with propagation through neural tissue, and the beam’s degradation has important implications in optogenetic experiments. To address this, we present an analysis of scattering and loss of intensity of focused laser beams at different depths within the brains of zebrafish larvae. Our experimental set-up uses a 488 nm laser and a spatial light modulator to focus a diffraction-limited spot of light within the brain. We use a combination of experimental measurements of back-scattered light in live larvae and computational modelling of the scattering to determine the spatial distribution of light. Modelling is performed using the Monte Carlo method, supported by generalised Lorenz-Mie theory in the single-scattering approximation. Scattering in areas rich in cell bodies is compared to that of regions of neuropil to identify the distinct and dramatic contributions that cell nuclei make to scattering. We demonstrate the feasibility of illuminating individual neurons, even in nucleus-rich areas, at depths beyond 100 μm using a spatial light modulator in combination with a standard laser and microscope optics.

  15. Polarized light scattering as a probe for changes in chromosome structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Daniel Benjamin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Measurements and calculations of polarized light scattering are applied to chromosomes. Calculations of the Mueller matrix, which completely describes how the polarization state of light is altered upon scattering, are developed for helical structures related to that of chromosomes. Measurements of the Mueller matrix are presented for octopus sperm heads, and dinoflagellates. Comparisons of theory and experiment are made. A working theory of polarized light scattering from helices is developed. The use of the first Born approximation vs the coupled dipole approximation are investigated. A comparison of continuous, calculated in this work, and discrete models is also discussed. By comparing light scattering measurements with theoretical predictions the average orientation of DNA in an octopus sperm head is determined. Calculations are made for the Mueller matrix of DNA plectonemic helices at UV, visible and X-ray wavelengths. Finally evidence is presented that the chromosomes of dinoflagellates are responsible for observed differential scattering of circularly-polarized light. This differential scattering is found to vary in a manner that is possibly correlated to the cell cycle of the dinoflagellates. It is concluded that by properly choosing the wavelength probe polarized light scattering can provide a useful tool to study chromosome structure.

  16. The role of meson exchanges in light-by-light scattering (United States)

    Lebiedowicz, Piotr; Szczurek, Antoni


    We discuss the role of meson exchange mechanisms in γγ → γγ scattering. Several pseudoscalar (π0, η, η‧ (958), ηc (1 S), ηc (2 S)), scalar (f0 (500), f0 (980), a0 (980), f0 (1370), χc0 (1 P)) and tensor (f2 (1270), a2 (1320), f2‧ (1525), f2 (1565), a2 (1700)) mesons are taken into account. We consider not only s-channel but also for the first time t- and u-channel meson exchange amplitudes corrected for off-shell effects including vertex form factors. We find that, depending on not well known vertex form factors, the meson exchange amplitudes interfere among themselves and could interfere with fermion-box amplitudes and modify the resulting cross sections. The meson contributions are shown as a function of collision energy as well as angular distributions are presented. Interesting interference effects separately for light pseudoscalar, scalar and tensor meson groups are discussed. The meson exchange contributions may be potentially important in the context of a measurement performed recently in ultraperipheral collisions of heavy ions by the ATLAS collaboration. The light-by-light interactions could be studied in future in electron-positron collisions by the Belle II at SuperKEKB accelerator.

  17. Planet signatures in collisionally active debris discs: scattered light images (United States)

    Thebault, P.; Kral, Q.; Ertel, S.


    Context. Planet perturbations have been often invoked as a potential explanation for many spatial structures that have been imaged in debris discs. So far this issue has been mostly investigated with pure N-body numerical models, which neglect the crucial effect collisions within the disc can have on the disc's response to dynamical perturbations. Aims: We numerically investigate how the coupled effect of collisions and radiation pressure can affect the formation and survival of radial and azimutal structures in a disc perturbed by a planet. We consider two different set-ups: a planet embedded within an extended disc and a planet exterior to an inner debris ring. One important issue we want to address is under which conditions a planet's signature can be observable in a collisionally active disc. Methods: We use our DyCoSS code, which is designed to investigate the structure of perturbed debris discs at dynamical and collisional steady-state, and derive synthetic images of the system in scattered light. The planet's mass and orbit, as well as the disc's collisional activity (parameterized by its average vertical optical depth τ0) are explored as free parameters. Results: We find that collisions always significantly damp planet-induced spatial structures. For the case of an embedded planet, the planet's signature, mostly a density gap around its radial position, should remain detectable in head-on images if Mplanet ≥ MSaturn. If the system is seen edge-on, however, inferring the presence of the planet is much more difficult, as only weak asymmetries remain in a collisionally active disc, although some planet-induced signatures might be observable under very favourable conditions. For the case of an inner ring and an external planet, planetary perturbations cannot prevent collision-produced small fragments from populating the regions beyond the ring. The radial luminosity profile exterior to the ring is in most cases close to the one it should have in the absence

  18. Multiple scattering of elliptically polarized light in two-dimensional medium with large inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodnichev, E. E., E-mail: [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)


    For elliptically polarized light incident on a two-dimensional medium with large inhomogeneities, the Stokes parameters of scattered waves are calculated. Multiple scattering is assumed to be sharply anisotropic. The degree of polarization of scattered radiation is shown to be a nonmonotonic function of depth when the incident wave is circularly polarized or its polarization vector is not parallel to the symmetry axis of the inhomogeneities.

  19. Whole-field measurement of three-dimensional stress by scattered-light photoelasticity with unpolarized light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihara T.


    Full Text Available In digital scattered-light photoelasticity with unpolarized light (DSLPUL, secondary principal stress direction ψj and total relative phase retardation ρjtot in a three-dimensional stressed model with rotation of the principal stress axes are obtained by measuring Stokes parameters of scattered light from optical slices. The present paper describes intelligibly the principle of DSLPUL, and then demonstrates that the ψj and ρjtot in a frozen stress sphere model are nondestructively measured over the entire field.

  20. Why circumstellar disks are so faint in scattered light : the case of HD 100546

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, G. D.; Min, M.; Dominik, C.; Debes, J. H.; Schneider, G.

    Context. Scattered light images of circumstellar disks play an important role in characterizing the planet forming environments around young stars. The characteristic size of the scattering dust grains can be estimated from the observed brightness asymmetry between the near and far side of the disk,

  1. Why circumstellar disks are so faint in scattered light: the case of HD 100546

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, G.D.; Min, M.; Dominik, C.; Debes, J.H.; Schneider, G.


    Context. Scattered light images of circumstellar disks play an important role in characterizing the planet forming environments around young stars. The characteristic size of the scattering dust grains can be estimated from the observed brightness asymmetry between the near and far side of the disk,

  2. Laser light-scattering spectroscopy: a new application in the study of ciliary activity. (United States)

    Lee, W I; Verdugo, P


    A uniquely precise and simple method to study ciliary activity by laser light-scattering spectroscopy has been developed and validated. A concurrent study of the effect of Ca2+ on ciliary activity in vitro by laser scattering spectroscopy and high speed cinematography has demonstrated that this new method is simpler and as accurate and reproducible as the high speed film technique.

  3. Development of a multispectral light-scatter sensor for bacterial colonies (United States)

    We report a multispectral elastic-light-scatter instrument that can simultaneously detect three-wavelength scatter patterns and associated optical densities from individual bacterial colonies, overcoming the limits of the single-wavelength predecessor. Absorption measurements on liquid bacterial sam...

  4. Bio-inspired, colorful, flexible, defrostable light-scattering hybrid films for the effective distribution of LED light. (United States)

    An, Seongpil; Jo, Hong Seok; Kim, Yong Il; Song, Kyo Yong; Kim, Min-Woo; Lee, Kyu Bum; Yarin, Alexander L; Yoon, Sam S


    Bioluminescent jellyfish has a unique structure derived from fiber/polymer interfaces that is advantageous for effective light scattering in the dark, deep sea water. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of bio-inspired hybrid films by mimicry of the jellyfish's structure, leading to excellent light-scattering performance and defrosting capability. A haze value reaching 59.3% and a heating temperature of up to 292 °C were achieved with the films. Accordingly, the developed surface constitutes an attractive optical device for lighting applications, especially for street or vehicle luminaries for freezing Arctic-climate countries. The morphological details of the hybrid films were revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The light-scattering properties of these films were examined by ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectrophotometry and anti-glare effect analyses. The defrosting performance of the hybrid films was evaluated via heating tests and infra-red observations.

  5. Comparison of particle size of cracking catalyst determined by laser light scattering and dry sieve methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dishman, K.L.; Doolin, P.K.; Hoffman, J.F. (Ashland Petroleum Co., Ashland, KY (United States))


    A method of interconversion of dry sieve and laser light scattering particle size values has been developed for cracking catalysts. Values obtained by light scattering techniques were consistently larger than those obtained by dry sieve analysis. The differences were primarily due to lack of sphericity of the particles. The particle size distribution determined by light scattering techniques was based on an average particle diameter. Conversely, the sieve measured the smallest diameter of the particle which can pass through the opening. Microscopic examination of commercial cracking catalysts confirmed their nonuniformity. The sphericity of the catalyst particles decreased as particle size increased. Therefore, the divergence between the laser light scattering and dry sieving value became greater as the catalyst particle size increased.

  6. Modeling of the Autofluorescence Spectra of the Crystalline Lens with Cataract Taking into Account Light Scattering (United States)

    Shapovalov, K. A.; Salmin, V. V.; Lazarenko, V. I.; Gar‧kavenko, V. V.


    The model of the autofluorescence spectrum formation of a crystalline lens taking into account light scattering was presented. Cross sections of extinction, scattering and absorption were obtained numerically for models of normal crystalline lens and cataract according to the Mie theory for polydisperse systems. To validate the model, data on the autofluorescence spectra of the normal lens and cataracts were obtained using an experimental ophthalmologic spectrofluorometer with excitation by UV light emitting diodes. In the framework of the model, the influence of the lens light scattering on the shape of the luminescence spectrum was estimated. It was found that the changes in the fluorescence spectrum of lenses with cataracts can be completely interpreted by the light scattering.

  7. Neutron and photon (light) scattering on solitons in the quasi-one-dimensional magnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Abdulloev, K O


    The general expression we have found earlier for the dynamics form-factor is used to analyse experiments on the neutron and photon (light) scattering by the gas of solitons in quasi-one-dimensional magnetics (Authors)

  8. Light scattering reviews 7 radiative transfer and optical properties of atmosphere and underlying surface

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A


    This book describes modern advances in radiative transfer and light scattering. Coverage includes fast radiative transfer techniques, use of polarization in remote sensing and recent developments in remote sensing of snow properties from space observations.

  9. Protein analysis by dynamic light scattering: Methods and techniques for students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lorber, Bernard; Fischer, Frédéric; Bailly, Marc; Roy, Hervé; Kern, Daniel


    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analyses are routinely used in biology laboratories to detect aggregates in macromolecular solutions, to determine the size of proteins, nucleic acids, and complexes or to monitor the binding of ligands...

  10. Small-angle light scattering by monolayer of liquid crystal droplets in polymer matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Konkolovich


    Full Text Available A method for modeling the angular distribution of light scattered by a monolayer of liquid crystal droplets dispersed in polymer matrix is developed. It is based on the anomalous diffraction and interference approximations.

  11. Polarized and depolarized light-scattering studies on Brownian diffusional and critical fluid systems: theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, C.M.


    An effort to expand light-scattering autocorrelation techniques to Brownian diffusional and critical fluid systems in which multiple scattering effects are important, and to understand the observed similarity of the Rayleigh linewidth of light scattered from these two seemingly different systems is discussed. A formalism was developed to find the light field multiply scattered from a suspension of Brownian diffusing particles. For the field doubly scattered from a system of noninteracting Brownian particles, the intensity and correlation time were much less dependent on the scattering angle than for the singly scattered component. The polarized and depolarized correlation times of light scattered from Brownian particle systems were measured. The double-scattering formalism was extended to light scattered from critical fluid systems. In the region k xi greater than 5 the doubly and singly scattered correlation times were nearly equal. The dynamic droplet model of critical phenomena was developed which gives the proper, experimentally verified, forms for the intensity and linewidth of light scattered from a critical fluid. To test the dynamic droplet model and the mode theories Rayleigh linewidth predictions, light-scattering measurements were performed on the critical fluid system methanol and cyclohexane. The data agreed with both the dynamic droplet and decoupled mode theory predictions. The depolarized scattered spectra from a critical fluid were measured, and qualitative agreement with the double-scattering theory was found. 57 figures, 5 tables.

  12. Reflection Matrix Method for Controlling Light After Reflection From a Diffuse Scattering Surface (United States)



  13. The scatter of light of different colour in the atmosphere.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.


    It is often claimed (Devaux) that yellow light is superior to white light for vehicle headlamps. This claim is supported by evidence of a physical, physiological and psychological nature. In most cases, it appears that the advantages of yellow light are small, and can usually be neglected

  14. Longitudinal intensity distribution near the focus produced by light through scattering media (United States)

    Ji, Xuan-Xuan; Wan, Li-Peng; Chen, Zi-Yang; Pu, Ji-Xiong


    Speckle pattern is formed when coherent light passes through scattering media. It has been demonstrated that after appropriately optimizing the phase of the incident light, a bright focal spot in the target point can be obtained for the case that the light passes through the scattering medium. However, until now the focused intensity distribution near the focus seems unclear. In this paper we experimentally investigate some factors influencing the longitudinal intensity distribution near the focus in details. It is shown that the desired longitudinal focused intensity distribution can be obtained by optimizing the incident light. The results may have potential applications in particle manipulation and laser processing, etc.

  15. Spectral bandwidth reduction of Thomson scattered light by pulse chirping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Ghebregziabher


    Full Text Available Based on single particle tracking in the framework of classical Thomson scattering with incoherent superposition, we developed a relativistic, three-dimensional numerical model that calculates and quantifies the characteristics of emitted radiation when a relativistic electron beam interacts with an intense laser pulse. This model has been benchmarked against analytical expressions, based on the plane wave approximation to the laser field, derived by Esarey et al. [Phys. Rev. E 48, 3003 (1993PLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.48.3003]. For laser pulses of sufficient duration, we find that the scattered radiation spectrum is broadened due to interferences arising from the pulsed nature of the laser. We find that by appropriately chirping the scattering laser pulse, spectral broadening can be minimized, and the peak on-axis brightness of the emitted radiation is increased by a factor of approximately 5.

  16. Exploiting breakdown of the similarity relation for diffuse light transport: simultaneous retrieval of scattering anisotropy and diffusion constant (United States)

    Svensson, T.; Savo, R.; Alerstam, E.; Vynck, K.; Burresi, M.; Wiersma, D. S.


    As manifested in the similarity relation of diffuse light transport, it is difficult to assess single scattering characteristics from multiply scattered light. We take advantage of the limited validity of the diffusion approximation of light transport and demonstrate, experimentally and numerically, that even deep into the multiple scattering regime, time-resolved detection of transmitted light allows simultaneous assessment of both single scattering anisotropy and scattering mean free path, and therefore also macroscopic parameters like the diffusion constant and the transport mean free path. This is achieved via careful assessment of early light and matching against Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transfer.

  17. Spectrum of an electromagnetic light wave on scattering from an anisotropic semisoft boundary medium. (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Jiang, Zhenfei; Ji, Xiaoling; Zhao, Daomu


    Spectral shifts and spectral switches of a polychromatic electromagnetic light wave on scattering from an anisotropic semisoft boundary medium are discussed. It is shown that both the property of the incident field and the character of the scattering medium play roles in the change of the spectrum of the far-zone scattered field. It is also shown that the distribution of the far-zone scattered spectrum, including the magnitude of the spectral shift and the direction at which the spectral switch occurs, is rotationally nonsymmetric.

  18. Observation of spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik Lund


    and negative spatial quantum correlations are observed when varying the quantum state incident to the multiple scattering medium, and the strength of the correlations is controlled by the number of photons. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with recent theoretical proposals by implementing...... the full quantum model of multiple scattering.......We present the experimental realization of spatial quantum correlations of photons that are induced by multiple scattering of squeezed light. The quantum correlation relates photons propagating along two different light paths through the random medium and is infinite in range. Both positive...

  19. Nucleon–nucleon scattering in the light of supersymmetric quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    May 2, 2014 ... J Bhoi, U Laha and K C Panda interest to generate supersymmetric partners of the latter and study their partner poten- tials, related physical observables etc., which have important applications in quantum scattering theory. Arnold and Mackellar [5] parametrized Hulthen potential to fit the deuteron binding.

  20. Spherically symmetric inhomogeneous bianisotropic media: Wave propagation and light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Shalin, Alexander S.; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    We develop a technique for finding closed-form expressions for electromagnetic fields in radially inhomogeneous bianisotropic media, both the solutions of the Maxwell equations and material tensors being defined by the set of auxiliary two-dimensional matrices. The approach is applied to determin...... the scattering cross-sections by spherical particles, the fields inside which correspond to the Airy-exponential waves....

  1. Light scattering and random lasing in aqueous suspensions of hexagonal boron nitride nanoflakes (United States)

    O’Brien, S. A.; Harvey, A.; Griffin, A.; Donnelly, T.; Mulcahy, D.; Coleman, J. N.; Donegan, J. F.; McCloskey, D.


    Liquid phase exfoliation allows large scale production of 2D materials in solution. The particles are highly anisotropic and strongly scatter light. While spherical particles can be accurately and precisely described by a single parameter—the radius, 2D nanoflakes, however, cannot be so easily described. We investigate light scattering in aqueous solutions of 2D hexagonal boron nitride nanoflakes in the single and multiple scattering regimes. In the single scattering regime, the anisotropic 2D materials show a much stronger depolarization of light when compared to spherical particles of similar size. In the multiple scattering regime, the scattering as a function of optical path for hexagonal boron nitride nanoflakes of a given lateral length was found to be qualitatively equivalent to scattering from spheres with the same diameter. We also report the presence of random lasing in high concentration suspensions of aqueous h-BN mixed with Rhodamine B dye. The h-BN works as a scattering agent and Rhodamine B as a gain medium for the process. We observed random lasing at 587 nm with a threshold energy of 0.8 mJ.

  2. The measurement and modelling of light scattering by phytoplankton cells at narrow forward angles (United States)

    MacCallum, Iain; Cunningham, Alex; McKee, David


    A procedure has been devised for measuring the angular dependence of light scattering from suspensions of phytoplankton cells at forward angles from 0.25° to 8°. The cells were illuminated with a spatially-filtered laser beam and the angular distribution of scattered light measured by tracking a photodetector across the Fourier plane of a collecting lens using a stepper-motor driven stage. The procedure was calibrated by measuring scattering from latex bead suspensions with known size distributions. It was then used to examine the scattering from cultures of the unicellular algae Isochrysis galbana (4 µm × 5 µm), Dunaliella primolecta (6 µm × 7 µm) and Rhinomonas reticulata (5 µm × 11 µm). The results were compared with the predictions of Mie theory. Excellent agreement was obtained for spherical particles. A suitable choice of spherical-equivalent scattering parameters was required to enable reasonable agreement within the first diffraction lobe for ellipsoidal particles.

  3. Experimental demonstration of singular-optical colouring of regularly scattered white light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O.V.; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Maksimyak, P.P.


    Experimental interference modelling of the effects of colouring of a beam traversing a light-scattering medium is presented. It is shown that the result of colouring of the beam at the output of the medium depends on the magnitudes of the phase delays of the singly forward scattered partial signals....... The colouring mechanism has for the first time experimentally been illustrated for a forward propagating beam through a light-scattering medium. This is showed in video-fragments of the interferograms recorded within the zero interference fringe with a gradual change of the path difference of the interfering...... polychromatic wave trains. Spectral investigation of the effects of colouring has been carried out using a solution of liquid crystal in a polymer matrix. The amplitude ratio of the non-scattered and the singly forward scattered interfering components significantly affects the colour intensity. It has further...

  4. Comparison of analytical calculations with experimental measurements for polarized light scattering by microorganisms (United States)

    Hull, Patricia G.; Shaw, Felecia G.; Quinby-Hunt, Mary S.; Shapiro, Daniel B.; Hunt, Arlon J.; Leighton, Terrence


    The consequences of light scattering from both spherical and non-spherical particles on the propagation of light in the ocean were investigated. The scattering from an ensemble of non- spherical micro-organisms is calculated using the coupled-dipole approximation with an orientational average over Euler angles using Gauss-Legendre integration. Mie calculations provide rigorous solutions for spherical particles and are considerably less computer intensive than the coupled-dipole approximation. Furthermore, they have been shown to accurately predict the scattering for marine organisms that are nearly spherical. Scattering matrix elements calculated using the coupled-dipole approximation were compared with those obtained using Mie calculations in the limit as an ellipsoidal object approaches a sphere in order to assess the limits of applicability of the Mie theory to ellipsoidal particles. Experimental measurements of the scattering matrix elements for spherical particles (latex spheres) and ellipsoidal particles (Bacillus subtilis) were used to test the validity of our analytical approach.

  5. [Light scattering extinction properties of atmospheric particle and pollution characteristics in hazy weather in Hangzhou]. (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Ye, Hui; Shen, Jian-Dong; Sun, Hong-Liang; Hong, Sheng-Mao; Jiao, Li; Huang, Kan


    In order to evaluate the influence of particle scattering on visibility, light scattering coefficient, particle concentrations and meteorological factor were simultaneously monitored from July 2011 to June 2012 in Hangzhou. Daily scattering coefficients ranged from 108.4 to 1 098.1 Mm(-1), with an annual average concentration of 428.6 Mm(-1) ± 200.2 Mm(-1). Seasonal variation of scattering coefficients was significant, with the highest concentrations observed in autumn and winter and the lowest in summer. It was found there were two peaks for the average diurnal variations of the scattering coefficient, which could be observed at 08:00 and 21:00. The scattering efficiencies of PM2.5 and PM10 were 7.6 m2 x g(-1) and 4.4 m2 x g(-1), respectively. The particle scattering was about 90.2 percent of the total light extinction. The scattering coefficients were 684.4 Mm(-1) ± 218.1 Mm(-1) and 1 095.4 Mm(-1) ± 397.7 Mm(-1) in hazy and heavy hazy days, respectively, which were 2.6 and 4.2 times as high as in non-hazy weather, indicating that particle scattering is the main factor for visibility degradation and the occurrence of hazy weather in Hangzhou.

  6. On a theory of stimulated scattering in laser plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoric, M.M.


    A linear parametric theory of laser light instabilities including decay, stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering, etc. is currently well developed. However, attention is drawn to a novel laser light instability against parametric excitation of magneto-static fluctuations. In a collisionless plasma regime, magnetostatic fields are driven by the ponderomotive electron magnetization current. Generally, two types of magneto-static instabilities exist: magneto-modulational instability and stimulated magneto-static scattering instability. Growth rates are calculated which indicate the possible importance for high laser intensity driven hot plasma regimes.

  7. Label-free identification of individual bacteria using Fourier transform light scattering. (United States)

    Jo, YoungJu; Jung, JaeHwang; Kim, Min-Hyeok; Park, HyunJoo; Kang, Suk-Jo; Park, YongKeun


    Rapid identification of bacterial species is crucial in medicine and food hygiene. In order to achieve rapid and label-free identification of bacterial species at the single bacterium level, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical method based on Fourier transform light scattering (FTLS) measurements and statistical classification. For individual rod-shaped bacteria belonging to four bacterial species (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus casei, and Bacillus subtilis), two-dimensional angle-resolved light scattering maps are precisely measured using FTLS technique. The scattering maps are then systematically analyzed, employing statistical classification in order to extract the unique fingerprint patterns for each species, so that a new unidentified bacterium can be identified by a single light scattering measurement. The single-bacterial and label-free nature of our method suggests wide applicability for rapid point-of-care bacterial diagnosis.

  8. Label-free identification of individual bacteria using Fourier transform light scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, YoungJu; Kim, Min-hyeok; Park, HyunJoo; Kang, Suk-Jo; Park, YongKeun


    Rapid identification of bacterial species is crucial in medicine and food hygiene. In order to achieve rapid and label-free identification of bacterial species at the single bacterium level, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical method based on Fourier transform light scattering (FTLS) measurements and statistical classification. For individual rod-shaped bacteria belonging to four bacterial species (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus casei, and Bacillus subtilis), two-dimensional angle-resolved light scattering maps are precisely measured using FTLS technique. The scattering maps are then systematically analyzed, employing statistical classification in order to extract the unique fingerprint patterns for each species, so that a new unidentified bacterium can be identified by a single light scattering measurement. The single-bacterial and label-free nature of our method suggests wide applicability for rapid point-of-care bacterial diagnosis.

  9. Sub-Nyquist sampling boosts targeted light transport through opaque scattering media

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yuecheng; Ma, Cheng; Wang, Lihong V


    Optical time-reversal techniques are being actively developed to focus light through or inside opaque scattering media. When applied to biological tissue, these techniques promise to revolutionize biophotonics by enabling deep-tissue non-invasive optical imaging, optogenetics, optical tweezers and photodynamic therapy. In all previous optical time-reversal experiments, the scattered light field was well-sampled during wavefront measurement and wavefront reconstruction, following the Nyquist sampling criterion. Here, we overturn this conventional practice by demonstrating that even when the scattered field is under-sampled, light can still be focused through or inside opaque media. Even more surprisingly, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the focus achieved by under-sampling is usually about one order of magnitude brighter than that achieved by conventional well-sampling conditions. Moreover, sub-Nyquist sampling improves the signal-to-noise ratio and the collection efficiency of the scattered...

  10. Stray light analysis for the Thomson scattering diagnostic of the ETE Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, L. A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais (LAS), 12.227-010 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, B. F. C. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Engenharia e Tecnologia Espaciais, Divisao de Eletronica Aeroespacial, 12.227-010 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)


    Thomson scattering is a well-established diagnostic for measuring local electron temperature and density in fusion plasma, but this technique is particularly difficult to implement due to stray light that can easily mask the scattered signal from plasma. To mitigate this problem in the multipoint Thomson scattering system implemented at the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) a detailed stray light analysis was performed. The diagnostic system was simulated in ZEMAX software and scattering profiles of the mechanical parts were measured in the laboratory in order to have near realistic results. From simulation, it was possible to identify the main points that contribute to the stray signals and changes in the dump were implemented reducing the stray light signals up to 60 times.

  11. Spectral and angular distribution of light scattered from the elytra of two carabid beetle species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raabe D.


    Full Text Available Color in living organisms is primarily generated by two mechanisms: selective absorption by pigments and structural coloration, or a combination of both. In this study, we investigated the coloration of cuticle from the wings (elytra of the two ground beetle species Carabus auronitens and Carabus auratus. The greenish iridescent color of both species is created by a multilayer structure consisting of periodically alternating layers with different thicknesses and composition which is located in the 1-2 µm thick outermost layer of the cuticle (epicuticle. Illuminated with white light, reflectance spectra in both linear polarisation show an angle-dependent characteristic peak in the blue/green region of the spectrum. Furthermore, the reflected light is polarised linearly. Scattering experiments with laser illumination at 532 nm show diffuse scattering over a larger angular range. The polarisation dependence of the scattered light is consistent with the interpretation of small inhomogeneities as scattering centres in the elytra.

  12. Effect of scattering albedo on attenuation and polarization of light underwater. (United States)

    Cochenour, Brandon; Mullen, Linda; Muth, John


    Recent work on underwater laser communication links uses polarization discrimination to improve system performance [Appl. Opt.48, 328 (2009)] [in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1-4]. In the laboratory, Maalox antacid is commonly used as a scattering agent. While its scattering function closely mimics that of natural seawaters, its scattering albedo can be much higher, as Maalox particles tend to be less absorbing. We present a series of experiments where Nigrosin dye is added to Maalox in order to more accurately recreate real-world absorption and scattering properties. We consider the effect that scattering albedo has on received power and the degree of depolarization of forward-scattered light in the context of underwater laser communication links.

  13. Single particle analysis with a 360/sup 0/ light scattering photometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholdi, M.F.


    Light scattering by single spherical homogeneous particles in the diameter range 1 to 20 and relative refractive index 1.20 is measured. Particle size of narrowly dispersed populations is determined and a multi-modal dispersion of five components is completely analyzed. A 360/sup 0/ light scattering photometer for analysis of single particles has been designed and developed. A fluid stream containing single particles intersects a focused laser beam at the primary focal point of an ellipsoidal reflector ring. The light scattered at angles theta = 2.5/sup 0/ to 177.5/sup 0/ at phi = 0/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/ is reflected onto a circular array of photodiodes. The ellipsoidal reflector is situated in a chamber filled with fluid matching that of the stream to minimize refracting and reflecting interfaces. The detector array consists of 60 photodiodes each subtending 3/sup 0/ in scattering angle on 6/sup 0/ centers around 360/sup 0/. 32 measurements on individual particles can be acquired at rates of 500 particles per second. The intensity and angular distribution of light scattered by spherical particles are indicative of size and relative refractive index. Calculations, using Lorenz--Mie theory, of differential scattering patterns integrated over angle corresponding to the detector geometry determined the instrument response to particle size. From this the expected resolution and experimental procedures are determined.Ultimately, the photometer will be utilized for identification and discrimination of biological cells based on the sensitivity of light scattering to size, shape, refractive index differences, internal granularity, and other internal morphology. This study has demonstrated the utility of the photometer and indicates potential for application to light scattering studies of biological cells.

  14. Light polarization oscillations induced by photon-photon scattering (United States)

    Briscese, Fabio


    We consider the Heisenberg-Euler action for an electromagnetic field in vacuum, which includes quantum corrections to the Maxwell equations induced by photon-photon scattering. We show that, in some configurations, the plane monochromatic waves become unstable, due to the appearance of secularities in the dynamical equations. These secularities can be treated using a multiscale approach, introducing a slow time variable. The amplitudes of the plane electromagnetic waves satisfy a system of ordinary differential nonlinear equations in the slow time. The analysis of this system shows that, due to the effect of photon-photon scattering, in the unstable configurations the electromagnetic waves oscillate periodically between left-hand-sided and right-hand-sided polarizations. Finally, we discuss the physical implications of this finding and the possibility of disclosing traces of this effect in optical experiments.

  15. Temporal Quantum Correlation in Inelastic Light Scattering from Water (United States)

    Saraiva, Andre; Kasperczyk, Mark; de Aguiar Junior, Filomeno; Rabelo, Cassiano; Santos, Marcelo; Novotny, Lukas; Jorio, Ado

    Water is one of the most prevalent chemicals on our planet, an integral part of both our environment and our existence as a species. Yet it is also rich in anomalous behaviors. Here we reveal that liquid water is a novel - yet ubiquitous - source for quantum correlated photon pairs. The photon pairs are produced through Raman scattering, and the correlations arise from the shared quantum of a vibrational mode between the Stokes and anti-Stokes scattering events. We confirm the nonclassical nature of the produced photon pairs by showing that the cross-correlation and autocorrelations of the signals violate a Cauchy-Schwarz inequality by over five orders of magnitude. The unprecedented degree of violating the inequality in pure water, as well as the well-defined polarization properties of the photon pairs, points to its usefulness in quantum information.

  16. Temporal Quantum Correlations in Inelastic Light Scattering from Water (United States)

    Kasperczyk, Mark; de Aguiar Júnior, Filomeno S.; Rabelo, Cassiano; Saraiva, Andre; Santos, Marcelo F.; Novotny, Lukas; Jorio, Ado


    Water is one of the most prevalent chemicals on our planet, an integral part of both our environment and our existence as a species. Yet it is also rich in anomalous behaviors. Here we reveal that water is a novel—yet ubiquitous—source for quantum correlated photon pairs at ambient conditions. The photon pairs are produced through Raman scattering, and the correlations arise from the shared quantum of a vibrational mode between the Stokes and anti-Stokes scattering events. We confirm the nonclassical nature of the produced photon pairs by showing that the cross-correlation and autocorrelations of the signals violate a Cauchy-Schwarz inequality by over 5 orders of magnitude. The unprecedented degree of violating the inequality in pure water, as well as the well-defined polarization properties of the photon pairs, points to its usefulness in quantum information.

  17. Impact of polishing on the light scattering at aerogel surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnyakov, A.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Barnyakov, M.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Buzykaev, A.R. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Danilyuk, A.F. [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Katcin, A.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kononov, S.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kirilenko, P.S. [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kravchenko, E.A., E-mail: [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kuyanov, I.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Onuchin, A.P.; Ovtin, I.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Predein, A.Yu.; Protsenko, R.S. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    Particle identification power of modern aerogel RICH detectors strongly depends on optical quality of radiators. It was shown that wavelength dependence of aerogel tile transparency after polishing cannot be described by the standard Hunt formula. The Hunt formula has been modified to describe scattering in a thin layer of silica dust on the surface of aerogel tile. Several procedures of polishing of aerogel tile have been tested. The best result has been achieved while using natural silk tissue. The resulting block has optical smooth surfaces. The measured decrease of aerogel transparency due to surface scattering is about few percent. This result could be used for production of radiators for the Focusing Aerogel RICH detectors.

  18. Resonant chirality in light scattered from magnetodielectric particles

    CERN Document Server

    Nieto-Vesperinas, Manuel


    We show that the total heliciity of the field scattered by a magnetodielectric particle, bi-isotropic or not, is enhanced not only because of the resonant polarizabilities, but also due to the interference between the left and right circularly polarized components of the incident wave, which in absence of incident helicity does not necessarily require the particle to be chiral. This latter effect goes beyond standard dichroism and may be considered a generalization of this phenomenon.

  19. Alpha Inelastic Scattering and Cluster Structures in Light Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Kawabata, T


    The cluster structures of the excited states in 11B and 13C were discussed by measuring the isoscalar monopole strengths in the inelastic scattering at E = 388 MeV. It was found that the 1/2− 2 , 1/2− 3 , and 1/2− 4 states in 13C are candidates for the cluster states with a 3 + n molecular configuration.

  20. Light scattering by coated sphere immersed in absorbing medium: a comparison between the FDTD and analytic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Wenbo E-mail:; Loeb, Norman G.; Fu Qiang


    A recently developed finite-difference time domain scheme is examined using the exact analytic solutions for light scattering by a coated sphere immersed in an absorbing medium. The relative differences are less than 1% in the extinction, scattering, and absorption efficiencies and less than 5% in the scattering phase functions. The definition of apparent single-scattering properties is also discussed.

  1. Phase measurement of light absorption and scatter in human tissue (United States)

    Chance, B.; Cope, M.; Gratton, E.; Ramanujam, N.; Tromberg, B.


    Analog and digital technologies are presented for precise measurement of propagation delay of photons from source and detector placed on portions of the human body. The goal of the apparatus design is to quantify absorption (μa) and scattering (μs') induced by biological pigments and biological structures, respectively. Body tissues are highly scattering with a mean distance between scatterers of less than a mm (at 700-850 nm). Significant absorption is mainly due to 5%-10% of the tissue volume occupied by blood. Measurement of μa and μs' is done by both time and frequency domain equipment. This article focuses upon frequency domain equipment because of its simplicity, reduced noise bandwidth, versatility, and the strong analogy to very high frequency/ultrahigh frequency communication devices, particularly those using phase modulation. Comparisons are made of homodyne and heterodyne systems together with evaluation of single and multiple side band systems, with particular emphasis on methods for multiplexed optical and radio frequencies by frequency encoding or time-sharing technologies. The applications of these phase modulation systems to quantitative brain and muscle blood oximetry, functional activity of the forebrain, and other important problems of medical science, are presented.

  2. Polarized scattered light from self-luminous exoplanets : Three-dimensional scattering radiative transfer with ARTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, T.; Min, M.; Stam, D.M.; Mollière, P.; Dominik, C.; Waters, L. B.F.M.


    Context. Direct imaging has paved the way for atmospheric characterization of young and self-luminous gas giants. Scattering in a horizontally-inhomogeneous atmosphere causes the disk-integrated polarization of the thermal radiation to be linearly polarized, possibly detectable with the newest

  3. Dispersion relation for hadronic light-by-light scattering: two-pion contributions (United States)

    Colangelo, Gilberto; Hoferichter, Martin; Procura, Massimiliano; Stoffer, Peter


    In this third paper of a series dedicated to a dispersive treatment of the hadronic light-by-light (HLbL) tensor, we derive a partial-wave formulation for two-pion intermediate states in the HLbL contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon ( g - 2) μ , including a detailed discussion of the unitarity relation for arbitrary partial waves. We show that obtaining a final expression free from unphysical helicity partial waves is a subtle issue, which we thoroughly clarify. As a by-product, we obtain a set of sum rules that could be used to constrain future calculations of γ ∗ γ ∗ → ππ. We validate the formalism extensively using the pion-box contribution, defined by two-pion intermediate states with a pion-pole left-hand cut, and demonstrate how the full known result is reproduced when resumming the partial waves. Using dispersive fits to high-statistics data for the pion vector form factor, we provide an evaluation of the full pion box, a μ π - box = - 15.9(2) × 10- 11. As an application of the partial-wave formalism, we present a first calculation of ππ-rescattering effects in HLbL scattering, with γ ∗ γ ∗ → ππ helicity partial waves constructed dispersively using ππ phase shifts derived from the inverse-amplitude method. In this way, the isospin-0 part of our calculation can be interpreted as the contribution of the f 0(500) to HLbL scattering in ( g - 2) μ . We argue that the contribution due to charged-pion rescattering implements corrections related to the corresponding pion polarizability and show that these are moderate. Our final result for the sum of pion-box contribution and its S-wave rescattering corrections reads a μ π - box + a μ, J = 0 ππ, π - pole LHC = - 24(1) × 10- 11.

  4. Small-angle neutron and dynamic light scattering study of gelatin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The state of intermolecular aggregates and that of folded gelatin molecules could be characterized by dynamic laser light and small-angle neutron scattering experiments, which implied spontaneous segregation of particle sizes preceding coacervation, which is a liquid-liquid phase transition phenomenon. Dynamic light ...

  5. Maximizing the information transfer in a quantum-limited light-scattering system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini


    A quantum-limited light-scattering system is considered. The spatial configuration that maximizes a given figure of merit is investigated, assuming that the emitted light has Poisson photon statistics. A specific system for measuring the velocity of a small particle is considered as an example. A...

  6. Mid-infrared (λ = 8.4-9.9 μm) light scattering from porcine tissue (United States)

    Liakat, Sabbir; Michel, Anna P. M.; Bors, Kevin A.; Gmachl, Claire F.


    Back-scattering of mid-infrared light from porcine skin is studied versus wavelength and angle for a Quantum Cascade laser and a broadband infrared light source. Scattering is detected over 30° away from the specular angle for both sources, and modulation patterns with angle are seen when using the laser. A nonlinear increase in scattered light intensity versus input power indicates that directional scattering from within the skin is dominant. Collagen fibers in the dermis layer, over 200 μm deep into the skin, are conducive to such scattering. We conclude that mid-infrared light penetrates deep enough for potential glucose detection in dermal interstitial fluid.

  7. Morphology effect on the light scattering and dynamic response of polymer network liquid crystal phase modulator. (United States)

    Xiangjie, Zhao; Cangli, Liu; Jiazhu, Duan; Jiancheng, Zeng; Dayong, Zhang; Yongquan, Luo


    Polymer network liquid crystal (PNLC) was one of the most potential liquid crystal for submillisecond response phase modulation, which was possible to be applied in submillisecond response phase only spatial light modulator. But until now the light scattering when liquid crystal director was reoriented by external electric field limited its phase modulation application. Dynamic response of phase change when high voltage was applied was also not elucidated. The mechanism that determines the light scattering was studied by analyzing the polymer network morphology by SEM method. Samples were prepared by varying the polymerization temperature, UV curing intensity and polymerization time. The morphology effect on the dynamic response of phase change was studied, in which high voltage was usually applied and electro-striction effect was often induced. The experimental results indicate that the polymer network morphology was mainly characterized by cross linked single fibrils, cross linked fibril bundles or even both. Although the formation of fibril bundle usually induced large light scattering, such a polymer network could endure higher voltage. In contrast, although the formation of cross linked single fibrils induced small light scattering, such a polymer network cannot endure higher voltage. There is a tradeoff between the light scattering and high voltage endurance. The electro-optical properties such as threshold voltage and response time were taken to verify our conclusion. For future application, the monomer molecular structure, the liquid crystal solvent and the polymerization conditions should be optimized to generate optimal polymer network morphology.

  8. Experimental light scattering by ultrasonically controlled small particles - Implications for Planetary Science (United States)

    Gritsevich, M.; Penttilä, A.; Maconi, G.; Kassamakov, I.; Markkanen, J.; Martikainen, J.; Väisänen, T.; Helander, P.; Puranen, T.; Salmi, A.; Hæggström, E.; Muinonen, K.


    We present the results obtained with our newly developed 3D scatterometer - a setup for precise multi-angular measurements of light scattered by mm- to µm-sized samples held in place by sound. These measurements are cross-validated against the modeled light-scattering characteristics of the sample, i.e., the intensity and the degree of linear polarization of the reflected light, calculated with state-of-the-art electromagnetic techniques. We demonstrate a unique non-destructive approach to derive the optical properties of small grain samples which facilitates research on highly valuable planetary materials, such as samples returned from space missions or rare meteorites.

  9. Sub-Nyquist sampling boosts targeted light transport through opaque scattering media. (United States)

    Shen, Yuecheng; Liu, Yan; Ma, Cheng; Wang, Lihong V


    Optical time-reversal techniques are being actively developed to focus light through or inside opaque scattering media. When applied to biological tissue, these techniques promise to revolutionize biophotonics by enabling deep-tissue non-invasive optical imaging, optogenetics, optical tweezing, and phototherapy. In all previous optical time-reversal experiments, the scattered light field was well-sampled during wavefront measurement and wavefront reconstruction, following the Nyquist sampling criterion. Here, we overturn this conventional practice by demonstrating that even when the scattered field is under-sampled, light can still be focused through or inside scattering media. Even more surprisingly, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the focus achieved by under-sampling can be one order of magnitude brighter than that achieved under the well-sampling conditions used in previous works, where 3×3 to 5×5 pixels were used to sample one speckle grain on average. Moreover, sub-Nyquist sampling improves the signal-to-noise ratio and the collection efficiency of the scattered light. We anticipate that this newly explored under-sampling scheme will transform the understanding of optical time reversal and boost the performance of optical imaging, manipulation, and communication through opaque scattering media.

  10. T-matrix based inverse light scattering analysis using angle resolved low coherence interferometry (United States)

    Giacomelli, Michael; Chalut, Kevin; Ostrander, Julie; Wax, Adam


    Inverse light scattering methods have been applied by several groups as a means to probe cellular structure in both clinical and scientific applications with sub-wavelength accuracy. These methods determine the geometric properties of tissue scatterers based on far field scattering patterns. Generally, structure is determined by measuring scattering over some range of angles, wavelengths, or polarizations and then fitting the observed data to a database of simulated scattering selected from a range of probable geometries. We have developed new light scattering software based on the T-matrix method that creates databases of scattering from spheroidal objects, representing a substantial improvement over Mie theory, a method limited to simulating scattering from spheres. The computational cost of the T-matrix method is addressed through a simple but massively parallel program that concurrently simulates scattering across hundreds of PCs. We are exploring the use of these T-matrix databases in inverting interferometric measurements of angle-resolved scattering from spheroidal cell nuclei using a technique called angle-resolved low coherence interferometry (a/LCI). With a/LCI, we have previously distinguished between healthy and dysplastic tissue in both cell cultures and in ex vivo rat and hamster tissue using Mie theory to measure nuclear diameter. We now present nuclear volume and spheroidal aspect ratio measurements of unstained, living MCF7 cells using the improved T-matrix database to analyze a/LCI data. We achieve measurement accuracy equivalent to conventional image analysis of stained samples. We will further validate the approach by comparing experimental measurements of scattering from polystyrene microspheroids, and show that the T-matrix is a suitable replacement for Mie theory in ex vivo tissue samples.

  11. Differential spectral imaging with gold nanorod light scattering labels (United States)

    Qiu, Le; Vitkin, Edward; Guo, Lianyu; Hanlon, Eugene B.; Itzkan, Irving; Perelman, Lev T.


    Gold nanorods have the potential to be employed as extremely bright molecular marker labels. However, samples containing a large number of gold nanorods usually exhibit relatively wide spectral lines. This linewidth limits the use of the nanorods since it would be rather difficult to image several types of nanorod markers simultaneously. We measured native scattering spectra of single gold nanorods with the CLASS microscope and found that single gold nanorods have a narrow spectrum as predicted by the theory. That suggests that nanorod-based molecular markers with controlled narrow aspect ratios should provide spectral lines sufficiently narrow for effective biomedical imaging.

  12. Skeletal light-scattering accelerates bleaching response in reef-building corals. (United States)

    Swain, Timothy D; DuBois, Emily; Gomes, Andrew; Stoyneva, Valentina P; Radosevich, Andrew J; Henss, Jillian; Wagner, Michelle E; Derbas, Justin; Grooms, Hannah W; Velazquez, Elizabeth M; Traub, Joshua; Kennedy, Brian J; Grigorescu, Arabela A; Westneat, Mark W; Sanborn, Kevin; Levine, Shoshana; Schick, Mark; Parsons, George; Biggs, Brendan C; Rogers, Jeremy D; Backman, Vadim; Marcelino, Luisa A


    At the forefront of ecosystems adversely affected by climate change, coral reefs are sensitive to anomalously high temperatures which disassociate (bleaching) photosynthetic symbionts (Symbiodinium) from coral hosts and cause increasingly frequent and severe mass mortality events. Susceptibility to bleaching and mortality is variable among corals, and is determined by unknown proportions of environmental history and the synergy of Symbiodinium- and coral-specific properties. Symbiodinium live within host tissues overlaying the coral skeleton, which increases light availability through multiple light-scattering, forming one of the most efficient biological collectors of solar radiation. Light-transport in the upper ~200 μm layer of corals skeletons (measured as 'microscopic' reduced-scattering coefficient, μ'(S,m)), has been identified as a determinant of excess light increase during bleaching and is therefore a potential determinant of the differential rate and severity of bleaching response among coral species. Here we experimentally demonstrate (in ten coral species) that, under thermal stress alone or combined thermal and light stress, low-μ'(S,m) corals bleach at higher rate and severity than high-μ'(S,m) corals and the Symbiodinium associated with low-μ'(S,m) corals experience twice the decrease in photochemical efficiency. We further modelled the light absorbed by Symbiodinium due to skeletal-scattering and show that the estimated skeleton-dependent light absorbed by Symbiodinium (per unit of photosynthetic pigment) and the temporal rate of increase in absorbed light during bleaching are several fold higher in low-μ'(S,m) corals. While symbionts associated with low-[Formula: see text] corals receive less total light from the skeleton, they experience a higher rate of light increase once bleaching is initiated and absorbing bodies are lost; further precipitating the bleaching response. Because microscopic skeletal light-scattering is a robust predictor

  13. Simulations of the Light Scattering Properties of Metal/Oxide Core/Shell Nanospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ruffino


    Full Text Available Given the importance of the optical properties of metal/dielectric core/shell nanoparticles, in this work we focus our attention on the light scattering properties, within the Mie framework, of some specific categories of these noteworthy nanostructures. In particular, we report theoretical results of angle-dependent light scattering intensity and scattering efficiency for Ag/Ag2O, Al/Al2O2, Cu/Cu2O, Pd/PdO, and Ti/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles as a function of the core radius/shell thickness ratio and on a relative comparison. The results highlight the light scattering characteristics of these systems as a function of the radius/shell thickness ratio, helping in the choice of the more suitable materials and sizes for specific applications (i.e., dynamic light scattering for biological and molecular recognition, increasing light trapping in thin-film silicon, organic solar cells for achieving a higher photocurrent.

  14. Asymmetric Flow-Field Flow Fractionation (AF4) of Aqueous C60 Aggregates with Dynamic Light Scattering Size and LC-MS (United States)

    Current methods for the size determination of nanomaterials in aqueous suspension include dynamic or static light scattering and electron or atomic force microscopy techniques. Light scattering techniques are limited by poor resolution and the scattering intensity dependence on p...

  15. A simple student laboratory practice for the study of light scattering by cylindrical bodies (United States)

    Mabiala Masiala, Toto; Phuku Phuati, Edmond; Kazadi Mukenga, B. Albert


    The study of light scattering by cylindrical bodies is of great importance in many aspects, but most of the time; it is studied in a very theoretical manner. In that work, we present a simple manner to study scattering of light by cylindrical bodies. The method combines the use of a simple experimental set-up using a He-Ne laser as a source, a circular paper screen, and the use of a simple code for simulation using the Lorentz-Mie formalism. In that way, the student can compare the experimental results with the simulation. They can qualitatively notice the difference of the behavior of scattering by a low-loss dielectric cylinder, a metallic cylinder, and an absorbing cylinder. Simulation can help students to follow the evolution of the scattering regime when the relative diameter of the cylinder, with respect to the incident wavelength, changes. A focus is stressed especially when the radius becomes far below the wavelength.

  16. Measuring spatially- and directionally-varying light scattering from biological material. (United States)

    Harvey, Todd Alan; Bostwick, Kimberly S; Marschner, Steve


    Light interacts with an organism's integument on a variety of spatial scales. For example in an iridescent bird: nano-scale structures produce color; the milli-scale structure of barbs and barbules largely determines the directional pattern of reflected light; and through the macro-scale spatial structure of overlapping, curved feathers, these directional effects create the visual texture. Milli-scale and macro-scale effects determine where on the organism's body, and from what viewpoints and under what illumination, the iridescent colors are seen. Thus, the highly directional flash of brilliant color from the iridescent throat of a hummingbird is inadequately explained by its nano-scale structure alone and questions remain. From a given observation point, which milli-scale elements of the feather are oriented to reflect strongly? Do some species produce broader "windows" for observation of iridescence than others? These and similar questions may be asked about any organisms that have evolved a particular surface appearance for signaling, camouflage, or other reasons. In order to study the directional patterns of light scattering from feathers, and their relationship to the bird's milli-scale morphology, we developed a protocol for measuring light scattered from biological materials using many high-resolution photographs taken with varying illumination and viewing directions. Since we measure scattered light as a function of direction, we can observe the characteristic features in the directional distribution of light scattered from that particular feather, and because barbs and barbules are resolved in our images, we can clearly attribute the directional features to these different milli-scale structures. Keeping the specimen intact preserves the gross-scale scattering behavior seen in nature. The method described here presents a generalized protocol for analyzing spatially- and directionally-varying light scattering from complex biological materials at multiple

  17. Characterization of the angular memory effect of scattered light in biological tissues. (United States)

    Schott, Sam; Bertolotti, Jacopo; Léger, Jean-Francois; Bourdieu, Laurent; Gigan, Sylvain


    High resolution optical microscopy is essential in neuroscience but suffers from scattering in biological tissues and therefore grants access to superficial brain layers only. Recently developed techniques use scattered photons for imaging by exploiting angular correlations in transmitted light and could potentially increase imaging depths. But those correlations ('angular memory effect') are of a very short range and should theoretically be only present behind and not inside scattering media. From measurements on neural tissues and complementary simulations, we find that strong forward scattering in biological tissues can enhance the memory effect range and thus the possible field-of-view by more than an order of magnitude compared to isotropic scattering for ∼1 mm thick tissue layers.

  18. In vivo transcranial measurement of light scattering in rat brains during hypoxia (United States)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Uozumi, Yoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Miya; Kikuchi, Makoto


    Measurement of intrinsic optical signals (IOSs) is attractive for noninvasive, real-time monitoring of tissue viability in brains. We previously performed measurement of IOSs for a rat global ischemic brain model that was made by rapidly removing blood by saline infusion, and observed that after an induction of ischemia, a unique triphasic change in light scattering occurred. This scattering change preceded the reduction of CuA in cytochrome c oxidase which has been shown to correlate with cerebral ATP decrease. In the present study, we examined whether such triphasic scattering change can be observed in the presence of blood in vivo. Transcranial measurement of diffuse reflectance was performed using a broadband tungsten lamp for a rat brain during hypoxia that was induced by N2 inhalation. The reflectance spectral changes in the visible (500-600 nm) and near-infrared (NIR) (650-850 nm) regions were analyzed to monitor changes in hemodynamics and light scattering, respectively. After starting N2 inhalation, reflectance signals in the visible region showed an increase in deoxy-hemoglobin concentration, and about 80 s after full deoxygenation of hemoglobins, reflectance signals in the NIR region showed a similar triphasic change, which was attributable to change in light scattering. Simultaneous measurement of cerebral EEG showed that neuronal activity ceased about 50 s before this triphasic scattering change. These results show that light scattering will become an important indicator of loss of tissue viability in brain; brain tissue can probably be saved if reoxygenation is achieved before starting this scattering change.

  19. Autocorrelation of scattered laser light for ultrasound-modulated optical tomography in dense turbid media. (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Lihong V


    Based on measurement of the intensity autocorrelation function, a new method to determine the modulation depth of scattered laser light modulated by an ultrasonic wave in turbid media was applied to ultrasound-modulated optical tomography. Good signal-to-noise ratios and high sensitivities were demonstrated. Images of double optically absorbing objects buried in a highly optically scattering gel sample were obtained. The contrast was more than 10%, and the spatial resolution was approximately 2 mm.

  20. Autocorrelation of scattered laser light for ultrasound-modulated optical tomography in dense turbid media


    Li, Hui; Wang, Lihong V.


    Based on measurement of the intensity autocorrelation function, a new method to determine the modulation depth of scattered laser light modulated by an ultrasonic wave in turbid media was applied to ultrasound-modulated optical tomography. Good signal-to-noise ratios and high sensitivities were demonstrated. Images of double optically absorbing objects buried in a highly optically scattering gel sample were obtained. The contrast was more than 10%, and the spatial resolution was approximately...

  1. Light Scatter in Optical Materials: Advanced Haze Modeling (United States)


    glare. Haze can be inherent in the material, a result of the molding process, or a result of surface texture. Haze can also be a result of...detector (10 mm diameter silicon photodiode) located 1000 mm from the sample. A partially-collimated probe beam of 532 nm laser light was used to

  2. Optical fibre probes in the measurement of scattered light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 8, 2014 ... Optical fibre probes or optrodes often form the heart of multimode fibre-based measurements and sensors. An optrode usually comprises a bundle of multimode fibres, out of which one or more fibres are used for irradiating the sample, and the remaining fibres are used to collect the light ...

  3. Noise from scattered light in Virgo's second science run data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Accadia, T.; Bulten, H.J.; Rabeling, D.S.; van den Brand, J.F.J.


    Virgo is one of the large, ground-based interferometers aimed at detecting gravitational waves. One of the technical problems limiting its sensitivity is caused by light in the output beams which is backscattered by seismically excited surfaces and couples back into the main beam of the

  4. Determining the Liquid Light Scattering Cross Section and Depolarization Spectra Using Polarized Resonance Synchronous Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Athukorale, Sumudu A; Zhou, Yadong; Zou, Shengli; Zhang, Dongmao


    Rayleigh scattering is a universal material property because all materials have nonzero polarizability. Reliable quantification of the material light scattering cross section in the liquid phase and its depolarization spectra is, however, challenging due to a host of sample and instrument issues. Using the recently developed polarized resonance synchronous spectroscopic method, we reported the light scattering cross section and depolarization spectra measured for a total of 29 liquids including water, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, dimethylformamide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl sulfoxide, hexane and two hexane isomers (3-methylpentane and 2,3-dimethylbutane), tetrahydrofuran, cyclohexane, acetonitrile, pyridine, chloromethanes including di-, tri, tetrachloromethane, acetone, benzene and eight benzene derivatives (toluene, fluorobenzene, 1,2-, 1,3-, and 1,4-difluorobenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,2- and 1,3-dichlorobenzene, and nitrobenzene). The solvent light scattering depolarization is wavelength-independent for the model solvents, and it varies from 0.023 ± 0.011 for CCl4 to 0.619 ± 0.022 for nitrobenzene. The light scattering cross-section spectra can be approximated with the function of σ(λ) = αλ(-4) with the α value varying from 7.2 ± 0.2 × 10(-45) cm(6) for water to a maximum of 8.5 ± 0.6 × 10(-43) cm(6) for nitrobenzene. Structural isomerization has no significant effect on either the depolarization or the scattering cross sections for both hexanes and difluorobenzene isomers. This work represents the most comprehensive experimental study on liquid light scattering features. The insight from this work should be important for understanding the correlation between the material structure and optical properties. The described method can be readily implemented by researchers with access to conventional spectrofluorometers equipped with excitation and detection polarizers.

  5. Focusing light inside dynamic scattering media with millisecond digital optical phase conjugation. (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Ma, Cheng; Shen, Yuecheng; Shi, Junhui; Wang, Lihong V


    Wavefront shaping based on digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) focuses light through or inside scattering media, but the low speed of DOPC prevents it from being applied to thick, living biological tissue. Although a fast DOPC approach was recently developed, the reported single-shot wavefront measurement method does not work when the goal is to focus light inside, instead of through, highly scattering media. Here, using a ferroelectric liquid crystal based spatial light modulator, we develop a simpler but faster DOPC system that focuses light not only through, but also inside scattering media. By controlling 2.6 × 105 optical degrees of freedom, our system focused light through 3 mm thick moving chicken tissue, with a system latency of 3.0 ms. Using ultrasound-guided DOPC, along with a binary wavefront measurement method, our system focused light inside a scattering medium comprising moving tissue with a latency of 6.0 ms, which is one to two orders of magnitude shorter than those of previous digital wavefront shaping systems. Since the demonstrated speed approaches tissue decorrelation rates, this work is an important step toward in vivo deep-tissue non-invasive optical imaging, manipulation, and therapy.

  6. Light focusing through a multiple scattering medium: ab initio computer simulation (United States)

    Danko, Oleksandr; Danko, Volodymyr; Kovalenko, Andrey


    The present study considers ab initio computer simulation of the light focusing through a complex scattering medium. The focusing is performed by shaping the incident light beam in order to obtain a small focused spot on the opposite side of the scattering layer. MSTM software (Auburn University) is used to simulate the propagation of an arbitrary monochromatic Gaussian beam and obtain 2D distribution of the optical field in the selected plane of the investigated volume. Based on the set of incident and scattered fields, the pair of right and left eigen bases and corresponding singular values were calculated. The pair of right and left eigen modes together with the corresponding singular value constitute the transmittance eigen channel of the disordered media. Thus, the scattering process is described in three steps: 1) initial field decomposition in the right eigen basis; 2) scaling of decomposition coefficients for the corresponding singular values; 3) assembling of the scattered field as the composition of the weighted left eigen modes. Basis fields are represented as a linear combination of the original Gaussian beams and scattered fields. It was demonstrated that 60 independent control channels provide focusing the light into a spot with the minimal radius of approximately 0.4 μm at half maximum. The intensity enhancement in the focal plane was equal to 68 that coincided with theoretical prediction.

  7. The impacts of light scattering by clouds on longwave radiative transfer (United States)

    Kuo, C. P.; Yang, P.; Huang, X.; Feldman, D.; Flanner, M.


    In the longwave spectrum, clouds modulate energy budgets in the climate system through scattering, absorbing and emitting radiation. On the average, ice clouds tend to warm the climate, while liquid water clouds cool the climate, due to the distinct physical and optical properties of ice and liquid water clouds. General circulation models (GCMs) are the most popular tool to investigate the influences of clouds on climate. However, most GCMs, due to computational complexity, neglect multiple scattering effects in longwave radiative transfer calculations. To evaluate the potential impacts of neglecting longwave multiple scattering, we conduct sensitivity studies, utilizing the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) reanalysis atmospheric profiles, a modified RRTMG_LW (Longwave Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCM applications) and the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) collection 6 level 3 cloud retrieval products. The modified RRTMG_LW uses the 16-stream DISORT (Discrete Ordinates Radiative Transfer Program for a Multi-Layered Plane-Parallel Medium) as a robust radiative solver to calculate longwave fluxes. In the study, the bias in longwave flux (simulated without, minus simulated with, light scattering by ice and liquid water clouds) represents the influence of neglecting light scattering. Biases of upward flux at the top of the atmosphere, downward flux at the surface, and net flux into the atmosphere are presented. The preliminary results show that the absence of longwave light scattering could lead to considerable biases in global and regional flux simulations.

  8. Effect of corneal light scatter on vision: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Spadea


    Full Text Available The cornea is the transparent connective tissue window at the front of the eye. The physiological role of the cornea is to conduct external light into the eye, focus it, together with the lens, onto the retina, and to provide rigidity to the entire eyeball. Therefore, good vision requires maintenance of the transparency and proper refractive shape of the cornea. The surface structures irregularities can be associated with wavefront aberrations and scattering errors. Light scattering in the human cornea causes a reduction of visual quality. In fact, the cornea must be transparent and maintain a smooth and stable curvature since it contributes to the major part of the focusing power of the eye. In most cases, a simple examination of visual acuity cannot demonstrate the reduction of visual quality secondary light scattering. In fact, clinical techniques for examining the human cornea in vivo have greatly expanded over the last few decades. The measurement of corneal back scattering qualifies the degree of corneal transparency. The measurement of corneal forward-scattering quantifies the amount of visual impairment that is produced by the alteration of transparency. The aim of this study was to review scattering in the human cornea and methods of measuring it.

  9. Coherent light scattering of heterogeneous randomly rough films and effective medium in the theory of electromagnetic wave multiple scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berginc, G [THALES, 2 avenue Gay-Lussac 78995 ELANCOURT (France)


    We have developed a general formalism based on Green's functions to calculate the coherent electromagnetic field scattered by a random medium with rough boundaries. The approximate expression derived makes it possible to determine the effective permittivity, which is generalised for a layer of an inhomogeneous random medium with different types of particles and bounded with randomly rough interfaces. This effective permittivity describes the coherent propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a random medium with randomly rough boundaries. We have obtained an expression, which contains the Maxwell – Garnett formula at the low-frequency limit, and the Keller formula; the latter has been proved to be in good agreement with experiments for particles whose dimensions are larger than a wavelength. (coherent light scattering)

  10. Importance of light scattering properties of cloud particles on calculating the earth energy cycle (United States)

    Letu, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Nagao, T. M.; Ishimoto, H.


    The Earth is an open system, and the energy cycle of the Earth is not always a certain amount. In other words, the energy cycle in the nature is imbalance. A better understanding of the earth energy cycle is very important to study global climate change. the IPCC-AR4 reported that the cloud in the atmosphere are still characterized by large uncertainties in the estimation of their effects on energy sysle of the Earth's atmosphere. There are two types of cloud in the atmosphere, which are Cirrus and warm water cloud. In order to strongly reflect visible wavelength from sun light, thick water cloud has the effect of cooling the earth surface. When Cirrus is compared to water cloud, temperature is almost lower. Thus, there is a feature that Cirrus is easy to absorb long-wave radiation than warm water cloud. However, in order to quantitatively evaluate the reflection and absorption characteristics of cloud on remote senssing application and energy cycle of the imbalance of nature, it is necessary to obtain the scattering properties of cloud particles. Since the shapes of the water cloud particle are close to spherical, scattering properties of the particles can be calculated accurately by the Mie theory. However, Cirrus particles have a complex shape, including hexagonal, plate, and other non- spherical shapes. Different from warm water cloud partical, it is required to use several different light scattering methods when calculating the light scattering properties of the non-spherical Cirrus cloud particals. Ishimoto et al. [2010, 2012] and Masuda et al. [2012] developed the Finite-Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and Improved Geometrical-Optics Method (IGOM) for the solution of light scattering by non-spherical particles. Nakajima et al [1997,2009] developed the LIght Scattering solver for Arbitral Shape particle (Lisas)-Geometrical-Optics Method (GOM) and Surface Integral Equations Method of Müller-type (SIEMM) to calculate the light scattering properties for

  11. Sensitivity of a fibre scattered-light interferometer to external phase perturbations in an optical fibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, A E; Potapov, V T [V.A.Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Fryazino Branch, Fryazino, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Gorshkov, B G [OOO ' Petrofaiber' , Russia, Tula region, Novomoskovsk (Russian Federation)


    Sensitivity of a fibre scattered-light interferometer to external phase perturbations is studied for the first time. An expression is derived for an average power of a useful signal at the interferometer output under external harmonic perturbations in a signal fibre of the interferometer. It is shown that the maximum sensitivity of the scattered-light interferometer depends on the dispersion of the interferogram intensity. An average signal-to-noise ratio is determined theoretically and experimentally at the output of the interferometer at different amplitudes of external perturbations. Using the measured dependences of the signal-to-noise ratio, the threshold sensitivity of the fibre scattered-light interferometer to external phase perturbations is found. The results obtained can be used to optimise characteristics of optical time-domain reflectometers and to design individual phase-sensitive fibre-optic sensors. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  12. Continuous-wave spatial quantum correlations of light induced by multiple scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Huck, Alexander


    We present theoretical and experimental results on spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light. A continuous-mode quantum theory is derived that enables determining the spatial quantum correlation function from the fluctuations of the total transmittance and ...... theory and form a basis for future research on, e. g., quantum interference of multiple quantum states in a multiple scattering medium.......We present theoretical and experimental results on spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light. A continuous-mode quantum theory is derived that enables determining the spatial quantum correlation function from the fluctuations of the total transmittance...... and reflectance. Utilizing frequency-resolved quantum noise measurements, we observe that the strength of the spatial quantum correlation function can be controlled by changing the quantum state of an incident bright squeezed-light source. Our results are found to be in excellent agreement with the developed...

  13. Flow microfluorometric and light-scatter measurement of nuclear and cytoplasmic size in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, J.A.; Hansen, K.M.; Crissman, H.A.


    A technique for rapid measurement of nuclear and cytoplasmic size relationships in mammalian cell populations has been developed. Based on fluorescence staining of either the nucleus alone or in combination with the cytoplasm using two-color fluorescence methods, this technique permits the simultaneous determination of nuclear and cytoplasmic diameters from fluorescence and light-scatter measurements. Cells stained in liquid suspension pass through a flow chamber at a constant velocity, intersecting a laser beam which excites cell fluorescence and causes light scatter. Depending upon which analysis procedure is used, optical sensors measure nuclear fluorescence and light scatter (whole cell size) or two-color nuclear and cytoplasmic fluorescence from individual cells crossing the laser beam. The time durations of signals generated by the nucleus and cytoplasm are converted electronically into signals proportional to the respective diameters and are displayed as frequency distribution histograms. Illustrative examples of measurements on uniform microspheres, cultured mammalian cells and human exfoliated gynecologic cells are presented.

  14. Numerical simulations of scattering of light from two-dimensional surfaces using the Reduced Rayleigh Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Nordam, Tor; Simonsen, Ingve


    A formalism is introduced for the nonperturbative purely numerical solution of the reduced Rayleigh equation for the scattering of light from two-dimensional penetrable rough surfaces. As an example, we in this way study the scattering of p- or s-polarized light from two-dimensional dielectric or metallic randomly rough surfaces by calculating the full angular distribution of the co- and cross-polarized intensity of the scattered light. In particular, we present calculations of the mean differential reflection coefficient for glass and silver surfaces characterized by Gaussian and cylindrical power spectra. We find our results to be in agreement with previous work. The proposed method is found, within the validity of the Rayleigh hypothesis, to give reliable results. In particular, for a non-absorbing metal the conservation of energy is explicitly checked, and found to be satisfied to within 0.03% or better for the simulation results presented.

  15. Determination of liquid-liquid critical point composition using 90∘ laser light scattering (United States)

    Williamson, J. Charles; Brown, Allison M.; Helvie, Elise N.; Dean, Kevin M.


    Despite over a century of characterization efforts, liquid-liquid critical point compositions are difficult to identify with good accuracy. Reported values vary up to 10% for even well-studied systems. Here, a technique is presented for high-precision determination of the critical composition of a partially miscible binary liquid system. Ninety-degree laser light-scattering intensities from single-phase samples are analyzed using an equation derived from nonclassical power laws and the pseudospinodal approximation. Results are reported for four liquid-liquid systems (aniline + hexane, isobutyric acid + water, methanol + cyclohexane, and methanol + carbon disulfide). Compared to other methods, the 90∘ light-scattering approach has a strong dependence on composition near the critical point, is less affected by temperature fluctuations, and is insensitive to the presence of trace impurities in the samples. Critical compositions found with 90∘ light scattering are precise to the parts-per-thousand level and show long-term reproducibility.

  16. Performance of the distributed Brillouin sensor: Benefits and penalties due to pump depletion (United States)

    Ravet, Fabien

    Disaster prevention in civil infrastructures requires the use of techniques that allow temperature and strain measurements in real time over lengths of a few meters to tens of kilometres. The distributed Brillouin sensor (DBS) technique has the advantage to combine all these characteristics. The sensing mechanism of the DBS involves the interaction of two counter-propagating lightwaves, the Stokes and the pump, in an optical fibre. Spatial information is obtained through time domain analysis. The sensing data are recorded from the measurement of the pump depletion. We explore the benefits and the drawbacks of this approach and show that there is a power range for which the sensing performances are optima. To achieve that goal, Brillouin fibre generator (BFG) and amplifier (BFA) were studied leading to the derivation of a threshold definition for the BFA, which is the configuration of the DBS. Within that context, numerical and analytical models describing the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) interaction are introduced and validated experimentally. Even if pump depletion is carefully controlled, the Brillouin spectrum shape, and hence the sensor performance, still depend on the sensing parameters such as power, pulse and fibre characteristics. We use a signal processing method grounded in the physics of Brillouin scattering. An analytical approximation, valid for the optimum sensing region, reconstructs the Brillouin spectrum distribution from input sensing parameters and measured data. These data are obtained with a spectrum analysis methodology, based on three original tools: the Rayleigh equivalent criterion, the lengthstress diagram, and the spectrum form factors. This methodology has been successfully used on experimental spectra. The DBS and the signal processing approach were then used to monitor the structural changes in steel pipes and in a composite column, all subjected to heavy loads. The DBS measured the strain distribution of those structures

  17. Detection of internal structure by scattered light intensity: Application to kidney cell sorting (United States)

    Goolsby, C. L.; Kunze, M. E.


    Scattered light measurements in flow cytometry were sucessfully used to distinguish cells on the basis of differing morphology and internal structure. Differences in scattered light patterns due to changes in internal structure would be expected to occur at large scattering angles. Practically, the results of these calculations suggest that in experimental situations an array of detectors would be useful. Although in general the detection of the scattered light intensity at several intervals within the 10 to 60 region would be sufficient, there are many examples where increased sensitivity could be acheived at other angles. The ability to measure at many different angular intervals would allow the experimenter to empirically select the optimum intervals for the varying conditions of cell size, N/C ratio, granule size and internal structure from sample to sample. The feasibility of making scattered light measurements at many different intervals in flow cytometry was demonstrated. The implementation of simplified versions of these techniques in conjunction with independant measurements of cell size could potentially improve the usefulness of flow cytometry in the study of the internal structure of cells.

  18. Overcoming Angular Dependency When Teaching Light Scattering Using a Spectrofluorometer: The Molecular Weight of Latex Beads (United States)

    Santos, Nuno C.; Fernandes, Miguel X. J. J.; Castanho, Miguel A. R. B.


    When using a spectrofluorometer in light-scattering experiments, it is impossible to perform angle-dependent studies. At first glance, this restriction seems to students to be an insurmountable obstacle. However, a spectrofluorometer offers some potentialities not available with classical laser light scattering spectroscopy, namely, the availability of broader wavelength ranges. Changing the wavelength changes the magnitude of the scattering vector. This has the same effect as a change in the measurement angle. Thus, it is possible to overcome angle dependency by accounting for wavelength dependency. This "shift" in dependencies is easily accessed by students because it results directly from the usual formalisms used in light scattering. Moreover, the students are encouraged, in practice, to elaborate innovative solutions, even from classical formalisms. This methodology is applied to the calculation of a series of molecular weights of polystyrene latex spheres. This system has several advantages: (i) water miscibility, (ii) definite shape, (iii) monodispersity (both size and shape), (iv) low cost, and (v) availability of latex spheres in a wide variety of sizes and composition. Although very well characterized with respect to size and shape (mainly by dynamic light scattering and electronic microscopy), latex spheres have been poorly studied in terms of molecular weight. Consequently, working in an innovative area of research proves stimulating for the students.

  19. Light scattering by lungs correlates with stereological measurements. (United States)

    Suzuki, S; Butler, J P; Oldmixon, E H; Hoppin, F G


    The pattern of light backscattered by lung tissue should depend strongly on the size of air spaces and equivalently on the internal surface area of the lung. To verify and apply this, we shone a laser beam into excised lungs through the pleural surface and measured the backscattered light surrounding the beam with a focused photodetector. The intensity, I, fell off as a function of distance, r, from the point of entry of light. The configurations of I(r) curves corresponded closely to theory over a 3-decade range of I. I(r) changed systematically with lung volume. The optical mean free path, lambda, was calculated from I(r) curves in a series of canine lobes fixed immediately after optical scanning and was compared with stereological measurement of mean linear intercept, Lm, an index of alveolar size. At high lung volumes the relation of lambda to Lm was consistent with reflection by alveolar septa. At lower lung volumes there appeared to be, additionally, a substantial refractive component. This technique is independent of current stereological methods and has the advantages of being noninvasive, continuous, and potentially applicable to dynamic events in unfixed lungs.

  20. Application of dynamic light scattering for studying the evolution of micro- and nano-droplets (United States)

    Derkachov, G.; Jakubczyk, D.; Kolwas, K.; Shopa, Y.; Woźniak, M.; Wojciechowski, T.


    The dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique was used for studying the processes of aggregation of spherical SiO2 particles in various diethylene glycol (DEG) suspensions. The suspensions were studied in a cuvette, in a millimeter-sized droplet and in a micrometer-sized droplet. For the first time DLS signals for droplets of picolitre volume, levitated in an electrodynamic quadrupole trap, were obtained. It is shown that the correlation analysis of light scattered from a micro-droplet allows monitoring the changes of its internal structure, as well as its motions: trap-constricted Brownian motions and random rotations.

  1. Studying aerosol light scattering based on aspect ratio distribution observed by fluorescence microscope. (United States)

    Li, Li; Zheng, Xu; Li, Zhengqiang; Li, Zhanhua; Dubovik, Oleg; Chen, Xingfeng; Wendisch, Manfred


    Particle shape is crucial to the properties of light scattered by atmospheric aerosol particles. A method of fluorescence microscopy direct observation was introduced to determine the aspect ratio distribution of aerosol particles. The result is comparable with that of the electron microscopic analysis. The measured aspect ratio distribution has been successfully applied in modeling light scattering and further in simulation of polarization measurements of the sun/sky radiometer. These efforts are expected to improve shape retrieval from skylight polarization by using directly measured aspect ratio distribution.

  2. Light scattering from aqueous solutions of colloid metal nanoparticles stabilized by natural polysaccharide arabinogalactan. (United States)

    Gasilova, Ekaterina R; Toropova, Anna A; Bushin, Stanislav V; Khripunov, Albert K; Grischenko, Ludmila A; Aleksandrova, Galina P


    Colloids of metal nanoparticles (NPs) of Au, Ag, Pd, and Pt protected by natural polymer arabinogalactan (ARB) extracted from Larix sibirica were studied. The nanocomposites were prepared by reduction of metal salts in the water solutions of ARB. We carried out dynamic (DLS) and static light scattering resonantly enhanced by the NP plasmons. The translational diffusion was examined via DLS and a polarized interferometer. The virgin ARB was shown to form aggregates in dilute aqueous solutions. The introduction of NPs reduced the size of the virgin ARB aggregates. The aggregate forms as viewed by the scanning electron microscopy support the light scattering results.

  3. Electron scattering disintegration processes on light nuclei in covariant approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznietsov P.E.


    Full Text Available We provide general analysis of electro-break up process of compound scalar system. We use covariant approach with conserved EM current, which gives the ability to include strong interaction into QED. Therefore, we receive the ability to describe disintegration processes on nonlocal matter fields applying standard Feynman rules of QED. Inclusion of phase exponent into wave function receives a physical sense while we deal with the dominance of strong interaction in the process. We apply Green’s function (GF formalism to describe disintegration processes. Generalized gauge invariant electro-break up process amplitude is considered. One is a sum of traditional pole series and the regular part. We explore the deposits of regular part of amplitude, and its physical sense. A transition from virtual to real photon considered in photon point limit. The general analysis for electro-break up process of component scalar system is given. Precisely conserved nuclear electromagnetic currents at arbitrary square of transited momentum are received. The only undefined quantity in theory is vertex function. Therefore, we have the opportunity to describe electron scattering processes taking into account minimal necessary set of parameters.

  4. Electron scattering disintegration processes on light nuclei in covariant approach (United States)

    Kuznietsov, P. E.; Kasatkin, Yu. A.; Klepikov, V. F.


    We provide general analysis of electro-break up process of compound scalar system. We use covariant approach with conserved EM current, which gives the ability to include strong interaction into QED. Therefore, we receive the ability to describe disintegration processes on nonlocal matter fields applying standard Feynman rules of QED. Inclusion of phase exponent into wave function receives a physical sense while we deal with the dominance of strong interaction in the process. We apply Green's function (GF) formalism to describe disintegration processes. Generalized gauge invariant electro-break up process amplitude is considered. One is a sum of traditional pole series and the regular part. We explore the deposits of regular part of amplitude, and its physical sense. A transition from virtual to real photon considered in photon point limit. The general analysis for electro-break up process of component scalar system is given. Precisely conserved nuclear electromagnetic currents at arbitrary square of transited momentum are received. The only undefined quantity in theory is vertex function. Therefore, we have the opportunity to describe electron scattering processes taking into account minimal necessary set of parameters.

  5. Formation of the angular dependence of intensity of the light scattered on the optically dense atomic ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Larionov


    Full Text Available The probe light scattering on the cold optically dense atomic ensemble is studied theoretically in the paper. In order to describe multiple scattering of light in the context of quantum electrodynamics, the Konstantinov–Perel–Keldysh diagram technique has been used. This technique allows to rewrite the considered case of light scattering in terms of diagram series where each term describes incoherent scattering of certain order. Decoding these terms allowed us to obtain the explicit analytical expression for the cross-section of multiple incoherent scattering for the case of stationary two-level atoms (transition Jg = 0 → Je = 1. The numerical analysis of this expression carried out by applying the Monte-Carlo simulation made it possible to find an influence of different orders of scattering on forming the angular dependence of scattered light intensity.

  6. Noninvasive monitoring of the thermal stress in RPE using light scattering spectroscopy (United States)

    Schule, Georg; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander B.; Vitkin, Edward; Fang, Hui; Hanlon, Eugene B.; Perelman, Lev T.; Palanker, Daniel V.


    Introduction: Light Scattering Spectroscopy has been a recently developed as a non-invasive technique capable of sizing the cellular organelles. With this technique, we monitor the heat-induced sub-cellular structural transformations in a human RPE cell culture. Material and Methods: A single layer of human RPE cells (ATCC) was grown on a glass slide. Cells are illuminated with light from a fiber-coupled broadband tungsten lamp. The backscattered (180 degree) light spectra are measured with an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA). Spectra are measured during heating of the sample. Results: We reconstructed the size distribution of sub-micron organelles in the RPE cells and observed temperature-related changes in the scattering density of the organelles in the 200-300nm range (which might be peroxisomes, microsomes or lysosomes). The sizes of the organelles did not vary with temperature, so the change in scattering is most probably due to the change in the refractive indexes. As opposed to strong spectral variation with temperature, the total intensity of the backscattered light did not significantly change in the temperature range of 32-49 °C. Conclusion: We demonstrate that Light Scattering Spectroscopy is a powerful tool for monitoring the temperature-induced sub-cellular transformations. This technique providing an insight into the temperature-induced cellular processes and can play an important role in quantitative assessment of the laser-induced thermal effects during retinal laser treatments, such as Transpupillary Thermal Therapy (TTT), photocoagulation, and Photodynamic Therapy (PDT).

  7. Research Update: A minimal region of squid reflectin for vapor-induced light scattering (United States)

    Dennis, Patrick B.; Singh, Kristi M.; Vasudev, Milana C.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J.


    Reflectins are a family of proteins found in the light manipulating cells of cephalopods. These proteins are made up of a series of conserved repeats that contain highly represented amino acids thought to be important for function. Previous studies demonstrated that recombinant reflectins cast into thin films produced structural colors that could be dynamically modulated via changing environmental conditions. In this study, we demonstrate light scattering from reflectin films following exposure to a series of water vapor pulses. Analysis of film surface topography shows that the induction of light scatter is accompanied by self-assembly of reflectins into micro- and nanoscale features. Using a reductionist strategy, we determine which reflectin repeats and sub-repeats are necessary for these events following water vapor pulsing. With this approach, we identify a singly represented, 23-amino acid region in reflectins as being sufficient to recapitulate the light scattering properties observed in thin films of the full-length protein. Finally, the aqueous stability of reflectin films is leveraged to show that pre-exposure to buffers of varying pH can modulate the ability of water vapor pulses to induce light scatter and protein self-assembly.

  8. Controlling stimulated Raman scattering by two-color light in inertial confinement fusion (United States)

    Liu, Z. J.; Chen, Y. H.; Zheng, C. Y.; Cao, L. H.; Li, B.; Xiang, J.; Hao, L.; Lan, K.


    A method is proposed to control the stimulated Raman scattering in the inertial confinement fusion by using auxiliary 2ω light to suppress the stimulated Raman scattering of the 3ω light. In this scheme, inverse bremsstrahlung absorption and parametric instabilities in the 2ω light increase the electron temperature and the plasma-density fluctuation, thus preventing the development of Raman scattering of the 3ω light. This scheme is successfully demonstrated by both one-dimensional kinetic simulations and two-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic simulations. The one-dimensional Vlasov results show that the time-averaged transmissivity of the 3ω light increases from 0.75 to 0.95 under certain conditions. Results obtained using the particle-in-cell method with Monte Carlo collisions show that the electron temperature is greatly increased with the increasing intensity of the 2ω light. The two-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic simulation results show that the electron temperature increases from 3.2 keV to 3.5 keV, and the time-averaged backscattering level decreases from 0.28 to 0.1 in the presence of the auxiliary 2ω light.

  9. Scattered-Light Echoes from the Historical Galactic Supernovae Cassiopeia A and Tycho (SN 1572)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, A; Welch, D L; Suntzeff, N B; Oaster, L; Lanning, H; Olsen, K; Smith, R C; Becker, A C; Bergmann, M; Challis, P; Clocchiatti, A; Cook, K H; Damke, G; Garg, A; Huber, M E; Matheson, T; Minniti, D; Prieto, J L; Wood-Vasey, W M


    We report the discovery of an extensive system of scattered light echo arclets associated with the recent supernovae in the local neighborhood of the Milky Way: Tycho (SN 1572) and Cassiopeia A. Existing work suggests that the Tycho SN was a thermonuclear explosion while the Cas A supernova was a core collapse explosion. Precise classifications according to modern nomenclature require spectra of the outburst light. In the case of ancient SNe, this can only be done with spectroscopy of their light echo, where the discovery of the light echoes from the outburst light is the first step. Adjacent light echo positions suggest that Cas A and Tycho may share common scattering dust structures. If so, it is possible to measure precise distances between historical Galactic supernovae. On-going surveys that alert on the development of bright scattered-light echo features have the potential to reveal detailed spectroscopic information for many recent Galactic supernovae, both directly visible and obscured by dust in the Galactic plane.

  10. Influence of nearly resonant light on the scattering length in low-temperature atomic gases

    CERN Document Server

    Fedichev, P O; Shlyapnikov, G V; Walraven, J T M


    We develop the idea of manipulating the scattering length a in low-temperature atomic gases by using nearly resonant light. As found, if the incident light is close to resonance with one of the bound p levels of electronically excited molecule, then virtual radiative transitions of a pair of interacting atoms to this level can significantly change the value and even reverse the sign of a. The decay of the gas due to photon recoil, resulting from the scattering of light by single atoms, and due to photoassociation can be minimized by selecting the frequency detuning and the Rabi frequency. Our calculations show the feasibility of optical manipulations of trapped Bose condensates through a light-induced change in the mean field interaction between atoms, which is illustrated for ^7Li.

  11. Flow cytometry of human embryonic kidney cells: A light scattering approach (United States)

    Kunze, M. E.; Goolsby, C. L.; Todd, P. W.; Morrison, D. R.; Lewis, M. L.


    The mammalian kidney contains cells that transport water, convert vitamin D to active forms, synthesize hormones such a renin and erythropoietin, and produce enzymes such as urokinase, a plasminogen activator. Several of these functions are maintained by human embryonic kidney cells (HEK) cultivated in vitro. Biochemical study of these functions in their individual cell types in vitro requires purified populations of cells. Light-scattering activated cell sorting (LACS) was explored as a means of achieving such purifications. It was found that HEK cells at the first 1 to 5 passages in culture were heterogeneous with respect to 2-parameter light scattering intensity distribution, in which combined measurements included forward angle scattering (2.5 to 19 deg), 90 deg scattering, and time-of-flight size measurements. Size was measured at a resolution of 0.15 microns/channel in 256 channels using pulse-height independent pulse-width measurements. Two-parameter distributions combining these measurements were obtained for HEK cell subpopulations that had been purified by microgravity electrophoresis and subsequently propagated in culture. These distributions contained at least 3 subpopulations in all purified fractions, and results of experiments with prepurified cultured HEK cells indicated that subpopulations of living cells that were high in plasminogen-activator activity also contained the highest per cent of cells with high 90 deg light scatter intensity.

  12. Characterization of uranium corrosion product colloids by dynamic light scattering.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, C.; Bowers, D.; Goldberg, M.; Shelton-Davis, C.


    The Department of Energy plans to dispose of approximately 2100 metric tons of spent metallic uranium fuel in the mined repository at Yucca Mountain. Laboratory studies at Argonne National Laboratory have shown that corrosion of metallic uranium fuel with groundwater generates significant quantities of stable colloids. This finding is considered very important in light of the recent report (1) of rapid subsurface transport of radionuclides at the Nevada Test Site via colloids. Thus, sparingly soluble radionuclides can be transported with the colloids through the subsurface aqueous environment to much greater distances than is predicted based on the aqueous volubility of the radionuclides alone. Accordingly, characterization of colloids generated by fuel corrosion is necessary for assessing the long-term fate and transport of radionuclides in the repository environment.

  13. Light absorption enhancement in thin-film GaAs solar cells with flattened light scattering substrates (United States)

    Sai, Hitoshi; Mizuno, Hidenori; Makita, Kikuo; Matsubara, Koji


    A flattened light scattering substrate (FLiSS) was investigated for enhancing the light absorption in thin-film GaAs solar cells. The FLiSS investigated in this work was limited to those composed of periodic refractive index distribution, although its concept is not necessarily limited to such a structure. The following guidelines were found via optical simulation: (i) the morphological distribution of refractive indices in a FLiSS plays a key role, and an inverted pyramid-like shape is very efficient in light scattering. (ii) There are an optimum period and a depth in a FLiSS, although efficient light scattering is achievable in a wide parameter space. However, periods less than 0.4 μm result in poor light scattering effect. (iii) The contrast in the refractive indices of the two materials in the FLiSS should be large enough, typically Δn > 1.5. At the same time, parasitic absorption loss in the FLiSS must be minimized. An optimized FLiSS, which satisfies the requirements mentioned above, can increase the absorption in thin GaAs cells more efficiently than a flat reflector, and a high current density of approximately 30 mA/cm2 is potentially achievable with a 1-μm-thick absorber. For experimental verification, a 2D grating FLiSS with InZnO and amorphous Si was developed and applied to thin film GaAs solar cells. As a result, a significant increase in the current density as well as in the spectral response in a long wavelength region was demonstrated, as expected from the optical simulation.

  14. Light scattering, straylight, and optical quality in hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses with subsurface nanoglistenings. (United States)

    Werner, Liliana; Stover, John C; Schwiegerling, Jim; Das, Kamal K


    To evaluate forward light scattering and straylight in single-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) (Acrysof) removed from cadaver eyes and design- and power-matched controls, as well as the effect of subsurface nanoglistenings on other optical quality and performance indicators. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Seventeen single-piece IOLs (11 blue light-filtering; 6 without blue-light filter) with subsurface nanoglistenings were removed from cadaver eyes. The Complete Angle Scatter Instrument scatterometer was used to measure the forward-scattered light; straylight values at various angles were calculated. The modulation transfer function (MTF) and Badal images were also obtained. Backscatter was measured with a Scheimpflug camera (EAS-1000) and light transmittance with a spectrophotometer (Lambda 35 UV-VIS) to confirm findings in previous studies. The mean straylight values at a scattered angle of 10 degrees were 1.06 ± 0.23 log(s) for blue light-filtering IOLs, 0.97 ± 0.28 log(s) for IOLs without a blue-light filter, and 0.22 ± 0.22 log(s) for controls. The MTF and Badal image contrast of IOLs removed from cadaver eyes were similar to control values (no subsurface nanoglistenings). Backscatter was significantly higher in IOLs from cadaver eyes, although light transmittance was similar to that of controls. Straylight in hydrophobic IOLs resulting from subsurface nanoglistenings was well below the value of straylight hindrance and would not cause noticeable visual impairments. Dr. Das is an employee of Alcon Laboratories, Inc. The Complete Angle Instrument scatterometer was developed by Dr. Stover at the Scatterworks, Inc. Neither of the other authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any method or material mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Zonas de Brillouin del grafito


    A. Velázquez-Arriaga


    La celda unitaria de un cristal de grafito se analiza usando el principio básico de oscilador armónico. Para este propósito, consideramos a los átomos que conforman la celda unitaria hexagonal unidos por pequeños resortes. Se establece la ecuación de movimiento de dicha celda para obtener la frecuencia normal de vibración del sistema (w) en términos del vector de onda (k) y la distancia interatómica. Con estos datos se generan las zonas de Brillouin y se determinan los puntos silla en los con...

  16. Multiple scattering of polarized light in birefringent slab media: experimental verifications and simulations. (United States)

    Otsuki, Soichi


    The effective scattering Mueller matrices were measured for backward and forward scattering by applying a narrow polarized light on a polyacrylamide slab gel, which was strained vertically to generate birefringence inside. Monte Carlo simulations were performed in conditions that were the same as possible. The measured and simulated matrices were simplified to the reduced ones. They agreed well in both original and reduced forms. While they approximately take reciprocal forms for backward scattering, they approximately satisfy matrix forms that correspond to a reciprocal position of the mirror image for forward scattering. The reduced matrices were factorized by the Lu-Chipman polar decomposition to obtain the polarization parameters. The polarization parameters were in good agreement between the measurement and simulation and showed characteristic features of anisotropic slab media with a birefringence axis parallel to the slab surface.

  17. High Precision Stokes Polarimetry for Scattering Light using Wide Dynamic Range Intensity Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibata Shuhei


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Stokes polarimetry for scattering light from a sample surface. To achieve a high accuracy measurement two approaches of an intensity detector and analysis algorism of a Stokes parameter were proposed. The dynamic range of this detector can achieve up to 1010 by combination of change of neutral-density (ND filters having different density and photon counting units. Stokes parameters can be measured by dual rotating of a retarder and an analyzer. The algorism of dual rotating polarimeter can be calibrated small linear diattenuation and linear retardance error of the retarder. This system can measured Stokes parameters from −20° to 70° of its scattering angle. It is possible to measure Stokes parameters of scattering of dust and scratch of optical device with high precision. This paper shows accuracy of this system, checking the polarization change of scattering angle and influence of beam size.

  18. Observation of mean path length invariance in light-scattering media. (United States)

    Savo, Romolo; Pierrat, Romain; Najar, Ulysse; Carminati, Rémi; Rotter, Stefan; Gigan, Sylvain


    The microstructure of a medium strongly influences how light propagates through it. The amount of disorder it contains determines whether the medium is transparent or opaque. Theory predicts that exciting such a medium homogeneously and isotropically makes some of its optical properties depend only on the medium's outer geometry. Here, we report an optical experiment demonstrating that the mean path length of light is invariant with respect to the microstructure of the medium it scatters through. Using colloidal solutions with varying concentration and particle size, the invariance of the mean path length is observed over nearly two orders of magnitude in scattering strength. Our results can be extended to a wide range of systems-however ordered, correlated, or disordered-and apply to all wave-scattering problems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. Differing self-similarity in light scattering spectra: A potential tool for pre-cancer detection

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sayantan; Purwar, Harsh; Jagtap, Jaidip; Pradhan, Asima; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Panigrahi, Prasanta K


    The fluctuations in the elastic light scattering spectra of normal and dysplastic human cervical tissues analyzed through wavelet transform based techniques reveal clear signatures of self-similar behavior in the spectral fluctuations. Significant differences in the power law behavior ascertained through the scaling exponent was observed in these tissues. The strong dependence of the elastic light scattering on the size distribution of the scatterers manifests in the angular variation of the scaling exponent. Interestingly, the spectral fluctuations in both these tissues showed multi-fractality (non-stationarity in fluctuations), the degree of multi-fractality being marginally higher in the case of dysplastic tissues. These findings using the multi-resolution analysis capability of the discrete wavelet transform can contribute to the recent surge in the exploration for non-invasive optical tools for pre-cancer detection.

  20. A high-power spatial filter for Thomson scattering stray light reduction (United States)

    Levesque, J. P.; Litzner, K. D.; Mauel, M. E.; Maurer, D. A.; Navratil, G. A.; Pedersen, T. S.


    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) is routinely used to measure electron temperature and density during plasma discharges. Avalanche photodiodes in a five-channel interference filter polychromator measure scattered light from a 6 ns, 800 mJ, 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser pulse. A low cost, high-power spatial filter was designed, tested, and added to the laser beamline in order to reduce stray laser light to levels which are acceptable for accurate Rayleigh calibration. A detailed analysis of the spatial filter design and performance is given. The spatial filter can be easily implemented in an existing Thomson scattering system without the need to disturb the vacuum chamber or significantly change the beamline. Although apertures in the spatial filter suffer substantial damage from the focused beam, with proper design they can last long enough to permit absolute calibration.

  1. Out-of-plane light-scattering polarimetric imaging of a thread surface (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang; Chang, Li-Jen


    A novel polarimetric measurement based on hemispherical light-scattering for the assessment of superficial screw is presented. The optical system is capable of capturing polarized light images. The effect of the thread surface backscattering is estimated with the use of in-plane and out-of-plane illumination. The angular distributions of polarized light scattered by the ISO metric screws are measured for light incident from a green laser. A partial Stokes vector imaging detector is mounted on a motorized rotating arm at an oblique angle to the sample normal and consists of a 10-bit scientific camera, an object lens, and a polarizer. The partial Stokes vector images of light scattered towards the camera are generated for each direction and a useful decomposition of the partial Stokes vector is presented. The thread surface effects can be minimized using out-of-plane polarized illumination in conjunction with polarized images. The experimental result may provide a new polarized imaging technique for using visible light to inspect the key features of a screw in automated optical inspection system.

  2. White light photothermal lens spectrophotometer for the determination of absorption in scattering samples. (United States)

    Marcano, Aristides; Alvarado, Salvador; Meng, Junwei; Caballero, Daniel; Moares, Ernesto Marín; Edziah, Raymond


    We developed a pump-probe photothermal lens spectrophotometer that uses a broadband arc-lamp and a set of interference filters to provide tunable, nearly monochromatic radiation between 370 and 730 nm as the pump light source. This light is focused onto an absorbing sample, generating a photothermal lens of millimeter dimensions. A highly collimated monochromatic probe light from a low-power He-Ne laser interrogates the generated lens, yielding a photothermal signal proportional to the absorption of light. We measure the absorption spectra of scattering dye solutions using the device. We show that the spectra are not affected by the presence of scattering, confirming that the method only measures the absorption of light that results in generation of heat. By comparing the photothermal spectra with the usual absorption spectra determined using commercial transmission spectrophotometers, we estimate the quantum yield of scattering of the sample. We discuss applications of the device for spectroscopic characterization of samples such as blood and gold nanoparticles that exhibit a complex behavior upon interaction with light.

  3. Wavelength dependence of light diffusion in strongly scattering macroporous gallium phosphide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, W.H.; Vellekoop, Ivo Micha; Mosk, Allard; Lagendijk, Aart


    We present time-resolved measurements of light transport through strongly scattering macroporous gallium phosphide at various vacuum wavelengths between 705 nm and 855 nm. Within this range the transport mean free path is strongly wavelength dependent, whereas the observed energy velocity is shown

  4. Relative contribution of submicron and supermicron particles to aerosol light scattering in the marine boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefeld, C.; O'Dowd, C.D.; O'Reilly, S.; Jennings, S.G.; Aalto, P.; Becker, E.; Kunz, G.J.; Leeuw, G. de


    Measurements of the aerosol light scattering coefficient (σsp) at a wavelength of λ - 550 nm were conducted at a coastal atmospheric research station in the east Atlantic Ocean during June 1999. Size distribution measurements between diameters of 3 nm and 40 um (at ambient humidity) were used to

  5. Scattering of light by a periodic structure in the presence of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The earlier prediction, before our technique was introduced, had placed the limit of detection, by intensity measurements alone, at (0/) ∼ 0.33, where 0 is the coherence length of light for scattering by the rough part of the surface and is the wavelength of the periodic part of the surface. In our earlier works we have ...

  6. Four-Parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; de Grooth, B.G.; Visscher, K.; Kouterik, F.A.; Greve, Jan


    Measurement of the depolarized orthogonal light scattering in flow cytometry enables one to discriminate human eosinephilic granulocytes from neutrophilic granulocytes. We use this method to perform a four-parameter differential white blood cell analysis. A simple flow cytometer was built equipped

  7. Light scattering changes follow evoked potentials from hippocampal Schaeffer collateral stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rector, D M; Poe, G R; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard


    We assessed relationships of evoked electrical and light scattering changes from cat dorsal hippocampus following Schaeffer collateral stimulation. Under anesthesia, eight stimulating electrodes were placed in the left hippocampal CA field and an optic probe, coupled to a photodiode or a charge-c...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJP, [No Value; TENBOSCH, JJ


    The scattering phase functions for HeNe-laser light of dentine sections 10-20-mu-m thick were measured. The functions perpendicular to the tubules had first-order maxima at angles of 4-degrees for bovine dentine and 5-degrees for human dentine; those parallel to the tubules showed no first-order

  9. Protein Analysis by Dynamic Light Scattering: Methods and Techniques for Students (United States)

    Lorber, Bernard; Fischer, Frederic; Bailly, Marc; Roy, Herve; Kern, Daniel


    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analyses are routinely used in biology laboratories to detect aggregates in macromolecular solutions, to determine the size of proteins, nucleic acids, and complexes or to monitor the binding of ligands. This article is written for graduate and undergraduate students with access to DLS and for faculty members who…

  10. Autocorrelation function of scattered light for a binary fluid near the critical mixing point (United States)

    Bendjaballah, C.


    A time-to-amplitude conversion technique was applied to measure the second-order autocorrelation function of light scattering by a binary fluid from concentration fluctuations of the fluid very close to the critical point. The experimental setup included two photomultipliers, a time-to-amplitude converter, and a pulse height analyzer.

  11. Effects of absorption on coherence domain path length resolved dynamic light scattering in the diffuse regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petoukhova, Anna; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton; de Mul, F.F.M.


    A low coherence Mach–Zehnder interferometer is developed for path length resolved dynamic light scattering in highly turbid media. The path length distribution of multiply scatteredphotons in Intralipid is changed by the addition of absorbing dyes. Path length distributions obtained for various

  12. Pretransitional phenomena of a colloid polymer mixture studied with static and dynamic light scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodnár, I.; Dhont, J.K.G.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.


    A mixture of hard-sphere colloidal silica particles (radius 48 nm) and a nonadsorbing polymer (poly-(dimethylsiloxane), radius of gyration 23 nm) is studied by means of static and dynamic light scattering near the binodal. The spinodal is determined from an extrapolation of the diffusion

  13. Interaction between Humic Acid and Lysozyme, Studied by Dynamic Light Scattering and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Wen Feng; Koopal, Luuk K.; Norde, Willem


    Interactions of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) with the protein lysozyme (LSZ) are studied with dynamic light scattering and isothermal titration calorimetry by mixing LSZ and PAHA at various mass ratios. In solution LSZ is positive and PAHA is negative at the investigated pH values. Up to

  14. Study of light scattering by a granulated coated sphere - a model of granulated blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yurkin, M.A.; de Kanter, D.; Hoekstra, A.G.


    We performed extensive simulations of light scattering by granulated coated sphere model using the discrete dipole approximation and varying model parameters in the ranges of sizes and refractive indices of granulated blood cells. We compared these results with predictions of Maxwell-Garnett

  15. Experimental light scattering by fluffy aggregates of magnesiosilica, ferrosilica, and alumina cosmic dust analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volten, H.; Muñoz, O.; Hovenier, J.W.; Rietmeijer, F.J.M.; Nuth, J.A.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; van der Zande, W.J.


    Context: Fluffy aggregates are generally assumed to be important constituents of circumstellar and interplanetary environments as well as to be present among the solid debris ejected from active comets. Aims: We experimentally study light scattering properties of several fluffy aggregate samples.

  16. Light Scattering of TiO2 Nanoparticles Embedded in Polyurethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Canulescu, Stela; Johansen, Villads Egede

    A new approach of enhancing light scattering in polyurethane polymer through the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) is explored. The TiO2 NP with sizes of 360 nm, 410 nm and 500 nm were dispersed in polyurethane polymer in concentrations ranging from 0.25 wt% up to 2 wt%. Reflectivity and UV...

  17. Light-scattering properties of undiluted human blood subjected to simple shear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Kolkman, R.G.M.; de Mul, F.F.M.


    An experimental investigation was performed into the effect of simple shear on the light-scattering properties of undiluted human blood. Undiluted human blood was enclosed between two glass plates with an adjustable separation between 30 and 120 mm and with one plate moving parallel to the other.

  18. Concentrated, polydisperse solutions of colloidal particles. Light scattering and sedimentation of hard-sphere mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrij, A.


    The usefulness of the hard-sphere model in characterizing polydispersity in concentrated colloidal solutions is stressed. A recently derived equation for (∂ρi/∂μj)μ is used to give a simpler route for application to light scattering and sedimentation in multicomponent and polydisperse systems. Some


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The reduced scattering cross section per unit of volume SIGMA(s)' = SIGMA(s)(1 - g) is an important parameter to describe light propagation in media with scattering and absorption. Mie calculations of the asymmetry factor g for nonabsorbing spheres and Q(sca), the ratio of the scattering cross

  20. KrF laser amplifier with phase-conjugate Brillouin retroreflectors. (United States)

    Gower, M C


    We have demonstrated the use of phase-conjugate stimulated Brillouin scattering mirrors to produce high-quality, short-pulse KrF laser beams from angular multiplexed and regenerative amplifiers. The mirror was also shown to isolate systems optically from amplifier spontaneous emission. Automatic alignment of targets using this mirror as a retroreflector was also demonstrated.

  1. Mathematical and computational aspects of quaternary liquid mixing free energy measurement using light scattering. (United States)

    Wahle, Chris W; Ross, David S; Thurston, George M


    We provide a mathematical and computational analysis of light scattering measurement of mixing free energies of quaternary isotropic liquids. In previous work, we analyzed mathematical and experimental design considerations for the ternary mixture case [D. Ross, G. Thurston, and C. Lutzer, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 064106 (2008); C. Wahle, D. Ross, and G. Thurston, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 034201 (2012)]. Here, we review and introduce dimension-free general formulations of the fully nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) and its linearization, a basis for applying the method to composition spaces of any dimension, in principle. With numerical analysis of the PDE as applied to the light scattering implied by a test free energy and dielectric gradient combination, we show that values of the Rayleigh ratio within the quaternary composition tetrahedron can be used to correctly reconstruct the composition dependence of the free energy. We then extend the analysis to the case of a finite number of data points, measured with noise. In this context the linearized PDE describes the relevant diffusion of information from light scattering noise to the free energy. The fully nonlinear PDE creates a special set of curves in the composition tetrahedron, collections of which form characteristics of the nonlinear and linear PDEs, and we show that the information diffusion has a time-like direction along the positive normals to these curves. With use of Monte Carlo simulations of light scattering experiments, we find that for a modest laboratory light scattering setup, about 100-200 samples and 100 s of measurement time are enough to be able to measure the mixing free energy over the entire quaternary composition tetrahedron, to within an L(2) error norm of 10(-3). The present method can help quantify thermodynamics of quaternary isotropic liquid mixtures.

  2. Strongly coupled stimulated Brillouin amplification in pump-ionizing plasma (United States)

    Peng, H.; Wu, Z. H.; Zuo, Y. L.; Zhou, K. N.; Wang, X. D.; Li, Q.; Zhu, H. Y.; Su, J. Q.


    Laser amplification based on strongly coupled stimulated Brillouin scattering in plasma is investigated. The pump and seed are at the same wavelength of 800 nm and the same duration of 3.5 ps, but with a different intensity. The plasma is produced by the front part of the pump via tunnel ionization from hydrogen. The hydrogen is fully ionized to eliminate small-scale density fluctuations in the plasma, so the transmission level of the seed is enhanced to 22%, and a relative amplification factor of 6 is obtained.

  3. Study of the scattering of the light in aqueous samples collagen in the presence of nanoparticles and curcuma pigment (United States)

    Silva, F. M. L.; Alencar, L. D. S.; Bernardi, M. I. B.; Lima, F. W. S.; Melo, C. A. S.


    In this work we investigate the scattering of light in means turbid in the presence or not of pigment and nanoparticles. For this we initially using a sample of collagen from means turbid with and without the presence of curcuma pigments and nanoparticles. Our results show that the light scattering is more intense in the samples with nanoparticles and curcuma pigment.

  4. Flow cytometry with gold nanoparticlesand their clusters as scattering contrast agents: FDTD simulation of light-cell interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Sun, Wenbo; Pond, James


    The formulation of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) approach is presented in the framework of its potential applications to in vivo flow cytometry based on light scattering. The consideration is focused on comparison of light scattering by a single biological cell alone in controlled refr...

  5. Smectic ordering in nematic and smectic liquid-crystalline films probed by means of surface light scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böttger, A.; Frenkel, D.; Joosten, J.G.H.; Krooshof, G.


    We present the first results of experiments that measure the intensity of light scattered by capillary waves on the surface of free-standing liquid-crystalline thin films. The intensity of the scattered light provides information about the surface tension of the liquid-air interfaces and, more

  6. Archean Earth Atmosphere Fractal Haze Aggregates: Light Scattering Calculations and the Faint Young Sun Paradox (United States)

    Boness, D. A.; Terrell-Martinez, B.


    As part of an ongoing undergraduate research project of light scattering calculations involving fractal carbonaceous soot aggregates relevant to current anthropogenic and natural sources in Earth's atmosphere, we have read with interest a recent paper [E.T. Wolf and O.B Toon,Science 328, 1266 (2010)] claiming that the Faint Young Sun paradox discussed four decades ago by Carl Sagan and others can be resolved without invoking heavy CO2 concentrations as a greenhouse gas warming the early Earth enough to sustain liquid water and hence allow the origin of life. Wolf and Toon report that a Titan-like Archean Earth haze, with a fractal haze aggregate nature due to nitrogen-methane photochemistry at high altitudes, should block enough UV light to protect the warming greenhouse gas NH3 while allowing enough visible light to reach the surface of the Earth. To test this hypothesis, we have employed a rigorous T-Matrix arbitrary-particle light scattering technique, to avoid the simplifications inherent in Mie-sphere scattering, on haze fractal aggregates at UV and visible wavelenths of incident light. We generate these model aggregates using diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) algorithms, which much more closely fit actual haze fractal aggregates than do diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) algorithms.

  7. Focusing light through scattering media by polarization modulation based generalized digital optical phase conjugation (United States)

    Yang, Jiamiao; Shen, Yuecheng; Liu, Yan; Hemphill, Ashton S.; Wang, Lihong V.


    Optical scattering prevents light from being focused through thick biological tissue at depths greater than ˜1 mm. To break this optical diffusion limit, digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) based wavefront shaping techniques are being actively developed. Previous DOPC systems employed spatial light modulators that modulated either the phase or the amplitude of the conjugate light field. Here, we achieve optical focusing through scattering media by using polarization modulation based generalized DOPC. First, we describe an algorithm to extract the polarization map from the measured scattered field. Then, we validate the algorithm through numerical simulations and find that the focusing contrast achieved by polarization modulation is similar to that achieved by phase modulation. Finally, we build a system using an inexpensive twisted nematic liquid crystal based spatial light modulator (SLM) and experimentally demonstrate light focusing through 3-mm thick chicken breast tissue. Since the polarization modulation based SLMs are widely used in displays and are having more and more pixel counts with the prevalence of 4 K displays, these SLMs are inexpensive and valuable devices for wavefront shaping.

  8. Stimulated-emission-depletion microscopy with a multicolor stimulated-Raman-scattering light source. (United States)

    Rankin, Brian R; Kellner, Robert R; Hell, Stefan W


    We describe a subdiffraction-resolution far-field fluorescence microscope employing stimulated emission depletion (STED) with a light source consisting of a microchip laser coupled into a standard single-mode fiber, which, via stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), yields a comb-like spectrum of seven discrete peaks extending from the fundamental wavelength at 532 nm to 620 nm. Each of the spectral peaks can be used as STED light for overcoming the diffraction barrier. This SRS light source enables the simple implementation of multicolor STED and provides a spectral output with multiple available wavelengths from green to red with potential for further expansion.

  9. Light comfort zones of mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers in two contrasting optical environments

    KAUST Repository

    Røstad, Anders


    We make a comparison of the mesopelagic sound scattering layers (SLs) in two contrasting optical environments; the clear Red Sea and in murkier coastal waters of Norway (Masfjorden). The depth distributions of the SL in Masfjorden are shallower and narrower than those of the Red Sea. This difference in depth distribution is consistent with the hypothesis that the organisms of the SL distribute according to similar light comfort zones (LCZ) in the two environments. Our study suggest that surface and underwater light measurements ranging more than10 orders of magnitude is required to assess the controlling effects of light on SL structure and dynamics.

  10. Near-field imaging of out-of-plane light scattering in photonic crystal slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, Valentyn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; Taillaert, Dirk


    A collection scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) is used to image the propagating of light at telecommunication wavelengths (1520-1570 nm) along photonic crystal (PC) slabs, which combine slab waveguides with in-plane PCs consisting of one- and two-dimensional gratings. The efficient out......-of-plane light scattering is directly observed for both 1D and 2D gratings (period 590 nm) fabricated on silicon-on-insulator wafers and the corresponding SNOM images are presented. Using the obtained SNOM images, we analyze light intensity distributions along PC gratings measured at different wavelengths and...

  11. Anomalous diffraction approximation to the light scattering coefficient spectra of marine particles with power-law size distribution. (United States)

    Matciak, Maciej


    Based on anomalous diffraction approximation, analytical expressions for the scattering coefficient of marine particles with power-law size distribution in the infinite domain of sizes (0, ∞) were derived. Comparison with the exact Mie solution for the light scattering by spheres indicated that the obtained expressions can describe the relative spectral variability of the scattering coefficient well. This is demonstrated and discussed for the scattering spectra of main types of marine particulates characterized by different optical properties.

  12. Light Scattering Strategy for the Investigation of Time-Evolving Heterogeneous Supramolecular Self-Assemblies (United States)

    Jouault, Nicolas; Moulin, Emilie; Giuseppone, Nicolas; Buhler, Eric


    Supramolecular self-assembly is a multiple length-scale and time-dependent process involving many coexisting components. Such complexity requires suitable strategies to extract quantitative dynamical and structural information on all involved species. Here, we detail an original light scattering method to study the kinetics of tailored triarylamine molecules capable of self-assembling in supramolecular highly conductive nanowires upon light exposure. These micrometric assemblies cause the emergence of intermittences in the scattered intensity and the construction of a predominant slow mode in the correlation function making separation between small-and large-size species impossible using conventional treatments. Our strategy is based on the time monitoring of intermittences and allows us to determine the fraction of nanowires as well as those of small critical nuclei and triarylamine building blocks as a function of time and light exposure, in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions.

  13. Relaxation dynamics of lead-free (Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}–BaTiO{sub 3} single crystals studied by Brillouin scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoung Wan [Department of Physics, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwondo 24252 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jae-Hyeon, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwondo 24252 (Korea, Republic of); Li, Xiaobing; Luo, Haosu [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)


    The acoustic properties of 0.95(Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}–0.05BaTiO{sub 3} (NBT–0.05BT) single crystals were investigated in a hypersonic frequency range and compared to those of archetypal relaxor Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} (PMN). Temperature dependences of the Brillouin frequency shift of the longitudinal acoustic (LA) mode, as well as its half width, of NBT–5%BT and PMN exhibited diffuse and broad anomalies over a wide temperature range, which were related to the softening of the sound velocity and substantial increase in the hypersonic damping toward the dielectric maximum temperature. These broad acoustic anomalies of unpoled NBT–0.05BT suggest the existence of noncentrosymmetric polar nanoregions in the paraelectric phase which do not evolve into a long-range ferroelectric order. The calculated relaxation times of NBT–0.05BT exhibited much longer values compared to those of PMN, which suggests that the size of polar nanoregions of NBT–0.05BT is larger than that of PMN.

  14. The spectral energy distribution of the scattered light from dark clouds (United States)

    Mattila, Kalevi; Schnur, G. F. O.


    A dark cloud is exposed to the ambient radiation field of integrated starlight in the Galaxy. Scattering of starlight by the dust particles gives rise to a diffuse surface brightness of the dark nebula. The intensity and the spectrum of this diffuse radiation can be used to investigate, e.g., the scattering parameters of the dust, the optical thickness of the cloud, and as a probe of the ambient radiation field at the location of the cloud. An understanding of the scattering process is also a prerequisite for the isolation of broad spectral features due to fluorescence or to any other non-scattering origin of the diffuse light. Model calculations are presented for multiple scattering in a spherical cloud. These calculations show that the different spectral shapes of the observed diffuse light can be reproduced with standard dust parameters. The possibility to use the observed spectrum as a diagnostic tool for analyzing the thickness of the cloud and the dust particle is discussed.

  15. Diagnostic features in two-dimensional light scattering patterns of normal and dysplastic cervical cell nuclei (United States)

    Arifler, Dizem; MacAulay, Calum; Follen, Michele; Guillaud, Martial


    Dysplastic progression in epithelial tissues is linked to changes in morphology and internal structure of cell nuclei. These changes lead to alterations in nuclear light scattering profiles that can potentially be monitored for diagnostic purposes. Numerical tools allow for simulation of complex nuclear models and are particularly useful for quantifying the optical response of cell nuclei as dysplasia progresses. In this study, we first analyze a set of quantitative histopathology images from twenty cervical biopsy sections stained with Feulgen-thionin. Since Feulgen-thionin is stoichiometric for DNA, the images enable us to obtain detailed information on size, shape, and chromatin content of all the segmented nuclei. We use this extensive data set to construct realistic three-dimensional computational models of cervical cell nuclei that are representative of four diagnostic categories, namely normal or negative for dysplasia, mild dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, and severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (CIS). We then carry out finite-difference time-domain simulations to compute the light scattering response of the constructed models as a function of the polar scattering angle and the azimuthal scattering angle. The results show that these two-dimensional scattering patterns exhibit characteristic intensity ridges that change form with progression of dysplasia; pattern processing reveals that Haralick features can be used to distinguish moderately and severely dysplastic or CIS nuclei from normal and mildly dysplastic nuclei. Our numerical study also suggests that different angular ranges need to be considered separately to fully exploit the diagnostic potential of two-dimensional light scattering measurements.

  16. Silver nanoparticles on nanopatterned LiF(110) surface studied by extreme ultraviolet light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giglia, Angelo, E-mail:; Nannarone, Stefano [Istituto Officina dei Materiali - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Laboratorio Tecnologie Avanzate e NanoSCienza, Area Science Park Basovizza, S.S. 14 Km 163.5, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Miotti, Paolo [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy); Parisse, Pietro [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S. 14 km 163.5, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy)


    A LiF(110) surface featuring a ridge-and-valley nanopatterned structure periodic along the [−1,1,0] direction (period and height of the order of 30 nm and 10 nm, respectively) formed by [001] macrosteps exposing (100) and (010) facets was functionalized by rows of Ag nanoparticles and studied by elastic light scattering in the energy range 50–100 eV. Families of diffraction efficiencies curves were taken at grazing incidence angle and fixed photon energy as a function of scattering angle, and elastic scattering curves were taken at fixed scattering angle as a function of energy. The scattering curves presented well-defined features ascribable to the periodicities of the surface, or equivalently to the reciprocal q{sub X} vectors correlated with the power spectral density features of topological images of atomic force microscopy. Other characteristics of the functionalized surface, including the height of ridge-valley profile, the Ag nanoparticle dimensions, and the material distribution in the scattering plane, were obtained by fitting the experimental zero and first order efficiency curves to simulation results of a parameterized model. The simulations were carried out adapting an in-house code based on the electromagnetic differential method, and the different material properties were taken into account by a space dependent complex dielectric constant. Information along the direction perpendicular to the scattering plane was not accessible but morphological insights were obtained combining light diffraction with atomic force microscopy. The results indicate nanoparticles with a quasi-ellipsoidal shape prolate along the ridge direction with minor and major axes of ∼12 nm and ∼21 nm, respectively.

  17. Microscopic theory of linear light scattering from mesoscopic media and in near-field optics. (United States)

    Keller, Ole


    On the basis of quantum mechanical response theory a microscopic propagator theory of linear light scattering from mesoscopic systems is presented. The central integral equation problem is transferred to a matrix equation problem by discretization in transitions between pairs of (many-body) energy eigenstates. The local-field calculation which appears from this approach is valid down to the microscopic region. Previous theories based on the (macroscopic) dielectric constant concept make use of spatial (geometrical) discretization and cannot in general be trusted on the mesoscopic length scale. The present theory can be applied to light scattering studies in near-field optics. After a brief discussion of the macroscopic integral equation problem a microscopic potential description of the scattering process is established. In combination with the use of microscopic electromagnetic propagators the formalism allows one to make contact to the macroscopic theory of light scattering and to the spatial photon localization problem. The quantum structure of the microscopic conductivity response tensor enables one to establish a clear physical picture of the origin of local-field phenomena in mesoscopic and near-field optics. The Huygens scalar propagator formalism is revisited and its generality in microscopic physics pointed out.

  18. Long-term effect of surface light scattering and glistenings of intraocular lenses on visual function. (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken; Hirata, Akira; Yoshida, Motoaki; Yoshimura, Koichi; Hayashi, Hideyuki


    To investigate the long-term effect of surface light scattering and glistenings of various intraocular lenses (IOLs) on visual function and optical aberrations after cataract surgery. Case-control study. Thirty-five eyes that underwent implantation of a hydrophobic acrylic, silicone, or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) IOL more than 10 years ago were recruited. The scattering light intensity of the surface and internal matrix of the optic was measured using Scheimpflug photography. Visual acuity (VA) was measured using VA charts, and contrast VA and that with glare (glare VA) were examined using a contrast sensitivity tester. Ocular higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were measured using a Hartmann-Shack aberrometer. Mean scattering light intensity of the surface and internal matrix of the optic was significantly higher in the acrylic group than in the silicone and PMMA groups (P ocular and internal optic HOAs in the acrylic group. At more than 10 years postoperatively, visual function, including contrast sensitivity, and ocular HOAs were comparable among eyes that received acrylic, silicone, and PMMA IOLs. Surface scattering and glistenings with the acrylic IOLs were not significantly correlated with visual function and optical aberrations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dielectric Scattering Patterns for Efficient Light Trapping in Thin-Film Solar Cells. (United States)

    van Lare, Claire; Lenzmann, Frank; Verschuuren, Marc A; Polman, Albert


    We demonstrate an effective light trapping geometry for thin-film solar cells that is composed of dielectric light scattering nanocavities at the interface between the metal back contact and the semiconductor absorber layer. The geometry is based on resonant Mie scattering. It avoids the Ohmic losses found in metallic (plasmonic) nanopatterns, and the dielectric scatterers are well compatible with nearly all types of thin-film solar cells, including cells produced using high temperature processes. The external quantum efficiency of thin-film a-Si:H solar cells grown on top of a nanopatterned Al-doped ZnO, made using soft imprint lithography, is strongly enhanced in the 550-800 nm spectral band by the dielectric nanoscatterers. Numerical simulations are in good agreement with experimental data and show that resonant light scattering from both the AZO nanostructures and the embedded Si nanostructures are important. The results are generic and can be applied on nearly all thin-film solar cells.

  20. Light scattering optimization of chitin random network in ultrawhite beetle scales (United States)

    Utel, Francesco; Cortese, Lorenzo; Pattelli, Lorenzo; Burresi, Matteo; Vignolini, Silvia; Wiersma, Diederik


    Among the natural white colored photonics structures, a bio-system has become of great interest in the field of disordered optical media: the scale of the white beetle Chyphochilus. Despite its low thickness, on average 7 μm, and low refractive index, this beetle exhibits extreme high brightness and unique whiteness. These properties arise from the interaction of light with a complex network of chitin nano filaments embedded in the interior of the scales. As it's been recently claimed, this could be a consequence of the peculiar morphology of the filaments network that, by means of high filling fraction (0.61) and structural anisotropy, optimizes the multiple scattering of light. We therefore performed a numerical analysis on the structural properties of the chitin network in order to understand their role in the enhancement of the scale scattering intensity. Modeling the filaments as interconnected rod shaped scattering centers, we numerically generated the spatial coordinates of the network components. Controlling the quantities that are claimed to play a fundamental role in the brightness and whiteness properties of the investigated system (filling fraction and average rods orientation, i.e. the anisotropy of the ensemble of scattering centers), we obtained a set of customized random networks. FDTD simulations of light transport have been performed on these systems, observing high reflectance for all the visible frequencies and proving the implemented algorithm to numerically generate the structures is suitable to investigate the dependence of reflectance by anisotropy.