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Sample records for brilliant sm eu

  1. Brilliant Sm, Eu, Tb and Dy chiral lanthanide complexes withstrong circularly polarized luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petoud, Stephane; Muller, Gilles; Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Sokolnicki, Jurek; Riehl, James P.; Le, Uyen; Cohen, Seth M.; Raymond,Kenneth N.

    2006-07-10

    The synthesis, characterization and luminescent behavior of trivalent Sm, Eu, Dy and Tb complexes of two enantiomeric, octadentate, chiral, 2-hydroxyisophthalamide ligands are reported. These complexes are highly luminescent in solution. Functionalization of the achiral parent ligand with a chiral 1-phenylethylamine substituent on the open face of the complex in close proximity to the metal center yields complexes with strong circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) activity. This appears to be the first example of a system utilizing the same ligand architecture to sensitize four different lanthanide cations and display CPL activity. The luminescence dissymmetry factor, g{sub lum}, recorded for the Eu(III) complex is one of the highest values reported, and this is the first time the CPL effect has been demonstrated for a Sm(III) complex with a chiral ligand. The combination of high luminescence intensity with CPL activity should enable new bioanalytical applications of macromolecules in chiral environments.

  2. Burnup measurement and its relation to the amounts of 149Sm and 150Sm and the ratios of 154Eu/155Eu and 154Eu/152Eu in spent fuel of a power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amounts of 148Nd, 149Sm and 150Sm by the isotope dilution mass spectrography and the ratios of 154Eu/155Eu and 154Eu/152Eu by the γ-spectrography in the spent fuel of a power reactor have been measured. The amouns of 150Sm is directly proportional to that of 148Nd and burnup can be determined by 150Sm. Relation of the ratios of 154Eu/155Eu with respect to the burnup is plotted

  3. Orange and reddish-orange light emitting phosphors: Sm3+ and Sm3+/Eu3+ doped zinc phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectroscopy study of Sm3+ and Sm3+/Eu3+ doped zinc phosphate glasses is performed through photoluminescence spectra and decay time profile measurements. Under Sm3+ excitation at 344 nm, the Sm3+ singly doped glass shows an orange global emission with x=0.579 and y=0.414 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, whereas the Sm3+/Eu3+ co-doped sample exhibits orange overall emissions (x=0.581 and y=0.398, and x=0.595 and y=0.387) and reddish-orange overall emission (x=0.634 and y=0.355) upon excitations at 344, 360 and 393 nm, respectively. Such luminescence from the co-doped sample is originated by the simultaneous emission of Sm3+ and Eu3+. Under Sm3+ excitation at 344 and 360 nm, the Eu3+ emission is sensitized and enhanced by Sm3+ through a non-radiative energy transfer process. The non-radiative nature was inferred from the shortening of the Sm3+ lifetime observed in the Sm3+/Eu3+ co-doped sample. An analysis of the Sm3+ emission decay time profiles using the Inokuti–Hirayama model suggests that an electric quadrupole–quadrupole interaction into Sm–Eu clusters might dominate the energy transfer process, with an efficiency of 0.17. - Highlights: • Zinc phosphate glasses are optically activated with Sm3+/Eu3+ (ZPOSmEu). • Non-radiative energy transfer Sm3+→Eu3+ takes place in ZPOSmEu. • ZPOSmEu overall emission can be modulated with the excitation wavelength. • ZPOSmEu might be useful as orange/reddish-orange phosphor for UV-white LEDs

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis and luminescence properties of Eu3+and Sm3+codoped BiPO4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟剑明; 赵韦人; 蓝立财; 王建青

    2014-01-01

    Eu3+/Sm3+codoped BiPO4 phosphors were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method with surfactant-free environment. The X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the samples possessed the standard BiPO4 monoclinic structure. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that all samples composed of well-dispersed, micrometer-sized crystals with shuttle-like shape. Energy transfer from Sm3+to Eu3+was confirmed by the luminescence spectra and the decay processes of Sm3+ 4G5/2→6H5/2 emission. Or-ange-red luminescence could be obtained in Eu3+/Sm3+codoped BiPO4 phosphors. The average lifetime of Sm3+ 4G5/2→6H5/2 emis-sion decreased from 2.70 ms in BiPO4:0.03Sm3+ to 2.37 ms in BiPO4:0.03Sm3+,0.05Eu3+. The strong and wide absorption band around 395 nm, originating from both 7F0→5L6 transition of Eu3+and 6H5/2→4K11/2 transition of Sm3+, endowed BiPO4:Eu3+,Sm3+phosphors with the potential application in the fields of near UV-excited white-light-emitting diodes.

  5. Shape tunable synthesis of Eu- and Sm-doped ZnO microstructures: a morphological evaluation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Sheel Thool; M Arunakumari; Ajaya Kumar Singh; Surya Prakash Singh

    2015-10-01

    Facile and low-cost aqueous chemical bath deposition route has been demonstrated to fabricate Eu- and Sm-doped ZnO microstructures. The effect of Eu and Sm ions on the morphology of the ZnO was investigated. The synthesized doped ZnO microstructures were systematically characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectra. FESEM images depicted the formation of Eu-doped ZnO microsphere and Sm-doped ZnO microplates. XRD spectra showed single crystalline nature of the undoped ZnO microdisks, whereas Eu- and Sm-doped ZnO exhibited the polycrystalline nature. The presence of Eu and Sm ions in the ZnO matrix was confirmed by XPS. This means that all the Eu ions substituted Zn2+ as Eu2+ into the ZnO matrix, whereas most of Sm ions were being in the trivalent state. This was probably due to the segregation of Sm2O3 species on the surface of ZnO microstructures.

  6. Orange and reddish-orange light emitting phosphors: Sm{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} doped zinc phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza-Rocha, A.N., E-mail: ameza@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 México D.F., México (Mexico); Speghini, A. [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Universita di Verona and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy); IFAC CNR, Nello Carrara Institute of Applied Physics, MDF Lab, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Bettinelli, M. [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Universita di Verona and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy); Caldiño, U. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 México D.F., México (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    A spectroscopy study of Sm{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} doped zinc phosphate glasses is performed through photoluminescence spectra and decay time profile measurements. Under Sm{sup 3+} excitation at 344 nm, the Sm{sup 3+} singly doped glass shows an orange global emission with x=0.579 and y=0.414 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, whereas the Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} co-doped sample exhibits orange overall emissions (x=0.581 and y=0.398, and x=0.595 and y=0.387) and reddish-orange overall emission (x=0.634 and y=0.355) upon excitations at 344, 360 and 393 nm, respectively. Such luminescence from the co-doped sample is originated by the simultaneous emission of Sm{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}. Under Sm{sup 3+} excitation at 344 and 360 nm, the Eu{sup 3+} emission is sensitized and enhanced by Sm{sup 3+} through a non-radiative energy transfer process. The non-radiative nature was inferred from the shortening of the Sm{sup 3+} lifetime observed in the Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} co-doped sample. An analysis of the Sm{sup 3+} emission decay time profiles using the Inokuti–Hirayama model suggests that an electric quadrupole–quadrupole interaction into Sm–Eu clusters might dominate the energy transfer process, with an efficiency of 0.17. - Highlights: • Zinc phosphate glasses are optically activated with Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} (ZPOSmEu). • Non-radiative energy transfer Sm{sup 3+}→Eu{sup 3+} takes place in ZPOSmEu. • ZPOSmEu overall emission can be modulated with the excitation wavelength. • ZPOSmEu might be useful as orange/reddish-orange phosphor for UV-white LEDs.

  7. Energy transfer from Sm3+ to Eu3+ in red-emitting phosphor LaMgAl11O19:Sm3+, Eu3+ for solar cells and near-ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Xin; Huang, Zhaohui; Fang, Minghao; Liu, Yan-Gai; Tang, Chao; Wu, Xiaowen

    2014-06-16

    The red-emitting phosphor LaMgAl11O19:Sm(3+), Eu(3+) was prepared by solid-state reaction at 1600 °C for 4 h. The phase formation, luminescence properties, and energy transfer from Sm(3+) to Eu(3+) were studied. With the addition of 5 mol % Sm(3+) as the sensitizer, the excitation wavelength of LaMgAl11O19:Eu(3+) phosphor was extended from 464 to 403 nm, and the emission intensity under the excitation at 403 nm was also enhanced. The host material LaMgAl11O19 could contain the high doping content of Eu(3+) (20 mol %) without concentration quenching. This energy transfer from Sm(3+) to Eu(3+) was confirmed by the decay times of energy donor Sm(3+). The mechanism of energy transfer (Sm(3+) → Eu(3+)) was proved to be quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. Under the 403 nm excitation at 150 °C, the emission intensities of the characteristic peaks of Sm(3+) and Eu(3+) in LaMgAl11O19:0.05Sm(3+), 0.2Eu(3+) phosphor were decreased to 65% and 56% of the initial intensities at room temperature, and the relatively high activation energy proved that this phosphor had a good thermal stability. The CIE coordinate was calculated to be (x = 0.601, y = 0.390). The LaMgAl11O19:0.05Sm(3+), 0.2Eu(3+) phosphor is a candidate for copper phthalocyanine-based solar cells and white light-emitting diodes. PMID:24884208

  8. Development of biomimetic coatings on Sm oxide doped ELB (Eu-Li-borate) glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in-vitro biomineralization of Eu/Li-borate glasses containing Sm2O3 was investigated by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) up to 72 h. Back scattering scanning electron microscope supplemented with EDX was used to follow the development of the phosphatic layer post 72 h SBF immersion. Biochemical analyses of calcium and inorganic phosphorus (Ca2+ and iP) ions were conducted using relevant biochemical kits and spectrophotometer. Spectra of TF-X-ray analyses and Fourier transform infrared were obtained for the samples post 72 h immersion and compared to the host one. The role of Sm2O3 in the biomineralization and crystallinity of the (ELB) borate glasses is proved by the developed rounded nano particles and the presence of elemental Eu and Sm in the formed layer beside Ca and P as presented by EDX. The continuous reduced values of ionic iP accompanying the adsorption and release of Ca ions in SBF with time assured the biolayer formation. The formed phosphatic layer presented shifted XRD peaks due to ionic incorporations especially of Sm3+. FT-IR proved the selectivity of BO3 group for phosphatic deposition. Deconvolution of ν4 and ν3 regions, for carbonates and phosphates, respectively, proved the enhanced peak areas with increased Sm3+ content.

  9. Separation of Rare Earth Elements (Sm, Eu, Gd) in Bastnaesite by Displacement Chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Se Mann; Lee, Jin Young; Han, Choon [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Sung Don; Yoon, Ho Sung; Kim, Joon Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-10-31

    Rare earth elements (Sm, Eu, Gd) in bastnaesite were separated by displacement chromatography. Experiments were conducted to investigate elution characteristics and effects of retaining ions on separations of those elements. During separation processes, ions were exchanged in loading and separation columns packed with the cation-exchange resin (DOWEX 50WX8-200). Various retaining ions such as Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+} and Al{sup 3+} were employed in the separation column. When the EDTA solution was used as an eluent, acidity and concentrations were regulated. Also, rare earth elements(RE) in bastnaesite ore were ionized by hydrochloric acid prior to separations. According to experimental results, Gd, Eu and Sm were eluated by turns and the order was in accord with that of stability constants for chelating complex with EDTA. During the eluation of RE, the acidity of eluate was lowered (pH 5-6) because retaining ions formed chelating complex with EDTA and hydrogen ion was formed as a result. The highest separation efficiency ({alpha}{sub Gd}{sup Sm} = 0.9388) was obtained when Al{sup 3+} was employed as a retaining ion. On the other hand, the lowest ({alpha}{sub Gd}{sup Sm} = 0.3876) was when Fe{sup 3+} was employed as a retaining ion. Another series of experiments were conducted to investigate effects of RE{sub 1}-EDTA eluent on the separation of RE. For experiments, Cu{sup 2+}, in the separation column was exchanged with retaining ion. Then, pure RE{sub 1}(Sm, Eu) was mixed with EDTA to form RE{sub 1}-EDTA solution(O.015 M) which was fed to the column as an eluent. Results showed that the separation efficiency improved because the eluation of RE{sub 1} in RE{sub 1}-EDTA solution was retarded compared to other RE. That is, the separation efficiency({alpha}{sub Gd}{sup Sm}) increased to 1.1612 and 1.4545 when SM-EDTA and EU-EDTA solution were used respectively. When EDTA solution was only used as an eluent, {alpha}{sub Gd}{sup Sm

  10. Structural and luminescence studies on Eu3+ and Sm3+ doped zinc-leadborate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work reports structural and luminescence studies on (50-x)B2O3+ 20PbO+20ZnO+ 10Sr2O+xR2O3 (where x=0.1, 1 and R=Sm3+, Eu3+) zinc-leadborate glasses. Structural analysis of the prepared glasses have been carried out using XRD, FTIR and Raman spectra. The optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra of the Eu3+ and Sm3+ doped glasses were investigated using the Judd-Ofelt (JO) theory. The XRD spectra reveal the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses. The fundamental stretching vibrations of the various borate networks have been identified and reported through the FTIR spectra. Raman spectra are used to analyse the information about the structural units and local arrangements in the host matrix

  11. N=90 region: The decays of $^{152m,g}$Eu to $^{152}$Sm

    CERN Document Server

    Kulp, W D; Eimer, J; Furse, D; Krane, Kenneth S; Larimer, R M; Loats, J; Norman, E B; Piechaczek, A; Schmelzenbach, P; Stapels, C J; Wood, J L

    2006-01-01

    The decays of $^{152m,g}$Eu $\\to ^{152}$Sm have been studied by $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy using the $8\\pi$ Spectrometer, an array of 20 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors. Very weak $\\gamma$-decay branches in $^{152}$Sm were investigated through $\\gamma - \\gamma$ coincidence spectroscopy. All possible $E2$ transitions between states below 1550 keV with transition energies $> 130$ keV are observed, including the previously unobserved $2^+_3 \\to 0^+_2$ 401 keV transition. The results, combined with existing lifetime data, provide a number of new or revised $E2$ transition strengths which are critical for clarifying the collective structure of $^{152}$Sm and the N=90 isotones.

  12. Thermographic properties of Eu3+ and Sm3+ doped Lu2O3 nanophosphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dramićanin Miroslav D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The samples, Lu2O3:Eu3+ (3at.% Eu and Lu2O3:Sm3+ (1at.% Sm, were prepared via polymer complex solution method using polyethlylene-glyocol as the fuel and as nucleation agent for crystallization process. Knowing that lutetium oxide has high chemical stability and temperature resistance, in this paper we investigated possibility for its application in high-temperature phosphor thermometry. It is a non-contact technique that uses the thermal dependence of phosphor fluorescence to measure temperature remotely. The structural and morphological properties were performed through X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM investigations. The obtained results confirmed that this synthesis yields desired crystalline structure with particle size in the range from 30 to 50 nm. Photoluminescence emission measurements were recorded in the temperature range from room up to 873 K. The accomplished results demonstrate the performance of Eu3+ and Sm3+ doped Lu2O3 as high temperature thermographic phosphors of very good sensitivity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45020 i br. 171022

  13. Red, violet and upconversion luminescence of Eu/Sm codoped sol gel SiO2-TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, I. M.; Klein, Lisa C.

    2012-12-01

    Rare earth (Eu/Sm) doped silica-titania composite systems were sensitized by sol-gel method in solid and powder forms. The crystalline phase has been identified for the annealed samples at 1000 °C by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The bonding formation of the host matrix was examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The fingerprint transition lines of Eu3+ ions, with the main emission line at 616 nm, are recorded for the samples. Improvement in Eu3+ luminescence has been recorded by adding Sm3+ and by samples. Violet emission is observed under UV irradiation. Violet-blue upconversion luminescence is recorded at room temperature.

  14. Sm isotope composition and Sm/Eu ratio determination in an irradiated 153Eu sample by ion exchange chromatography-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry combined with double spike isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the research undertaken by the French Atomic Energy Commission on transmutation of long-lived radionuclides, targets of highly enriched actinides and fission products were irradiated in the fast neutron reactor Phenix. Precise and accurate measurements of the isotopic and elemental composition of the enriched elements are therefore required. In order to obtain the uncertainties of several per mil and to reduce handling time and exposure to analyst on radioactive material, the on-line coupling of ion exchange chromatography with quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been associated with the technique of the double spike isotope dilution. We present in this paper the results obtained on an irradiated sample of Europium oxide powder (enriched at 99.13% in 153Eu). After irradiation of around 5 mg of Eu2O3 powder the theoretical calculations predict the formation of several micrograms of gadolinium and samarium isotopes. In relation to the very high activity of the sample after irradiation and the very low quantity of Sm formed, the on-line ion exchange chromatography separation of Gd, Sm and Eu before Sm isotope ratio measurements has been developed for the quantification of the 152Sm/153Eu ratio. These on-line measurements were associated with the double spike isotope dilution technique after calibration of a 147Sm/151Eu spike solution. The external reproducibility of Sm isotopic ratios was determined to be around 0.5% (2 σ) resulting in a final uncertainty on the 152Sm/153Eu ratio of around 1% (2 σ). These on-line measurements present therefore a robust and high-throughput alternative to the thermal-ionisation mass spectrometry technique used so far in combination with off-line chromatographic separation, particularly in nuclear applications where characterisation of high activity sample solutions is required. (authors)

  15. Microwave Radiation Synthesis Method of CaS:Eu2+, Sm3+ and Studies of Their IR Up-Conversion Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Zhaohui; Mi Xiaoyun; Lu liping; Ba Xuewei; Liu Quansheng; Zhang Xiyan

    2004-01-01

    IR up-conversion material CaS: Eu2+ , Sm3+ was synthesized by microwave radiation method (MRM). The effect of the different concentrations of Eu2+ ion and Sm3+ ion on properties of the up-conversion material CaS: Eu2+ ,Sm3+ was discussed. The crystal structure was determined by XRD. The experimental results show that the MRM compared to the traditional high temperature solid reaction method exhibits interesting features.

  16. Recent progress on compositional nanostripes of REBa2Cu3O7-δ (RE = Sm,Eu,Gd) superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We characterized ordered compositional fluctuation in high-quality SmBa2Cu3O7-δ, (Sm0.5Eu0.5)Ba2Cu3O7-δ, and (Sm0.33Eu0.33Gd0.33)Ba2Cu3O7-δ superconductors by atomic force microscopy, scanning tunnelling microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of nanostripes along the crystalline c direction was confirmed in SmBa2Cu3O7-δ single crystals and in melt-processed (Sm0.5Eu0.5)Ba2Cu3O7-δ, (Sm0.33Eu0.33Gd0.33)Ba2Cu3O7-δ materials. Meanwhile, thickness fringes originating from the twin boundaries were also identified in some samples; these could be clearly separated from real nanostripes with sample tilting. Compositional nanostripes displayed spatial variation in both shape and wavelength over a large area of RE-Ba-Cu-O single domains. The origin of the nanostripe is discussed in the context of the competitive growth mechanism of RE1+xBa2-xCu3O7-δ solid solution

  17. Influence of temperature on thermal properties of (Sm, Eu) VO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parveen, Atahar, E-mail: ataharparveen@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462026 (India); Gaur, N.K. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462026 (India)

    2012-09-15

    The bulk modulus and thermal properties of orthovanadates SmVO{sub 3} and EuVO{sub 3} in the temperature range 5 K{<=}T{<=}300 K have been investigated using the Modified Rigid Ion Model (MRIM) by incorporating the effect of lattice distortions. The results on the specific heat, cohesive energy, molecular force constant, the reststrahlen frequency and the Gruneisen parameter following the temperature driven structural phase transitions are presented. Our results are in fair agreement with the available experimental data. The specific heat results can further be improved by including the spin and orbital ordering contributions to the specific heat. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bulk modulus and thermal properties of SmVO{sub 3} and EuVO{sub 3} are computed using MRIM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural phase transitions make their thermal properties very interesting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results on specific heat are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Photoluminescence properties of Eu(3+)/ Sm(3+) activated CaZr4(PO4)6 phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Govind B; Dhoble, S J

    2016-09-01

    Solid state reaction method was employed for the synthesis of a series of CaZr4(PO4)6: Eu(3+)/Sm(3+) phosphors. The red-emitting CaZr4(PO4)6:Eu(3+) phosphors can be efficiently excited at 396 nm and thereby, exhibit a strong red luminescence predominantly corresponding to the electric dipole transition at 615 nm. Under 405 nm excitation, CaZr4(PO4)6:Sm(3+) phosphors display orange emission with color temperatures approximately around 2200 K. The acquired results reveal that CaZr4(PO4)6: RE(3+) (RE = Eu, Sm) phosphors could be potential candidates for red and orange emitting phosphor, respectively, for UV/blue-pump LEDs. PMID:27411525

  19. Site selective spectroscopy in BaYF{sub 5}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu, Sm) nano-glass–ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, J. del, E-mail: fjvargas@ull.edu.es [Dpto. Física, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Yanes, A.C. [Dpto. Física, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Abe, S.; Smet, P.F. [LumiLab, Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Center for Nano- and Biophotonics (NB Photonics), Ghent University (Belgium)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • We obtained sol–gel transparent nGCs with Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}-doped cubic BaYF{sub 5} nanocrystals. • Eu{sup 3+}-doped BaYF{sub 5} NCs were prepared by solvothermal method. • Their luminescent properties were studied and compared with the Eu{sup 3+}-doped nGCs. • Eu{sup 3+}/Sm{sup 3+} were used as probe ions in the nGCs to distinguish different environments. • The incorporation of a large fraction of RE ions into the BaYF{sub 5} NCs was confirmed. - Abstract: Trivalent rare-earth (RE = Eu, Sm) doped transparent nano-glass–ceramics comprising BaYF{sub 5} nanocrystals were successfully obtained by appropriate heat-treatment of the corresponding precursor sol–gel glasses. Their structural and spectroscopic properties were investigated and compared with those for Eu{sup 3+}-doped-BaYF{sub 5} nanocrystals prepared by a solvothermal method. X-ray Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy measurements confirmed the distribution of BaYF{sub 5} nanocrystals in the glass matrix, presenting a cubic phase structure with space group Fm-3m. In order to achieve a further structural characterization, the luminescence properties of the Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} dopants were also used as sensitive probes. The reduction in the emission intensities of hypersensitive transitions {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 9/2} for Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} ions respectively, along with time-resolved measurements, confirm the distribution of a significant fraction of RE ions into the fluoride nanocrystal environment. These results suggest that BaYF{sub 5} nano-glass–ceramics doped with Eu{sup 3+} or Sm{sup 3+} can be considered as potential red-emitting phosphors for the development of white LEDs under near UV excitation.

  20. Luminescence properties of LiY{sub 6}O{sub 5}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}/Sm{sup 3+} phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Qing; Xiang, Zhifeng; Gao, Xuejun; Yang, Xiaoliang, E-mail: xiaoliangy@xtu.edu.cn; Xiao, Siguo

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Method for preparing pure LiY{sub 6}O{sub 5}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} powder is developed. • Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} co-doped LiY{sub 6}O{sub 5}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} powder gives strong red emission. • Co-doped Sm{sup 3+} ions broaden excitation band without changing color index. - Abstract: Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} single-doped and co-doped LiY{sub 6}O{sub 5}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} phosphors are prepared by a high-temperature solid-state reaction method. The Eu{sup 3+}-doped and Sm{sup 3+}-doped phosphors give bright red emission centered at 613 and 604 nm under 395- and 406-nm excitation, respectively, while the Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} co-doped phosphor just gives Eu{sup 3+}-characterized emission whether excited by 395 or 406 nm. This indicates that the co-doped Sm{sup 3+} ions can broaden the excitation band of the phosphor without changing its color index, which might match better with the near-ultraviolet (NUV) chips in white light-emitting diode (W-LED) application. The Sm{sup 3+}-concentration-dependent luminescence properties ascribed to the energy transfer between Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} is discussed.

  1. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of novel red-emitting Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8:Eu3+/Sm3+ phosphors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文芝; 庞然; 李海锋; 贾永雷; 张粟; 姜丽宏; 李成宇

    2015-01-01

    Novel red-emitting Eu3+, Sm3+ singly doped and co-doped Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8 phosphors were prepared by conventional solid- state reaction. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns were employed to confirm phase purity. Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8:Eu3+ phosphors exhibited intense red emission under 394 nm excitation and Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8:Sm3+ phosphors, excited at 405 nm, also showed strong red emit-ting at 602 nm. The concentration quenching mechanism of Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8:Eu3+ was dipole-dipole interaction, while that of Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8:Sm3+ was energy migration among nearest neighbor ions. The results indicated that Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8:Eu3+ and Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8:Sm3+ were promising red-emitting phosphors for WLEDs. Meanwhile, the effect of co-doping Sm3+ ions on photo-luminescence properties of Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8:Eu3+ was studied and energy transfer from Sm3+ to Eu3+ was discovered in Eu3+, Sm3+ co-doped phosphors.

  2. RE/ZrO{sub 2} (RE = Sm, Eu) composite oxide nano-materials: Synthesis and applications in photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Weimin, E-mail: duweimin75@gmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan 455002 (China); Zhu, Zhaoqiang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan 455002 (China); College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001 (China); Zhang, Xiaofen; Wang, Dacheng; Liu, Donghe [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan 455002 (China); Qian, Xuefeng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Du, Jimin, E-mail: djm@aynu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan 455002 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • RE/ZrO{sub 2} (RE = Sm, Eu) nano-materials have been successfully synthesized. • Defect and electron structures determine the absorption properties on visible light. • Nano-sized Zr{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 2−δ} has good visible-light-responsive photocatalytic activities. • In the future, it can be used in wastewater treatment and environmental protection. - Abstract: Zirconia modified by Samarium/Europium, RE/ZrO{sub 2} (RE = Sm, Eu), composite oxide nano-materials have been successfully synthesized by improved sol–gel method. Characterization results show that X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks of products gradually shift to the lower angle with the increase of rare earth which implies that the lattice distances of RE/ZrO{sub 2} nano-materials are gradually enlarged. Moreover, the molar ratios between zirconium and rare earth are consistent with the chemical formula and both of them are uniformly distributed in samples. Optical properties indicate that defect structures and electron configurations of RE/ZrO{sub 2} (RE = Sm, Eu) with single phase determine their absorption properties on visible light. Photocatalytic experiments indicate Zr{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 2−δ} nano-crystals have excellent visible-light-responsive photocatalytic activities on Methylene blue and Rhodamine B which results from the special defect structure, suitable electronic configuration, and larger specific surface area. It follows that Zr{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 2−δ} nano-crystals are new visible-light-responsive photocatalysts which can be applied in dye wastewater treatment and environmental protection in the future.

  3. Raman Active Phonons in RCoO3 (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Dy) Perovskites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-Ran; XU Da-Peng; SU Wen-Hui; DING Zhan-Hui; XUE Yan-Feng; SONG Geng-Xin

    2005-01-01

    @@ We examine RCoO3 (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Dy) perovskites prepared with the solid-state reaction method by Raman spectroscopy, and report the Raman active phonons in the RCoO3 perovskites crystallized in cubic symmetry for RCoO3 (R=La, Ce, Pr and Nd) and orthorhombic symmetry for RCoO3 (R=Sm, Eu, Gd,and Dy). It is found that the Raman spectra of RCoO3 perovskites are strongly dependent on the ionic radius.of the rare earth elements, and the frequency shift of the most intense modes of the orthorhombic samples are correlated with some structural parameters such as Co-O bond distances, ionic radius of the rare earth elements and Jahn-Teller distortion. It is clear that Raman spectroscopy has the advantage of sensitivity to structure distortion and oxygen motion.

  4. Online Determination of Sm, Eu and Yb in Environmental Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dilip Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure was developed for the determination of Sm, Eu and Yb in water samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES after preconcentration on synthesized 5-(4-pyridyl azo-8-quinolinol supported by Borassus flabellifer inflorescence (BFI. The sorbed element was subsequently eluted with 0.4 M HNO3 and the acid eluates were analyzed by ICP-OES. Under the optimal conditions, Sm, Eu and Yb in aqueous samples were concentrated 100-fold. Recoveries were obtained by the proposed method in the range of 98.6 -99.8%. This method was also applied for the analysis of spiked and natural water samples. The results provide strong evidence to support the hypothesis of an adsorption mechanism.

  5. Weak transitions in the {sup 152}Sm from {sup 152} Eu decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Ruy M. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (IEAv/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados; Vanin, Vito R.; Pascholati, Paulo R.; Maidana, Nora L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Few years ago, we reported (R.M. Castro, V.R. Vanin, P.R. Pascholati, N.L. Maidana and M.S. Dias and M.F.Koskinas, Appl. Rad. Isot. 60, 283, 2004) a gamma-gamma coincidence experiment performed to check the gamma-ray transitions following {sup 152}Eu{sup g} 13-year decay and their placement in the decay scheme for metrological purposes. The main results were the observation of weak transitions, in the range 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -5} gamma-rays per decay, and the exclusion of a relatively intense unplaced line from the list of transitions following {sup 152}Eu{sup g} decay. A new paper (W. D. Kulp, J. L. Wood, J. M. Allmond, J. Eimer, D. Furse, K. S. Krane, J. Loats, P. Schmelzenbach, C. J. Stapels, R.-M. Larimer, E. B. Norman, and A. Piechaczek, Phys. Rev. C 76, 034319, 2007), published in 2007, which investigates the {sup 152}Sm nuclear structure, also reported the observation of many weak gamma-ray transitions by coincidence spectroscopy. Despite important differences in the coincidence detector systems, the total number of coincidence events is similar, and the accuracy and the detection threshold are about the same. Thus, all the 27 new transitions reported by Castro et al. in the {sup 152}Sm decay scheme were conformed by Kulp et al. The measured energies form a consistent dataset, with chi-square equal to 38 (8% probability of being exceeded); however, the intensities form a discrepant data set, with chi-square per degree of freedom equal to 3.6, suggesting that the uncertainties are underestimated by a factor of 2. Besides that, Kulp et al. found some transitions not reported previously. So we decided to check our gamma - gamma coincidence spectrum for the presence of these lines. In this new analysis, we did not observe gamma-ray transitions with energies 137.56 and 1050.1 keV, with upper intensity limits well below the intensities given in Kulp et al. The 210.95 keV transition was observed, but with intensity significantly smaller than that

  6. Temperature dependence of volumetric electroluminescence intensity of ZnS-Cu crystals doped with Sm, Eu, Pb or Tm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current-brightness characteristic of volume luminescence of ZnS-Cu crystals doped with Sm, Eu and Pb become more sloping with the increasing temperature, while of the Tm-doped ZnS-Cu, on the contrary, rises more steeper. In every case this can be explained by the change of ionization rate with temperature on the basis of the earlier developed theory provided that the differences in numerical values of some parameters of these crystals are taken into account

  7. Emission analysis of RE3+ (RE=Eu, Sm, Dy):MgY4Si3O13 phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of Eu3+, Sm3+, and Dy3+ ion doped magnesium yttrium silicate [MgY4Si3O13] phosphors was synthesized using the solid-state reaction method with a grain size of approximately 500 nm in hexagonal symmetry. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the Eu3+, Sm3+, and Dy3+:MgY4Si3O13 phosphors exhibit bright red, orange-red and yellow emissions at 615 nm (5D0→7F2), 603 nm (4G52→6H7/2), and 574 nm (4F9/2→6H13/2), respectively. The thermoluminescence (TL) of the phosphors displays the maximum intensity consistently at 10 mol% of the ion concentrations, with a single glow peak around 165 °C (Eu3+-activated phosphor), 230 °C (Sm3+-activated phosphor), and 230 °C (Dy3+-activated phosphor), respectively. The trap parameters such as the order of kinetics (b), activation energy (E), frequency factor (S), and Balarin parameter (γ) associated with the most intensive glow peak of these phosphors were finally determined by analyzing their line-shapes on the basis of Chen's method

  8. Design of a novel optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter using alkaline earth sulfides doped with SrS:Eu,Sm materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping Liu; Zhaoyang Chen; Yanwei Fan; Weizhen Ba; Wu Lu; Qi Guo; Shilie Pan; Aimin Chang; Xinqiang Tang

    2008-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is the luminescence emitted from an irradiated insulator or semiconductor during exposure to light.The OSL intensity is a function of the dose of radiation absorbed by the sample and thus can be used as the basis of a radiation dosimetry method.Alkaline earth sulfides doped with rare-earth elements such as Ce,Sm and Eu are OSL dosimeters having very high sensitivity,and the OSL with a short time constant is separated from the stimulated light.In this paper,a novel OSL dosimeter designed with SrS:Eu,Sm materials is described.The dosimeter takes advantage of the characteristics of charge trapping materials SrS:Eu,Sm that exhibit OSL.The measuring range of the dosimeter is from 0.01 to 100Gy.The equipment,which is relatively simple and small in size,is promising for applications in space exploration and high dose radiation dosimetry.

  9. Sol-gel method for preparing a novel red-emitting phosphor YVO4:Sm3+, Eu3+ with ideal red color emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Siyu; Guan, Anxiang; Chen, Peican; Wang, Guofang; Geng, Yue; Zhou, Liya

    2016-09-01

    A series of novel color-tunable phosphors YVO4:Sm3+, Eu3+ was synthesized using a sol-gel method. The crystal structure and photoluminescence properties of the synthesized phosphors were measured and analyzed. By changing the ratio of Sm3+-Eu3+, the color of these phosphors can be changed from orange to red. This phenomenon was closely related to the energy transfer from Sm3+ to Eu3+, and analysis demonstrated that the energy-transfer mechanism arose from quadrupole-quadrupole interaction, with a critical distance of about 10.28 Å. The Commission International deL'Eclairage value of YVO4:0.05Sm3+, 0.11Eu3+ enabled the achievement of the standard red coordinates (0.67, 0.33). All these results indicated that the red phosphors can be used as a red component of white-light-emitting diodes.

  10. The luminescence properties of Bi3+ sensitized Gd2MoO6:RE3+ (RE = Eu or Sm) phosphors for solar spectral conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M. N.; Ma, Y. Y.; Huang, X. Y.; Ye, S.; Zhang, Q. Y.

    2013-11-01

    Gd2MoO6:RE3+ (RE = Eu or Sm) and Gd2MoO6:Bi3+, RE3+ (RE = Eu or Sm) phosphors have been synthesized by combustion method. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. By introducing Bi3+ ions into Gd2MoO6:RE3+ (RE = Eu or Sm) phosphors, the excitation bands of Eu3+ and Sm3+ ions are broadened and shifted to short wavelength, meanwhile, the emission intensity are enhanced obviously. The energy transfer from Bi3+ to the activators of Eu3+ or Sm3+ is observed and discussed. In addition, the process of ultraviolet light (250-400 nm) converted into visible light can be achieved by using Gd2MoO6:Bi3+, RE3+ (RE = Eu or Sm) phosphor. These phosphors can be a promising ultraviolet-absorbing luminescent converter to enhance the photoelectrical conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

  11. Synthesis and luminescent properties of rare earth (Sm3+ and Eu3+) Doped Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore nanopowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćulubrk, Sanja; Antić, Željka; Marinović-Cincović, Milena; Ahrenkiel, Phillip S.; Dramićanin, Miroslav D.

    2014-11-01

    This work describes the synthesis and photoluminescent properties of rare earth (Sm3+ and Eu3+) doped Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore nanopowders. Pure-phase rare earth-doped Gd2Ti2O7 nanoparticles of approximately 20-50 nm in diameter, as evidenced from X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy analysis, are produced via the mixed metal-citric acid complex method. A temperature of 880 °C is identified for the formation of the crystalline pyrochlore phase, based on a differential thermal analysis of Gd2Ti2O7 precursor gels. From photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra, measured at 10 K and room temperature, the energy levels of Sm3+ and Eu3+ ions in Gd2Ti2O7 nanoparticles are obtained. The dependence of luminescence emission intensity and emission decays on rare earth concentration are measured and discussed. The strongest Sm3+ orange-reddish emission is observed for samples containing 2.5 at.% of Sm3+ ions, while in the case of Eu3+, the most intense emission is found for 15 at.% Eu3+ doping. The 4G5/2 level lifetime decreases with an increase in Sm3+ concentration, from about 5 ms (for 0.1-0.2 at.% of Sm3+) to 2.4 ms (for 2.5 at.% of Sm3+). With an increase in Eu3+ concentration in the Gd2Ti2O7 nanoparticles, the Eu3+5D0 level lifetime decreases from ∼5.9 ms (for 0.5 at.% of Sm3+) to 3.1 ms (for 15 at.% of Sm3+).

  12. Geometric magnetic frustration in RE{sub 2}O{sub 2}S oxysulfides (RE = Sm, Eu and Gd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biondo, V.; Sarvezuk, P.W.C.; Ivashita, F.F.; Silva, K.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Paesano, A., E-mail: paesano@wnet.com.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Isnard, O. [Institut Néel – CNRS, Université Joseph Fourier, 25 Rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2014-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Stacked planes in the <001> direction of an oxysulfide structure, showing the triangular nets formed by rare earth cations, which moments present geometric magnetic frustration. - Highlights: • We prepared monophasic RE{sub 2}O{sub 2}S Oxysulfides (RE = Sm, Eu and Gd). • RE{sub 2}O{sub 2}S compounds were characterized regarding structural and magnetic properties. • Mössbauer spectra were obtained for Eu{sub 2}O{sub 2}S and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S at different temperatures. • Oxysulfides present geometric magnetic frustration of the rare-earth sublattice. - Abstract: RE{sub 2}O{sub 2}S oxysulfides (with RE = Sm, Eu and Gd) were prepared and characterized regarding their structural and magnetic properties. The compounds crystallized in the trigonal symmetry (space group P-3m/D{sub 3}{sup 3}d), with the lattice parameter varying linearly with the ionic radius of the RE cation. All these oxysulfides are magnetically frustrated and only the gadolinium sample showed magnetic order down to 3 K. The magnetic frustration is attributed to the spatial distribution of cations over the lattice, where the RE’s magnetic moments occupy the sites forming a triangular plane lattice, perpendicular to the direction. This geometric magnetic frustration was firstly recognized for these oxysulfides.

  13. Determination of Gd, Sm, Eu and Dy in uranium compounds by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a graphite furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation of Gd, Sm, Eu and Dy from uranium and its determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry is outlined. The lanthanides were separated by means of the percolation of the uranyl nitrate solution 0,3 M in HF (50-250g of U3O8 perliter) through an Al2O3 column. The lanthanides retained in the column were eluted with 1M HCl. As thorium is also retained into the column under these conditions, its interference was studied. The determination limits of the method range from 0,01 to 0,1 μg of lanthanide per gram of uranium. (Author)

  14. Measurement of reactivity worths of Sm, Cs, Gd, Nd, Rh, Eu, B and Er aqueous solution samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komuro, Yuichi; Suzaki, Takenori; Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Horiki, Oichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ohtomo, Shoichi

    1997-11-01

    From the view point of burnup credit for spent fuels, it remains as an important issue to validate nuclear data of fission products. Aiming to obtain benchmark data for that purpose, reactivity worths of Sm, Cs, Gd, Nd, Rh and Eu aqueous solution samples of various concentrations were measured by the critical-water-level method at Tank-type Critical Assembly (TCA). Samples of B and Er were included for the purpose of comparison. Neutron activation distributions of Au wires crossing the sample region were also measured in several cases. A linear correlation was found between the thermal neutron flux peakings in the sample region and the reactivity worths. (author)

  15. Luminescent properties and energy transfer process of Sm3+-Eu3+ co-doped MY2(MoO4)4 (M=Ca, Sr and Ba) red-emitting phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Menglin; Zhou, Gaojian; Zhou, Liqun; Lu, Di; Li, Yue; Xiong, Xing; Yang, Kunzhou; Chen, Menghuan; Pan, Yaxi; Wu, Peng; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Hongying; Xia, Qinghua

    2016-09-01

    MY2(MoO4)4:Sm3+ and MY2(MoO4)4:xSm3+,yEu3+ (M=Ca, Sr and Ba) phosphors were successfully prepared using solid-state reaction route, and their luminescent properties and energy transfer process from Sm3+ to Eu3+ were systematically investigated. The results indicate that MY2(MoO4)4:Sm3+ phosphors can be effectively excited by 407 nm near UV light originating from the 6H5/2 → 4F7/2 transition of Sm3+, and exhibit a satisfactory red emission at 646 nm attributed to the 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 transition of Sm3+, in which the emission intensity of SrY2(MoO4)4:Sm3+ is the strongest among the MY2(MoO4)4:Sm3+ (M=Ca, Sr and Ba) phosphors. For Eu3+ co-doped MY2(MoO4)4:Sm3+ samples, with increasing Eu3+ doping content, the main emission peaks of Sm3+ (approximately 646 nm) are decreased, but the emission peaks and intensity of Eu3+ are increased while the maximum intensity of luminescence at the Eu3+ concentration 0.9. The introduction of Eu3+ in the MY2(MoO4)4:Sm3+ phosphors can remarkably generate a strong emission line at 616 nm, originating from the 5D0→7F2 transition of Eu3+ and Sm3+ (4G5/2) → Eu3+ (5D0) effective energy transfer process. The energy transfer mechanism from Sm3+ to Eu3+ was discussed in detail.

  16. Variable Emission Changes in Bi3+/Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy) Co-doped Lutetium Vanadates (LuVO4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuhui; Hu, Jing; Deng, Surong; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Qianming

    2016-06-01

    High-purity LuVO4: Ln3+/Bi3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy) phosphors with tetragonal zircon structures were successfully synthesized. The reactions have been carried out by multiple irradiations with very high efficiency. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the phosphors had rod-like structures with average lengths of about 200 nm. The host absorption edge of LuVO4: Ln3+/Bi3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm) shifted to the longer wavelength side. Furthermore, the red emission of Eu3+ ion and the orange emission of Sm3+ ion are remarkably enhanced by encapsulating Bi3+ in LuVO4 system, whereas in the case of LuVO4: Dy3+/Bi3+, the host absorption and the yellow emission from dysprosium have been suppressed in the presence of Bi3+. These novel findings will facilitate their use in the display field.

  17. Synthesis and fluorescence properties of Eu(Ⅲ), Tb(Ⅲ) and Sm(Ⅲ) with β-diketone and 2,2'- bipyridine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xingwang; JIANG Jiadong; YONG Shengli; GUO Yuwei; YANG Kun; WANG Li

    2012-01-01

    Three new rare earth ternary complexes,RE(PPP)3bpy (RE=Sm3+,Eu3+,Tb3+),were synthcsized by the reaction of 1-phenyl-3-(p-phenylethynylphenyl)-1,3-propanedione (HPPP) and 2,2'-bipyridine(bpy) with rare earth chloride RECl3,respectively,in alcohol solution.The compositions were characterized by means of infrared (IR) spectra,chemical analysis,elemental analysis,and thermodynamic analysis.Luminescent properties of the three complexes were studied.At room temperature,under UV light excitation,the Sm3+,Eu3+ and Tb3+ complexes exhibited characteristic emission of the central ions.The fluorescence spectra showed that the fluorescence emission intensity of Eu3+ complex was the strongest.The narrow strongest emission band of Eu3+ complex was considered to be a valuable material with bright red fluorescence.

  18. Stabilization of anatase phase in the rare earth; Eu and Sm ion doped nanoparticle TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setiawati, E. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Electro-Communications, Chofugaoka 1-5-1 Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Kawano, K. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Electro-Communications, Chofugaoka 1-5-1 Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan)], E-mail: kawano@ee.uec.ac.jp

    2008-02-28

    The extension of temperature range of anatase phase for nanoparticle TiO{sub 2} has been achieved by doping the rare earth; Sm and Eu ions, respectively. The TiO{sub 2} films and nanoparticles were prepared from Ti-(IV)-isopropoxide (TTIP) based on the sol-gel method at the varied sintering temperature from 400 to 950 deg. C for 1 h. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra revealed significantly delaying of the phase transition from anatase to rutile by RE ions doping. The film morphology by atomic force microscopy (AFM) for doped films showed reduction of particle sizes as well as formation of uniform films. According to the structural studies, it is concluded that the RE ions has influenced greatly on the stabilization of anatase phase.

  19. Improving luminescent property of SrIn2O4:Eu3+ by co-doped A+ (A =Li, Na, K) or Sm3+*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-Jun; Li Pan-Lai; Yang Zhi-Ping; Guo Qing-Lin

    2013-01-01

    A series of SrIn2O4:Eu3+ phosphors are synthesized by a high temperature solid-state method,and their luminescent properties are investigated.They can be excited by 395-nm radiation,and produce red emission (619 nm); however,they have a low absorption of near-ultraviolet light with the wavelength of 400 nm-405 nm.When co-doped with A+ (A =Li,Na,K),the emission intensity of SrIn2O4:Eu3+ is significantly enhanced,but its emission and excitation spectral profile is unchanged.With co-doping Sm3+,not only is the emission intensity of SrIn2O4:Eu3+ enhanced,but also the absorption is broadened and strengthened in the range of 400 nm-405 nm.The effect of Sm3+-doped content on the emission intensity of SrIn2O4:Eu3+,Sm3+ is investigated,and the optimal Sm3+ content is 0.02 mol.

  20. A first-principles study of B2 NiAl alloyed with rare earth elements Pr, Pm, Sm, and Eu

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun-Qi; Wang, You; Yan, Mu-Fu; Pan, Zhao-Yi; Guo, Li-Xin

    2013-02-01

    The structural, elastic, and electronic properties of NiAl alloyed with rare earth elements Pr, Pm, Sm, and Eu are investigated by using density functional theory (DFT). The study suggests that Pr, Pm, Sm, and Eu all tend to be substituted for an Al site. Ni8Al7Pm possesses the largest ductility. Only the hardness and ductility of Ni8Al7Eu are enhanced simultaneously. The covalency strength of the Ni—Al bond in Ni8Al7Pm is higher than that in Ni8Al7Eu. The covalency strength of an Al—Al bond and that of a Ni—Ni bond in Ni8Al7Eu are higher than that in Ni8Al7Pm. The Ni—Pm bond and the Ni—Eu bond are covalent, and the covalency strength of the Ni—Pm bond is greater. The Al—Pm bond and the Al—Eu bond show great covalency strength and ionicity, respectively.

  1. Half-Lives of ground states in Pm and Eu nuclei following the 154,152Sm (p,x) reactions at 25 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watwood, N. J.; Beausang, C. W.; Humby, P.; Simon, A.; Gell, K.

    2014-09-01

    The primary experiment was designed to study low/medium spin states in Sm nuclei following the 154,152Sm (p,x) reactions where x = d or t. During the experiment the Sm target was irradiated by a 25 MeV proton beam, provided by the K150 Cyclotron at Texas A&M University, with an average beam current of ~1 nA for about one week. Following the experiment, residual radioactivity in the target was measured in the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory at the University of Richmond using a 25% efficiency coaxial Ge detector enclosed in a 6-inch thick Pb shield. The gamma ray spectra were internally calibrated using a 152Eu source and the energies of known gamma-rays from the target decays and from long lived environmental radioactivity. The decays of three long lived (~1 month or more) mass A ~ 150 nuclei were identified (148Sm, 148Eu, and 147Eu), and half lives for their beta-decay were (re)measured. Work is still in progress and preliminary results will be presented at the APS conference.

  2. Synthesis and luminescence property of Li{sub 2}BaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Eu, Sm) phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wani, J.A. [Department of Physics, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India); Dhoble, N.S. [Department of Chemistry, Sevadal Mahila Mahavidhyalaya, Nagpur 440009 (India); Kokode, N.S. [BCUD Gondwana University, Gadchiroli (India); Deva Prasad Raju, B. [Department of Future studies, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Dhoble, S.J., E-mail: sjdhoble@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India)

    2014-03-15

    Phosphate compounds as host materials are always a good choice for lanthanides to exhibit luminescence. The novel phosphors of Li{sub 2}BaP{sub 2}O{sub 7} activated with the trivalent Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} ions were synthesized by high temperature solid state reaction. In characterization, crystallization, morphology and luminescent properties of lithium barium diphosphate were investigated. The excitation and emission spectra were recorded to study the luminescence properties. The as prepared powders of Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} ions doped Li{sub 2}BaP{sub 2}O{sub 7} emit reddish orange light, corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 1}(595 nm) and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 7/2}(599 nm) transitions, respectively. The study is novel as no such luminescence data are available for this compound. -- Highlights: • Luminescence characterization of Li{sub 2}BaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} prepared phosphors are first time reported in this paper. • Sm{sup 3+} ions luminescence quenches just after 0.5 mol% in Li{sub 2}BaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphor. • Excitation wavelengths are quite far away from mercury, hence Li{sub 2}BaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} is eco-friendly materials for lighting. • {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 1} and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 7/2} transitions are dominant in Li{sub 2}BaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} indicates local symmetry.

  3. High-Pressure Rare Earth Disilicates REE2Si 2O 7( REE=Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd): Type K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, Michael E.; Liu, Xiaoyang

    2001-10-01

    A new structure type (K) is reported for the disilicates of Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd made at high pressure. Crystals of type K were synthesized at 10 GPa, 1600-1700°C in an MA6/8 superpress and used for single-crystal X-ray structure study by Kappa CCD diffractometry at room temperature. Crystal data are: monoclinic, space group P21/n, Z=4; Nd2Si2O7-a=6.6658(2), b=6.7234(3), c=12.3975(6) Å, β=102.147(3)°, V=543.2 Å3, R=0.029, and Dx=5.584 g/cm3; Sm2Si2O7-a=6.6039(3), b=6.6849(3), c=12.3069(5) Å, β=102.489(3)°, V=530.4 Å3, R=0.038, and Dx=5.871 g/cm3; Eu2Si2O7-a=6.5777(3), b=6.6652(4), c=12.2668(8) Å, β=102.671(4)°, V=524.7 Å3, R=0.030, and Dx=5.976 g/cm3; Gd2Si2O7-a=6.5558(4), b=6.6469(4), c=12.2394(6) Å, β=102.844(3)°, V=520.0 Å3, R=0.026, and Dx=6.166 g/cm3. The type K structure is built from a diorthosilicate group [Si2O7] interconnected by REE3+ cations in eightfold coordination with oxygen. The bridging oxygen (Si-O-Si) bond angle of the diorthosilicate group of rare earth disilicates stable at 1 bar (types A to G) is related to spatial accommodation of the REE3+ cation and ranges from 130 to 135° in the light rare earth disilicates (types A, F, G) to 180° in Lu2Si2O7 (type C). Volume reduction in the high-pressure type K structure is achieved largely by closure of the Si-O-Si bond angle to 122.7-124.4°, through rigid body rotation of the two SiO4 tetrahedra. This also permits a marginal increase in the average coordination of the REE3+ cation.

  4. Eu3+/Sm3+ hybrids based with 8-hydroxybenz[de]anthracen-7-one organically modified mesoporous silica SBA-15/16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan-Jing; Yan, Bing

    2015-12-01

    A series of organic-inorganic hybrid materials were prepared by linking lanthanide (Eu3+, Sm3+) complexes to mesoporous SBA-15/SBA-16 through 8-hydroxybenz[de]anthracen-7-one modified silane (HBA-Si) as linker. The physical characterizations of these hybrids revealed that they all have high surface area, uniformity in mesostructure. The luminescence properties of these covalently bonded materials (denoted as Ln(HBA-SBA-15)3phen and Ln(HBA-SBA-16)3phen) were compared with ternary complexes (Ln(HBA)3phen) (Ln = Eu, Sm). Eu(HBA-SBA-15(16))3phen hybrids display better thermal stability, whose luminescent lifetimes and quantum efficiencies were matchable with those of Eu(HBA)3phen complex in spite of its much lower effective condensation of Eu3+ species. In addition, the luminescent performance of functionalized SBA-15 hybrids was more favorable than that of functionalized SBA-16 hybrids, revealing that SBA-15 was a better host material for lanthanide complex than mesoporous silica SBA-16.

  5. Quantum yield dependence of electroluminescence of ZnS-Cu crystals doped with Sm, Eu, Pb or Tm on the exciting voltage frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency dependence of the quantum yield of electroluminescence of ZnS-Cu crystals doped with Eu, Sm, Pb or Tm within the frequency range from 50 Hz to 10 kHz and voltages 0.15-1.5 kW is measured. The maximum of this dependence may be explained by the competition of recombination processes and by the polarization of the crystal

  6. Y3Al5O12:Re3+ (Re=Ce, Eu, and Sm nanocrystalline powders prepared by modified glycine combustion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lojpur V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yttrium aluminum garnet doped with rare earth ions (Ce3+, Eu3+ and Sm3+ was prepared by modified glycine method. Ce3+ as a dopant was used in four different concentrations (Y3-xCexAl5O12; x(% = 1, 2, 3, 5, while doping concentration of Eu3+ and Sm3+ was Y3-xEuxAl5O12; x(% = 3 and Y3-xSmxAl5O12; x(% = 1, respectively. Phase composition of powders was investigated using XRD technique and expected target phase was confirmed. Photoluminescent characterization included measurements of excitation and emission spectra, as well as determination of emission decays. Y3-xCexAl5O12 shows intense broad-band emission, with maximum in green spectral region, at about 524 nm under ultraviolet or blue excitation. The origin of the luminescence is the 5d1→4f1 transition which is both parity and spin allowed. Ultraviolet and blue excitations of Eu3+ and Sm3+ doped Y3Al5O12 produce intense orange and red emissions. These emissions are phosphorescent in character and come from spin forbidden f-f electron transitions in Eu3+ and Sm3+ ions. For the case of Eu3+ doping emission comes mainly from 5D0→7F1 transitions with Stark components peaking at 590 nm and 590.75 nm, and with emission decay of 4.15 ms. In the case of Sm3+ doping, the emission spectrum, shows 4G5/2→6H5/2, 4G5/2→6H7/2, and 4G5/2→6H9/2 transitions, with the most intense stark components positioned at 567.5 nm, 617 nm, and 650 nm, respectively and for transition centered at 617 nm, emission decay is 3.12 ms. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171022 i br. 45012

  7. Syntheses, crystal structures and vibrational spectra of K Ln(SO 4) 2·H 2O ( Ln=La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, Karolina; Höppe, Henning A.

    2010-09-01

    The potassium lanthanide double sulphates K Ln(SO 4) 2·H 2O ( Ln=La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy) were obtained by evaporation of aqueous reaction mixtures of rare earth (III) sulphates and potassium thiocyanate at 298 K. X-ray single-crystal investigations show that K Ln(SO 4) 2·H 2O ( Ln=Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy) crystallise monoclinically ( Ln=Sm: P2 1/ c, Z=4, a=10.047(1), b=8.4555(1), c=10.349(1) Å, w R2=0.060, R1=0.024, 945 reflections, 125 parameters) while KLa(SO 4) 2·H 2O adopts space group P3 221 (Z=3, a=7.1490(5), c=13.2439(12) Å, w R2=0.038, R1=0.017, 695 reflections, 65 parameters). The coordination environment of the lanthanide ions in K Ln(SO 4) 2·H 2O is different in the case of the Nd/Sm/Gd and the Eu/Dy compounds, respectively. In the first case the Ln atoms are nine-fold coordinated in contrast to the latter where the Ln ions are eight-fold coordinated by oxygen atoms. The vibrational spectra of K Ln(SO 4) 2·H 2O and the UV-vis reflection spectra of KEu(SO 4) 2·H 2O and KNd(SO 4) 2·H 2O are also reported.

  8. Preparation, crystal structure and optical spectroscopy of the rare earth complexes (RE 3+=Sm, Eu, Gd and Tb) with 2-thiopheneacetate anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotonio, Ercules E. S.; Brito, Hermi F.; Felinto, Maria Cláudia F. C.; Thompson, Larry C.; Young, Victor G.; Malta, Oscar L.

    2005-09-01

    Rare earth complexes with the formulae Sm(TPAC) 3·3H 2O, Eu 2(TPAC) 6·5.25H 2O and RE(TPAC) 3·3.5H 2O (where RE=Gd and Tb), and TPAC=2-thiopheneacetate) have been synthesized and characterized by complexometric titration, elemental analyses, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. Infrared data suggested the presence of both bridging and chelating TPAC anions. The crystal structure of the [Eu 2(TPAC) 6·(H 2O) 3]·2.25H 2O complex in the solid state, determined by X-ray diffraction, revealed that it crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system (space group Aba2), with two crystallographically independent Eu 3+ centers (Eu1 and Eu2). These europium centers are held together by one bidentate bridging and two tridentate bridging carboxylate groups. The existence of two Eu 3+ centers was also supported by the emission spectrum. The luminescence properties of the RE-TPAC complexes were investigated by measuring the excitation and emission spectra, and the intramolecular ligand-to-rare earth energy transfer mechanisms were discussed. The emission spectra of the Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ ions displayed only narrow bands arising from 5D 0→ 7F 0 and 5D 0→ 7F 0-4 transitions, respectively, indicating an efficient luminescence sensitization of these ions by the TPAC 'antenna'. On the other hand, the emission spectrum of the Sm 3+-complex displayed a broad band from the phosphorescence of the TPAC ligand which overlapped the 4f 5-intraconfigurational transitions. The theoretical intensity parameters Ωλ ( λ=2 and 4), maximum splitting of the 7F 1 state (Δ E) and the ratio between the 5D 0→ 7F 0 and 5D 0→ 7F 2 transition intensities ( R02) were calculated based on the X-ray crystalline structure for the Eu 3+-complex, and a comparison with experimental data were made. The emission quantum efficiency ( η) of the D5 emitting level of the Eu 3+ ion was also determined.

  9. Optical characterization and the energy level scheme for NaYP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novais, S.M.V., E-mail: suellenvaleriano@yahoo.com.br [Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Materials, Physics Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49.100-000, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Dobrowolska, A.; Bos, A.J.J.; Dorenbos, P. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Macedo, Z.S. [Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Materials, Physics Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49.100-000, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    Vacuum ultra-violet spectroscopy at low temperature was performed with undoped and Ln{sup 3+}-doped NaYP{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ln=Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb and Yb). The emission observed from the NaYP{sub 2}O{sub 7} host was attributed to self-trapped exciton (STE) recombination. Dopant ions were well incorporated and responsible for characteristic luminescent emission in the doped samples. From excitation curves, 4f–5d transitions were identified for Ce{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} and charge transfer processes were noticed for Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+}. The experimental data obtained was used to determine the positions of the energy levels of divalent and trivalent lanthanides relative to the valence and conduction band of this compound. The experimentally derived levels are in good agreement with model predictions. The results are valuable to provide a better understanding on the performance of NaYP{sub 2}O{sub 7} and related diphosphates as luminescent materials. -- Highlights: • NaYP{sub 2}O{sub 7} polycrystalline samples were produced via the sol–gel method. • VUV excitation and emission spectra were successfully studied. • Luminescent properties were discussed. • The experimentally derived energy levels are in good agreement with model predictions.

  10. Microwave-assisted ionic-liquid-based synthesis of highly crystalline CaMoO4:RE3+ (RE = Tb, Sm, Eu) and Y2Mo4O15:Eu3+ nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanoski, Ana; Pankratov, Vladimir; Feldmann, Claus

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescent CaMoO4:RE3+ (RE = Tb, Sm, Eu) nanoparticles, 50-70 nm in diameter, were prepared via a microwave-assisted synthesis in ionic liquids. Herein, the ionic liquid allows heating to high temperatures in the liquid phase (200 °C), which guarantees for an optimal crystallization of the nanoparticles. All nanoparticles were indeed readily crystalline without the need of any additional powder sintering. Especially, CaMoO4:Tb and CaMoO4:Eu exhibit high quantum yields of 52% and 82% under UV-excitation (300-320 nm). All compounds were characterized by electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and fluorescence spectroscopy (FL). In order to shift the excitation to even higher wavelengths, Y2Mo4O15:Eu was firstly realized as a nanomaterial, again, using the microwave-assisted synthesis in ionic liquids. Y2Mo4O15:Eu exhibits a particle size of 25-30 nm, and shows a high quantum yield of 67%, too. As this nanomaterial can be excited up to 400 nm, it represents one of the first efficient red-emitting, Eu3+-doped nanomaterials for near-UV excitation (>350 nm) with a simple, low-cost UV-LED. This can be relevant for all kinds of thin-film applications as well as for optical imaging.

  11. The structures and luminescence properties of lanthanide (Ln = Sm, Eu and Tb) metal-organic coordination polymers based on 5-(2-hydroxyethoxy)isophthalate ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Qin, Jie; Chen, Yong; Zhao, Ying

    2015-03-01

    Three unreported isomorphous Ln-containing metal-organic coordination polymeric complexes {LnL(HL)ṡ(H2O)2}n (Ln = Sm (1), Eu (2) and Tb (3), CCDC 971815-971817) were synthesized based on 5-(2-hydroxyethoxy) isophthalic acid (H2L) under hydrothermal conditions. The obtained coordination polymers were characterized by IR, elemental analysis, thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction In solid state, these polymers featured 3-D supramolecular structures constructed by 2-D sheets through H-bonds. Investigation of photoluminescence properties of H2L and 1-3 showed all of them exhibited intense fluorescent emissions in the solid state at room temperature.

  12. Luminescence and application of red-emitting phosphors of Eu3+-activated R2Zr3(MoO4)9 ( R = La, Sm, Gd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shuyun; Huang, Yanlin; Cheng, Han; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2016-01-01

    New red-emitting phosphors R2Zr3(MoO4)9:Eu3+ ( R = La, Sm, Gd) were prepared using the convenient solid-state reaction method. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) measurements and structural refinements. The luminescence properties were investigated by photoluminescence spectra, decay curves, and absolute internal quantum efficiency (QE). The phosphors exhibited bright red luminescence corresponding to the electric dipole transition 5D0→7F2 at 615 nm under near UV light excitation. The thermal stability of the luminescence was investigated using temperature-dependent intensities at temperatures from 20 to 170°C. The results indicate that Gd2Zr3(MoO4)9:Eu3+ could be potentially considered for lighting due to its qualities, including their excitation spectra, QEs, red color coordinates, and thermal stability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. An investigation on photoluminescence and energy transfer of Eu{sup 3+}/Sm{sup 3+} single-doped and co-doped Ca{sub 4}YO(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandi, Vengala Rao; Grandhe, Bhaskar Kumar [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kiwan, E-mail: kwjang@changwon.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong-Soo [Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Soung-Soo [Department of Photonics, Silla University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jung-Hyun [Department of Physics, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    The present investigation aims to demonstrate the potentiality of Eu{sup 3+}/Sm{sup 3+} single-doped and co-doped Ca{sub 4}YO(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} phosphors, which were prepared by a sol–gel method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles showed that all the observed peaks could be attributed to the monoclinic phase of Ca{sub 4}YO(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}. From the measured emission profiles, we have noticed that both the single-doped Eu{sup 3+}/Sm{sup 3+} phosphors shows four emission transitions of {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 0,1,2,3} and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 5/2,7/2,9/2,11/2} respectively. Among them, the {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} of Eu{sup 3+} and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 7/2} of Sm{sup 3+} are intense emission transitions, leading to an intense red color emission from the prepared phosphors. The excitation spectra showed that Eu{sup 3+}/Sm{sup 3+} doped samples can be excited efficiently by 394 nm and 402 nm respectively, incidentally which matches well with the characteristic emission from UVLED. The co-doping of Sm{sup 3+} ions can broaden and strengthen the absorption of near UV region and to be efficient to sensitize the emission of the Ca{sub 4}YO(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor. The mechanism involved in the energy transfer between Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} has been explained and elucidated by an energy level diagram. - Highlights: • Eu{sup 3+} or/and Sm{sup 3+}:Ca{sub 4}YO(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} phosphors were prepared by sol–gel method. • The co-doping of Sm{sup 3+} to Ca{sub 4}YO(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} extends its absorption of NUV region. • It has intense absorption in NUV region, which is suitable for NUV LED. • The energy transfer process between Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} ions were discussed.

  14. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter; Borchorst, Anette

    2002-01-01

    Der er et komplekst forhold mellem EU og den danske velfærdsstat. Den sociale dimension i det europæiske samarbejde er splittet mellem et pres mod harmonisering og pres for at fastholde national suverænitet. Negativ integration har været den foretrukne interventionsform. Drivkræfterne har især...

  15. Luminescence properties and energy transfer in the novel red emitting phosphors Ba{sub 2}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl:Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} (Ln=Y, Gd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yan; Hu, Yihua, E-mail: huyh@gdut.edu.cn; Chen, Li; Wang, Xiaojuan; Ju, Guifang

    2014-10-01

    A series of Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} singly and co-doped Ba{sub 2}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl (Ln=Y{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}) phosphors were prepared via the solid-state method. The XRD results indicate that the as-prepared products keep the monoclinic structure with a P{sub 21/m} space group of Ba{sub 2}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl, which belongs to the isomorphic substitution for Ln{sup 3+} sites in the Ba{sub 2}Yb(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl host. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra demonstrate that Ba{sub 2}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl:Sm{sup 3+},Eu{sup 3+} emits red light centered at 593 nm under the 393 nm excitation which is in good agreement with the emission wavelength from near ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The luminescence decays suggest that the energy transfer from Sm{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} ions in Ba{sub 2}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl:Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} occurs. All results mean that Ba{sub 2}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl:Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} phosphors exhibit potential to act as a kind of red phosphor for near ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes (w-LEDs)

  16. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Rostgaard

    2008-01-01

    politiske sigte er, at det tværnationale samarbejde skal øge den politiske og kulturelle samhørighed landene imellem. I det dansk-tyske grænseområde har EU gennem mange år forsøgt at medvirke til øge samarbejdet over grænsen. Der er ydet økonomisk og politisk støtte til forskellige projekter, der kan styrke...

  17. Hydrothermal Synthesis, Characterization and Magnetic Properties of Rare Earth Iron Garnets Sm3Fe5O12 and Eu3Fe5O12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li; YUAN Hong-ming; HUANG Ke-ke; YUAN Lin; LIU Shao-kong; FENG Shou-hua

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth iron garnets R3Fe5O12(R=Sm,Eu) were synthesized under mild hydrothermal conditions,and their crystal growth was found to be sensitive to alkalinity,reaction temperature and time.The as-prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction(XRD),scanning electron microscopy(SEM),infrared spectra(IR) and Raman spectrum.The M vs.H loops and magnetic parameters have been traced with a vibrating sample magnetometer(VSM) and superconducting quantum interference devices(SQUIDs) magnetometer.We proposed the formation mechanisms and formulated a reasonable explanation for their growth habits.Different morphologic characteristics were observed by changing alkalinity in the reaction systems.The magnetic studies gave saturation magnetization(Ms) and Curie temperature(TC).The magnetic behaviors of Sm3Fe5O12 and Eu3Fe5O12 in mild hydrothermal systems are comparable with those in high temperature solid state reactions.

  18. Si-N共掺对CaAl2O4:Eu2+和CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Sm3+荧光粉荧光和余辉性能的优化%Optimization on Photoluminescence and Afterglow Performance of CaAl2O4:Eu+ and CaAl2O4:Eu2+, Sm3+ Phosphors with Si-N Co-doping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邾强强; 杨力勋; 季巍巍; 徐鑫

    2013-01-01

    采用高温固相反应法制备了不同浓度Si-N共掺的CaAl2O4:Eu2+蓝色荧光粉,发现只需2%(摩尔分数)的Si-N共掺就可以明显提高荧光粉的荧光性能.研究还发现在CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Sm3+中掺入Si-N后,荧光粉的荧光强度和余辉性能都有提高.通过荧光粉的光谱图,发现共掺没有改变荧光粉中发光中心Eu离子的价态,而电子顺磁共振(EPR)谱则表明,Si-N共掺对Eu离子周围的配位环境产生了较大的影响.这说明掺杂的Si-N倾向于取代Eu2+附近的Al-O,并且由于Si-N键相对于Al-O键具有较短的键长,使发光中心周围晶体骨架的刚性得到了增强,从而减少了晶格热震动导致的非辐射跃迁能量损失,提高荧光粉的发光性能.同时,热释光谱表明,掺杂的Si-N会在发光离子周围产生新的缺陷能级,从而提高荧光粉的余辉性能.%The CaAl2O4: Eu2+ blue phosphors with varied amount of Si - N co-doping were synthesized through high temperature solid state reaction. The photoluminescence property of phosphor could be significantly improved with only 2% Si-N co-doping. It was also found that the photoluminescence and afterglow performance of CaAl2O4: Eu2+, Sm3+ could be improved with Si-N co-doping. It was proved that the co-doping did not affect the valence of the Eu ions with photoluminescence spectra. However, the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra showed that the Si-N co-doping greatly impacted the coordi-nation environment around Eu ions, which meant that the Si-N bonds preferred to replace the Al - O bands around the Eu ions. Since the length of Si - N bond was shorter than the length of Al - O bond, the crystal rigidity around Eu ions might be enhanced as a result of the replacement and the non-radiative transitions caused by lattice thermal vibrations shall be reduced. The thermoluminescence spectra showed that the co-doped Si-N has produced a new defect energy level around Eu ions, and enhanced the afterglow

  19. Surfactant-mediated PMMA-templating fabrication and characterization of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} with mesoporous walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Han [Laboratory of Catalysis Chemistry and Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Dai Hongxing, E-mail: hxdai@bjut.edu.cn [Laboratory of Catalysis Chemistry and Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Liu Yuxi; Deng Jiguang; Zhang Lei; Ji Kemeng [Laboratory of Catalysis Chemistry and Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} with mesopore walls can be fabricated by the surfactant-assisted PMMA-templating method. 3DOM Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} obtained with sucrose possesses a surface area up to 37 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. 3DOM Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} show strong UV-light absorption. By tailoring the pore structure of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the luminescent property can be modified. Highlights: {yields} 3DOM Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} with mesopore walls are fabricated by the PMMA-templating method. {yields} Surfactant addition and carbonization process favor the formation of the 3DOM structure. {yields} 3DOM Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} obtained with sucrose possesses a surface area up to about 37 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. {yields} 3DOM Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} show excellent UV-light absorption. {yields} The luminescent property can be modified by tailoring the pore structure of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Abstract: Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) europium oxide and samarium oxide with mesoporous walls and cubic crystal structures have been successfully fabricated with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as hard template and F127, sucrose, and L-lysine as surfactant. The as-fabricated rare earth oxides were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. It is shown that the as-fabricated Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples displayed 3DOM architectures with polycrystalline wormhole-like mesoporous walls. The nature of surfactant and solvent and calcination parameter had important

  20. Crystal structures of Ln2-xCexCuO4-y electron carrier superconductors with Ln = Nd, Sm, Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray crystal structures, of three Lna-xCexCuO4-y mixed oxides with Ln = Nd, Sn, and Eu have been determined. All the three oxides crystallize in the tetragonal space group I4/nnn with the following lattice parameters: (Nd,Ce) a = 3.9479(3), c = 12.039(1), A; (Sn,Ce) a =- 3.9219(3), c = 11.8885(7) A; (Eu,Ce) a = 3.9169(6), c = 11.897(2) A. In this paper structural results are compared and discussed with those of other ceramic copper oxides

  1. Synthesis, characterization and DNA-binding studies of 2-carboxybenzaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone and its La(III), Sm(III) and Eu(III) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Wang, Yan; Yang, Zheng-Yin

    2007-02-01

    2-Carboxybenzaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone (HL), and its three lanthanide complexes, LnL 3·4H 2O [Ln = La( 1), Sm( 2), Eu( 3)], have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, molar conductivities, IR spectra and thermal analyses. In addition, the DNA-binding properties of the ligand and its complexes have been investigated by absorption, fluorescence and viscosity measurements. The experimental results indicated that the complexes ( 2) and ( 3) can bind to DNA, but the ligand and the complex ( 1) cannot; the binding affinity of the complex ( 3) is higher than that of the complex ( 2) and the intrinsic binding constant Kb of the complex ( 3) is 7.86 × 10 4 M -1.

  2. Visible light emitting Ln{sup 3+} ion (Ln=Sm, Eu and Dy) as a structural probe: A case study with SrZrO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Santosh K., E-mail: santufrnd@gmail.com [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India); Yadav, A.K.; Bhattacharya, D.; Jha, S.N. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Natarajan, V. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India)

    2015-08-15

    Undoped and various rare earth ion doped SrZrO{sub 3} (SZO) perovskite based phosphors have been synthesized using the gel-combustion technique employing citric acid as a fuel. The phase purity of the sample is confirmed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. It was observed that average particle size of perovskite particle was around 100 nm. In order to probe the local structure and symmetry around lanthanide ions in SrZrO{sub 3}, detailed experimental investigation has been carried out. X-ray absorption near edge fine (XANES) measurements along with their respective emission spectroscopy confirm that on doping lanthanide ion; in cases they were found to get stabilized as trivalent species. Extensive time resolved emission spectroscopy (TRES) on doped samples shows that on doping Sm{sup 3+} in SZO; an efficient energy transfer takes place and Sm{sup 3+} ions are localized both in Sr and Zr positions of SZO. PL decay time shows the presence of two life time values in case of nanocrystalline SrZrO{sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+}: (i) Sm{sup 3+} at Zr{sup 4+} site (τ=500 µs) and (ii) Sm{sup 3+} at Sr{sup 2+} site (τ=1.2 ms) in the ratio of 3:1. Based on TRES for europium doped sample, it was inferred that, two different types of Eu{sup 3+} ions were present in the SZO matrix. The first type was a long lived species present at relatively higher symmetric site of 'Sr{sup 2+}' and the second was a short lived species present at relatively lower symmetric 'Zr{sup 4+}' site which gets selectively excited at 296 nm. Dysprosium ion specifically occupies Zr{sup 4+} site only in SZO. EXAFS studies supported the TRES results. - Highlights: • Site occupancy of lanthanide. • Time resolved emission is explored. • XANES is used for oxidation state determination. • EXAFS for local structure investigation.

  3. Crossrelaxations and non-radiative energy transfer from ({sup 4}G{sub 5/2}) Sm{sup 3+} → ({sup 5}D{sub 0}) Eu{sup 3+}: B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZnO glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naresh, V., E-mail: varna.naresh@gmail.com; Rudramadevi, B.H.; Buddhudu, S., E-mail: profsb_svuniv@hotmail.com

    2015-05-25

    Graphical abstract: The energy transfer process occurring from Sm{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} in B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZnO (BZn) glasses is analyzed. Based on the Foster–Dexter theory, the possibility of energy transfer between Sm{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} has been demonstrated from the spectral overlap of Eu{sup 3+} absorption and Sm{sup 3+} emission, photoluminescence spectra, energy level diagram and lifetime measurements. The energy transfer mechanism in (Sm{sup 3+} + Eu{sup 3+}) co-doped glass is governed by dipole–dipole interaction. - Highlights: • Spectroscopic properties of individually doped Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} & co-doped (Sm{sup 3+} + Eu{sup 3+}) in BZn glasses were studied separately. • The effect of Eu{sup 3+} concentration on luminescence properties is explained from cross-relaxations. • Energy transfer from Sm{sup 3+} ({sup 4}G{sub 5/2}) to Eu{sup 3+} ({sup 5}D{sub 0}) has been explained from Foster–Dexter theory. • Dipole–dipole mechanism governs the energy transfer from Sm{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+}. - Abstract: The present paper reports on the results concerning to photoluminescence features of Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} ions and energy transfer process occurring from Sm{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} doped in 45 B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–55 ZnO (BZn) glasses prepared by melt quenching technique. Luminescence quenching as a function of Eu{sup 3+} concentration in BZn glasses has been discussed. Among the studied concentrations, 0.5 mol% of Eu{sup 3+} is optimized because it has exhibited red emission transition {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2}. With regard to Sm{sup 3+} glasses, orange emission at 602 nm ({sup 4}G{sub 5/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 7/2}) has been noticed on exciting with λ{sub exci} = 403 nm. Based on the Foster–Dexter theory, the possibility of energy transfer between Sm{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} has been explained from the spectral overlap of Eu{sup 3+} absorption and Sm{sup 3+} emission. The optimized concentration 0.5 mol% of Eu{sup 3+} is co

  4. Complexation of N'-[1-(3-aminophenyl)ethylidine]isonicotinohydrazide with La3+, Pr3+, Nd3+, Sm3+, Eu3+ and Gd3+ ions and associated thermodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharmeli Yumnam; Lonibala Rajkumari

    2012-01-01

    A novel Schiff base N'-[1-(3-aminophenyl)ethylidine]isonicotinohydrazide was prepared and its complexation behavior towards some selected lanthanides had been studied employing pH-metric and calorimetric titration and spectral techniques.pH-metric studies were carried out for the trivalent La,Pr,Nd,Sr,Eu,and Gd complexes in 30% aqueous-dioxane medium at constant ionic strength of 0.05 mol/L NaClO4 and at different temperatures of 293,303 and 313 K.The proton-ligand formation constants of the ligand indicated the presence of only one dissociable proton while the metal-ligand formation constants were compatible with the formation of 1∶1 Ln(Ⅲ) complexes.The stability of the complexes followed the order:La3+<Pr3+<Nd3+<Sm3+<Eu3+>Gd3+,showing a break at gadolirium.The thermodynamic parameters,△G,△H and AS associated with protonation and complexation reactions were negative which suggested that all reactions were exothermic and enthalpy-driven.Isothermal calorimetric studies of Gd3+-aeINH systems at 303 K also showed exothermic nature of the complexation reaction and formation of 1∶1 complex in agreement with the pH-metric data.Formation of 1∶1 complexes was confirmed by the characterization of Nd(Ⅲ) complex.A seven coordinated geometry was assigned for the complex based on its elemental and spectral data.

  5. Thermochemical Properties of RE(Gly) 4Im( ClO4) 3· 2H2O(RE = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何水样; 刘向荣; 宋迪生; 胡荣祖

    2001-01-01

    The enthalpies of solution in water for five new light rare earth ternary complexes RE(Gly)4Im(ClO4)3@ 2H2O (gE =La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu; Gly-glycine; Im-imidazole) were measured by means of a Calvet microcalorimeter. The empirical formula of enthalpy of solution (Asol H), relative apparent molar enthalpy ( φLi ), relative partial molar enthalpy ( Li )and enthalpy of dilution (AdilH1,2) were drawn up by the data of entalpies of solution of these complexes. From three plots of the values of standard enthalpy of solution AsolHΘm, φLi,Li) versus the values of ionic radius (r) of the light rare earth elements, the grouping effect of lanthanide was observed, showing that the coordination bond between rare earth ion and ligand possesses a certain extent of the property of a covalent bond. The standard enthalpies of solution in water of similar complexes, Ce(Gly)4Im(ClO4)3@2H2O were estimated according to the plot of AsolHΘm, versus r.

  6. Enhancing the water-resistance stability of CaS:Eu2+,Sm2+phosphor with SiO2-PMMA composite coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰强; 范艳伟; 陈朝阳; 闫世友; 王军华; 赵鹏君; 郝斌; 盖敏强

    2015-01-01

    This work was aimed at improving the water-resistance stability of CaS:Eu2+,Sm2+phosphor. An organic-inorganic com-posite coating method was adopted in order to obtain ideal phosphor. The phosphor was coated with SiO2 via sol-gel technique and it was also covered by polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) via dissolution-cohesion technique. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, fluorescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to characterize the phase structures, emission spectrum and surface morphologies, respectively. In addition, the water-resistance stability of the phosphor was tested by soaking the phosphor into deionized water. The results showed that the phase structures remained the same as the uncoated phosphor and the po-sition of the fluorescence peak did not shift after surface treatment. Results showed that the water-resistance stability of the phosphor was improved to some degree. Moreover, the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the coated phosphors reduced less than 10%of the original phosphors. Though being soaked into deionized water for 50 h, the phosphor coated with 10 wt.%SiO2-10 wt.%PMMA retained 85.9%PL intensity compared to that of the uncoated phosphor. Therefore, it could be concluded that the 10 wt.%SiO2-10 wt.%PMMA composite coating effectively improved the phosphor water resistance and retained its good optical properties.

  7. Synthetic and spectroscopic studies of vanadate glaserites II: Photoluminescence studies of Ln:K{sub 3}Y(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} (Ln=Eu, Er, Sm, Ho, or Tm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimani, Martin M., E-mail: kimani@g.clemson.edu; McMillen, Colin D., E-mail: cmcmill@g.clemson.edu; Kolis, Joseph W., E-mail: kjoseph@clemson.edu

    2015-03-15

    Glaserite-type potassium yttrium double vanadates (K{sub 3}Y(VO{sub 4}){sub 2}) doped with Eu{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+}, or Tm{sup 3+} have been synthesized by solid state reactions at 1000 °C for 48 h and their photoluminescence properties investigated. Efficient energy transfer from the vanadate group to the rare earth ion has been established by photoluminescence investigation. Ultraviolet excitation into the metal to ligand charge transfer band of the vanadate groups results in orange-red, blue and green emissions from Eu{sup 3+} (592 nm), Sm{sup 3+} (602 nm), Tm{sup 3+} (475 nm), Er{sup 3+} (553 nm), and Ho{sup 3+} (541–551 nm) dopant ions. The emission intensities of the lanthanide-doped K{sub 3}Y(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} powders were studied as a function of dopant ion concentrations. Over the concentration ranges studied, no emission quenching was observed for Eu{sup 3+} or Ho{sup 3+} dopants, while Er{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} dopants did exhibit such effects for dopant ion concentrations greater than 5%, probably due to cross relaxation processes. - Graphical abstract: Synthesis and photoluminescence in vanadate glaserites. - Highlights: • K{sub 3}Y(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} doped with Eu, Er, Tm, Sm, or Ho were synthesized via solid-state reactions. • Photoluminescence properties are investigated. • The lanthanide doped K{sub 3}Y(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} compounds revealed efficient energy transfer from the vanadate group to the rare earth ions. • The presented compounds are promising materials for light display systems, lasers, and optoelectronic devices.

  8. Facile patterning of luminescent GdVO{sub 4}:Ln (Ln = Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) thin films by microcontact printing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dong; Yang Piaoping; Cheng Ziyong, E-mail: zycheng@ciac.jl.cn; Wang Wenxin; Ma Pingan; Zhai Xuefeng; Lin Jun, E-mail: jlin@ciac.jl.cn [Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization (China)

    2012-01-15

    Ordered arrays of luminescent GdVO{sub 4}:Ln (Ln = Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) films with dot patterns have been successfully fabricated via microcontact printing method. The soft-lithography process utilizes a PDMS elastomeric mold as the stamp combined with a Pechini-type sol-gel process to produce luminescent patterns on quartz plates, in which a GdVO{sub 4}:Ln (Ln = Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) precursor solution was employed as ink. The ordered luminescent GdVO{sub 4}:Ln patterns were revealed by optical microscopy and their microstructure, consisting of nanometer-scale particles, as demonstrated by scanning electronic microscopy observations. In addition, photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence were carried out to characterize the patterned GdVO{sub 4}:Ln (Ln = Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) samples. Upon UV-light or electron-beam irradiation, the rare earth ions Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, and Sm{sup 3+} in the crystalline GdVO{sub 4} host show their characteristic transitions dominated by {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}-{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} ,and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}-{sup 6}H{sub 7/2}, respectively. These results make the combining soft lithography with a Pechini-type sol-gel route have potential applications as rare-earth luminescent pixels for next-generation field-emission display devices.

  9. Complexation of amidocarbamoyl phosphine oxides with Ln{sup +3} (Ln = La, Nd, Pm, Sm and Eu) cation series: structural and thermodynamical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinnejad, Tayebeh; Kazemi, Tayebeh [Alzahra Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we have mainly investigated the nature of interactions in Ln{sup 3+} (Ln = La, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu) complexes with amidocarbamoyl methyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) and amidocarbamoyl propyl phosphine oxide (CPPO) ligands based on density functional theory (DFT) approaches. In the first step, thermodynamical properties for complexation of CMPO and CPPO ligands with Ln{sup 3+} cation series have been determined in the gas phase and with the presence of three solvents: n-hexane, chloroform and toluene, via polarized continuum model (PCM) computations. The trend of metal-ligand interaction strength has been analyzed and compared with the trend of ionic hardness within the series of lanthanide cations and different size of alkyl chain of amidocarbamoyl phosphine oxide ligand. The calculated thermochemical results in the gas and solution phases reveals that there is a consistency between increasing trend in the hardness of Ln{sup 3+} cation series and also electron-donating property of alkyl chain with increasing in thermodynamical stability of [Ln-CMPO]{sup 3+} and [Ln-CPPO]{sup 3+} complex series. We have also demonstrated that in the complexation reaction of all complex series, using n-hexane as solvent is more favorable thermodynamically than chloroform and toluene. It should be stated that this issue has been observed in many experiments. Finally, analysis of calculated deformation energies and also the variation in bond order of some selected key bonds in CMPO and CPPO ligands and their corresponded Ln{sup 3+} complexes series show a similar trend with increasing in the hardness of Ln{sup 3+} cation series and electron-donating of alkyl chain of amidocarbamoyl phosphine oxide ligand.

  10. Energy transfers between Sm{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} in YPO{sub 4}, LaP{sub 5}O{sub 14} and LaP{sub 3}O{sub 9} phosphates. Potential quantum cutters for red emitting phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachani, S., E-mail: ha1souad@yahoo.f [Universite de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 (France); Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS, UMR5620, Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Moine, B., E-mail: moine@pcml.univ-lyon1.f [Universite de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 (France); Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS, UMR5620, Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); El-akrmi, A. [Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, B.P 12, Universite Badji Mokhtar, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Ferid, M. [Laboratoire des Materiaux, INRST, B.P 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2010-10-15

    This work concerns the studies of energy transfers between Sm{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions in some phosphates as new luminescent materials emitting in the orange-red color. The choose of ions is based on the possibility of quantum cutting process and the matrices are selected according to the 5d bands position of Sm{sup 3+} ion. The Sm{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} doped YPO{sub 4}, LaP{sub 5}O{sub 14} and LaP{sub 3}O{sub 9} are synthesized and spectroscopic studies in ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet ranges have been achieved.

  11. NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}: RE{sup 3+} (RE{sup 3+} = Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+}) microspheres: the synthesis and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiyi [Key Laboratory of Coherent Light, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, Ministry of Education, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Wang, Zhiying [College of Chemistry and Biology, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Fu, Linlin; Yang, Xingxing [Key Laboratory of Coherent Light, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, Ministry of Education, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Fu, Zuoling, E-mail: zlfu@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Coherent Light, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, Ministry of Education, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wu, Zhijian [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resources Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Jeong, Jung Hyun, E-mail: jhjeong@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The strong green upconversion (UC) emission were observed in various Er{sup 3+}, Yb{sup 3+} co-doped NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} samples synthesized via a hydrothermal route. The UC intensity depends on the dopant concentration, and the optimal UC emission was obtained in NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}: 0.02Er{sup 3+}/0.10 Yb{sup 3+}. - Highlights: • The NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} microspheres doped with Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. • The effects of the EDTA in the initial solution crystal phase and morphology were studied. • The down-conversion luminescence properties of NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}: RE{sup 3+} (RE{sup 3+} = Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) were investigated. • The UC luminescence properties and mechanism of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} was discussed. - Abstract: NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}: RE{sup 3+} (RE{sup 3+} = Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) microspheres have been synthesized at 180 °C via a facile EDTA-mediated hydrothermal route. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectra were employed to characterize the samples. It was found that the amount of EDTA in the initial solution was responsible for crystal phase and shape determination. The effect of Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} doping concentrations on the luminescent intensity was also investigated in details. Furthermore, the up-conversion (UC) emissions have been observed in a series of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} samples. Concentration dependent studies revealed that the optimal composition was realized for a 2% Er{sup 3+} and 10% Yb{sup 3+}-doping concentration.

  12. A facile approach to synthesize SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow sphere and its application in drug release

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhihua; Zhu, Lin; Liu, Qian; Du, Yu; Wang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Multifunctional SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow spheres (HSs) have been fabricated using an acidic Re3+ ion solution. Under ultraviolet radiation, functional HSs emit different colors of light according to the different rare-earth ions embedded into the shell of SiO2 hollow spheres. The as-prepared hollow capsules were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning...

  13. A facile approach to synthesize SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow sphere and its application in drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihua; Zhu, Lin; Liu, Qian; Du, Yu; Wang, Feng

    2013-10-01

    Multifunctional SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow spheres (HSs) have been fabricated using an acidic Re3+ ion solution. Under ultraviolet radiation, functional HSs emit different colors of light according to the different rare-earth ions embedded into the shell of SiO2 hollow spheres. The as-prepared hollow capsules were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. Drug loading and release experiments have been carried out using SiO2 · Eu2O3 HSs that acted as drug carriers. The results demonstrate that the multifunctional HSs exhibit a high storage capacity and the ability of retaining drug stability and activity, which indicates that the as-synthesized fluorescent hollow capsules are a potential candidate as drug delivery materials.

  14. Dielectric function of SmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The zone-center longitudinal optical phonon of semiconducting SmS shows a 10% softening with respect to that of EuS. This result confirms the lattice-dynamical model prediction and provides first experimental evidence for the existence of an anomalous dipolar charge deformability of the Sm2+ ion in SmS. (author)

  15. Photocatalytic degradation of an azo dye using Bi{sub 3.25}M{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} nanowires (M = La, Sm, Nd, and Eu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Xue, E-mail: jlsdlinxue@126.com [College of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Preparation and Application Environmentally Friendly Materials of the Ministry of Education, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Guan, Qingfeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zou, Chunjie; Liu, Tingting; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Chunbo; Zhai, Hongjv [College of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Preparation and Application Environmentally Friendly Materials of the Ministry of Education, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China)

    2013-05-01

    Highlights: ► BMT nanostructures with high photocatalytic activity were successfully synthesized through a facile template-free hydrothermal method. ► BMT samples were characterized by various characterization technologies. ► BMT samples presented outstanding visible-light-induced photocatalytic performance. ► The photoactivity of BMT is highly affected by its morphology. ► BMT nanowires showed the highest photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: Bi{sub 3.25}M{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BMT, M = La, Sm, Nd, and Eu) nanowires were synthesized through simple hydrothermal route and their structural and photocatalytic properties were investigated. XRD results indicated that these compounds are of layered perovskites structure. In addition, the band gaps of Bi{sub 3.25}La{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BLT), Bi{sub 3.25}Sm{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BST), Bi{sub 3.25}Nd{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BNT), and Bi{sub 3.25}Eu{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BET) were estimated to be about 2.403, 2.594, 2.525, and 2.335 eV, respectively. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). Bi{sub 3.25}M{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (M = La, Sm, Nd, and Eu) showed markedly higher catalytic activity compared to traditional N doped TiO{sub 2} (N-TiO{sub 2}) and pure bismuth titanate (Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}, BIT) for MO photocatalytic degradation under visible light irradiation. The high photocatalytic performance of Bi{sub 3.25}M{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} photocatalysts could be attributed to the strong visible light absorption and the recombination restraint of the e{sup −}/h{sup +} pairs resulting from doping of rare earth metal ions. Furthermore, BET nanowires exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity.

  16. An EPR study of the phase transitions and Gd3+ zero-field splitting parameters in RbR(SO4)2.4H2O (R = Er, Dy, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-band (∼9.6 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance measurements were carried out on Gd3+-doped RbEr(SO4)2.4H2O and RbDy(SO4)2.4H2O single crystals in the 4.2-295 K temperature range, and on Gd3+-doped RbPr(SO4)2.4H2O, RbNd(SO4)2.4H2O, RbSm(SO4)2.4H2O and RbEu(SO4)2.4H2O single crystals in the 4.2-110 K range. Gd3+ room-temperature spin-Hamiltonian parameters were estimated in RbR(SO4)2.4H2O samples with R = Er, Dy. The following phase transitions undergone by the various host crystals were found to occur: three second-order phase transitions in RbDy(SO4)2.4H2O at 260.3 K, 226.9 K and 65.4 K, and second-order and first-order phase transitions in RbEr(SO4)2.4H2O at 228.1 and 68.8 K, respectively. In addition, there were observed first-order phase transitions in each of RbNd(SO4)2.4H2O (at 72.1 K), RbSm(SO4)2.4H2O (at 70.3 K) and RbEu(SO4)2.4H2O (at 79.4 K), and two in RbPr(SO4)2.4H2O (at 71.4 and 9.7 K) crystals, in the 4.2-110 K range, in addition to those reported previously in the 110-295 K range. Systematics of the various phase transitions occurring in RbR(SO4)2.4H2O (R = Pr, Nd, Sm, Er, Dy, Eu) single crystals in the temperature range 4.2-295 K, and those of Gd3+ zero-field splitting parameters at room temperature, have been deduced. (author)

  17. CaS∶Eu,Sm荧光粉表面二氧化硅包覆对其光激励发光特性的影响%Effects of Silica-encapsulated CaS∶ Eu,Sm Phosphors on Optically Stimulated Luminescence Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖敏强; 陈朝阳; 范艳伟; 王军华; 谢永新

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to improve the stability and reproducibility of CaS∶ Eu,Sm phosphors in a real-time dosimetry system.Different volumes of tetraethyl orthosilicate,were used as precursor and coated onto CaS ∶ Eu,Sm phosphors by the sol-gel method.The luminescence properties and water resistance of the phosphors were evaluated using a fluorescence spectrometer and an acidometer respectively.The results show that 5% (mass fraction) of silica coating effectively improve their water resistance with minimum loss of light emission.The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) decay and dose response of coated CaS∶ Eu,Sm phosphors offer an easy evaluation of the annealing time and specify dose.The dose characteristic is linear from 0.1 to 300 Gy.The 5% SiO2-coated CaS∶ Eu,Sm phosphors'variation of the reusability is below 2% at dose of 1 Gy.The amount of surface coating significantly affected the OSL signal,which became more pronounced with the increasing radiation dose.A novel dosimetry system based on the OSL technique is proposed for real-time measurement.%改进了CaS∶ Eu,Sm荧光粉在实时剂量计系统中的稳定性和实用性.以不同体积的正硅酸乙酯作为前驱体,采用溶胶凝胶法对CaS∶ Eu,Sm荧光粉进行表面包覆.分别使用荧光分光光度计和酸度计对荧光粉的发光特性和防水特性进行表征.实验结果显示当质量分数为5%时,包覆层能明显提高荧光粉的稳定性且不影响荧光粉的发光强度.从材料的光激励发光和剂量响应测试实验中可以得出材料的退火特性以及相应的辐射剂量值.以CaS∶ Eu,Sm荧光粉为基础的辐射剂量测试系统显示在0.1 ~300 Gy范围内具有良好的线性关系.结果显示表面包覆层明显抑制光激励发光特性,而且随着辐射剂量的增加,这种影响愈来愈显著.最后,我们提出了以光激励发光技术为基础的辐射剂量在线测试改进系统.

  18. Thermal decomposition of RE(C2H5CO2)3·H2O (RE = Dy, Tb, Gd, Eu and Sm)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    place below 120 °C, all salts decompose into dioxycarbonates with simultaneous release of CO2 and C2H5COC2H5 (3-pentanone) between 250 and 460 °C. However, whereas the anhydrous Dy-, Tb-, and Gd-propionates appear to transform into RE2O2CO3 (rare earth [RE] = Dy, Tb, Gd) in a single step, an...... intermediate stage involving a RE2O(C2H5CO2)4 composition was evidenced in the case of the Eu- and Sm-propionates. For all compounds, further decomposition of RE2O2CO3 into the corresponding sesquioxides (RE2O3) is accompanied by the release of CO2. The thermal decomposition of Dy- and Tb-propionates occurs...

  19. Analýza směrnice EU č. 2006/42/ES z hlediska požadavků ISO 9001:2000

    OpenAIRE

    Adámková, Marie

    2007-01-01

    The paper is focused on analysis of the direction EU for machinery industry 2006/42/ES and its part about the QMS. The aim of the thesis is to give the commentary of the direction according to the ISO 9001:2000 and to help to implement this system into the organization.

  20. A facile approach to synthesize SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow sphere and its application in drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihua; Zhu, Lin; Liu, Qian; Du, Yu; Wang, Feng

    2013-10-21

    Multifunctional SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow spheres (HSs) have been fabricated using an acidic Re3+ ion solution. Under ultraviolet radiation, functional HSs emit different colors of light according to the different rare-earth ions embedded into the shell of SiO2 hollow spheres. The as-prepared hollow capsules were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. Drug loading and release experiments have been carried out using SiO2 · Eu2O3 HSs that acted as drug carriers. The results demonstrate that the multifunctional HSs exhibit a high storage capacity and the ability of retaining drug stability and activity, which indicates that the as-synthesized fluorescent hollow capsules are a potential candidate as drug delivery materials.

  1. A facile approach to synthesize SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow sphere and its application in drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihua; Zhu, Lin; Liu, Qian; Du, Yu; Wang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Multifunctional SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow spheres (HSs) have been fabricated using an acidic Re3+ ion solution. Under ultraviolet radiation, functional HSs emit different colors of light according to the different rare-earth ions embedded into the shell of SiO2 hollow spheres. The as-prepared hollow capsules were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. Drug loading and release experiments have been carried out using SiO2 · Eu2O3 HSs that acted as drug carriers. The results demonstrate that the multifunctional HSs exhibit a high storage capacity and the ability of retaining drug stability and activity, which indicates that the as-synthesized fluorescent hollow capsules are a potential candidate as drug delivery materials. PMID:24144278

  2. Brilliant the evolution of artificial light

    CERN Document Server

    Brox, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Brilliant, reminiscent of Lewis Hyde's The Gift in its reach and of Timothy Egan's The Worst Hard Time in its haunting evocation of human lives, offers a sweeping view of a surprisingly revealing aspect of human history-from the stone lamps of the Pleistocene to the LEDs embedded in fabrics of the future.

  3. How to be Brilliant at Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, Beryl

    2010-01-01

    How to be Brilliant at Algebra is contains 40 photocopiable worksheets designed to improve students' understanding of number relationships and patterns. They will learn about: odds and evens; patterns; inverse operations; variables; calendars; equations; pyramid numbers; digital root patterns; prime numbers; Fibonacci numbers; Pascal's triangle.

  4. Brilliant Light in Life and Material Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Tsakanov, Vasili

    2007-01-01

    The present book contains an excellent overview of the status and highlights of brilliant light facilities and their applications in biology, chemistry, medicine, materials and environmental sciences. Overview papers on diverse fields of research by leading experts are accompanied by the highlights in the near and long-term perspectives of brilliant X-Ray photon beam usage for fundamental and applied research. The book includes advanced topics in the fields of high brightness photon beams, instrumentation, the spectroscopy, microscopy, scattering and imaging experimental techniques and their applications. The book is strongly recommended for students, engineers and scientists in the field of accelerator physics, X-ray optics and instrumentation, life, materials and environmental sciences, bio and nanotechnology.

  5. Synthesis of rare earth (Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) hydroxide and oxide nanorods (nanobundles) by a widely applicable precipitation route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin Ying; Wang Zhongpeng [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fluorine Chemistry and Chemical Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, 106 Jiwei Rd., Jinan 250022 (China); Qi Yongxin [School of Material Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang Zhaoliang, E-mail: zhangzhaoliang@sdu.edu.c [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fluorine Chemistry and Chemical Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, 106 Jiwei Rd., Jinan 250022 (China); Zhang Shuxiang [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fluorine Chemistry and Chemical Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, 106 Jiwei Rd., Jinan 250022 (China)

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Rare earth hydroxide nanorods (nanobundles) were prepared by a precipitation method. {yields} Any templates or surfactants were not added. {yields} The nucleation and growth of nanorods occurred without a hydrothermal treatment. {yields} The morphology can be controlled by the aging time and precipitation agents. {yields} The {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanobundles decreased greatly compared with the bulk. - Abstract: Rare earth hydroxide and oxide nanorods (nanobundles) have been synthesized without the addition of any templates/surfactants by a simple precipitation method under ambient temperature and pressure. The products are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), thermogravimetry (TG) and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption. It is demonstrated that the rare earth hydroxide nanorods (nanobundles) have the diameter of 10-150 nm and the length of 30-600 nm. The corresponding oxides can be obtained by calcination, which preserved the nanorod (nanobundle) morphologies though a small shrinkage in sizes is observed. The influences of the aging time and precipitation agent on the formation of nanorods (nanobundles) are investigated. Accordingly the crystallization mechanism is proposed. The nucleation and growth of the hydroxide nanorods may occur in the precipitation process at relatively low (room) temperature and normal pressure without a long-time and high-temperature (pressure) hydrothermal treatment. The photoluminescence (PL) analysis is used to investigate the optical properties of the Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanobundles and a broadened luminescent spectrum is observed. The precipitation method is simple, highly reproducible, inexpensive, and widely applicable for the large-scale industrial production.

  6. Brilliant Corners: Approaches to Jazz and Comics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pillai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The call for papers Brilliant Corners: Approaches to Jazz and Comics was published on 30 July 2015. In it, the editors made a public invitation for scholarship that proposed meeting points between the disciplines of jazz studies and comics studies. This editorial discusses the motivations for the collection, the editorial methodology, and the research articles included. Finally, the editors suggest some areas in which jazz studies and comics scholarship might address under-researched and fertile topics.

  7. How to be Brilliant at Mental Arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, Beryl

    2010-01-01

    How to be Brilliant at Mental Arithmetic addresses the twin pillars of mental arithmetic - mental recall and mental agility. Mental recall depends on familiarity with number bonds and plenty of opportunity to practise. Mental agility depends more on confidence with the number system and the four operations. Using the worksheets in this book, students will learn about: tens and units; addition, subtraction, multiplication and division; addition shortcuts; product squares; quick recall; number se

  8. How to be Brilliant at Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, Beryl

    2010-01-01

    How to be Brilliant at Numbers will help students to develop an understanding of numbers, place value, fractions and decimals. They will develop the language of number, and of the relationships between numbers. They will also use mathematics to solve problems and will develop mathematical reasoning. Using the worksheets in this book, pupils will learn about: ancient Greek numbers; coins; digits; consecutive numbers; magic ladders; fractions; matching pairs; multiples of 10; rounding; decimal un

  9. Structural and Magnetothermal Properties of Compounds: Yb5SixGe4-x,Sm5SixGe4-x, EuO, and Eu3O4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyunghan Ahn

    2007-05-09

    The family of R{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} alloys demonstrates a variety of unique physical phenomena related to magneto-structural transitions associated with reversible breaking and reforming of specific bonds that can be controlled by numerous external parameters such as chemical composition, magnetic field, temperature, and pressure. Therefore, R{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} systems have been extensively studied to uncover the mechanism of the extraordinary magneto-responsive properties including the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and colossal magnetostriction, as well as giant magnetocaloric effect (GMCE). Until now, more than a half of possible R{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} pseudobinary systems have been completely or partially investigated with respect to their crystallography and phase relationships (R = La, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Lu, Y). Still, there are other R{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} systems (R = Ce, Sm, Ho, Tm, and Yb) that are not studied yet. Here, we report on phase relationships and structural, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties in the Yb{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} and Sm{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} pseudobinary systems, which may exhibit mixed valence states. The crystallography, phase relationships, and physical properties of Yb{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} alloys with 0 {le} x {le} 4 have been examined by using single crystal and powder x-ray diffraction at room temperature, and dc magnetization and heat capacity measurements between 1.8 K and 400 K in magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 7 T. Unlike the majority of R{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} systems studied to date, where R is the rare earth metal, all Yb-based germanide-silicides with the 5:4 stoichiometry crystallize in the same Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 4}-type structure. The magnetic properties of Yb{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} materials are nearly composition-independent, reflecting the persistence of the same crystal structure over the whole range of x from 0 to 4. Both the crystallographic and

  10. EPR study of Gd3+-doped RbR(SO4)2·4H2O (R=Pr,Nd,Sm,Eu) single crystals: Phase transitions and spin-Hamiltonian parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive EPR measurements were carried out in the temperature range 100 endash 300 K. The room-temperature data indicate that Gd3+ ions substitute equally for R3+ ions at the two magnetically inequivalent sites in the unit cell, and that the site symmetry of the Gd3+ ion is monoclinic. The Gd3+ room-temperature spin-Hamiltonian parameters and linewidths were estimated. The phase transition temperatures (Tc) were determined to be 175±1K (first order) in RbPr(SO4)2·4H2O, 178.5±1K (first order) in RbNd(SO4)2·4H2O, 232±0.5K (second order) in RbSm(SO4)2·4H2O, and 230.5±0.5K (second order) in RbEu(SO4)2·4H2O. In RbPr(SO4)2·4H2O and RbNd(SO4)2·4H2O, the occurrence of the first-order phase transitions was deduced from abrupt changes in the behavior of the linewidth, zero-field splitting, and line positions, and coexistence of lines observed below and above Tc. In addition, there were observed occurrences of two more phase transitions second order in nature in RbPr(SO4)2·4H2O (Tc1=261K, Tc2=207.5K) and in RbNd(SO4)2·4H2O (Tc1=250K, Tc2=219.5K); these were not as sharply defined as the preceding ones. Below Tc, for all the crystals, the symmetry of the crystals was found to be lower than monoclinic, the four ions in the unit cell becoming magnetically inequivalent from each other. The observed second-order phase transitions in the four crystals were found to be in agreement with Landau theory of second-order phase transitions; the critical exponent was determined to be β congruent 0.51. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Brilliant Star in a Colourful Neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    A spectacular new image from ESO's Wide Field Imager at the La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the brilliant and unusual star WR 22 and its colourful surroundings. WR 22 is a very hot and bright star that is shedding its atmosphere into space at a rate many millions of times faster than the Sun. It lies in the outer part of the dramatic Carina Nebula from which it formed. Very massive stars live fast and die young. Some of these stellar beacons have such intense radiation passing through their thick atmospheres late in their lives that they shed material into space many millions of times more quickly than relatively sedate stars such as the Sun. These rare, very hot and massive objects are known as Wolf-Rayet stars [1], after the two French astronomers who first identified them in the mid-nineteenth century, and one of the most massive ones yet measured is known as WR 22. It appears at the centre of this picture, which was created from images taken through red, green and blue filters with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. WR 22 is a member of a double star system and has been measured to have a mass at least 70 times that of the Sun. WR 22 lies in the southern constellation of Carina, the keel of Jason's ship Argo in Greek mythology. Although the star lies over 5000 light-years from the Earth it is so bright that it can just be faintly seen with the unaided eye under good conditions. WR 22 is one of many exceptionally brilliant stars associated with the beautiful Carina Nebula (also known as NGC 3372) and the outer part of this huge region of star formation in the southern Milky Way forms the colourful backdrop to this image. The subtle colours of the rich background tapestry are a result of the interactions between the intense ultraviolet radiation coming from hot massive stars, including WR 22, and the vast gas clouds, mostly hydrogen, from which they formed. The central part of this enormous complex

  12. Preparation and study of properties of SmS base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By reducing sesquisulphides of Sm and Yb with a metallic rare-earth element (Yb, Sm, Eu), monosulphides of these elements and solid solutions on their basis have been obtained. By varying the content in SmS of the other rare-earth element (Yb or Eu), it is possible to effectively control the electrophysical properties (electric conductivity, heat conductivity) of alloys based on it by changing the energetic position of f-states, their energy density and their population with electrons

  13. Brilliant blue G attenuates lipopolysaccharidemediated microglial activation and inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui Lu; Jue Wang; Bin Hu; Xiaolei Shi; Junyi Zhou; Yamei Tang; Ying Peng

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that oxidized adenosine triphosphate, a P2X7 receptor antagonist, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-mediated microglial activation and inflammatory expression following neuronal damage in rat brain. NaCl and temperature may affect the potency of oxidized adenosine triphosphate. Brilliant blue G is a derivative of a widely used food additive and has little toxicity. This study explored the effects of brilliant blue G, a selective P2X7 receptor antagonist, on microglial activation and inflammation. Results demonstrated that brilliant blue G inhibited the release of cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-6 in BV2 cells. Immunofluorescence displayed that brilliant blue G could suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation. This study used RNA interference to block P2X7 receptor expression and found that small interfering RNA also suppressed the release of cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-6 in BV2 cells. These results suggested that downregulation of the P2X7 receptor by brilliant blue G was involved in the inhibition of microglial activation and inflammation.

  14. Refined exposure assessment for Brilliant Black BN (E 151

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA carried out an exposure assessment of Brilliant Black BN (E 151, taking into account new information on its use as a food additive in foods. In 2010, the EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS adopted a scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of Brilliant Black BN and concluded that dietary exposure in 1- to 10-year-old children at the high level may exceed the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI for Brilliant Black BN of 5 mg/kg body weight (bw/day at the upper end of the range. Following this conclusion, the European Commission requested that EFSA performs a refined exposure assessment for this food colour. Data on the presence of Brilliant Black BN in foods were requested from relevant stakeholders through a call for usage and concentration data. Usage levels were provided to EFSA for 11 out of 37 food categories in which Brilliant Black is authorised. In addition, 4 337 analytical results were also reported to EFSA, with the majority of values being below the limit of detection (LOD or limit of quantification (LOQ. Exposure assessment was performed using the EFSA Comprehensive Food Consumption Database. Three scenarios were considered: (1 exposure estimates based on Maximum Permitted Levels (MPLs, (2 a refined brand-loyal exposure scenario, and (3 a refined non-brand-loyal exposure scenario. Considering the first scenario, high exposure levels (95th percentile exceeded the ADI for toddlers and children in four dietary surveys. In comparison with the previous assessment, for both children and adults, the current mean exposure estimates are of the same order of magnitude, whereas the 95th percentile exposure is lower, particularly in adults. The mean and high-level exposure estimates of Brilliant Black BN are below the ADI for all population groups when considering the refined scenarios (brand-loyal and non-brand-loyal.

  15. Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties of Ca0.5Y1-x(MoO4)2:xRE3+ (RE = Eu, Pr, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb/Er, Yb/Tm, and Yb/Ho) phosphors by hydrothermal method versus pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Venkatakrishnan; Thirumalai, Jagannathan; Krishnan, Rajagopalan; Chandramohan, Rathinam

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report on rare-earth (RE) activated Ca0.5Y1-x(MoO4)2:xRE3+ (RE = Eu, Pr, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb/Er, Yb/Ho, and Yb/Tm) phosphors synthesized using a surfactant-mediated hydrothermal route. Timedependent experiments were performed, and the morphological evolution of the phosphors was studied. From prepared powder samples of Ca0.5Y1-x(MoO4)2:xRE3+ (RE = Eu and Yb/Er), nano-sized thin phosphor films were grown using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The surface topography of the as-grown thin phosphor films was analyzed. The asprepared phosphors were characterized by structural and optical studies. The powder phosphor exhibited bi pyramid-like micro-architectures. Structural studies indicated that Ca0.5Y1-x(MoO4)2 possesses the scheelite tetragonal crystal structure. The down-conversion luminescence of Ca0.5Y1-x(MoO4)2:xRE3+ (RE = Eu, Pr, Sm, Tb, and Dy) as powder phosphors and Eu3+ doped Ca0.5Y1-x(MoO4)2 thin phosphor film were studied. Upon irradiation with a 980 nm laser, the Ca0.5Y1-x(MoO4)2: xRE3+ (RE = Yb/Er, Yb/Ho, and Yb/Tm) powder phosphors and Ca0.5Y1-x(MoO4)2:xRE3+ (RE = Yb/Er) thin phosphor film showed intense up-converted visible emissions in green, yellow, and blue regions. The fluorescence decay time and color co-ordinates were determined for all synthesized phosphors. From the obtained results, the prepared powder and thin film phosphors are suggested to be suitable candidates for display and electro-luminescence applications. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Brilliant camouflage : photonic crystals in the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; Kuipers, Jeroen; Raedt, Hans De; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The neotropical diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis, is marked by rows of brilliant spots on the overall black elytra. The spots are concave pits with intricate patterns of structural-coloured scales, consisting of large domains of three-dimensional photonic crystals that have a diamond-type structur

  17. Coherent potential approximation treatment of the Sm valence transition in SmS induced by alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sm valence transition, similar to the pressure-induced transition in pure SmS, has been observed in a large number of cases by substituting a trivalent rare earth, B, for Sm, thereby forming isostructural alloys with a lattice constant smaller than that of semiconducting SmS. Such substitutions are expected to exert a 'chemical' pressure which simulates the external pressure. However, divalent substitutions (Yb, Eu and Ca), although having a favourable 'size' factor, do not induce any valence transition. Accordingly, band structure effects, essentially due to the relative position of the conduction bands of SmS and BS, should also be taken into consideration. In order to clarify the role which the lattice constant and the electronic structure play in the valence transition, these alloys have been studied using the coherent potential approximation (CPA) including both the crystal field effect and the Coulomb interaction between localised and itinerant states as driving mechanisms. For Sm, the 'homogeneous' picture is considered, each Sm site having the average valence; then the Smsub(1-x)Bsub(x)S system is reduced to a binary alloy. Charge transfer between the f states of Sm and the alloy conduction band (i.e. Sm valence change) is determined self-consistently. The calculations are consistent with the experimental behaviour and allow us to understand qualitatively the variation of the critical concentration xsub(c) for the transition as a function of the difference Δa between the lattice parameters of SmS and BS. (author)

  18. Brilliant camouflage: photonic crystals in the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis

    OpenAIRE

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; Kuipers, Jeroen; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The neotropical diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis, is marked by rows of brilliant spots on the overall black elytra. The spots are concave pits with intricate patterns of structural-coloured scales, consisting of large domains of three-dimensional photonic crystals that have a diamond-type structure. Reflectance spectra measured from individual scale domains perfectly match model spectra, calculated with anatomical data and finite-difference time-domain methods. The reflections of single dom...

  19. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Astronomy is enjoying a golden age of fundamental, exciting discoveries. Europe is at the forefront, thanks to 50 years of progress in cooperation. To remain ahead over the next two to three decades, Europe must prioritise and coordinate the investment of its financial and human resources even more closely. The ASTRONET network, backed by the entire European scientific community, supported by the European Commission, and coordinated by the CNRS, today presents its Roadmap for a brilliant future for European astronomy. ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope is ranked as one of two top-priority large ground-based projects. Astronet and the E-ELT ESO PR Photo 43a/08 The E-ELT Europe is a leader in astronomy today, with the world's most successful optical observatory, ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cutting-edge facilities in radio astronomy and in space. In an unprecedented effort demonstrating the potential of European scientific cooperation, all of European astronomy is now joining forces to define the scientific challenges for the future and construct a common plan to address them in a cost-effective manner. In 2007, a top-level Science Vision was prepared to assess the most burning scientific questions over the next quarter century, ranging from dark energy to life on other planets. European astronomy now presents its Infrastructure Roadmap, a comprehensive 20-year plan to coordinate national and community investments to meet these challenges in a cost-effective manner. The Roadmap not only prioritises the necessary new frontline research facilities from radio telescopes to planetary probes, in space and on the ground, but also considers such key issues as existing facilities, human resources, ICT infrastructure, education and outreach, and cost -- of operations as well as construction. This bold new initiative -- ASTRONET -- was created by the major European funding agencies with support from the European Commission and is coordinated by the National Institute

  20. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Astronomy is enjoying a golden age of fundamental, exciting discoveries. Europe is at the forefront, thanks to 50 years of progress in cooperation. To remain ahead over the next two to three decades, Europe must prioritise and coordinate the investment of its financial and human resources even more closely. The ASTRONET network, backed by the entire European scientific community, supported by the European Commission, and coordinated by the CNRS, today presents its Roadmap for a brilliant future for European astronomy. ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope is ranked as one of two top-priority large ground-based projects. Astronet and the E-ELT ESO PR Photo 43a/08 The E-ELT Europe is a leader in astronomy today, with the world's most successful optical observatory, ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cutting-edge facilities in radio astronomy and in space. In an unprecedented effort demonstrating the potential of European scientific cooperation, all of European astronomy is now joining forces to define the scientific challenges for the future and construct a common plan to address them in a cost-effective manner. In 2007, a top-level Science Vision was prepared to assess the most burning scientific questions over the next quarter century, ranging from dark energy to life on other planets. European astronomy now presents its Infrastructure Roadmap, a comprehensive 20-year plan to coordinate national and community investments to meet these challenges in a cost-effective manner. The Roadmap not only prioritises the necessary new frontline research facilities from radio telescopes to planetary probes, in space and on the ground, but also considers such key issues as existing facilities, human resources, ICT infrastructure, education and outreach, and cost -- of operations as well as construction. This bold new initiative -- ASTRONET -- was created by the major European funding agencies with support from the European Commission and is coordinated by the National Institute

  1. Properties of the (Sm sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 Eu sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 Gd sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3)Ba sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub y superconductor prepared by different processes in air

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannelli, F; Monot-Laffez, I

    2003-01-01

    Bars and pellets of the (Sm sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 Eu sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 Gd sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3)Ba sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x superconductor were processed in air, using the floating zone method and the top-seeded melt-textured growth method, respectively. The samples were prepared using different experimental conditions, i.e. maximal processing temperature, translation rate or cooling rate. Their physical properties and their microstructure were studied. All the samples exhibit a satisfying superconducting transition whereas the critical current density greatly depends on the processing parameters. The sample prepared by the floating zone method at 1070 deg C with a translation rate of 2 mm h sup - sup 1 exhibits a very high J sub c value of 70000 A cm sup - sup 2 in the self-field and more than 30000 A cm sup - sup 2 at 1.7 T. The pellet processed at 1080 deg C with a cooling rate of 2 deg C h sup - sup 1 has a high J sub c reaching about 56000 A cm sup - sup 2 in the self-field and more than 32000 A ...

  2. Overlever EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Det bliver stadig tydeligere at EU i kraft af den styrkede nationalisme i øst, vest og nord og kombineret med de nye regionale krav om national selvstændighed vil bevæge sig i retning af et mellemstatsligt samarbejde, støttet af en retsorden beskyttet af en domstol, bliver stadig tydeligere. Det ...... mindre sikkert, om den nationale egoisme vil ende med at opløse samarbejdet. EU vil sandsynligvis overleve, men det bliver snarere ligesom det Tysk-Romerske Rige, hvis institutioner overlevede helt til 1804....

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strains Sm32COP, Sm41DVV, Sm46PAILV, SmF3, SmF22, SmSOFb1, and SmCVFa1, Isolated from Different Manures in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilis, Josselin; Youenou, Benjamin; Briolay, Jérome; Brothier, Elisabeth; Favre-Bonté, Sabine; Nazaret, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a major opportunistic human pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of Sm32COP, Sm41DVV, Sm46PAILV, SmF3, SmF22, SmSOFb1, and SmCVFa1, isolated from different manures in France, which provide insights into the genetic determinism of intrinsic or acquired antibiotic resistance in this species. PMID:27540065

  4. Adsorption of remazol brilliant blue on an orange peel adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Mafra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel orange peel adsorbent developed from an agricultural waste material was characterised and utilised for the removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue from an artificial textile-dye effluent. The adsorption thermodynamics of this dye-adsorbent pair was studied in a series of equilibrium experiments. The time to reach equilibrium was 15 h for the concentration range of 30 mg L-1 to 250 mg L-1. The adsorption capacity decreased with increasing temperature, from 9.7 mg L-1 at 20 ºC to 5.0 mg L-1 at 60 ºC. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models fitted the adsorption data quite reasonably. The thermodynamic analysis of dye adsorption onto the orange peel adsorbent indicated its endothermic and spontaneous nature. Thus, the application of orange peel adsorbent for the removal of dye from a synthetic textile effluent was successfully demonstrated.

  5. Structural and Magnetothermal Properties of Compounds: Yb5SixGe4-x,Sm5SixGe4-x, EuO, and Eu3O4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kyunghan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The family of R5SixGe4-x alloys demonstrates a variety of unique physical phenomena related to magneto-structural transitions associated with reversible breaking and reforming of specific bonds that can be controlled by numerous external parameters such as chemical composition, magnetic field, temperature, and pressure. Therefore, R5SixGe4-x systems have been extensively studied to uncover the mechanism of the extraordinary magneto-responsive properties including the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and colossal magnetostriction, as well as giant magnetocaloric effect (GMCE). Until now, more than a half of possible R5SixGe4-x pseudobinary systems have been completely or partially investigated with respect to their crystallography and phase relationships (R = La, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Lu, Y). Still, there are other R5SixGe4-x systems (R = Ce, Sm, Ho, Tm, and Yb) that are not studied yet. Here, we report on phase relationships and structural, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties in the Yb5SixGe4-xand Sm5SixGe4-x pseudobinary systems, which may exhibit mixed valence states. The crystallography, phase relationships, and physical properties of Yb5SixGe4-x alloys with 0 ≤ x ≤ 4 have been examined by using single crystal and powder x-ray diffraction at room temperature, and dc magnetization and heat capacity measurements between 1.8 K and 400 K in magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 7 T. Unlike the majority of R5SixGe4-x systems studied to date, where R is the rare earth metal, all Yb-based germanide-silicides with the 5:4 stoichiometry crystallize in the same Gd5Si4-type structure. The magnetic properties of Yb5SixGe4-x materials are nearly composition

  6. Anti-prion activity of Brilliant Blue G.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Iwamaru

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders with no effective therapy currently available. Accumulating evidence has implicated over-activation of P2X7 ionotropic purinergic receptor (P2X7R in the progression of neuronal loss in several neurodegenerative diseases. This has led to the speculation that simultaneous blockade of this receptor and prion replication can be an effective therapeutic strategy for prion diseases. We have focused on Brilliant Blue G (BBG, a well-known P2X7R antagonist, possessing a chemical structure expected to confer anti-prion activity and examined its inhibitory effect on the accumulation of pathogenic isoforms of prion protein (PrPres in a cellular and a mouse model of prion disease in order to determine its therapeutic potential. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BBG prevented PrPres accumulation in infected MG20 microglial and N2a neural cells at 50% inhibitory concentrations of 14.6 and 3.2 µM, respectively. Administration of BBG in vivo also reduced PrPres accumulation in the brains of mice with prion disease. However, it did not appear to alleviate the disease progression compared to the vehicle-treated controls, implying a complex role of P2X7R on the neuronal degeneration in prion diseases. SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of prion diseases and have important implications for the treatment.

  7. Immediate differentiation of salmonella-resembling colonies on brilliant green agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    A rapid biochemical system (OBIS) based on immediate enzymatic differentiation of Citrobacter, Proteus, Providencia, Hafnia and Morganella spp. from Salmonella on brilliant green agar was evaluated A total of 96 field isolates from various Salmonella serotypes, 18 Citrobacter freundii and 25...... isolates of other Enterobacteriaceae were tested All Salmonella isolates were identified correctly by the kit, and none of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were identified as Salmonella. The results indicate complete specificity for Salmonella colonies on brilliant green agar....

  8. Og vinderen er ... EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    2012-01-01

    EU modtager i dag Nobels Fredspris. Prisen kan styrke den fortælling, som EU har forsøgt at skabe om sig selv: at Europa, takket være EU, rejste sig efter Anden Verdenskrig og Holocaust......EU modtager i dag Nobels Fredspris. Prisen kan styrke den fortælling, som EU har forsøgt at skabe om sig selv: at Europa, takket være EU, rejste sig efter Anden Verdenskrig og Holocaust...

  9. InterProScan Result: EU935628 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EU935628 EU935628_1_ORF1 0890A7FF4EDDBB08 SMART SM00093 SERPIN 4.000003008698826E-9... T IPR000215 Protease inhibitor I4, serpin Molecular Function: serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity (GO:0004867) ...

  10. Synthesis and characterization of the divalent samarium Zintl-phases SmMg2Bi2 and SmMg2Sb2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, D.; Gallagher, A.; Baumbach, R.; Siegrist, T.

    2015-11-01

    Single crystals of LnMg2Bi2 (Ln=Yb, Eu, Sm) and SmMg2Sb2 were synthesized using Mg-Bi metal and Mg-Sb metal fluxes, respectively. The crystal structures are of the CaAl2Si2 type with space group P 3 ̅m1 (#164, Z=1): SmMg2Bi2 (a=4.7745(1) Å, c=7.8490(2) Å), EuMg2Bi2 (a=4.7702(1) Å, c=7.8457(2) Å), YbMg2Bi2 (a=4.7317(2) Å, c=7.6524(3) Å), and SmMg2Sb2 (a=4.6861(1) Å, c=7.7192(2) Å). Heat capacity, electrical transport, and magnetization of all bismuth containing phases were measured. The materials behave as "poor metals" with resistivity between 2 and 10 mΩ cm. Temperature independent Van Vleck paramagnetism is observed in SmMg2Bi2 indicative of divalent samarium (Sm2+) ions.

  11. SM18 Visits and Access

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

      VISITS The rules and conditions to be followed for visits in the SM18 Hall are laid out in the EDMS 1205328 document. No visit is allowed without prior reservation.   ACCESS Special access right is needed ONLY from 7 p.m. to 7 a.m. and during week-ends. From 1 December, the current SM18 access database will be closed and a new one “SM18-OWH outside normal hours” started from scratch. Requests, via EDH SM18-OWH, will have to be duly justified.   For further information, please contact Evelyne Delucinge.

  12. EU enlargement and immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, Margit; Schwager, Robert

    2000-01-01

    This paper assesses the consequences of EU enlargement for East West migration. In the theoretical part, we identify several factors in addition to the reduction of moving costs by which EU membership influences migration. Specifically, EU accession affects income gaps. Moreover, if EU membership is refused, fear of future restrictions on immigration will lead to increased current migration. Additionally, casual evidence from the 1980s EU South enlargement is examined. Since then no increases...

  13. USE OF N, S-CODOPED NANO TITANIA AS PHOTOCATALYST FOR DEGRADATION OF BRILLIANT GREEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar Jain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the effect of doping of N and S on TiO2 has been investigated using brilliant green as a model system. The rate of photocatalytic degradation of the dye was monitored spectrophotometrically. The effect of variation of different parameters like pH, concentration of brilliant green, amount of photocatalyst, dopant percentage and light intensity on the rate of photocatalytic degradation was also observed. On the basis of the observation, a tentative mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of brilliant green has also been proposed. Environmental pollution in its various facets is a burning problem all over the world, out of which water pollution is a major problem. The present work contributes in the solution of waste water treatment by degrading organic pollutant in harmless products.

  14. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure....... However, a number of studies show that national judges experience difficulties in exercising EU competences due to their lack of knowledge in the field of EU law. In this contribution we study the differences in the level of self-evaluation of EU law knowledge among judges, which consequently influence...... the way judges approach EU law. For that purpose we question the relevance of several institutional and socio-legal factors, such as organization of the judiciary, generation, the system of legal education and judicial training and practical experience with EU law. Our analysis is based on data collected...

  15. 'Popular Science' names College of Engineering alumnus as one of Brilliant 10

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Technology magazine 'Popular Science' has named two-time Virginia Tech College of Engineering alumnus Maurizio Porfiri to its 2010 Brilliant 10 List. Porfiri, now an assistant professor at Polytechnic Institute of New York University, earned both master's and doctoral degrees in engineering mechanics from Virginia Tech in 2000 and 2006, respectively.

  16. TUDOR LUPAŞCU – A BRILLIANT SCIENTIST AND SKILFULL MANAGER

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Duca

    2010-01-01

    The Moldovan chemical community has recently honoured Professor Tudor LUPAŞCU on the occasion of his 60’s anniversary. Known as brilliant scientist and skilful manager, Professor LUPASCU is now the director of the Institute of Chemistry and one of the founders of the “Chemistry Journal of Moldova”, being the Managing Editor from the very beginning of its activity.

  17. 77 FR 19744 - Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc., Advanced Viral Research Corp., Brantley Capital Corp., Brilliant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... COMMISSION Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc., Advanced Viral Research Corp., Brantley Capital Corp., Brilliant Technologies Corporation, 4C Controls, Inc., and 2-Track Global, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading March 29... information concerning the securities of Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc. because it has not filed any...

  18. EU Bananarama III

    OpenAIRE

    Borrell, Brent

    1994-01-01

    On July 1, 1993 the European Union (EU) adopted a unified banana policy that is even more distortionary and costly than some of the disparate national policies it replaced. Before, some EU countries gave preferred market access and high prices to banana producers from selected developing countries in Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific, and from EU territorial suppliers. This preferential status was regarded as a form of aid to countries with historical ties to certain EU countries (France...

  19. China-EU Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhongping; Zhang Yimeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ The China-EU relationship attracted global interest in 2006. On the one hand, cooperation between China and the EU was making good progress, but on the other, there were challenges facing both, leading some international policy analysts to conclude that the honeymoon period between China and the EU was over.

  20. EU Budgetary Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2013-01-01

    change in the EU in light of the two models of policy dynamics currently existing in the literature: the incrementalist model and the punctuated equilibrium model. The analysis of long series of original data extracted from the EU budget shows that EU policies do not evolve following an incrementalist...... pattern, but by a punctuated equilibrium dynamic....

  1. Application of Sm0/Auxiliary and Sm0/MCln System in Organic Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-Min; LIU Yun-Kuia

    2001-01-01

    @@Though samarium metal itself has strong reducingpower, in most cases, certain additives are still needed when it is used as a reductant because the surface of samarium metal is inactive.Thus Sm0/auxiliary systems are proposed.The explored systems include: Sm0/I2,Sm0/TMSCl, Sm0/THF-NH4Cl (aq.), Sm0/Cp2TiCl2,Sm(Hg), Sm0/cat.KI etc.

  2. SM*A*S*H

    CERN Document Server

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We present a minimal model for particle physics and cosmology. The Standard Model (SM) particle content is extended by three right-handed SM-singlet neutrinos N_i and a vector-like quark Q, all of them being charged under a global lepton number and Peccei-Quinn (PQ) U(1) symmetry which is spontaneously broken by the vacuum expectation value v_sigma around 10^{11} GeV of a SM-singlet complex scalar field sigma. Five fundamental problems -- neutrino oscillations, baryogenesis, dark matter, inflation, strong CP problem -- are solved at one stroke in this model, dubbed "SM*A*S*H" (Standard Model*Axion*Seesaw*Higgs portal inflation). It can be probed decisively by upcoming cosmic microwave background and axion dark matter experiments.

  3. Why the Four SM Families

    CERN Document Server

    Sultansoy, S F

    2001-01-01

    The flavor democracy favors the existence of the nearly degenerate fourth SM family, whereas the fifth SM family is disfavored both by the mass phenomenology and precision tests of the Standard Model. The multi-hundreds GeV fourth family quarks will be copiously produced at the LHC. However, the first indication of the fourth family may come from the Higgs search at the upgraded Tevatron.

  4. Luminescence properties of an orange-red phosphor GdAl3(BO3)4:Sm3+ under VUV excitation and energy transfer from Gd3+ to Sm3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Zhang, Su; Zhou, Jianbang; Zhong, Jiuping; Liang, Hongbin; Sun, Shuaishuai; Huang, Yan; Tao, Ye

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop a new warm-color emission phosphor under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation, trivalent samarium ion (Sm3+) doped GdAl3(BO3)4 was prepared by a solid state reaction technique at high temperature. The VUV excitation and emission spectra of as-synthesized sample GdAl3(BO3)4:Sm3+ were determined in the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facilities (BSRF). Compared with the emission of GdAl3(BO3)4:Eu3+, GdAl3(BO3)4:Sm3+ shows an orange-red emission under Xe 172 nm VUV excitation, which indicates that Sm3+ ion can be a possible activator to obtain warm color emission in the field of lighting. Furthermore, for improving the emission of Sm3+ doped in GdAl3(BO3)4, the energy transfer process from Gd3+ in the host to the activator Sm3+ was investigated through the analysis of spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence decay curves of GdAl3(BO3)4:Sm3+. The results reveal that there exists energy transfer from Gd3+ to Sm3+, but the energy transfer from Sm3+ to Gd3+ is inefficient.

  5. Decolorization of reactive Brilliant Blue KN-R by immobilized cells of Aspergillus ficuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Aspergillus ficuum was immobilized with sodium alginate, and decolorization of Reactive Brilliant Blue KN-R was studied on immobilized and free Aspergillus ficuum. The optimal preparation condition of the strain immobilization was obtained by the orthogonal test, it is sodium alginate 3%, CaCl2 5%, wet mycelia 30 g/L, calcific time 8 h. It was found that the immobilized cells could effectively decolorize Reactive Brilliant Blue KN-R, the optimum temperature and pH were 33℃ and 5.0, respectively. The kinetics study of decolorization of immobilized cells showed that the decolorization of Aspergillus ficuum immobilized conformed to zero-order reaction model. The decolorization efficiency of immobilized cell compared with that of free cell in different physical conditions. Results showed that the decolorization of immobilized cells with mycelia had the best efficiency. The immobilized cells could be reused after the first decolorization.

  6. EU Security Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jianjun

    2007-01-01

    The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) comprises an important part of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The aim of ESDP is to strengthen the EU's external ability to act through the development of civilian and military capabilities for international conflict prevention and crisis management. In December 2003, the EU adopted its first European Security Strategy (ESS). Ever since then, the implementation of the ESS has been regarded as one of the biggest challenges for the EU in CFSP/ESDP matters. Although much progress has been made in its independent security and defence-building process, EU still faces serious problems and difficulties in this policy area. This paper tries to examine these recent developments, assess their impacts in regional-global security, and analyze existing problems and future trends. Finally, the author also examines EU-China engagements in recent years and explores possibilities for their future cooperation in the area of international security.

  7. Flow pathways of bromide and Brilliant Blue FCF tracers in caliche soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, M. M.; Wilding, L. P.; Lin, H. S.

    2010-10-01

    Land use of caliche soils in limestone regions of Texas is increasingly shifting from traditional ranchland to residential and industrial development. However, little information is available on water flow and solute transport through soils of these landscapes, or their potential suitability for wastewater disposal and bioremediation. This study determined the impacts of landscape position on soil hydrologic functions by using Brilliant Blue FCF and Br - tracers to characterize flow pathways through soils of stepped terrains. Aqueous tracer solution was applied to surface (and in some cases subsurface) horizons of selected riser, tread, floodplain, and upland summit sites. Brilliant Blue FCF and Br - pathways were analyzed based on vertical sections excavated through each application site. While Brilliant Blue FCF demonstrated preferential flow along macropores, Br - moved through soil matrix primarily in piston flow pattern. In most cases, Br - was less retarded and moved to greater vertical and horizontal distances than Brilliant Blue FCF. Cemented Bk, Bkm, C, Cr, Crk, and R horizons acted as aquitards, resulting in considerable horizontal transport of both tracers beyond the direct infiltration zone. Significant volumes of limestone rock clasts, together with soil, were involved in solute transport and thus contributed to the soil's ability to serve as bioremediation and moisture storage media. High limestone gravel content and rapid solute transport through subsurface horizons to aquitards in deep riser soils indicate that they may serve as hydrological recharge sites with potential for ephemeral water tables, increased water storage and greater bioremediation potential. Shallow tread sites may be capable of producing seasonal saturation above restrictive horizons and increased surface runoff, becoming local hydrological discharge sites. This could conceivably lead to surface water contamination; however, these locales are hydrologically buffered by recharge

  8. TUDOR LUPAŞCU – A BRILLIANT SCIENTIST AND SKILFULL MANAGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Duca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Moldovan chemical community has recently honoured Professor Tudor LUPAŞCU on the occasion of his 60’s anniversary. Known as brilliant scientist and skilful manager, Professor LUPASCU is now the director of the Institute of Chemistry and one of the founders of the “Chemistry Journal of Moldova”, being the Managing Editor from the very beginning of its activity.

  9. [Preparation of procion brilliant blue-doped silica nanorods and their recognition properties for proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qiliang; Chen, Yang; Wu, Jianhua; Li, Yanli; Liu, Chunjing; Song, Weijing

    2011-09-01

    Protein enrichment and separation is one of the pivotal preliminary steps of proteomics studies, which is important to medical diagnosis and treatment. In this study, procion brilliant blue-doped silica nanorod was prepared via self-assembly sol-gel technology without any additional template. Procion brilliant blue was covalently linked to 3-aminopropyltriethyloxy silane in ethanol. Tetraethylorthosilane (TEOS) was then added into the mixture, subsequently hydrolyzed and co-condensed for 3 h under stirring. The resulted nanorods were isolated by centrifugation, re-dispersed in deionized water, and centrifuged again. This wash process was repeated three times. Finally, the nanorods were dried under vacuum. Procion brilliant blue acted simultaneously as a self-assembly template during the preparation process, and subsequently as recognition probe for proteins. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image showed that the nanotubes were 2-16 microm in length and 200-500 nm in diameter. The obtained nanorods were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSA), separately. All these results indicated that procion brilliant blue were successfully doped into silica nanorods. The recognition property of nanorods for bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated under static condition. The resulted nanorods showed high binding capacity (57.6 mg/g) for BSA and fast adsorption equilibrium (within 60 min). The nanorods were also evaluated with four typical proteins, hemoglobin, trypsin, lysozyme and pepsin, with different relative molecular masses and isoelectric points. The results indicated that the prepared nanorods exhibited the highest binding capacity for trypsin (87.5 mg/g) and the least binding for hemoglobin (Hb, 3.0 mg/g). This easy preparation protocol and excellent recognition property make the prepared materials a bright future in proteomics research. PMID:22233075

  10. Physics studies with brilliant narrow-width -beams at the new ELI-NP Facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dimiter L Balabanski; ELI-NP Science Team

    2014-11-01

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) Facility in Magurele is a European research centre for ultrahigh intensity lasers, laser–matter interaction, nuclear science and material science using laser-driven radiation beams. It is the first project within the European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) agenda financed by the European Regional Development Fund. The nuclear physics research programme of the facility is focussed on studies with brilliant narrow-width -beams and experiments in extreme laser fields.

  11. National funding initiatives for laser technology in Germany: projects on brilliant laser sources and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Friedrich

    2011-02-01

    Germany's leading role in laser technology is not least a consequence of successful national precompetitive joint development projects between industry and science: Funding of laser technology in Germany is strongly performed by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and has already been started in the second half of the eighties of last century. Since then several programs matched to the actual technological status and the future requirements of the market have been run: whilst activities have been focused on gas lasers in the beginning, today - in the actual research funding program "optical technologies" - semiconductor lasers and diode pumped lasers are in the center of interest. More than ever before relevance of the development to applications must be integrated into the projects. Consequently, in most projects lasers source development and application of novel brilliant laser sources are combined. This has been successfully performed in the BRIOLAS (Brilliant Diode Lasers) initiative, which has been launched in 2004 and will come to an end in 2010. Based on the knowledge and experience gained in the 13 projects of the BRIOLAS initiative, two new initiatives have been launched in 2008, namely INLAS (Integrated Optical Components for High Power Laser Beam Sources) and MABRILAS (Material Processing with Brilliant Laser Beam Sources).

  12. Phase equilibria in Sm-Ga-S ternary system according to SmGa2-GaS, SmGa2-SmS, Sm3S4-Ga2S3, SmS-GaS, Sm-GaS cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase equilibria in ternary system Sm-Ga-S over cross sections SmGa2-GaS, SmGa2-SmS, SmS-GaS, Sm3S4-Ga2S3, Sm-GaS have been studied for the first time using the methods of physicochemical analysis, their T-x projections were plotted. The cross sections SmGa2-GaS, SmGa2-SmS, Sm3S4-Ga2S3 and SmS-GaS are quasibinary, while Sm-GaS is nonquasibinary one. Formation of two ternary compounds of the composition Sm4GaS5 and Sm5Ga2S5 was ascertained by peritectic reactions

  13. Brilliant Green Dye Elimination from Water Using Psidium guajava Leaves and Solanum tuberosum Peels as Adsorbents in Environmentally Benign Way

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to check the feasibility of Psidium guajava (Guava) leaves and peels of Solanum tuberosum (Potato) as biosorbents in removal of Brilliant Green (BG) in batch mode. Surface analysis of biosorbents was done by FT-IR and quantitatively analyzed by Boehm titration. The removal of dye was confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Isothermal modeling was studied by using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherms. Various isothermal parameters for adsorption of Brilliant Green such...

  14. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla;

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy. It ...

  15. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...... of the cohesion countries - have a significant role in driving the process of budgetary reform....

  16. Smøremekanismer ved mekanisk formgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Bay, Niels; Eriksen, Morten

    1997-01-01

    I dette arbejde undersøges den Mikro Plasto Hydrodynamiske smøremekanisme som optræder ved plastisk formgivning, når hydrostatisk indfanget smøremiddel i overfladelommer trænger ud i den omgivende kontakt, og skaber lokale smørefilm mellem emne og værktøj.Smøremekanismen observeres og videofilmes...

  17. Proton capture cross sections on neutron-magic 144Sm at astrophysically relevant energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, N.; Hayashi, K.; Ueno, S.; Yatsu, Y.; Yokoyama, A.; Takahashi, N.

    2016-02-01

    Background: The p nuclei, which are not produced by neutron capture processes, are present with a typical isotopic abundance of 0.01%-0.3%. Abundance decreases with an increase in atomic number. However, the neutron-magic isotopes of 92Mo and 144Sm exhibit unusually large abundances in comparison. A combination of proton and α -particle capture reactions and neutron emission reactions are key to understanding this issue. Currently, complex network calculations do not have access to much experimental data, and hence require theoretically predicted reaction rates in order to estimate final abundances produced in nucleosynthesis. Purpose: Few experimental cross sections of (p ,γ) reactions on heavy nuclides with mass numbers of 130-150 have been reported. The 144Sm(p ,γ )145Eu reaction is the main destruction pathway for the nucleosynthesis of the 144Sm nuclide. In the present paper, experimental cross sections of the 144Sm(p ,γ )145Eu reaction at a range including astrophysically relevant energies for the p process were determined to compare with theoretical predictions using the Hauser-Feshback statistical model. Methods: The 144Sm was deposited on a high-purity Al foil with the molecular plating method. Stacks consisting of Ta degrader foils, 144Sm targets, and Cu foils used as flux monitors were irradiated with 14.0-MeV proton beams. The 144Sm(p ,γ )145Eu cross sections were determined from the 145Eu activities and the proton fluence estimated from the 65Zn activity in the Cu monitor foil. The proton energies bombarded on each 144Sm target were estimated using srim2013. Results: We determined the 144Sm(p ,γ )145Eu cross sections at proton energies between 2.8 and 7.6 MeV. These energies encompass nucleosynthesis temperatures between 3 and 5 GK. The cross sections at energies higher than 3.8 MeV agreed well with theoretically predicted cross sections using talys using the generalized superfluid (GS) model for level densities. However, calculations using non

  18. Excited states in 146Sm and 147Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sup(144,146)Nd(α,xn) and sup(146,148)Nd(3He,xn) reactions with Esub(α) = 20 - 43 MeV and E3sub(He) = 19 - 27 MeV are used to investigate excited states in the isotopes 146Sm and 147Sm. The experiments involve measurements of singles γ-ray spectra and conversion electron spectra, γ-ray angular distributions and three parameter (E sub(γ)E sub(γ) time) coincidences. From these experiments information is obtained for states with spin up to I = 13+ and I = 27/2-, respectively, These states are interpeted within the framework of the cluster-vibration model (CVM) as well as the shell model. (author)

  19. PEMBUATAN KARBON AKTIF DARI KULIT JERUK KEPROK (Citrus reticulata UNTUK ADSORBSI PEWARNA REMAZOL BRILLIANT BLUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asriningtyas Ajeng Erprihana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Limbah kulit jeruk keprok (Citrus reticulata sering dijumpai di industri pembuatan berbagai macam minuman seperti jus, sirup, dan sari buah. Limbah kulit jeruk ini hanya akan dibuang begitu saja dengan jumlah banyak, dan pada akhirnya limbah ini akan mencemari lingkungan. Salah satu upaya peningkatan nilai ekonomis limbah kulit jeruk dapat dilakukan dengan mengolahnya menjadi karbon aktif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan karbon aktif dari kulit jeruk keprok dengan aktivasi kimia, luas permukaan, serta mengetahui kemampuannya dalam mengadsorpsi zat warna Remazol Brilliant Blue. Kulit jeruk yang telah dibersihkan dari kotoran, dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 120oC selama 3 jam. Aktivator yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah H3PO4 dengan rasio massa aktivator : massa karbon 1:1. Aktivasi dilakukan pada temperatur 600oC selama 1 jam, kulit jeruk kemudian dicuci dengan aquades dan dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 150oC selama 6 jam. Setelah itu, dilakukan uji bilangan iodin terhadap sampel hasil penelitian. Adsorpsi zat warna Remazol Brilliant Blue oleh karbon aktif kulit jeruk dilakukan dengan variasi waktu kontak dan massa karbon aktif untuk mencari kondisi adsorpsi optimum. Kondisi optimum adsorpsi zat warna Remazol Brilliant Blue oleh karbon aktif pada kulit jeruk keprok pada waktu kontak 30 menit dengan massa karbon aktif 1 gram. Karbon aktif dari kulit jeruk keprok memiliki luas permukaan karbon aktif sebesar 529,17 mg/g berdasarkan daya serapnya terhadap larutan iodin. Orange peel (Citrus reticulate waste is often found in industrial manufacturing various kinds of beverages such as juice, syrup, fruit juice. Orange peel waste is just be thrown away with the lot number, and in the end of this waste will pollute the environment. One of the efforts to increase the economic value of orange peel waste by using the process which convert waste into activated carbon. This research aims are to produce activated carbon

  20. Excited states in 146Sm and 147Sm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kownacki, J.; Sujkowski, Z.; Hammarén, E.; Liukkonen, E.; Piiparinen, M.; Lindblad, Th.; Ryde, H.; Paar, V.

    1980-03-01

    The 144, 146Nd(α, χn) and 146,148Nd( 3He, χn) reactions with Eα = 20-43 MeV and E3He , = 19-27 MeV are used to investigate excited states in the isotopes 146Sm and 147Sm. The experiments involve measurements of singles γ-ray spectra and conversion electron spectra, γ-ray angular distributions and three-parameter ( Eγ- Eγ-time) coincidences. From these experiments information is obtained for states with spin up to I = 13 +and I = {27}/{2}-, respectively. These states are interpreted within the framework of the cluster-vibration model (CVM) as well as the shell model. In the latter approach, the energies of several well established states, in both isotopes, are calculated using empirical singleparticle energies, empirical two-particle interaction matrix elements and angular momentum algebra. The average deviation between the calculated and the experimental energies is less than 100 keV. The CVM calculations involve the coupling of a three-particle neutron cluster to the quadrupole vibration of the core. For 147Sm, these calculations reproduce the observed sequence of states based on the I π = {7}/{2}- ground state, as well as the sequence of states based on the I π = {13}/{2}+ excited state. The CVM calculations also reproduce the ground band in 146Sm, while for the negative parity states based on the cluster (f {7}/{2}i {13}/{2}) 3 --10 - an additional shift in energy is expected due to the mixing with octupole phonons.

  1. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  2. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...

  3. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements of...

  4. Preparation of Polyaniline/Filter-paper Composite for Removal of Coomassie Brilliant Blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wanwan; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Mengjuan;

    2015-01-01

    Polyaniline/filter-paper (PANI/FP) composite was prepared by in-situ polymerization of polyaniline onto filter-paper and subsequently evaluated for the removal of Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) from aqueous solution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier......-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to investigate the morphology and physicochemical properties of PANI/FP composite. Batch experimental results showed that the pH value and temperature could affect the removal capability of the PANUFP composite. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to analyse...

  5. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering Horia Hulubei, str. Atomistilor nr. 407 (Romania); Utsunomiya, H. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Okamoto 8-9-1, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Filipescu, D. [Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics, str. Atomistilor nr. 407, Bucharest-Magurele, P.O.BOX MG6 and National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering Horia Hulubei, str. Atomistilor nr. 407 (Romania); Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Tesileanu, O. [Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics, str. Atomistilor nr. 407, Bucharest-Magurele, P.O.BOX MG6 (Romania); Shima, T.; Takahisa, K. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Miyamoto, S. [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Kouto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan)

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  6. EU-retten 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Udover en introduktion til EU-retten, herunder dens institutioner og retskilderne, indeholder bogen en grundig analyse af EF-traktatens regler om fri bevægelighed for varer, personer, tjenesteydelser og kapital....

  7. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    towards Vietnam. However, it is likely that the antidumping measures used by the EU are not primarily directed at Vietnam, but rather at China. This means that Vietnam is affected by the re-polarization of the world economy through its proximity to and links with China, but that the relation is perhaps......This paper discusses the changing relationship between the EU and Vietnam, and asks whether there is a shift from a “parental” to a “competitive” relationship. The focus of the paper is on the shift from aid to trade as the main interface between the EU and Vietnam. Aid relationships are often...... understood as hierarchical, linking a benevolent donor to a needy recipient, whereas commercial relationships are typically expected to involve a more competitive relationship. However, we argue that the bilateral relationship was never a “parental” one, even at the time when Vietnam’s relation to the EU...

  8. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  9. EU Power Balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Intense clashes of interests and collusion of ideas sprang up incessantly among nations over upward sovereignty transfer, interests distribution and maintenance of parity among partners in the course of economic integration. Disparities in size, territory, national strength and development level conceivably often led to tensions and even crises over power distribution. So EU history can be described as one of crises or crisis settlement through reaching a new equilibrium, a significant process for sustained EU stability.

  10. Enhanced decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 textile dye by an indigenous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Qamar; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2013-10-01

    An indigenously isolated white rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 was used to decolorize Solar brilliant red 80 direct dye in Kirk's basal salts medium. In initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (84.8%) of Solar brilliant red 80 was achieved in 7 days shaking incubation period at pH 4.5 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors including pH, temperature and fungal inoculum density were statistically optimized through Completely Randomized Design (CRD), to enhance the efficiency of S. commune IBL-06 for maximum decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 dye. The effects of inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources were also investigated. Percent dye decolorization was determined by a reduction in optical density at the wavelength of maximum absorbance (λ max, 590 nm). Under optimum conditions, the S. commune IBL-06 completely decolorized (100%) the Solar brilliant red 80 dye using maltose and ammonium sulfate as inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively in 3 days. S. commune IBL-06 produced the three major ligninolytic enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganase peroxidase (MnP) and lacaase (Lac) during the decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80. LiP was the major enzyme (944 U/mL) secreted by S. commune IBL-06 along with comparatively lower activities of MnP and Laccase. PMID:24235871

  11. Redovisningens användare och änvändning : Externredovisning ur ett småföretagsperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Eva; Söderberg, Malin; Kviberg, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Ofta fokuseras det på större företag i undervisningen, men verkligheten är den att de flesta företag i Sverige är små eller medelstora. Det finns olika definitioner av vad ett småföretag är, men ingen är mer rätt än någon annan och i denna uppsats kommer EU:s definition att användas. Alla företag, stora som små, har någon/några som vill ta del av företagets ekonomiska information. De små företagen har oftast inte lika många intressenter som de stora företagen, och därför är det sannolikt att ...

  12. Adsorption of reactive brilliant red K-2BP on activated carbon developed from sewage sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiankun XIE; Qinyan YUE; Hui YU; Wenwen YUE; Renbo LI; Shengxiao ZHANG; Xiaona WANG

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from the sewage sludge of municipal wastewater treatment plant by chemical activation (activation reagent is ZnCl2) and was used for the adsorption of dye (reactive brilliant red K-2BP). The impact of adsorbent amount, adsorption time and pH value on adsorption effect, the adsorption kinetics, and the adsorption thermodynamics were dis-cussed according to batch adsorption tests. The results indicated that the activated carbon developed from sewage sludge (ACSS), which was mesoporous, possessed opened porous structures. The iodine number of the ACSS was heavy metals in the leachate didn't exceed the contents limit. The adsorption kinetics of reactive brilliant red K-2BP on the ACSS was accorded with the two-step kinetics rate equation and pseudo-second-order kinetics equation. Compared to the Freundlich isotherm equation, the Langmuir isotherm equation showed better applicability for the adsorption. The adsorption which was favorable was an endothermic (enthalpy △H > 0) and spontaneous (flee energy △G 0).

  13. Bioflocculant production by Haloplanus vescus and its application in acid brilliant scarlet yellow/red removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chun-Ying; Chen, Hong-Gao; Cao, Gang; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Jian-Gang

    2016-01-01

    A novel bioflocculant MBF057 produced by a salt-tolerant Haloplanus vescus HW0579 was investigated in this study. The effects of culture conditions such as initial pH, inoculum size, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of K-acid wastewater on MBF0579 production were studied. The result showed that 8.09 g/L purified MBF0579 was extracted with the following optimized conditions: 780 mg/L COD of K-acid wastewater as carbon source, inoculum size 12.5%, and initial pH 7.0. The biopolymer contained 78.6% polysaccharides and 21.1% proteins. The highest flocculating rate of 81.86 and 95.07% for the COD and chroma of acid brilliant scarlet gelb rot (yellow/red, GR) dye wastewater were achieved at a dosage of 150 mg/L, pH 2.0 and contact time 100 min. Overall, these findings indicate bioflocculation offers an effective alternative method of decreasing acid brilliant scarlet GR during dye wastewater treatment. PMID:26901711

  14. Retinal Biocompatibility of Brilliant Blue G with Deuterated Water for Chromovitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerson Badaró

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the retinal biocompatibility of Brilliant Blue G with deuterated water (BBG-D2O as a vital dye for chromovitrectomy. Methods: In this animal study, 0.05 mL of 0.25 g/L Brilliant Blue G (BBG associated with 0.13 mL/mL of deuterium oxide (D2O was injected intravitreally in the right eye and the same amount of balanced salt solution (BSS was injected similarly in the left eye of rabbits. Clinical examination and histology with light microscopy were performed after seven days. Retinal cell layers were evaluated for morphologic alterations. Electroretinographic (ERG changes were also assessed at baseline and 7 days after the injections. Results: A total of 6 rabbits were included in the study. The gross histopathologic appearance of the retina, choroid, sclera and optic nerve was within normal limits without any sign of severe retinal necrosis or cystic degeneration. Light microscopy showed that BBG-D2O caused no substantial alterations in retinal layers as compared to control eyes. The injection of BBG-D2O did not induce considerable functional ERG alterations. Conclusion: Intravitreal injection of BBG-D2O 0.25 g/L seems to induce no retinal toxicity as documented by lack of functional and histological changes.

  15. High-Intensity and High-Brightness Source of Moderated Positrons Using a Brilliant gamma Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Hugenschmidt, C; Habs, D; Thirolf, P G

    2011-01-01

    Presently large efforts are conducted towards the development of highly brilliant gamma beams via Compton back scattering of photons from a high-brilliance electron beam, either on the basis of a normal-conducting electron linac or a (superconducting) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). Particularly ERL's provide an extremely brilliant electron beam, thus enabling to generate highest-quality gamma beams. A 2.5 MeV gamma beam with an envisaged intensity of 10^15 s^-1, as ultimately envisaged for an ERL-based gamma-beam facility, narrow band width (10^-3), and extremely low emittance (10^-4 mm^2 mrad^2) offers the possibility to produce a high-intensity bright polarized positron beam. Pair production in a face-on irradiated W converter foil (200 micron thick, 10 mm long) would lead to the emission of 2 x 10^13 (fast) positrons per second, which is four orders of magnitude higher compared to strong radioactive ^22Na sources conventionally used in the laboratory.Using a stack of converter foils and subsequent positron m...

  16. Sino-EU Security Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Liping

    2010-01-01

    @@ There are two levels of security relations between China and the EU.The first level is that of China and the EU as a whole.The second level is that between China and member states of the EU respectively.Because the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU is still in an initial phase,defense relations between China and the EU have mainly been at the second level.

  17. Brilliant Green Dye Elimination from Water Using Psidium guajava Leaves and Solanum tuberosum Peels as Adsorbents in Environmentally Benign Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to check the feasibility of Psidium guajava (Guava leaves and peels of Solanum tuberosum (Potato as biosorbents in removal of Brilliant Green (BG in batch mode. Surface analysis of biosorbents was done by FT-IR and quantitatively analyzed by Boehm titration. The removal of dye was confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Isothermal modeling was studied by using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherms. Various isothermal parameters for adsorption of Brilliant Green such as qm=1.075 mg/g, 1.173 mg/g ΔG°=-3.397, and −2.397 KJ/mol were noted for Solanum tuberosum peels (PP and Psidium guajava leaves (GL, respectively. Similarly pH, moisture content, and various metals were quantitatively analyzed. Results showed that leaves of Psidium guajava were more effective for removal of Brilliant Green.

  18. Enhanced decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 textile dye by an indigenous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06

    OpenAIRE

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Qamar; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2013-01-01

    An indigenously isolated white rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 was used to decolorize Solar brilliant red 80 direct dye in Kirk’s basal salts medium. In initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (84.8%) of Solar brilliant red 80 was achieved in 7 days shaking incubation period at pH 4.5 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors including pH, temperature and fungal inoculum density were statistically optimized through Completely Randomized Design (CRD), to enhanc...

  19. Recombination processes in ZnS:Sm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Światek, K.; Godlewski, M.; Hommel, D.

    1991-04-01

    The excitation processes of Sm intraion photoluminescence (PL) in ZnS are discussed on the basis of optical studies. The excitation spectra of Sm3+ (4G5/2-->6H5/2) intraion emission indicate that the Sm3+-->Sm2++hVB photoionization (PI) channel is an active PL excitation (PLE) mechanism. It is proposed that following the PI transition a Sm-bound exciton is formed, which interposes in PLE. The strong temperature quenching of the 4G5/2-->6H5/2 emission under PI excitation is explained as being the consequence of a thermal release of holes from the Sm-bound excitons.

  20. Sierra/SM theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, Nathan Karl

    2013-07-01

    Presented in this document are the theoretical aspects of capabilities contained in the Sierra/SM code. This manuscript serves as an ideal starting point for understanding the theoretical foundations of the code. For a comprehensive study of these capabilities, the reader is encouraged to explore the many references to scientific articles and textbooks contained in this manual. It is important to point out that some capabilities are still in development and may not be presented in this document. Further updates to this manuscript will be made as these capabilites come closer to production level.

  1. Urheilutapahtuman ilmesuunnittelu : Judo SM2011

    OpenAIRE

    Leppänen, Nette

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä käsitellään visuaalisen ilmeen suunnittelua urheilutapahtumalle. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli suunnitella Judon SM2011-kisoille tapahtumailme, jolla tavoitetaan potentiaalinen kisayleisö sekä sponsorit, ja jonka avulla kasvatetaan myös lajin tunnettavuutta yleisellä tasolla. Koska kisoilla ei tähän mennessä ole ollut varsinaista kisatunnusta tai muuta graafista ilmettä, suunnittelu lähtee puhtaalta pöydältä, ottaen kuitenkin huomioon asiakkaan asettamat reunaehdot sekä judon ...

  2. Dielectric function of SmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dielectric response function of SmS and SmAs has been determined via a Kramers-Kronig transformation of the room temperature reflectivity in the range from 10-2 eV to 22 eV. In SmS the assignment of optical transitions, including those from the (S) 3s core level, has been corroborated by the corresponding ones of SmAs. Reductions of the 4f binding energy are revealed in optical f→d transitions as compared to x-ray photoemission data. (author)

  3. The expanding EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    identity in terms of particular cultural traditions. However, in spite of their diversity, the EU-member countries are united by their adherence to the principles of democracy, rule by law and human rights. Countries which do not share this basic consensus would not be accepted as members, nor is it likely...... that they would apply for it. An essential part is the willingness of member states to accept a reduction of national sovereignty on some important policy fields. The EU project is basically about lifting the principles of democracy and rule by law on the international level, most and foremost among...

  4. Standardization of {sup 153}Sm using anti-coincidence method; Padronizacao do {sup 153}Sm pelo metodo de anti-coincidencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laranjeira, Adilson da Silva; Silva, Carlos J. da; Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Cruz, Paulo A.L. da; Poledna, Roberto; Silva, Ronaldo L. da; Oliveira, Antonio E. de; Gomes, Regio S.; Veras, Eduardo V. de; Araujo, Miriam Taina Ferreira de, E-mail: adilson@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    {sup 153}Sm was standardized at the Brazilian National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation to provide traceability for measurements in nuclear medicine services and manufacturers of radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil. {sup 153}Sm decays by emission β-γ to {sup 153}Eu, the gamma rays of higher-intensity are 69.7 keV (4.7%) and 103.2 keV (29.2%). The standardization was made by anticoincidence and CIEMAT/NIST methods with uncertainties combined (0.4% and 0.3%) and (0.5% and 0.4%), respectively. The difference between the standardized activities was 0.15%. The uncertainties are consistent with other publications. (author)

  5. Phase equilibria in SmS-In2S3, SmSe-In23Se3 and SmTe-In2Te3 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase equilibria are studied for the first time and state diagrams of SmS-In2S3, SmSe-In23Se3 and SmTe-In2Te3 systems are plotted for the first time using physicochemical analysis techniques. Formations of SmIn2S4, SmIN-4S7, SmIn2Se4 and SmIn2Te4 composition samarium chalcoindates and limited ranges of solubility characteristic for indium sesqui-chalcogenites are determined. SmIn2S4 compound is melted congruently under 1570 K, while SmIn4S7, SmIn2Se4 and SmIn2Te4 are formed by peritectic reaction

  6. Photodynamic action of LED-light on standard and clinical strains of Staphylococci processed by Brilliant Green and Titanium Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchina, Elena S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2011-03-01

    We assume that the effectiveness of phototherapy against microorganisms may be increased if together with the photosensitizer a photocatalyst will be used. It was found that the combination of TiO2-nanoparticles and Brilliant Green at two-wavelength irradiation with blue (405 nm) and red (625 nm) light provides a strong antimicrobial effect on standard and clinical strains of Staphylococci.

  7. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and prac

  8. EU-PIL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Now in a Second Edition comprising the Brussels I Regulation “recast”, as well as other key EU legislation and case law, this book brings together principles of juridical jurisdiction, choice of law, recognition of judgments and commercial arbitration. It shows the interrelationship of the rules...... and their effect on cases in the European Union....

  9. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  10. The EU's Convergence Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notermans Ton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As economic stagnation continues to mark the EU in the fifth year of the euro zone crisis, political support for integration is waning. The European Parliament elections of 2014 returned a hitherto unparalleled number of Eurosceptic MEPs, with EU-critical parties becoming the largest ones in several Member States. Much of this Euroscepticism is driven by economic polarisation between core and peripheral countries. While an increasing number of voters in the northwestern creditor countries resent having to foot the bill for what they consider economic mismanagement in the periphery, voters in peripheral countries increasingly rebel against what they deem to be an economically catastrophic Diktat from Germany and its allies. Continued political support for European integration will hinge on successful income convergence in the EU but the current dilemma is that such policies might not be politically feasible. Periods of rapid convergence would seem to suggest that success depends on two main policy strategies. First, a monetary policy that promotes credit for productive purposes, leaves inflation control to other instruments, and employs selective credit rationing to prevent asset booms. Second, a vertical industrial policy prioritising selected industrial sectors. The first policy conflicts with the present framework of euro zone monetary policy, but that framework was only installed in the first place because many peripheral countries were desperately in search of an external constraint on domestic distributional conflict. Industrial policies, in turn, require a sufficient degree of state autonomy from business elites in order to be effective, but it is highly questionable whether most states in the EU possess such autonomy. Though there are, as yet hesitant, signs of a reorientation of both monetary and cohesion policy in the EU, the question of the institutional and political preconditions for their successful implementation has been largely

  11. Nitrate ion association with Sm3+ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solvent extraction method with TBP as an extractant was used for the determination of the stability constants K10 for the SmNO32+ complex, for different least approach distances aa of ions. It was established that aa=6.5A for SmNO32+. (Author)

  12. Low-energy rotational bands in the nucleus155Eu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katajanheimo, R.; Liljavirta, H.; Siivola, A.; Hammarén, E.; Liukkonen, E.

    1984-02-01

    Excited states in the nucleus155Eu have been produced during in-beam bombardments of a154Sm target with3He beams at 22 and 27 MeV. Decay gamma rays were detected using coincidence equipment optimized for low-energy photons. The level scheme is based on the observed γγ-coincidence relationships combined with the information on relative intensities. Tentatively suggested spin assignments follow from the apparent rotational character of the nucleus. Experimental observations are compared with predictions calculated from a particle-rotor model with a nonspheroidal Woods-Saxon potential.

  13. Distinguishing a SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from SM Higgs boson at muon collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jai Kumar Singhal; Sardar Singh; Ashok K Nagawat

    2007-06-01

    We explore the possibility of distinguishing the SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from the SM Higgs boson via Higgs boson pair production at future muon collider. We study the behavior of the production cross-section in SM and MSSM with Higgs boson mass for various MSSM parameters tan and A. We observe that at fixed CM energy, in the SM, the total cross-section increases with the increase in Higgs boson mass whereas this trend is reversed for the MSSM. The changes that occur for the MSSM in comparison to the SM predictions are quantified in terms of the relative percentage deviation in cross-section. The observed deviations in cross-section for different choices of Higgs boson masses suggest that the measurements of the cross-section could possibly distinguish the SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from the SM Higgs boson.

  14. On the role of Sm in solidification of Al-Sm metallic glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Bokas, G B; Perepezko, J H; Szlufarska, I

    2016-01-01

    During the solidification of Al-Sm metallic glasses the evolution of the supercooled liquid atomic structure has been identified with an increasing population of icosahedral-like clusters with increasing Sm concentration. These clusters exhibit slower kinetics compared to the remaining clusters in the liquid leading to enhanced amorphous phase stability and glass forming ability (GFA). Maximum icosahedral-ordering and atomic packing density have been found for the Al90Sm10 and Al85Sm15 alloys, respectively, whereas minimum cohesive energy has been found for the Al93Sm7 which is consistent with the range of compositions (from Al92Sm8 to Al84Sm16) found experimentally with high GFA.

  15. Study of the nuclear structure of 155Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 155Eu nuclide was investigated by the directional angular correlation technique following the β decay of 155Sm. The angular correlation measurements were carried out using a setup with 4 Ge detectors and a multi parametric data acquisition system. To perform the data analysis a new methodology was developed . The multipole mixing ratios of twenty sixty γ- transitions were determined. Seven of them agreed with the results of earlier angular correlation studies and nineteen obtained for the first time confirmed the multipolarity suggested in earlier electron capture studies. Besides, the spin of the level at 1106.83 keV as well as the parity of the level at 1301.41 keV have also been suggested. The nuclear structure of 155Eu was discussed successfully in terms of the single particle model using a deformed Woods-Saxon potential plus residual pairing interaction permitting the description of the rotational quasi-proton band heads. (author)

  16. Activation cross-sections of proton induced reactions on natSm up to 65 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Proton induced reactions on natural samarium up to 65 MeV. •Stacked foil irradiation technique. •Comparison of experimental results with the ALICE, EMPIRE and TALYS theoretical model codes. •Calculation and comparison of thick target integral yields. -- Abstract: Activation cross sections for proton induced reactions on Sm are presented for the first time for natSm(p,xn)154,152m2,152m1,152g,150m,150g,149,148,147,146,145Eu, natSm(p,x)153,145Sm, natSm(p,x)151,150,149,148g,148m,146,144,143Pm and natSm(p,x)141Nd up to 65 MeV. The cross sections were measured via activation method by using a stacked-foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. The results were compared with results of the nuclear reaction codes ALICE, EMPIRE and TALYS (results taken from TENDL libraries). Integral yields of the activation products were calculated from the excitation functions

  17. Luminescence modification of Eu~(3+)-activated molybdate phosphor prepared via co-precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunlei; HU Yunsheng; ZHUANG Weidong; HUANG Xiaowei; HE Tao

    2009-01-01

    Eu-activated CaMoO_4 phosphors were co-precipitated in an aqueous solution, and NH_3·H_2O, NH_4HCO_3 and (NH_2)_2CO as pre-cipitating aid agents were compared based on the morphology and particle size distribution of the phosphor samples. Sm~(3+) as sensitizer ion was investigated on the luminescence of CaMoO_4:Eu, and it could strengthen the 406 nm absorption of this phosphor. At last, the scheelite CaMoO_4:Eu and wolframite ZnMoO_4:Eu were selected to compare their host absorption. The result showed that the scheelite molybdate host exhibited stronger UV absorption than wolframite one.

  18. Study of the nuclear structure of {sup 155}Eu; Estudo da estrutura nuclear do {sup 155}Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genezini, Frederico Antonio

    2004-07-01

    The {sup 155}Eu nuclide was investigated by the directional angular correlation technique following the {beta} decay of {sup 155}Sm. The angular correlation measurements were carried out using a setup with 4 Ge detectors and a multi parametric data acquisition system. To perform the data analysis a new methodology was developed . The multipole mixing ratios of twenty sixty {gamma}- transitions were determined. Seven of them agreed with the results of earlier angular correlation studies and nineteen obtained for the first time confirmed the multipolarity suggested in earlier electron capture studies. Besides, the spin of the level at 1106.83 keV as well as the parity of the level at 1301.41 keV have also been suggested. The nuclear structure of {sup 155}Eu was discussed successfully in terms of the single particle model using a deformed Woods-Saxon potential plus residual pairing interaction permitting the description of the rotational quasi-proton band heads. (author)

  19. Menneskerettigheder og handelspolitik i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    How does the EU promote human rights and how does this become concrete in the EU's trade policy which is principally engaged in economic terms. Interview with Ian Manners, Professor at Roskilde University. How does the EU promote human rights, and how does this turn into trade policy? To answer...... this question, one must first take a step back. Trade policy is only one of many areas in the EU. And human rights in trade is one of the latest developments. The earliest development came originally within the EU itself and related to the absorption of Portugal and Spain in the 70s and 80s. The country had...... no tradition of democracy, the EU insisted that they adopted a certain level of human rights. At about the same time there was an innovation in development policy and a desire to link development aid with the promotion of human rights. Only then began to find a way into trade policy. Historically, the EU...

  20. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU....... This development, however, does not indicate a departure from the average consumer as a protective benchmark in EU food information legislation. On the contrary, the reinforcement of food information legislation as the main tool for consumer protection from non-safety health risks from food reaffirms...... food law does not address the grey area directly. Whereas the responsibility for the prevention or mitigation of food safety risks rests, in principle, with food operators, the main responsibility for the avoidance of non-safety health threats is placed with consumers, who are expected to make informed...

  1. 'EU divertor celebration day'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting 'EU divertor celebration day' organized on 16 January 2002 at Plansee AG, Reutte, Austria was held on the occasion of the completion of manufacturing activities of a complete set of near full-scale prototypes of divertor components including the vertical target, the dome liner and the cassette body. About 30 participants attended the meeting including Dr. Robert Aymar, ITER Director, representatives from EFDA, CEA, ENEA, IPP and others

  2. Cs3Sm7Se12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Schneck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, tricaesium heptasamarium(III dodecaselenide, is setting a new starting point for realization of the channel structure of the Cs3M7Se12 series, now with M = Sm, Gd–Er. This Cs3Y7Se12-type arrangement is structurally based on the Z-type sesquiselenides M2Se3 adopting the Sc2S3 structure. Thus, the structural set-up of Cs3Sm7Se12 consists of edge- and vertex-connected [SmSe6]9− octahedra [dØ(Sm3+ – Se2− = 2.931 Å], forming a rock-salt-related network [Sm7Se12]3− with channels along [001] that are apt to take up monovalent cations (here Cs+ with coordination numbers of 7 + 1 for one and of 6 for the second cation. The latter cation has a trigonal–prismatic coordination and shows half-occupancy, resulting in an impossible short distance [2.394 (4 Å] between symmetrically coupled Cs+ cations of the same kind. While one Sm atom occupies Wyckoff position 2b with site symmetry ..2/m, all other 11 crystallographically different atoms (namely 2 × Cs, 3 × Sm and 6 × Se are located at Wyckoff positions 4g with site symmetry ..m.

  3. EU COMPARISON OF VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ZENOVIA GRIGORE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available VAT is one of the newest tools of the global economy and is widely adopted in most of the countries. For EU Member States is required not only the existence of VAT, but also that its main characteristics to be uniformly implemented. This should facilitate intra-Community transactions, but in practice does not as there are many local variations which can lead to costly errors and penalties. The objective of this paper is to collate data about the main characteristics of VAT in EU Member States and to highlight the key differences between them. This survey shows that there continue to be opportunities and risks for businesses trading cross border, as a result of differences in application of Community legislation on VAT. This led to the necessity of VAT reform. On this basis, the Commission adopted on the end of the last year a Communication on the future of VAT. This sets out the fundamental characteristics that must underlie the new VAT regime, and priority actions needed to create a simpler, more efficient and more robust VAT system in the EU.

  4. EU COMPARISON OF VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zenovia GRIGORE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available VAT is one of the newest tools of the global economy and is widely adopted in most of the countries. For EU Member States is required not only the existence of VAT, but also that its main characteristics to be uniformly implemented. This should facilitate intra-Community transactions, but in practice does not as there are many local variations which can lead to costly errors and penalties. The objective of this paper is to collate data about the main characteristics of VAT in EU Member States and to highlight the key differences between them. This survey shows that there continue to be opportunities and risks for businesses trading cross border, as a result of differences in application of Community legislation on VAT. This led to the necessity of VAT reform. On this basis, the Commission adopted on the end of the last year a Communication on the future of VAT. This sets out the fundamental characteristics that must underlie the new VAT regime, and priority actions needed to create a simpler, more efficient and more robust VAT system in the EU.

  5. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In September 2004 David Shambaugh, of George Washington University, published a small article under the heading: “China and Europe: The Emerging Axis.” In his view, one “of the most important, yet least appreciated developments … has been the dramatic growth in ties between China and Europe......” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...... is impressive.” To be sure, there were also points of frictions such as the European arms embargo (introduced after the Tianmen massacre in 1989), but Shambaugh saw it as highly likely that the relationship between EU and China would continue to grow and develop. “Over time it will become a new axis in world...

  6. Brilliant high-power diode lasers based on broad area lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, V.; Koesters, A.; Koenig, H.; Strauss, U.

    2008-02-01

    Within the German national research project "Briolas" Osram Semiconductors and Laserline GmbH cooperated in the subproject "Brilasi" which focused mainly on Brilliant Laser Diodes for Industrial Applications. The project was finished in December 2007 and lasted more than three years. Laserline and Osram are investigating the performance of broad area diode lasers with a bar width from 1.0 to 10.0 mm in high brilliance diode laser beam sources. Within the program different fibre coupled laser sources are built up: 1. Fibre coupled diode laser beam source with a Beam Parameter Product (BBP) of 40 mmxmrad built from diode laser bars with 10 mm bar width. 2. Fibre coupled diode laser beam source with a BBP of 20 mmxmrad built from Mini-Bars with a bar width of 3.0 mm and 8 emitters. These Different solutions are characterized regarding the electro optical performance. The laser output characteristics are determined for the diode laser device as well as the complete beam source. Lifetime tests are conducted to determine the long term stability of the prototypes and the different chip material.

  7. Kinetics of adsorptive removal of drimarene brilliant red from aqueous solution using untreated agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of untreated banana and orange peels, and rice husk was tested for drimarene brilliant red (DBR) dye removal from aqueous solution. Kinetics was also studied in a batch experiment. Dose of adsorbents varied from 6 to 12 g/L, particle sizes 0.2 and 0.8 mm and contact time 2-32 h. High dose and small particle size favoured DBR removal efficiency significantly. The highest adsorption capacity was shown by rice husk (10 mg/g), then orange peels (9 mg/g) and the lowest by banana peels (4 mg/g). Langmuir isotherm (R/super 2/=0.99) and pseudo-second order model (R/super 2/=0.99) depicted well the equilibrium and best explained the kinetics for rice husk, respectively. Initial adsorption appeared as pore diffusion in all the cases and film diffusion was controlling the rate, later on. Based upon the analytical data, a simple model has been presented that fitted best to describe rice husk adsorption kinetics. (author)

  8. Decolorization of synthetic brilliant green carpet industry dye through fungal co-culture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Simpal; Naraian, Ram

    2016-09-15

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of fungal co-culture for the decolorization of synthetic brilliant green carpet industry dye. For this purpose two lignocellulolytic fungi Pleurotus florida (PF) and Rhizoctonia solani (RS) were employed. The study includes determination of enzyme profiles (laccase and peroxidase), dye decolorization efficiency of co-culture and crude enzyme extracts. Both fungi produced laccase and Mn peroxidase and successfully decolorized solutions of different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, & 8.0(w/v) of dye. The co-culture resulted highest 98.54% dye decolorization at 2% (w/v) of dye as compared to monocultures (82.12% with PF and 68.89% with RS) during 12 days of submerged fermentation. The lower levels of dyes were rapidly decolorized, while higher levels in slow order as 87.67% decolorization of 8% dye. The promising achievement of the study was remarkable decolorizing efficiency of co-culture over monocultures. The direct treatment of the mono and co-culture enzyme extracts to dye also influenced remarkable. The highest enzymatic decolorization was through combined (PF and RS) extracts, while lesser by monoculture extracts. Based on the observations and potentiality of co-culture technology; further it can be exploited for the bioremediation of areas contaminated with hazardous environmental pollutants including textile and other industry effluents.

  9. Downsizing of Johansson spectrometer for X-ray fluorescence trace analysis with brilliant undulator source

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, K; Inoue, K; Yagi, N

    2001-01-01

    The downsizing of a Johansson-type X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer has been examined as a way of enhancing detection efficiency with a tolerable loss of energy resolution. A compact spectrometer equipped with a Ge(2 2 0) analyzing crystal with a Rowland radius of 120 mm has been tested with a highly brilliant helical undulator source at BL40XU, SPring-8. The energy resolution obtained for cobalt K alpha sub 1 (6930.32 eV) was 8.8 eV, which is 10-20 times better than that obtained using a Si(Li) detector, and effectively improved the signal-to-background ratio for XRF spectra. The combination of the present spectrometer and a third generation synchrotron source could provide new opportunities for trace analytical applications, which have been difficult so far by conventional synchrotron XRF experiments based on a Si(Li) detector system. The detection limit obtained for solid bulk samples has reached a level of several tens of ppb.

  10. Decolorization of synthetic brilliant green carpet industry dye through fungal co-culture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Simpal; Naraian, Ram

    2016-09-15

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of fungal co-culture for the decolorization of synthetic brilliant green carpet industry dye. For this purpose two lignocellulolytic fungi Pleurotus florida (PF) and Rhizoctonia solani (RS) were employed. The study includes determination of enzyme profiles (laccase and peroxidase), dye decolorization efficiency of co-culture and crude enzyme extracts. Both fungi produced laccase and Mn peroxidase and successfully decolorized solutions of different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, & 8.0(w/v) of dye. The co-culture resulted highest 98.54% dye decolorization at 2% (w/v) of dye as compared to monocultures (82.12% with PF and 68.89% with RS) during 12 days of submerged fermentation. The lower levels of dyes were rapidly decolorized, while higher levels in slow order as 87.67% decolorization of 8% dye. The promising achievement of the study was remarkable decolorizing efficiency of co-culture over monocultures. The direct treatment of the mono and co-culture enzyme extracts to dye also influenced remarkable. The highest enzymatic decolorization was through combined (PF and RS) extracts, while lesser by monoculture extracts. Based on the observations and potentiality of co-culture technology; further it can be exploited for the bioremediation of areas contaminated with hazardous environmental pollutants including textile and other industry effluents. PMID:27228082

  11. Electronic configurations of Sm2+ in SmS and SmB6, and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Dirac's theory the 4f shell is divided into two subshells: 4f/sub 5/2/ with six quantum states and 4f/sub 7/2/ with eight quantum states. Assuming that these two subshells can be filled up successively, we had successfully obtained the saturation magnetic moment of the garnets Ln3Fe5O12. This study is devoted to establish the role of the subshells in the case of SmS phase transformation under pressure P. Particularly for Sm2+ the low spin configuration 4f/sub 5/2/6 4f/sub 7/2/0 which with six 4f electrons has a filled subshell 4f/sub 5/2/ leading to a zero magnetic moment. But as the insulator in equilibrium metal I in equilibrium M transition exhibited with this phase transition, is explained through a valence change, we first consider the localized electron model proposed in the case of Fe3O4 to show that large variations of electrical resistivity of SmS and SmB6 also can be understood through this model. A result which allows us to consider the ion Sm2+ in both phases of SmS. 1 figure

  12. Interaction in the systems Bi2S3-SmS and Bi2S3-Sm2S3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of physicochemical analysis are used to study Bi2S3-SmS (1) and Bi2S3-Sm2S3 (2) systems that are quasibinary cross sections of Sm-Bi-S ternary system. Formation of ternary phases of SmBi2S4, SmBi4S7 (in system 1) composition and of SmBiS3 composition (in system 2) is stated. The compounds are crystallized in stibnite type rhombic singony: SmBi2S4: a = 12.55; b = 14.11; c = 4.12 A; SmBi4S7: a = 12.61; b = 14.20, c = 4.70 A, SmBiS3: a 11.15, b = 11.77, c = 3.85 A. SmS(Sm2S3) solubility in Bi2S3 at 300 K is 3 mol.%

  13. Thermodynamic properties of Sm2S3 and SmS2 within wide temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time using the mixing method in a wide temperature range inthalpies of Sm2S3 and SmS2 are determined. An intense increase of Sm2S3 enthalpy is observed in the high temperature range and the melting point for this compound is determined. The basic thermodynamic characteristics (enthalpy, thermal capacity, entropy, reduced Gibbs energy) of studied sulfides are calculated

  14. Mechanism of photo catalytic degradation of Brilliant Blue colorant in water suspension with TiO{sub 2} catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, J.A.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. [CIMAV, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 3110, Chihuahua (Mexico); Perez-Robles, J.F.; Vorobiev, P.; Vorobiev, Y.V.; Garcia, A.G. [Unidad Queretaro del CINVESTAV-IPN, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    Water purification by photo catalytic decomposition of Brilliant Blue colorant in water suspension was studied. This work presents experimental and theoretical results in which the mechanism is discussed of decomposition of an organic colorant's molecule. In theoretical part, a calculation of the energy levels of the molecule and its parts derived in decomposition process based on modified FEMO modeling confirm the mechanism proposed (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. »Brilliant Blue G« and »Membrane Blue Dual« assisted Vitrectomy for Macular Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačević, Damir; Čaljkušić Mance, Tea; Markušić, Vedran

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate vital dyes »Brilliant Blue G« (BBG) and »Membrane Blue Dual« (MBD) for intraoperative staining of the inner limiting membrane (ILM) during vitrectomy for macular hole (MH). Retrospective, comparative case series on 18 eyes with macular holes who underwent »23 and 25 gauge« pars plana vitrectomy. Main outcome measurements were staining intensity and characteristics, visual acuity, visual field, OCT measurements and complications over a period of...

  16. About defect structure in SmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One managed to obtain the experimental dependence of the conduction band electron concentration on the sizes of X-ray radiation coherent scattering regions. The curve analysis was based on the previously elaborated concentration model of SmS energy spectrum. The impurity donor levels in SmS were shown to correlate with samarium defective ions located at the boundaries of the coherent scattering regions

  17. Fusiblility diagram of the SmS-Sm2S3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobaric fusibility diagram of a part of the binary Sm-S system lying between SmS-Sm2S3 compounds within 1500-2100 deg C temperature range was built on the basis of the data of physicochemical analysis (thermal, annealing and quenching, microstructural, durometric and X-ray phase). Consistency of data from different methods indicates at the reliability and confidence of the presented diagram. The analogy of Sm-S system fusibility diagram with La-S system diagram is noted

  18. Provably-secure (Chinese government) SM2 and simplified SM2 key exchange protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ang; Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the SM2 protocol, which is widely used in Chinese commercial applications and by Chinese government agencies. Although it is by now standard practice for protocol designers to provide security proofs in widely accepted security models in order to assure protocol implementers of their security properties, the SM2 protocol does not have a proof of security. In this paper, we prove the security of the SM2 protocol in the widely accepted indistinguishability-based Bellare-Rogaway model under the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP) assumption. We also present a simplified and more efficient version of the SM2 protocol with an accompanying security proof. PMID:25276863

  19. 从(Sm-Sn/m-n)=(Sm+n/m+n)说开去

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阙程柯

    2004-01-01

    @@ 在等差数列{an}中,Sn为其前n项和,则有如下性质: (Sm-Sn/m-n)=(Sm+n/m+n)(m,n∈N*,且m≠n)(1) 证明∵Sm-Sn =ma1+(1/2)m(m-1)d-na1-(1/2)n(n-1)d =(m-n)[a1+1/2(m+n-1)d], ∴(Sm-Sn/m-n)=a1+(1/2)(m+n-1)d.

  20. Decolorization of reactive brilliant red K-2BP by white rot fungus under sterile and non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Da-wen; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2006-01-01

    Almost all the studies both domestic and international using white rot fungus for dye wastewater treatment are performed under sterile conditions. However, it is obviously unpractical that wastewater with dyes is treated under sterile conditions. A feasible study was made for using white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade reactive brilliant red K-2BP dye under non-sterile conditions. The results showed that there was no decolorizing effect under non-sterile condition if white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile condition, and the decolorization was always near to 0% during decolorizing test for 3 d; in the meantime, a lot of yeast funguses were found in liquid medium when white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile conditions; however, if white rot fungus was incubated under sterile condition firstly, its decolorization was above 90% under non-sterile condition, which was similar to that of sterile condition. So we point out that the treating process for wastewater with dyes should be divided into two stages. The first stage is that white rot fungus should be incubated under sterile conditions, and the second stage is that reactive brilliant red K-2BP is decolorized under non-sterile conditions. The method not only save the operation cost which decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP under sterile condition, but also provide the feasibility for using white rot fungus to degrade wastewater with dyes under non-sterile conditions.

  1. Structural Characterization of Sm(III)(EDTMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Pushie, M J; Cooper, D M L; Doschak, M R

    2015-11-01

    Samarium-153 ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(methylenephosphonic acid) ((153)Sm-EDTMP, or samarium lexidronam), also known by its registered trademark name Quadramet, is an approved therapeutic radiopharmaceutical used in the palliative treatment of painful bone metastases. Typically, patients with prostate, breast, or lung cancer are most likely to go on to require bone pain palliation treatment due to bone metastases. Sm(EDTMP) is a bone-seeking drug which accumulates on rapidly growing bone, thereby delivering a highly region-specific dose of radiation, chiefly through β particle emission. Even with its widespread clinical use, the structure of Sm(EDTMP) has not yet been characterized at atomic resolution, despite attempts to crystallize the complex. Herein, we prepared a 1:1 complex of the cold (stable isotope) of Sm(EDTMP) under alkaline conditions and then isolated and characterized the complex using conventional spectroscopic techniques, as well as with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and density functional structure calculations, using natural abundance Sm. We present the atomic resolution structure of [Sm(III)(EDTMP)-8H](5-) for the first time, supported by the EXAFS data and complementary spectroscopic techniques, which demonstrate that the samarium coordination environment in solution is in agreement with the structure that has long been conjectured.

  2. Mikrofinance v EU

    OpenAIRE

    Odstrčilíková, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with microfinance in the EU. It explains the relationship among the EU instruments, programmes and initiatives, and it brings the most important information about all available products for both potential providers and potential clients. The work focuses mainly on the European Progress Microfinance Facility and its supporting products. It also contains brief historic development of microfinance, information about financing of microcredits in the EU, real life examples and crit...

  3. National Courts and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    rights in the area of freedom, security and justice. The analysis of each is enriched through diverse research methods such as case-law analysis, citation network analysis, interviews, surveys and statistics. With its new legal and empirical assessment covering the newest member states of the EU......, National Courts and EU Law will hold strong appeal for scholars and students in the fields of EU law, social sciences and humanities. It will also be of use to legal practitioners interested in the issue of judicial application of EU law....

  4. Intense, brilliant micro γ-beams in nuclear physics and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Gasilov, S.; Lang, C.; Thirolf, P. G.; Jentschel, M.; Diehl, R.; Schroer, C.; Barty, C. P. J.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2011-06-01

    900, we can obtain small spots for each of the beamlets. While focusing the beamlets to a much smaller spot size, we can bend them effectively with micro wedges to e.g. parallel beamlets. We can monochromatize these γ beamlets within the rocking curve of a common Laue crystal, using an additional angle selection by a collimator to reach a strongly reduced band width of 10-4 - 10-6. We propose the use of a further lens/wedge arrays or Bragg reflection to superimpose the beamlets to a very small total γ beam spot. Many experiments gain much from the high beam resolution and the smaller focal spot. This new γ optics requires high resolution diagnostics, where we want to optimize the focusing, using very thin target wires of a specific nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) isotope to monitor the focusing for the resonance energy. With such beams we can explore new nuclear physics of higher excited states with larger level densities. New phenomena, like the transition from chaotic to regular nuclear motion, weakly-bound halo states or states decaying by tunneling can be studied. The higher level density also allows to probe parity violating nuclear forces more sensitively. This γ optics improves many applications, like a more brilliant positron source, a more brilliant neutron source, higher specific activity of medical radioisotopes or NRF micro-imaging.

  5. Brilliant radiation sources by laser-plasma accelerators and optical undulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debus, Alexander

    2012-09-06

    This thesis investigates the use of high-power lasers for synchrotron radiation sources with high brilliance, from the EUV to the hard X-ray spectral range. Hereby lasers accelerate electrons by laser-wakefield acceleration (LWFA), act as optical undulators, or both. Experimental evidence shows for the first time that LWFA electron bunches are shorter than the driving laser and have a length scale comparable to the plasma wavelength. Furthermore, a first proof of principle experiment demonstrates that LWFA electrons can be exploited to generate undulator radiation. Building upon these experimental findings, as well as extensive numerical simulations of Thomson scattering, the theoretical foundations of a novel interaction geometry for laser-matter interaction are developed. This new method is very general and when tailored towards relativistically moving targets not being limited by the focusability (Rayleigh length) of the laser, while it does not require a waveguide. In a theoretical investigation of Thomson scattering, the optical analogue of undulator radiation, the limits of Thomson sources in scaling towards higher peak brilliances are highlighted. This leads to a novel method for generating brilliant, highly tunable X-ray sources, which is highly energy efficient by circumventing the laser Rayleigh limit through a novel traveling-wave Thomson scattering (TWTS) geometry. This new method suggests increases in X-ray photon yields of 2-3 orders of magnitudes using existing lasers and a way towards efficient, optical undulators to drive a free-electron laser. The results presented here extend far beyond the scope of this work. The possibility to use lasers as particle accelerators, as well as optical undulators, leads to very compact and energy efficient synchrotron sources. The resulting monoenergetic radiation of high brilliance in a range from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to hard X-ray radiation is of fundamental importance for basic research, medical

  6. Multiresidue method for the triphenylmethane dyes in fish: Malachite green, crystal (gentian) violet, and brilliant green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid chromatographic methods are presented for the quantitative and confirmatory determination of crystal violet (CV; also known as gentian violet), leucocrystal violet (LCV), brilliant green (BG), and leucobrilliant green (LBG) in catfish. LCV and LBG were oxidized to the chromic CV and BG by reaction with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone, and residues were measured as the combined CV ± LCV and BG ± LBG. These methods are extensions of published methods for malachite green (MG) analysis to allow simultaneous determination of MG, CV, and BG. Residues were extracted from muscle with ammonium acetate buffer and acetonitrile, and extracts cleaned up using dichloromethane partitioning and solid-phase extraction. Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography with visible detection (LC-VIS). The method was validated for catfish fortified with LCV over the range 0.25-10 ng g-1 and CV at 2 ng g-1. Average recoveries were 90.6% (±8.1% R.S.D., n = 45) for LCV and 84.4% (±4.2% R.S.D., n = 6) for CV. The average recovery for samples fortified with BG or LBG over the range 0.5-10 ng g-1 was 67.2% (±14.8% R.S.D., n = 31). CV and BG were confirmed in fish extracts by ion trap LC-mass spectrometry (LC-MSn) with no discharge-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. Average LC-MSn recoveries were 96.5, 96.6, and 70.2% for samples fortified with CV, LCV, and BG or LBG. The limits of detection for CV, BG, and MG were in the range of 0.07-0.24 ng g-1 (ppb) for the two different instrumental methods. This methodology was applied to the analysis of catfish treated with CV and BG

  7. A practical method to generate brilliant hard x-rays with a tabletop electron storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, H. [Ritsumeikan Univ., Shiga (Japan); Amano, D.; Miyade, H. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tanashi-City (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    With electron storage rings not only synchrotron radiation(SR) but also bremsstrahlung(BS) from a thin target placed in the electron orbit are mechanisms to generate brilliant x-ray beams. The calculated brilliance of BS with a 50 MeV storage ring, which is nearly 10{sup 13} photons/s, mrad{sup 2}, mm{sup 2}, 0.1% band width for 100 keV x-rays, exceeds that of SR from a 1 GeV storage ring. This photon energy spectrum is almost constant and extend up to the electron energy. The reasons for this high brilliance with this new radiation scheme is that the electron beams penetrating the thin target are utilized repeatedly, the narrow angular divergence of BS is determined by the kinematics of relativistic electron as same as SR, and the x-ray source size of the order of 1 {mu}m is determined by the size of thin target instead of electron beam sizes. Continuous injection of electron beam to the storage ring at full energy is the way to keep high and constant beam current. Peak current and repetition rate determine x-ray out put power. Note that the power of x-ray beam is also provided from a RF cavity of the storage ring. In this paper we will report some experimental results and discuss further application on a coherent bremsstrahlung generated from a set of stacked foils placed in the electron orbit of the ring. Resulting from these investigations the photon storage ring which is based on a 50 MeV exact circular electron storage ring could provide wide range of coherent and incoherent radiations from far infrared to hard x-ray in a practical amount of radiation power.

  8. Brilliant radiation sources by laser-plasma accelerators and optical undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis investigates the use of high-power lasers for synchrotron radiation sources with high brilliance, from the EUV to the hard X-ray spectral range. Hereby lasers accelerate electrons by laser-wakefield acceleration (LWFA), act as optical undulators, or both. Experimental evidence shows for the first time that LWFA electron bunches are shorter than the driving laser and have a length scale comparable to the plasma wavelength. Furthermore, a first proof of principle experiment demonstrates that LWFA electrons can be exploited to generate undulator radiation. Building upon these experimental findings, as well as extensive numerical simulations of Thomson scattering, the theoretical foundations of a novel interaction geometry for laser-matter interaction are developed. This new method is very general and when tailored towards relativistically moving targets not being limited by the focusability (Rayleigh length) of the laser, while it does not require a waveguide. In a theoretical investigation of Thomson scattering, the optical analogue of undulator radiation, the limits of Thomson sources in scaling towards higher peak brilliances are highlighted. This leads to a novel method for generating brilliant, highly tunable X-ray sources, which is highly energy efficient by circumventing the laser Rayleigh limit through a novel traveling-wave Thomson scattering (TWTS) geometry. This new method suggests increases in X-ray photon yields of 2-3 orders of magnitudes using existing lasers and a way towards efficient, optical undulators to drive a free-electron laser. The results presented here extend far beyond the scope of this work. The possibility to use lasers as particle accelerators, as well as optical undulators, leads to very compact and energy efficient synchrotron sources. The resulting monoenergetic radiation of high brilliance in a range from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to hard X-ray radiation is of fundamental importance for basic research, medical

  9. Trade microenterprises in EU economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of the analysis of positions of microenterprises in trade and repair in European Union (EU economy. The results show that microenterprises make up the most numerous group of economic subjects in EU. In terms of income generation, value added, labour productivity and financial efficiency the position of microenterprises in enterprises sector is conclusively the weakest.

  10. Carbon pricing in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Corjan; Vollebergh, Herman R.J.; Werf, van der Edwin

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies various options to support allowance prices in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), such as adjusting the cap, an auction reserve price, and fixed and variable carbon taxes in addition to the EU ETS. We use a dynamic computable general equilibrium model that explicitly allows

  11. The Challenge to EU Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING YIFAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ After an unprecedented rescue plan of 750 billion euros was agreed on by the EU finance ministers in early May, the sovereign debt crisis hovering over Greece seems to have been prevented from spreading in the euro zone. But the effectiveness of the bailout package is still questionable and the sovereign debt crisis still poses a threat to EU integration and stability.

  12. Eu doping and reduction into barium orthophosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ricardo D. S.; dos S. Rezende, Marcos V.

    2016-08-01

    We investigated Eu3+ and Eu2+ ion incorporation and the reduction of Eu3+ ions in a LiBaPO4 lattice using atomistic simulations based on lattice energy minimization. We predicted the most probable sites occupied by Eu3+ and Eu2+ ions, and the related charge-compensation mechanisms involved in these substitutions to the most provable reduction agent for Eu reduction. It was found that Eu3+and Eu2+ ions are the most energetically favorable for incorporation at Ba site. In the case of the Eu3+ ion, charge compensation by the LiBa‧ antisite is the most provable. Eu3+ reduction involving a H2 reduction atmosphere is the most favorable. Our results reveal that Eu3+ and Eu2+ position plays an important role in the luminescence characteristic and in the persistent luminescence mechanisms related to LiBaPO4.

  13. Brillouin spectroscopy on doped SmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SmS becomes intermediate valent at an applied pressure of about 6.5 kbar. On the other hand, SmS doped with La or Tm is already intermediate valent at normal pressure and room temperature. The doping atoms (depending on their concentration) create new occupied states in the SmS gap which lead to the typical hybridised 4fi/4fi-1-5d1-states. The La-cation is always trivalent in LaS, whereas the Tm-cation has a valence between 2 and 3. Therefore, we expect to see a difference in the intermediate valent behaviour. A strong evidence of intermediate valence is a negative C12 and a negative Poisson's ratio. Using high-resolution Brillouin-spectroscopy we measured the phase velocity of the surface acoustic waves in the (100)-plane of Sm1-xLaxS and Sm1-xTmxS. Applying a standard fit-algorithm we calculated all three elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44) from the angular dispersion relation. To get more reliable results the compression-moduli also have been determined and linked to the elastic constants C11 and C12 in the fit model. (orig.)

  14. From EuCARD to EuCARD-2

    CERN Multimedia

    Chaudron, M

    2013-01-01

    The one word that best describes the spirit of the EuCARD ’13 event (see here) that took place from 10 to 14 June at CERN is "collaboration". The event brought together more than 180 accelerator specialists from all over the world to celebrate the conclusion of the EuCARD project and to kick off its successor, EuCARD-2.   EuCARD-2 brings a global view to particle accelerator research in order to address challenges for future generations of accelerators. The project officially began on 1 May 2013 and will run for four years. With a total budget of €23.4 million, including an €8 million EU contribution, it will build upon the success of EuCARD and push it into an even more innovative regime. EuCARD-2 aims to significantly enhance multidisciplinary R&D for European accelerators and will actively contribute to the development of a European Research Area in accelerator science. This will be accomplished by promoting complementary expertise, cross-d...

  15. The Cloud2SM Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinière, Antoine; Dumoulin, Jean; Mevel, Laurent; Andrade-Barosso, Guillermo; Simonin, Matthieu

    2015-04-01

    From the past decades the monitoring of civil engineering structure became a major field of research and development process in the domains of modelling and integrated instrumentation. This increasing of interest can be attributed in part to the need of controlling the aging of such structures and on the other hand to the need to optimize maintenance costs. From this standpoint the project Cloud2SM (Cloud architecture design for Structural Monitoring with in-line Sensors and Models tasking), has been launched to develop a robust information system able to assess the long term monitoring of civil engineering structures as well as interfacing various sensors and data. The specificity of such architecture is to be based on the notion of data processing through physical or statistical models. Thus the data processing, whether material or mathematical, can be seen here as a resource of the main architecture. The project can be divided in various items: -The sensors and their measurement process: Those items provide data to the main architecture and can embed storage or computational resources. Dependent of onboard capacity and the amount of data generated it can be distinguished heavy and light sensors. - The storage resources: Based on the cloud concept this resource can store at least two types of data, raw data and processed ones. - The computational resources: This item includes embedded "pseudo real time" resources as the dedicated computer cluster or computational resources. - The models: Used for the conversion of raw data to meaningful data. Those types of resources inform the system of their needs they can be seen as independents blocks of the system. - The user interface: This item can be divided in various HMI to assess maintaining operation on the sensors or pop-up some information to the user. - The demonstrators: The structures themselves. This project follows previous research works initiated in the European project ISTIMES [1]. It includes the infrared

  16. Resonant photoemission from SmS(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strong, sharp resonance enhancement of 4f photoemission has been observed on SmS(100) surfaces for photon energies in the region of the 4d-4f transitions at about 126 eV. The discrete final state reached via the excitation hν + 4d104f6 → 4d94f7 autoionizes primarily via a super Coster-Kronig transition of the type 4d94f7 → 4d104f5 + unbound electron. Other decay channels, e.g. Sm 5p emission, as well as a surface induce binding energy shift in the Sm3+ final state are identified and discussed. (author)

  17. Triaxiality in 146,148Sm nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, attempts have been made to use the dynamic pairing plus quadrupole model to evaluate B(E2) values, B(E2) branching ratios, and low-lying energy levels for 146,148Sm nuclei, which are in poor agreement with experiment. Application of the boson expansion technique on 148Sm shows too much splitting and an incorrect order for the quintet states, while other properties have not been discussed. In the present work, 146,148Sm nuclei have been described using an asymmetric rotor model framework. The nonaxiality parameter γ has been evaluated using the energy ration E2+'/E6+. Remarkable success has been achieved in explaining the correct ordering of known low-lying energy levels, B(E2) values, and B(E2) branching ratios, which indicate that the so-called spherical nuclei may be treated as triaxial. (author). 8 refs., 9 tabs., 1 fig

  18. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter based on CaS:Eu,Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline earth sulfides (MgS, CaS and BaS) crystal doped with rare-earth ions is an optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter with very high sensitivity, short time constant of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) separated perfectly from the stimulation. In this paper, an OSL dosimeter is described, k has linear dose response from 0.01 to 1000 Gy. The equipment, relatively simple and small in size is promising for applications in space exploration and for high dose irradiation and dangerous irradiation conditions. (authors)

  19. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter based on CaS:Eu,Sm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yanping; CHEN Zhaoyang; BA Weizhen; FAN Yanwei; GUO Qi; YU Xuefeng; CHANG Aiming; LU Wu; DU Yanzhao

    2008-01-01

    Alkaline earth sulfides (MgS, CaS and BaS) crystal doped with rare-earth ions is an optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter with very high sensitivity, short time constant of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL)separated perfectly from the stimulation. In this paper, an OSL dosimeter is described. It has linear dose response from 0.01 to 1000 Gy. The equipment, relatively simple and small in size is promising for applications in space exploration and for high dose irradiation and dangerous irradiation conditions.

  20. Sm3+ and Eu3+ sorption in mixed phosphates of Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The storage of high level radioactive waste in deep geological repositories is an issue of international research in countries with nuclear reactors. A major risk is the groundwater infiltration, which can cause degradation of the containers and leaching the radioactive waste through the different barriers. The study of materials for use as engineered barriers is fundamental, because if dissolution is present, the elements can be captured, ensuring that radioactive materials do not disperse off. The work is divided in four parts, the first describes the techniques developed for the synthesis of phosphates: NaZr2(PO4) [NZP] and τ-Zr(Na0.06H0.94PO4)2 [TZP-Na], their chemical and morphological characterization, thermal stability and surface area. The obtained NZP shows a diffraction diagram similar to the Jcpds pattern, it has a surface area of 4.9±0.1 m2·g-1. There are not reports of diffraction patterns for TZP-Na, which has a surface area of 22.9±0.40 m2·g-1. The hydrogenphosphate obtained, τ-Zr(HPO4)2, shows a diffraction diagram similar to that reported by Nor by. The second part presents the physicochemical characterization of the phosphates surface. The constants of formation of surface sites and their distribution were calculated using FITEQL 4.0. The sites surface density (ds) were determined from potentiometric titration curves of phosphate, hydrogen phosphate and NaClO4 0.5 M; ds were 3.2 sites nm-2 for NZP and 2.1 sites·nm-2 for TZP-Na. The values of curves formation constants for surface sites were, for NZP: K 1P-O=2, K2P-O=-7, K1Zr-O=6.11, K1Zr-O=7.94, and for TZP-Na: K1P-O=5.14, K2P-O=-7.03, K1Zr-O=2.60, K1Zr-O=-9.85. The third part of the work reports the samarium and europium sorption curves on phosphate and on hydrogenphosphate at different ph values. The values of the curves were fed on FITEQL 4.0 program and NZP surface complexation constants were obtained. The results for the NZP show, for both lanthanides, a monodentate complex at the zirconium site and a bidentate complex on the phosphate site. The fourth part of the research reports on the stability of phosphate and hydrogenphosphate to gamma radiation, with doses of: 10, 30 and 50 MGy. The NZP irradiated at 50 MGy showed very slight changes in their morphology, which changed to hexagonal sheets to cubic form; heating the irradiated NZP regenerates the original morphology. The irradiated TZP-Na showed changes in its crystalline structure but without becoming amorphous, however it maintained its chemical and morphology structure. In conclusion, both phosphates, NaZr2(PO4) and τ-Zr(Na0.06H0.94PO4)2, may be considered for sorption of lanthanides in the barriers, even though the NZP is more resistant to radiation. (Author)

  1. Conceptual Design Plan SM-43 Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, SCC Project Office

    2000-11-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual Design Plan for the SM-43 Replacement Project outlines plans for replacing the SM-43 Administration Building. Topics include the reasons that replacement is considered a necessity; the roles of the various project sponsors; and descriptions of the proposed site and facilities. Also covered in this proposal is preliminary information on the project schedule, cost estimates, acquisition strategy, risk assessment, NEPA strategy, safety strategy, and safeguards and security. Spreadsheets provide further detail on space requirements, project schedules, and cost estimates.

  2. OTF CCSDS SM and C Interoperability Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Walter F.; Lucord, Steven A.; Stevens, John E.

    2008-01-01

    A presentation is provided to demonstrate the interoperability between two space flight Mission Operation Centers (MOCs) and to emulate telemetry, actions, and alert flows between the two centers. One framework uses a COTS C31 system that uses CORBA to interface to the local OTF data network. The second framework relies on current Houston MCC frameworks and ad hoc clients. Messaging relies on SM and C MAL, Core and Common Service formats, while the transport layer uses AMS. A centralized SM and C Registry uses HTTP/XML for transport/encoding. The project's status and progress are reviewed.

  3. Krager, husskader og småvildt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, T.

    på kragers og husskaders præda-tion på hare, ager-høne og fasan med særlig fokus på perioden fra det tidlige forår til jagtsæsonens start i efteråret. Derudover er der en kort opsummering af prædationen på småfugle. Mange eksperimenter har vist, at prædation på det jagtbare småvildt kan reduceres...

  4. Rotational hysteresis in SmCo5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torque curves of SmCo5 sintered magnets with regularily lowered coercivity up to a maximum field H = 28 x 105 Am-1 have been registered automatically. From the observed rotational hysteresis the values of the rotational integral could be estimated in dependence on the degree of lowering of the coercivity. By comparison with theoretically calculated values for a simple nucleation model for a single crystal it follows that the mechanism of the magnetization reversal for SmCo5 magnets with lowered coercivity should be pinning of Bloch walls in the multidomain state. The absolute value of the maximum rotational hysteresis work is comparable with the maximum linear hysteresis work. (author)

  5. EU-Russia Cultural Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sidorova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.

  6. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities. 

  7. New states in SmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasihydrostatic pressure resistivity experiments on a single crystal of SmS are reported up to 27.5 kbar. At low temperature, a regime change occurs at P approximately 20 kbar, between a ''quasiinsulating'' behavior (P 20 kbar). Striking similarities appear with TmSe and TmS cases. (author)

  8. Combined SM Higgs Limits at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumnack, N.

    2009-10-01

    We combine results from CDF and D{sup 0} on direct searches for a standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Compared to the previous Higgs Tevatron combination, more data and new channels WH {yields} {tau}{nu}b{bar b}, VH {yields} {tau}{tau}b{bar b}/jj{tau}{tau}, VH {yields} jjb{bar b}, t{bar t}H {yields} t{bar t}b{bar b} have been added. Most previously used channels have been reanalyzed to gain sensitivity. We use the latest parton distribution functions and gg {yields} H theoretical cross sections when comparing our limits to the SM predictions. With 2.0-3.6 fb{sup -1} of data analyzed at CDF, and 0.9-4.2 fb{sup -1} at D{sup 0}, the 95% C.L. upper limits on Higgs boson production are a factor of 2.5 (0.86) times the SM cross section for a Higgs boson mass of m{sub H} = 115 (165) GeV/c{sup 2}. Based on simulation, the corresponding median expected upper limits are 2.4 (1.1). The mass range excluded at 95% C.L. for a SM Higgs has been extended to 160 < m{sub H} < 170 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  9. SmAHTR-CTC Neutronic Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Dan [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Building on prior experience for the 2010 initial SmAHTR neutronic design and on 2012 neutronic design for the advanced high temperature reactor (AHTR), this paper presents the main results of the neutronic design effort for the newly re-purposed SmAHTR-CTC reactor concept. The results are obtained based on full-core simulations performed with SCALE6.1. The dimensionality of the SmAHTR design space is reduced by using constraints originating in material fabricability, fuel licensing, molten salt chemistry, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical considerations. The new design represents in many regards a substantial improvement from the neutronic performance standpoint over the 2010 SmAHTR concept. Among other results, it is shown that fuel cycle length of over 2 years or discharged fuel burnup of 40GWd/MTHM are possible with a low, 8% fuel enrichment in a once-through fuel cycle, while 8-year once-through fuel cycle lengths are possible at higher fuel enrichments.

  10. GENERAL OVERWIEV ON EU ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the international economic crisis on new EU member states has proven to be more severe than the first estimates of the economic analysts. The situation is different for each Member State, the nature and the dimension of the challenges faced are not identical, and the pace of reform is not the same. The economic crisis has prompted intense and sustained action by the EU's national governments, the European Central Bank and the Commission. All have been working closely together to support growth and employment, ensure financial stability, and put in place a better governance system for the future. Sustainable development in the future is the common responsibility of all Member States and EU institutions, because our economies are closely interlinked, and the EU economic governance now reconfigured to provide more effective responses at the policy level, to give a good reaction to the present and the future challenges.

  11. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN EU REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Iuliu Marin IVANESCU; Camelia M. Gheorghe; SZTRUTEN (LEFTER) Gina Gilet

    2013-01-01

    Social entrepreneurship has recently received greater recognition from the public sector, as well as from scholars. Whereas a dozen years ago the concept of social enterprise was rarely discussed, it is now making amazing breakthroughs on both sides of the Atlantic, especially in EU countries and the United States. In order to promote a competitive social market economy, the Commission has placed the social economy and social innovation at the heart of its concerns. The EU's new social-entrep...

  12. GENERAL OVERWIEV ON EU ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the international economic crisis on new EU member states has proven to be more severe than the first estimates of the economic analysts. The situation is different for each Member State, the nature and the dimension of the challenges faced are not identical, and the pace of reform is not the same. The economic crisis has prompted intense and sustained action by the EU's national governments, the European Central Bank and the Commission. All have been working closely together to...

  13. Preparation and quality control of {sup 153}Sm radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swasono, R. Tamat; Widyastuti, W.; Purwadi, B.; Laksmi, I. [Radioisotope Production Center - BATAN, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1998-10-01

    The paper summarizes the preparation and quality control of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP and three {sup 153}Sm-radiosynovectomy agents. Natural and enriched Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} (98.7% {sup 152}Sm) irradiated in RSG-GAS 30 MW reactor yielded pure and high specific activity {sup 153}Sm. Labeling of EDTMP with {sup 153}Sm was carried out by mixing {sup 153}SmCl{sub 3} solution of pH 4.0 to an EDTMP solution at room temperature then pH adjustment to 8. The {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP complex was separated from the free {sup 153}Sm{sup +3} on a Chelex 100 column. Radiochemical purity was determined by thin layer chromatography using Cellulose sheets and pyridine: ethanol: water (1: 2: 4) mixture as solvent. The {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP has been shown to be stable for two weeks. Three particulate preparations of {sup 153}Sm used for the irradiation of chronic synovitis have been studied. They are hydroxyapatite particles, human serum albumin microspheres and ferric hydroxide macroaggregates. The {sup 153}Sm-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates were prepared in a single step by coprecipitation of {sup 153}Sm in the formation of Fe(OH){sub 3}. Preparation of {sup 153}Sm-labelled hydroxyapatite particles and {sup 153}Sm-labelled albumin microspheres were carried out by {sup 153}Sm labelling of previously prepared particles. Radiolabelling efficiency were greater than 95% for hydroxyapatite particles and macroaggregates and was lower than 20% for albumin microspheres. The particle sizes were inspected using an optical microscope with a haemocytometer and micrometric ocular. (author)

  14. Oral Triphenylmethane Food Dye Analog, Brilliant Blue G, Prevents Neuronal Loss in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jacob A; Erisir, Alev; Kwon, Inchan

    2016-01-01

    Reducing amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation is a promising strategy for developing Alzheimer's Disease (AD) therapeutics. We recently reported that a triphenylmethane food dye analog, Brilliant Blue G (BBG), is a dose-dependent modulator of in vitro amyloid-β aggregation and cytotoxicity in cell-based assays. Following up on this recent work, we sought to further evaluate this novel modulator in a therapeutically-relevant AD transgenic mouse model. BBG was orally administered to APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice for three months in order to assess its biocompatibility, its permeability across the blood-brain barrier, and its efficacy at rescuing AD pathology. The results showed that BBG was well-tolerated, caused no significant weight change/unusual behavior, and was able to significantly cross the AD blood-brain barrier in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analysis of the brain sections revealed that BBG was able to significantly prevent neuronal loss and reduce intracellular APP/Aβ in hippocampal neurons. This is the first report of 1) the effect of Brilliant Blue G on neuronal loss in a transgenic animal model of AD, 2) oral administration of BBG to affect a protein conformation/aggregation disease, and 3) electron microscopic ultrastructural analysis of AD pathology in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice. PMID:26852943

  15. Decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue Dye Effluent by Advanced Photo Oxidation Process (H2O2/UV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced photo oxidation processes hold great promise for the improved treatment of textile dye effluent. In this study, the effectiveness of a H2O2/UV system for the decolorization of remazol brilliant blue effluent was investigated by examining the optimum conditions for dye removal in two reactors (coil and conventional. The results showed that the coil reactor had a higher temperature profile than the conventional reactor. When the dye was fed into the reactors at 25˚C, UV radiation alone was not effective as the decolorization efficiency of the conventional reactor varied from 0.0 to 12.3%, while that of the coil reactor varied from 0.0 to 7.3%, depending on the residence time used. The effect of UV radiation at 100˚C was also negligible as the maximum decolorization efficiencies were 4.0 and 3.7% for the conventional and the coil reactors, respectively. Increasing the concentration of H2O2 increased decolorization efficiencies of both UV reactors. Dye decolorization also increased with residence time. More than 93% color removal of remazol brilliant blue dye was achieved with a residence time of 56 min and 100% decolorization achieved in 65 min using a H2O2 concentration of 12.50 mL Lˉ1.

  16. Intermediate valent metallic SmS and SmSe: a new puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been discovered that the R-T characteristic of so-called metallic SmS decreases with decreasing T at low temperatures for pressures exceeding approximately equal to kbar. This feature is reminiscent of a metal and in sharp contrast to the previously reported negative temperature coefficient at 10 and 20 kbar. The same fundamental change of the R-T dependence occurs in SmSe at approximately equal to 100 kbar. (author)

  17. STUDY OF HIGH-SPIN STATES IN EU-150 AND EU-151

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGMAN, [No Value; BACELAR, JCS; VANPOL, J; NYBERG, J; SLETTEN, G; DIONISIO, JS; VIEU, C; LAGRANGE, JM; PAUTRAT, M; Urban, W

    1995-01-01

    High-spin states in Eu-150,Eu-151 were populated by the Xe-136(F-19, xn)Eu-155-xn reaction. Extensive e gamma-, gamma gamma-measurements led to new level schemes of Eu-150,Eu-151. Most observed excitations are interpreted as quasi-rotational bands built on top of multi-p-h states. Enhanced E1 decays

  18. Kampen om det sibiriske smør

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Inge Marie

    2001-01-01

    Afhandlingen følger opbygningen af og udviklingen i den vestsibiriske smørsektor og den internationale handel med sibirisk smør. Hvordan gik det til, at Rusland blev verdens næststørste smøreksportør? Indfaldsvinkelen er lokal sibirisk, national russisk og global, idet danske og engelske firmaers...

  19. Diagnostic significance of Schistosoma mansoni proteins Sm31 and Sm32 in human schistosomiasis in an endemic area in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, L H; Ghoneim, H; Demian, S R; El-Sayed, M H; Tawfik, N M; Sakr, I; Abou-Basha, L M; Renganathan, E; Klinkert, M Q; Abou-Rawash, N

    1998-09-01

    We performed a series of ELISAs to evaluate the diagnostic significance of two Schistosoma mansoni proteins, Sm31 (cysteine proteinase, cathepsin B) and Sm32 (asparaginyl endopeptidase). Our study populations were chosen from two villages in an endemic area close to Alexandria. Using fusion proteins MS2-Sm31 and MS2-Sm32 as antigens, 70% and 78.9%, respectively, of patient sera from 134 parasitologically confirmed cases reacted positively. The percentage of seropositivity increased to 84.5% when parasite-derived proteins Sm31 and Sm32 were used. The serum levels of antibodies to these two proteins in recombinant or native forms do not correlate with intensity of infection and hence are detected even when egg counts are low, which makes proteins Sm31 and Sm32 useful antigens in the identification of S. mansoni infected cases, particularly in endemic areas in Egypt. PMID:9754667

  20. Evaluation of SmCo and SmCoN magnetron sputtering coatings for SOFC interconnect applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junwei; Li, Chengming; Johnson, Christopher; Liu, Xingbo

    Cobalt or cobalt containing coatings are promising for SOFC interconnect applications because of their high conductivity. We have investigated SmCo and SmCoN coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering from a SmCo (5% Sm) target on to Crofer 22 APU substrates. The composition, structure, surface morphology, and electrical conductivity of the coated substrates were characterized by SEM/EDX, XRD and ASR measurements. Addition of Sm enhances the oxidation resistance and the Cr retention capability of the coatings. The use of nitride as a precursor stabilizes Sm during oxidation of the films, thus inhibiting diffusion of Fe, resulting in a more compact coating and lowering ASR. The combined advantages of Sm addition to cobalt and the use of a nitride as a precursor, makes SmCoN coatings a promising new interconnect coating material.

  1. Eu2(PO3H)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of dieuropium tris(hydrogen phosphite), Eu2(PO3H)3, contains three independent phosphite anions. One Eu3+ cation is eight-coordinate whereas the other is only seven-coordinate. One [EuO8] dodecahedron and one monocapped [EuO7] trigonal prism alternate so that, by sharing one vertex, infinite layers are formed parallel to the [101] direction. The layers are held together by Eu-O interlayer bonds. (orig.)

  2. China-EU Over Ten Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 10th China-EU Meeting took place in Beijing on November 28, 2007. This was an important annual meeting held at a critical point in the history of China-EU relations. Since this regularly scheduled meeting was first established in 1998, leaders from both China and the EU have met continuously. Over the past decade, many fundamental changes have taken place between China and the EU, and the China-EU relationship has evolved into full strategic partnership.

  3. SmS-Ga2S3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system SmS-Ga2S3 was studied by physico-chemical methods and diagrams of state drawn up. It was established that the compounds SmGa2S4 and SmGa4S7 were formed in the system. Orthorhombic (a=10.28, b=10.42, c=6.16 A, space group Bmbm) and monoclinic symetries are determined for SmGa2S4 and SmGa4S7 single crystals respectively

  4. Metal Atom Dynamics in Superbulky Metallocenes : A Comparison of (Cp-BIG)(2)Sn and (Cp-BIG)(2)Eu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harder, Sjoerd; Naglav, Dominik; Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Nowik, Israel; Herber, Rolfe H.

    2014-01-01

    (Cp2Sn)-Sn-BIG (Cp-BIG = (4-n-Bu-C6H4)(5)cyclopentadienyl), prepared by reaction of 2 equiv of (CpNa)-Na-BIG with SnCl2, crystallized isomorphous to other known metallocenes with this ligand (Ca, Sr, Ba, Sm, Eu, Yb). Similarly, it shows perfect linearity, C-H center dot center dot center dot C(pi) b

  5. EU Climate Change Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 25, the CPAFFC, the China-EU Association (CEUA) and the Delegation of the European Commission to China jointly held the opening ceremony for the EU Exhibition on Climate Change in the CPAFFC. He Luli, former vice chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee and honorary president of the CEUA, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Li Jianping, vice president of the CPAFFC, attended the opening ceremony and made speeches. Honorary President He Luli highly praised the achievements made by China and the EU in their longtime cooperation of mutual benefits in various fields including environmental protection. She said, for many years China and EU have both committed to the development of all-round strategic partnership and establishment of a multi-level mechanism of political dialogue. She expressed, with increasing enthusiasm the CEUA would continue to actively carry out nongovernmental exchanges between China and the EU, and promote cooperation between the two sides in the fields of economy, society, environmental protection, science and technology, culture, etc.

  6. Transport properties of golden SmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report electrical resistivity and Hall effect measurements on golden SmS up to a pressure of P∼26kbar. The Hall coefficient at a low temperature shows a drastic decrease above about 13 kbar as a function of P, and a change in sign at a critical pressure Pc2 above which an antiferromagnetically ordered phase appears. We construct a P-T phase diagram from the transport properties together with previously reported results of the ac magnetic susceptibility

  7. Instability of SmS under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is suggested that electron-phonon (EP) interaction is a suitable mechanism to explain the instability of the semiconducting phase in SmS under pressure. The f reversible d and d reversible d scattering processes due to EP interaction avoid the introduction of negative renormalized f-d hybridization assumed by some other models as the source of the first order instability. Moreover this instability is shown as occuring for a non-zero energy gap. (orig.)

  8. The SM-200 step motor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main nodes of the stand for testing and modeling solenoid coils, which define the focus of the beam of charged particles in the accelerator LUE-200 (IREN), is a device for positioning Hall sensors (HS). The mechanism of movement of the platform where HS are installed is activated by the step motor. This paper describes the control device of the step motor SM-200

  9. X(5 Symmetry to 152Sm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eid S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The excited positive and negative parity states, potential energy surfaces, V ( ; , electromagnetic transition probabilities, B ( E 1, B ( E 2, electric monopole strength X ( E 0 = E 2 and staggering e ect, I = 1, were calculated successfully using the inter- acting boson approximation model IBA -1. The calculated values are compared to the available experimental data and show reasonable agreement. The energy ratios and contour plot of the potential energy surfaces show that 152 Sm is an X (5 candidate.

  10. The Naturalness of the Fourth SM Family

    CERN Document Server

    Sultansoy, S

    2009-01-01

    The necessity of the fourth family follows from the SM basics. According to flavor democracy the Dirac masses of the fourth SM family fermions are almost equal with preferable value 450 GeV, which corresponds to common (for all fundamental fermions) Yukawa coupling equal to SU(2) gauge coupling gW. In principle, one expect u4 a little bit lighter than d4, while nu4 could be essentially lighter than l4 due to Majorana mass terms for right-handed components of neutrinos. Obviously, the fourth family quarks will be copiously produced at the LHC. However, the first indication of the fourth SM family may be provided by early Higgs boson observation due to almost an order enhancement of the gluon fusion to Higgs cross-section. For the same reason the Tevatron still has a chance to observe the Higgs boson before the LHC. Concerning the fourth family leptons, in general, best place will be NLC/CLIC. However, for some mass regions and MNS matrix elements double discovery of both the nu4 and H could be possible at the ...

  11. The WWR-SM-20 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the design features and experimental capabilities of the WWR-SM-20 research reactor are described. The reactor uses fuel assemblies consisting of six coaxial fuel tubes with a square cross-section. IRT-3M fuel assemblies can be used with both 90% enriched and 36% enriched uranium. The main characteristics of the IRT-3M fuel assemblies are given, as are the technical and physical parameters of the WWR-SM-20 reactor. The core can hold up to ten ampoule-type channels with a diameter of up to 68 mm. For irradiation purposes, up to 22 26-mm-diameter channels in the fuel assemblies, and up to 48 42-mm-diameter channels in the beryllium blocks of the reflector can be used. In the graphite blanket between the horizontal channels, channels with a diameter of up to 130 mm can be used. The thermal neutron flux density has a maximum value of 1.5 X 1018 m-2 · s-1 in the core and 2.3 X 1018 m-2 · s-1 in the reflector, and the fast neutron flux density (cE > 0.821 MeV) a maximum of 1.9 X 1018 m-2 · s-1. A number of design features have been incorporated in the WWR-SM-20 reactor to make it effectively safe

  12. Lifetime measurement for the 21+ state in 140Sm and the onset of collectivity in neutron-deficient Sm isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello Garrote, F. L.; Görgen, A.; Mierzejewski, J.; Mihai, C.; Delaroche, J. P.; Girod, M.; Libert, J.; Sahin, E.; Srebrny, J.; Abraham, T.; Eriksen, T. K.; Giacoppo, F.; Hagen, T. W.; Kisielinski, M.; Klintefjord, M.; Komorowska, M.; Kowalczyk, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Marchlewski, T.; Mitu, I. O.; Pascu, S.; Siem, S.; Stolarz, A.; Tornyi, T. G.

    2015-08-01

    Background: The chain of Sm isotopes exhibits a wide range of nuclear shapes and collective behavior. While the onset of deformation for N >82 has been well studied both experimentally and theoretically, fundamental data is lacking for some Sm isotopes with N Weisskopf units. The theoretical calculations are in very good agreement with the experimental result. Conclusions: The B (E 2 ;21+→01+) value for 140Sm fits smoothly into the systematic trend for the chain of Sm isotopes. The new beyond-mean field calculations are able to correctly describe the onset of collectivity in the Sm isotopes below the N =82 shell closure for the first time.

  13. Evropská směrnice INSPIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Tryhubová

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Článek byl vytvořen na základě informací ze semináře a workshopu organizovaného sdružením Nemoforum spolu se Společným výzkumným centrem Evropské komise (EC Joint Research Centre - Ispra, Itálie a CENIA, českou agenturou pro životní prostředí. Tématem semináře a workshopu byla Geoinformační infrastruktura ČR a INSPIRE.Česká republika vstoupila do Evropské unie (EU spolu s dalšími devíti státy 1. května 2004. Změny na trhu s geodaty uvnitř Evropské unie se dotýkají i České republiky. Hlavním ohniskem těchto změn je iniciativa INSPIRE. INSPIRE by se měla stát evropskou směrnicí v roce 2007. INSPIRE podporuje harmonizaci prostorových formátů dat, dostupnost datových sad a schopnost vyhledat různé datové sady. V první části článku je shrnut poslední vývoj uvnitř iniciativy INSPIRE a v druhé části jsou zveřejněny závěry zmiňovaného semináře a workshopu.

  14. Application of the collective model to determine the rotation bands and vibrational bands of 152Sm and 152Gd nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research of nuclear reactions is necessary to identify the specific characteristics of nucleus and it is the most effective experimental method up to now. However, in order to explain the properties of nuclear structures, in addition to the study of the nuclear reactions, nuclear structure models to explain experimental dat and its theory must be used. There are many nuclear structure models to solve those properties of nucleus. This paper presents a collective model application to identify some of rotational bands and vibrational bands of 152 Sm and 152Gd nucleus which result from beta decay of 152Eu source the. (author)

  15. The failure analysis, redesign, and final preparation of the Brilliant Eyes Thermal Storage Unit for flight testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, T.; Whitney, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the engineering thought process behind the failure analysis, redesign, and rework of the flight hardware for the Brilliant Eyes Thermal Storage Unit (BETSU) experiment. This experiment was designed to study the zero-g performance of 2-methylpentane as a suitable phase change material. This hydrocarbon served as the cryogenic storage medium for the BETSU experiment which was flown 04 Mar 94 on board Shuttle STS-62. Ground testing had indicated satisfactory performance of the BETSU at the 120 Kelvin design temperature. However, questions remained as to the micro-gravity performance of this unit; potential deviations in ground (1 g) versus space flight (0 g) performance, and how the unit would operate in a realistic space environment undergoing cyclical operation. The preparations and rework performed on the BETSU unit, which failed initial flight qualification, give insight and lessons learned to successfully develop and qualify a space flight experiment.

  16. Experimental Study on Decolorization and Degradation of Reactive Brilliant Red X—3B in a White Rot Fungal Biofilm Reacor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGMin-sheng; HUANGRong; 等

    2001-01-01

    Experimental results of an azo dye(reactive brilliant red X-3B,RBR X-3B) decolorization and degradation in a white rot fungal biofilm reactor were introduced and discussed.The fungal biofilm reactor is highly potential for dye decolorization and degradation with the highest decoloring rate of 95% within 96 hours reaction time at initial pH 4.5 under high nirogen level (HN) (24mmol/L ammonium tartrate)condition.Experimental conditions.such as nutrient nitrogen levels in reaction mixture and initial pH,significantly affected dye decolorization and degradation.Effluents from this bioilm reactor can be well treated to meet the discharging requirements by use of chemical flocculation.RBR X-3B was first absorbed onto fungal biomass and then degraded gradually,The SH-13 fungus monopolized the biofilm throughout the experiments,though the reactor was exposed to open air for 4 months.

  17. Highly efficient decomposition of Remazol Brilliant Blue R using tubular reactor coated with thin layer of PdO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Rahat; Qazi, Umair Yaqub; Kawasaki, Shin-Ichiro

    2016-09-15

    In this work, we propose a novel approach to dye decomposition under subcritical water conditions using a continuous-flow tubular reactor coated with thin layer of PdO as a catalyst. Remazole Brilliant Blue R was used as an example of synthetic dyes. Hydrogen peroxide was used as an environmental-friendly oxidant as it leaves no residues after treatment. The effect of temperature, pressure and dye concentration on total organic carbon (TOC) removal were studied. 99.9% of TOC removal was achieved at 300 °C and 10 MPa pressure within a short residence time of 3.2 s. This method provided an efficient and rapid process that has a potential for treating a wide range of textile wastewaters. PMID:27322817

  18. Adsorption of Two Dyes by Mg(OH)2: Procion Blue HB and Remazol Brilliant Blue R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouberka, Zohra; Bentaleb, Kahina; Benabbou, Khalil A.; Maschke, Ulrich

    The use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. Mg(OH)2 sludge was produced from precipitation of magnesium ions (Mg2+) with NaOH in pH = 10 and investigated as a low-cost adsorbent. This paper deals with the removal of textile dyes from aqueous solutions by Mg(OH)2. Reactive Procion blue HB (PR) and Acid Remazol brilliant blue R (RB) were used as model compounds. The adsorption capacity was found as 43.47 and 26.89 mg/g at initial pH 6.5.

  19. De-colorization of reactive brilliant Orange X-GN by a novel rotating electrochemical disc process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Dengjie; YANG Ji; XU Yunlan; JIA Jinping; WANG Yalin; SUN Tonghua

    2008-01-01

    A novel electrochemical setup for wastewater treatment-Rotating Electrochemical Disc Process (RECDP) is developed in this article. The anode and cathode are distributed alternatively and evenly on a flat round disc, which was designed to improve mass transfer of organics from bulk solution to electrode surface, while at the same time increasing oxygen transfer from air to the liquid to benefit the organics oxidization. The color removal of dye Reactive Brilliant Orange X-GN (RBO) was experimentally investigated using the setup. The results show that the RECDP could efficiently remove the color by 99.5% after 60-min electrolysis. The influence of factors such as the disc rotating speed, current intensity, pH and treating time was also explored, and the de-colorization mechanism was studied with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), UV-Vis, and IR. It has been confirmed that the free radicals oxidization leads to the dye de-coloration.

  20. Report on EU financial integration

    OpenAIRE

    EFC

    2002-01-01

    Despite progress in implementing the internal market programme and the introduction of the euro, the EU still does not have a fully integrated financial market. Much has been achieved on the road towards integration, but there is more work still to do. The European Council at Lisbon set the key strategic goal for the EU to become by 2010 ‘the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world'. As recognised by Heads of State and Government, a crucial element to achieve this ...

  1. Coping with EU environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner; de Graaf, Kars; Purdy, Ray;

    2015-01-01

    A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... a coherent and accessible body of environmental legislation, while at the same time ensuring adequate transposition of EU environmental legislation. This article analyses the existence, or emergence, of transposition principles and practices in three Member States—the United Kingdom, the Netherlands...... on coherence and accessibility with respect to environmental legislation and that such issues deserve more attention in the transposition process....

  2. The Frequency of "Brilliant" and "Genius" in Teaching Evaluations Predicts the Representation of Women and African Americans across Fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Storage

    Full Text Available Women and African Americans-groups targeted by negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities-may be underrepresented in careers that prize brilliance and genius. A recent nationwide survey of academics provided initial support for this possibility. Fields whose practitioners believed that natural talent is crucial for success had fewer female and African American PhDs. The present study seeks to replicate this initial finding with a different, and arguably more naturalistic, measure of the extent to which brilliance and genius are prized within a field. Specifically, we measured field-by-field variability in the emphasis on these intellectual qualities by tallying-with the use of a recently released online tool-the frequency of the words "brilliant" and "genius" in over 14 million reviews on RateMyProfessors.com, a popular website where students can write anonymous evaluations of their instructors. This simple word count predicted both women's and African Americans' representation across the academic spectrum. That is, we found that fields in which the words "brilliant" and "genius" were used more frequently on RateMyProfessors.com also had fewer female and African American PhDs. Looking at an earlier stage in students' educational careers, we found that brilliance-focused fields also had fewer women and African Americans obtaining bachelor's degrees. These relationships held even when accounting for field-specific averages on standardized mathematics assessments, as well as several competing hypotheses concerning group differences in representation. The fact that this naturalistic measure of a field's focus on brilliance predicted the magnitude of its gender and race gaps speaks to the tight link between ability beliefs and diversity.

  3. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    in anticartel enforcement policies, antimonopoly regulation, and the regulation of mergers and acquisitions. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap by attempting to link EU competition policy with U.S. antitrust, provide a critical overview of the most important elements of European competition policy......, and merger control....

  4. China vs.EU Protectionism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China files a complaint with the WTO for the first timeagainst the EU’s anti-dumping measures Recently,a trade row between the European Union(EU) and China-the world’s first and third biggesteconomies,respectively-hascaused concerns.

  5. 2006 EU-China Partenariat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu; Ping

    2006-01-01

      China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)Under the approval of the State Council of People's Republic of China and the European Commission(EC),jointly sponsored by European Commission and CCPIT, the 2006 EU-China Partenariat will take place on November 9-10, 2006 in Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan Province.……

  6. 2006 EU-China Partenariat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)Under the approval of the State Council of People's Republic of China and the European Commission(EC),jointly sponsored by European Commission and CCPIT, the 2006 EU-China Partenariat will take place on November 9-10, 2006 in Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan Province.

  7. EU Legitimacy and Social Affiliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Jan Sture Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of European governance usually put the member states in the foreground, placing the citizens in the background. This article brings explanations of EU legitimacy down to the level of individuals. A method is suggested that combines explanations based on individual interests and a sociolo...

  8. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...

  9. Whither the EU-China Strategic Partnership?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanley; Crossick

    2006-01-01

    EU and Chinese leaders met in Helsinki for their ninth bilateral summit on September 9 against a backdrop of growing tensions on trade issues. Only a few days after the summit, the EU requested the establishment of a WTO panel on Chinese auto parts tariffs. A "strategic partnership" between the EU and China was agreed as a joint aim at the EU-China summit in The Hague in December

  10. EU territorial governance: learning from institutional progress

    OpenAIRE

    Janin Rivolin Yoccoz, Umberto

    2010-01-01

    EU territorial governance is a concept now familiar to European planners and decision makers. However, the lack of an official definition makes its relationship with planning activities and processes in the EU member countries unclear. Looking back at the recent history of various attempts to factor territory into the EU policy agenda, this article proposes a systematic review of institutional documents regarding, in a direct or indirect manner, EU territorial governance. The aim of the artic...

  11. Horse-trading over the EU budget

    OpenAIRE

    Neheider, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    About 75% of the EU budget are transfer expenditures that go to the agricultural sector and to regional policies. This has long been criticised but the structure of the EU budget has barely changed over the last decades. The EU finances are mainly based on a unanimous agreement between the heads of state or government of the EU member states. During budget negotiations, horse trading or logrolling is a common practice. Negotiators combine expenditure positions and arrangements on the revenue ...

  12. Citrate sol gel synthesis, phase formation, optical-properties and TEM analysis of nanocrystalline TaSr2SmCu2O8 materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, S.; George, Jincymol; Parthiban, P.

    2016-05-01

    We report the citrate sol gel (CSG) derived synthesis of nanocrystalline tantalo-cuprate, TaSr2SmCu2O8 (Ta1212Sm) materials and studied the thermal, phase formation, photoluminescence (PL) and photo-catalytic properties and TEM analysis. Like Ta1212Eu phase, the present Ta1212Sm phase is also successfully crystallized in tetragonal symmetry with lattice parameter, a = 0.3875(1) nm and c = 1.1690(5) nm with average crystalline size of ~61.5 nm upon subsequent annealing of the combustion product at 1100°C for 24 h under O2 atmosphere. The room temperature PL emission spectrum of nanocrystalline Ta1212Sm materials exhibits an emission peak at ~605 nm under excitation wavelength of 404 nm. The photo-degradation (~89 %) of methyl orange (MO) by the Ta1212Sm catalyst in the presence of H2O2 is explored. The TEM micro-images reveal that the particles are in nano-scale and irregular morphology.

  13. Synthesis and luminescence of Eu3+ doped hydroxyapatite nanocrystallines: Effects of calcinations and Eu3+ content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eu3+ doped hydroxyapatite (Eu-HAP) luminescent nanocrystallines were prepared by ultrasound assisted precipitation method. Aiming to seek a compromise proposal for achieving high luminescence and nanocrystallines, the effects of calcinations temperature and Eu3+ doping content on luminescence property as well as phase composition, crystal size and crystallinity of Eu-HAP crystals were investigated. The results showed that the luminescence of Eu-HAP was enhanced by the thermal treatment and the increasing Eu doping content. However, the higher temperature and the excess Eu resulted in the size increase and phase composition change of HAP respectively. The 2% Eu doping content and calcinations temperature of 600 °C were preferred for preparing Eu-HAP nanocrystallines with strong luminescence. The Eu-HAP nanocrystallines were about 20–40 nm in diameter (TEM) and could be well dispersed in water to form aqueous suspension of about 140 nm (DLS intensity-averaged diameter). Eu-HAP nanocrystalline could be used as a fluorescent probe for cell labeling. - Highlights: ► 20–40 nm Eu-HAP luminescent nanocrystallines were prepared by the precipitation method. ► 2% Eu doping content and calcinations at 600 °C were preferred to prepare Eu-HAP. ► Eu-HAP nanocrystallines could be well dispersed to form aqueous suspension. ► Eu-HAP nanocrystallines could be used as cell labels.

  14. ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOR AND KINETICS OF THE INTERVALENCE CHARGE TRANSFER FOR THE SM(III)/SM(II) REDOX COUPLE IN LiF-CaF2 MELT

    OpenAIRE

    Stulov Yuriy Vyacheslavovich; Korenko Michal; Kubikova Blanca; Kuznetsov Sergey Aleksandrovich

    2015-01-01

    This article is focused on the electrochemical investigation (cyclic voltammetry) of the redox couple Sm(III)/Sm(II) in an eutectic LiF–CaF2 melt containing SmF3. The first step of reduction for Sm(III) ions, involving one electron exchange in soluble/soluble Sm(III)/Sm(II) system, was found on a tungsten electrode. The study of the Sm(II)/Sm(0) electrode reaction was not feasible, since it’s the redox potential is in the same range of the solvent decomposition. The first step was fo...

  15. Dislocations in SmS single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single crystals of SmS with NaCl structure are grown by zone melting in a sealed molybdenum tube. Dislocations introduced during cleaving the crystal are investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The dislocations have Burgers vector of 1/2 and their glide plane is (11-bar0), i.e. the slip system is (11-bar0) as in alkali-halide NaCl-type crystals. The slip seems to be governed by the Peierls mechanism for the screw dislocation. (author)

  16. Smørrebrød

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Jørgensen, René Langdahl

    This little book is dedicated to students and teachers at the Gastronomic University of Bra, whom in the early summer of 2012 are visiting Center for Food Science, Design & Experience at Aalborg University, where a number of courses in Food+Design is held. In this little book we have asked outsta...... outstanding Danish personalities, who is occupied with “smørrebrød”, to give a peek into this world of Danish food culture. And with a little help from chef Klausen in Hune we have chosen to serve and conceptualize a “Stjerneskud”....

  17. Low-energy rotational bands in the nucleus /sup 155/Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katajanheimo, R.; Liljavirta, H.; Siivola, A.; Hammaren, E.; Liukkonen, E.

    1984-10-01

    Excited states in the nucleus /sup 155/Eu have been produced during in-beam bombardments of a /sup 154/Sm target with /sup 3/He beams at 22 and 27 MeV. Decay gamma rays were detected using coincidence equipment optimized for low-energy photons. The level scheme is based on the observed ..gamma gamma..-coincidence relationships combined with the information on relative intensities. Tentatively suggested spin assignments follow from the apparent rotational character of the nucleus. Experimental observations are compared with predictions calculated from a particle-rotor model with a nonspheroidal Woods-Saxon potential.

  18. Low-lying excitations in the odd-odd nucleus154Eu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katajanheimo, R.; Jäderholm, R.; Siivola, A.; Julin, R.; Liukkonen, E.

    1988-03-01

    The doubly odd nucleus154Eu was produced during in-beam bombardments of a154Sm target with3He and deuteron beams at 27 and 10 MeV. The resulting gamma-rays were investigated using prompt and delayed gamma-gamma-coincidence equipment. The half-life of the isomeric 2+ level was determined as 2.2±0.1 μs. The partial level scheme, including numerous previously unidentified excitations, can be divided into two separate groups of levels. The results provide evidence for the existence of a very regular ground band and two rather regular K=3 level structures, whose configurations are closely related to it. In addition, several rotational sequences built on the band heads with other K values have been deduced. Our interpretation of the level scheme disagrees with the previous conclusion that the N=91 nucleus154Eu might have a stable deformation only in its ground state configuration.

  19. CHRiSM: CHance Rules induce Statistical Models

    OpenAIRE

    Sneyers, Jon; Meert, Wannes; Vennekens, Joost

    2009-01-01

    A new probabilistic-logic formalism, called CHRiSM, is introduced. CHRiSM is based on a combination of CHR and PRISM. It can be used for high-level rapid prototyping of complex statistical models by means of chance rules. The underlying PRISM system can then be used for several probabilistic inference tasks, including parameter learning. We describe a source-to-source transformation from CHRiSM rules to PRISM, via CHR(PRISM). Finally we discuss the relation between CHRiSM and probab...

  20. EU Privacy seals project: Comparison with other EU certification schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Rowena; Barnard-Wills, David; Wright, David; REMOTTI Luca; DAMVAKERAKI Tonia; De Hert, Paul; PAPAKONSTANTINOU Vagelis

    2013-01-01

    This report identifies and analyses key EU certification schemes in select sectors such as: network and information security, general product compliance, the environment, financial auditing and accounting, entertainment, the food industry and the telecommunications sectors and analyses them according to a standard set of criteria in relation to their background, development, practical set-up, legislative mandate (e.g., relevant directives, rules, links to legal obligations), main concerns and...

  1. Structure and Evolution of EU Budget Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Mihaela Florea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although small size, representing only 1% of EU wealth, its budget is an important tool for achieving the objectives of integration. Basically, in one form or another, every EU citizen benefits from the EU budget at the local, national and European level: food and safer toys, new roads and better quality of security at EU borders. These are just a few examples of areas where the EU budget plays a decisive role. To fulfil its objectives, the European Union has traditional own resources, the VAT - based own resources and the GNI- based resources.

  2. The emerging EU quality of care policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; van de Bovenkamp, Hester M.; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that Member States and many citizens of the EU like to keep healthcare a foremost national competence and the EU treaties state that Member States remain primarily responsible for the organization and delivery of health care services, the European Union (EU) has expanded its...... involvement in healthcare policy over the last twenty years. Based on interviews and document and literature analysis we show that the scope of EU involvement has widened from public health and access to care, to quality of care. In this paper we concentrate on the latter. Focusing on the recent EU...

  3. EU-India migration and trade linkages

    OpenAIRE

    TUMBE, Chinmay

    2013-01-01

    CARIM-India: Developing a knowledge base for policymaking on India-EU migration This paper reviews the relationship between migration and trade between India and the European Union (EU). It provides an overview of EU-India trade across various dimensions and links it with migration in three specific contexts: (a) The $ 14 billion EU-India diamond trade that represents nearly 15% of total EU-India merchandise trade, and that is attributed to the direct and active role played by Indian immig...

  4. Invisible KL decays in the SM extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gninenko, S. N.; Krasnikov, N. V.

    2016-07-01

    In the Standard Model (SM), the branching ratio for the decay KL → νν¯ is helicity suppressed and predicted to be very small ≤ O(10‑17). We consider two natural extensions of the SM as the two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) and the neutrino minimal Standard Model (νMSM) with additional singlet scalar, whose main feature is that they can lead to an enhanced Br(KL → invisible). In the 2HDM, the smallness of the neutrino mass is explained due to the smallness of the second Higgs doublet vacuum expectation value. Moreover, the νMSM extension with additional singlet field can explain the (g ‑ 2)μ anomaly. The considered models demonstrate that the KL → invisible decay is a clean probe of new physics scale well above 100 TeV, that is complementary to rare K → π + invisible decay, and provide a strong motivation for its sensitive search in a near future low-energy experiment.

  5. The SmS-Ga2S3 section of the ternary Sm-Ga-S system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SmS-Ga2S3 section of the Sm-Ga-S system is investigated by differential-thermal, XPA, and microstructural analyses and changes in the microhardness. The XPA was performed with a DRON-2 diffractometer using CuK /SUB a/ radiation. Microstructural analysis showed that alloys containing 0-2, 33.3, and 50 mole % SmS were single-phase and the rest were two-phase

  6. Cross-section SmS-Ga2S3 of Sm-Ga-S ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SmS-Ga2S3 system state diagram has been built up for the first time on the basis of the data of differential thermal, microstructural, and X-ray phase analyses and also according to the results of microhardness measurements. It has been established that ternary SmGa2S4, SmGa4S7 compounds are formed in the system

  7. Design and Fabrication of Eu-Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Venkat Sai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available EU-Cycle is a self balancing electric unicycle. A regular unicycle is powered by pedal and is balanced by a rider, whilst the EU-Cycle runs by an electric motor and balance by control system in the roll direction. The simple thing to do by rider is to lean forward for acceleration, to lean backward for braking. EU-Cycle is designed as to be a fast and portable means of transport among crowded area, home and office. Therefore, The EU-Cycle gives tough challenge to the unicycle. EU-Cycle has attracted print media including future stories in radio, television. Thus in addition to successful development of EU-Cycle in urban use, the project has to implement the EU-cycle as an educative device.

  8. Outcomes of 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling with brilliant blue in macular hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohutcu A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Huseyin Sanisoglu1, Mehmet Sahin Sevim1, Betul Aktas1, Semra Sevim2, Ahmet Nohutcu11Haydarpasa Numune Education and Research Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, 2Uskudar State Hospital, Eye Clinic, Istanbul, TurkeyPurpose: The evaluation of anatomic and visual outcomes in macular hole cases treated with internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling, brilliant blue (BB, and 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV.Materials and methods: Fifty eyes of 48 patients who presented between July 2007 and December 2009 with the diagnosis of stage 2, 3, or 4 macular holes according to Gass Classification who had undergone PPV and ILM peeling were included in this study. Pre- and postoperative macular examinations were assessed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. 23 G sutureless PPV and ILM peeling with BB was performed on all patients.Results: The mean age of patients was 63.34 ± 9.6 years. Stage 2 macular hole was determined in 17 eyes (34%, stage 3 in 24 eyes (48%, and stage 4 in 9 eyes (18%. The mean follow-up time was 13.6 ± 1.09 months. Anatomic closure was detected in 46/50 eyes (92%, whereas, in four cases, macular hole persisted and a second operation was not required due to subretinal fluid drainage. At follow-up after 2 months, persistant macular hole was detected in one case and it was closed with reoperation. At 12 months, an increase in visual acuity in 41 eyes was observed, while it remained at the same level in six eyes. In three eyes visual acuity decreased. There was a postoperative statistically significant increase in visual acuity in stage 2 and 3 cases (P < 0.05, however, no increase in visual acuity in stage 4 cases was observed.Conclusion: PPV and ILM peeling in stage 2, 3, and 4 macular hole cases provide successful anatomic outcomes, however, in delayed cases, due to photoreceptor loss, it has no effect on functional recovery. BB, used for clarity of ILM, may be beneficial due to its low retinal toxicity.Keywords: macular

  9. Good Governance in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Livioara GOGA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the EU adhesion, good governance has been analyzed from different perspectives, in the judicial literature being an analytic model or a normative concept. Some authors have wondered if this concept is a fashion, comprising some older ideas and principles, while other authors have asserted that the reasons why different methods of governance appear in the EU are based on “the complexity and the uncertainty of the problems on the agenda, an irreducible, the new approaches on public administration and law, hidden competencies, legitimacy and subsidiarity”. At a normative level, the White Paper of European Governance consecrated five principles on which good governance is based upon: openness, participation, responsibility, efficiency and coherence.

  10. Limits of Evidence within EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of admissibility of evidence has been regulated only very scarcely in the EU. Judicial cooperation in criminal matters has been embracing the increasing number of instruments, covering plethora of aspects, however, the field of admissibility of evidence remains almost untouched. Can the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice be called the Common Evidence Area? From the national perspective, the issue of admissibility of evidence is still subject to divergent solutions in the Member States, concerning the common law and continental law systems, i.e. the right of access to a lawyer. Thus, the paper aims to take into account the tendencies of legal rule in matter of admissibility of evidence, the dynamic of evidence movement within EU area.

  11. Crystal growth, structure, infrared spectroscopy, and luminescent properties of rare-earth gallium borates RGa3(BO3)4, R = Nd, Sm-Er, Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikova, Elena Yu.; Boldyrev, Kirill N.; Aksenov, Sergey M.; Dobretsova, Elena A.; Kurazhkovskaya, Victoria S.; Leonyuk, Nikolay I.; Savon, Alexander E.; Deyneko, Dina V.; Ksenofontov, Dmitry A.

    2015-11-01

    Crystals of the rare-earth gallium borates RGa3(BO3)4, where R = Nd, Sm-Er, or Y, were grown by the flux method. The crystal structures of RGa3(BO3)4 (R = Eu, Ho) were studied on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. The hexagonal unit-cell parameters are a = 9.4657(1) Å, c = 7.4667(1) Å and a = 9.4394(2) Å, c = 7.4322(1) Å for EuGa3(BO3)4 and HoGa3(BO3)4, respectively, space group R32. Structure model was determined by "charge flipping" method and refined to R = 1.93% [EuGa3(BO3)4] and R = 1.89% [HoGa3(BO3)4] in anisotropic approximation. All grown gallium borates were investigated by infrared (IR) spectroscopy technique in a middle and far IR region. IR spectra of rare-earth gallium borates correspond to a pure rhombohedral (R32) polytype structure. Small inclusions of a monoclinic phase were detected only in Eu and Nd compounds. Luminescence of Eu and Ho gallium borates was studied at room temperature. The measured decay times for the most intensive emission lines of EuGa3(BO3)4 (∼614 nm) and HoGa3(BO3)4 (434 nm) are 940 μs and 140 μs, respectively. The scheme of crystal-field energy levels of Eu3+ in EuGa3(BO3)4 was built on the basis of the temperature-dependent optical transmission measurements combined with the luminescence data. The measured UV absorption edge for RGa3(BO3)4 is at about 300 nm.

  12. EU Kids Online: national perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Haddon, Leslie; Livingstone, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    This comparative report summarises the internet related experiences of children in the 33 countries now participating in EU Kids Online. Findings for eight new countries are added to the 25 included in our previous reports – Croatia, Iceland, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, Russia, Slovakia and Switzerland. For each country, we present the key statistics and country-specific commentary on children’s internet access and use, activities and skills, risks and harm parental mediation and safe...

  13. School version of ESTE EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESTE EU is information system and software for radiological impacts assessment to the territory of the country in case of radiation accident inside/outside of the country .The program enables to model dispersion of radioactive clouds in small-scale and meso-scale. The system enables the user to estimate prediction of the source term (release to the atmosphere ) for any point of radiation/nuclear accident in Europe (for any point of the release, but especially for the sites of European power reactors ). The system enables to utilize results of real radiological monitoring in the process of source term estimation. Radiological impacts of release to the atmosphere are modelled and calculated across the Europe and displayed in the geographical information system (GIS). The school version of ESTE EU is intended for students of the universities which are interested in or could work in the field of emergency response, radiological and nuclear accidents, dispersion modelling, radiological impacts calculation and urgent or preventive protective measures implementation. The school version of ESTE EU is planned to be donated to specialized departments of faculties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, etc. System can be fully operated in Slovak, Czech or English language. (authors)

  14. Enhanced photocatalytic-electrolytic degradation of Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B in the presence of water jet cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoning; Jia, Jinping; Wang, Yalin

    2015-03-01

    Photocatalysis, electrolysis, water jet cavitation (WJC), alone and in combinations were applied to degrade an azo dye, Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B (X-3B). Experiments were conducted in a 4.0 L aqueous solution with different initial dye concentrations, TiO₂ dose, and solution pH. WJC substantially increased the photocatalytic, electrolytic and photocatalytic-electrolytic rates of the dye removal. The observed first-order rate of X-3B decolorization in the process of combined photocatalysis and electrolysis coupled with WJC was 1.6-2.9 times of that in the process of combined photocatalysis and electrolysis coupled with mechanical stirring. The rate enhancements may be attributed primarily to the reduced diffusion layer thickness on the electrodes and the deagglomeration of photocatalyst particles due to the chemical and physical effects of WJC. Under the conditions of 80 mg/L X-3B solution, 100 mg/L TiO₂ dose and solution pH 6.3, 97% and 71% of color and chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) were removed, respectively, within 90-min photocatalytic-electrolytic treatment coupled with WJC. During this process, azo groups and naphthalene, benzene and triazine structures of the dye can be destroyed. Industrial textile effluent was also investigated, and a positive synergistic effect between photocatalytic-electrolytic system and WJC was observed considering color removal. PMID:25453209

  15. Effect of Activation Time on the Pinang Frond based Activated Carbon for Remazol Brilliant Blue R Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons are regularly used for dye wastewater treatment. They can be produced from various organic materials which have a high level of carbon content. In this study, Pinang frond based activated carbon (PFAC was produced by using a physical activation process to study the effect of different activation times in the range of 1–7 hours. The optimum PFAC sample was found with an activation time of 3 hours, which gives the highest BET surface area and pore volume of 958.23 m2/g and 0.5469 mL/g, respectively. This sample shows well-developed pore structure with a high fixed carbon content of 79.74%. The removal of 87.6% of Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR was achieved for a sample with initial RBBR concentration of 50 mg/L, and 40.8% was achieved with 500 mg/L. The results indicated that the PFAC is very effective for RBBR adsorption from aqueous solutio

  16. Removal of the synthetic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R from textile industry wastewaters by biosorption on the macrophyte Salvinia natans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Pelosi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch experiments were carried out for biosorption of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye onto the macrophyte Salvinia natans. Effects of parameters such as initial dye concentration, pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time and temperature were investigated. Chemical and morphological characteristics of the biosorbent were evaluated before and after the biosorption process using methods such as Optical Microscopy (OM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TA, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR. Sorption kinetics were conducted and followed a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium data were well represented by the Langmuir model. Salvinia natans exhibited a maximum uptake of 61.9 mg.g-1. The Dubinin-Radushkevich model indicated that the adsorption takes place by a physical process. Thermodynamic parameters were estimated. The negative values of the Gibbs energy indicated the spontaneous nature of the adsorption. The entropy was positive and the positive value of the enthalpy showed that the process is endothermic.

  17. New CNT/poly(brilliant green) and CNT/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) based electrochemical enzyme biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsan, Madalina M; Pifferi, Valentina; Falciola, Luigi; Brett, Christopher M A

    2016-07-13

    A combination of the electroactive polymer poly(brilliant green) (PBG) or conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) with carbon nanotubes to obtain CNT/PBG and CNT/PEDOT modified carbon film electrodes (CFE) has been investigated as a new biosensor platform, incorporating the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx) as test enzyme, alcohol oxidase (AlcOx) or alcohol dehydrogenase (AlcDH). The sensing parameters were optimized for all biosensors based on CNT/PBG/CFE, CNT/PEDOT/CFE platforms. Under optimized conditions, both GOx biosensors exhibited very similar sensitivities, while in the case of AlcOx and AlcDH biosensors, AlcOx/CNT/PBG/CFE was found to give a higher sensitivity and lower detection limit. The influence of dissolved O2 on oxidase-biosensor performance was investigated and was shown to be different for each enzyme. Comparisons were made with similar reported biosensors, showing the advantages of the new biosensors, and excellent selectivity against potential interferents was successfully demonstrated. Finally, alcohol biosensors were successfully used for the determination of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. PMID:27237835

  18. Luminescent Afterglow Behavior in the M2Si5N8: Eu Family (M = Ca, Sr, Ba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Van den Eeckhout

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Persistent luminescent materials are able to emit light for hours after being excited. The majority of persistent phosphors emit in the blue or green region of the visible spectrum. Orange- or red-emitting phosphors, strongly desired for emergency signage and medical imaging, are scarce. We prepared the nitrido-silicates Ca2Si5N8:Eu (orange, Sr2Si5N8:Eu (reddish, Ba2Si5N8:Eu (yellowish orange, and their rare-earth codoped variants (R = Nd, Dy, Sm, Tm through a solid state reaction, and investigated their luminescence and afterglow properties. In this paper, we describe how the persistent luminescence is affected by the type of codopant and the choice and ratio of the starting products. All the materials exhibit some form of persistent luminescence, but for Sr2Si5N8:Eu,R this is very weak. In Ba2Si5N8:Eu the afterglow remains visible for about 400 s, and Ca2Si5N8:Eu,Tm shows the brightest and longest afterglow, lasting about 2,500 s. For optimal persistent luminescence, the dopant and codopant should be added in their fluoride form, in concentrations below 1 mol%. A Ca3N2 deficiency of about 5% triples the afterglow intensity. Our results show that Ba2Si5N8:Eu(,R and Ca2Si5N8:Eu(,R are promising persistent phosphors for applications requiring orange or red light.

  19. Cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on $^{nat}$Sm for production of the therapeutic radionuclide $^{145}$Sm and $^{153}$Sm

    CERN Document Server

    Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Ditrói, F; Csikai, J; Ignatyuk, A V

    2014-01-01

    At present, targeted radiotherapy (TR) is acknowledged to have great potential in oncology. A large list of interesting radionuclides is identified, including several radioisotopes of lanthanides, amongst them $^{145}$Sm and $^{153}$Sm. In this work the possibility of their production at a cyclotron was investigated using a deuteron beam and a samarium target. The excitation functions of the $^{nat}$Sm(d,x)$^{145153}$Sm reactions were determined for deuteron energies up to 50 MeV using the stacked-foil technique and high-resolution $\\gamma$-ray spectrometry. The measured cross sections and the contributing reactions were analyzed by comparison with results of the ALICE, EMPIRE and TALYS nuclear reaction codes. A short overview and comparison of possible production routes is given.

  20. Territorial Cooperation and socio-economic development in the Old EU , New EU and Non EU

    OpenAIRE

    Topaloglou, Lefteris; Cupcea, Victor; Dimitris KALLIORAS; Pantazis, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Territorial cooperation, taken as collaboration “beyond national boundaries†, among administrative bodies and/or political actors, generally offers the ground for functional cooperation towards problem-solving and challenge-tackling, along with the exploitation of the local and regional potentials. In the EU, given the high-level of political integration amongst the Member States, numerous rules and structures have been created to support territorial cooperation. In this context, the terr...

  1. Metallic nanowires on SmSi interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger, E; Palmino, F; Labrune, J C [Institut FEMTO-ST Dpt CREST, CNRS UMR 6174, 4 place Tharradin, BP 71427, 25211 Montbeliard cedex (France)

    2007-03-15

    The manufacture of nanowires and the exploitation of their specific properties are the great fields of fundamental and industrial research. Some nanostructuration can be obtained with the help of conventional lithography technics; nevertheless these technics are limited by the optical resolution, the introduction of many defects and the residual damage related to engraving. A new approach, which consists to create nanowires in-situ on pre structured SmSi(111) interface has been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). This interface is known to permit the creation of many different 1D templates in the submonolayer range. We show in this study, the possibility to create Fe nano-objects of well-defined size distributed in an ordered array.

  2. Små dimser med store potentialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Dobroczynski, Michal; Gade, Rikke;

    2015-01-01

    Fødevare- og medialogiforskere på Aalborg Universitet har de seneste år udviklet og testet en række intelligente enheder. Fælles for dem er, at de er små og kan håndtere store mængder af data om forbrugernes adfærd. Et eksempel er FoodScape Tracker, som i realtid samarbejder med forbrugeren om, h......, hvad denne spiser. En anden ny enhed er Virtual Food Choice Simulator, som virtuelt kan simulere fødevareomgivelser i form af buffeter og supermarkeder uden udgifter til ombygning og fødevarer, og derved vise, hvad forbrugerne ser og ikke ser....

  3. Governance in EU illicit drugs policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Carel; Galla, Maurice

    2014-09-01

    This commentary represents the authors' views on EU governance in illicit drug policy, a field in which they were active for more than 10 years between them. EU drug policy has a narrow legal basis in the European Treaties and is mostly non-binding. The main policy instruments are 8-year EU Drug Strategies, underpinned by 4-year Action Plans which set out specific objectives at national, EU or international level. The approach that guides EU drug policy is known as the 'balanced approach'. It is remarkably restrained and reflects the reality that very few Member States have either the socio-political culture or the resources to consistently apply the punitive sanctions foreseen by the UN conventions. An important feature of EU governance in the field of drugs is the proactive support that is provided to non-governmental organisations both within the EU as well as in accession, associated or third countries. At a global level, the EU is a major financial aid donor also in this field. This position is not however reflected in corresponding political clout for the EU within the UN system. EU governance on drugs has made it possible for many of its Member States to accommodate the problem rather than to "solve" what by all the evidence from the last 100 years may well be insoluble, at least by means of criminalisation and prohibition. The big question is where EU drug policy is headed in the next few years. The EU has been promoting measures and practices that target real problems. It has done so without indulging too much in unhelpful rhetoric. However, like all successful formulae this one also has a sell-by date. EU governance in the field of drugs cannot afford to stand still. It needs to find a second wind.

  4. Thermal quenching of photoluminescence of Eu3+ ions in an Eu(fod)3 complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, V. I.; Zavorotnyi, Yu. S.; Rybaltovskii, A. O.; Taraeva, A. Yu.

    2006-05-01

    We have studied the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Eu3+ ions in the complex Eu(fod)3 (fod = 6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-2,2-dimethyl-3,5-octadione) and also in polymers doped with Eu(fod)3 with the help of supercritical carbon dioxide. We have established that in the temperature range 20°C 100°C, we observe thermal quenching of the photoluminescence of Eu3+ ions, and this quenching is most efficient in polycrystalline Eu(fod)3 powder and Eu(fod)3-doped polypropylene.

  5. Micromagnetic Simulation of Magnetization Reversal in SmCo5/Sm2Co17 Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣传兵; 张宏伟; 杜晓波; 张健; 张绍英; 沈保根

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element micromagnetic algorithm was developed to study the magnetization reversal of the SmCo5/Sm2Co17 based magnets. The influences of the microstructure and magnetic parameters on the coercivity were studied based on the model consisting of 64 irregular cells according to the experimental microstructure. Numerical results show that the coercivity increases with increasing the 2∶17-type cell size. Large cell boundary thickness leads to small coercivity. The drop of anisotropy constant of 1∶5 phase leads to the coercivity reducing, while the effect of exchange constant of 1∶5 phase on coercivity is contrary to that of exchange constant. The calculated field dependence of coercivity can be predicted by an inhomogeneous domain-wall pinning model. The microstructure parameter was analyzed by comparing the calculated coercivity.

  6. Beyond EU navel-gazing: Taking stock of EU-centrism in the analysis of EU foreign policy

    OpenAIRE

    Keuleers, Floor; Fonck, Daan; Keukeleire, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Concerns on the EU-centric character of EU foreign policy analysis have become more frequent in recent years, yet a systematic toolbox for diagnosing and remedying this problem is still lacking. This article’s contribution is twofold. First, it proposes a new typology of three approaches to foreign policy analysis, giving conceptual body and nuance to the debate on EU-centrism. The typology can be used for scrutinizing existing analyses, as well as for shaping new research projects. The secon...

  7. Poly(brilliant green) and poly(thionine) modified carbon nanotube coated carbon film electrodes for glucose and uric acid biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ghica, M. Emilia; Christopher M. A. Brett

    2014-01-01

    Poly(brilliant green) (PBG) and poly(thionine) (PTH) films have been formed on carbon film electrodes (CFEs) modified with carbon nanotubes (CNT) by electropolymerisation using potential cycling. Voltammetric and electrochemical impedance characterisation were performed. Glucose oxidase and uricase, as model enzymes, were immobilised on top of PBG/CNT/CFE and PTH/CNT/CFE for glucose and uric acid (UA) biosensing. Amperometric determination of glucose and UA was carried out in phosphate buffer...

  8. Phase equilibria in Sb2S3-SmS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of physicochemical analysis is used to study Sb2S3-SmS cross section, which is a quasibinary one of Sm-Sb-S ternary system. Three new compounds: SmSb4S7, SmSb2S4 and Sm3Sb4S9 are formed in the system, the first one melts congruently, two others - incongruently. Solubility of Sb2S3 is 3 mol.% SmS at 300 K

  9. Direct synthesis of mesoporous molecular sieves of Ni-SBA-16 by internal pH adjustment method and its performance for adsorption of toxic Brilliant Green dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Tufail Shah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An ordered mesoporous novel material Ni-SBA-16 has been synthesized by internal pH-adjustment method. The synthesized material has been characterized by small angle XRD (SXRD, wide angle XRD (WXRD, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM, Fourier-transform Infra-red (FTIR spectroscope and Nitrogen Adsorption desorption techniques. The characterization results have shown that material possesses highly ordered mesostructure with high surface area (736 m2/g and large pore diameter (3.8 nm. FTIR and WXRD spectra revealed that nickel was uniformly dispersed on SBA-16 surface. The synthesized material has been used as adsorbent for removal of toxic Brilliant Green dye due to its large surface area and pore size. At optimized conditions, almost 100% of Brilliant Green dye was removed from aqueous solution by Ni-SBA-16. The isotherms analysis indicates that the Langmuir and Hill models provide the best correlation of the experimental data. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax of Ni-SBA-16 for Brilliant Green dye was 322.58 mg/g.

  10. Influence of operating conditions on the removal of brilliant vital red dye from aqueous media by bio-sorption using rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-sorption is emerging as an economical and eco friendly methodology for the removal of hazardous and toxic chemicals from waste water. The operating conditions have a great influence on the efficiency of this process. Conventional and indigenous bio sorbents like bagasse, wheat husk and rice husk have been evaluated for their removing efficiency of Brilliant Vital Red dye from water. Rice husk is proved better among them. The effect of important operating conditions for the removal of the dye using rice husk were studied. The observed optimum values for various factors are; 0.2 g of bio sorbent, 25 ppm initial dye concentration, 30 deg. C temperature, 15 minutes contact time, 300 rpm stirring speed and 2.0 ph. Langmuir adsorption isotherm model was also applied to evaluate maximum adsorption capacity of rice husk for Brilliant Vital Red dye. Q/sub max/ value was 15.06 which indicated that rice husk can effectively be used for the removal of Brilliant Vital Red dye from wastewater using the optimized operational conditions. This study would be accommodative with regard to practical wastewater treatment. (author)

  11. Financial Integration into EU: The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bozkurt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of integration between stock market of Romania and other stock markets of European Union (EU countries. Correlations between the stock returns represent the level of integration between the stock markets. Empirical analysis are performed with daily stock returns of 24 EU members including Romania for 2002-2012 period using panel data gravity models and correlations are investigated. Findings reveal that the following factors have significant and robust effects on the financial integration process of Romania with other 23 EU members; (i EU membership, (ii bilateral trade, (iii GDP per capita, (iv 2012 sovereign debt crisis and (v East European location. The results emphasize that intensifying economic relations with EU members can contribute the integration of Romanian stock market with other EU members. designed & hoste

  12. Optic phonon anomalies and f-d hybridization in SmS and SmB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optic phonons of semiconducting SmS and of (homogeneously) mixed-valent SmS and SmB6 have been investigated by means of Raman scattering. The dominant electron-phonon interaction upon resonantly exciting the 4f shell is revealed as a coupling of the strongly localized 4f hole at the Sm site to full symmetric (Asub(1g)) displacements of the nearest neighbour anions, i.e. mainly to LO(L) phonons. Semiconducting and mixed-valent, metallic SmS show a 'softening' of the LO(L) phonon frequencies with respect to the other divalent and trivalent rare earth sulfides, respectively, going in parallel with a 'softening' of the bulk modulus. The f-d hybridization is considered as the common origin of these phonon frequency renormalizations. (author)

  13. Assessment of microseeds biodegradability of Sm and Sm:Ba splenic implants in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive interstitial implants have applications in controlling neoplasm in several regions of the human body. Currently the permanent brachytherapy seeds implanted in the spleen and other organs are made of I-125 seeds. After the total emission of radiation, the metal encapsulated seed remains inert in the implanted area. Seeds of bioactive ceramics have been prepared with Sm-152 incorporation to be activated in Sm-153. This study aimed to develop surgical technique for implanting biodegradable micro-seeds in the spleen of the rabbit. Three micro-seeds were introduced by hypodermic needle in the spleen in eight rabbits by median laparotomy. Subsequently, there were clinical and functional reactions of the animal to the implanted foreign body. The other objective was to perform the animal monitoring by radiography, produced in time sequence, and pathological studies of a fragment of the spleens of rabbits. The results show the effectiveness of surgery, the identification of the implanted material by radiography in vivo, and the biocompatibility of micro-seeds most of Sm and Sm:Ba. These seeds of reduced volume, 0.3x 1.6 mm, could be monitored for radiological studies in 2 periods: early and later implant. On the later studies, radiography was taken at 60d post-implant. Biopsies were taken and radiographs of the samples were also performed for evidencing the degradation state of the seeds. The results of the two groups of four rabbits are presented. They show partial degradation of the seed verified by radiographic contrast which is related to the atomic number of the elements and mass density in the seed. The biopsy showed that the ceramic is clearly absorbed by the spleen tissue and form tissue-implant interface. The histological slides showed an inflammatory reaction with presence of fibrosis of the giant cell foreign body. In conclusion, the radiograph shows a suitable noninvasive technique for monitoring the degradation of micro-seed ceramics in vivo

  14. ATTITUDES OF MACEDONIAN FARMERS TOWARDS EU ACCESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Kotevska, Ana; Martinovska-Stojcheska, Aleksandra; Ohlmer, Bo; Dimitrievski, Dragi

    2012-01-01

    Macedonia is a candidate-country for EU membership since 2005. The EU integrative process, without doubt, will have impact on the Macedonian economy and particularly on the agricultural sector, as being one of the most significant in terms of GDP contribution and workforce employer. So far, farmer's attitudes and intentions with regard to the EU integration and accession were not much investigated. In this sense, the objective of the paper is to provide understanding of the Macedonian farmers...

  15. The Integration of EU Banking Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gual, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this Paper is to provide an assessment of the EU policies that pursue the creation of a single banking market. The Paper evaluates the degree of integration of EU banking markets and discusses whether current policies are the most appropriate instruments for market integration. After comparing the key features of EU policy with alternative methods of market opening, the analysis stresses that market opening in regulated markets such as banking faces a difficult trade-off between r...

  16. Issues Related to EU's Foreign Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The European Union (EU) is widely regarded as an important international actor, and usually referred to as a big power like the U. S. , Russia, China and Japan. So naturally the foreign policy of the EU has caught attention of both officials and scholars over the world. However, the EU is also a combination of sovereign states, its foreign policy is different from others, and perhaps this is often ignored. For instance, unlike a single nation state, the EU's influence and power are different in various policy fields due to its different ways of decision-making and implementation. Also, different from the common currency, the forming of the common foreign policy of the EU doesn't mean the disappearance of respective member state's foreign policy. Only seeing or emphasizing one respect will lead to a misunderstanding of the EU. Moreover, as a unique "supranational and intergovernmental" organization in the world, the EU has too many complex institutions, names and terms. Of course, the situation is not better in the field of foreign policy, and it easily leads to confusion and misunderstanding. It is also necessary to point out that the EU is still in the process of evolvement, and in particular, as one of the major reforms of the EU in recent years, the foreign policy-making mechanism has been in the center of change and adjustment. It is no doubt that this adds to the difficulties of studying and understanding the EU's foreign policy. In a word, the author thinks it is necessary to raise some major issues related to the EU's foreign policy and delve into it in connecting with the EU's current development.

  17. Small Island Differentiation in EU Law

    OpenAIRE

    Arndís Kristjánsdóttir 1969

    2010-01-01

    The principle of uniformity in the application of European Union (EU) policy and law has long been institutionally asserted as one of its foundations. Referred to as the acquis communautaire, roughly translated from the French as “that which has been acquired by the Union”, it is the term for the accumulated legislation, and judicial decisions which constitute the body of EU law and to which immediate and complete compliance is requisite of incoming Member States. The EU, also referred to ...

  18. Wage Implications at EU Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron Dumitrescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In all conditions of time and space, economic activity necessarily involves active work as a determinant factor of production and beneficiary of its results. In the market economy, labor services are provided to production, as with the other factors of production, through market transactions. This article aims labor factor, the role and characteristics of labor as a production factor and the employment in the EU. As a secondary market, labor market is influenced by other markets and generates, in turn, effects that are found in all other structures of the market economy system

  19. Reforming the EU Sugar Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Frandsen, Soren E.; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    2002-01-01

    This article presents and analyses the impacts of the EU sugar policy. Particular attention is given to the modelling of the quite complex policy and the calibration of the global general equilibrium model at the member state level. Two scenarios are analysed, namely a reduction in the intervention price of sugar and the sugar quota. It is found that the economic impacts of the two scenarios are quite different in terms of the effects on European production and trade in sugar as well in terms...

  20. Menneskerettigheder og handelspolitik i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    interesting to observe that it was interpreted as that we have to think about how we act in this area. Not that we had to rethink everything we do. You describe how Fair Trade concept of FLO (Fair Labor Organization) definition is officially recognized in the EU. Is not it strange that private or NGO...... a Western European perspective, the gross violations of human rights: torture, extrajudicial executions, ill-treatment of prisoners, etc. And they focused primarily on extremist regimes. In the 1980s they began to focus on communist regimes as religious freedom, freedom of expression, freedom of movement...

  1. Sm-Nd dating and REE Composition of scheelite for the Honghuaerji scheelite deposit, Inner Mongolia, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhijun; Li, Jinwen; Xu, Xinying; Song, Zeyou; Dong, Xuzhou; Tian, Jing; Yang, Yuncheng; She, Hongquan; Xiang, Anping; Kang, Yongjian

    2016-09-01

    Sm-Nd analyses of seven scheelite samples from scheelite-quartz veins in the Honghuaerji scheelite deposit produce a well-defined linear array on an isochron diagram with a mean square weighted deviation (MSWD) of 0.87 corresponding to an age of 178.4 ± 2.9 Ma with εNd(t) = + 1.50. This age is interpreted to represent the age of scheelite mineralization. The scheelite Sm-Nd age is in good agreement with U-Pb ages obtained from a mineralization-related granite (179.4 ~ 178.6 Ma), indicating that there is no apparent age gap between granite crystallization and ore formation. Rare earth element (REE) abundances in the scheelite were determined by in situ laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and the scheelite samples contain elevated REE concentrations with total ΣREE + Y contents in the range of 3339 to 6321 ppm. The chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns of all scheelites are middle REE (MREE)-enriched, with strong negative Eu-anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.09 ~ 0.23). The REE characteristics of the Honghuaerji scheelite suggest that REE3 + substituted into the Ca site along with Na and Nb (dominated by Na), whereas Eu is predominantly present as Eu2 + in the scheelite and may have crystallized from relatively reduced fluids. All sulfur isotope data (δ34S) for sulfide separates range from + 2.0 to + 3.8‰, with an average of 3.2‰. Measured 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios vary from 18.243 to 18.451, 15.494 to 15.574, and 37.933 to 38.340, respectively. On the basis of common Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic characteristics between the scheelite and the host granite and the positive initial Nd isotope ratios (+ 1.46 - + 1.52), low 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.704983-0.705297) in the scheelites, it is inferred that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for tungsten mineralization at Honghuaerji were of magmatic origin with a mantle-derived signature. Based on the regional geology, tectonic evolution, and geochemical evidence, the

  2. Challenges and problems of organic seed production in the EU – the EU Organic Seed Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wilbois , Klaus-Peter

    2005-01-01

    Content: - Organic Seed regime in the EU - Overview EU Organic Seed data base - Data Base Exeample: OrganicXseeds - Problems of the Organic Seed Regulation - Problems with MS's Data Base - How to overcome these problems - Recommendations for new MS

  3. REE composition in scheelite and scheelite Sm-Nd dating for the Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be deposit in Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; DENG Jun; LI ChaoFeng; SHI GuangHai; ZHENG AiLi

    2007-01-01

    The scheelite with large size and euhedral shape from Xuebaoding, Sichuan Province is an ideal mineral to study REE patterns and Sm-Nd dating of non-gold deposits. The scheelite has diameters of 1―10 cm and colors of pale beige to deep orange. Most of these scheelites occur in association with beryl, cassiterite and muscovite. The rare earth elements indicate that scheelite samples from Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be deposits contain high concentrations of rare earth elements with total ΣREE+Y contents in the range of 369―1725 μg·g(-)1 and nearly all of these scheelite samples are enriched in LREE and depleted in HREE and have negative Eu anomalies. The REE patterns of the scheelites are similar to those of A-type granite with obvious tetrad effect, similar to that of type II scheelites. Based on reported fluid inclusion studies, the mineralizing-fluid of the Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be deposit indicates low Na activity. The REE patterns of the scheelite are probably controlled by partition coefficient in hydrothermal fluid. In the 147Sm/144Nd-143Nd/144Nd diagram, the scheelites show a linear array corresponding to an isochron age of 182.0±9.2 Ma (MSWD = 0.52). The Sm-Nd age represents the formation age of the scheelite and can indicate that the W, Sn and Be mineralization at Xuebaoding took place in the Early Yanshanian. The Sm-Nd dating result is important for the study of the multi-metal resources in western Sichuan Province.

  4. The EU Approach to International Investment Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Shehi, Olsi

    2015-01-01

    The study includes an overview of the development of EU foreign investment law before the Lisbon Treaty came to force as well as the consequences after the moment when it became a binding legal document. The main research question of this study is in what way the EU has replaced its Member States in the field of foreign investment. Moreover, this thesis studies the EU foreign investment policy, its regulation in accordance with the Lisbon Treaty as well as analyzes the most important EU draft...

  5. Den brede, folkelige debat om EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    2005-01-01

    I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet.......I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet....

  6. Why use experiments in EU Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    The past decades have witnessed an explosion in the use of experiments. Though experiments have been increasingly applied, their recognition as useful methodological tools to investigate EU-related research questions has lagged behind the rest of the political science community. This article does...... two things. First, by summarising the use of experiments in EU research, it provides an overview of the evolution of the use of experiments within EU studies. This includes a content exploration of the pioneering sub-areas within EU studies where experimentation is frequently used. Particular focus...

  7. Pending Eu Disputes in the Wto: Challenges to Eu Energy Law and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Perišin, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    In the last several years, there has been a surprising number of energy-related disputes in the WTO. In seven such cases, the EU has taken the role of respondent. There are four different groups of these cases: the first are disputes concerning EU standards on biofuels and other renewable energy sources; the second are disputes on EU Member State measures implementing these EU standards on biofuels and renewables; the third are cases directed against internal market measu...

  8. Thermal neutron capture cross sections for the 152Sm(n,γ) 153Sm and 154Sm(n,γ) 155Sm reactions at 0.0536 eV energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M. S.; Chowdhury, M. H.; Hossain, S. M.; Latif, Sk. A.; Islam, M. A.; Hafiz, M. A.; Mubin, S. H.; Zakaria, A. K. M.; Yunus, S. M.; Azharul Islam, S. M.

    2008-11-01

    The neutron capture cross sections for the 152Sm(n,γ) 153Sm and 154Sm(n,γ) 155Sm reactions at 0.0536 eV neutron energy were measured using an activation technique based on the TRIGA Mark-II research reactor, relative to the reference reaction 197Au(n,γ) 198Au. The activity was measured nondestructively using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Our measured values at this neutron energy are the first ones and are compared with 1/ v based evaluated cross sections reported in the ENDF/B-VII and JENDL-3.3 libraries. The measured value for the 152Sm(n,γ) 153Sm reaction is 0.28% lower than JENDL-3.3 and 0.48% higher than ENDF/B-VII. Our value for the production of 155Sm is about 3% and 2.3% higher than the evaluated value with ENDF/B-VII and JENDL-3.3 at 0.0536 eV, respectively.

  9. Complexation study of brilliant cresyl blue with beta-cyclodextrin and its derivatives by UV-vis and fluorospectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Feng; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Guo, Yu-Xian; Li, Rong

    2008-01-01

    The complexation reactions of brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD), mono[2-O-(2-hydroxypropyl)]-beta-CD (2-HP-beta-CD), mono[2-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)]-beta-CD (2-HE-beta-CD), and heptakis(2,6-di-methyl) -beta-CD (DM-beta-CD) were investigated using UV-vis and fluorospectrometry. The complexation between BCB and CDs could inhibit the aggregation of BCB molecules and could cause its absorbance at 634nm gradually increasing. The fluorescence of BCB was also enhanced with the addition of CDs. The fluorescence enhancement was more notable in neutral and acidic media than in basic media. Hildebrand-Benesi equation was used to calculate the formation constants of beta-CDs with BCB based on the fluorescence differences in the CDs solution. The stoichiometry ratio was found to be 1:1. The complexing capacities of beta-CD and its three derivatives were compared and the results followed the order: 2-HP-beta-CD>2-HE-beta-CD>DM-beta-CD>beta-CD. The effect of temperature on the formation of BCB-beta-CD inclusion complexes has also been examined. The results revealed that the formation constants decreased with the increase of temperature from 1038.9 to 491.6l/mol. Enthalpy and entropy values were calculated and the values were -25.77kJ/mol and 35.04J/kmol, respectively. The thermodynamic measurements suggest that the inclusive process was enthalpic favor. The release of high-energy water molecules and Van der Waals force played an important role in the inclusive process.

  10. Selection of oocytes for in vitro maturation by brilliant cresyl blue staining: a study using the mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Guang Wu; Yong Liu; Ping Zhou; Guo-Cheng Lan; Dong Han; De-Qiang Miao; Jing-He Tan

    2007-01-01

    Selecting oocytes that are most likely to develop is crucial for in vitro fertilization and animal cloning. Brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining has been used for oocyte selection in large animals, but its wider utility needs further evaluation. Mouse oocytes were divided into those stained (BCB+) and those unstained (BCB-) according to their ooplasm BCB coloration. Chromatin configurations, cumulus cell apoptosis, cytoplasmic maturity and developmental competence were compared between the BCB+ and BCB- oocytes. The effects of oocyte diameter, sexual maturity and gonadotro-pin stimulation on the competence of BCB+ oocytes were also analyzed. In the large- and medium-size groups, BCB+ oocytes were larger and showed more surrounded nucleoli (SN) chromatin configurations and higher frequencies of early atresia, and they also gained better cytoplasmic maturity (determined as the intracellular GSH level and pattern of mitochondrial distribution) and higher developmental potential after in vitro maturation (IVM) than the BCB- oocytes. Adult mice produced more BCB+ oocytes with higher competence than the prepubertal mice when not primed with PMSG. PMSG priming increased both proportion and developmental potency of BCB+ oocytes. The BCB+ oocytes in the large-size group showed more SN chromatin configurations, better cytoplasmic maturity and higher developmental potential than their counterparts in the medium-size group. It is concluded that BCB staining can be used as an efficient method for oocyte selection, but that the competence of the BCB+ oocytes may vary with oocyte diameter, animal sexual maturity and gonadotropin stimulation. Taken together, the series of criteria described here would allow for better choices in selecting oocytes for better development.

  11. A major Sm epitope anchored to sequential oligopeptide carriers is a suitable antigenic substrate to detect anti-Sm antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovas, C J; Vlachoyiannopoulos, P G; Tzioufas, A G; Alexopoulos, C; Tsikaris, V; Sakarellos-Daitsiotis, M; Sakarellos, C; Moutsopoulos, H M

    1998-11-01

    A sensitive, highly reproducible, solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), was developed in order to investigate whether the synthetic heptapeptide PPGMRPP-a major epitope of the Sm autoantigen-anchored in five copies to a sequential oligopeptide carrier (SOC), [(PPGMRPP)5-SOC5] is a suitable antigenic substrate to identify anti-Sm/antibodies. Sera with different autoantibody specificities [45 anti-Sm, 40 anti-U1RNP, 40 anti-Ro (SSA)/La(SSB) positive, 21 Antinuclear antibody positive, but negative for antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ANA + /ENA - ) and 75 normal human sera, ANA negative] and 75 sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were tested for anti-(PPGMRPP)5-(SOC)5 reactivity in order to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the method to detect anti-Sm antibodies. RNA immunoprecipitation assays for the detection of anti-Sm and anti-U1RNP antibodies and counter immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) for the detection of anti-Ro(SSA) and anti-La(SSB) antibodies were used as reference techniques. The sensitivity of the method was 98% and the specificity was 68% for the determination of anti-Sm antibodies, while for the determination of anti-Sm and/or anti-U1RNP reactivity (antibodies to snRNPs) the corresponding values were 82% and 86%, respectively. In a comparison of the above assay with an ELISA, using Sm/U1RNP purified complex as immobilized antigen it was shown that the sensitivity of the anti-Sm/U1RNP ELISA in detecting anti-snRNPs was 74%; in addition sera with anti-Sm antibodies gave higher binding in the anti-(PPGMRPP)5-(SOC)5 ELISA compared with anti-Sm/U1RNP ELISA. Intra- and inter-assay precision was measured on four sera with reactivities extending into a wide range of absorbance values showed that the intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV%) ranged from 2.7 to 6 and the inter-assay CV% ranged from 9 to 14.5. These results indicate that the PPGMRPP peptide anchored to a pentameric SOC as a carrier is a suitable antigen for

  12. The 'primacy' and 'direct effect' of EU international agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gáspár-Szilágyi, Szilárd

    2015-01-01

    The rules on invoking EU norms before the Court of Justice and Member State courts are at the core of EU constitutional law. International agreements binding on the EU form an integral part of EU law and have primacy over inconsistent secondary EU legislation. Moreover, they also have primacy over...

  13. Tuning Mixed-Valent Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) in Strontium Formate Frameworks for Multichannel Photoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Lijia; Wang, Yanlong; Chen, Lanhua; McLeod, John A; Yang, Linju; Zhao, Jia; Liu, Zhiyong; Diwu, Juan; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Liu, Guokui; Wang, Shuao

    2016-08-01

    Cooperative performance of mixed-valent Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) in single-compound phosphors offers significant advantages in color rendering and luminescence efficiency, but their synthesis is challenging because of Eu(2+) oxidation. Using the tunable nature of the metal-ion nodes in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), we present an in situ reduction and crystallization route for preparing MOFs and doping Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) with a controlled ratio. These materials exhibit rich photoluminescence, including intrinsic- and sensitized-emissions of Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) , and long-lived luminescence from charge transfer. Color rendering can be easily achieved by fine-tuning the valence states of Eu. A linear relation between temperature and the intensity ratio of Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) emissions provides outstanding properties for applications as self-calibrated luminescent thermometers with a wide working temperature range. Further incorporation of Tb(3+) into the MOFs results in white light, utilizing all Eu(2+) ,Tb(3+) , and Eu(3+) emissions in a single crystalline lattice. PMID:27305606

  14. Eestimaa.eu kuulub lätlasele ja riik.eu hollandlasele / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Zone Medias eu domeeninimesid registreeriva Jaanus Puttingu hinnangul on Eesti riik olnud passiivne EL-i domeeninime .eu sisaldavate lehekülgede kaitsmisel, sajad Eestile olulised domeeninimed on juba nii siinsete kui ka piiritaguste inimeste käes. Lisa: Rahvaliit.eu kuulub kinnisvaraportaalile

  15. EU-China Partenariat 2006:Tailor-made Opportunities for SMEs of EU and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franz Jessen

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2006 EU-China Partenariat 2006, the large-scale business-to-business event which will link almost one thousand European and Chinese companies is indeed a highly appropriate way to further enhance the already excellent relations between the EU and China moreover as this is the very year that we are celebrating 30 years of EU-China diplomatic ties.

  16. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of a red emitting phosphor NaSr2(NbO3)5:RE3+(RE=Sm, Pr) for white LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱革; 慈志鹏; 史玉茸; 王育华

    2013-01-01

    Rare earth Sm3+, Pr3+doped NaSr2(NbO3)5 red phosphors were successfully synthesized. X-ray diffraction analysis indi-cated that all the samples were single phased. The luminescence property was investigated in detail by diffuse-reflectance spectra and photoluminescence spectra measurement. Both NaSr2(NbO3)5:Sm3+and NaSr2(NbO3)5:Pr3+phosphors showed strong absorption in near ultraviolet region, which was suitable for application in LEDs. When excited by UV light, they both emitted bright red emission with CIE chromaticity coordinates (0.603, 0.397) and (0.669, 0.330), respectively. The optimal doping concentration of Sm3+doped NaSr2(NbO3)5 was measured to be 0.04 and that for Pr3+doped NaSr2(NbO3)5 was 0.01. The integral emission intensity was also measured and compared with the commercial red phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+. The results indicated that NaSr2(NbO3)5:RE3+(RE=Sm, Pr) have potential to serve as a red phosphor for UV pumped white LEDs.

  17. Renewable energies in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On January 23, 2008, the European Commission presented proposals in the form of a directive in an effort to give more specific shape to the objective adopted in the spring, i.e. to increase to 20% by 2020 the share of renewable energies in energy consumption in the Community. The proposal was to include legally binding goals for the overall share of renewable energy sources and the share of biofuels in the transport sector. The proposed directive on 'promoting the use of energy from renewable sources' calls upon each member state to ensure that its share of energy from renewable sources in the total energy consumption in 2020 at least corresponds to the target mentioned in Annex I Part A. In addition to the targets, the EU Commission charted a tentative course towards a minimum increase in the share of renewable energies in the period between 2011 and 2020. Finally, the member states are obliged to adopt national action plans. Unfortunately, the EU is missing an important target in its proposed directive: It should establish a framework for harmonized conditions promoting the use of renewable energies. One aspect to be welcomed is the introduction of a system of certificates of origin. It represents the entry, in principle, into a trading system with certificates of origin. The Green Package incorporates a wealth of new approaches. They will have to be tested and, if necessary, supplemented. Something else is evident, however: The directive established the foundations of a vast number of new regulations and red tape. (orig.)

  18. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  19. Magnetocaloric properties of Eu1-xLaxTiO3 (0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) for cryogenic magnetic cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubi, Km; Midya, A.; Mahendiran, R.; Maheswar Repaka, D. V.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2016-06-01

    We report magnetic and magnetocaloric (MCE) properties of polycrystalline Eu1-xLaxTiO3 samples over a wide composition range (0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.20). It is found that the ground state changes from antiferromagnetic for x = 0.01 (TN = 5.2 K) to ferromagnetic for x ≥ 0.03 and the ferromagnetic Curie temperature increases from TC = 5.7 K for x = 0.03 to TC = 7.9 K for x = 0.20. The x = 0.01 sample shows a large reversible isothermal magnetic entropy change of -ΔSm = 23 (41.5) J/kg K and adiabatic temperature change of ΔTad = 9 (17.2) K around 6.7 K for a field change of μ0ΔH = 2 (5) Tesla. Although the peak value of -ΔSm decreases as La content increases, it is impressive in x = 0.2(-ΔSm = 31.41 J/kg K at T = 7.5 K for μ0ΔH = 5 T). The large value of MCE arises from suppression of the spin entropy associated with the localized moment (J = 7/2) of Eu2+:4f7 ions. This large MCE over a wide compositional range suggests that the Eu1-xLaxTiO3 series could be useful for magnetic cooling below 40 K.

  20. Luminescence properties of the Sm-doped borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindrat, I.I. [University of Zielona Góra, Institute of Physics, Division of Spectroscopy of Functional Materials, 4a Szafrana Street, 65-516 Zielona Góra (Poland); Padlyak, B.V., E-mail: B.Padlyak@if.uz.zgora.pl [University of Zielona Góra, Institute of Physics, Division of Spectroscopy of Functional Materials, 4a Szafrana Street, 65-516 Zielona Góra (Poland); Vlokh Institute of Physical Optics, 23 Dragomanov Street, 79-005 Lviv (Ukraine); Drzewiecki, A. [University of Zielona Góra, Institute of Physics, Division of Spectroscopy of Functional Materials, 4a Szafrana Street, 65-516 Zielona Góra (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    The optical absorption and photoluminescence (emission and excitation) spectra as well as decay kinetics of a series of the Sm-doped glasses with Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}, LiKB{sub 4}O{sub 7}, CaB{sub 4}O{sub 7}, and LiCaBO{sub 3} compositions were investigated and analysed. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Sm, LiKB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Sm, CaB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Sm, and LiCaBO{sub 3}:Sm glasses of high optical quality have been obtained from the corresponding polycrystalline compounds in the air atmosphere, using a standard glass technology. On the basis of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical spectra analysis it was shown that the samarium impurity is incorporated into the glass network as Sm{sup 3+} (4f{sup 5}, {sup 6}H{sub 5/2}) ions, exclusively. All observed 4f – 4f transitions of the Sm{sup 3+} centres in the optical absorption and luminescence spectra of the investigated glasses are identified. Most intense emission band of the Sm{sup 3+} ions peaked about 598 nm ({sup 4}G{sub 5/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 7/2} transition) is characterised by a single exponential decay with typical lifetime values, which depend on the basic glass composition as well as concentration and local structure of the Sm{sup 3+} luminescence centres. The quantum efficiency has been evaluated for observed transitions of the Sm{sup 3+} centres using obtained experimental lifetimes and radiative lifetimes calculated by Judd–Ofelt theory. The calculated high quantum efficiencies and measured quantum yields of luminescence show that the investigated borate glasses are perspective luminescence materials. Energy transfer from the Ce{sup 3+} non-controlled impurity and intrinsic luminescence centres to the Sm{sup 3+} centres has been observed. Peculiarities of the Sm{sup 3+} local structure in the network of investigated glasses have been discussed based on the obtained spectroscopic results and structural data. - Highlights: • The Sm-doped Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}, LiKB{sub 4}O{sub 7}, Ca

  1. Magnetic properties of Sm5Fe17 melt-spun ribbons and their borides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Saito

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sm5Fe17 melt-spun ribbons exhibited low coercivity and partly or mostly consisted of the amorphous phase. Annealing of Sm5Fe17 melt-spun ribbon resulted in the formation of the Sm5Fe17 phase. The annealed Sm5Fe17 melt-spun ribbon exhibited a high coercivity. It was found that the addition of B to the Sm5Fe17 alloy resulted in the promotion of the Sm2Fe14B phase. Annealed Sm5Fe17Bx (x = 0.5 melt-spun ribbons consisted of the Sm5Fe17 phase together with the Sm2Fe14B and SmFe2 phases. On the other hand, annealed Sm5Fe17Bx (x = 1.0-1.5 melt-spun ribbons consisted of the Sm2Fe14B and SmFe2 phases without the Sm5Fe17 phase. The resultant Sm5Fe17Bx (x = 1.0-1.5 melt-spun ribbons still showed a coercivity of around 2 kOe. The annealed Sm5Fe17 melt-spun ribbon exhibited a high coercivity over 25 kOe and a remanence of 40 emu/g, whereas the annealed Sm5Fe17B1.0 melt-spun ribbon exhibited a high remanence of 65 emu/g and a coercivity of 2.0 kOe.

  2. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2013-01-01

    EU poultry meat producers have to comply with legislation on environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. This legislation has increased the production costs of poultry meat. At the same time the EU is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in agricu

  3. EU Studies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garski, Salla; Jørgensen, Knud Erik; Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In this brief chapter we take stock of Danish and Swedish scholarship on the European Union (EU). We intend to analyze and evaluate Danish and Swedish scholarship on EU issues, using a mixed methodology integrated into the analysis of this chapter. The method integrates a secondary analysis of...

  4. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  5. Evolution of EU Retail Payments Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janczuk, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of EU payments law for retail payments, identifying four phases of its development. In spite of the EU’s founding principle of free movement of payments, the first two phases of EU payments law were characterized by negative integration and soft law measures with limi

  6. Argentina and Brazil's Relations to the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    Analysen diskuterer Argentina og Brasiliens relationer til EU i nyere tid med udgangspunkt i forhandlingerne om en associeringsaftale mellem EU og Mercosur, der igangsattes efter underskrivelsen af en bi-regional rammeaftale i 1995. Fokus er i særlig grad på, hvordan disse relationer bedst forstås...

  7. Intra-EU Direct Investment and Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festa Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of the intra-EU direct investment (IDI into the New Member States (NMS using a panel dataset of bilateral capital flows for the period 1993-2013. It is found out by using a simple gravity model that EU membership is the most important determinant. Unlike previous studies including non-EU countries, the distance is insignificant, which is caused by proximity of these countries to one another. A separate analysis focused on subgroups of accession countries gives some evidence that even when size of their economy, distance, institutional quality and EU accession are taken into account, Central European countries receive more IDI than the Baltic and the Balkan states. On the contrary to that, the analysis restricted to the Balkan countries which have joined the EU shows the inexistence of a negative Balkans effect in attracting foreign investment. This finding is relevant because previous studies demonstrate a persistent negative Balkans effect for non-EU Balkan countries and suggests a crucial impact of the EU accession in determining the intra-EU capital flows.

  8. Towards a Practice Turn in EU Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how practice theory can be recruited for the study of European integration. New generations of EU researchers are fascinated by the prospect of leaving the armchair and studying the people and artefacts that make the EU on an everyday level. This article surveys key practice...

  9. EU enlargement: towards an uncertain future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekestijn, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Never before has the EU been expanded with so many countries at the same time (10), never before was the economic gap between the existing and acceding countries so large, and never before have the existing countries (EU Fifteen) been playing the role of mister Scrooge so convincingly, and never be

  10. The "New Politics" of EU's Eastern Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    The paper gives an overview of EU's eastern enlargement and draws some theoretical conclusions. In particular, it stresses the point that the EU member states in the process of enlargement have entered a phase of "new politics", characterised by multilateralism, conditionality, help and binding a...

  11. EU-udvidelse, fusioner og spil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Morten Petersen

    2004-01-01

    EU-udvidelsen, arbejdskraftens fri bevægelighed, overgangsordning, fusionskontrol, fri bevægelighed for tjenesteydelser, spil, tips, lotto......EU-udvidelsen, arbejdskraftens fri bevægelighed, overgangsordning, fusionskontrol, fri bevægelighed for tjenesteydelser, spil, tips, lotto...

  12. EU agricultural domestic support in GTAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, Pierre; Philippidis, George; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    The engagement of JRC IPTS in the GTAP contributing team to the EU domestic support has opened up the opportunity to use the CATS database when compiling EU domestic support payments by member state, which are subsequently calibrated into the GTAP database. To maintain consistency, the GTAP versi...

  13. The simultaneous mass and energy evaporation (SM2E) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Rehan; Klauda, Jeffery B

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the Simultaneous Mass and Energy Evaporation (SM2E) model is presented. The SM2E model is based on theoretical models for mass and energy transfer. The theoretical models systematically under or over predicted at various flow conditions: laminar, transition, and turbulent. These models were harmonized with experimental measurements to eliminate systematic under or over predictions; a total of 113 measured evaporation rates were used. The SM2E model can be used to estimate evaporation rates for pure liquids as well as liquid mixtures at laminar, transition, and turbulent flow conditions. However, due to limited availability of evaporation data, the model has so far only been tested against data for pure liquids and binary mixtures. The model can take evaporative cooling into account and when the temperature of the evaporating liquid or liquid mixture is known (e.g., isothermal evaporation), the SM2E model reduces to a mass transfer-only model.

  14. Fracture toughness studies in sintered SmCo5 magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fracture toughness of sintered SmCo5 magnets were systematically evaluated using both three point bend tests as well as Vickers indentation tests. These results were used for establishing the empirical dimensionless constant (χ) for evaluating indentation fracture toughness in SmCo5 magnets. The anisotropic behaviour of mechanical properties such as hardness, elastic modulus and fracture toughness was also investigated. - Highlights: • A strong anisotropy in the elastic modulus was observed in sintered SmCo5 magnet. • The hardness and fracture toughness did not show any prominent anisotropy. • Brittle cleavage fracture with (10 0) and (10 1) type cleavage planes observed. • Fracture toughness of SmCo5 magnets using Vickers indentation technique studied. • A suitable crack model and dimensionless coefficient value determined

  15. Discovery and characterization of smORF-encoded bioactive polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghatelian, Alan; Couso, Juan Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes reveals the existence of hundreds to thousands of translated, yet non-annotated, short open reading frames (small ORFs or smORFs). The discovery of smORFs and their protein products, smORF-encoded polypeptides (SEPs), points to a fundamental gap in our knowledge of protein-coding genes. Various studies have identified central roles for smORFs in metabolism, apoptosis and development. The discovery of these bioactive SEPs emphasizes the functional potential of this unexplored class of biomolecules. Here, we provide an overview of this emerging field and highlight the opportunities for chemical biology to answer fundamental questions about these novel genes. Such studies will provide new insights into the protein-coding potential of genomes and identify functional genes with roles in biology and disease. PMID:26575237

  16. Preparing different phases of Mg-Li-Sm alloys by molten salt electrolysis in LiCl-KCl-MgCl_2-SmCl_3 melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟; 田阳; 张密林; 叶克; 赵全友; 魏树权

    2010-01-01

    Different phases of Mg-Li-Sm alloys were prepared by galvanostatic electrolysis in LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-SmCl3 melts at 670 °C.The electrolysis process and phase control of Mg-Li-Sm alloys were studied.The microstructures of α,α+β,β phases of Mg-Li-Sm alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD) and optical microscope(OM).Analysis of scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and EDS mapping analysis showed that Mg distributed homogeneously in Mg-Li-Sm alloys.EDS result showed that the distribution of Sm was more at...

  17. AU-EU “Strategic Partnership”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Okeke, Jide

    2013-01-01

    This article appraises strategic partnership between the African Union (AU) and European Union (EU). It examines the context and nature of AU and EU security relations and explores the conditions under which partnership has a positive impact in this regard. This includes an evaluation of converge......This article appraises strategic partnership between the African Union (AU) and European Union (EU). It examines the context and nature of AU and EU security relations and explores the conditions under which partnership has a positive impact in this regard. This includes an evaluation...... of convergence between the two organizations and its effect or lack thereof on African security. The article concludes that events leading up to and initiatives following the 2007 Joint Africa–European Union Strategy have produced a degree of AU and EU convergence, which has had limited impact on the efficacy...

  18. The Development of EU-Russian Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian

    2008-01-01

    The EU's strategy for Russia since the end of the cold war has to a large extent failed, and the direct consequences are the currently deadlocked EU-Russia relationship. There are three reasons for this: the EU and Russia's respective strength and status relative to each other have been changing since the beginning of this century; the EU's strategy towards Russia has been more fragmenting in recently years; and the American factor. The EU-Russia relations could continue to be in poor shape in the years to come, and it is very likely sometimes even further worsening. But the two sides would refrain from extreme measures and prevent their relations from sliding into real cold war.

  19. Lattice dynamics of mixed-valent SmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron scattering techniques have been used to measure the phonon dispersion curves for SmS in both the semiconducting and the metallic mixed-valent state. Large softening of the longitudinal acoustic phonon branches was found in the mixed-valent state, particularly for the [111] direction. It is apparent there is a strong coupling between the valence fluctuations and the phonons in the mixed-valent phase of SmS

  20. Concentration mechanism of piezoresistance in SmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the SmS band structure are generalized and supplemented. A concentration model of the piezoresistance effect mechanism is proposed on the base of the data. It is shown that for production of a material with the piezoresistance exceeding the value for SmS at 300 K it is necessary to increase the contribution from 4f levels as far as possible

  1. Electric properties of SmS metallic modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Values of electric conductivity (rho and the Hall parameter Rsub(M) in thin films of samarium sulphide have been measured in semiconductor and metal modifications for the range of temperatures 1.5-300 K. Metal films of SmS with lattice constants 5.7 and 5.63 A are investigated. The temperature dependences of rho and Rsub(H) are theoretically explained. A zone scheme for metal modification of SmS is proposed

  2. The Fourth SM Family Neutrino at Future Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Çiftçi, A K; Sultansoy, S

    2005-01-01

    It is known that Flavor Democracy favors the existence of the fourth standard model (SM) family. In order to give nonzero masses for the first three family fermions Flavor Democracy has to be slightly broken. A parametrization for democracy breaking, which gives the correct values for fundamental fermion masses and, at the same time, predicts quark and lepton CKM matrices in a good agreement with the experimental data, is proposed. The pair productions of the fourth SM family Dirac $(\

  3. Humanitarian Issues: the EU Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Navarro

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO and the 15 membercountries of the EU provide more than 50% of the humanitarian aid worldwide: ECHO assigns more than 90% of its budget (only 0.9% of the Community’s total to victims of man-made conflicts. For the author, the experience of ECHO shows the "limits of what is humanitarian": that is, the lack of security for humanitarian workers, the still-to-beoperational Permanent Tribunal for Crimes Against Humanity, the difficult access to refugees, and the fact that humanitarian efforts are not a substitute for policy and, therefore, that humanitarian efforts can not resolve a crisis that has a political origin and solution. The challenges to be faced in the coming years include denouncing the violations of humanitarian values, transferring these values into a future CFSP, organizing humanitarian aid efficiently, combating “donor fatigue” and supporting conflict prevention.

  4. Regional security overlaps in EU-Turkey affairs

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Søren Cramer

    2013-01-01

    Throughout this project I analyze how the EU security community operates to secure dependable expectations of peaceful outcomes through its security cooperation with Turkey. This is done by examining EU security overlaps in the Turkey-EU security cooperation, Turkey EU-accession and the EU-Turkish energy security cooperation in the Caspian region with a focus on the Nabucco project. I conclude that the integration of Turkey into the EU security community reveals overlapping security concerns ...

  5. Energetics of nonequilibrium solidification in Al-Sm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S. H.; Napolitano, R. E.

    2008-11-01

    Solution-based thermodynamic modeling, aided by first-principles calculations, is employed here to examine phase transformations in the Al-Sm binary system which may give rise to product phases that are metastable or have a composition that deviates substantially from equilibrium. In addition to describing the pure undercooled Al liquid with a two-state model that accounts for structural ordering, thermodynamic descriptions of the fcc phase, and intermediate compounds ( Al4Sm-β , Al11Sm3-α , Al3Sm-δ , and Al2Sm-σ ) are reanalyzed using special quasirandom structure and first-principles calculations. The possible phase compositions are presented over a range of temperatures using a “Baker-Cahn” analysis of the energetics of solidification and compared with reports of rapid solidification. The energetics associated with varying degrees of chemical partitioning are quantified and compared with experimental observations of the metastable Al11Sm3-α primary phase and reports of amorphous solids.

  6. Giant low-field magnetocaloric effect in single-crystalline EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S.; Khan, N.; Mandal, P.

    2016-02-01

    The magnetocaloric effect in ferromagnetic single crystal EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 has been investigated using magnetization and heat capacity measurements. EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 undergoes a continuous ferromagnetic phase transition at TC = 9.5 K due to the long range ordering of magnetic moments of Eu2+ (4f7). With the application of magnetic field, the spin entropy is strongly suppressed and a giant magnetic entropy change is observed near TC. The values of entropy change ΔSm and adiabatic temperature change ΔTad are as high as 51.3 J kg-1 K-1 and 22 K, respectively, for a field change of 0-9 T. The corresponding magnetic heating/cooling capacity is 700 J kg-1. This compound also shows large magnetocaloric effect even at low magnetic fields. In particular, the values of ΔSm reach 14.7 and 23.8 J kg-1 K-1 for field changes of 0-1 T and 0-2 T, respectively. The low-field giant magnetocaloric effect, together with the absence of thermal and field hysteresis makes EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 a very promising candidate for low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  7. Giant low-field magnetocaloric effect in single-crystalline EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Roy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The magnetocaloric effect in ferromagnetic single crystal EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 has been investigated using magnetization and heat capacity measurements. EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 undergoes a continuous ferromagnetic phase transition at TC = 9.5 K due to the long range ordering of magnetic moments of Eu2+ (4f7. With the application of magnetic field, the spin entropy is strongly suppressed and a giant magnetic entropy change is observed near TC. The values of entropy change ΔSm and adiabatic temperature change ΔTad are as high as 51.3 J kg−1 K−1 and 22 K, respectively, for a field change of 0–9 T. The corresponding magnetic heating/cooling capacity is 700 J kg−1. This compound also shows large magnetocaloric effect even at low magnetic fields. In particular, the values of ΔSm reach 14.7 and 23.8 J kg−1 K−1 for field changes of 0–1 T and 0–2 T, respectively. The low-field giant magnetocaloric effect, together with the absence of thermal and field hysteresis makes EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 a very promising candidate for low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  8. Competitive adsorption of Reactive Orange 16 and Reactive Brilliant Blue R on polyaniline/bacterial extracellular polysaccharides composite-A novel eco-friendly polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaki, V. [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011, Tamil Nadu (India); Vijayaraghavan, K. [Singapore-Delft Water Alliance, National University of Singapore, 117577 (Singapore); Ramasamy, A.K. [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011, Tamil Nadu (India); Lee, Kui-Jae [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570752 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Byung-Taek, E-mail: btoh@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570752 (Korea, Republic of); Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan, E-mail: kannan@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Competitive adsorption of reactive dyes onto polyaniline/bacterial extracellular polysaccharides composite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite have functional groups of both polyaniline and bacterial extracellular polysaccharides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of Reactive Brilliant Blue R diminished the uptake of Reactive Orange 16. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrostatic interaction was identified as a major mechanism in adsorption process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reactive Brilliant Blue R and Reactive Orange 16 adsorption was endothermic process. - Abstract: The performance of polyaniline/extracellular polymeric substances (Pn/EPS) composite as an adsorbent to remove the anionic reactive dyes, Reactive Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and Reactive Orange 16 (RO), was investigated in single and binary systems. The pH{sub pzc} of Pn/EPS composite was calculated as 3.7 through potentiometric mass titration method. Electrostatic interaction between the dye anion and the nitrogen present in the polymer was identified as a major mechanism in adsorption process. Single component isotherms followed the Langmuir model with the maximum adsorption capacity of 0.5775 mmol g{sup -1} for RBBR and 0.4748 mmol g{sup -1} for RO. In binary system, both the reactive dye anions compete with each other and resulted in lower uptake. Binary adsorption data were interpreted well by the Sheindorf-Rehbun-Sheintuch equation as compared to extended Langmuir model with constant interaction factor. Kinetic analysis of single solute followed pseudo-first order model. Thermodynamic studies computed that RBBR and RO adsorption was endothermic, spontaneous, and feasible process.

  9. Preparation and electromagnetic wave absorption properties of Sm2O3/α-Fe/Sm2Fe17Nx composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jinwen; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Jiao; Chen, Xianfu; Yao, Mingying

    2013-06-01

    Sm2O3/α-Fe/Sm2Fe17Nx composites were prepared in situ by hydrogenation-disproportionation-oxygen-desorption-recombination and nitrogen process, and their electromagnetic wave absorption properties were measured in the frequency range of 0.5-18 GHz. The result showed that saturation magnetization and coercivity of as-prepared powder with 25.3 wt% Sm2O3, 64.4 wt% α-Fe and 10.3 wt% Sm2Fe17N3 were 134.57 emu/g and 654.5 G, respectively. The dielectric constant of composites was low over the frequency range of 0.5-18 GHz, and their resonance frequencies were at a high frequency range. The resin composite of Sm2O3/α-Fe/Sm2Fe17N3 exhibited effective electromagnetic wave absorption (RL≤20 dB) in a frequency range 3-9 GHz, for absorber thickness ranging from 3 to 8 mm, respectively. A minimum reflection loss of -53 dB from the samples was observed at 7 GHz with an absorber thickness of 3.59 mm.

  10. Normative power Europe? EU relations with Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa de Wekker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the extent to which the European Union (EU constitutes a normative power in its relations with Moldova. ‘Normative power Europe’ is examined along three dimensions: (i normative intent; (ii normative process; and (iii normative impact. Our empirical analysis focuses on two norms: democracy and good governance. In addition, we ask how ‘normatively’ the EU has acted regarding a solution to the Transnistrian conflict. On the basis of our three-dimensional framework, we find that EU normative power can be judged as only moderate in EU-Moldovan relations. As for intent, while norms of democracy and good governance seem to play a central role in EU-Moldovan relations, the Union tends to apply double standards in terms of what it expects from (EU Member States and what it asks of Moldova, and also seems to be inconsistent in its policies towards Moldova and Ukraine. In terms of process, the degree of inclusiveness on the part of the Union has not been satisfactory. Neither has the extent of reflexivity, but more recently the Commission seems to have developed a more reflexive behaviour. In regards to impact, while norm changes in Moldova have been modest/moderate, it seems that the EU has substantially contributed to these changes.

  11. Magnetic and Fermi Surface Properties of Ferromagnets EuPd2 and EuPt2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ai; Akamine, Hiromu; Ashitomi, Yousuke; Honda, Fuminori; Aoki, Dai; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Tatetsu, Yasutomi; Maehira, Takahiro; Hedo, Masato; Nakama, Takao; Ōnuki, Yoshichika

    2016-08-01

    We succeeded in growing single crystals of the ferromagnets EuPd2 and EuPt2 with the Laves-type cubic structure by the Bridgman method, namely, heating constituting materials in a Mo crucible up to a high temperature of about 1500 °C. The ferromagnetic properties of EuPd2 and EuPt2 with Curie temperatures of 74 and 100 K, respectively, were confirmed from the results of electrical resistivity, specific heat, and magnetization measurements. The ordered moment is 7 μB/Eu, revealing the Eu-divalent ferromagnetism. The present Eu-divalent electronic state is found to be robust against high pressures of up to 8 GPa and is not changed into the Eu-trivalent state. We also carried out de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) experiments for EuPd2. The detected dHvA branches in EuPd2 are well explained by the relativistic linearized augmented plane wave (RLAPW) energy band calculations for SrPd2, revealing a closed hole Fermi surface and compensated four closed electron Fermi surfaces.

  12. Effects of Brilliant Blue G on Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Levels and Depression-like Behavior in Mice after Lipopolysaccharide Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Min; Ren, Qian; Zhang, Ji-chun; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Objective Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of major depression. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays a crucial role in microglial activation caused by inflammation. The dye brilliant blue G (BBG) is a P2X7R antagonist. This study examined whether BBG shows antidepressant effects in an inflammation-induced model of depression. Methods We examined the effects of BBG (12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg) on serum tumor necro...

  13. Emerging food safety issues: An EU perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, John D G

    2016-05-01

    Safe food is the right of every citizen of the European Union (EU). A comprehensive and dynamic framework of food and feed safety legislation has been put in place and the EU's executive arm - the European Commission - is responsible for ensuring that the EU member states apply food law consistently. Similarly, the Commission plays an important role in ensuring that imported food meets the EU's stringent food safety standards. Consumer perceptions of unsafe food tend to focus on acute outbreaks of bacterial or viral origin. In recent years there have been a number of diverse food crises associated with fraudulent activity which may (e.g. melamine in dairy products in China) or may not (e.g. the horse meat scandal in the EU) represent a genuine food safety risk. Well publicized incidents of chronic exposure to chemical contamination in the EU (e.g. dioxins in meat and mycotoxins in nuts) have required robust coordinated policy responses from the Commission. Despite the decreasing incidence of non-compliant residues of veterinary medicinal products and banned substances in animal products, EU consumers are increasingly concerned about the use of such products in food-producing animals, including in the context of the build-up of antimicrobial resistance in animals and transfer to humans. The Commission plays a key role in coordination of the EU member states' responses to such incidents, in risk management, and in preparation for emerging issues. This paper focuses on how the EU as a whole has dealt with a number of food crises, and what can be learned from past incidents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27443205

  14. The 152Sm(p,n) reaction measurements in inverse kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under stellar conditions, low-lying excited states in nuclei are in thermal equilibrium with the ground state. If those excited states undergo β-decays with a higher rate than the ground state, the β-decay half-life of this nucleus is dominated by the excited state. The corresponding life-times are extremely difficult to measure directly on earth, since the excitation occurs mostly via internal transition. For the understanding of the processes occurring during a star collapse, simulations are a crucial tool. To provide a detailed view on those processes and the underlying theoretical models, also to test and improve the simulation networks, information extracted from experiments is needed. Unfortunately, some reactions can not be reproduced directly in laboratories. This applies for example to electron capture processes, which can lead to excited states energetically forbidden on earth. Those reactions are dominated by the so called Gamow-Teller distribution B(GT). If the β-decay occurs via the Gamow-Teller transition, charge exchange reactions allow to investigate the decay strength. In order to verify the method of measuring the B(GT) strength of unstable heavy nuclei via inverse kinematics, the reaction p(152Sm,152Eu)n was used as a test case. This measurement allows to set constraints on the temperature dependent electron capture of 152Eu, which is an important s-process branching point. The s405 experiment took place at the R3B/LAND setup at GSI. A newly developed Low Energy Neutron detector Array (LENA) was used to measure the recoil neutrons, which are emitted at large angles relatively to the incoming beam. Preliminary results are presented.

  15. Stavovi makedonskih poljoprivrednika prema pristupu EU

    OpenAIRE

    Kotevska, Ana; Martinovska-Stojcheska, Aleksandra; Öhlmér, Bo; Dimitrievski, Dragi

    2013-01-01

    Makedonija je država kandidat za ulazak u EU od 2005. Integracijski proces će nedvojbeno imati utjecaj na makedonsku ekonomiju, posebice na područuju poljoprivrede. Do sada nisu vršena značajnija istraživanja u vezi stavova i namjera poljoprivrednika u odnosu na integracije i pristup EU. U tom smislu, svrha ovoga rada jest pružiti uvid u stavove makedonskih poljoprivrednika i njihovih reakcija u kontekstu pristupa EU te potencijalne politike i promjena na tržištu. Nadalje, predmet istraživanj...

  16. The Social Dimension of EU Trade Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This special issue on the social dimension of European Union (EU) external trade relations analyses the commitment, capacity, and consequences of the EU as a global social power. In other words, is the EU committed to social principles? Does it have the capacity to engage in persuasive actions......'s social dimension in trade relations - human rights versus welfare concerns and exclusive competence versus lack of competence. These questions and tensions are rendered more methodologically problematic by the existence and activities of other actors and trading powers, such as the International Labour...

  17. Public investment and the EU fiscal framework

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Turrini

    2004-01-01

    It is often claimed that the introduction of the EU rules-based fiscal framework of the Maastricht Treaty and the Stability and Growth Pact was responsible for a decline in public investment shares in EU countries. Proposals have also been made in recent times in favour of a revision of the EU fiscal framework in such a way to grant special treatment to public capital expenditures (e.g., by amending it with a ‘golden rule'). This paper analyses empirically the relation between the introduct...

  18. Role of SM22 in the differential regulation of phasic vs. tonic smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Satish; Ali, Mehboob

    2015-04-01

    Preliminary proteomics studies between tonic vs. phasic smooth muscles identified three distinct protein spots identified to be those of transgelin (SM22). The latter was found to be distinctly downregulated in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) vs. rectal smooth muscle (RSM) SMC. The major focus of the present studies was to examine the differential molecular control mechanisms by SM22 in the functionality of truly tonic smooth muscle of the IAS vs. the adjoining phasic smooth muscle of the RSM. We monitored SMC lengths before and after incubation with pFLAG-SM22 (for SM22 overexpression), and SM22 small-interfering RNA. pFLAG-SM22 caused concentration-dependent and significantly greater relaxation in the IAS vs. the RSM SMCs. Conversely, temporary silencing of SM22 caused contraction in both types of the SMCs. Further studies revealed a significant reverse relationship between the levels of SM22 phosphorylation and the amount of SM22-actin binding in the IAS and RSM SMC. Data showed higher phospho-SM22 levels and decreased SM22-actin binding in the IAS, and reverse to be the case in the RSM SMCs. Experiments determining the mechanism for SM22 phosphorylation in these smooth muscles revealed that Y-27632 (Rho kinase inhibitor) but not Gö-6850 (protein kinase C inhibitor) caused concentration-dependent decreased phosphorylation of SM22. We speculate that SM22 plays an important role in the regulation of basal tone via Rho kinase-induced phosphorylation of SM22.

  19. Morphological stability of Sm123 superconductor during peritectic solidification from Sm211 + L mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interface stability of the Sm 123 superconductor was analyzed in accordance with the constitutional undercooling criterion. As the single-crystal growth of the 123 phase is largely dependent on the growth-interface stability, a quantitative analysis was very much required. From this analysis, it was clarified that the constitutional undercooling must exist in the liquid when the 123 growth interface comes close to a 211 particle during the peritectic solidification. It was also predicted that the larger 211 particle radius, smaller volume fraction of the 211 particles, larger growth rate, or smaller imposed temperature gradient would cause easy occurrence of the constitutional undercooling ahead of the 123 growth interface. Taking into account the nucleation at the L/211 interface just ahead of the 123 growth front due to the constitutional undercooling, the transition of 123 growth from a planar-interface morphology to an equiaxed blocky morphology was investigated quantitatively and qualitatively

  20. EU POLICY ON EDUCATION FUNDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina PANA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available On average, EU countries allocate 6.4% of total public expenditure for the direct support of the public sector at all levels of education. In view of a more rational allocation of resources seriously diminished by the crisis there are made efforts to identify educational areas considered problematic in terms of accessing various education programs. This paper presents pre-school funding policies and policies to support families with preschool and school age children in the European Union through a comparative analysis of the focus group type. There are also presented concrete ways of achieving that family support such as tax cuts, family allowances or by taking into account certain factors in order to establish fees. In all countries where taxes are paid for pre-compulsory education (ISCED A there is a mechanism by which parental contributions can be adjusted according to the means available taking into account criteria such as family income, number of children, family status (children who live with one parent geographic area, etc.

  1. Molybdate templated assembly of Ln12Mo4-type clusters (Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd) containing a truncated tetrahedron core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Zhang, Qian-Chong; Long, La-Sheng; Huang, Rong-Bin; Müller, Achim; Schnack, Jürgen; Zheng, Lan-Sun; Zheng, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    Three heterometallic cluster complexes {Ln(12)Mo(4)} featuring an Ln(12) core of a distorted truncated tetrahedron were synthesized with the assistance of four MoO(4)(2-) anions as ancillary ligands. Magnetic studies of the {Gd(12)Mo(4)} cluster revealed a large magnetocaloric effect due to the presence of the large number of weakly coupled Gd(III) ions.

  2. Cephalopod research and EU Directive 2010/63/EU: requirements, impacts and ethical review

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J. A.; Andrews, P. L. R.; Hawkins, P; Louhimies, S.; De Ponte, G.; Dickel, L.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, European Union legislation on animal research and testing has extended its scope to include invertebrate species the Class Cephalopoda. EU Directive 2010/63/EU, which was due to be implemented in Member States 1 January 2013, covers all "live cephalopods" used in scientific procedures that are likely to cause the animals adverse effects such as "pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm".This paper examines practical implications of the new EU law for cephalopod research. ...

  3. The effects of Eu-concentrations on the luminescent properties of SrF{sub 2}:Eu nanophosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagoub, M.Y.A.; Swart, H.C.; Noto, L.L. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa); O’Connel, J.H.; Lee, M.E. [Department of Physics and Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth ZA6031 (South Africa); Coetsee, E., E-mail: CoetseeE@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa)

    2014-12-15

    SrF{sub 2}:Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The structure of the nanophosphors was investigated with x-ray diffraction. The average crystallite size calculated using the Scherrer equation was in the range of 7.0 nm. The photoluminescence of Eu doped as-prepared SrF{sub 2} nanophosphors were studied using different excitation sources. The samples showed emission from both the Eu oxidation states, Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+}. At low Eu concentrations the emission from Eu{sup 2+} centered at 416 nm was more dominant. While the narrow band of Eu{sup 3+} emission intensity increased with an increase in the Eu concentration. High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the Eu was indeed in both Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} valance states. The presence of Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} in the system largely enhanced the response of the Eu{sup 3+} under ultraviolet excitation. The time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry results suggested that the energy transfer between two ions was likely to occur. The relative photoluminescence intensity of the Eu{sup 2+} rapidly decreased with an increasing laser beam irradiating time. This result would make the current Eu{sup 2+} doped SrF{sub 2} samples unsuitable candidates for several applications, such as white light-emitting diodes and wavelength conversion films for silicon photovoltaic cells. - Highlights: • SrF{sub 2}: Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesised (hydrothermal technique). • PL and XPS results showed enhanced absorption response of Eu{sup 3+} UV excitation. • Eu concentrations more than 5 mol% improved fluorescence emission. • TOF-SIMS results suggested that the energy transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Eu{sup 3+} is dominant.

  4. EU Enlargement between Economic and Political Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper answers at two important questions: Is the EU able to support new adhering processes? and Is the Euro area able to enlarge in 2014? The comparative analysis in the paper covers four economic competitors: EU, USA, China and Japan, and is based on GDP growth rate, unemployment and inflation rates. The second part of the paper deals with an economic forecast during 2015-2016, focused on EU27, Euro area, Croatia and Latvia, in order to discuss the effects of the adhering to EU and Euro area. The results of the two-level analysis are supported by pertinent diagrams and annexes. The analysis uses a neutral statistical database – Eurostat – and dedicated forecast software. The main conclusion of the paper is that the adhering processes from 2013 and 2014 are based on economic and political criteria.

  5. When Liminals Interact: EU-Hamas Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    , Eurocentric categories that dominate International Relations (IR). By analysing Hamas and the EU as liminals this article demonstrates how far certain collective discourses and non-state identities can go in challenging pre-existing categories on which the social order of international relations relies. Hamas...... does not ‘fit’ into pre-existing social categories of the social order in world politics. The EU does not fit into the system of states in international relations, although it attempts, in part, to behave like one at a supranational level. Empirically, both the EU and Hamas are able to exercise power......This article engages with the concept of liminality by focusing on two, theoretically and empirically dubious categories: the EU and Hamas. Theoretically, both are in-between the traditional categories we use to make sense of the world and as such they challenge state-based, Westphalian...

  6. Liminality in EU-Hamas relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle; Pallister-Wilkins, Polly

    , Eurocentric categories that dominate International Relations (IR). By analysing Hamas and the EU as liminals this article demonstrates how far certain collective discourses and non-state identities can go in challenging pre-existing categories on which the social order of international relations relies. Hamas...... does not ‘fit’ into pre-existing social categories of the social order in world politics. The EU does not fit into the system of states in international relations, although it attempts, in part, to behave like one at a supranational level. Empirically, both the EU and Hamas are able to exercise power......This article engages with the concept of liminality by focusing on two, theoretically and empirically dubious categories: the EU and Hamas. Theoretically, both are in-between the traditional categories we use to make sense of the world and as such they challenge state-based, Westphalian...

  7. Competitiveness of the EU egg industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Eierproducenten in de EU moeten voldoen aan bepaalde wetgeving inzake milieubescherming, dierenwelzijn en voedselveiligheid. Vanaf 1 januari 2012 werd het houden van kippen in traditionele kooien verboden en moesten eierproducenten overstappen op verrijkte kooien of alternatieve huisvesting. Het res

  8. EuCARD final project report

    CERN Document Server

    Koutchouk, J P

    2014-01-01

    After four years of activity, EuCARD has most of its objectives fulfilled, with some new objectives added and a few others on excellent tracks while requiring additional time. The management has been active in reinforcing the collaborative links between partners and projects, contributing to the preparation of FP7-EuCARD2, initiating FP7-HiLumi-LHC Design Study, to favour sustained collaborations beyond EuCARD. An out-of-contract network has been successfully launched on laser plasma acceleration, to combine forces between accelerator, laser and plasma communities. Communication and dissemination activities have led to two highlights: Accelerating News, an accelerator R&D newsletter initiated by EuCARD and now common to all FP7 accelerator projects (over 1000 subscribers) and a series of monographs on accelerator sciences that is progressively finding its public. The scientific networks have more than fulfilled their initial objectives: roadmaps are defined for neutrino facilities, submitted to the Europe...

  9. JAPAN RISKS MISSING EU DEADLINE ON ACCOUNTSJ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Japanese companies face being shut out of European Union capital markets owing to difficulties in harmonizing Japan's accounting standards with EU rules in time to meet a Brussels deadline,the Japanese regulator has warned.

  10. Measuring and Explaining Regulatory Reform in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2014-01-01

    in the EU are analysed. Using time-series analysis of count data, evidence is found that the number of winning coalitions in the Council and the size of EU membership have a significant impact on regulatory reform in the EU. By contrast, the ideological composition of the EU's legislative bodies...

  11. Critical neutron scattering from the Heisenberg ferromagnets EuO and EuS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O. W.; Passell, L.

    1972-01-01

    The magnetic neutron scattering from isotopically enriched powders of EuO and EuS near their Curie temperatures has been studied. Results of the critical exponents for the static properties in standard notation were * Thumbnail image of Spin wave scattering at T......The magnetic neutron scattering from isotopically enriched powders of EuO and EuS near their Curie temperatures has been studied. Results of the critical exponents for the static properties in standard notation were * Thumbnail image of Spin wave scattering at T...

  12. A simple conductometric method for trace level determination of brilliant green in water based on β-cyclodextrin and silver nitrate and determination of their thermodynamic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Mohammad Zadeh Kakhki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A gravimetric and complexometric titration method based on conductometric technique is presented for the quantitative determination of brilliant green (BG in water. The equilibrium constants and the thermodynamic parameters for the complex formation of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD with brilliant green (BG and precipitation of silver nitrate with BG have been determined by conductivity measurements in water. The results suggest that stable 1:1 complex is formed between BG and β-cyclodextrin and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔHc°,ΔSc° for this complexation reaction have been determined from temperature dependence of the stability constant using the van’t Hoff plots. Based on the obtained results, the conductometric method for the determination of BG in the presence of β-CD at 25 °C was developed in the range of 10−8–10−3 molL−1 and with AgNO3 is 10−3–10−5 molL−1.

  13. Vejen Til Brexit - Et EU uden Storbritannien?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilche, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The following master thesis is looking at the current situation of the United Kingdoms, and their relationship with the EU up till June 2016. The thesis is seeking to understand the reasoning behind and the contributing factors for the choice, by David Cameron, to call for a referendum on UK’s continued membership of the EU, also called Brexit. This is done through the usage of Historical Institutionalism, Liberal Intergovernmentalism and Intergovernmentalism, in an attempt to get insight...

  14. EU countries in NATO. Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina ANTONOAIE

    2016-01-01

    According to the Clingendael Report – New Treats, New EU and NATO responses – from July 2015 issued by the Netherlands Institute of International Relations, the changes in the security environment of Europe ask for a prudent response from the part of EU and NATO member countries. Since the adoption of NATO’s new Strategic Concept at the Lisbon Summit in November 2010, which identifies the need for the Alliance to address emerging security challenges, several new areas of cooper...

  15. National Constitutional Avenues for further EU Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Claes, M.; Imamovic, Š.; Reestman, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates national constitutional limits to further EU integration and explores ways to overcome them. It includes an in-depth examination of the constitutional systems of 12 Member States (Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom) and a bird’s eye view of all Member States. EU integration can be advanced by avoiding substantive constitutional obstacles in various ways. Overcoming...

  16. FISCAL DISCIPLINE WITHIN THE EU: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN CELEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of the convergence indicators relative to fiscal area in the EU; subsequent to a description of the main peculiarities of the convergence criteria, the reseach develops a critical analysis on a comparative perspective of the actual values of fiscal convergence indicators registered in EU countries compared with the reference values of the indicators, with emphasis on the differences between emerging and developed countries.

  17. Position of microenterprises in EU economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of the analysis of positions of microenterprises in European Union (EU economy. The results show that microenterprises make up the most numerous group of economic subjects in EU, however their importance in economy is diversified. In terms of job places their significance is comparable to the biggest enterprises, however in terms of income generation, value added, labour productivity and financial efficiency the position of microenterprises is conclusively the weakest.

  18. Etableringsret og investorbeskyttelse i EU's nye handelsaftaler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår den regulering af etableringsret og investorbeskyttelse, der findes i de frihandelsaftaler, EU har indgået med Sydkorea, Canada og Singapore, samt i den aftale, der p.t. forhandles med USA (TTIP).......Artiklen gennemgår den regulering af etableringsret og investorbeskyttelse, der findes i de frihandelsaftaler, EU har indgået med Sydkorea, Canada og Singapore, samt i den aftale, der p.t. forhandles med USA (TTIP)....

  19. EU's Plight, Changes and Their Impacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ On the stages of international politics and economics, the European Union (EU) is a key player, and its development has great impact on the global political and economic setup. In 2005, the "constitutional crisis" occurred in the EU, the fruits of European economic integration, which once was thought irreversible, like the Single European Market and the united currency of euro, now also might fall apart.

  20. Gender mainstreaming and EU climate change policy

    OpenAIRE

    Allwood, Gill

    2014-01-01

    This article uses feminist institutionalism to examine how gender mainstreaming has been sidelined in European Union (EU) climate change policy. It finds that, with a few exceptions largely emanating from the European Parliament's Committee on Women's Rights and Gender Equality, EU responses to climate change are gender-blind. This is despite the Treaty obligations to gender mainstream policy in all areas and despite the intersections between climate change and development policy, which is re...

  1. Mobile TV: An assessment of EU policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza; Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    The aim of the paper is to discuss EU policies in the area of mobile TV. The European Commission has strongly promoted an EU-wide common policy on mobile TV including the choice of DVB-H as the standard to be used. The paper aims at discussing this policy in view of the technological and market...... developments in the field of mobile media....

  2. Magnetic property and microstructure of SmCo magnetic recording films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Ning; LI; Shuai

    2009-01-01

    Cr/SmCo/Cr thin films with Sm concentration of 37.7 at.% were deposited on glass substrates by magnetron sputtering. Meas-urement of magnetic properties showed that the SmCo film possessed good magnetic anisotropy, a high coercivity of 3019 kA/m and low magnetic exchange coupling. Microstructure analysis showed that crystallized SmCo5 magnetic phase, non-magnetic SmCo2 phase and Sm2Co7 phase co-existed ill the film. The non-magnetic SmCo2 phase might function as isolator of SmCo grains, leading to a decrease of magnetic exchange coupling. Moreover, a Cr2)3 oxide layer which could protect the SmCo layer from oxidation formed at the surface of the Cr cap layer.

  3. Moessbauer spectroscopy of 151Eu and 153Eu. Applications to structural chemistry and electronic properties of rare-earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decrease of the 151Eu isomer shift on hydrogenation of a dilute EuPd alloy (2.5at% Eu) is discussed in term of the volume effect on the charge density at the nucleus. It is shown from 153Eu Moessbauer spectroscopy in rare earth titanates that a vibrational anisotropy lead to the observation of a Goldanskii-Karyagin effect

  4. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  5. How Could Scotland Protect its EU Links After Brexit?

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Kirsty

    2015-01-01

    It is often presumed that Scotland will continue to be part of the EU, either through a UK-wide vote to remain in the EU referendum or by joining the EU after a successful second independence referendum, writes Kirsty Hughes. She argues, however, that it is possible that Scotland could find itself outside the EU following a vote to leave, and that it should consider how to develop a differentiated relationship with the EU distinct from England.

  6. The Competitiveness of Croatian Export to EU Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Buturac, Goran; Gržinić, Jasmina

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the competitiveness of Croatian export to EU market. At the very beginning of the paper, by analyzing the results of regression model the basic differences among the value of Croatian exports in EU countries are to be explained. The differences in the size of Croatian export among EU countries could be well explained by the geographical distance between Croatia and individual EU countries, as well as, by the GDP of the EU countries. Croatia has positive trade balance with ...

  7. Sodium samarium tetrakis(polyphosphate, NaSm(PO34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhao

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available NaSm(PO34 has been prepared by solid state reactions. It belongs to type II of the structural family of MILnIII(PO34 compounds (MI = alkali metal and LnIII = rare earth metal and is composed of ∞(PO3n]n− polyphosphate chains with a repeating unit of four PO4 tetrahedra. The chains extend parallel to [100] and share O atoms with irregular SmO8 polyhedra, forming a three-dimensional framework which delimits tunnels occupied by Na+ cations in a distorted octahedral environment.

  8. The Appliance of Code Switching in the SM Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chang

    2014-01-01

    Code-switching, a natural phenomenon that consists of alternating two or more languages in bilinguals ’discourse, has traditionally been examined in its oral production. For over three decades, much attention has been emphasized on its form, meaning, and grammatical patterns. However, very little research focuses on code-switching in short message form. Code switch-ing is a quite common phenomenon. As cell phones become the communication tools used by people more frequently, short mes-sage language (SM) attracts more attention by people. Through analyzing the code switching in the SM language, it will help us understand more about its use and explore more information for our study.

  9. Piezoresistivity of SmS at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dependence of the longitudinal coefficient of piezoresistance of unaixial compression (π11) on conductivity electron concentration (n) at room temperature for SmS monocrystals was studied. Comparative analysis of the obtained experimental results with calculated dependences of π11 on n was carried out. It was concluded as a result of the analysis that the value of piezoresistance effect is specified by contribution of electrons activated from 4f-levels of Sm ions and from impurity donor levels to charge carrier concentration

  10. Pressure-induced elastic softening of SmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elastic constant measurements under hydrostatic pressure show that, as semiconducting SmS approaches its type O isostructural transition from the larger-volume side, the bulk modulus decreases but not in the catastrophic manner characteristic of the intermediate-valence Smsub(1-x)Ysub(x)S alloys near the transition. In both the semiconducting SmS and the intermediate-valence metallic-state Smsub(1-x)Ysub(x)S alloys the contribution from cubic terms to the elastic strain energy is small. (author)

  11. Presence of magnetic excitations in SmFeAsO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliciari, Jonathan; Dantz, Marcus; Huang, Yaobo; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Xing, Lingyi; Wang, Xiancheng; Jin, Changqing; Schmitt, Thorsten

    2016-09-01

    We measured dispersive spin excitations in SmFeAsO, a parent compound of SmFeAsO1 -xFx and one of the highest temperature superconductors of Fe pnictides (TC ≈ 55 K). We determine the magnetic excitations to disperse with a bandwidth energy of ca 170 meV at (0.47, 0) and (0.34, 0.34), which merges into the elastic line approaching the Γ point. Comparing our results with other parent Fe pnictides, we show the importance of structural parameters for the magnetic excitation spectrum, with small modifications of the tetrahedron angles and As height strongly affecting the magnetism.

  12. Petri nets SM-cover-based on heuristic coloring algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacz, Jacek; Doligalski, Michał

    2015-09-01

    In the paper, coloring heuristic algorithm of interpreted Petri nets is presented. Coloring is used to determine the State Machines (SM) subnets. The present algorithm reduces the Petri net in order to reduce the computational complexity and finds one of its possible State Machines cover. The proposed algorithm uses elements of interpretation of Petri nets. The obtained result may not be the best, but it is sufficient for use in rapid prototyping of logic controllers. Found SM-cover will be also used in the development of algorithms for decomposition, and modular synthesis and implementation of parallel logic controllers. Correctness developed heuristic algorithm was verified using Gentzen formal reasoning system.

  13. Synthesis ZnS:Sm thin films from volatile complex compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Elena N.; Kovalevskaya, Yu. A.; Bessreguenev, Valentin G.

    2002-11-01

    Deposition and characterization of ZnS, Sm2S3 and ZnS:Sm films are described. The films have been prepared by chemical vapor deposition using new volatile complex compounds, dithiocarbamates of Zn and Sm, as precursors. Characterization includes X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis of the film composition, ellipsometry and spectrophotometry. It has been shown that at relatively low temperatures (about 380 °C) monophase crystalline Sm2S3 films can be fabricated. Doping of ZnS by Sm with dopant concentration up to 2 at. % has been achieved. Effects of Sm doping on structural and optical properties of the film are presented.

  14. Crystal grains alignment of SmBCO film by advanced TFA-MOD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We grew SmBa2Cu3O7-y (SmBCO) films on LaAlO3 (LAO) single crystalline substrates by an advanced TFA-MOD method and discussed the effects of process conditions such as oxygen partial pressure in the crystallization step on the crystal grains alignment of SmBCO film. Oxygen partial pressure affected strongly on the orientation of SmBCO film. Formation of a-axis crystal grains of the SmBCO was suppressed, and, at the same time, c-axis crystal grains of the SmBCO increased with decreasing the oxygen concentration

  15. Electrochemical preparation of Al–Sm intermetallic compound whisker in LiCl–KCl Eutectic Melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The reduction process of Sm(III) was investigated in LiCl–KCl melt on an aluminum electrode at 773 K. • Al–Sm alloy with different phase structure (Al2Sm and Al3Sm) was prepared by potentiostatic electrolysis on an aluminum electrode with the change of electrolytic potentials and time in LiCl–KCl–SmCl3 melts. • Al − Sm alloy containing whiskers (Al4Sm) was obtained by potentiostatic electrolysis (−2.10 V) on an aluminum electrode for 7 hours with the change of electrolytic temperature and cooling rate in LiCl–KCl–SmCl3 (16.5 wt. %) melts. The results from micro–hardness test and potentiodynamic polarization test show the micro hardness and corrosion property are remarkably improved with the help of Al–Sm intermetallic compound whiskers. - Abstract: This work presents the electrochemical study of Sm(III) on an aluminum electrode in LiCl–KCl melts at 773 K by different electrochemical methods. Three electrochemical signals in cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, open circuit chronopotentiometry, and cathode polarization curve are attributed to different kinds of Al–Sm intermetallic compounds, Al2Sm, Al3Sm, and Al4Sm, respectively. Al–Sm alloy with different phase structure (Al2Sm and Al3Sm) could be obtained by the potentiostatic electrolysis with the change of electrolytic potentials and time. Al–Sm alloy containing whiskers (Al4Sm) was obtained by potentiostatic electrolysis (−2.10 V) on an aluminum electrode for 7 hours with the change of electrolytic temperature and cooling rate in LiCl–KCl–SmCl3 (16.5 wt. %) melts. The XRD and SEM&EDS were employed to investigate the phase composition and microstructure of Al–Sm alloy. SEM analysis shows that lots of needle−like precipitates formed in Al–Sm alloy, and their ratios of length to diameter are found to be greater than 10 to 1. The TEM and electron diffraction pattern were performed to investigate the crystal structure of the needle

  16. Succession of States in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martini Mario

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A specter is haunting Europe – the specter of separatism. Scotland, Catalonia, Flanders, South Tyrol – all these regions have separatist movements pursuing independence from their current National State. The breakup of an EU Member State no longer seems impossible. To date, it is unclear what impact this would have on the EU membership of the new entities (with consequences for the character of citizenship, voting rights in the council, number of MEPs etc. that emerge from the old States. The common rules of Public International Law governing the succession of States are insufficient in the case of a succession of States in the EU. Although the Treaties do not provide for such a situation and the past 60 years of European history offer only a few and not really persuasive precedents, the nature of the EU as a joint association of sovereign States (“Staatenverbund” demands a special approach: A separated State will neither be automatically excluded from the EU nor will it automatically become a new Member State. Drawing on the ideas of Articles 49 and 50 TEU this essay develops a procedure for balancing the interests of the EU, its Member States, and the people living in the seceding State, who are likely to be pro-EU. If a Member State breaks up, both the remaining State and the new entity will continue to represent the former Member State in the European institutions. The former Member State will provisionally continue to exist for both the EU and its Member States with respect to European matters. A process of negotiation between the two “new” States themselves and with the other Member States will lead to a new balance within the EU and the adaption of the Treaties – the solution has to be a political one. If the negotiations are successful, the former Member State can finally be dissolved at the EU level. In this case either both new States will become new Members or the remaining State will continue the membership (with

  17. Studies concerning the preparation of the 153Sm complex with EDTMP (ethylenediaminetetra methylenephosphonic acid) and other 153Sm complexes with other phosphonates, at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a study on the preparation of the complexes 153Sm - EDTMP, 153Sm - HEDP, 153Sm - NTMP, 153Sm - DTPMP and 153Sm - HDTMP at room temperature. The preparation of the complex 153Sm - HDTMP, under heating (70 - 72 deg C), was also studied. Several factors affecting the 153Sm - EDTMP complexing yields were studied, due to its importance for use in Nuclear Medicine. These factors were: the molar ratio [ligand] / [metal], the ligand concentration and the incubation time of the mixture ligand-metal. The preparation of this complex, in low molar ratios, was also investigated. A study of the 153Sm - EDTMP concerning the 'in vitro' stability, when this complex was prepared in low radioactive concentrations was performed. A study on the temperature influence on its degradation, when this complex was obtained in higher radioactive concentrations, was also performed. The preparation of the complexes 153Sm - HEDP, 153Sm - NTMP, 153Sm - DTPMP and 153Sm - HDTMP was investigated by preparing the complexes in two situations: high molar ratio and ligand concentration and low molar ratio and ligand concentration. The 'in vitro' stability of each complex, obtained in low radioactive concentration was studied. In the specific case of the complex 153Sm - HDTMP, its biological distribution in mice was performed. All the complexes were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its complexing yields were determined by other three chromatographic processes: ionic exchange, thin layer chromatography (TLC - SG) and paper chromatography. The chromatographic processes were performed by association with specific radiochemical techniques. This work also presents a comparative study on the chromatograms obtained by thin layer chromatography (TLC - SG) and paper chromatography, when evaluated by the technique of cutting the strips into pieces and the chromatograms performed directly on a radiochromatography. The shape of the chromatograms and Rf values of 153

  18. Deregulering af arbejdsretlige EU-direktiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ole; Rønnow Bruun, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Europa-Kommissionen vil lette de ”reguleringsmæssige byrder” for små og mellemstore virksomheder (SMV). Langt hovedparten af de danske virksomheder er SMV´er. Konsekvenserne af initiativet kan derfor blive særdeles vidtgående på dansk grund. Artiklen drøfter, om det overhovedet er muligt i henhold...

  19. Characteristics of parental rearing pattern in schizophrenics with brilliant school records%自幼学习成绩优异的精神分裂症患者父母教养方式的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵素银; 王亚卿; 栗克清; 孙秀丽; 张红杰

    2002-01-01

    Objective To explore the features of the parental rearing behavior in schizophrenics with a brilliant school records.Methods 51 schizophrenics in remission with brilliant records were tested by EMBU.36 healthy volunteers were randomized into the controls group.Result Subjects with schizophrenia had abnormal parental rearing behavior,such as overprotection, predilection over intervention and over punishment of parents.Most of them come from peasant family.Conclusion The factors such as abnormal parental rearing behavior probably influence the development of schizophrenics.

  20. Impacts of the EU Biofuel directive implementation on the EU food supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabeau, A.A.; Meijl, van H.; Banse, M.A.H.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates the impact of the EU Biofuels Directive (BFD) on the EU agri-food supply chain using the computable general equilibrium model of the world economy named LEITAP. LEITAP is an extended version of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model including an improved land market mo

  1. Impact of the EU Biofuels Directive on the EU food supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabeau, A.A.; Banse, M.A.H.; Meijl, van H.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the impact of the EU Biofuels Directive (BFD) on the EU agri-food supply chain using a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy, LEITAP. LEITAP is an extended version of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model including improved land market modeling, sub

  2. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of metastable SmCo7 compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Changwen; LI Hua; DONG Jianmin; WANG Yongjuan; PAN Fengchun; ZHANG Jian; GUO Yongquan; LI Wei

    2005-01-01

    The electronic density of states, spin-splittings and atomic magnetic moments of SmCo7 compound have been studied using spin-polarized MS-X( method. The results show that a few of electrons are transferred to Sm(5d0) orbital because of orbital hybridization between Sm and Co atoms in the compound. The exchange interactions between 3d and 5d electrons lead to the magnetic coupling between Sm and Co, and therefore, result in the long-range ferromagnetic order inside the SmCo7 compound. There are negative exchange couplings occurring at some levels, which weakens the strength of average coupling around Co lattice. So, the Curie temperature and Co-moment of SmCo7 decrease distinctly compared with pure Co. Compared with SmCo5 compound, the disordered substitution of Co-Co "dumbbell-atom" pairs for Sm changes the local environment of Co lattice, which makes the 2e site bear negative magnetic moment. The strength of hybridization near Fermi level weakens and the free energy of the compound increases obviously. Thus, SmCo7 is a metastable compound at room temperature. Considering the localization of 4f electrons and a few of 5d electrons arising from the orbital hybridization, the magnetic moment of Sm atom will be 1.61μB in SmCo7 compound, which is in agreement with the experimental values of Sm3+ ion- moment and Sm atom-moment in metals.

  3. Effects of Sm on the grain refinement, microstructures and mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ming [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Hu, Xiaoyu [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Peng, Liming, E-mail: plm616@sjtu.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Fu, Penghuai [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Peng, Yinghong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-01-03

    The effects of samarium (Sm) on the grain refinement, microstructures and mechanical properties of as-cast AZ31 (Mg–3Al–1Zn–0.3Mn) magnesium (Mg) alloy have been investigated. Very serious grain coarsening happens when Sm content is between 0.16% and 1.18%. This is due to both the reactions between Al and Sm which reduce the constitutional undercooling effect and the lack of Al{sub 2}Sm heterogeneous nuclei. However, excellent grain refinement effect is achieved at Sm content above 2.17%, which is because the in-situ formed Al{sub 2}Sm particles significantly promote heterogeneous nucleation. The main phases in AZ31–xSm alloys include α-Mg, β-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12}, Al{sub 11}Sm{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}Sm. The Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase is gradually suppressed by the increase in Sm content, and the Al{sub 2}Sm is present at a higher Sm content. Because of grain refinement strengthening and secondary phase strengthening effects, the room temperature tensile property of AZ31–3.13Sm alloy has the optimal value of YS78.7MPa–UTS216.7MPa-EL13.6%.

  4. The formin-homology protein SmDia interacts with the Src kinase SmTK and the GTPase SmRho1 in the gonads of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Quack

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis (bilharzia is a parasitic disease of worldwide significance affecting human and animals. As schistosome eggs are responsible for pathogenesis, the understanding of processes controlling gonad development might open new perspectives for intervention. The Src-like tyrosine-kinase SmTK3 of Schistosoma mansoni is expressed in the gonads, and its pharmacological inhibition reduces mitogenic activity and egg production in paired females in vitro. Since Src kinases are important signal transduction proteins it is of interest to unravel the signaling cascades SmTK3 is involved in to understand its cellular role in the gonads. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: Towards this end we established and screened a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H cDNA library of adult S. mansoni with a bait construct encoding the SH3 (src homology domain and unique site of SmTK3. Among the binding partners found was a diaphanous homolog (SmDia, which was characterized further. SmDia is a single-copy gene transcribed throughout development with a bias towards male transcription. Its deduced amino acid sequence reveals all diaphanous-characteristic functional domains. Binding studies with truncated SmDia clones identified SmTK3 interaction sites demonstrating that maximal binding efficiency depends on the N-terminal part of the FH1 (formin homology domain and the inter-domain region of SmDia located upstream of FH1 in combination with the unique site and the SH3 domain of SmTK3, respectively. SmDia also directly interacted with the GTPase SmRho1 of S. mansoni. In situ hybridization experiments finally demonstrated that SmDia, SmRho1, and SmTK3 are transcribed in the gonads of both genders. CONCLUSION: These data provide first evidence for the existence of two cooperating pathways involving Rho and Src that bridge at SmDia probably organizing cytoskeletal events in the reproductive organs of a parasite, and beyond that in gonads of eukaryotes. Furthermore, the FH1 and inter

  5. Perceived Distributive Fairness of EU Transfer Payments, Outcome Favorability, Identity, and EU-Tax Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartner, Martina; Rechberger, Silvia; Kirchler, Erich; Wenzel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In a representative UK study (N = 1000) the link between distributive fairness perceptions, outcome favorability, identity, and tax compliance was researched in the context of European transfer payments. Results showed that both forms of tax compliance (i.e., individual and collective EU-tax compliance) were influenced by perceived distributive fairness judgments of EU transfer payments. Fairness itself was related to perceived outcome favorability (i.e., whether their own nation benefits from the EU in financial as well as socio-political terms). Additionally, national identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation, but not with Europe) perceived EU membership as unbeneficial in financial as well as in socio-political terms and thus considered the transfer payments as less fair. Dual identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation and with Europe) perceived the socio-political outcomes from EU membership as more beneficial and thus evaluated the transfer payments as fairer.

  6. Do supranational EU institutions make a difference? EU asylum law before and after ‘communitarization’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll Servent, Ariadna; Trauner, Florian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article examines whether the empowerment of the European Union's (EU) supranational institutions has had an impact on the development of EU asylum. By systematically investigating EU asylum law before and after ‘communitarization’, it argues that its ‘policy core’ has maintained a high degree of continuity. An advocacy coalition under the leadership of the interior ministers managed to co-opt pivotal actors in the newly empowered European Commission and European Parliament. By contenting themselves with changes of secondary order, these EU institutions accepted and institutionalized the restrictive and weakly integrated core of EU asylum set by the Council in the first negotiation round. Their role and decisions were driven not only by the negotiation dynamics and political expediency, but also by new inter- and intra-institutional norms fostering consensual practices. PMID:26924934

  7. The transformative power of EU: An Assessment of EU impact in the judicial system of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrie Besimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the process of EU integration, the aspiring and potential candidate countries have undergone a major process of reforms. The question that is aroused in this sense is to what extent the EU has had transformative power and impacted the internal judicial structures of Kosovo and under which conditions the EU is more effective. This article analyzes the findings of the Progress reports for a ten-year period (2005 – 2015 and the extent of the EU impact. It uses the conceptual and rational framework of external incentives model and argues that the EU impact in the judiciary system of Kosovo is crucial considering the starting low phase of reforms in Kosovo.

  8. Preparation and characterization of magnetic EuO and related compounds: EuS and Eu2O3

    OpenAIRE

    Moder, Iris

    2012-01-01

    El monóxido de europio EuO es un material ferromagnético que muestra una gran variedad de fenómenos físicos y se utiliza a menudo como sistema ideal. Cabe destacar el efecto Kerr, el transporte de espín y, para EuO , una transición metal-aislante con magnetorresistencia colosal. EuO es el único óxido binario conocido que se puede crecer termodinámicamente estable en contacto con silicio. Este óxido puede utilizarse para la inyección de espines ajustando su conductividad a la del silicio o tam...

  9. Magnetization and transport properties of single crystalline RPd2P2 (R=Y, La-Nd, Sm-Ho, Yb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachuck, Gil; Böhmer, Anna E.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2016-11-01

    Single crystals of RPd2P2 (R=Y, La-Nd, Sm-Ho, Yb) were grown out of a high temperature solution rich in Pd and P and characterized by room-temperature powder X-ray diffraction, anisotropic temperature- and field-dependent magnetization and temperature-dependent in-plane resistivity measurements. In this series, YPd2P2 and LaPd2P2 YbPd2P2 (with Yb2+) are non-local-moment bearing. Furthermore, YPd2P2 and LaPd2P2 are found to be superconducting with Tc ≃ 0.75 and 0.96 K respectively. CePd2P2 and PrPd2P2 magnetically order at low temperature with a ferromagnetic component along the crystallographic c-axis. The rest of the series manifest low temperature antiferromagnetic ordering. EuPd2P2 has Eu2+ ions and both EuPd2P2 and GdPd2P2 have isotropic paramagnetic susceptibilities consistent with L=0 and J = S = 7/2 and exhibit multiple magnetic transitions. For R=Eu-Dy, there are multiple, T > 1.8 K transitions in zero applied magnetic field and for R=Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Dy there are clear metamagnetic transitions at T=2.0 K for H < 55 kOe. Strong anisotropies arising mostly from crystal electric field (CEF) effects were observed for most magnetic rare earths with L ≠ 0. The experimentally estimated CEF parameters B20 were calculated from the anisotropic paramagnetic θab and θc values and compared to theoretical trends across the rare earth series. The ordering temperatures as well as the polycrystalline averaged paramagnetic Curie-Weiss temperature, θave, were extracted from magnetization and resistivity measurements, and compared to the de-Gennes factor.

  10. EU NO "Plan B" Beyond Copenhagen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ "The EU wams to speed up the negotiations and will take firm actions to reduce its emissions by 20 percent regardless of what other countries do.Because the EU had no‘plan B'beyond Copenhagen",Sweden's Environment Minister Andreas Carlgren stressed the goal during his visit to Beijing in July.He led the European Union delegation and accompanied by EU Environment Commissioner Stavros Dimas and environment minister from Spain that will hold the EU presidency during the next term,to visit China.This is the first visit made by the EU Troika for bilateral climate negotiations during the Swedish Presidency.The purpose of the visit is to reach an agreement on climate change for the preparation of Copenhagen Conference to be held this December,in which,it is supposed to agree on a successor to the Kyoto Protocol,and to reinforce the message that emerging economies were also expected to reduce emissions by 15-30%from current levels by 2020.Carlgren called his visit was"laying the right foundation for a successful Copenhagen conference".

  11. Direct digital control of the WWR-SM research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the computerized control system of a 5 MW WWR-SM research reactor. The system is realized as a multilayer decision hierarchy where simple subsystems control the power and the outlet temperature of the reactor under the supervision of a self-organization layer. The structure of the program system and the hardware configuration are presented. (author)

  12. ACS after SM4: New Life for an Old Workhorse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golimowski, David; Anderson, Jay; Armstrong, Amber; Arslanian, Steve; Bedin, Luigi; Bohlin, Ralph; Boyce, Kevin; Chapman, George; Cheng, Edward; Chiaberge, Marco; Cox, Colin; Desiardins, Tyler; Dye, Darryl; Ellis, Tracy; Ferguson, Brian; Fruchter, Andrew; Grogin, Norman; Lim, Pey Lian; Loose, Markus; Lucas, Ray; Lupie, Olivia; Mack, Jennifer; Maybhate, Aparna; Mil, Kathleen; Mutchler, Max; Ricardo, Raphael; Scott, Barbara; Serrano, Beverly; Sirianni, Marco; Smith, Linda; Suchkov, Anatoly A.; Waczynski, Augustyn; Welty, Alan; Wheeler, Thomas; Wilson, Erin

    2010-07-01

    The ACS CCD Electronics Box Replacement (CEB-R) installed during SM4 features a Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC that permits optimization of the WFC via adjustment of CCD clock voltages, bias voltages, and pixel transmission timing. An on-orbit campaign to optimize the performance of the WFC was undertaken at the start of the SMOV period. Initial tests with pre-SM4 default voltages and timing patterns showed that WFC's performance matches or exceeds its pre-failure levels, notwithstanding the expected increases in dark current and hot pixels and the decline in charge-transfer efficiency due to prolonged exposure to HST's radiation environment. One WFC CCD exhibited anomalous behavior when operated with nondefault settings of its reset drain voltage. Consequently, the optimization campaign was truncated after two iterations, and ACS science operations commenced with the pre-SM4 default configuration. Several artifacts attributed to the CEB-R appear in post-SM4 WFC images: large-scale but stable bias gradients, low-level but temporally variable horizontal stripes, a signal-dependent bias shift, and amplifier crosstalk. STScI has developed algorithms for the correction or mitigation of these electronic artifacts as well as for the restoration of images affected by continuously degrading CTE. Standalone correction packages are now or will soon be publicly available. These packages will be incorporated into the calacs package of the OPUS data pipeline by September 2011.

  13. Searches for Beyond SM Higgs Boson at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safonov, A.; /Texas A-M

    2006-05-01

    In the following, the authors describe preliminary results of searches for non-SM higgs bosons at the CDF and D0 experiments. Both experiments use data obtained in p{bar p} collisions at the Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV.

  14. SM4AM: A Semantic Metamodel for Analytical Metadata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, Jovan; Romero, Oscar; Pedersen, Torben Bach;

    2014-01-01

    . We present SM4AM, a Semantic Metamodel for Analytical Metadata created as an RDF formalization of the Analytical Metadata artifacts needed for user assistance exploitation purposes in next generation BI systems. We consider the Linked Data initiative and its relevance for user assistance...

  15. Metastable magnetic polaron effects in SmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resistivity, Hall effect and magnetoresistance of nominally stoichiometric black phase SmS single crystals were measured at pressures up to 4 kbar, for temperatures ranging from 1.2 to 300K. Metastable effects in the free electron population were observed below 20K. These effects are explained by a bound magnetic polaron concept

  16. Plantens små kraftværker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, I.M.; Bykova, N.V.

    2001-01-01

    mitokondrien. Mitokondrier er plantecellernes små kraftværker, som forsyner plantecellen med energi i form af ATP (adenosintriphosphat) og byggesten til syntese af cellens bestanddele. For at forstårespirationen må vi have en grundig forståelse af mitokondrien og dens proteiner. Den viden kan igen føre til, at...

  17. Investigation of spectroscopy and the dual energy transfer mechanisms of Sm3+-doped telluroborate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Do, Phan; Tuyen, Vu Phi; Quang, Vu Xuan; Hung, Le Xuan; Thanh, Luong Duy; Ngoc, Tran; Van Tam, Ngo; Huy, Bui The

    2016-05-01

    The absorption, luminescence, Raman spectra and lifetimes of Sm-doped alkali telluroborate glasses (TB glasses) TB:Sm3+ have been investigated. The dual energy transfers including energy transfer between Sm3+ - Sm3+ pairs and Sm3+ - non-bridging oxygen (NBO) intrinsic defects were investigated. The concentration quenching of luminescence intensity was explained by the non-radiative energy transfer between the Sm3+ ions through the cross-relaxation mechanism. The decay curves are single exponentials with low concentrations (lower 0.10 mol%) and become non-exponentials at higher concentrations. The non-exponential decay curves are fitted to the Inokuti and Hirayama model to give the energy transfer parameters between Sm3+ ions. The dominant interaction mechanism for energy transfer process is dipole-dipole interaction. The energy transfer induced Sm3+ photoluminescence enhancement in tellurite glass was experimentally studied and confirmed.

  18. Poly(brilliant green) and poly(thionine) modified carbon nanotube coated carbon film electrodes for glucose and uric acid biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghica, M Emilia; Brett, Christopher M A

    2014-12-01

    Poly(brilliant green) (PBG) and poly(thionine) (PTH) films have been formed on carbon film electrodes (CFEs) modified with carbon nanotubes (CNT) by electropolymerisation using potential cycling. Voltammetric and electrochemical impedance characterisation were performed. Glucose oxidase and uricase, as model enzymes, were immobilised on top of PBG/CNT/CFE and PTH/CNT/CFE for glucose and uric acid (UA) biosensing. Amperometric determination of glucose and UA was carried out in phosphate buffer pH 7.0 at -0.20 and +0.30 V vs. SCE, respectively, and the results were compared with other similarly modified electrodes existing in the literature. An interference study and recovery measurements in natural samples were successfully performed, indicating these architectures to be good and promising biosensor platforms. PMID:25159399

  19. Optimization of Preparation Condition for Meso pores Activated Carbon based on Hevea Brasiliensis Seed Coat for the Removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue R Dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conditions for the preparation of rubber (hevea brasiliensis) seed coat based activated carbon (RSCAC) treated with NaOH were optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three preparation variables: the activation temperature, activation time and NaOH impregnation ratio (IR) on Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) removal from aqueous solutions and RSCAC yield were investigated. Based on the RSM, two quadratic models were respectively developed to correlate the preparation variables to the RBBR percentage removal and carbon yield. The significant factors on each experimental design response were identified from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum conditions for RSCAC preparation were obtained by using activation temperature of 700 degree Celsius, activation time of 1.0 h and IR of 1.0, which resulted in 70.82 % of RBBR removal and 24.93 % of RSCAC yield. (author)

  20. Heterogeneous fenton-like degradation of an azo dye reactive brilliant orange by the combination of activated carbon-FeOOH catalyst and H 2O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jinhua; Lin, Guanghui; Li, Ping;

    2013-01-01

    The decoloration of an azo dye reactive brilliant orange (X-GN) by a heterogeneous Fenton system using activated carbon-FeOOH catalyst (AC-FeOOH) and H2O2 was studied. Under typical conditions (pH 7.0, H2O2 10 mmol/L, AC-FeOOH 1.0g/L and 30°C), 98% decoloration rate of X-GN was achieved in 240 mm...... that the decoloration of X-GN followed a pseudo-first order reaction and the activation energy was 17.2 kJ/mol. Iron leaching from AC-FeOOH occurred during the reaction, but the decoloration efficiency of X-GN was still higher than 80% after four runs. The AC-FeOOH has a good stability and can be reused. Besides...

  1. Electrochemical degradation of Reactive Brilliant Red K-2BP on Ti/RuTiIrSnMn oxide anode in a batch cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO JIANCHENG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical degradation of Reactive Brilliant Red K-2BP on Ti/RuTiIrSnMn oxide anode in chloride containing solution was investigated by voltammetry and electrolysis in a batch cell. It is found that the degradation mechanism of K-2BP on Ti/RuTiIrSnMn oxide anode involves an indirect electrocatalytic oxidation, in which K-2BP is oxidized by the electrochemically generated active chlorine. This degradation reaction follows pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. Ti/RuTiIrSnMn oxide exhibits excellent electrocata­lytic activity toward the generation of active chlorine from chloride. Hence, K-2BP can be electrochemically degraded effectively in chloride containing solution. The decolorization efficiency was found to increase with the decrease in pH and with the increase in current density, NaCl concentration, temperature, and flow rate of the solution.

  2. Effects of cilostamide and/or forskolin on the meiotic resumption and development competence of growing ovine oocytes selected by brilliant cresyl blue staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari-Dolatabad, Nima; Rahmani, H R; Hajian, M; Ostadhosseini, S; Hosseini, S M; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2016-05-01

    The relevance of low developmental competence of in vitro-matured oocyte to the incomplete/delayed cytoplasmic maturation, and the heterogeneity of retrieved oocytes is well established in several species. A short phase of prematuration culture was used to allow better oocyte cytoplasmic maturation. The preselection of growing and fully grown oocytes has been proposed to improve developmental competency. This study investigated the effects of phosphodiesterase type 3-specific inhibitor, cilostamide, and adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, on the resumption of meiosis and developmental competence of growing ovine oocytes selected by brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining. Results indicate that cilostamide, forskolin, and their combination significantly (P culture with forskolin may improve the in vitro developmental competency of growing oocytes in ovine. PMID:26879998

  3. EU CONTRIBUTION TO SUPPORT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Popa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the EU aid concerning to improved the economic situation from developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify how EU states contribute to helping poor countries, members of the World Trade Organization. For the beginning, we define the EU’position before, during and after the Doha Round – a round of WTO multilateral trade negotiations. Moreover, we analyse the development dimension, focusing on countries „marginalized” until early of XXI century in terms of international trade, because this represents the idea-axis of the Doha Round. In this context, the EU – one of the leading global commercial players and a key member of the institution mentioned above – has set several objectives to achieve the basic goal of negotiations and several ways to support developing countries. To conclude, we propose to define the key points of the European aid for least developed and developing countries.

  4. A Smart EU Energy Policy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, J. [Clingendael International Energy Programme CIEP, Den Haag (Netherlands); Glachant, J.M. [The Loyola de Palacio Programme, Robert Schuman Center for Advanced Studies, European University Institute, San Domenico di Fiesole (Italy); Hafner, M. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei FEEM, Milan (Italy); Grant, R. (ed.) [Wilton Park, Wiston House, Steyning, West Sussex (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    A four-tier project has been organized to discuss the potential for a smart EU Energy Policy. The project consisted of three workshops where academics discussed the various interactions between the three core objectives of EU energy policy with stakeholders from governments, regulators, and industry. Following the three workshops a conference took place to examine the workshop reports and to formulate overall project conclusions and recommendations. The objective of the project was to come out with a set of 'smart' conclusions and recommendations for the 2010 EU energy policy review. The deliberations at the four project meetings greatly informed the views expressed in this document, but those views belong to the authors only and do not necessarily represent those of individual participants at the meetings or of the four supporting organisations.

  5. The EU as an international security provider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Wolff, Stefan; Whitman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    that will emerge from this analysis will then be tested and applied empirically in the following contributions that focus on how particular policies are formulated and implemented, and that analyse, in single and comparative case studies, the impact and effectiveness of the EU as an international security provider.......This contribution develops a framework of analysis that covers the actors involved in the policy making process of international security provision, the dynamics of this process itself, its outcomes (concrete strategies and policies) and their impact. Our efforts to establish such a framework...... of analysis, which could serve as the foundation for a mid-range theory of the EU as an international security provider, will examine the relevance of, and apply, existing theories of international relations/international security and foreign policy analysis to the specific case of the EU. The framework...

  6. The innovation of EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    actors involved. The seven case-study chapters, written from a variety of perspectives, focus on such topics as the impact of formal and informal institutional factors on policy innovation, the potential influence of new members on EU environmental policy-making, the role of cross-national networks and...... alliances, the shifting balance between leader and laggard members, and the ongoing problem integrating the environment into other policy fields. The book also draws on theoretical approaches ranging from institutional to policy network analyses and examines such pertinent contemporary issues as packaging......Inspired by the recent accession of three environmentally progressive member states to the European Union (EU), this book explores the process of environmental policy innovation in the EU, the forces behind the introduction of new issues and policy approaches, and the roles played by the major...

  7. Migration from New EU Member Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to give predictions of the migration potential from the 7 new EU member countries to the EEA/EU-13 countries. Being able to analyze 'real' migration behavior from these particular countries over the period 1990-2000 helps me to avoid problems related to (double) out......-of sample forecasts and to the assumption of invariance of migration behavior across a space that previous studies had to hold. Results of the econometric analyses reveal the importance of controlling for pairs of countries unobserved heterogeneity. Preliminary results regarding the predictions of future...... gross and net migration flows show that the magnitude of the estimated gross and net migration flows is relatively high and lower, respectively, compared to forecasts from previous studies. Such a development in gross and net migration flows indicates that migration from the new EU member countries...

  8. Thermoluminescence characteristics of Sm3+ doped NaYF4 crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Ramana Reddy; Ch Gopal Reddy; K Narasimha Reddy

    2007-02-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of NaYF4 crystals doped with Sm3+ have been studied after -ray irradiation. Dependence of luminescence efficiency on Sm3+ concentration and radiation dose has been measured and possible applications of NaYF4 : Sm3+ as a novel phosphor for TL dosimetry have been investigated. The efficiency of 0.3 mole% Sm3+ doped NaYF4 crystal has been found to be maximum and comparable with commercial thermoluminescence dosimetric (TLD) materials.

  9. Recent advances in the chemistry of SmI(2)-H(2)O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautier, Brice; Procter, David J

    2012-01-01

    Recent work from our laboratories has shown SmI(2)-H(2)O to be a versatile, readily-accessible and non-toxic reductant that is more powerful than SmI(2). This review describes the reduction of functional groups that were previously thought to lie beyond the reach of SmI(2) and complexity-generating cyclisations and cyclisation cascades triggered by the reduction of the ester carbonyl group with SmI(2)-H(2)O.

  10. Transmission electron microscopy study on defect structure of SmS monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monocrystalline SmS samples were studied by the method of transmission electron microscopy. A large quantity of Sm3S4 depositions of micron size as shown to be present as a rule in SmS monocrystals grown nowdays. Colonies of precipitates and full dislocation loops were revealed in some samples. Obtained are data on the structure of metal layer appearing on the surface of SmS crystals at its mechanical polishing

  11. ASSESSING THE FUTURE MIGRATION POTENTIAL OF THE EU CANDIDATE COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Assoc. Prof. Ph.D Vesna Bucevska

    2010-01-01

    In the realm of the EU accession, the EU candidate countries and EU are facing a number of challenges raised by the potential migration from these countries to EU. In this paper we try to answer the question if the fear of large migration pressure from these countries to EU is justified by estimating the migration potential of Croatia, Macedonia and Turkey to Germany, as the most dominant EU receiving country of immigrants in the period 1997-2007. The results from the extended gravity model r...

  12. The Contradictions in the EU's Policy towards Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian

    2005-01-01

    @@ On December 17, 2004, after hard negotiations, the European summit finally reached an agreement to launch the negotiations with Turkey on its accession to the EU in October 2005. This is a very important change in the EU's policy towards Turkey. Under the background of so-called "war on terror" and "conflict of civilizations," the EU's above-mentioned decision is especially arresting. Through analyzing the dominant factors in the EU's policy towards Turkey, this paper tries to make a judgment on the future development of Turkish- EU relationship, the prospect of Turkey's accession to the EU and the influences over the development of European integration.

  13. The EU's Normative Power in Changing World Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    global order: 1) what is the concept of normative power in world politics?; 2) what is an effective EU toolbox for tackling new challenges?; 3) how does the EU go beyond self-perception and rhetoric?; 4) what is the raison d'etre of the EU?; and 5) how might normative power in EU external policies lead......This chapter sets out what role the European Union (EU) could and should play in changing world politics, with an emphasis on the concept of 'normative power'. To do this, the chapter addresses five interrelated questions regarding the normative power and external politics of the EU in any new...

  14. The Impact of the Explosion of EU News on Voter Choice in the 2014 EU Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kleinnijenhuis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The European elections in 2014 were the first to be held after a long period in which EU-related news was prominent in the media. They were held after years of daily news about the euro crisis and after months of news about the popular uprising in the Ukraine against president Yanukovych, who had refused to sign the association agreement with the EU. This could have invited political parties to overcome the usual problem of low salience of EU issues by strongly profiling themselves on EU issues. Turnout at the 2014 EU elections, however, remained low, hinting that parties were unable to convert the attention for European issues into enthusiasm for their party at the European elections. This paper asks how vote choice was influenced by party campaigning on EU related issues. A news effects analysis based on a content analysis of Dutch newspapers and television, and on a panel survey among Dutch voters revealed that EU issues functioned as wedge issues: the more strongly parties were associated in the news with the euro crisis and the Ukraine, the less they succeeded in mobilizing voters.

  15. Present developmental conditions petroleum substituting energies in the EU; Sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (EU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report outlines the policy of development and introduction of petroleum substituting energies, and its diffusion situation in the EU. On the policy, development, introduction and diffusion of petroleum substituting energies in the EU, based on the new EU energy white paper issued in fiscal 1996, the policy of energy and environment in every EU country is first outlined. The policy of and practical approach to petroleum substituting energies in every EU country are next described. In particular, since ALTENER which has been continuously promoted by the EU for 3 years as main control measures against CO2 is newly moving toward the second plan, the trend of ALTENER and the new SAVE2 plan are presented. The content of JOULE-THERMIE is also precisely presented which is the new energy program of the 4th framework R & D program. In relation to the developmental trend of alternative energies to oil in the EU until 2020, its prediction result is presented on the basis of the latest study promoted by EC committee in the ALTENER plan. 10 tabs.

  16. Arbejdsmigration fra de nye EU-lande

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise M.; Lund Thomsen, Trine

    2011-01-01

    danske arbejdsmarked. Migrantarbejderne fra de nye EU-lande er karakteriseret ved høj grad af fleksibilitet, mobilitet og villighed til at arbejde, dårligere socioøkonomiske forhold og arbejdsmæssige vilkår i deres hjemlande samt en anden kulturel baggrund end deres danske kolleger. Denne artikel giver...... et indblik i nogle af konsekvenserne ved arbejdsmigration fra de nye EU-lande på det (u)faglærte danske arbejdsmarked belyst ud fra en analyse af henholdsvis et politisk, et fagforenings-, et brancheorganisations, et virksomhedsejer-, et arbejdsleder- og et medarbejderperspektiv....

  17. EU Lobbying and Anti-Dumping Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2012-01-01

    of petitioning firms and Council voting in the case of anti-dumping policy. If the political position of countries in anti-dumping cases is influenced by domestic lobbying efforts, we expect that the empirical pattern of country distribution of petitioning firms in EU anti-dumping cases corresponds closely...... to the empirical pattern of EU country distribution in Council voting. Our results show a low petitioning intensity for anti-dumping investigations and a high voting intensity against anti-dumping measures in Northern Europe. Thus, it seems likely that domestic lobbying efforts have influenced the political...

  18. EU Territorial Impact Assessment: Under What Conditions?

    OpenAIRE

    Zonneveld, W.; Waterhout, B.

    2009-01-01

    Since the start of the making of the ESDP, back in 1989, there has been interest in a ‘Territorial impact assessment’. This interest has been revamped now that the Territorial Cohesion green paper is out. Yet, at the EU level there is still little guidance on how a TIA might be done and on what it actually is or could be. This paper aims to ask and answer a set of fundamental questions that need to be addressed before engaging into developing an EU TIA instrument. Taking a multi-level governa...

  19. Expensive quotas to meet EU's Kyoto targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important climate measures taken by the EU is to set up an internal market to trade emission credits for greenhouse gases from 2005. According to researchers at The Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research at the University of Oslo, the quota price in the new EU market must be about 100 USD per tonne of CO2 if the present (April, 2004) member countries are to reduce their own emissions down to the level of the Kyoto target without other measures

  20. EU to DO 2015-2019

    OpenAIRE

    André Sapir; Guntram B. Wolff; Zsolt Darvas; Silvia Merler; Nicolas Véron; Mario Mariniello; Carlo Altomonte; Reinhilde Veugelers; Rainer Münz; Suparna Karmakar; Georg Zachmann; Jim O‘Neill

    2014-01-01

    Go to eu2do.bruegel.org to read all the Memos, download the individual Memos and send the Memos to your Kindle. ‘There is now a distinct possibility that this crisis will be remembered as the occasion when Europe irretrievably lost ground, both economically and politically’. This was the starting sentence of our memos to the new EU leadership five years ago. Five years later, it is fair to say that this possibility has become a reality. Unemployment has reached record levels and growth has di...

  1. The New EU Public Procurement Directives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    31 March 2004 the EU adopted two new public procurement directives: one for the public sector (2004/18/EC) and one for utilities (2004/17/EC). The new directives aim at simplification and modernisation of the previously existing directives including adaptation to electronic purchasing techniques....... On 4-5 November 2004 the Copenhagen Business School organised a European research conference on the new directives. The conference focused on a number of topics which are of particular interest within the field of procurement law in EU these years, including ECJ case law, utilities, electronic auctions...

  2. Coercive Diplomacy Strategy of the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Degirmenci Sagbakken, Asli

    2014-01-01

    Für die EU - vielleicht der wichtigste Akteur, der für das Verhindern der weiteren Ausbreitung von Massen-zerstörungswaffen eingetreten ist und immer noch eintritt - sind die Verhandlungen mit dem Iran im Zu-sammenhang mit dem iranischen Nuklear-Programm sehr wichtig; vor allem wenn man auf die zukünftigen weltweiten Sicherheitsmaβnamen blickt. Wenn aber die Resultate dieser Verhandlungen genauer betrachtet werden wird deutlich, dass sowohl die Strategien der E3, sowie der späteren EU, nur vo...

  3. Research on the magnetic material of Sm-Fe matrix nitrides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Chunxiang; SUN Jibing; ZHANG Ying; WANG Ru; LI Lin; LIANG Zhimei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the types of Sm-Fe matrix compounds and their correlations are introduced, and progress of research on the magnetic materials of Sm-Fe matrix nitrides is also reviewed. Possible research trends of future permanent magnetic materials of SmFe matrix nitrides are briefly predicted.

  4. Low-lying excitations in the odd-odd nucleus /sup 154/Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katajanheimo, R.; Jaederholm, R.; Siivola, A.; Julin, R.; Liukkonen, E.

    1988-01-01

    The doubly odd nucleus /sup 154/Eu was produced during in-beam bombardments of a /sup 154/Sm target with /sup 3/He and deuteron beams at 27 and 10 MeV. The resulting gamma-rays were investigated using prompt and delayed gamma-gamma-coincidence equipment. The half-life of the isomeric 2/sup +/ level was determined as 2.2+-0.1 ..mu..s. The partial level scheme, including numerous previously unidentified excitations, can be divided into two separate groups of levels. The results provide evidence for the existence of a very regular ground band and two rather regular K=3 level structures, whose configurations are closely related to it. In addition, several rotational sequences built on the band heads with other K values have been deduced. Our interpretation of the level scheme disagrees with the previous conclusion that the N=91 nucleus /sup 154/Eu might have a stable deformation only in its ground state configuration.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of EuB6 by borothermic reduction of Eu2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon free high pure europium hexaboride is an urgent need for the fast breeder nuclear reactor program. The properties of EuB6 are highly influenced by the presence of one or more substitutional impurities, particularly, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. In the present investigation carbon and nitrogen free high pure europium hexaboride was synthesized by borothermic reduction of europium oxide Eu2O3 (using boron as a reducing agent at relatively low temperature ( 90 % of theoretical density was studied at 850°C and revealed that an adherent thin surface of Eu2O3 was formed which prevent further oxidation.

  6. EuO and Gd-doped EuO thin films. Epitaxial growth and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutarto, Ronny

    2009-07-06

    Europium oxide (EuO) based materials exhibit a wealth of spectacular phenomena, including half-metallic ferromagnetism, metal-insulator transition, colossal magneto-resistance, large magneto-optical Kerr effect, tunable ferromagnetic ordering temperatures, and large and long-lived photo-induced conductivity. These extraordinary properties make EuO an ideal candidate for implementation in device applications, in particular, for spintronics. Most of the work in the past has been carried out on bulk EuO, but for device applications it is preferred to have the EuO in thin lm form. A urry of studies have therefore emerged in the last decade in order to explore a wide variety of preparation routes and to investigate the properties of the resulting EuO thin films. A recent highlight is the demonstration that doped EuO films can be fabricated on Si and GaN, thereby exhibiting the expected spin-polarized transport effects. Nevertheless, it is still far from a trivial task to prepare EuO thin films with well de ned properties. For bulk EuO, it is already known that stoichiometry is the key issue, and that the presence of small amounts of defects or impurities quickly lead to very large deviations of the material properties. In fact, to make bulk EuO to be stoichiometric one needs temperatures as high as 1800 C. It is obvious that such high temperatures are not compatible with device engineering processes. The preparation of thin films must therefore involve much lower temperatures, preferably not higher than 400-500 C. The consequences are very dear. It turned out that many of the recent studies on EuO thin films are suffering from sample quality problems, due to the presence of, e.g., trivalent Eu species (Eu{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}), oxygen vacancies, or even Eu metal clusters. Controlled doping of the EuO with trivalent rare-earth ions is also not trivial, since most often even the actual doping concentrations were not known. In fact, one could also question in

  7. Sm29, but not Sm22.6 retains its ability to induce a protective immune response in mice previously exposed to a Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Carvalho Alves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A vaccine against schistosomiasis would have a great impact in disease elimination. Sm29 and Sm22.6 are two parasite tegument proteins which represent promising antigens to compose a vaccine. These antigens have been associated with resistance to infection and reinfection in individuals living in endemic area for the disease and induced partial protection when evaluated in immunization trials using naïve mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPALS FINDINGS: In this study we evaluated rSm29 and rSm22.6 ability to induce protection in Balb/c mice that had been previously infected with S. mansoni and further treated with Praziquantel. Our results demonstrate that three doses of the vaccine containing rSm29 were necessary to elicit significant protection (26%-48%. Immunization of mice with rSm29 induced a significant production of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-4; significant production of specific antibodies; increased percentage of CD4+ central memory cells in comparison with infected and treated saline group and increased percentage of CD4+ effector memory cells in comparison with naïve Balb/c mice immunized with rSm29. On the other hand, although immunization with Sm22.6 induced a robust immune response, it failed to induce protection. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that rSm29 retains its ability to induce protection in previously infected animals, reinforcing its potential as a vaccine candidate.

  8. What does Brexit mean for nursing and our EU staff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Hannah; Kendall-Raynor, Petra; Longhurst, Chris

    2016-06-29

    Currently there is free movement of labour and mutual recognition of nurse training and qualifications between EU member states. This means UK hospitals can actively recruit nurses from across the EU to cover staff shortfalls. So what now? PMID:27353905

  9. What does Brexit mean for nursing and our EU staff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Hannah; Kendall-Raynor, Petra; Longhurst, Chris

    2016-06-29

    Currently there is free movement of labour and mutual recognition of nurse training and qualifications between EU member states. This means UK hospitals can actively recruit nurses from across the EU to cover staff shortfalls. So what now?

  10. EU Commissioner Delivers a Speech at CAS Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ European Union (EU) Environment Commissioner Margot Wallstrom gave a talk on cooperation between the EU and China on environmental issues during her trip to the CAS Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR) on Nov. 13.

  11. Mixed Agreements as a Source of EU Law

    OpenAIRE

    Neframi, Eleftheria

    2011-01-01

    Integration of mixed agreements in the EU legal order. Competence of the Court of Justice. Division of competences between the Court of Justice and the national judge. International responsibility of the EU. Duty of loyalty.

  12. Food irradiation in EU and in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecture shows comparison of food radiosterilization in Poland with selected countries in EU. The most popular commercial electron radiation sources are presented. Plant for Food Radiation Sterilization operating in the INCT (Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology) is discussed in details

  13. THE CRUCIAL THEMES OF EU ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Pelkmans

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical review of the “terms” of the ongoing EU enlargement, in the light of the European public interest. The European public interest ought to include the prospective (Central European members, within a perspective of an enlarged Union in 2010, or so. The following forms a personalised summary of a major report published (in Dutch in September 2001 by the WRR in The Hague (a think-tank, formally under the Dutch Prime Minister, but by statute fully independent. The author was one of the lead-writers of this report. The present article merely focuses on the policy recommendations of the report. It is hoped that these kinds of critical analyses will help to stimulate solid policy debate on the EU in Romania, on the road to EU membership. The article discusses why the notion of a “core-acquis” would improve the enlargement strategy; the application of the core acquis to the internal market, environment and justice and home affairs; judicial and administrative capacity; accession to “euro-land”; the rapid reform of the CAP; a reform of “cohesion” approaches; and a note on the EU budgetary implications.

  14. HIGH-SPIN STATES IN EU-148

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGMAN, [No Value; BACELAR, JCS; BALANDA, A; NOORMAN, RF; STEENBERGEN, T; DEVOIGT, MJA; NYBERG, J; SLETTEN, G; DIONISIO, J; VIEU, C; LAGRANGE, JM; PAUTRAT, M; Urban, W

    1995-01-01

    High-spin states in the odd-odd nucleus Eu-148, populated by a carbon-13 induced reaction on a lanthanum target, were investigated with several different tools of in-beam nuclear spectroscopy. The low-energy levels show collective excitations, interpreted as 3- octupole-phonon couplings to multi-par

  15. EU and Swiss regulatory action on Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Jost, Dannie

    2012-01-01

    Dannie Jost lectured on EU and Swiss regulatory action on nanomaterials as one of 16 speakers at the interdisciplinary seminar for young scientists was aimed at doctoral students from NRP 62 "Smart Materials" and NRP 64 "Opportunities and Risks of Nanomaterials".

  16. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina-Adriana IVANUS

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  17. National Constitutional Avenues for Further EU Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.F.M. Besselink; M. Claes; Š. Imamovic; J.H. Reestman

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates national constitutional limits to further EU integration and explores ways to overcome them. It includes an in-depth examination of the constitutional systems of 12 Member States (Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Net

  18. EU economic freedoms and social dumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cremers

    2015-01-01

    In the book, Market Expansion and Social Dumping in Europe, edited by Magdalena Bernaciak and published by Routledge, Jan Cremers (AIAS) contributes with a chapter called ‘EU economic freedoms and social dumping’. He demonstrates how the emphasis on the primacy of economic freedoms has negatively af

  19. Creating Coherence in EU Internet Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The internet presents regulators with an amorphous web of technical and legal issues with no simple solution. Andrej Savin, Associate Professor at Copenhagen Business School, says that the EU needs to develop a fluidity of process in order to tackle the big issues and cultivate the right legal...

  20. Romania : Education and Skills for EU Integration

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    To meet its ambitious EU income convergence ambitions, Romania's labor market will need more and better-educated workers. Producing such workers, however, will be especially challenging, given the projected decline in young people who, traditionally, are the focus of education and training systems for the creation of new skills in the economy. Enrollment in upper secondary education is low...

  1. The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Hosni Mubarak by briefly going back to early contacts between the EEC and President Gamal Abdel Nasser and how more elaborate agreements developed up to recent times. Taking this historical point of departure the article characterizes the role of the EU in connection with the development since the start...

  2. EU Economic Freedoms and Social Dumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Bernaciak, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    In the book, 'Market Expansion and Social Dumping in Europe', edited by Magdalena Bernaciak and published by Routledge, Jan Cremers (AIAS and Tilburg University) contributes with a chapter called ‘EU economic freedoms and social dumping’. He demonstrates how the emphasis on the primacy of economic f

  3. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear whether...

  4. Negotiations in the EU Council of Ministers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Sandrino

    Insiders and outsiders agree; there is something particular about negotiating in Brussels. This book analyses ten years of continuous negotiations about EU enlargement to the Western Balkans, answering questions such as When and how are decisions typically reached in the European Union? What is t...

  5. Mapping smart cities in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manville, C.; Cochrane, G.; Cave, J.; Millard, J.; Pederson, J.K.; Thaarup, R.K.; Liebe, A.; Wissner, M.; Massink, R.A.; Kotterink, B.

    2014-01-01

    This report was commissioned to provide background information and advice on Smart Cities in the European Union (EU) and to explain how existing mechanisms perform. In exploring this, a working definition of a Smart City is established and the cities fitting this definition across the Member States

  6. EU kids online II: final report 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Sonia; Haddon, Leslie; Görzig, Anke; Ólafsson, Kjartan

    2011-01-01

    EU Kids Online aims to enhance knowledge of the experiences and practices of European children and parents regarding risky and safer use of the internet and new online technologies, in order to inform the promotion of a safer online environment for children.

  7. Why are most EU pigs tail docked?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'eath, R.B.; Niemi, J.K.; Vosough Ahmadi, B.;

    2016-01-01

    To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive by examin...

  8. Revisiting Creeping Competences in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2014-01-01

    The literature on European integration has documented several cases of creeping competences in the EU. None of these studies, however, has fully clarified the conditions under which this phenomenon takes place, nor provided any testable hypotheses on its empirical dynamics. This paper studies one...

  9. The EU and the Syrian Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Syrian crisis has from May 2011 and onwards been met by the EU with rounds of tightening sanctions attempting to put pressure on the Syrian regime and the elites surrounding it. Based on a typology for the sanctions and a periodization showing how the measures have proceeded, the article...

  10. EU Territorial Impact Assessment: Under What Conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonneveld, W.; Waterhout, B.

    2009-01-01

    Since the start of the making of the ESDP, back in 1989, there has been interest in a ‘Territorial impact assessment’. This interest has been revamped now that the Territorial Cohesion green paper is out. Yet, at the EU level there is still little guidance on how a TIA might be done and on what it a

  11. Realitets- og Misbrugsbetragtninger i EU-skatteretten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl

    2011-01-01

    I bidraget præsenteres først en analyse af mulighederne for tilsidesættelse af skattearrangementer baseret på realitetsbetragtninger. I naturlig forlængelse heraf undersøges mulighederne for tilsidesættelse baseret på det EU-retlige misbrugsprincip. Herefter redegøres der for konsekvenserne af ti...

  12. Investigation into phase diagram of the GaS-SmS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase diagram of the GaS-SmS system is studied by differential thermal and X-ray phase analyses and by measuring magnetic susceptibility. Eutectic with coordinates 935 deg and 1.2 mol% of SmS, solid solutions on the basis of GaS and SmS and two incongruently melting compounds Sm4GaS5 and Sm3Ga2S5 with magnetic susceptibility of 1966x10-6 and 1760x10-6 cm3/mol respectively are established

  13. Photoluminescence and thermally stimulated luminescence properties of CaSO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} and CaSO{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+},Sm{sup 3+}; Sm{sup 3+} {yields} Sm{sup 2+} conversion and high temperature dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevost, Hildegarde; Dusseau, Laurent [Institut d' Electronique du Sud (IES), UMR UM2-CNRS 5214, Universite de Montpellier II, Place Eugene Bataillon - CC 083, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Angellier, Gaelle; Mady, Franck; Benabdesselam, Mourad [Laboratoire de Physique Electronique des Solides (LPES), Centre de Recherches sur les Solides et leurs Applications (CRESA), EA 1174, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Lapraz, Dominique

    2007-12-15

    The photoluminescence (PL) and thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) properties of CaSO{sub 4}:Sm and CaSO{sub 4}:Ce,Sm are studied. After X irradiation of CaSO{sub 4}:Sm, an obvious Sm{sup 3+}/Sm{sup 2+} redox process is observed. The Ce co-doping is responsible for the presence of an intense TSL peak at about 485/500 C, showing an interesting application in high temperature radiation dosimetry. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Turkish migration in Europe: EU accession and migration flows

    OpenAIRE

    Wadim Strielkowski; Ondřej Glazar

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of Turkey's potential EU membership on emigration from Turkey to the European Union. We apply panel data estimators using the data on emigration from EU15 countries into Germany and the Netherlands in order to construct possible future scenarios of Turkish migration to the EU. Three scenarios of migration, pessimistic, realistic and optimistic (depending on the fears related to the expected impact of Turkish migration on the EU labour markets), are drawn and fut...

  15. The priorities of the EU budget for 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Duduiala-Popescu, Lorena

    2009-01-01

    The priorities of the EU budget for 2009 are: economic growth, employment, climate, strengthening security and safety of European citizens, the social dimension of the EU. Divided into areas, the EU provides for sustainable development, regional education and research 45.9 billion for natural resources 52.58 billion euros for EU citizenship, justice and home affairs 1.3 billion, and for expenses Board 7.64 billion.

  16. The EU policy on institutional multilingualism: between policy and practicality

    OpenAIRE

    Baaij, C.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    This article brings to light several inconsistencies within the narrative of the EU policy on institutional multilingualism. The EU has invoked fundamental EU principles of democracy, equality and transparent government, to publically bolster the need for its institutions to communicate and operate in the languages of its citizens. However, these principles do not allow for the pragmatic and budgetary arguments that the EU uses to justify the in reality limited number of official and de facto...

  17. Optical properties of CdBr2:Eu and CdBr2:Eu, Mn crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical and luminescent properties of the CdBr:Eu and CdBr2:Eu, Mn crystals, grown through the Stockbarger-Bridgman method in evacuated quartz ampoules, are studied within the temperature range of 85-295 K. The results obtained are compared with spectral characteristics of the CdBr2 and CdBr2:Mn crystals. The band with the maximum about 254 nm, observed in the absorption spectra of mono- and polyactivated crystals of cadmium bromide, is attributed to the 4f7 -> 4f65d electron transitions in the Eu2+ ions. The manganese sensitized luminescence is identified by excitation of the CdBr2:Eu, Mn crystals by the light from the area of this band. The nature of the capture centers, responsible for thermostimulated fluorescence, and excitation mechanisms of recombination luminescence in the studied crystals are considered

  18. Study of europium diffusion in SmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europium diffusion in samarium sulfide was studied in the temperature range from 780 to 1100 deg C. Data on the diffusion coefficient and activation energies for the diffusion of europium in single-crystal and polycrystalline SmS samples were obtained. In single-crystal samarium sulfide, europium was shown to migrate predominantly over lattice sites. In SmS polycrystals, diffusion was found to exhibit a complex pattern and have both a slow and a fast component. Europium diffusion in a polycrystal is primarily due to europium migration over the boundaries of single-crystal grains in the polycrystal, whose characteristic size is assumed to be that of X-ray coherent-scattering regions

  19. Revisorns roll i småföretag

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, Marja-Leena

    2012-01-01

    Sammandrag: Målet med detta examensarbete är att kartlägga skillnader i förväntningar (förväntningsgap) av en revisor, en övervakare och två kunder (en småföretagare och en mikroföretagare), om revisorns roll i små- och mikroföretag i Finland. Enligt Troberg och Viitanen (2001) finns det förväntningsgap på tre olika områden inom revision i Finland: 1. Att upptäcka och rapportera om missbruk som sker i företag, 2. Att evaluera och rapportera om företagens nära framtida verksamhetsmöjlighet...

  20. Assessing the Reliability of Quantitative Imaging of Sm-153

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Zijie; Dagan, Maáyan; Veldman, Jeanette; Trees, Brad

    2013-03-01

    Samarium-153 is used for palliation of and recently has been investigated for therapy for bone metastases. Patient specific dosing of Sm-153 is based on quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and knowing the accuracy and precision of image-based estimates of the in vivo activity distribution. Physical phantom studies are useful for estimating these in simple objects, but do not model realistic activity distributions. We are using realistic Monte Carlo simulations combined with a realistic digital phantom modeling human anatomy to assess the accuracy and precision of Sm-153 SPECT. Preliminary data indicates that we can simulate projection images and reconstruct them with compensation for various physical image degrading factors, such as attenuation and scatter in the body as well as non-idealities in the imaging system, to provide realistic SPECT images.