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Sample records for brilliant sm eu

  1. Brilliant Sm, Eu, Tb and Dy chiral lanthanide complexes withstrong circularly polarized luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petoud, Stephane; Muller, Gilles; Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Sokolnicki, Jurek; Riehl, James P.; Le, Uyen; Cohen, Seth M.; Raymond,Kenneth N.

    2006-07-10

    The synthesis, characterization and luminescent behavior of trivalent Sm, Eu, Dy and Tb complexes of two enantiomeric, octadentate, chiral, 2-hydroxyisophthalamide ligands are reported. These complexes are highly luminescent in solution. Functionalization of the achiral parent ligand with a chiral 1-phenylethylamine substituent on the open face of the complex in close proximity to the metal center yields complexes with strong circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) activity. This appears to be the first example of a system utilizing the same ligand architecture to sensitize four different lanthanide cations and display CPL activity. The luminescence dissymmetry factor, g{sub lum}, recorded for the Eu(III) complex is one of the highest values reported, and this is the first time the CPL effect has been demonstrated for a Sm(III) complex with a chiral ligand. The combination of high luminescence intensity with CPL activity should enable new bioanalytical applications of macromolecules in chiral environments.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis and luminescence properties of Eu3+and Sm3+codoped BiPO4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟剑明; 赵韦人; 蓝立财; 王建青

    2014-01-01

    Eu3+/Sm3+codoped BiPO4 phosphors were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method with surfactant-free environment. The X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the samples possessed the standard BiPO4 monoclinic structure. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that all samples composed of well-dispersed, micrometer-sized crystals with shuttle-like shape. Energy transfer from Sm3+to Eu3+was confirmed by the luminescence spectra and the decay processes of Sm3+ 4G5/2→6H5/2 emission. Or-ange-red luminescence could be obtained in Eu3+/Sm3+codoped BiPO4 phosphors. The average lifetime of Sm3+ 4G5/2→6H5/2 emis-sion decreased from 2.70 ms in BiPO4:0.03Sm3+ to 2.37 ms in BiPO4:0.03Sm3+,0.05Eu3+. The strong and wide absorption band around 395 nm, originating from both 7F0→5L6 transition of Eu3+and 6H5/2→4K11/2 transition of Sm3+, endowed BiPO4:Eu3+,Sm3+phosphors with the potential application in the fields of near UV-excited white-light-emitting diodes.

  3. Shape tunable synthesis of Eu- and Sm-doped ZnO microstructures: a morphological evaluation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Sheel Thool; M Arunakumari; Ajaya Kumar Singh; Surya Prakash Singh

    2015-10-01

    Facile and low-cost aqueous chemical bath deposition route has been demonstrated to fabricate Eu- and Sm-doped ZnO microstructures. The effect of Eu and Sm ions on the morphology of the ZnO was investigated. The synthesized doped ZnO microstructures were systematically characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectra. FESEM images depicted the formation of Eu-doped ZnO microsphere and Sm-doped ZnO microplates. XRD spectra showed single crystalline nature of the undoped ZnO microdisks, whereas Eu- and Sm-doped ZnO exhibited the polycrystalline nature. The presence of Eu and Sm ions in the ZnO matrix was confirmed by XPS. This means that all the Eu ions substituted Zn2+ as Eu2+ into the ZnO matrix, whereas most of Sm ions were being in the trivalent state. This was probably due to the segregation of Sm2O3 species on the surface of ZnO microstructures.

  4. Orange and reddish-orange light emitting phosphors: Sm{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} doped zinc phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza-Rocha, A.N., E-mail: ameza@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 México D.F., México (Mexico); Speghini, A. [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Universita di Verona and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy); IFAC CNR, Nello Carrara Institute of Applied Physics, MDF Lab, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Bettinelli, M. [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Universita di Verona and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy); Caldiño, U. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 México D.F., México (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    A spectroscopy study of Sm{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} doped zinc phosphate glasses is performed through photoluminescence spectra and decay time profile measurements. Under Sm{sup 3+} excitation at 344 nm, the Sm{sup 3+} singly doped glass shows an orange global emission with x=0.579 and y=0.414 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, whereas the Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} co-doped sample exhibits orange overall emissions (x=0.581 and y=0.398, and x=0.595 and y=0.387) and reddish-orange overall emission (x=0.634 and y=0.355) upon excitations at 344, 360 and 393 nm, respectively. Such luminescence from the co-doped sample is originated by the simultaneous emission of Sm{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}. Under Sm{sup 3+} excitation at 344 and 360 nm, the Eu{sup 3+} emission is sensitized and enhanced by Sm{sup 3+} through a non-radiative energy transfer process. The non-radiative nature was inferred from the shortening of the Sm{sup 3+} lifetime observed in the Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} co-doped sample. An analysis of the Sm{sup 3+} emission decay time profiles using the Inokuti–Hirayama model suggests that an electric quadrupole–quadrupole interaction into Sm–Eu clusters might dominate the energy transfer process, with an efficiency of 0.17. - Highlights: • Zinc phosphate glasses are optically activated with Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} (ZPOSmEu). • Non-radiative energy transfer Sm{sup 3+}→Eu{sup 3+} takes place in ZPOSmEu. • ZPOSmEu overall emission can be modulated with the excitation wavelength. • ZPOSmEu might be useful as orange/reddish-orange phosphor for UV-white LEDs.

  5. The study on optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter based on the SrS:Eu, Sm and CaS:Eu, Sm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yan-Ping; Chen Zhao-Yang; Fan Yan-Wei; Ba Wei-Zhen; Gou Qi; Lu Wu; Tang Xin-Qiang; Du Yan-Zhao

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing use of nuclear energy, there is a need for a wider range of efficient dosimeters for radiation detection and assessment. There has been a tremendous growth in the development of radiation detectors and devices in the past few decades. In recent years, the development of new materials for radiation dosimetry has progressed significantly. Alkaline earth sulfides (AES) have been known for a long time as excellent and versatile phosphor materials.In the present investigation, a number of phosphor samples such as mono-, binary and ternary sulfides of alkaline earths (Ⅱa-Ⅵb) have been prepared and their TL properties have been studied with respect to exposure (x-ray) response and fading. In this paper, some results on SrS:Eu, Sm and CaS:Eu, Sm phosphors are presented. A type of novel OSL dosimeter is described. The dosimeter takes advantage of the characteristics of charge trapping materials SrS:Eu, Sm and CaS:Eu, Sm that exhibit optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The measuring range of the dosimeter is from 0.01 to 1000 Gy. The OSL dosimeters provide capability for remote monitoring radiation locations which are difficult to access and hazardous. This equipment is relatively simple, small in size and has low power consumption. The device is suitable for space radiation dose exploration. In addition, it also can be used in IC and other radiation occasions and has good prospects.

  6. Luminescence Properties of Sm3+/Eu3+ Co-Doped ZnO Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengyi; Li, Hong; Hu, Yajing; Na, Jin; Mou, Yun; Yang, Kun; Ye, Zuhu; Li, Mingyue; Xie, Ya-Hong

    2016-04-01

    In order to improve luminescence properties of semiconductor ZnO quantum dots (QDs), Sm3+/Eu3+ co-doped ZnO QDs have been controllably synthesized by sol-gel method in this paper. ZnO QDs have a spherical shape with mean diameter at about 5-6 nm, which was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). ZnO QDs have hexagonal wurtzite structure with parts of Sm3+ and Eu3+ incorporated into the lattice, which was demonstrated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Luminescence properties at room temperature (RT) of different amount of Sm3+ and 2 mol% Eu3+ doped ZnO QDs were examined in-depth by optical spectra. In contrast to the Pr3+/Eu3+ co-doped fluorescent performance researched in our previous study, the photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicates the unique luminescence properties of Sm3+/Eu3+ co-doped ZnO QDs. In addition, fluorescence lifetimes were obtained to illustrate the luminous mechanism.

  7. Energy transfer from Sm3+ to Eu3+ in red-emitting phosphor LaMgAl11O19:Sm3+, Eu3+ for solar cells and near-ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Xin; Huang, Zhaohui; Fang, Minghao; Liu, Yan-Gai; Tang, Chao; Wu, Xiaowen

    2014-06-16

    The red-emitting phosphor LaMgAl11O19:Sm(3+), Eu(3+) was prepared by solid-state reaction at 1600 °C for 4 h. The phase formation, luminescence properties, and energy transfer from Sm(3+) to Eu(3+) were studied. With the addition of 5 mol % Sm(3+) as the sensitizer, the excitation wavelength of LaMgAl11O19:Eu(3+) phosphor was extended from 464 to 403 nm, and the emission intensity under the excitation at 403 nm was also enhanced. The host material LaMgAl11O19 could contain the high doping content of Eu(3+) (20 mol %) without concentration quenching. This energy transfer from Sm(3+) to Eu(3+) was confirmed by the decay times of energy donor Sm(3+). The mechanism of energy transfer (Sm(3+) → Eu(3+)) was proved to be quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. Under the 403 nm excitation at 150 °C, the emission intensities of the characteristic peaks of Sm(3+) and Eu(3+) in LaMgAl11O19:0.05Sm(3+), 0.2Eu(3+) phosphor were decreased to 65% and 56% of the initial intensities at room temperature, and the relatively high activation energy proved that this phosphor had a good thermal stability. The CIE coordinate was calculated to be (x = 0.601, y = 0.390). The LaMgAl11O19:0.05Sm(3+), 0.2Eu(3+) phosphor is a candidate for copper phthalocyanine-based solar cells and white light-emitting diodes.

  8. Separation of Rare Earth Elements (Sm, Eu, Gd) in Bastnaesite by Displacement Chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Se Mann; Lee, Jin Young; Han, Choon [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Sung Don; Yoon, Ho Sung; Kim, Joon Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-10-31

    Rare earth elements (Sm, Eu, Gd) in bastnaesite were separated by displacement chromatography. Experiments were conducted to investigate elution characteristics and effects of retaining ions on separations of those elements. During separation processes, ions were exchanged in loading and separation columns packed with the cation-exchange resin (DOWEX 50WX8-200). Various retaining ions such as Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+} and Al{sup 3+} were employed in the separation column. When the EDTA solution was used as an eluent, acidity and concentrations were regulated. Also, rare earth elements(RE) in bastnaesite ore were ionized by hydrochloric acid prior to separations. According to experimental results, Gd, Eu and Sm were eluated by turns and the order was in accord with that of stability constants for chelating complex with EDTA. During the eluation of RE, the acidity of eluate was lowered (pH 5-6) because retaining ions formed chelating complex with EDTA and hydrogen ion was formed as a result. The highest separation efficiency ({alpha}{sub Gd}{sup Sm} = 0.9388) was obtained when Al{sup 3+} was employed as a retaining ion. On the other hand, the lowest ({alpha}{sub Gd}{sup Sm} = 0.3876) was when Fe{sup 3+} was employed as a retaining ion. Another series of experiments were conducted to investigate effects of RE{sub 1}-EDTA eluent on the separation of RE. For experiments, Cu{sup 2+}, in the separation column was exchanged with retaining ion. Then, pure RE{sub 1}(Sm, Eu) was mixed with EDTA to form RE{sub 1}-EDTA solution(O.015 M) which was fed to the column as an eluent. Results showed that the separation efficiency improved because the eluation of RE{sub 1} in RE{sub 1}-EDTA solution was retarded compared to other RE. That is, the separation efficiency({alpha}{sub Gd}{sup Sm}) increased to 1.1612 and 1.4545 when SM-EDTA and EU-EDTA solution were used respectively. When EDTA solution was only used as an eluent, {alpha}{sub Gd}{sup Sm

  9. Red, violet and upconversion luminescence of Eu/Sm codoped sol gel SiO2-TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, I. M.; Klein, Lisa C.

    2012-12-01

    Rare earth (Eu/Sm) doped silica-titania composite systems were sensitized by sol-gel method in solid and powder forms. The crystalline phase has been identified for the annealed samples at 1000 °C by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The bonding formation of the host matrix was examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The fingerprint transition lines of Eu3+ ions, with the main emission line at 616 nm, are recorded for the samples. Improvement in Eu3+ luminescence has been recorded by adding Sm3+ and by samples. Violet emission is observed under UV irradiation. Violet-blue upconversion luminescence is recorded at room temperature.

  10. Site selective spectroscopy in BaYF{sub 5}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu, Sm) nano-glass–ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, J. del, E-mail: fjvargas@ull.edu.es [Dpto. Física, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Yanes, A.C. [Dpto. Física, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Abe, S.; Smet, P.F. [LumiLab, Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Center for Nano- and Biophotonics (NB Photonics), Ghent University (Belgium)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • We obtained sol–gel transparent nGCs with Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}-doped cubic BaYF{sub 5} nanocrystals. • Eu{sup 3+}-doped BaYF{sub 5} NCs were prepared by solvothermal method. • Their luminescent properties were studied and compared with the Eu{sup 3+}-doped nGCs. • Eu{sup 3+}/Sm{sup 3+} were used as probe ions in the nGCs to distinguish different environments. • The incorporation of a large fraction of RE ions into the BaYF{sub 5} NCs was confirmed. - Abstract: Trivalent rare-earth (RE = Eu, Sm) doped transparent nano-glass–ceramics comprising BaYF{sub 5} nanocrystals were successfully obtained by appropriate heat-treatment of the corresponding precursor sol–gel glasses. Their structural and spectroscopic properties were investigated and compared with those for Eu{sup 3+}-doped-BaYF{sub 5} nanocrystals prepared by a solvothermal method. X-ray Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy measurements confirmed the distribution of BaYF{sub 5} nanocrystals in the glass matrix, presenting a cubic phase structure with space group Fm-3m. In order to achieve a further structural characterization, the luminescence properties of the Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} dopants were also used as sensitive probes. The reduction in the emission intensities of hypersensitive transitions {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 9/2} for Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} ions respectively, along with time-resolved measurements, confirm the distribution of a significant fraction of RE ions into the fluoride nanocrystal environment. These results suggest that BaYF{sub 5} nano-glass–ceramics doped with Eu{sup 3+} or Sm{sup 3+} can be considered as potential red-emitting phosphors for the development of white LEDs under near UV excitation.

  11. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of novel red-emitting Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8:Eu3+/Sm3+ phosphors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文芝; 庞然; 李海锋; 贾永雷; 张粟; 姜丽宏; 李成宇

    2015-01-01

    Novel red-emitting Eu3+, Sm3+ singly doped and co-doped Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8 phosphors were prepared by conventional solid- state reaction. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns were employed to confirm phase purity. Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8:Eu3+ phosphors exhibited intense red emission under 394 nm excitation and Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8:Sm3+ phosphors, excited at 405 nm, also showed strong red emit-ting at 602 nm. The concentration quenching mechanism of Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8:Eu3+ was dipole-dipole interaction, while that of Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8:Sm3+ was energy migration among nearest neighbor ions. The results indicated that Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8:Eu3+ and Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8:Sm3+ were promising red-emitting phosphors for WLEDs. Meanwhile, the effect of co-doping Sm3+ ions on photo-luminescence properties of Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8:Eu3+ was studied and energy transfer from Sm3+ to Eu3+ was discovered in Eu3+, Sm3+ co-doped phosphors.

  12. RE/ZrO{sub 2} (RE = Sm, Eu) composite oxide nano-materials: Synthesis and applications in photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Weimin, E-mail: duweimin75@gmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan 455002 (China); Zhu, Zhaoqiang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan 455002 (China); College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001 (China); Zhang, Xiaofen; Wang, Dacheng; Liu, Donghe [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan 455002 (China); Qian, Xuefeng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Du, Jimin, E-mail: djm@aynu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan 455002 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • RE/ZrO{sub 2} (RE = Sm, Eu) nano-materials have been successfully synthesized. • Defect and electron structures determine the absorption properties on visible light. • Nano-sized Zr{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 2−δ} has good visible-light-responsive photocatalytic activities. • In the future, it can be used in wastewater treatment and environmental protection. - Abstract: Zirconia modified by Samarium/Europium, RE/ZrO{sub 2} (RE = Sm, Eu), composite oxide nano-materials have been successfully synthesized by improved sol–gel method. Characterization results show that X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks of products gradually shift to the lower angle with the increase of rare earth which implies that the lattice distances of RE/ZrO{sub 2} nano-materials are gradually enlarged. Moreover, the molar ratios between zirconium and rare earth are consistent with the chemical formula and both of them are uniformly distributed in samples. Optical properties indicate that defect structures and electron configurations of RE/ZrO{sub 2} (RE = Sm, Eu) with single phase determine their absorption properties on visible light. Photocatalytic experiments indicate Zr{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 2−δ} nano-crystals have excellent visible-light-responsive photocatalytic activities on Methylene blue and Rhodamine B which results from the special defect structure, suitable electronic configuration, and larger specific surface area. It follows that Zr{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 2−δ} nano-crystals are new visible-light-responsive photocatalysts which can be applied in dye wastewater treatment and environmental protection in the future.

  13. Online Determination of Sm, Eu and Yb in Environmental Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dilip Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure was developed for the determination of Sm, Eu and Yb in water samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES after preconcentration on synthesized 5-(4-pyridyl azo-8-quinolinol supported by Borassus flabellifer inflorescence (BFI. The sorbed element was subsequently eluted with 0.4 M HNO3 and the acid eluates were analyzed by ICP-OES. Under the optimal conditions, Sm, Eu and Yb in aqueous samples were concentrated 100-fold. Recoveries were obtained by the proposed method in the range of 98.6 -99.8%. This method was also applied for the analysis of spiked and natural water samples. The results provide strong evidence to support the hypothesis of an adsorption mechanism.

  14. Raman Active Phonons in RCoO3 (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Dy) Perovskites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-Ran; XU Da-Peng; SU Wen-Hui; DING Zhan-Hui; XUE Yan-Feng; SONG Geng-Xin

    2005-01-01

    @@ We examine RCoO3 (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Dy) perovskites prepared with the solid-state reaction method by Raman spectroscopy, and report the Raman active phonons in the RCoO3 perovskites crystallized in cubic symmetry for RCoO3 (R=La, Ce, Pr and Nd) and orthorhombic symmetry for RCoO3 (R=Sm, Eu, Gd,and Dy). It is found that the Raman spectra of RCoO3 perovskites are strongly dependent on the ionic radius.of the rare earth elements, and the frequency shift of the most intense modes of the orthorhombic samples are correlated with some structural parameters such as Co-O bond distances, ionic radius of the rare earth elements and Jahn-Teller distortion. It is clear that Raman spectroscopy has the advantage of sensitivity to structure distortion and oxygen motion.

  15. 11B NMR Study of Magnetism in RRh3B2 (R = La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Yutaka; Kawasaki, Yu; Ohno, Takashi

    2004-07-01

    In order to study the magnetism in RRh3B2 (R = La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd), 11B NMR has been measured systematically. LaRh3B2 was shown to be simply paramagnetic in the normal state, and GdRh3B2 and NdRh3B2 ferromagnetic with the well localized moments. In CeRh3B2, the K-χ plot and 1/T1 can be interpreted in a localized moment model with a large reduction in the effective moment, and a small magnetic moment is considered to be localized at the Ce site below Tc. For SmRh3B2, 1/T1 cannot be explained by the localized moment model, and it was found that the antiferromagnetic spin fluctuation exists in the paramagnetic state. The temperature dependence of 1/T1T indicates that EuRh3B2 is a weak antiferromagnet.

  16. Weak transitions in the {sup 152}Sm from {sup 152} Eu decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Ruy M. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (IEAv/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados; Vanin, Vito R.; Pascholati, Paulo R.; Maidana, Nora L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Few years ago, we reported (R.M. Castro, V.R. Vanin, P.R. Pascholati, N.L. Maidana and M.S. Dias and M.F.Koskinas, Appl. Rad. Isot. 60, 283, 2004) a gamma-gamma coincidence experiment performed to check the gamma-ray transitions following {sup 152}Eu{sup g} 13-year decay and their placement in the decay scheme for metrological purposes. The main results were the observation of weak transitions, in the range 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -5} gamma-rays per decay, and the exclusion of a relatively intense unplaced line from the list of transitions following {sup 152}Eu{sup g} decay. A new paper (W. D. Kulp, J. L. Wood, J. M. Allmond, J. Eimer, D. Furse, K. S. Krane, J. Loats, P. Schmelzenbach, C. J. Stapels, R.-M. Larimer, E. B. Norman, and A. Piechaczek, Phys. Rev. C 76, 034319, 2007), published in 2007, which investigates the {sup 152}Sm nuclear structure, also reported the observation of many weak gamma-ray transitions by coincidence spectroscopy. Despite important differences in the coincidence detector systems, the total number of coincidence events is similar, and the accuracy and the detection threshold are about the same. Thus, all the 27 new transitions reported by Castro et al. in the {sup 152}Sm decay scheme were conformed by Kulp et al. The measured energies form a consistent dataset, with chi-square equal to 38 (8% probability of being exceeded); however, the intensities form a discrepant data set, with chi-square per degree of freedom equal to 3.6, suggesting that the uncertainties are underestimated by a factor of 2. Besides that, Kulp et al. found some transitions not reported previously. So we decided to check our gamma - gamma coincidence spectrum for the presence of these lines. In this new analysis, we did not observe gamma-ray transitions with energies 137.56 and 1050.1 keV, with upper intensity limits well below the intensities given in Kulp et al. The 210.95 keV transition was observed, but with intensity significantly smaller than that

  17. Thermopower of monocrystalline RESn/sub 3/ compounds (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kletowski, Z. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Wroclaw. Inst. Niskich Temperatur i Badan Strukturalnych)

    1982-03-16

    The temperature dependence of the thermopower measured in monocrystalline RESn/sub 3/ compounds (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd) has been investigated between 80 and 300 K. It was found that (1) the thermopower is always positive, (2) it differs widely between the compounds in temperature dependence, and (3) CeSn/sub 3/ has a giant thermopower with a well marked maximum of 61 ..mu..V/K at 150 K.

  18. White light generation of glass ceramics containing Ba2LaF7: Eu2+,Tb3+ and Sm3+ nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xu; Shuo Cui; Hengyi Fu; Jiangyun Qian; Qun Luo; Xusheng Qiao; Xianping Fan; Xianghua Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The Eu2+/Tb3+/Sm3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing Ba2LaF7 nanocrystals are prepared in the reducing atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction results show that Eu2+,Tb3+ and Sm3+ ions are enriched into the precipitated Ba2LaF7 nanophase after the annealing process.It deduces efficient energy transfers from Eu2+ to Tb3+ and Sm3+ and intenses warm white luminescence of the glass ceramics.Comparing with the glass,the luminescence quantum yield of the glass ceramics is also enlarged by about 3 times. This demonstrates the potential white light-emitting diode application of the glass ceramics produced in this letter.%The Eu2+/Tb3+/Sm3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing Ba2LaF7 nanocrystals are prepared in the reducing atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction results show that Eu2+, Tb3+ and Sm3+ ions are enriched into the precipitated Ba2LaF7 nanophase after the annealing process. It deduces efficient energy transfers from Eu2+ to Tb3+ and Sm3+ and intenses warm white luminescence of the glass ceramics. Comparing with the glass, the luminescence quantum yield of the glass ceramics is also enlarged by about 3 times. This demonstrates the potential white light-emitting diode application of the glass ceramics produced in this letter.

  19. The luminescence properties of Bi3+ sensitized Gd2MoO6:RE3+ (RE = Eu or Sm) phosphors for solar spectral conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M. N.; Ma, Y. Y.; Huang, X. Y.; Ye, S.; Zhang, Q. Y.

    2013-11-01

    Gd2MoO6:RE3+ (RE = Eu or Sm) and Gd2MoO6:Bi3+, RE3+ (RE = Eu or Sm) phosphors have been synthesized by combustion method. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. By introducing Bi3+ ions into Gd2MoO6:RE3+ (RE = Eu or Sm) phosphors, the excitation bands of Eu3+ and Sm3+ ions are broadened and shifted to short wavelength, meanwhile, the emission intensity are enhanced obviously. The energy transfer from Bi3+ to the activators of Eu3+ or Sm3+ is observed and discussed. In addition, the process of ultraviolet light (250-400 nm) converted into visible light can be achieved by using Gd2MoO6:Bi3+, RE3+ (RE = Eu or Sm) phosphor. These phosphors can be a promising ultraviolet-absorbing luminescent converter to enhance the photoelectrical conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

  20. Synthesis of three-dimensional flower-like BiOCl:RE3+ (RE3+ = Eu3+, Sm3+) globular microarchitectures and their luminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Zhu, Gang-Qiang; Yang, Woochul

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional flower-like Eu3+ and Sm3+-activated BiOCl globular microarchitectures were synthesized by the solvothermal method employing urea as a dispersing agent for the first time. The crystal structure, morphologies and luminescence properties of Eu3+ and Sm3+ doped BiOCl have been systematically investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and spectroscopy, respectively. The unit cell volumes show a nearly linear decrease by about 0.18 and 0.15% with increasing Eu3+ and Sm3+ concentration up to 9 mol%, respectively. All of the prepared samples show flower-like globular microarchitectures with an average diameter about 3-5 μm with different Eu3+ and Sm3+ concentrations. Possible formation mechanism for the flower-like microarchitectures is proposed on the basis of time-dependent experiment. Both BiOCl:Eu3+ and BiOCl:Sm3+ samples show a strong red emission corresponding to the 5D0 → 7F4 transition (700 nm) of Eu3+ and 4G5/2 → 6H7/2 transition (600 nm) of Sm3+, respectively. This work sheds some light on the design and preparation of red-emitting phosphors with novel microstructures.

  1. Luminescence and red long afterglow investigation of Eu{sup 3{sup +}}-Sm{sup 3{sup +}} CO-doped CaWO{sub 4} phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang Fengwen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, WaiHuan Xi Road, No.100, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu Yihua, E-mail: huyh@gdut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, WaiHuan Xi Road, No.100, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wu Haoyi; Mu Zhongfei; Ju Guifang; Fu Chujun; Li Nana [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, WaiHuan Xi Road, No.100, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-04-15

    A series of Eu{sup 3+}-Sm{sup 3+} co-doped CaWO{sub 4} phosphors were synthesized by the high temperature solid-state method. The crystal structure of the obtained samples was identified by XRD, and the results showed that all the phases were indexed to scheelite structure. The effect of the doping concentration of Sm{sup 3+} on the luminescent properties of the obtained products was investigated, and the optimal Sm{sup 3+} concentration was experimentally determined to 0.5%. The photoluminescence properties indicate that there is an efficient energy transfers from Sm{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+}. The energy-transfer process between Sm{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} was also given. Red long afterglow originating from the {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub J} (J=0, 1, 2, 3, 4) transitions of Eu{sup 3+} was observed after samples were excited by 254 nm, and the duration of the optimal sample can last more than 35 min in dark with naked eyes. The proposed explanation for the afterglow property was also discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The afterglow of Eu{sup 3{sup +}} and its enhancement by Sm{sup 3{sup +}} co-doping in CaWO{sub 4} is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An optimal Sm{sup 3{sup +}} doping concentration for the Eu{sup 3{sup +}} afterglow properties was found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism of energy transfer between Sm{sup 3{sup +}} and Eu{sup 3{sup +}} is presented, and the proposed cause of long afterglow was discussed.

  2. Synthesis and luminescent properties of rare earth (Sm3+ and Eu3+) Doped Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore nanopowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćulubrk, Sanja; Antić, Željka; Marinović-Cincović, Milena; Ahrenkiel, Phillip S.; Dramićanin, Miroslav D.

    2014-11-01

    This work describes the synthesis and photoluminescent properties of rare earth (Sm3+ and Eu3+) doped Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore nanopowders. Pure-phase rare earth-doped Gd2Ti2O7 nanoparticles of approximately 20-50 nm in diameter, as evidenced from X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy analysis, are produced via the mixed metal-citric acid complex method. A temperature of 880 °C is identified for the formation of the crystalline pyrochlore phase, based on a differential thermal analysis of Gd2Ti2O7 precursor gels. From photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra, measured at 10 K and room temperature, the energy levels of Sm3+ and Eu3+ ions in Gd2Ti2O7 nanoparticles are obtained. The dependence of luminescence emission intensity and emission decays on rare earth concentration are measured and discussed. The strongest Sm3+ orange-reddish emission is observed for samples containing 2.5 at.% of Sm3+ ions, while in the case of Eu3+, the most intense emission is found for 15 at.% Eu3+ doping. The 4G5/2 level lifetime decreases with an increase in Sm3+ concentration, from about 5 ms (for 0.1-0.2 at.% of Sm3+) to 2.4 ms (for 2.5 at.% of Sm3+). With an increase in Eu3+ concentration in the Gd2Ti2O7 nanoparticles, the Eu3+5D0 level lifetime decreases from ∼5.9 ms (for 0.5 at.% of Sm3+) to 3.1 ms (for 15 at.% of Sm3+).

  3. Host-sensitized luminescence properties in CaNb2O6:Ln(3+) (Ln(3+) = Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+)) phosphors with abundant colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yang; Li, Xuejiao; Lian, Hongzhou; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-05

    A series of Ln(3+) (Ln(3+) = Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+)) ion doped CaNb2O6 (CNO) phosphors have been prepared via the conventional high-temperature solid-state reaction route. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and structure refinement, diffuse reflection, photoluminescence (PL), and fluorescent decay curves were used to characterize the as-prepared samples. Under UV radiation, the CNO host present a broad emission band from about 355 to 605 nm centered around 460 nm originating from the NbO6 octahedral groups, which has spectral overlaps with the excitation of f-f transitions of Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+) in CNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+) samples. They show both host emission and respective emission lines derived from the characteristic f-f transitions of activators, which present different emission colors owing to the energy transfer from the NbO6 group in the host to Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+) with increasing activator concentrations. The decreases of decay lifetimes of host emissions in CNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+) demonstrate the energy transfer from the hosts to Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+). The energy transfer mechanisms in CNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+) phosphors have been determined to be a resonant type via dipole-dipole mechanisms. For CNO:Sm(3+), the metal-metal charge transfer transition (MMCT) might contribute to the different variations of decay lifetimes and emission intensity from CNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+) samples. The best quantum efficiency is 71.2% for CNO:0.01/0.02Dy(3+). The PL properties of as-prepared materials indicate the promising application in UV-pumped white-emitting lighting diodes field.

  4. Layered exfoliable crystalline materials based on Sm-, Eu- and Eu/Gd-2-phenylsuccinate frameworks. Crystal structure, topology and luminescence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, G E; Bernini, M C; Brusau, E V; Narda, G E; Vega, D; Kaczmarek, A M; Van Deun, R; Nazzarro, M

    2015-02-21

    Three new layered metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based on 2-phenylsuccinic acid (H2psa) and lanthanide ions with the formula [Ln2(C10H8O4)3(H2O)] (Ln = Eu, Sm and Eu-Gd) have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions and fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, thermal and vibrational analyses. The compounds are isostructural featuring 2D frameworks that consist of infinite zigzag chains composed of [LnO8] and [LnO8(H2O)] edge-sharing polyhedra linked by psa ligands leading to layers further connected by weak π-π interactions in an edge orientation. Moreover, a topological study was carried out to obtain the simplified net for better comparison with structurally related compounds. The crystals were exfoliated into nanolayers after miniaturization by addition of sodium acetate as a capping agent in the reaction medium. Scanning electron microscopy was applied to characterize the miniaturized samples whereas the exfoliated hybrid nanosheets were studied by atomic force microscopy. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of the bulk compounds as well as the miniaturized and exfoliated materials were investigated and compared with other related ones. An exhaustive study of the Eu(iii)-based MOFs was performed on the basis of the obtained PL parameters (excitation and emission spectra, kr, knr, intrinsic quantum yields and lifetimes) to explore the underlying structure-property relationships.

  5. Crystal structure of monoclinic samarium and cubic europium sesquioxides and bound coherent neutron scattering lengths of the isotopes {sup 154}Sm and {sup 153}Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlmann, Holger [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; Hein, Christina; Kautenburger, Ralf [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Inorganic Solid State Chemistry; Hansen, Thomas C.; Ritter, Clemens [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Doyle, Stephen [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Synchrotron Radiation (ISS)

    2016-11-01

    The crystal structures of monoclinic samarium and cubic europium sesquioxide, Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were reinvestigated by powder diffraction methods (laboratory X-ray, synchrotron, neutron). Rietveld analysis yields more precise structural parameters than previously known, especially for oxygen atoms. Interatomic distances d(Sm-O) in Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} range from 226.3(4) to 275.9(2) pm [average 241.6(3) pm] for the monoclinic B type Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} [space group C2/m, a = 1418.04(3) pm, b = 362.660(7) pm, c = 885.48(2) pm, β = 100.028(1) ], d(Eu-O) in Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} from 229.9(2) to 238.8(2) pm for the cubic bixbyite (C) type [space group Ia anti 3, a = 1086.87(1) pm]. Neutron diffraction at 50 K and 2 K did not show any sign for magnetic ordering in Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Isotopically enriched {sup 154}Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 153}Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} were used for the neutron diffraction work because of the enormous absorption cross section of the natural isotopic mixtures for thermal neutrons. The isotopic purity was determined by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry to be 98.9% for {sup 154}Sm and 99.8% for {sup 153}Eu. Advanced analysis of the neutron diffraction data suggest that the bound coherent scattering lengths of {sup 154}Sm and {sup 153}Eu need to be revised. We tentatively propose b{sub c}({sup 154}Sm) = 8.97(6) fm and b{sub c}({sup 153}Eu) = 8.85(3) fm for a neutron wavelength of 186.6 pm to be better values for these isotopes, showing up to 8% deviation from accepted literature values. It is shown that inaccurate scattering lengths may result in severe problems in crystal structure refinements causing erroneous structural details such as occupation parameters, which might be critically linked to physical properties like superconductivity in multinary oxides.

  6. Synthesis and fluorescence properties of Eu(Ⅲ), Tb(Ⅲ) and Sm(Ⅲ) with β-diketone and 2,2'- bipyridine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xingwang; JIANG Jiadong; YONG Shengli; GUO Yuwei; YANG Kun; WANG Li

    2012-01-01

    Three new rare earth ternary complexes,RE(PPP)3bpy (RE=Sm3+,Eu3+,Tb3+),were synthcsized by the reaction of 1-phenyl-3-(p-phenylethynylphenyl)-1,3-propanedione (HPPP) and 2,2'-bipyridine(bpy) with rare earth chloride RECl3,respectively,in alcohol solution.The compositions were characterized by means of infrared (IR) spectra,chemical analysis,elemental analysis,and thermodynamic analysis.Luminescent properties of the three complexes were studied.At room temperature,under UV light excitation,the Sm3+,Eu3+ and Tb3+ complexes exhibited characteristic emission of the central ions.The fluorescence spectra showed that the fluorescence emission intensity of Eu3+ complex was the strongest.The narrow strongest emission band of Eu3+ complex was considered to be a valuable material with bright red fluorescence.

  7. CaS∶Eu,Sm及其在农用转光膜上的应用原理%APPLICATION PRINCIPLE OF ELECTRON TRAPPING MATERIAL CaS∶Eu,Sm IN THE LIGHT CONVERSION AGRICULTURAL FILM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶孔敦; 光昭; 范文慧

    2001-01-01

    Electron trapping material CaS∶Eu,Sm has been prepared by the technique of rare earth doping directly.It can not only possess the fluorescent characteristics of CaS∶Eu,but also convert infrared light (0.8~1.6μm) to visible light (~672nm) and its quantum efficiency is more than 76%.According to the solar spectra and the best spectrum of plant growth as well as the fluorescence spectrum of CaS∶Eu,Sm,it is explained that CaS∶Eu,Sm phosphor is good additive of the light conversion agricultural film.Moreover,the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll photosynthesis can be imitated and infrared light can be converted to visible light by the light conversion agricultural film if CaS∶Eu2+,Sm3+,Cu+ phosphor is used as additive,so it may be thought that CaS∶Eu2+,Sm3+,Cu+ phosphor is better than CaS∶Eu2+,Cu+ phosphor as additive in the light conversion agricultural film.%利用稀土直接掺杂工艺合成了一种“常光充能”型电子陷获材料CaS∶Eu,Sm,它不仅具有CaS∶Eu无机发光材料的荧光光谱特性,而且具有红外升频转换特性,可将0.8~ 1.6μm的红外光直接转换为~672nm的红光、量子效率高达76%,是一种优于CaS∶Eu的光转换农膜添加剂.而共掺Eu2+、Sm3+和Cu+的CaS荧光粉有望成为一种性能优于光转换农膜添加剂CaS∶Eu2+,Cu+、可人工模拟叶绿素吸收光谱的新型农用转光膜材料.

  8. Raman spectroscopy of rare-earth orthoferrites R FeO3 (R =La, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mads Christof; Guennou, Mael; Zhao, Hong Jian; Íñiguez, Jorge; Vilarinho, Rui; Almeida, Abílio; Moreira, Joaquim Agostinho; Kreisel, Jens

    2016-12-01

    We report a Raman scattering study of six rare-earth orthoferrites R FeO3, with R = La, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy. The use of extensive polarized Raman scattering of SmFeO3 and first-principles calculations enable the assignment of the observed phonon modes to vibrational symmetries and atomic displacements. The assignment of the spectra and their comparison throughout the whole series allow correlating the phonon modes with the orthorhombic structural distortions of R FeO3 perovskites. In particular, the positions of two specific A g modes scale linearly with the two FeO6 octahedra tilt angles, allowing the distortion to be tracked throughout the series. At variance with literature, we find that the two octahedra tilt angles scale differently with the vibration frequencies of their respective A g modes. This behavior, as well as the general relations between the tilt angles, the frequencies of the associated modes, and the ionic radii are rationalized in a simple Landau model. The reported Raman spectra and associated phonon-mode assignment provide reference data for structural investigations of the whole series of orthoferrites.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis and luminescent properties of CaWO4: 3 + M3 + Eu , ( M = Tb, Sm, Bi, Dy)%CaWO4:Eu3+,M3+(M=Tb,Sm,Bi,Dy)的水热合成及发光性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽霞; 梁利芳; 唐上惠; 易敏; 庞起

    2011-01-01

    利用水热合成法制备CaWO4∶Eu3+以及CaWO4∶Eu3+,M3+(M=Tb,Sm,Bi,Dy)系列钨酸盐基荧光粉,利用XRD表征产物CaWO4∶Eu3+(5%)的晶体结构,结果表明其结构和CaWO4的标准物相结构相似,为四方晶系结构;研究了CaWO4∶Eu3+的发光性能以及第二掺杂离子M3+(M=Tb,Sm,Bi,Dy)对荧光粉发光性能的影响,结果表明,在273 nm紫外光激发下,掺入Tb3+和Sm3+离子对CaWO4基质发光强度没有明显影响,但能增强荧光粉中Eu3+离子617 nm处的红光发射强度;掺入Bi3+和Dy3+离子能明显降低CaWO4基质的发光强度,同时能增强荧光粉中Eu3+离子617 nm处的红光发射强度.%Tungstate-based phosphors CaWO4: Eu3 + and CaWO4: Eu3 + , M3 + ( M = Tb, Sm, Bi,Dy) were prepared successfully by hydrothermal synthesis method. The crystal structure of CaWO4:Eu3+ (5%) characterized by XRD was tetragonal system, which was in accordance with CawO4 ( JCPDS file 85 - 0443 ). The luminescent properties of CaWO4: Eu3 + and the effect of M3 + ( M = Tb,Sm, Bi, Dy) on the luminescent properties of the fluorescent powder were investigated. Under the excitation of 273 nm, either Tb3 + or Sm3 + had no obvious effect on the emission intensity of CaWO4,but can enhance the intensity of 617 nm emission of Eu3+ ion. On the other hand, either Bi3 + or Dy3+ ion can reduce the emission intensity of CaWO4 and enchance the intensity of 617 nm emission of Eu3 + ion.

  10. Eu3+和Sm3+共掺杂TiO2光催化剂的协同效应%Synergistic effect of Eu3+ and Sm3+ co-doped on photocatalytic activity of TiO2 powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜承志; 卢旭东

    2011-01-01

    Pure TiO2 and Eu3+ and Sm3+ co-doped TiO2 composite nano-particle were prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by the techniques such as XRD, DRS and SEM. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution was used as a probe reaction to evaluate their photocatalytic activity. The mechanisms of effects of Eu3+ and Sm3+ co-doped on the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 composite nano-particles were also discussed. The results show that Eu3+ and Sm3+ co-doped can significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nano-particles. The co-doped of Eu3+ and Sm3+ shows a synergistic effect for photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nano-particles, can inhibt the phase transformation from anatase to rutile and decrease the diameter of TiO2 nano-particles. The matrix distortion of TiO2 nano-particles increases when the Eu3+ and Sm3+ have co-doped and the blue-shift of the absorption profile are clearly observed. When the co-doped amounts for Eu3+ and Sm3+ are 0. 05% and 0. 1%, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 can be markedly improved, and its degradation rate reaches 84.8%.%采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了纯TiO2和Eu3+/Sm3+共掺杂TiO2复合粉体,采用XRD,DRS和SEM等技术进行表征,以亚甲基蓝(methylene blue,MB)的光催化降解为目标反应,评价了其光催化活性,探讨了Eu3+/Sm3+共掺杂对TiO2粉体光催化的影响机制.结果表明,Eu3+/Sm3+共掺杂可以显著提高TiO2粉体光催化活性,Eu3+/Sm3+共掺杂在TiO2粉体中产生协同作用,可以抑制TiO2由锐钛矿相向金红石相转变,使TiO2的粒径减小.Eu3+/Sm3+共掺杂增大了TiO2粉体的晶格畸变,使TiO2粉体吸收带边蓝移.当Eu3+/Sm3+的掺杂量分别为0.05%和0.1%,TiO2光催化活性最高,光催化降解率达到84.8%.

  11. Half-Lives of ground states in Pm and Eu nuclei following the 154,152Sm (p,x) reactions at 25 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watwood, N. J.; Beausang, C. W.; Humby, P.; Simon, A.; Gell, K.

    2014-09-01

    The primary experiment was designed to study low/medium spin states in Sm nuclei following the 154,152Sm (p,x) reactions where x = d or t. During the experiment the Sm target was irradiated by a 25 MeV proton beam, provided by the K150 Cyclotron at Texas A&M University, with an average beam current of ~1 nA for about one week. Following the experiment, residual radioactivity in the target was measured in the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory at the University of Richmond using a 25% efficiency coaxial Ge detector enclosed in a 6-inch thick Pb shield. The gamma ray spectra were internally calibrated using a 152Eu source and the energies of known gamma-rays from the target decays and from long lived environmental radioactivity. The decays of three long lived (~1 month or more) mass A ~ 150 nuclei were identified (148Sm, 148Eu, and 147Eu), and half lives for their beta-decay were (re)measured. Work is still in progress and preliminary results will be presented at the APS conference.

  12. Synthesis and luminescence property of Li{sub 2}BaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Eu, Sm) phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wani, J.A. [Department of Physics, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India); Dhoble, N.S. [Department of Chemistry, Sevadal Mahila Mahavidhyalaya, Nagpur 440009 (India); Kokode, N.S. [BCUD Gondwana University, Gadchiroli (India); Deva Prasad Raju, B. [Department of Future studies, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Dhoble, S.J., E-mail: sjdhoble@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India)

    2014-03-15

    Phosphate compounds as host materials are always a good choice for lanthanides to exhibit luminescence. The novel phosphors of Li{sub 2}BaP{sub 2}O{sub 7} activated with the trivalent Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} ions were synthesized by high temperature solid state reaction. In characterization, crystallization, morphology and luminescent properties of lithium barium diphosphate were investigated. The excitation and emission spectra were recorded to study the luminescence properties. The as prepared powders of Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} ions doped Li{sub 2}BaP{sub 2}O{sub 7} emit reddish orange light, corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 1}(595 nm) and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 7/2}(599 nm) transitions, respectively. The study is novel as no such luminescence data are available for this compound. -- Highlights: • Luminescence characterization of Li{sub 2}BaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} prepared phosphors are first time reported in this paper. • Sm{sup 3+} ions luminescence quenches just after 0.5 mol% in Li{sub 2}BaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphor. • Excitation wavelengths are quite far away from mercury, hence Li{sub 2}BaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} is eco-friendly materials for lighting. • {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 1} and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 7/2} transitions are dominant in Li{sub 2}BaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} indicates local symmetry.

  13. High-Pressure Rare Earth Disilicates REE2Si 2O 7( REE=Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd): Type K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, Michael E.; Liu, Xiaoyang

    2001-10-01

    A new structure type (K) is reported for the disilicates of Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd made at high pressure. Crystals of type K were synthesized at 10 GPa, 1600-1700°C in an MA6/8 superpress and used for single-crystal X-ray structure study by Kappa CCD diffractometry at room temperature. Crystal data are: monoclinic, space group P21/n, Z=4; Nd2Si2O7-a=6.6658(2), b=6.7234(3), c=12.3975(6) Å, β=102.147(3)°, V=543.2 Å3, R=0.029, and Dx=5.584 g/cm3; Sm2Si2O7-a=6.6039(3), b=6.6849(3), c=12.3069(5) Å, β=102.489(3)°, V=530.4 Å3, R=0.038, and Dx=5.871 g/cm3; Eu2Si2O7-a=6.5777(3), b=6.6652(4), c=12.2668(8) Å, β=102.671(4)°, V=524.7 Å3, R=0.030, and Dx=5.976 g/cm3; Gd2Si2O7-a=6.5558(4), b=6.6469(4), c=12.2394(6) Å, β=102.844(3)°, V=520.0 Å3, R=0.026, and Dx=6.166 g/cm3. The type K structure is built from a diorthosilicate group [Si2O7] interconnected by REE3+ cations in eightfold coordination with oxygen. The bridging oxygen (Si-O-Si) bond angle of the diorthosilicate group of rare earth disilicates stable at 1 bar (types A to G) is related to spatial accommodation of the REE3+ cation and ranges from 130 to 135° in the light rare earth disilicates (types A, F, G) to 180° in Lu2Si2O7 (type C). Volume reduction in the high-pressure type K structure is achieved largely by closure of the Si-O-Si bond angle to 122.7-124.4°, through rigid body rotation of the two SiO4 tetrahedra. This also permits a marginal increase in the average coordination of the REE3+ cation.

  14. Syntheses, structures and luminescent properties of Sm (III) and Eu (III) chelates for organic electroluminescent device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Y.J.; Wong, T.K.S.; Yan, Y.K.; Hu, X

    2003-08-25

    Samarium(III) and europium(III) complexes of the {beta}-diketone ligand (2-thienyl)trifluoroacetylacetone (HTTA) and triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) were prepared. The complexes, Sm(TTA){sub 2}(TPPO){sub 2}NO{sub 3} (1), Eu(TTA){sub 2}(TPPO){sub 2}NO{sub 3}H{sub 2}O (2), and Eu(TTA){sub 3}(TPPO){sub 2} (3) were characterized. Single crystal X-ray diffraction molecular structures of complexes 1 and 3 are presented and some of the crystal parameters for complex 1 are: space group, P1; a=11.019(4) A, b=11.791(6) A, c=12.535(5) A; {alpha}=102.68(3) deg., {beta}=102.06(3) deg., {gamma}=117.75(3) deg. ; for complex 3: space group, P-1, a=11.1946(9) A, b=12.117(2) A, c=23.535(2) A, {alpha}=80.047(13) deg., {beta}=76.498(7) deg., {gamma}=70.450(9) deg. . Electroluminescent devices were fabricated by vacuum evaporation. Apart from single layer devices, double and triple layer devices with the following structures: ITO/TPD/Complex 2/Al; ITO/TPD/Complex 3/Al; ITO/TPD/Complex 2/Alq/Al were studied, where N,N-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine (TPD) was used as a hole transporting layer and tris(8-hydroxyquinolinate)aluminum (Alq) as an electron transporting layer. The results indicate that single layer devices show very low quantum efficiency, while the double layer devices with a hole transporting layer exhibit enhanced efficiency and a well defined EL spectrum. No significant improvement was observed in the triple layer devices with an additional electron transporting layer.

  15. Eu3+/Sm3+ hybrids based with 8-hydroxybenz[de]anthracen-7-one organically modified mesoporous silica SBA-15/16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan-Jing; Yan, Bing

    2015-12-01

    A series of organic-inorganic hybrid materials were prepared by linking lanthanide (Eu3+, Sm3+) complexes to mesoporous SBA-15/SBA-16 through 8-hydroxybenz[de]anthracen-7-one modified silane (HBA-Si) as linker. The physical characterizations of these hybrids revealed that they all have high surface area, uniformity in mesostructure. The luminescence properties of these covalently bonded materials (denoted as Ln(HBA-SBA-15)3phen and Ln(HBA-SBA-16)3phen) were compared with ternary complexes (Ln(HBA)3phen) (Ln = Eu, Sm). Eu(HBA-SBA-15(16))3phen hybrids display better thermal stability, whose luminescent lifetimes and quantum efficiencies were matchable with those of Eu(HBA)3phen complex in spite of its much lower effective condensation of Eu3+ species. In addition, the luminescent performance of functionalized SBA-15 hybrids was more favorable than that of functionalized SBA-16 hybrids, revealing that SBA-15 was a better host material for lanthanide complex than mesoporous silica SBA-16.

  16. Photoluminescence properties of BaMoO4:RE3+ (RE = Eu, Sm, Dy, Tb, Tm) phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Shinho

    2016-11-01

    Rare-earth (RE)-activated barium molybdate phosphors for multicolor display applications were synthesized with different activator ions via a solid-state reaction. The effects of the activator ions on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of barium molybdate phosphors were investigated. The XRD spectra of all the phosphors, regardless of the activator ion, exhibited that the main peak of the phosphors occurred at the (112) plane, indicating the tetragonal BaMoO4 structure. The crystalline particles exhibited a tendency to agglomerate with irregular shapes and sizes. The emission spectra of RE-ion-doped BaMoO4 phosphors under ultraviolet excitation consisted of multicolor emissions: blue for Tm3+ activator ions, green for Tb3+ activator ions, yellow for Dy3+ activator ions, reddish orange for Eu3+ activator ions, and red for Sm3+ activator ions. These results suggest that multicolor emission can be realized by incorporating appropriate activator ions into the BaMoO4 host lattice.

  17. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of microcrystalline Sr{sub 2}ZnWO{sub 6}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu, Dy, Sm and Pr) phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabre, K.V. [Department of Physics, Arts, Commerce and Science College, Koradi, Nagpur 441111 (India); Park, K. [Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Dhoble, S.J., E-mail: sjdhoble@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India)

    2014-12-25

    Graphical abstract: CIE chromaticity coordinate diagram (1931) indicating different colors of Sr{sub 2}ZnWO{sub 6}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu (a), Dy (b and c), Sm (d–f) and Pr (g and h)) phosphor under different excitation 466 nm (a), 312 nm (b), 454 nm (c), 313 nm (d), 408 nm (e), 482 nm (f), 315 nm (g) and 450 nm (h). - Highlights: • Microcrystalline Sr{sub 2}ZnWO{sub 6}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu, Dy, Sm and Pr) phosphors were synthesized by solid state method. • Photoluminescence properties of phosphor were investigated. • Color of the phosphor for different excitation has been verified by chromaticity diagram. • The host absorption and energy transfer were investigated. - Abstract: The novel microcrystalline Sr{sub 2}ZnWO{sub 6}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu, Dy, Sm and Pr) phosphors were synthesized by solid-state reaction method at 1250 °C and their photoluminescence properties were investigated. The Eu{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} activated phosphors show intense red (616 nm) and yellow (574 nm) emission respectively; which indicate that the rare earth ions are substituted at non-centrosymmetric site in the host lattice. Near white (Dy{sup 3+}) and reddish-orange (Sm{sup 3+}) emissions of rare earth ions in the host lattice show strong host absorption and energy transfer from the host to activator ion. Pr{sup 3+} activated phosphor shows a series of emission peaks in the visible region with the most intense peak in the blue region at 491 and 499 nm.

  18. Tunable emission and excited state absorption induced optical limiting in Tb2(MoO4)3: Sm3+/Eu3+ nanophosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Kamal P.; Sreekanth, Perumbilavil; Vimal, G.; Biju, P. R.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.; Ittyachen, M. A.; Philip, Reji; Joseph, Cyriac

    2016-12-01

    Photoluminescence properties and optical limiting behavior of pure and Sm3+/Eu3+ doped Tb2(MoO4)3 nanophosphors are investigated. The prepared nanophosphors exhibit excellent emission when excited by UV light. Color-tunable emissions in Tb2-xSmx(MoO4)3 and Tb2-xEux(MoO4)3 are realized by employing different excitation wavelengths or by controlling the doping concentration of Sm3+ and Eu3+. Luminescence quantum yield and CIE chromatic coordinates of the prepared phosphors were also presented. Optical limiting properties of the samples are investigated by open aperture Z-scan technique using 5 ns laser pulses at 532 nm. Numerical fitting of the measured Z-scan data to the relevant nonlinear transmission equations reveals that the nonlinear absorption is arising from strong excited state absorption, along with weak absorption saturation and it is found that the optical nonlinearity of Tb2(MoO4)3 increases with Sm3+/Eu3+doping. Parameters such as saturation fluence, excited state absorption cross section and ground state absorption cross section of the samples have been determined numerically, from which the figure of merit for nonlinear absorption is calculated. The excited state absorption cross-section of the samples is found to be one order of magnitude higher than that of the ground state absorption cross-section, indicating strong reverse saturable absorption. These results indicate that Sm3+/Eu3+ doped Tb2(MoO4)3 nanophosphors are efficient media for UV/n-UV pumped LEDs, and are also potential candidates for designing efficient optical limiting devices for the protection of human eyes and sensitive optical detectors from harmful laser radiation.

  19. Study of behaviour of Biobeds SM No.7 and Amberlite XAD No.7 chromatographic resins containing di-2-ethyl-hexilphosphoric acid in Eu{sup 3+} and Am{sup 3+} extraction and concentration; Estudo do comportamento das resinas cromatograficas bio-beds SM No.7 e amberlite XAD No.7 contendo o acido di-2-etilexilfosforico na extracao e concentracao de Eu{sup 3+} e Am{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuada, Terezinha A.; Felinto, Maria Claudia F. Cunha; Yamaura, Mitiko; Lobao, Afonso S.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    The extraction of Eu(III) and Am (III) in extraction chromatograpy has been investigated on the basis of partition and infrared studies. The stationary phases were DHEPA supported on Biobeads SM7 and Amberlite XAD7 and the mobile phase was nitric acid solutions. The system seems to be very good for extraction of Eu and Am. The results obtained shown that the capacity factor of these columns were 251.95 and 3039.15 for Eu and Am respectively for DEHPA/Amberlite XAD No.7 and 349.69 and 3132.79 for Eu and An respectively for DEHPA/Biobeads SM No.7. (author)

  20. Synthesis and luminescence properties of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu, Sm) phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Cho, Shin Ho [Silla University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu or Sm) phosphor powders were synthesized with different concentrations of activator ions by using the conventional solid-state reaction method. The effects of the concentration of activator ions on the structural, morphological, and luminescent properties of zinc aluminate phosphors were investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the phosphors synthesized with different concentrations of activator ions showed mixed phases of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, ZnO, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The crystallite size was estimated using the Scherrer formula, and the maximum size was obtained for 0.20 mol of Eu{sup 3+} ions. The emission spectra of of Eu{sup 3+}-doped ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phosphors under excitation at 303 nm exhibited one intense green band at approximately 520 nm and three weak bands centered at 590, 621, and 701 nm, respectively. The intensity of all the emission bands reached a maximum for 0.05 mol of Eu{sup 3+} ions. For the Sm{sup 3+}-doped ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phosphors, a broad emission band peak at 526 nm and several weak lines in the range 470 - 700 nm were observed. The results suggest that the luminescent intensity of the phosphors can be enhanced by controlling the amount of activator ions incorporated into the host lattice.

  1. Y3Al5O12:Re3+ (Re=Ce, Eu, and Sm nanocrystalline powders prepared by modified glycine combustion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lojpur V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yttrium aluminum garnet doped with rare earth ions (Ce3+, Eu3+ and Sm3+ was prepared by modified glycine method. Ce3+ as a dopant was used in four different concentrations (Y3-xCexAl5O12; x(% = 1, 2, 3, 5, while doping concentration of Eu3+ and Sm3+ was Y3-xEuxAl5O12; x(% = 3 and Y3-xSmxAl5O12; x(% = 1, respectively. Phase composition of powders was investigated using XRD technique and expected target phase was confirmed. Photoluminescent characterization included measurements of excitation and emission spectra, as well as determination of emission decays. Y3-xCexAl5O12 shows intense broad-band emission, with maximum in green spectral region, at about 524 nm under ultraviolet or blue excitation. The origin of the luminescence is the 5d1→4f1 transition which is both parity and spin allowed. Ultraviolet and blue excitations of Eu3+ and Sm3+ doped Y3Al5O12 produce intense orange and red emissions. These emissions are phosphorescent in character and come from spin forbidden f-f electron transitions in Eu3+ and Sm3+ ions. For the case of Eu3+ doping emission comes mainly from 5D0→7F1 transitions with Stark components peaking at 590 nm and 590.75 nm, and with emission decay of 4.15 ms. In the case of Sm3+ doping, the emission spectrum, shows 4G5/2→6H5/2, 4G5/2→6H7/2, and 4G5/2→6H9/2 transitions, with the most intense stark components positioned at 567.5 nm, 617 nm, and 650 nm, respectively and for transition centered at 617 nm, emission decay is 3.12 ms. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171022 i br. 45012

  2. Preparation, crystal structure and optical spectroscopy of the rare earth complexes (RE 3+=Sm, Eu, Gd and Tb) with 2-thiopheneacetate anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotonio, Ercules E. S.; Brito, Hermi F.; Felinto, Maria Cláudia F. C.; Thompson, Larry C.; Young, Victor G.; Malta, Oscar L.

    2005-09-01

    Rare earth complexes with the formulae Sm(TPAC) 3·3H 2O, Eu 2(TPAC) 6·5.25H 2O and RE(TPAC) 3·3.5H 2O (where RE=Gd and Tb), and TPAC=2-thiopheneacetate) have been synthesized and characterized by complexometric titration, elemental analyses, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. Infrared data suggested the presence of both bridging and chelating TPAC anions. The crystal structure of the [Eu 2(TPAC) 6·(H 2O) 3]·2.25H 2O complex in the solid state, determined by X-ray diffraction, revealed that it crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system (space group Aba2), with two crystallographically independent Eu 3+ centers (Eu1 and Eu2). These europium centers are held together by one bidentate bridging and two tridentate bridging carboxylate groups. The existence of two Eu 3+ centers was also supported by the emission spectrum. The luminescence properties of the RE-TPAC complexes were investigated by measuring the excitation and emission spectra, and the intramolecular ligand-to-rare earth energy transfer mechanisms were discussed. The emission spectra of the Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ ions displayed only narrow bands arising from 5D 0→ 7F 0 and 5D 0→ 7F 0-4 transitions, respectively, indicating an efficient luminescence sensitization of these ions by the TPAC 'antenna'. On the other hand, the emission spectrum of the Sm 3+-complex displayed a broad band from the phosphorescence of the TPAC ligand which overlapped the 4f 5-intraconfigurational transitions. The theoretical intensity parameters Ωλ ( λ=2 and 4), maximum splitting of the 7F 1 state (Δ E) and the ratio between the 5D 0→ 7F 0 and 5D 0→ 7F 2 transition intensities ( R02) were calculated based on the X-ray crystalline structure for the Eu 3+-complex, and a comparison with experimental data were made. The emission quantum efficiency ( η) of the D5 emitting level of the Eu 3+ ion was also determined.

  3. Optical characterization and the energy level scheme for NaYP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novais, S.M.V., E-mail: suellenvaleriano@yahoo.com.br [Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Materials, Physics Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49.100-000, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Dobrowolska, A.; Bos, A.J.J.; Dorenbos, P. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Macedo, Z.S. [Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Materials, Physics Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49.100-000, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    Vacuum ultra-violet spectroscopy at low temperature was performed with undoped and Ln{sup 3+}-doped NaYP{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ln=Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb and Yb). The emission observed from the NaYP{sub 2}O{sub 7} host was attributed to self-trapped exciton (STE) recombination. Dopant ions were well incorporated and responsible for characteristic luminescent emission in the doped samples. From excitation curves, 4f–5d transitions were identified for Ce{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} and charge transfer processes were noticed for Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+}. The experimental data obtained was used to determine the positions of the energy levels of divalent and trivalent lanthanides relative to the valence and conduction band of this compound. The experimentally derived levels are in good agreement with model predictions. The results are valuable to provide a better understanding on the performance of NaYP{sub 2}O{sub 7} and related diphosphates as luminescent materials. -- Highlights: • NaYP{sub 2}O{sub 7} polycrystalline samples were produced via the sol–gel method. • VUV excitation and emission spectra were successfully studied. • Luminescent properties were discussed. • The experimentally derived energy levels are in good agreement with model predictions.

  4. Triple-layered perovskite niobates CaRNb3O10 (R = La, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, or Y): new self-activated oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lin; Wei, Donglei; Huang, Yanlin; Kim, Sun Il; Yu, Young Moon; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2013-09-16

    Niobates CaRNb3O10 (R = La, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, or Y) were prepared by conventional high-temperature solid-state reaction. The formation of a single-phase compound with triple-layered perovskite-type structure was verified through X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The luminescence characteristics such as photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra, X-ray-excited luminescence (XEL), Stokes shift, decay curves, and color coordinates were investigated. The niobates can be efficiently excited by UV light and present luminescence behaviors with rich luminescence colors. Under excitation by ultraviolet radiation, CaRNb3O10 (R = La, Gd, Yb, or Y) exhibits strong blue luminescence due to the self-activation center of the octahedral NbO6 groups, even at room temperature. For the materials of composition CaRNb3O10 (R = Sm, Eu, Dy, or Er), the excitation at the host band produces a characteristic luminescence of rare earth ions, indicating a host-guest energy transfer process. CaRNb3O10 (R = Eu) has the strongest luminescence intensity, which can be efficiently excitated by near UV wavelength. It could be suggested to be a potential candidate for the application on near-UV excited white LEDs.

  5. Rare-earth magnetism in cuprates with T' structure. [GdPrCuO; GdNdCuO; GdSmCuO; GdEuCuO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czjzek, G. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, INFP and ITP (Germany)); Roth, G. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, INFP and ITP (Germany)); Kroener, T. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, INFP and ITP (Germany)); Adelmann, P. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, INFP and ITP (Germany))

    1994-02-01

    Cuprates of composition (Gd[sub 1-x]R[sub x])[sub 2]CuO[sub 4], R = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, have been studied by complementary experimental techniques. Only in compounds with Sm, exchange interactions between Sm and Cu moments are ineffective since the easy axis of the Sm moments is perpendicular to the Cu - O planes to which the Cu moments are confined. Here, we present new evidence that in the other cuprates with magnetic rare earths, R - Cu exchange interactions strongly influence the magnetic properties. (orig.)

  6. Synthesis and conductivities of the garnet-related Li ion conductors, Li5Ln3Sb2O12 (Ln= La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu)

    OpenAIRE

    Percival, Julia; Kendrick, Emma; Slater, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the synthesis and conductivities of the garnet-related Li ion conductors, Li5Ln3Sb2O12 (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu), are reported. These phases show high Li ion conductivity, similar to previously reported for the related Li5La3M2O12 (M=Nb, Ta) materials. Neutron diffraction structural studies are also reported for Li5La3Sb2O12 indicating a cubic unit cell, space group Ia-3d, with Li located in two partially occupied sites.

  7. The structures and luminescence properties of lanthanide (Ln = Sm, Eu and Tb) metal-organic coordination polymers based on 5-(2-hydroxyethoxy)isophthalate ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Qin, Jie; Chen, Yong; Zhao, Ying

    2015-03-01

    Three unreported isomorphous Ln-containing metal-organic coordination polymeric complexes {LnL(HL)ṡ(H2O)2}n (Ln = Sm (1), Eu (2) and Tb (3), CCDC 971815-971817) were synthesized based on 5-(2-hydroxyethoxy) isophthalic acid (H2L) under hydrothermal conditions. The obtained coordination polymers were characterized by IR, elemental analysis, thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction In solid state, these polymers featured 3-D supramolecular structures constructed by 2-D sheets through H-bonds. Investigation of photoluminescence properties of H2L and 1-3 showed all of them exhibited intense fluorescent emissions in the solid state at room temperature.

  8. Preparation, characterization and luminescence of Sm~(3+) or Eu~(3+) doped Sr_2CeO_4 by a modified sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春祥; 史建设; 杨绪杰; 陆路德; 汪信

    2010-01-01

    Superfine Sr2CeO4:RE3+ (RE=Eu, Sm) phosphors were synthesized at relatively low temperature by a modified sol-gel method using nitrates as raw materials, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as complexing agent. Single phase phosphors could be obtained at calcination temperature above 800 °C and pH value higher than 6.4 of initial solution. The as-prepared powders consisted of uniform crotch-like grains. The preparation process was monitored by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) ...

  9. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter; Borchorst, Anette

    2002-01-01

    Der er et komplekst forhold mellem EU og den danske velfærdsstat. Den sociale dimension i det europæiske samarbejde er splittet mellem et pres mod harmonisering og pres for at fastholde national suverænitet. Negativ integration har været den foretrukne interventionsform. Drivkræfterne har især...

  10. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Rostgaard

    2008-01-01

    politiske sigte er, at det tværnationale samarbejde skal øge den politiske og kulturelle samhørighed landene imellem. I det dansk-tyske grænseområde har EU gennem mange år forsøgt at medvirke til øge samarbejdet over grænsen. Der er ydet økonomisk og politisk støtte til forskellige projekter, der kan styrke...

  11. Si-N共掺对CaAl2O4:Eu2+和CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Sm3+荧光粉荧光和余辉性能的优化%Optimization on Photoluminescence and Afterglow Performance of CaAl2O4:Eu+ and CaAl2O4:Eu2+, Sm3+ Phosphors with Si-N Co-doping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邾强强; 杨力勋; 季巍巍; 徐鑫

    2013-01-01

    采用高温固相反应法制备了不同浓度Si-N共掺的CaAl2O4:Eu2+蓝色荧光粉,发现只需2%(摩尔分数)的Si-N共掺就可以明显提高荧光粉的荧光性能.研究还发现在CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Sm3+中掺入Si-N后,荧光粉的荧光强度和余辉性能都有提高.通过荧光粉的光谱图,发现共掺没有改变荧光粉中发光中心Eu离子的价态,而电子顺磁共振(EPR)谱则表明,Si-N共掺对Eu离子周围的配位环境产生了较大的影响.这说明掺杂的Si-N倾向于取代Eu2+附近的Al-O,并且由于Si-N键相对于Al-O键具有较短的键长,使发光中心周围晶体骨架的刚性得到了增强,从而减少了晶格热震动导致的非辐射跃迁能量损失,提高荧光粉的发光性能.同时,热释光谱表明,掺杂的Si-N会在发光离子周围产生新的缺陷能级,从而提高荧光粉的余辉性能.%The CaAl2O4: Eu2+ blue phosphors with varied amount of Si - N co-doping were synthesized through high temperature solid state reaction. The photoluminescence property of phosphor could be significantly improved with only 2% Si-N co-doping. It was also found that the photoluminescence and afterglow performance of CaAl2O4: Eu2+, Sm3+ could be improved with Si-N co-doping. It was proved that the co-doping did not affect the valence of the Eu ions with photoluminescence spectra. However, the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra showed that the Si-N co-doping greatly impacted the coordi-nation environment around Eu ions, which meant that the Si-N bonds preferred to replace the Al - O bands around the Eu ions. Since the length of Si - N bond was shorter than the length of Al - O bond, the crystal rigidity around Eu ions might be enhanced as a result of the replacement and the non-radiative transitions caused by lattice thermal vibrations shall be reduced. The thermoluminescence spectra showed that the co-doped Si-N has produced a new defect energy level around Eu ions, and enhanced the afterglow

  12. Synthesis, characterization and DNA-binding studies of 2-carboxybenzaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone and its La(III), Sm(III) and Eu(III) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Wang, Yan; Yang, Zheng-Yin

    2007-02-01

    2-Carboxybenzaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone (HL), and its three lanthanide complexes, LnL 3·4H 2O [Ln = La( 1), Sm( 2), Eu( 3)], have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, molar conductivities, IR spectra and thermal analyses. In addition, the DNA-binding properties of the ligand and its complexes have been investigated by absorption, fluorescence and viscosity measurements. The experimental results indicated that the complexes ( 2) and ( 3) can bind to DNA, but the ligand and the complex ( 1) cannot; the binding affinity of the complex ( 3) is higher than that of the complex ( 2) and the intrinsic binding constant Kb of the complex ( 3) is 7.86 × 10 4 M -1.

  13. Pico- and subpicosecond relaxation processes in lanthanide-porphyrin complexes. [Lanthanoids: Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solov' ev, K.N.; Tsvirko, M.P.; Krasauskas, V.V.; Pyatosin, V.E.; Stel' makh, G.F.

    1984-03-01

    Methods of nano- and picosecond absorption spectroscopy and luminescence are used to determine the deactivation rates of ..pi.., ..pi..*-electron states of S/sub 2/, S/sub 1/ and T/sub 1/ in complexes of organic molecules of meso-tetratolylporphyne and tetrabenzoporphyne with trivalent Sm/sup 3 +/, Eu/sup 3 +/, Gd/sup 3 +/, Tb/sup 3 +/, Dy/sup 3 +/, Ho/sup 3 +/, Er/sup 3 +/, Tm/sup 3 +/, Yb/sup 3 +/, Lu/sup 3 +/. Quantitative data on superfast relaxation processes in lanthanide porphyrines are obtained. The function of the metal entral ion is presented in details as the excitation factor in deactivation processes of photoexcitation energy of the systems in question.

  14. Electronic structure and optical properties of rare earth hexaborides RB{sub 6} (R = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Nirpendra [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India); Saini, Sapan Mohan [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India); Nautiyal, Tashi [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India); Auluck, S [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India)

    2007-08-29

    The optical and electronic properties of the rare earth hexaborides RB{sub 6} (R = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) are studied using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method. To account better for the on-site f-electron correlation, we adopted the Coulomb corrected local spin density approximation (LSDA+U) to the exchange correlation functional in the calculations. Our electronic structure calculation shows the overlapping of R 5d states and B 2p states at the X symmetry point. The magnetic moment of the ferromagnetic rare earth hexaborides increases with increasing 4f occupation. The calculated reflectivity and optical conductivity spectra are in agreement with the experimental data, although the structures in the calculated optical spectra are sharper.

  15. Visible light emitting Ln{sup 3+} ion (Ln=Sm, Eu and Dy) as a structural probe: A case study with SrZrO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Santosh K., E-mail: santufrnd@gmail.com [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India); Yadav, A.K.; Bhattacharya, D.; Jha, S.N. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Natarajan, V. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India)

    2015-08-15

    Undoped and various rare earth ion doped SrZrO{sub 3} (SZO) perovskite based phosphors have been synthesized using the gel-combustion technique employing citric acid as a fuel. The phase purity of the sample is confirmed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. It was observed that average particle size of perovskite particle was around 100 nm. In order to probe the local structure and symmetry around lanthanide ions in SrZrO{sub 3}, detailed experimental investigation has been carried out. X-ray absorption near edge fine (XANES) measurements along with their respective emission spectroscopy confirm that on doping lanthanide ion; in cases they were found to get stabilized as trivalent species. Extensive time resolved emission spectroscopy (TRES) on doped samples shows that on doping Sm{sup 3+} in SZO; an efficient energy transfer takes place and Sm{sup 3+} ions are localized both in Sr and Zr positions of SZO. PL decay time shows the presence of two life time values in case of nanocrystalline SrZrO{sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+}: (i) Sm{sup 3+} at Zr{sup 4+} site (τ=500 µs) and (ii) Sm{sup 3+} at Sr{sup 2+} site (τ=1.2 ms) in the ratio of 3:1. Based on TRES for europium doped sample, it was inferred that, two different types of Eu{sup 3+} ions were present in the SZO matrix. The first type was a long lived species present at relatively higher symmetric site of 'Sr{sup 2+}' and the second was a short lived species present at relatively lower symmetric 'Zr{sup 4+}' site which gets selectively excited at 296 nm. Dysprosium ion specifically occupies Zr{sup 4+} site only in SZO. EXAFS studies supported the TRES results. - Highlights: • Site occupancy of lanthanide. • Time resolved emission is explored. • XANES is used for oxidation state determination. • EXAFS for local structure investigation.

  16. Multi-elemental Gd, Eu, Sm, Nd isotope ratio measurements by liquid chromatography coupled to MC-ICPMS with variable Faraday cup configurations during elution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Florence; Nonell, Anthony; Isnard, Hélène; Vio, Laurent; Chartier, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The high-precision isotopic characterization of actinides and fission products in nuclear samples is fundamental for various applications such as the management of spent nuclear fuel or the validation of neutronic calculation codes. However multi-elemental isotope ratio measurements by mass spectrometric techniques are hampered by the presence of both spectral and non-spectral interferences as complex sample matrices are encountered in such topics, but also due to the lack of high precision mass spectrometers able to cover the entire mass spectrum. This work describes a new LC-MC-ICPMS approach allowing simultaneous high-precision and multi-elemental isotope ratio measurements of four fission products of interest for nuclear issues (Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) within a single elution run. Variable motorized Faraday cup configurations were successively used during a specifically designed elution procedure in order to take into account the non-natural Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd isotopic compositions encountered in irradiated nuclear samples. This new method, involving the relevant isotopic reference standard injection timings for on-line mass bias corrections, was validated by the analysis of a simulated fission product fraction from a (235)U-irradiated target. Reproducibilities better than 2‰ (k=2), comparable to those obtained by off-line measurements and the classic sample-standard bracketing mass bias correction approach, were obtained for all isotope ratios, except those involving isotopes with a transient signal peak apex lower than 100mV, for which the reproducibilities were comprised between 2‰ and 6‰.

  17. Crossrelaxations and non-radiative energy transfer from ({sup 4}G{sub 5/2}) Sm{sup 3+} → ({sup 5}D{sub 0}) Eu{sup 3+}: B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZnO glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naresh, V., E-mail: varna.naresh@gmail.com; Rudramadevi, B.H.; Buddhudu, S., E-mail: profsb_svuniv@hotmail.com

    2015-05-25

    Graphical abstract: The energy transfer process occurring from Sm{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} in B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZnO (BZn) glasses is analyzed. Based on the Foster–Dexter theory, the possibility of energy transfer between Sm{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} has been demonstrated from the spectral overlap of Eu{sup 3+} absorption and Sm{sup 3+} emission, photoluminescence spectra, energy level diagram and lifetime measurements. The energy transfer mechanism in (Sm{sup 3+} + Eu{sup 3+}) co-doped glass is governed by dipole–dipole interaction. - Highlights: • Spectroscopic properties of individually doped Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} & co-doped (Sm{sup 3+} + Eu{sup 3+}) in BZn glasses were studied separately. • The effect of Eu{sup 3+} concentration on luminescence properties is explained from cross-relaxations. • Energy transfer from Sm{sup 3+} ({sup 4}G{sub 5/2}) to Eu{sup 3+} ({sup 5}D{sub 0}) has been explained from Foster–Dexter theory. • Dipole–dipole mechanism governs the energy transfer from Sm{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+}. - Abstract: The present paper reports on the results concerning to photoluminescence features of Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} ions and energy transfer process occurring from Sm{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} doped in 45 B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–55 ZnO (BZn) glasses prepared by melt quenching technique. Luminescence quenching as a function of Eu{sup 3+} concentration in BZn glasses has been discussed. Among the studied concentrations, 0.5 mol% of Eu{sup 3+} is optimized because it has exhibited red emission transition {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2}. With regard to Sm{sup 3+} glasses, orange emission at 602 nm ({sup 4}G{sub 5/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 7/2}) has been noticed on exciting with λ{sub exci} = 403 nm. Based on the Foster–Dexter theory, the possibility of energy transfer between Sm{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} has been explained from the spectral overlap of Eu{sup 3+} absorption and Sm{sup 3+} emission. The optimized concentration 0.5 mol% of Eu{sup 3+} is co

  18. Complexation of N'-[1-(3-aminophenyl)ethylidine]isonicotinohydrazide with La3+, Pr3+, Nd3+, Sm3+, Eu3+ and Gd3+ ions and associated thermodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharmeli Yumnam; Lonibala Rajkumari

    2012-01-01

    A novel Schiff base N'-[1-(3-aminophenyl)ethylidine]isonicotinohydrazide was prepared and its complexation behavior towards some selected lanthanides had been studied employing pH-metric and calorimetric titration and spectral techniques.pH-metric studies were carried out for the trivalent La,Pr,Nd,Sr,Eu,and Gd complexes in 30% aqueous-dioxane medium at constant ionic strength of 0.05 mol/L NaClO4 and at different temperatures of 293,303 and 313 K.The proton-ligand formation constants of the ligand indicated the presence of only one dissociable proton while the metal-ligand formation constants were compatible with the formation of 1∶1 Ln(Ⅲ) complexes.The stability of the complexes followed the order:La3+<Pr3+<Nd3+<Sm3+<Eu3+>Gd3+,showing a break at gadolirium.The thermodynamic parameters,△G,△H and AS associated with protonation and complexation reactions were negative which suggested that all reactions were exothermic and enthalpy-driven.Isothermal calorimetric studies of Gd3+-aeINH systems at 303 K also showed exothermic nature of the complexation reaction and formation of 1∶1 complex in agreement with the pH-metric data.Formation of 1∶1 complexes was confirmed by the characterization of Nd(Ⅲ) complex.A seven coordinated geometry was assigned for the complex based on its elemental and spectral data.

  19. Enhancing the water-resistance stability of CaS:Eu2+,Sm2+phosphor with SiO2-PMMA composite coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰强; 范艳伟; 陈朝阳; 闫世友; 王军华; 赵鹏君; 郝斌; 盖敏强

    2015-01-01

    This work was aimed at improving the water-resistance stability of CaS:Eu2+,Sm2+phosphor. An organic-inorganic com-posite coating method was adopted in order to obtain ideal phosphor. The phosphor was coated with SiO2 via sol-gel technique and it was also covered by polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) via dissolution-cohesion technique. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, fluorescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to characterize the phase structures, emission spectrum and surface morphologies, respectively. In addition, the water-resistance stability of the phosphor was tested by soaking the phosphor into deionized water. The results showed that the phase structures remained the same as the uncoated phosphor and the po-sition of the fluorescence peak did not shift after surface treatment. Results showed that the water-resistance stability of the phosphor was improved to some degree. Moreover, the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the coated phosphors reduced less than 10%of the original phosphors. Though being soaked into deionized water for 50 h, the phosphor coated with 10 wt.%SiO2-10 wt.%PMMA retained 85.9%PL intensity compared to that of the uncoated phosphor. Therefore, it could be concluded that the 10 wt.%SiO2-10 wt.%PMMA composite coating effectively improved the phosphor water resistance and retained its good optical properties.

  20. Ultralong well-aligned TiO2:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, or Er) fibres prepared by modified electrospinning and their temperature-dependent luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongquan; Li, Yue; Song, Yang; Wu, Yanbo; Lan, Xijie; Liu, Shimin; Tang, Yanning; Xu, Shasha; Chen, Baojiu

    2017-01-01

    Electrospinning has emerged as an attractive technique for the fabrication of ultrafine fibres in micro-/nano-scale fineness: however, it remains a significant technological challenge to assemble aligned fibre arrays via an conventional electrospinning method due to the inherent whipping instability of the polymeric jet. We herein have first developed a simple modified electrospinning method with which to prepare ultralong (>300 mm) well-aligned inorganic fibre arrays, i.e., using an ultrahigh molecular weight polymer to suppress or eliminate the whipping motion of the electrospun jet, has emerged as a facile approach for the continuous fabrication of well-aligned, ultralong fibres through simply using a rotating cylinder as the collector (it was not found necessary to use a very high rotating speed, extra magnetic, electrical field) in the electrospinning process. As result, the ultralong well-aligned TiO2:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, or Er) fibre arrays can be obtained from ultrahigh molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide), tetra-n-butyl titanate (Ti(OC4H9)4) and lanthanide nitrate in the modified electrospinning approach. The grow mechanism and luminescent properties of these ultralong well-aligned TiO2:Ln3+ fibre arrays were also investigated. PMID:28266593

  1. Ultralong well-aligned TiO2:Ln(3+) (Ln = Eu, Sm, or Er) fibres prepared by modified electrospinning and their temperature-dependent luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongquan; Li, Yue; Song, Yang; Wu, Yanbo; Lan, Xijie; Liu, Shimin; Tang, Yanning; Xu, Shasha; Chen, Baojiu

    2017-03-07

    Electrospinning has emerged as an attractive technique for the fabrication of ultrafine fibres in micro-/nano-scale fineness: however, it remains a significant technological challenge to assemble aligned fibre arrays via an conventional electrospinning method due to the inherent whipping instability of the polymeric jet. We herein have first developed a simple modified electrospinning method with which to prepare ultralong (>300 mm) well-aligned inorganic fibre arrays, i.e., using an ultrahigh molecular weight polymer to suppress or eliminate the whipping motion of the electrospun jet, has emerged as a facile approach for the continuous fabrication of well-aligned, ultralong fibres through simply using a rotating cylinder as the collector (it was not found necessary to use a very high rotating speed, extra magnetic, electrical field) in the electrospinning process. As result, the ultralong well-aligned TiO2:Ln(3+) (Ln = Eu, Sm, or Er) fibre arrays can be obtained from ultrahigh molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide), tetra-n-butyl titanate (Ti(OC4H9)4) and lanthanide nitrate in the modified electrospinning approach. The grow mechanism and luminescent properties of these ultralong well-aligned TiO2:Ln(3+) fibre arrays were also investigated.

  2. Ultralong well-aligned TiO2:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, or Er) fibres prepared by modified electrospinning and their temperature-dependent luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongquan; Li, Yue; Song, Yang; Wu, Yanbo; Lan, Xijie; Liu, Shimin; Tang, Yanning; Xu, Shasha; Chen, Baojiu

    2017-03-01

    Electrospinning has emerged as an attractive technique for the fabrication of ultrafine fibres in micro-/nano-scale fineness: however, it remains a significant technological challenge to assemble aligned fibre arrays via an conventional electrospinning method due to the inherent whipping instability of the polymeric jet. We herein have first developed a simple modified electrospinning method with which to prepare ultralong (>300 mm) well-aligned inorganic fibre arrays, i.e., using an ultrahigh molecular weight polymer to suppress or eliminate the whipping motion of the electrospun jet, has emerged as a facile approach for the continuous fabrication of well-aligned, ultralong fibres through simply using a rotating cylinder as the collector (it was not found necessary to use a very high rotating speed, extra magnetic, electrical field) in the electrospinning process. As result, the ultralong well-aligned TiO2:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, or Er) fibre arrays can be obtained from ultrahigh molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide), tetra-n-butyl titanate (Ti(OC4H9)4) and lanthanide nitrate in the modified electrospinning approach. The grow mechanism and luminescent properties of these ultralong well-aligned TiO2:Ln3+ fibre arrays were also investigated.

  3. Facile patterning of luminescent GdVO{sub 4}:Ln (Ln = Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) thin films by microcontact printing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dong; Yang Piaoping; Cheng Ziyong, E-mail: zycheng@ciac.jl.cn; Wang Wenxin; Ma Pingan; Zhai Xuefeng; Lin Jun, E-mail: jlin@ciac.jl.cn [Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization (China)

    2012-01-15

    Ordered arrays of luminescent GdVO{sub 4}:Ln (Ln = Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) films with dot patterns have been successfully fabricated via microcontact printing method. The soft-lithography process utilizes a PDMS elastomeric mold as the stamp combined with a Pechini-type sol-gel process to produce luminescent patterns on quartz plates, in which a GdVO{sub 4}:Ln (Ln = Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) precursor solution was employed as ink. The ordered luminescent GdVO{sub 4}:Ln patterns were revealed by optical microscopy and their microstructure, consisting of nanometer-scale particles, as demonstrated by scanning electronic microscopy observations. In addition, photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence were carried out to characterize the patterned GdVO{sub 4}:Ln (Ln = Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) samples. Upon UV-light or electron-beam irradiation, the rare earth ions Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, and Sm{sup 3+} in the crystalline GdVO{sub 4} host show their characteristic transitions dominated by {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}-{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} ,and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}-{sup 6}H{sub 7/2}, respectively. These results make the combining soft lithography with a Pechini-type sol-gel route have potential applications as rare-earth luminescent pixels for next-generation field-emission display devices.

  4. Synthetic and spectroscopic studies of vanadate glaserites II: Photoluminescence studies of Ln:K{sub 3}Y(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} (Ln=Eu, Er, Sm, Ho, or Tm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimani, Martin M., E-mail: kimani@g.clemson.edu; McMillen, Colin D., E-mail: cmcmill@g.clemson.edu; Kolis, Joseph W., E-mail: kjoseph@clemson.edu

    2015-03-15

    Glaserite-type potassium yttrium double vanadates (K{sub 3}Y(VO{sub 4}){sub 2}) doped with Eu{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+}, or Tm{sup 3+} have been synthesized by solid state reactions at 1000 °C for 48 h and their photoluminescence properties investigated. Efficient energy transfer from the vanadate group to the rare earth ion has been established by photoluminescence investigation. Ultraviolet excitation into the metal to ligand charge transfer band of the vanadate groups results in orange-red, blue and green emissions from Eu{sup 3+} (592 nm), Sm{sup 3+} (602 nm), Tm{sup 3+} (475 nm), Er{sup 3+} (553 nm), and Ho{sup 3+} (541–551 nm) dopant ions. The emission intensities of the lanthanide-doped K{sub 3}Y(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} powders were studied as a function of dopant ion concentrations. Over the concentration ranges studied, no emission quenching was observed for Eu{sup 3+} or Ho{sup 3+} dopants, while Er{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} dopants did exhibit such effects for dopant ion concentrations greater than 5%, probably due to cross relaxation processes. - Graphical abstract: Synthesis and photoluminescence in vanadate glaserites. - Highlights: • K{sub 3}Y(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} doped with Eu, Er, Tm, Sm, or Ho were synthesized via solid-state reactions. • Photoluminescence properties are investigated. • The lanthanide doped K{sub 3}Y(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} compounds revealed efficient energy transfer from the vanadate group to the rare earth ions. • The presented compounds are promising materials for light display systems, lasers, and optoelectronic devices.

  5. Precipitation based synthesis and luminescence of Ln{sup 3+} (Eu, Ce, Dy, Sm, Tb) activated BaCa{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}-Walstromite cyclosilicate phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, S.K. [Department of Physics, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India); Dhoble, N.S. [Department of Chemistry, Sevadal Mahila Mahavidyalaya, Nagpur 440009 (India); Park, K. [Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Dhoble, S.J., E-mail: sjdhoble@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India)

    2014-10-15

    A series of new phosphors of BaCa{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}:Ln{sup 3+}, (Ln = Eu, Ce, Dy, Sm, Tb) were synthesized by precipitation based method. Good crystallinity was achieved after annealing the sample at 750 °C for 1 h in air. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) result confirmed the formation of desired BaCa{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 9} host. The photoluminescent excitation and emission properties of Ln{sup 3+}, (Ln = Eu, Ce, Dy, Sm, Tb) activated BaCa{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 9} were investigated in detail. The photoluminescence (PL) analysis of individual Ln{sup 3+}, (Ln = Eu, Ce, Dy, Sm, Tb) activated BaCa{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 9} phosphors exhibits interesting characteristic emission properties in their respective regions. From the measured emission spectra, Judd–Ofelt (J–O) intensity parameters (Ω{sub 2}, Ω{sub 4}, Ω{sub 6}) have been calculated and using these J–O parameters various radiative parameters such as radiative transition probabilities (A{sub rad}), radiative lifetimes (τ{sub R}), branching ratios (β{sub R}) and relative quantum yield have been calculated for the studied ions. - Highlights: • A new series of phosphors BaCa{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}:Ln{sup 3+}, (Ln = Eu, Ce, Dy, Sm, Tb) were synthesized by precipitation method. • PL analysis of Ln{sup 3+} activated BaCa{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 9} phosphors exhibited characteristic emission properties. • By adopting J–O analysis, radiative parameters such as (A{sub rad}), (τ{sub R}), (β{sub R}) and relative quantum yield have been calculated.

  6. Rare-earth magnetism in cuprates with T[sup prime-]structure. [GdPrCuO; GdNdCuO; GdSmCuO; GdEuCuO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czjzek, G. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, INFP and ITP, P.O. Box 3640, W-7500 Karlsruhe 1 (Germany)); Roth, G. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, INFP and ITP, P.O. Box 3640, W-7500 Karlsruhe 1 (Germany)); Kroener, T. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, INFP and ITP, P.O. Box 3640, W-7500 Karlsruhe 1 (Germany)); Adelmann, P. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, INFP and ITP, P.O. Box 3640, W-7500 Karlsruhe 1 (Germany))

    1994-04-01

    Cuprates of composition (Gd[sub 1-x]R[sub x])[sub 2]CuO[sub 4], R=Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, have been studied by [sup 155]Gd Moessbauer spectroscopy and by complementary experimental techniques. The results provide new evidence for the important influence of exchange interactions between Cu and rare-earth 4f-moments on rare-earth magnetism in these compounds. ((orig.))

  7. Brilliant blue, green and orange-red emission band on Tm{sup 3+}-, Tb{sup 3+}- and Eu{sup 3+}-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, V H; De la Rosa, E; Lopez-Luke, T [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.P. 1-948, Leon Gto., 37160 (Mexico); Salas, P [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y TecnologIa Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 1-1010, Queretaro, Qro. 76000 (Mexico); Angeles-Chavez, C, E-mail: elder@cio.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de IngenierIa Molecular, A.P. 11-848, Mexico, D.F. 07730 (Mexico)

    2010-11-24

    Tm{sup 3+}-, Tb{sup 3+}- and Eu{sup 3+}-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystals were prepared by a facile precipitation method with a hydrothermal process. Structural characterization showed a crystallite size ranging from 30 to 40 nm, and monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia phases were observed depending on the dopant concentration. The monoclinic phase was dominant for 0.5 mol% of Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}, and the tetragonal phase was 100% stabilized for 2 mol% of Tm{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}. The structure of emission bands associated with Eu{sup 3+} confirms the substitution of Zr{sup 4+} located at C{sub 1} and D{sub 2h} symmetry sites for the monoclinic and tetragonal phases. The emission of three primary colours, red, green and blue, was obtained from Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}, respectively, which makes this nanophosphor an excellent candidate for use in photonics applications. The emitted signal was analysed as a function of ion concentration and the optimum concentration was determined.

  8. Complexation of amidocarbamoyl phosphine oxides with Ln{sup +3} (Ln = La, Nd, Pm, Sm and Eu) cation series: structural and thermodynamical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinnejad, Tayebeh; Kazemi, Tayebeh [Alzahra Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we have mainly investigated the nature of interactions in Ln{sup 3+} (Ln = La, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu) complexes with amidocarbamoyl methyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) and amidocarbamoyl propyl phosphine oxide (CPPO) ligands based on density functional theory (DFT) approaches. In the first step, thermodynamical properties for complexation of CMPO and CPPO ligands with Ln{sup 3+} cation series have been determined in the gas phase and with the presence of three solvents: n-hexane, chloroform and toluene, via polarized continuum model (PCM) computations. The trend of metal-ligand interaction strength has been analyzed and compared with the trend of ionic hardness within the series of lanthanide cations and different size of alkyl chain of amidocarbamoyl phosphine oxide ligand. The calculated thermochemical results in the gas and solution phases reveals that there is a consistency between increasing trend in the hardness of Ln{sup 3+} cation series and also electron-donating property of alkyl chain with increasing in thermodynamical stability of [Ln-CMPO]{sup 3+} and [Ln-CPPO]{sup 3+} complex series. We have also demonstrated that in the complexation reaction of all complex series, using n-hexane as solvent is more favorable thermodynamically than chloroform and toluene. It should be stated that this issue has been observed in many experiments. Finally, analysis of calculated deformation energies and also the variation in bond order of some selected key bonds in CMPO and CPPO ligands and their corresponded Ln{sup 3+} complexes series show a similar trend with increasing in the hardness of Ln{sup 3+} cation series and electron-donating of alkyl chain of amidocarbamoyl phosphine oxide ligand.

  9. Fast synthesis of rare-earth (Pr{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Gd{sup 3+}) doped bismuth ferrite powders with enhanced magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorgu, A.I. [Department of Chemical Thermodynamics, “Ilie Murgulescu” Institute of Physical Chemistry, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University “Politehnica” of Bucharest, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Maxim, F., E-mail: fmaxim@icf.ro [Department of Chemical Thermodynamics, “Ilie Murgulescu” Institute of Physical Chemistry, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Matei, C. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University “Politehnica” of Bucharest, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Ferreira, Liliana Pires [Centro de Física da Matéria Condensada, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Ferreira, P. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Cruz, M.M. [Centro de Física da Matéria Condensada, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Berger, D., E-mail: danaberger01@yahoo.com [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University “Politehnica” of Bucharest, 011061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • Synthesis of rare earth doped bismuth ferrite powders by combustion method. • SEM and TEM were used to investigate the morphology and size of particles. • Effect of Bi substitution with Pr, Sm, Eu and Gd on magnetic properties of powders. - Abstract: Rare-earth (Pr{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Gd{sup 3+}) doped bismuth ferrite powders were synthesized for the first time by solution combustion method, which is a fast soft chemistry route for obtaining oxide powders. The materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A distortion from rhombohedral R3c symmetry, specific to pure bismuth ferrite, to orthorhombic symmetry was observed for all doped samples. The SEM analysis of pure and doped bismuth ferrite powders showed the formation of sintered grains, with faceted cuboids-shaped particles with different size and lower average dimension in the case of doped samples. Magnetic properties were analyzed using SQUID magnetometry, M–H hysteresis loops being measured at 10 K and 300 K. All studied pure and doped bismuth ferrite samples presented high susceptibility values for high magnetic fields indicating strong antiferromagnetic interactions, whereas the behavior at low magnetic field demonstrates the existence of ferromagnetic coupling. Compared to BiFeO{sub 3}, Bi{sub 0.9}RE{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} (RE = Pr, Sm, Eu and Gd) powders exhibit higher susceptibility, remanence and coercivity values, Bi{sub 0.9}Eu{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} sample displaying the highest remanence and coercivity at room temperature.

  10. Combined first-principles and model Hamiltonian study of the perovskite series R MnO 3 (R =La ,Pr ,Nd ,Sm ,Eu , and Gd )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Roman; Murthy, Sowmya Sathyanarayana; Quiroga, Carmen E.; Ederer, Claude; Franchini, Cesare

    2016-02-01

    We merge advanced ab initio schemes (standard density functional theory, hybrid functionals, and the G W approximation) with model Hamiltonian approaches (tight-binding and Heisenberg Hamiltonian) to study the evolution of the electronic, magnetic, and dielectric properties of the manganite family R MnO3 (R =La,Pr,Nd,Sm,Eu, and Gd) . The link between first principles and tight binding is established by downfolding the physically relevant subset of 3 d bands with eg character by means of maximally localized Wannier functions (MLWFs) using the VASP2WANNIER90 interface. The MLWFs are then used to construct a general tight-binding Hamiltonian written as a sum of the kinetic term, the Hund's rule coupling, the JT coupling, and the electron-electron interaction. The dispersion of the tight-binding (TB) eg bands at all levels are found to match closely the MLWFs. We provide a complete set of TB parameters which can serve as guidance for the interpretation of future studies based on many-body Hamiltonian approaches. In particular, we find that the Hund's rule coupling strength, the Jahn-Teller coupling strength, and the Hubbard interaction parameter U remain nearly constant for all the members of the R MnO3 series, whereas the nearest-neighbor hopping amplitudes show a monotonic attenuation as expected from the trend of the tolerance factor. Magnetic exchange interactions, computed by mapping a large set of hybrid functional total energies onto an Heisenberg Hamiltonian, clarify the origin of the A-type magnetic ordering observed in the early rare-earth manganite series as arising from a net negative out-of-plane interaction energy. The obtained exchange parameters are used to estimate the Néel temperature by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The resulting data capture well the monotonic decrease of the ordering temperature down the series from R =La to Gd, in agreement with experiments. This trend correlates well with the modulation of structural properties, in

  11. A facile approach to synthesize SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow sphere and its application in drug release

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhihua; Zhu, Lin; Liu, Qian; Du, Yu; Wang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Multifunctional SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow spheres (HSs) have been fabricated using an acidic Re3+ ion solution. Under ultraviolet radiation, functional HSs emit different colors of light according to the different rare-earth ions embedded into the shell of SiO2 hollow spheres. The as-prepared hollow capsules were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning...

  12. NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}: RE{sup 3+} (RE{sup 3+} = Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+}) microspheres: the synthesis and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiyi [Key Laboratory of Coherent Light, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, Ministry of Education, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Wang, Zhiying [College of Chemistry and Biology, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Fu, Linlin; Yang, Xingxing [Key Laboratory of Coherent Light, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, Ministry of Education, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Fu, Zuoling, E-mail: zlfu@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Coherent Light, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, Ministry of Education, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wu, Zhijian [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resources Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Jeong, Jung Hyun, E-mail: jhjeong@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The strong green upconversion (UC) emission were observed in various Er{sup 3+}, Yb{sup 3+} co-doped NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} samples synthesized via a hydrothermal route. The UC intensity depends on the dopant concentration, and the optimal UC emission was obtained in NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}: 0.02Er{sup 3+}/0.10 Yb{sup 3+}. - Highlights: • The NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} microspheres doped with Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. • The effects of the EDTA in the initial solution crystal phase and morphology were studied. • The down-conversion luminescence properties of NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}: RE{sup 3+} (RE{sup 3+} = Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) were investigated. • The UC luminescence properties and mechanism of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} was discussed. - Abstract: NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}: RE{sup 3+} (RE{sup 3+} = Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) microspheres have been synthesized at 180 °C via a facile EDTA-mediated hydrothermal route. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectra were employed to characterize the samples. It was found that the amount of EDTA in the initial solution was responsible for crystal phase and shape determination. The effect of Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} doping concentrations on the luminescent intensity was also investigated in details. Furthermore, the up-conversion (UC) emissions have been observed in a series of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} samples. Concentration dependent studies revealed that the optimal composition was realized for a 2% Er{sup 3+} and 10% Yb{sup 3+}-doping concentration.

  13. Effect of solvent on luminescence properties of re-dispersible LaF3∶Ln3+ (Ln3+=Eu3+,Dy3+,Sm3+ and Tb3+) nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganngam Phaomei; W.Rameshwor Singh

    2013-01-01

    LaF3∶Ln3+ (Eu3+,Dy3+,Sm3+ and Tb3+) nanoparticles were prepared in different solvents such as water,EG (ethylene glycol),DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) and their mixed solvents at a relatively low temperature of 150 ℃ by simple chemical route.All the prepared samples showed hexagonal phase and exhibited spherical morphology.The highest luminescence intensity was observed for the samples prepared in EG than the samples prepared in other solvents.However,the sample prepared in water showed anomalously higher luminescence intensity than that of the sample prepared in DMSO.

  14. A facile approach to synthesize SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow sphere and its application in drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihua; Zhu, Lin; Liu, Qian; Du, Yu; Wang, Feng

    2013-10-01

    Multifunctional SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow spheres (HSs) have been fabricated using an acidic Re3+ ion solution. Under ultraviolet radiation, functional HSs emit different colors of light according to the different rare-earth ions embedded into the shell of SiO2 hollow spheres. The as-prepared hollow capsules were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. Drug loading and release experiments have been carried out using SiO2 · Eu2O3 HSs that acted as drug carriers. The results demonstrate that the multifunctional HSs exhibit a high storage capacity and the ability of retaining drug stability and activity, which indicates that the as-synthesized fluorescent hollow capsules are a potential candidate as drug delivery materials.

  15. Charge transfer excitation of trivalent rare earth ions Sm/sup 3+/, Eu/sup 3+/, Gd/sup 3+/, Ho/sup 3+/, Er/sup 3+/ and Yb/sup 3+/ emission in BaFCl crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, M.Z.; Sun, X.P.

    1987-01-01

    The charge transfer type excitation spectra of trivalent rare earth ions Sm/sup 3+/, Eu/sup 3+/, Gd/sup 3+/, Ho/sup 3+/, Er/sup 3+/ and Yb/sup 3+/ emission in BaFCl crystals have been studied. The charge transfer type emissions of Ho/sup 3+/, Er/sup 3+/ and Yb/sup 3+/ in BaFCl have also been observed in addition to that of Eu/sup 3+/. The energy of charge transfer band of these RE/sup 3+/ ions were estimated experimentally and also calculated by Jorgensen's refined electron spin-pairing energy theory. Both the experimental and calculated values coincide well.

  16. Investigations into the synthesis and fluorescence properties of Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) complexes of a novel bis-beta-diketone-type ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi-Ming; Chen, Zhe; Tang, Rui-Ren; Xiao, Lin-Xiang; Peng, Hong-Jian

    2008-02-01

    A novel bis-beta-diketon ligand, 1,1'-(2,6-bispyridyl)bis-3-phenyl-1,3-propane-dione (L), was designed and synthesized and its complexes with Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) ions were successfully prepared. The ligand and the corresponding metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, and infrared, mass and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of the IR spectra suggested that each of the lanthanide metal ions coordinated to the ligand via the carbonyl oxygen atoms and the nitrogen atom of the pyridine ring. The fluorescence properties of these complexes in solid state were investigated and it was discovered that all of the lanthanide ions could be sensitized by the ligand (L) to some extent. In particular, the Tb(III) complex was an excellent green-emitter and would be a potential candidate material for applications in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and medical diagnosis.

  17. Investigations into the synthesis and fluorescence properties of Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) complexes of a novel bis- β-diketone-type ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi-Ming; Chen, Zhe; Tang, Rui-Ren; Xiao, Lin-Xiang; Peng, Hong-Jian

    2008-02-01

    A novel bis- β-diketon ligand, 1,1'-(2,6-bispyridyl)bis-3-phenyl-1,3-propane-dione (L), was designed and synthesized and its complexes with Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) ions were successfully prepared. The ligand and the corresponding metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, and infrared, mass and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of the IR spectra suggested that each of the lanthanide metal ions coordinated to the ligand via the carbonyl oxygen atoms and the nitrogen atom of the pyridine ring. The fluorescence properties of these complexes in solid state were investigated and it was discovered that all of the lanthanide ions could be sensitized by the ligand (L) to some extent. In particular, the Tb(III) complex was an excellent green-emitter and would be a potential candidate material for applications in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and medical diagnosis.

  18. Heat capacity, entropy of Ln2(MoO4)3 (Ln = La, Sm, and Gd), and the high-temperature enthalpy of Ln2(MoO4)3 (Ln = Eu, Dy, and Ho)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarev, V. M.; Suponitskiy, Y. L.; Liashenko, S. E.

    2016-05-01

    The low-temperature heat capacity of Ln2(MoO4)3 (Ln = La, Sm, and Gd) is investigated by means of adiabatic calorimetry within the range of 60-300 K. The temperature dependences of the heat capacity are found and the values of the standard entropy are calculated, based on extrapolations to 0 K. Characteristic temperatures for molybdates are determined from the results of IR spectroscopic studies. The high-temperature enthalpy of Ln2(MoO4)3 (Ln = Eu, Dy, and Ho) is measured via high-temperature microcalorimetry, and the temperature dependence of heat capacity is calculated in the range of 298-1000 K. Since samarium and gadolinium molybdates are of the same structural type as terbium molybdate, we can estimate the anomaly of the heat capacity in the low-temperature region using the data for terbium molybdate and find the entropy of samarium and gadolinium molybdates.

  19. A facile approach to synthesize SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow sphere and its application in drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihua; Zhu, Lin; Liu, Qian; Du, Yu; Wang, Feng

    2013-10-21

    Multifunctional SiO2 · Re2O3 (Re = Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow spheres (HSs) have been fabricated using an acidic Re3+ ion solution. Under ultraviolet radiation, functional HSs emit different colors of light according to the different rare-earth ions embedded into the shell of SiO2 hollow spheres. The as-prepared hollow capsules were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. Drug loading and release experiments have been carried out using SiO2 · Eu2O3 HSs that acted as drug carriers. The results demonstrate that the multifunctional HSs exhibit a high storage capacity and the ability of retaining drug stability and activity, which indicates that the as-synthesized fluorescent hollow capsules are a potential candidate as drug delivery materials.

  20. Metathesis synthesis, characterization, spectral and photoactivity studies of Ln2/3MoO4 (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er and Y)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radha Velchuri; Suresh Palla; G. Ravi; Naveen Kumar Veldurthi; J.R. Reddy; M. Vithal

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth ortho-oxomolybdates of composition Ln2/3MoO4 (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er and Y) were prepared by metathesis reaction. All these materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The Rietveld analysis of all the samples was carried out to obtain the unit cell pa-rameters and reliability factors. All the materials were crystallized in tetragonal lattice withI41/a space group. The infrared spectra of all the samples were characterized by bands due to MoO42– units. The bandgap energies of all the samples were obtained from UV-Vis DRS spectra. The luminescence spectra of Ln2/3MoO4 (Ln=Pr, Eu and Dy) showed characteristic transitions of the rare earth ions. The visible light photocatalytic activity of all the samples was studied against degradation of methylene blue.

  1. BaFCl晶体中三价稀土离子Sm3+、Eu3+、Gd3+、Ho3+、Er3+和Yb3+的电荷转移激发%Charge Transfer Excitation of Rare Earth Ions (Sm3+, Eu3+, Gtl2+, Ho3+, Er3+ and Yb3+) Emission in BaFCl Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏勉曾; 孙小平

    1986-01-01

    @@ 1962年Jфrgensen[1]提出了精细电子自旋配对能理论(RESPET),计算由配体提供一个电子、将具有4fq基态的Ln3+还原为具有4fq+1的Ln2+这个电荷转移过程(CT)的能量变化.计算公式为Jфrgensen指出了公式中各参数的意义,并给出了各稀土离子的N(S)、M(L)和P(S,L,J)等系数的值[2,3].我们合成了Sm3+、Eu3+、Gd3+、Ho3+、Er3+和yb3+离子激活的六种BaFCl晶体,测定了它们的激发光谱(图1).由光谱数据确定了它们的电荷转移带(CTS)的波长和波数(另一报告已证明Eu 3+的CTS位于242nm[4]),利用公式(1)对以上各三价希土离子的电荷转移带的能量进行了计算.

  2. Solid-state synthesis and lanthanide photoluminescence of doped yttrium molybdo-antimonites, Y{sub 2−n}A{sub n}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er; n=0.02–2) solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohitkar, Shrikant A.; Vidyasagar, K., E-mail: kvsagar@iitm.ac.in

    2015-05-15

    Abstract:: Y{sub 2−n}A{sub n}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er; n=0.02–2) solid solutions were synthesized by a solid-state method and studied for their lanthanide photoluminescence. They show concentration dependent lanthanide photoluminescence and existence of concentration quenching phenomenon. The emission intensity and the fluorescence-lifetime are found to be highest for an optimum concentration of a given lanthanide ion in the solid solution series studied. The neat photoluminescence of A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) compounds involves partial concentration quenching. - Highlights: • Isostructural Y{sub 2−n}A{sub n}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er; n=0.02–2) solid solutions have been synthesized. • Lanthanide photoluminescence of Y{sub 2−n}A{sub n}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er; n=0.02–2) solid solutions has been studied. • Optimum concentration of each photoluminescent dopant for Y{sub 2−n}A{sub n}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er; n=0.02 –2) solid solutions has been determined. • Red photoemission of Eu{sup 3+} in Y{sub 1.5}Eu{sub 0.5}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} is visible to the naked eye. • Green photoemission of Tb{sup 3+} in Y{sub 1.7}Tb{sub 0.3}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} is visible to the naked eye.

  3. How to be Brilliant at Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, Beryl

    2010-01-01

    How to be Brilliant at Algebra is contains 40 photocopiable worksheets designed to improve students' understanding of number relationships and patterns. They will learn about: odds and evens; patterns; inverse operations; variables; calendars; equations; pyramid numbers; digital root patterns; prime numbers; Fibonacci numbers; Pascal's triangle.

  4. Brilliant Light in Life and Material Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Tsakanov, Vasili

    2007-01-01

    The present book contains an excellent overview of the status and highlights of brilliant light facilities and their applications in biology, chemistry, medicine, materials and environmental sciences. Overview papers on diverse fields of research by leading experts are accompanied by the highlights in the near and long-term perspectives of brilliant X-Ray photon beam usage for fundamental and applied research. The book includes advanced topics in the fields of high brightness photon beams, instrumentation, the spectroscopy, microscopy, scattering and imaging experimental techniques and their applications. The book is strongly recommended for students, engineers and scientists in the field of accelerator physics, X-ray optics and instrumentation, life, materials and environmental sciences, bio and nanotechnology.

  5. How to be Brilliant at Mental Arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, Beryl

    2010-01-01

    How to be Brilliant at Mental Arithmetic addresses the twin pillars of mental arithmetic - mental recall and mental agility. Mental recall depends on familiarity with number bonds and plenty of opportunity to practise. Mental agility depends more on confidence with the number system and the four operations. Using the worksheets in this book, students will learn about: tens and units; addition, subtraction, multiplication and division; addition shortcuts; product squares; quick recall; number se

  6. How to be Brilliant at Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, Beryl

    2010-01-01

    How to be Brilliant at Numbers will help students to develop an understanding of numbers, place value, fractions and decimals. They will develop the language of number, and of the relationships between numbers. They will also use mathematics to solve problems and will develop mathematical reasoning. Using the worksheets in this book, pupils will learn about: ancient Greek numbers; coins; digits; consecutive numbers; magic ladders; fractions; matching pairs; multiples of 10; rounding; decimal un

  7. Brilliant Corners: Approaches to Jazz and Comics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pillai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The call for papers Brilliant Corners: Approaches to Jazz and Comics was published on 30 July 2015. In it, the editors made a public invitation for scholarship that proposed meeting points between the disciplines of jazz studies and comics studies. This editorial discusses the motivations for the collection, the editorial methodology, and the research articles included. Finally, the editors suggest some areas in which jazz studies and comics scholarship might address under-researched and fertile topics.

  8. The Mysterious Hit of "My Brilliant Career"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石峰

    2009-01-01

    As the old saying goes,one thing successful must have some reasonable to exist in the world the same is also to"My Brilliant Career".which still is inferior to other works of her time both in wring shills and ideas hidden,but catering to the needs of the time is just the important factor of the making of this novel

  9. Brilliant research perspectives DESY's accelerator "PETRA" to become a most brilliant light source

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 2007 onwards, the PETRA accelerator at the Helmholtz research center DESY will be converted into the most brilliant storage-ring-based X-ray source worldwide. Current plans envision 13 to 15 experimental stations, which will be equipped with so-called undulators: long magnet arrangements delivering X-ray radiation with especially high brilliance (1 page).

  10. Structural and conductivity properties of Bi{sub 0.775}Ln{sub 0.225}O{sub 1.5} oxide conductors (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy) with rhombohedral Bi-Sr-O type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drache, M.; Obbade, S.; Wignacourt, J.P.; Conflant, P. [USTL-ENSCL, Villeneuve d`Ascq (France). Lab. de Cristallochimie et Physicochimie du Solide

    1999-02-01

    This paper deals with structural and conductivity properties of the dimorphic Bi{sub 0.775}Ln{sub 0.225}O{sub 1.5} (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy) hexagonal structure layer phases with rhombohedral Bi-Sr-O type. The evolutions, versus Ln{sub VI}{sup 3+} radius, of cell parameters, thermal expansion coefficients, electrical properties (conductivity and activation energy), and structural characteristics determined from Rietveld powder structure refinements, suggest two different domains (La-Sm) and (Gd-Dy), with the intermediate Eu sample, thus possibly characterizing two kinds of ordering in the mixed cationic layer. The best conductivity properties obtained for Bi{sub 0.775}La{sub 0.225}O{sub 1.5} ({sigma}{sub 400{degree}C} = 10{sup {minus}3} S cm{sup {minus}1} with E{sub a} = 0.8 eV) are discussed and justified.

  11. PHONON SOFTENING IN INTERMEDIATE VALENT SmB6

    OpenAIRE

    Mörke, I.; Wachter, P.

    1981-01-01

    We have measured the Raman spectrum of a SmB6 single crystal and compared it to LaB6 and EuB6. Beside the three high energy Raman active phonons we found additional excitations in these compounds. Most prominent is a peak at 172 cm-1 for SmB6, 214 cm-1 for LaB6 and 220 cm-1 for EuB6. The spectra are analysed in terms of defect induced phonon scattering. The softening of the line in intermediate valent (IV) SmB6 is explained in analogy with the phonon anomalies found in other IV compounds.

  12. EU Udbudsretten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sune Troels; Jakobsen, Peter Stig; Kalsmose-Hjelmborg, Simon Evers

    I bogen, som er en 2. udgave, analyseres EU udbudsdirektiv for offentlige myndigheder og EU's forsyningsvirksomhedsdirektiv. I analyserne inddrages EU-domstolens domme, afgørelser fra Kalgenævnet for Udbud, domme fra danske domstole samt litteratur på dansk og engelsk.......I bogen, som er en 2. udgave, analyseres EU udbudsdirektiv for offentlige myndigheder og EU's forsyningsvirksomhedsdirektiv. I analyserne inddrages EU-domstolens domme, afgørelser fra Kalgenævnet for Udbud, domme fra danske domstole samt litteratur på dansk og engelsk....

  13. Brilliant Star in a Colourful Neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    A spectacular new image from ESO's Wide Field Imager at the La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the brilliant and unusual star WR 22 and its colourful surroundings. WR 22 is a very hot and bright star that is shedding its atmosphere into space at a rate many millions of times faster than the Sun. It lies in the outer part of the dramatic Carina Nebula from which it formed. Very massive stars live fast and die young. Some of these stellar beacons have such intense radiation passing through their thick atmospheres late in their lives that they shed material into space many millions of times more quickly than relatively sedate stars such as the Sun. These rare, very hot and massive objects are known as Wolf-Rayet stars [1], after the two French astronomers who first identified them in the mid-nineteenth century, and one of the most massive ones yet measured is known as WR 22. It appears at the centre of this picture, which was created from images taken through red, green and blue filters with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. WR 22 is a member of a double star system and has been measured to have a mass at least 70 times that of the Sun. WR 22 lies in the southern constellation of Carina, the keel of Jason's ship Argo in Greek mythology. Although the star lies over 5000 light-years from the Earth it is so bright that it can just be faintly seen with the unaided eye under good conditions. WR 22 is one of many exceptionally brilliant stars associated with the beautiful Carina Nebula (also known as NGC 3372) and the outer part of this huge region of star formation in the southern Milky Way forms the colourful backdrop to this image. The subtle colours of the rich background tapestry are a result of the interactions between the intense ultraviolet radiation coming from hot massive stars, including WR 22, and the vast gas clouds, mostly hydrogen, from which they formed. The central part of this enormous complex

  14. Brilliant blue G attenuates lipopolysaccharidemediated microglial activation and inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui Lu; Jue Wang; Bin Hu; Xiaolei Shi; Junyi Zhou; Yamei Tang; Ying Peng

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that oxidized adenosine triphosphate, a P2X7 receptor antagonist, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-mediated microglial activation and inflammatory expression following neuronal damage in rat brain. NaCl and temperature may affect the potency of oxidized adenosine triphosphate. Brilliant blue G is a derivative of a widely used food additive and has little toxicity. This study explored the effects of brilliant blue G, a selective P2X7 receptor antagonist, on microglial activation and inflammation. Results demonstrated that brilliant blue G inhibited the release of cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-6 in BV2 cells. Immunofluorescence displayed that brilliant blue G could suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation. This study used RNA interference to block P2X7 receptor expression and found that small interfering RNA also suppressed the release of cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-6 in BV2 cells. These results suggested that downregulation of the P2X7 receptor by brilliant blue G was involved in the inhibition of microglial activation and inflammation.

  15. Electronic structure and energy level schemes of RE{sup 3+}:LaSi{sub 3}N{sub 5} and RE{sup 2+}:LaSi{sub 3}N{sub 5−x}O{sub x} phosphors (RE=Ce, Pr, ND, Pm, Sm, Eu) from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Ismail A.M.; Lenčéš, Zoltán; Šajgalík, Pavol [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Benco, Lubomir [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Physics and Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    First principles calculations of rare earth (RE)-doped LaSi{sub 3}N{sub 5} host lattice are performed to obtain the electronic structure, the band gap (BG), and the character of electronic transitions. Doping with both trivalent and bivalent RE cations is inspected. RE 4f states form two bands of occupied and unoccupied states separated by ~5 eV. In RE{sup 3+}-doped compounds 4f states are shifted by ~6 eV to more negative energies compared with RE{sup 2+}-compounds. This stabilization causes that RE{sup 3+} 4f bands are in a different position relative to the valence band and the conduction band than RE{sup 2+} 4f bands and therefore different electronic transitions apply. BG of RE{sup 3+}-compounds decreases from ~4.6 eV (Ce) to ~1.5 eV (Eu). Except for Ce{sup 3+}, exhibiting the 4f→5d transition, other RE{sup 3+}-compounds show the charge transfer of the p→4f character. BG of RE{sup 2+}-compounds increases from ~0.80 eV (Ce, Pr) to ~0.95 eV (Nd, Pm), ~1.43 eV (Sm), and ~3.28 eV (Eu) and the electronic transition is of the 4f→5d character. The energy level scheme constructed from ab initio calculated electronic structures agrees well with the experimental energy level diagram. The agreement demonstrates the reliability of the hybrid functional HSE06 to describe correctly bands of nonbonding RE 4f electrons. - Highlights: • First principles calculations of RE-doped LaSi{sub 3}N{sub 5} (RE=Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu) are performed. • Energy level scheme of 4f states is constructed. • The scheme includes 4f states of bivalent and trivalent RE cations. • The scheme compares well with empirical scheme by Dorenbos. • Band gaps of CT p→f and f→d transitions are presented.

  16. How to Be a Brilliant English Teacher. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Now in its second edition, Trevor Wright's hugely popular "How to be a Brilliant English Teacher" is packed with practical advice drawn from his extensive and successful experience as an English teacher, examiner and teacher trainer. This accessible and readable guide offers sound theoretical principles with exciting practical suggestions for the…

  17. Småhuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    Denne SBI-anvisning indeholder vejledning om dimensionering og udførelse af almindelige småhuse med indtil 2 etager i overensstemmelse med kravene i Bygningsreglement for småhuse, 1998. Anvisningen behandler varmeisolering, fugtisolering, lydisolering, brand, vådrum, indeklima samt styrke og...

  18. Sulfate Exchange of the Nitrate-Type Layered Hydroxide Nanosheets of Ln2(OH)5NO3· nH2O for Better Dispersed and Multi-color Luminescent Ln2O3 Nanophosphors (Ln = Y0.98RE0.02, RE = Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Liu, Weigang; Li, Ji-Guang; Zhu, Qi; Li, Xiaodong; Sun, Xudong

    2016-07-01

    Through restricting thickness growth by performing coprecipitation at the freezing temperature of ~4 °C, solid-solution nanosheets (up to 5-nm thick) of the Ln2(OH)5NO3· nH2O layered hydroxide (Ln = Y0.98RE0.02; RE = Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm, respectively) were directly synthesized without performing conventional exfoliation. In situ exchange of the interlayer NO3 - with SO4 2- produced a sulfate derivative [Ln2(OH)5(SO4)0.5· nH2O] of the same layered structure and two-dimensional crystallite morphology but substantially contracted d 002 basal spacing (from ~0.886 to 0.841 nm). The sulfate derivative was systematically compared against its nitrate parent in terms of crystal structure and phase/morphology evolution upon heating. It is shown that the interlayer SO4 2-, owing to its bonding with the hydroxide main layer, significantly raises the decomposition temperature from ~600 to 1000 °C to yield remarkably better dispersed oxide nanopowders via a monoclinic Ln2O2SO4 intermediate. The resultant (Y0.98RE0.02)2O3 nanophosphors were studied for their photoluminescence to show that the emission color, depending on RE3+, spans a wide range in the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity diagram, from blue to deep red via green, yellow, orange, and orange red.

  19. Normal coordinate analysis and DFT calculations of the vibrational spectra for lanthanide(III) complexes with 3-bromo-4-methoxy-2,6-lutidine N-oxide: LnCl 3(3Br4CH 3OC 7H 7NO) 3 (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, P.; Ban-Oganowska, H.; Macalik, L.; Hanuza, J.; Oganowski, W.; Roszak, S.; Lipkowski, P.

    2006-01-01

    The results of the FT-Raman and FT-IR studies of the LnCl 3(LNO) 3 type complexes (where Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy and LNO=3-Br-4-CH 3OC 7H 7NO) are presented. The spectral contours observed in the regions of the lanthanide-oxygen, lanthanide-chlorine and nitrogen-oxygen vibrations are employed in the discussion of the molecular structure of the complex ions and the local symmetry of the LnCl 3(ON) 3 polyhedron. The discussion of the vibrational spectra is based on the classical normal coordinate analysis and its results are compared to the results of DFT quantum chemical calculations performed for complete molecule. The normal coordinate analysis has been performed for PrCl 3(ON) 3 and DyCl 3(ON) 3 molecular systems, which have been treated as a different 'isotopic units'. Basing on the predominant PED contributions of the respective internal coordinates the assignment of the normal vibrations has been proposed.

  20. Facile synthesis, structural and spectroscopic properties of GdF{sub 3}:Ce{sup 3+}, Ln{sup 3+} (Ln{sup 3+}=Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}) nanocrystals with bright multicolor luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzyb, Tomasz; Runowski, Marcin; Lis, Stefan, E-mail: blis@amu.edu.pl

    2014-10-15

    Hexagonal gadolinium fluorides doped with Ce{sup 3+} ions and co-doped with Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} or Dy{sup 3+} were successfully synthesized via a simple co-precipitation approach, in the presence of glycerin as a capping agent. These fluorides, as solids or in aqueous solutions, showed intense, multicolored luminescence depending on the lanthanide ions used. The structures of the products were confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphologies of the synthesized nanophosphors were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM results showed that the crystallites had shapes that varied with the dopant ion used. The spectroscopic properties: excitation spectra, emission spectra and luminescence decays were recorded and studied in detail. Bright luminescences from all of the products were triggered by effective energy transfer between the ions embedded in their structures. The mechanism for this phenomenon was also proposed. All of the synthesized products formed stable aqueous colloids, exhibiting brightly multicolored luminescence under UV light irradiation. - Highlights: • Hexagonal GdF{sub 3}:Ce{sup 3+}, Ln{sup 3+} nanocrystals were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. • Nanocrystals formed stable water colloids. • Multicolor luminescence under UV light was observed. • Energy transfer mechanism between Gd{sup 3+}, Ce{sup 3+} and Ln{sup 3+} ions was proposed.

  1. Properties of the (Sm sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 Eu sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 Gd sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3)Ba sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub y superconductor prepared by different processes in air

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannelli, F; Monot-Laffez, I

    2003-01-01

    Bars and pellets of the (Sm sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 Eu sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 Gd sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3)Ba sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x superconductor were processed in air, using the floating zone method and the top-seeded melt-textured growth method, respectively. The samples were prepared using different experimental conditions, i.e. maximal processing temperature, translation rate or cooling rate. Their physical properties and their microstructure were studied. All the samples exhibit a satisfying superconducting transition whereas the critical current density greatly depends on the processing parameters. The sample prepared by the floating zone method at 1070 deg C with a translation rate of 2 mm h sup - sup 1 exhibits a very high J sub c value of 70000 A cm sup - sup 2 in the self-field and more than 30000 A cm sup - sup 2 at 1.7 T. The pellet processed at 1080 deg C with a cooling rate of 2 deg C h sup - sup 1 has a high J sub c reaching about 56000 A cm sup - sup 2 in the self-field and more than 32000 A ...

  2. Overlever EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Det bliver stadig tydeligere at EU i kraft af den styrkede nationalisme i øst, vest og nord og kombineret med de nye regionale krav om national selvstændighed vil bevæge sig i retning af et mellemstatsligt samarbejde, støttet af en retsorden beskyttet af en domstol, bliver stadig tydeligere. Det ...... mindre sikkert, om den nationale egoisme vil ende med at opløse samarbejdet. EU vil sandsynligvis overleve, men det bliver snarere ligesom det Tysk-Romerske Rige, hvis institutioner overlevede helt til 1804....

  3. EU Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. We employ a differences-in-differences estimator in our analysis. The results show that the estimated effect of the opening of Swedish labour market in 2004 on migration is insignificantly different from zero. Further, we......We look at migration flows from 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2005 and we can exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement, the other Nordic...

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strains Sm32COP, Sm41DVV, Sm46PAILV, SmF3, SmF22, SmSOFb1, and SmCVFa1, Isolated from Different Manures in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilis, Josselin; Youenou, Benjamin; Briolay, Jérome; Brothier, Elisabeth; Favre-Bonté, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a major opportunistic human pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of Sm32COP, Sm41DVV, Sm46PAILV, SmF3, SmF22, SmSOFb1, and SmCVFa1, isolated from different manures in France, which provide insights into the genetic determinism of intrinsic or acquired antibiotic resistance in this species. PMID:27540065

  5. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Astronomy is enjoying a golden age of fundamental, exciting discoveries. Europe is at the forefront, thanks to 50 years of progress in cooperation. To remain ahead over the next two to three decades, Europe must prioritise and coordinate the investment of its financial and human resources even more closely. The ASTRONET network, backed by the entire European scientific community, supported by the European Commission, and coordinated by the CNRS, today presents its Roadmap for a brilliant future for European astronomy. ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope is ranked as one of two top-priority large ground-based projects. Astronet and the E-ELT ESO PR Photo 43a/08 The E-ELT Europe is a leader in astronomy today, with the world's most successful optical observatory, ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cutting-edge facilities in radio astronomy and in space. In an unprecedented effort demonstrating the potential of European scientific cooperation, all of European astronomy is now joining forces to define the scientific challenges for the future and construct a common plan to address them in a cost-effective manner. In 2007, a top-level Science Vision was prepared to assess the most burning scientific questions over the next quarter century, ranging from dark energy to life on other planets. European astronomy now presents its Infrastructure Roadmap, a comprehensive 20-year plan to coordinate national and community investments to meet these challenges in a cost-effective manner. The Roadmap not only prioritises the necessary new frontline research facilities from radio telescopes to planetary probes, in space and on the ground, but also considers such key issues as existing facilities, human resources, ICT infrastructure, education and outreach, and cost -- of operations as well as construction. This bold new initiative -- ASTRONET -- was created by the major European funding agencies with support from the European Commission and is coordinated by the National Institute

  6. 电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定铀铌混合氧化物中的钐、铕、钆、镝%Determination of Trace Amounts of Sm,Eu,Gd and Dy in U-Nb Mixed Oxide by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙绍军; 廖志海; 安身平; 王鹏; 乔洪波; 郭蓉; 费浩

    2014-01-01

    建立了应用电感耦合等离子体质谱(ICP-MS)测定铀铌混合氧化物中痕量的稀土元素(Sm、Eu、Gd、Dy)的方法。这四种稀土元素在核燃料中的含量在10-7 g/g以下,但热中子截面很大,准确测定其在核燃料中的含量对于核燃料的研究至关重要。样品经 HNO3-HF 快速溶解后,应用 CL-TBP 萃淋树脂分离 U 基体,以115 In作为测定内标校正基体干扰和仪器漂移,标准模式下应用 ICP-MS定量测定淋洗液中 Sm、Eu、Gd和 Dy,半定量分析基体 U。四种稀土元素的质量浓度为0.01~1.00μg/L,线性关系良好,线性相关系数(r)均大于0.999,检出限为0.001~0.002μg/L。对于添加0.2μg/L的稀土元素,稀土元素的回收率为84.3%~97.3%,相对标准偏差(s r )为5.3%~8.7%(n=6),能够满足实际样品测定需要。%A method was developed for determination of trace rare earth elements (Sm,Eu, Gd and Dy )in U-Nb mixed oxide using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).Though the contents of these four rare earth elements in nuclear fuel are below 10-7 g/g, the accurate determination of their contents in nuclear fuel is crucially important to the research of nuclear fuel for their thermal neutron-absorption cross-sections are large.After the sample was dissolved fast by HNO3-HF acids,U matrix was separated using CL-TBP extraction resin.115 In was used as internal standard to correct matrix interference and instru-ment drift for quantitative determination of Sm,Eu,Gd and Dy in eluate,semi-quantitative determination of U in eluate by ICP-MS.The method has a good linear correlation (r>0.999)in the range of 0.01-1.00μg/L and the detection limit is between 0.001-0.002μg/L. For the add concentrations of rare earth elements is 0.2 μg/L,the recovery is between 84.3%-97.3% and the relative standard deviation (sr)is between 5.3%-8.7% (n=6).The method can be available in practical application.

  7. Gamma Radiolysis Studies of Aqueous Solution of Brilliant Green Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Parwate

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of γ–radiation on colour intensity of aqueous solution of Brilliant Green has been investigated at two different concentrations. The degradation of Brilliant Green (BG has also been investigated in presence of suspended ZnO, by adding different amounts of ZnO. Simultaneously the conductance and pH of each solution system were measured before and after γ-irradiation. All the γ–irradiations were performed at a dose rate of 0.60 kGyhr-1 in GC-900. The maximum dose required for the complete degradation of the dye was found to be 0.39 kGy. G(-dye values were found to decrease with increase in gamma dose and were in the range 4.26 - 12.81. The conductance (7.6 - 25.3 μS and pH values increased marginally with dose for both the concentrations. The rate of decolouration was found to be high at lower doses and the efficiency of dye removal was higher at low concentration of the dye. This may be attributed to the presence of reaction by-products from the destruction of parent compound build up and compete for reaction intermediate species. The rate of reaction and rate constants were calculated and it was found that the degradation reaction follows first order kinetics. It was found that the decolouration percentage was more in dye systems in absence of ZnO.

  8. Structural and Magnetothermal Properties of Compounds: Yb5SixGe4-x,Sm5SixGe4-x, EuO, and Eu3O4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kyunghan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The family of R5SixGe4-x alloys demonstrates a variety of unique physical phenomena related to magneto-structural transitions associated with reversible breaking and reforming of specific bonds that can be controlled by numerous external parameters such as chemical composition, magnetic field, temperature, and pressure. Therefore, R5SixGe4-x systems have been extensively studied to uncover the mechanism of the extraordinary magneto-responsive properties including the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and colossal magnetostriction, as well as giant magnetocaloric effect (GMCE). Until now, more than a half of possible R5SixGe4-x pseudobinary systems have been completely or partially investigated with respect to their crystallography and phase relationships (R = La, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Lu, Y). Still, there are other R5SixGe4-x systems (R = Ce, Sm, Ho, Tm, and Yb) that are not studied yet. Here, we report on phase relationships and structural, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties in the Yb5SixGe4-xand Sm5SixGe4-x pseudobinary systems, which may exhibit mixed valence states. The crystallography, phase relationships, and physical properties of Yb5SixGe4-x alloys with 0 ≤ x ≤ 4 have been examined by using single crystal and powder x-ray diffraction at room temperature, and dc magnetization and heat capacity measurements between 1.8 K and 400 K in magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 7 T. Unlike the majority of R5SixGe4-x systems studied to date, where R is the rare earth metal, all Yb-based germanide-silicides with the 5:4 stoichiometry crystallize in the same Gd5Si4-type structure. The magnetic properties of Yb5SixGe4-x materials are nearly composition

  9. Transformation pathway of Remazol Brilliant Blue R by immobilised laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osma, Johann F; Toca-Herrera, José L; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2010-11-01

    This study deals with the biotransformation products obtained from the transformation of the anthraquinonic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) by immobilised laccase from the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescens. A decolouration percentage of 44% was obtained in 42h. RBBR transformation products were investigated using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum scan and High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Two compounds were identified as the transformation intermediates (m/z 304.29 and m/z 342.24) and other two as the final transformation products (m/z 343.29 and m/z 207.16). As a result a metabolic pathway for RBBR transformation by laccase was proposed. No backward polymerisation of the transformation products resulting in recurrent colouration was observed after laccase treatment of RBBR. It was also found that the biotransformation products of RBBR showed less phytotoxicity than the dye itself.

  10. Transportforskning i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    1996-01-01

    Artiklen giver en gennemgang af aktuelle EU transportforskningsemner samt nogle synspunkter og erfaringer baseret på deltagelse i EU forskningsprojekter.......Artiklen giver en gennemgang af aktuelle EU transportforskningsemner samt nogle synspunkter og erfaringer baseret på deltagelse i EU forskningsprojekter....

  11. Anti-prion activity of Brilliant Blue G.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Iwamaru

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders with no effective therapy currently available. Accumulating evidence has implicated over-activation of P2X7 ionotropic purinergic receptor (P2X7R in the progression of neuronal loss in several neurodegenerative diseases. This has led to the speculation that simultaneous blockade of this receptor and prion replication can be an effective therapeutic strategy for prion diseases. We have focused on Brilliant Blue G (BBG, a well-known P2X7R antagonist, possessing a chemical structure expected to confer anti-prion activity and examined its inhibitory effect on the accumulation of pathogenic isoforms of prion protein (PrPres in a cellular and a mouse model of prion disease in order to determine its therapeutic potential. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BBG prevented PrPres accumulation in infected MG20 microglial and N2a neural cells at 50% inhibitory concentrations of 14.6 and 3.2 µM, respectively. Administration of BBG in vivo also reduced PrPres accumulation in the brains of mice with prion disease. However, it did not appear to alleviate the disease progression compared to the vehicle-treated controls, implying a complex role of P2X7R on the neuronal degeneration in prion diseases. SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of prion diseases and have important implications for the treatment.

  12. Sm Transition Probabilities and Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, J E; Sneden, C; Cowan, J J

    2005-01-01

    Radiative lifetimes, accurate to +/- 5%, have been measured for 212 odd-parity levels of Sm II using laser-induced fluorescence. The lifetimes are combined with branching fractions measured using Fourier-transform spectrometry to determine transition probabilities for more than 900 lines of Sm II. This work is the largest-scale laboratory study to date of Sm II transition probabilities using modern methods. This improved data set has been used to determine a new solar photospheric Sm abundance, log epsilon = 1.00 +/- 0.03, from 26 lines. The spectra of three very metal-poor, neutron-capture-rich stars also have been analyzed, employing between 55 and 72 Sm II lines per star. The abundance ratios of Sm relative to other rare earth elements in these stars are in agreement, and are consistent with ratios expected from rapid neutron-capture nucleosynthesis (the r-process).

  13. SM18 Visits and Access

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

      VISITS The rules and conditions to be followed for visits in the SM18 Hall are laid out in the EDMS 1205328 document. No visit is allowed without prior reservation.   ACCESS Special access right is needed ONLY from 7 p.m. to 7 a.m. and during week-ends. From 1 December, the current SM18 access database will be closed and a new one “SM18-OWH outside normal hours” started from scratch. Requests, via EDH SM18-OWH, will have to be duly justified.   For further information, please contact Evelyne Delucinge.

  14. Immediate differentiation of salmonella-resembling colonies on brilliant green agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    A rapid biochemical system (OBIS) based on immediate enzymatic differentiation of Citrobacter, Proteus, Providencia, Hafnia and Morganella spp. from Salmonella on brilliant green agar was evaluated A total of 96 field isolates from various Salmonella serotypes, 18 Citrobacter freundii and 25...... isolates of other Enterobacteriaceae were tested All Salmonella isolates were identified correctly by the kit, and none of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were identified as Salmonella. The results indicate complete specificity for Salmonella colonies on brilliant green agar....

  15. OpenSM Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-04-17

    The OpenSM Monitoring System includes a collection of diagnostic and monitoring tools for use on Infiniband networks. The information this system gathers is obtained from a service, which in turn is obtained directly from the OpenSM subnet manager.

  16. 24/7 SM slavery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, Peter L; Kleinplatz, Peggy J; Moser, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the nature of 24/7 SM slavery as practiced within the SM (sadomasochistic) community. These SM participants, who attempt to live full-time in owner-slave roles, represent a small proportion of those with SM interests. SM slaves have not been studied systematically to determine if and how they differ from other SM practitioners. An online questionnaire was used to obtain responses from individuals who self-identified as slaves. A total of 146 respondents participated, 53% female and 47% male, ranging in age from 18 to 72. We explored the depth of their relationships, how well they approximated "slavery," and how their relationships were structured to maintain distinct roles. Data showed that in long-term SM slave relationships, a power differential exists which extends beyond time-limited SM or sexual interactions. Owners and slaves often use common, daily life experiences or situations, such as the completion of household chores, money management, and morning or evening routines, to distinguish and maintain their respective roles. In addition, contrary to the perception of total submission, results revealed that slaves exercise free will when it is in their best interests to do so. These relationships were long-lasting and satisfying to the respondents.

  17. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure....... However, a number of studies show that national judges experience difficulties in exercising EU competences due to their lack of knowledge in the field of EU law. In this contribution we study the differences in the level of self-evaluation of EU law knowledge among judges, which consequently influence...... the way judges approach EU law. For that purpose we question the relevance of several institutional and socio-legal factors, such as organization of the judiciary, generation, the system of legal education and judicial training and practical experience with EU law. Our analysis is based on data collected...

  18. EU Budgetary Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2013-01-01

    and change in the EU in light of the two models of policy dynamics currently existing in the literature: the incrementalist model and the punctuated equilibrium model. The analysis of long series of original data extracted from the EU budget shows that EU policies do not evolve following an incrementalist...... pattern, but by a punctuated equilibrium dynamic....

  19. China-EU Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhongping; Zhang Yimeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ The China-EU relationship attracted global interest in 2006. On the one hand, cooperation between China and the EU was making good progress, but on the other, there were challenges facing both, leading some international policy analysts to conclude that the honeymoon period between China and the EU was over.

  20. Absolute Cross Sections for Proton Induced Reactions on 147,149Sm Below the Coulomb Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, I.; Filipescu, D.; Glodariu, T.; Bucurescu, D.; Cata-Danil, I.; Cata-Danil, G.; Deleanu, D.; Ghita, D.; Ivascu, M.; Lica, R.; Marginean, N.; Marginean, R.; Mihai, C.; Negret, A.; Sava, T.; Stroe, L.; Toma, S.; Sima, O.; Sin, M.

    2014-05-01

    Cross sections for 147,149Sm(p,n)147,149Eu and 147,149Sm(p, γ)148,150Eu were measured using the activation method. The results are compared to the predictions of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. Different γ-ray strength functions have been tested against the experimental values. In the case of 150Eu, in order to reproduce the experimental isomeric population cross sections, various scenarios for unknown branching ratios of certain discrete states have been discussed. The results provide constraints for the optical model parameters dedicated to this insufficiently known area of isotopes. Such cross sections for (p, γ) reactions at energies below the Coulomb barrier are valuable for p-process nucleosynthesis calculations.

  1. Structure-function analysis and genetic interactions of the SmG, SmE, and SmF subunits of the yeast Sm protein ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwer, Beate; Kruchten, Joshua; Shuman, Stewart

    2016-09-01

    A seven-subunit Sm protein ring forms a core scaffold of the U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNPs that direct pre-mRNA splicing. Using human snRNP structures to guide mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we gained new insights into structure-function relationships of the SmG, SmE, and SmF subunits. An alanine scan of 19 conserved amino acids of these three proteins, comprising the Sm RNA binding sites or inter-subunit interfaces, revealed that, with the exception of Arg74 in SmF, none are essential for yeast growth. Yet, for SmG, SmE, and SmF, as for many components of the yeast spliceosome, the effects of perturbing protein-RNA and protein-protein interactions are masked by built-in functional redundancies of the splicing machine. For example, tests for genetic interactions with non-Sm splicing factors showed that many benign mutations of SmG, SmE, and SmF (and of SmB and SmD3) were synthetically lethal with null alleles of U2 snRNP subunits Lea1 and Msl1. Tests of pairwise combinations of SmG, SmE, SmF, SmB, and SmD3 alleles highlighted the inherent redundancies within the Sm ring, whereby simultaneous mutations of the RNA binding sites of any two of the Sm subunits are lethal. Our results suggest that six intact RNA binding sites in the Sm ring suffice for function but five sites may not.

  2. Structure–function analysis and genetic interactions of the SmG, SmE, and SmF subunits of the yeast Sm protein ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwer, Beate; Kruchten, Joshua; Shuman, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    A seven-subunit Sm protein ring forms a core scaffold of the U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNPs that direct pre-mRNA splicing. Using human snRNP structures to guide mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we gained new insights into structure–function relationships of the SmG, SmE, and SmF subunits. An alanine scan of 19 conserved amino acids of these three proteins, comprising the Sm RNA binding sites or inter-subunit interfaces, revealed that, with the exception of Arg74 in SmF, none are essential for yeast growth. Yet, for SmG, SmE, and SmF, as for many components of the yeast spliceosome, the effects of perturbing protein–RNA and protein–protein interactions are masked by built-in functional redundancies of the splicing machine. For example, tests for genetic interactions with non-Sm splicing factors showed that many benign mutations of SmG, SmE, and SmF (and of SmB and SmD3) were synthetically lethal with null alleles of U2 snRNP subunits Lea1 and Msl1. Tests of pairwise combinations of SmG, SmE, SmF, SmB, and SmD3 alleles highlighted the inherent redundancies within the Sm ring, whereby simultaneous mutations of the RNA binding sites of any two of the Sm subunits are lethal. Our results suggest that six intact RNA binding sites in the Sm ring suffice for function but five sites may not. PMID:27417296

  3. Hypothesis about brilliant lights by bioluminescent photons in near death experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókkon, István; Salari, Vahid

    2012-07-01

    In near death experiences (NDEs), seeing a brilliant light may arise in the recovery period following cardiac arrest, but the subjects can think that these experiences had happened during the actual period itself. Here we hypothesize a biophysical explanation about the encounter with a brilliant light in NDEs. Accordingly, meeting brilliant light in NDEs is due to the reperfusion that induces unregulated overproduction of free radicals and excited biomolecules among them in numerous parts in the visual system. Unregulated free radicals and excited species can produce a transient increase of bioluminescent photons in different areas of the visual system. If this excess of bioluminescent photon emission exceeds a threshold, they can appear as (phosphene) lights in our mind. In other words, seeing a brilliant light in NDEs may due to bioluminescent photons simultaneously generated in the recovery phase of numerous areas of the visual system and the brain interprets these intrinsic bioluminescent photons as if they were originated from the external visual world. Although our biophysical explanation about brilliant light phenomenon in NDEs can be promising, we do not reject further potential notions.

  4. Application of Sm0/Auxiliary and Sm0/MCln System in Organic Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-Min; LIU Yun-Kuia

    2001-01-01

    @@Though samarium metal itself has strong reducingpower, in most cases, certain additives are still needed when it is used as a reductant because the surface of samarium metal is inactive.Thus Sm0/auxiliary systems are proposed.The explored systems include: Sm0/I2,Sm0/TMSCl, Sm0/THF-NH4Cl (aq.), Sm0/Cp2TiCl2,Sm(Hg), Sm0/cat.KI etc.

  5. SM*A*S*H

    CERN Document Server

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We present a minimal model for particle physics and cosmology. The Standard Model (SM) particle content is extended by three right-handed SM-singlet neutrinos N_i and a vector-like quark Q, all of them being charged under a global lepton number and Peccei-Quinn (PQ) U(1) symmetry which is spontaneously broken by the vacuum expectation value v_sigma around 10^{11} GeV of a SM-singlet complex scalar field sigma. Five fundamental problems -- neutrino oscillations, baryogenesis, dark matter, inflation, strong CP problem -- are solved at one stroke in this model, dubbed "SM*A*S*H" (Standard Model*Axion*Seesaw*Higgs portal inflation). It can be probed decisively by upcoming cosmic microwave background and axion dark matter experiments.

  6. USE OF N, S-CODOPED NANO TITANIA AS PHOTOCATALYST FOR DEGRADATION OF BRILLIANT GREEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar Jain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the effect of doping of N and S on TiO2 has been investigated using brilliant green as a model system. The rate of photocatalytic degradation of the dye was monitored spectrophotometrically. The effect of variation of different parameters like pH, concentration of brilliant green, amount of photocatalyst, dopant percentage and light intensity on the rate of photocatalytic degradation was also observed. On the basis of the observation, a tentative mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of brilliant green has also been proposed. Environmental pollution in its various facets is a burning problem all over the world, out of which water pollution is a major problem. The present work contributes in the solution of waste water treatment by degrading organic pollutant in harmless products.

  7. Luminescence properties of an orange-red phosphor GdAl3(BO3)4:Sm3+ under VUV excitation and energy transfer from Gd3+ to Sm3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Zhang, Su; Zhou, Jianbang; Zhong, Jiuping; Liang, Hongbin; Sun, Shuaishuai; Huang, Yan; Tao, Ye

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop a new warm-color emission phosphor under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation, trivalent samarium ion (Sm3+) doped GdAl3(BO3)4 was prepared by a solid state reaction technique at high temperature. The VUV excitation and emission spectra of as-synthesized sample GdAl3(BO3)4:Sm3+ were determined in the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facilities (BSRF). Compared with the emission of GdAl3(BO3)4:Eu3+, GdAl3(BO3)4:Sm3+ shows an orange-red emission under Xe 172 nm VUV excitation, which indicates that Sm3+ ion can be a possible activator to obtain warm color emission in the field of lighting. Furthermore, for improving the emission of Sm3+ doped in GdAl3(BO3)4, the energy transfer process from Gd3+ in the host to the activator Sm3+ was investigated through the analysis of spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence decay curves of GdAl3(BO3)4:Sm3+. The results reveal that there exists energy transfer from Gd3+ to Sm3+, but the energy transfer from Sm3+ to Gd3+ is inefficient.

  8. EU Security Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jianjun

    2007-01-01

    The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) comprises an important part of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The aim of ESDP is to strengthen the EU's external ability to act through the development of civilian and military capabilities for international conflict prevention and crisis management. In December 2003, the EU adopted its first European Security Strategy (ESS). Ever since then, the implementation of the ESS has been regarded as one of the biggest challenges for the EU in CFSP/ESDP matters. Although much progress has been made in its independent security and defence-building process, EU still faces serious problems and difficulties in this policy area. This paper tries to examine these recent developments, assess their impacts in regional-global security, and analyze existing problems and future trends. Finally, the author also examines EU-China engagements in recent years and explores possibilities for their future cooperation in the area of international security.

  9. High-Precision Measurement of Eu/Eu* in Geological Glasses via LA-ICP-MS Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming; McDonough, William F.; Arevalo, Ricardo, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Elemental fractionation during laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis has been historically documented between refractory and volatile elements. In this work, however, we observed fractionation between light rare earth elements (LREEs) and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) when using ablation strategies involving large spot sizes (greater than 100 millimeters) and line scanning mode. In addition: (1) ion yields decrease when using spot sizes above 100 millimeters; (2) (Eu/Eu*)(sub raw) (i.e. Europium anomaly) positively correlates with carrier gas (He) flow rate, which provides control over the particle size distribution of the aerosol reaching the ICP; (3) (Eu/Eu*)(sub raw) shows a positive correlation with spot size, and (4) the changes in REE signal intensity, induced by the He flow rate change, roughly correlate with REE condensation temperatures. The REE fractionation is likely driven by the slight but significant difference in their condensation temperatures. Large particles may not be completely dissociated in the ICP and result in preferential evaporation of the less refractory LREEs and thus non-stoichiometric particle-ion conversion. This mechanism may also be responsible for Sm-Eu-Gd fractionation as Eu is less refractory than Sm and Gd. The extent of fractionation depends upon the particle size distribution of the aerosol, which in turn is influenced by the laser parameters and matrix. Ablation pits and lines defined by low aspect ratios produce a higher proportion of large particles than high aspect ratio ablation, as confirmed by measurements of particle size distribution in the laser induced aerosol. Therefore, low aspect ratio ablation introduces particles that cannot be decomposed and/or atomized by the ICP and thus results in exacerbated elemental fractionation. Accurate quantification of REE concentrations and Eu/Eu* requires reduction of large particle production during laser ablation. For the reference

  10. Lattice sternheimer factor of 151Eu(OH) 3 from Mössbauer spectral study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sulava; Ghosh, D.

    1989-08-01

    The Mössbauer spectra of powdered Eu(OH) 3 were recorded between 300 and 4.2 K, with 151SmF 3 as source. The spectra showed one single absorption line having definite width but without any fine structure. The lattice Sternheimer factor γ ∞ of 151Eu in Eu(OH) 3 was estimated with the help of these spectra as well as by using the values of some physical parameters obtained from spectral and magnetic susceptibility measurements on pure single crystal of Eu(OH) 3, The value of lattice Sternheimer factor (= -87) thus evaluated is slightly larger than that value ( = - 80) for 154Eu in ethylsulphate host. This result is consistent with the γ ∞ values of other rare-earth ions and also with the results obtained from magnetic and optical experiments on Eu(OH) 3.

  11. 77 FR 19744 - Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc., Advanced Viral Research Corp., Brantley Capital Corp., Brilliant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... COMMISSION Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc., Advanced Viral Research Corp., Brantley Capital Corp., Brilliant Technologies Corporation, 4C Controls, Inc., and 2-Track Global, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading March 29... information concerning the securities of Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc. because it has not filed any...

  12. EU's lille sikkerhedsnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    I forrige uge indgik EU-kommissionen og EU-Parlamentet en aftale om en fælles afviklingsmekanisme i bank-unionen (Single Resolution Mechanism; SRM). ... Så på trods af mere kapital, nye bail-in regler og afviklingsfonden tror jeg ikke, at det kan udelukkes, at fremtidige "bankredninger" kan...

  13. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy...

  14. EU Struggles to Integrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Its outlook for success is not optimistic because of several obstacles Germany is holding the European Union (EU) Council presidency during the first half of this year. There are two reasons that make the EU integration under a German presidency eye-catc

  15. Smøremekanismer ved mekanisk formgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Bay, Niels; Eriksen, Morten

    1997-01-01

    I dette arbejde undersøges den Mikro Plasto Hydrodynamiske smøremekanisme som optræder ved plastisk formgivning, når hydrostatisk indfanget smøremiddel i overfladelommer trænger ud i den omgivende kontakt, og skaber lokale smørefilm mellem emne og værktøj.Smøremekanismen observeres og videofilmes...

  16. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...

  17. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  18. Analysis of the solvatochromic behavior of the disubstituted triphenylmethane dye brilliant green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karukstis, K K; Gulledge, A V

    1998-10-01

    The coincident spectral components of the main visible absorption band of the triphenylmethane dye Brilliant Green can be resolved using a nonlinear least-squares fitting routine. This analysis reveals two Gaussian components, with centers near 600 and 630 nm, that possess additional spectral characteristics with a pronounced sensitivity to the dye's microenvironment. In particular, both the ratio of the heights of these Gaussian peaks and the ratio of their areas exhibit an inverted dependence on solvent dielectric constant, i.e., a reversal of solvatochromic behavior in media of low polarity. Such an absorption spectrum analysis facilitates the use of triphenylmethane dyes that lack symmetric trisubstitution of the phenyl rings as environment-sensitive spectroscopic probes. We demonstrate further the utility of this approach through the spectrophotometric determination of the critical micelle concentration of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate using Brilliant Green as an optical probe.

  19. Decolorization of reactive Brilliant Blue KN-R by immobilized cells of Aspergillus ficuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Aspergillus ficuum was immobilized with sodium alginate, and decolorization of Reactive Brilliant Blue KN-R was studied on immobilized and free Aspergillus ficuum. The optimal preparation condition of the strain immobilization was obtained by the orthogonal test, it is sodium alginate 3%, CaCl2 5%, wet mycelia 30 g/L, calcific time 8 h. It was found that the immobilized cells could effectively decolorize Reactive Brilliant Blue KN-R, the optimum temperature and pH were 33℃ and 5.0, respectively. The kinetics study of decolorization of immobilized cells showed that the decolorization of Aspergillus ficuum immobilized conformed to zero-order reaction model. The decolorization efficiency of immobilized cell compared with that of free cell in different physical conditions. Results showed that the decolorization of immobilized cells with mycelia had the best efficiency. The immobilized cells could be reused after the first decolorization.

  20. EU-retten 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Udover en introduktion til EU-retten, herunder dens institutioner og retskilderne, indeholder bogen en grundig analyse af EF-traktatens regler om fri bevægelighed for varer, personer, tjenesteydelser og kapital....

  1. Physics studies with brilliant narrow-width -beams at the new ELI-NP Facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dimiter L Balabanski; ELI-NP Science Team

    2014-11-01

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) Facility in Magurele is a European research centre for ultrahigh intensity lasers, laser–matter interaction, nuclear science and material science using laser-driven radiation beams. It is the first project within the European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) agenda financed by the European Regional Development Fund. The nuclear physics research programme of the facility is focussed on studies with brilliant narrow-width -beams and experiments in extreme laser fields.

  2. Ligninolytic enzymes production and Remazol brilliant blue R decolorization by tropical brazilian basidiomycetes fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Machado,Kátia M.G.; Dácio R. Matheus; Bononi,Vera L. R.

    2005-01-01

    Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) dye was used as substrate to evaluate ligninolytic activity in 125 basidiomycetous fungi isolated from tropical ecosystems. The extracellular RBBR decolorizing activity produced when selected fungi were grown in solid media and in soil contaminated with organochlorines was also evaluated. A total of 106 fungi decolorized the RBBR during the growth in malt extract agar (MEA, 2%); 96 fungi showed a mycelia growth and decolorization activity stronger than the P. c...

  3. Brilliant gamma-ray emission from near-critical plasma interaction with ultraintense laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Bin

    2016-10-01

    γ -ray is the electromagnetic radiation having the highest photon energy and smallest wavelength, which has a broad range of applications in material science, nuclear physics, astrophysics and so on. In this talk, I shall report recent progresses on theoretical and numerical studies of laser-driven brilliant gamma-ray radiation in near critical plasmas at Peking University (PKU), where an intense circularly polarized (CP) lasers. A novel resonant acceleration scheme can be achieved for generating dense relativistic electron bunches and emitting brilliant γ-ray pulses, where the laser frequency matches with that of electron betatron oscillation under quasistatic electromagnetic fields and radiation reaction in plasma. 3D PIC simulations show that brilliant γ-ray radiation with energy of 3J and brightness of 1024photons/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1%BW (at 3MeV) can be produced by using CP lasers at intensity 1022W/cm2. It is found that the total number of radiated photons scales as a2 /S 1 / 2 and the conversion efficiency scales as a3 / S , where S =(ne /nc) a and a is the laser normalized amplitude. Further studies show that if the laser intensity is increased to 1023W/cm2, the quantum electrodynamic (QED) effects are in favor of trapping and achieving resonance acceleration of electrons, resulting in production of brilliant γ-ray pulses with unprecedented power of 6.7PW and brightness of 1025photons/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1%BW (at 15MeV). To the best of our knowledge, this is the γ-ray source with the highest peak brightness in tens-MeV regime ever reported in the literature. supported by the NSF, Nos. 11575298 and 1000-Talents Program of China.

  4. TUDOR LUPAŞCU – A BRILLIANT SCIENTIST AND SKILFULL MANAGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Duca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Moldovan chemical community has recently honoured Professor Tudor LUPAŞCU on the occasion of his 60’s anniversary. Known as brilliant scientist and skilful manager, Professor LUPASCU is now the director of the Institute of Chemistry and one of the founders of the “Chemistry Journal of Moldova”, being the Managing Editor from the very beginning of its activity.

  5. Flow pathways of bromide and Brilliant Blue FCF tracers in caliche soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, M. M.; Wilding, L. P.; Lin, H. S.

    2010-10-01

    Land use of caliche soils in limestone regions of Texas is increasingly shifting from traditional ranchland to residential and industrial development. However, little information is available on water flow and solute transport through soils of these landscapes, or their potential suitability for wastewater disposal and bioremediation. This study determined the impacts of landscape position on soil hydrologic functions by using Brilliant Blue FCF and Br - tracers to characterize flow pathways through soils of stepped terrains. Aqueous tracer solution was applied to surface (and in some cases subsurface) horizons of selected riser, tread, floodplain, and upland summit sites. Brilliant Blue FCF and Br - pathways were analyzed based on vertical sections excavated through each application site. While Brilliant Blue FCF demonstrated preferential flow along macropores, Br - moved through soil matrix primarily in piston flow pattern. In most cases, Br - was less retarded and moved to greater vertical and horizontal distances than Brilliant Blue FCF. Cemented Bk, Bkm, C, Cr, Crk, and R horizons acted as aquitards, resulting in considerable horizontal transport of both tracers beyond the direct infiltration zone. Significant volumes of limestone rock clasts, together with soil, were involved in solute transport and thus contributed to the soil's ability to serve as bioremediation and moisture storage media. High limestone gravel content and rapid solute transport through subsurface horizons to aquitards in deep riser soils indicate that they may serve as hydrological recharge sites with potential for ephemeral water tables, increased water storage and greater bioremediation potential. Shallow tread sites may be capable of producing seasonal saturation above restrictive horizons and increased surface runoff, becoming local hydrological discharge sites. This could conceivably lead to surface water contamination; however, these locales are hydrologically buffered by recharge

  6. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  7. EU Power Balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Intense clashes of interests and collusion of ideas sprang up incessantly among nations over upward sovereignty transfer, interests distribution and maintenance of parity among partners in the course of economic integration. Disparities in size, territory, national strength and development level conceivably often led to tensions and even crises over power distribution. So EU history can be described as one of crises or crisis settlement through reaching a new equilibrium, a significant process for sustained EU stability.

  8. Standard Missile-6 (SM-6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Procurement MILCON Acq O&M O&S Cost Unit Cost PAUC APUC Nunn-McCurdy Breaches Current UCR Baseline PAUC None APUC None Original UCR Baseline...Acquisition Cost Appropriation BY 2004 $M BY 2004 $M TY $M SAR Baseline Production Estimate Current APB Production Objective/Threshold Current Estimate SAR... current APB: 50% The Independent Cost Estimate (ICE) to support SM-6 Full Rate Production Decision, like all life-cycle cost estimates previously

  9. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering Horia Hulubei, str. Atomistilor nr. 407 (Romania); Utsunomiya, H. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Okamoto 8-9-1, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Filipescu, D. [Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics, str. Atomistilor nr. 407, Bucharest-Magurele, P.O.BOX MG6 and National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering Horia Hulubei, str. Atomistilor nr. 407 (Romania); Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Tesileanu, O. [Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics, str. Atomistilor nr. 407, Bucharest-Magurele, P.O.BOX MG6 (Romania); Shima, T.; Takahisa, K. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Miyamoto, S. [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Kouto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan)

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  10. Sino-EU Security Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Liping

    2010-01-01

    @@ There are two levels of security relations between China and the EU.The first level is that of China and the EU as a whole.The second level is that between China and member states of the EU respectively.Because the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU is still in an initial phase,defense relations between China and the EU have mainly been at the second level.

  11. Sierra/SM theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, Nathan Karl

    2013-07-01

    Presented in this document are the theoretical aspects of capabilities contained in the Sierra/SM code. This manuscript serves as an ideal starting point for understanding the theoretical foundations of the code. For a comprehensive study of these capabilities, the reader is encouraged to explore the many references to scientific articles and textbooks contained in this manual. It is important to point out that some capabilities are still in development and may not be presented in this document. Further updates to this manuscript will be made as these capabilites come closer to production level.

  12. Performing the EU Referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This editorial makes use of the EU Referendum to discuss the presence of magic in contemporary societies. It analysis magic in terms of magicians, magical representations, and magical rites – as originally expounded by Malinowski and Mauss – and argues that magic is to be found not only in politi......This editorial makes use of the EU Referendum to discuss the presence of magic in contemporary societies. It analysis magic in terms of magicians, magical representations, and magical rites – as originally expounded by Malinowski and Mauss – and argues that magic is to be found not only...

  13. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...... changed over the last three decades (1984-2013). Using time series analysis, I find that the ability to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological position of the co-legislators, and some ‘structuring events’ - like the adoption of the Multiannual Financial Framework and the accession...

  14. PEMBUATAN KARBON AKTIF DARI KULIT JERUK KEPROK (Citrus reticulata UNTUK ADSORBSI PEWARNA REMAZOL BRILLIANT BLUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asriningtyas Ajeng Erprihana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Limbah kulit jeruk keprok (Citrus reticulata sering dijumpai di industri pembuatan berbagai macam minuman seperti jus, sirup, dan sari buah. Limbah kulit jeruk ini hanya akan dibuang begitu saja dengan jumlah banyak, dan pada akhirnya limbah ini akan mencemari lingkungan. Salah satu upaya peningkatan nilai ekonomis limbah kulit jeruk dapat dilakukan dengan mengolahnya menjadi karbon aktif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan karbon aktif dari kulit jeruk keprok dengan aktivasi kimia, luas permukaan, serta mengetahui kemampuannya dalam mengadsorpsi zat warna Remazol Brilliant Blue. Kulit jeruk yang telah dibersihkan dari kotoran, dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 120oC selama 3 jam. Aktivator yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah H3PO4 dengan rasio massa aktivator : massa karbon 1:1. Aktivasi dilakukan pada temperatur 600oC selama 1 jam, kulit jeruk kemudian dicuci dengan aquades dan dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 150oC selama 6 jam. Setelah itu, dilakukan uji bilangan iodin terhadap sampel hasil penelitian. Adsorpsi zat warna Remazol Brilliant Blue oleh karbon aktif kulit jeruk dilakukan dengan variasi waktu kontak dan massa karbon aktif untuk mencari kondisi adsorpsi optimum. Kondisi optimum adsorpsi zat warna Remazol Brilliant Blue oleh karbon aktif pada kulit jeruk keprok pada waktu kontak 30 menit dengan massa karbon aktif 1 gram. Karbon aktif dari kulit jeruk keprok memiliki luas permukaan karbon aktif sebesar 529,17 mg/g berdasarkan daya serapnya terhadap larutan iodin. Orange peel (Citrus reticulate waste is often found in industrial manufacturing various kinds of beverages such as juice, syrup, fruit juice. Orange peel waste is just be thrown away with the lot number, and in the end of this waste will pollute the environment. One of the efforts to increase the economic value of orange peel waste by using the process which convert waste into activated carbon. This research aims are to produce activated carbon

  15. Standardization of {sup 153}Sm using anti-coincidence method; Padronizacao do {sup 153}Sm pelo metodo de anti-coincidencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laranjeira, Adilson da Silva; Silva, Carlos J. da; Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Cruz, Paulo A.L. da; Poledna, Roberto; Silva, Ronaldo L. da; Oliveira, Antonio E. de; Gomes, Regio S.; Veras, Eduardo V. de; Araujo, Miriam Taina Ferreira de, E-mail: adilson@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    {sup 153}Sm was standardized at the Brazilian National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation to provide traceability for measurements in nuclear medicine services and manufacturers of radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil. {sup 153}Sm decays by emission β-γ to {sup 153}Eu, the gamma rays of higher-intensity are 69.7 keV (4.7%) and 103.2 keV (29.2%). The standardization was made by anticoincidence and CIEMAT/NIST methods with uncertainties combined (0.4% and 0.3%) and (0.5% and 0.4%), respectively. The difference between the standardized activities was 0.15%. The uncertainties are consistent with other publications. (author)

  16. Decolourisation of Remazol Brilliant Blue R via a novel Bjerkandera sp. strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, P R; Almeida-Vara, E; Sena-Martins, G; Polónia, I; Malcata, F X; Cardoso Duarte, J

    2001-08-23

    A novel strain of Bjerkandera sp. (B33/3), with particularly high decolourisation activities upon Poly R-478 and Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) dyes, was isolated. The role of the ligninolytic extracellular enzymes produced by this strain on decolourisation of RBBR was studied in some depth. The basis of decolourisation is an enzyme-mediated process, in which the main enzyme responsible is a recently described peroxidase with capacity for oxidation of manganese, as well as veratryl alcohol and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol in a manganese-independent reaction.

  17. Determination of antimony in rain water at the nanogram level with surfactant and brilliant green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, A.N.; Patel, K.S. [School of Studies in Chemistry, Pt. Ravishankar University, Raipur (India)

    1998-01-01

    A new, simple, selective and sensitive method for the spectrophotometric determination of antimony in rain water is described. It includes preconcentrating Sb with surfactants (i.e. cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and Triton X-100 (TX-100)) into toluene and allowing the extract to react with a dye, i.e. brilliant green (BG). The value of apparent molar absorptivity is 5.55 x 10{sup 5} L-mol{sup -1} . cm{sup -1} at {lambda}{sub max} = 620 nm; the detection limit is 3 ng/mL Sb in rain water at 3-fold preconcentration. (orig.) With 1 fig., 2 tabs., 7 refs.

  18. The Spring 2016 Observing Program of Brilliant Sky Observatory: Measurements of 313 Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Until approximately a decade ago, speckle interferometry, a double star measurement technique that is capable of high accuracy, had been the domain of professional astronomers using large telescopes, high-end cameras, and high-powered computing systems. But with the advent of relatively low-cost CCD cameras and powerful speckle reduction software that runs on a desktop PC, amateurs can now do high quality research and contribute valuable measurements of close double stars. This paper presents the measurement of 313 pairs based on the Spring 2016 observing program at Brilliant Sky Observatory, located in Cave Creek, Arizona.

  19. EU-retten 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Bogen indeholder en gennemgang af en række generelle problemstillinger vedrørende harmoniseringen indenfor EU samt en nærmere analyse af harmoniseringen på en række udvalgte områder: selskabsret, skatteret, finansielle tjenesteydelser samt den tekniske harmonisering der skal sikre varernes fri be...

  20. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  1. EU-PIL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Now in a Second Edition comprising the Brussels I Regulation “recast”, as well as other key EU legislation and case law, this book brings together principles of juridical jurisdiction, choice of law, recognition of judgments and commercial arbitration. It shows the interrelationship of the rules...

  2. Adsorption of reactive brilliant red K-2BP on activated carbon developed from sewage sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiankun XIE; Qinyan YUE; Hui YU; Wenwen YUE; Renbo LI; Shengxiao ZHANG; Xiaona WANG

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from the sewage sludge of municipal wastewater treatment plant by chemical activation (activation reagent is ZnCl2) and was used for the adsorption of dye (reactive brilliant red K-2BP). The impact of adsorbent amount, adsorption time and pH value on adsorption effect, the adsorption kinetics, and the adsorption thermodynamics were dis-cussed according to batch adsorption tests. The results indicated that the activated carbon developed from sewage sludge (ACSS), which was mesoporous, possessed opened porous structures. The iodine number of the ACSS was heavy metals in the leachate didn't exceed the contents limit. The adsorption kinetics of reactive brilliant red K-2BP on the ACSS was accorded with the two-step kinetics rate equation and pseudo-second-order kinetics equation. Compared to the Freundlich isotherm equation, the Langmuir isotherm equation showed better applicability for the adsorption. The adsorption which was favorable was an endothermic (enthalpy △H > 0) and spontaneous (flee energy △G 0).

  3. Brilliant petawatt gamma-ray pulse generation in quantum electrodynamic laser-plasma interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H. X.; Qiao, B.; Huang, T. W.; Xu, Z.; Zhou, C. T.; Gu, Y. Q.; Yan, X. Q.; Zepf, M.; He, X. T.

    2017-03-01

    We show a new resonance acceleration scheme for generating ultradense relativistic electron bunches in helical motions and hence emitting brilliant vortical γ-ray pulses in the quantum electrodynamic (QED) regime of circularly-polarized (CP) laser-plasma interactions. Here the combined effects of the radiation reaction recoil force and the self-generated magnetic fields result in not only trapping of a great amount of electrons in laser-produced plasma channel, but also significant broadening of the resonance bandwidth between laser frequency and that of electron betatron oscillation in the channel, which eventually leads to formation of the ultradense electron bunch under resonant helical motion in CP laser fields. Three-dimensional PIC simulations show that a brilliant γ-ray pulse with unprecedented power of 6.7 PW and peak brightness of 1025 photons/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1% BW (at 15 MeV) is emitted at laser intensity of 1.9 × 1023 W/cm2.

  4. Brilliant Green Dye Elimination from Water Using Psidium guajava Leaves and Solanum tuberosum Peels as Adsorbents in Environmentally Benign Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to check the feasibility of Psidium guajava (Guava leaves and peels of Solanum tuberosum (Potato as biosorbents in removal of Brilliant Green (BG in batch mode. Surface analysis of biosorbents was done by FT-IR and quantitatively analyzed by Boehm titration. The removal of dye was confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Isothermal modeling was studied by using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherms. Various isothermal parameters for adsorption of Brilliant Green such as qm=1.075 mg/g, 1.173 mg/g ΔG°=-3.397, and −2.397 KJ/mol were noted for Solanum tuberosum peels (PP and Psidium guajava leaves (GL, respectively. Similarly pH, moisture content, and various metals were quantitatively analyzed. Results showed that leaves of Psidium guajava were more effective for removal of Brilliant Green.

  5. Luminescence modification of Eu~(3+)-activated molybdate phosphor prepared via co-precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunlei; HU Yunsheng; ZHUANG Weidong; HUANG Xiaowei; HE Tao

    2009-01-01

    Eu-activated CaMoO_4 phosphors were co-precipitated in an aqueous solution, and NH_3·H_2O, NH_4HCO_3 and (NH_2)_2CO as pre-cipitating aid agents were compared based on the morphology and particle size distribution of the phosphor samples. Sm~(3+) as sensitizer ion was investigated on the luminescence of CaMoO_4:Eu, and it could strengthen the 406 nm absorption of this phosphor. At last, the scheelite CaMoO_4:Eu and wolframite ZnMoO_4:Eu were selected to compare their host absorption. The result showed that the scheelite molybdate host exhibited stronger UV absorption than wolframite one.

  6. Luminescence modification of Eu3+-activated molybdate phosphor prepared via co-precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Chunlei

    2009-01-01

    Eu-activated CaMoO4 phosphors were co-precipitated in an aqueous solution, and NH3·H2O, NH4HCO3 and (NH2)2CO as pre-cipitating aid agents were compared based on the morphology and particle size distribution of the phosphor samples. Sm3+ as sensitizer ion was investigated on the luminescence of CaMoO4:Eu, and it could strengthen the 406 nm absorption of this phosphor. At last, the scheelite CaMoO4:Eu and wolframite ZnMoO4:Eu were selected to compare their host absorption. The result showed that the scheelite molybdate host exhibited stronger UV absorption than wolframite one.

  7. Distinguishing a SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from SM Higgs boson at muon collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jai Kumar Singhal; Sardar Singh; Ashok K Nagawat

    2007-06-01

    We explore the possibility of distinguishing the SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from the SM Higgs boson via Higgs boson pair production at future muon collider. We study the behavior of the production cross-section in SM and MSSM with Higgs boson mass for various MSSM parameters tan and A. We observe that at fixed CM energy, in the SM, the total cross-section increases with the increase in Higgs boson mass whereas this trend is reversed for the MSSM. The changes that occur for the MSSM in comparison to the SM predictions are quantified in terms of the relative percentage deviation in cross-section. The observed deviations in cross-section for different choices of Higgs boson masses suggest that the measurements of the cross-section could possibly distinguish the SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from the SM Higgs boson.

  8. On the role of Sm in solidification of Al-Sm metallic glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Bokas, G B; Perepezko, J H; Szlufarska, I

    2016-01-01

    During the solidification of Al-Sm metallic glasses the evolution of the supercooled liquid atomic structure has been identified with an increasing population of icosahedral-like clusters with increasing Sm concentration. These clusters exhibit slower kinetics compared to the remaining clusters in the liquid leading to enhanced amorphous phase stability and glass forming ability (GFA). Maximum icosahedral-ordering and atomic packing density have been found for the Al90Sm10 and Al85Sm15 alloys, respectively, whereas minimum cohesive energy has been found for the Al93Sm7 which is consistent with the range of compositions (from Al92Sm8 to Al84Sm16) found experimentally with high GFA.

  9. Menneskerettigheder og handelspolitik i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    How does the EU promote human rights and how does this become concrete in the EU's trade policy which is principally engaged in economic terms. Interview with Ian Manners, Professor at Roskilde University. How does the EU promote human rights, and how does this turn into trade policy? To answer...... this question, one must first take a step back. Trade policy is only one of many areas in the EU. And human rights in trade is one of the latest developments. The earliest development came originally within the EU itself and related to the absorption of Portugal and Spain in the 70s and 80s. The country had...... no tradition of democracy, the EU insisted that they adopted a certain level of human rights. At about the same time there was an innovation in development policy and a desire to link development aid with the promotion of human rights. Only then began to find a way into trade policy. Historically, the EU...

  10. Study of the nuclear structure of {sup 155}Eu; Estudo da estrutura nuclear do {sup 155}Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genezini, Frederico Antonio

    2004-07-01

    The {sup 155}Eu nuclide was investigated by the directional angular correlation technique following the {beta} decay of {sup 155}Sm. The angular correlation measurements were carried out using a setup with 4 Ge detectors and a multi parametric data acquisition system. To perform the data analysis a new methodology was developed . The multipole mixing ratios of twenty sixty {gamma}- transitions were determined. Seven of them agreed with the results of earlier angular correlation studies and nineteen obtained for the first time confirmed the multipolarity suggested in earlier electron capture studies. Besides, the spin of the level at 1106.83 keV as well as the parity of the level at 1301.41 keV have also been suggested. The nuclear structure of {sup 155}Eu was discussed successfully in terms of the single particle model using a deformed Woods-Saxon potential plus residual pairing interaction permitting the description of the rotational quasi-proton band heads. (author)

  11. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    and rational dietary choices on the basis of the food information provided on food labels or generally available in society. In recent years, the EU legislative has shown increased commitment to further empower consumers in pace with the advancement of modern manufacturing and advertising techniques......This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat...... to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU...

  12. EU COMPARISON OF VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zenovia GRIGORE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available VAT is one of the newest tools of the global economy and is widely adopted in most of the countries. For EU Member States is required not only the existence of VAT, but also that its main characteristics to be uniformly implemented. This should facilitate intra-Community transactions, but in practice does not as there are many local variations which can lead to costly errors and penalties. The objective of this paper is to collate data about the main characteristics of VAT in EU Member States and to highlight the key differences between them. This survey shows that there continue to be opportunities and risks for businesses trading cross border, as a result of differences in application of Community legislation on VAT. This led to the necessity of VAT reform. On this basis, the Commission adopted on the end of the last year a Communication on the future of VAT. This sets out the fundamental characteristics that must underlie the new VAT regime, and priority actions needed to create a simpler, more efficient and more robust VAT system in the EU.

  13. EU COMPARISON OF VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ZENOVIA GRIGORE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available VAT is one of the newest tools of the global economy and is widely adopted in most of the countries. For EU Member States is required not only the existence of VAT, but also that its main characteristics to be uniformly implemented. This should facilitate intra-Community transactions, but in practice does not as there are many local variations which can lead to costly errors and penalties. The objective of this paper is to collate data about the main characteristics of VAT in EU Member States and to highlight the key differences between them. This survey shows that there continue to be opportunities and risks for businesses trading cross border, as a result of differences in application of Community legislation on VAT. This led to the necessity of VAT reform. On this basis, the Commission adopted on the end of the last year a Communication on the future of VAT. This sets out the fundamental characteristics that must underlie the new VAT regime, and priority actions needed to create a simpler, more efficient and more robust VAT system in the EU.

  14. Cs3Sm7Se12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Schneck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, tricaesium heptasamarium(III dodecaselenide, is setting a new starting point for realization of the channel structure of the Cs3M7Se12 series, now with M = Sm, Gd–Er. This Cs3Y7Se12-type arrangement is structurally based on the Z-type sesquiselenides M2Se3 adopting the Sc2S3 structure. Thus, the structural set-up of Cs3Sm7Se12 consists of edge- and vertex-connected [SmSe6]9− octahedra [dØ(Sm3+ – Se2− = 2.931 Å], forming a rock-salt-related network [Sm7Se12]3− with channels along [001] that are apt to take up monovalent cations (here Cs+ with coordination numbers of 7 + 1 for one and of 6 for the second cation. The latter cation has a trigonal–prismatic coordination and shows half-occupancy, resulting in an impossible short distance [2.394 (4 Å] between symmetrically coupled Cs+ cations of the same kind. While one Sm atom occupies Wyckoff position 2b with site symmetry ..2/m, all other 11 crystallographically different atoms (namely 2 × Cs, 3 × Sm and 6 × Se are located at Wyckoff positions 4g with site symmetry ..m.

  15. Cs(3)Sm(7)Se(12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneck, Christof; Elbe, Andreas; Schurz, Christian M; Schleid, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, tricaesium hepta-samarium(III) dodeca-selenide, is setting a new starting point for realization of the channel structure of the Cs(3)M(7)Se(12) series, now with M = Sm, Gd-Er. This Cs(3)Y(7)Se(12)-type arrangement is structurally based on the Z-type sesquiselenides M(2)Se(3) adopting the Sc(2)S(3) structure. Thus, the structural set-up of Cs(3)Sm(7)Se(12) consists of edge- and vertex-connected [SmSe(6)](9-) octa-hedra [d(Ø)(Sm(3+) - Se(2-)) = 2.931 Å], forming a rock-salt-related network [Sm(7)Se(12)](3-) with channels along [001] that are apt to take up monovalent cations (here Cs(+)) with coordination numbers of 7 + 1 for one and of 6 for the second cation. The latter cation has a trigonal-prismatic coordination and shows half-occupancy, resulting in an impossible short distance [2.394 (4) Å] between symmetrically coupled Cs(+) cations of the same kind. While one Sm atom occupies Wyckoff position 2b with site symmetry ..2/m, all other 11 crystallographically different atoms (namely 2 × Cs, 3 × Sm and 6 × Se) are located at Wyckoff positions 4g with site symmetry ..m.

  16. Laccase-mediated Remazol Brilliant Blue R decolorization in a fixed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Gianna; Giardina, Paola; Sannia, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    A crude laccase mixture preparation from Pleurotus ostreatus cultures supplemented with copper and ferulic acid was used to decolorize the anthraquinonic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR). Performance of this enzymatic system was tested, and a maximum of 70% decolorization was achievable under optimal conditions. The crude preparation was immobilized by entrapment in copper alginate beads attaining 65% yield of laccase activity. Stability of the immobilized laccases was remarkably increased in comparison with that of the free enzyme preparation. Efficiency of the immobilized system was evaluated during stepwise dye additions in batch operations. Under the best conditions, 70% RBBR decolorization was achieved even after 20 cycles, although decolorization time exponentially increased after the 10th cycle. Different fixed-bed bioreactors were prepared and analyzed in continuous decolorization processes. The best performance was obtained by decreasing the amount of enzyme loaded and by improving laccase retention using chitosan-coated alginate beads.

  17. Decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R by a purified laccase of Polyporus brumalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyewon; Lee, Sungsuk; Ryu, Sunhwa; Choi, Hyoung T

    2012-01-01

    A white rot basidiomycete Polyporus brumalis has been reported to induce two laccase genes under degradation conditions of dibutylphthalate. When this fungus was grown in a minimal medium, one laccase enzyme was detected by the native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A laccase was purified through ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography, and the estimated molecular weight was 70 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature of the purified laccase was pH 4.0 and 20 °C, respectively. The K (m) value of the enzyme was 685.0 μM, and the V (max) was 0.147 ODmin(-1) unit(-1) for o-tolidine. Purified laccase showed effective decolorization of a dye, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), without any laccase mediator. However, this effect was reduced by a laccase inhibitor, kojic acid, which confirmed that the laccase was directly involved in the decolorization of RBBR.

  18. Use of laccase together with redox mediators to decolourize Remazol Brilliant Blue R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, G M; de Amorim, M T; Costa-Ferreira, M

    2001-08-23

    A pure fungal laccase, obtained from a commercial formulation used in the textile industry, did not decolourize Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR). Decolourization was only observed when a small molecular weight redox mediator was added together with the laccase. Under the conditions specified, violuric acid (5.7 mM) was the most effective mediator studied and almost complete decolourization was observed within 20 min. In contrast, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBT, 11 mM) decolourized RBBR at about a two-fold slower rate and to a lesser extent. Also, higher concentrations of HOBT were inhibitory which could be due to inactivation of laccase by the toxic HOBT radical. The commercial laccase formulation that contained phenothiazine-10-propionic acid as the mediator was least effective, giving 30% decolourization under equivalent conditions. We suggest that similar laccase plus mediator systems could be used for the detoxification of related anthraquinone textile dyes.

  19. Advanced Oxidation of Tartrazine and Brilliant Blue with Pulsed Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert; Mudimbi, Patrick; Miller, Michael E; Magnuson, Matthew; Willison, Stuart; Phillips, Rebecca; Harper, Willie F

    2017-01-01

      This study investigated the effect of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UVLEDs) coupled with hydrogen peroxide as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the degradation of two test chemicals. Brilliant Blue FCF consistently exhibited greater degradation than tartrazine, with 83% degradation after 300 minutes at the 100% duty cycle compared with only 17% degradation of tartrazine under the same conditions. These differences are attributable to the structural properties of the compounds. Duty cycle was positively correlated with the first-order rate constants (k) for both chemicals but, interestingly, negatively correlated with the normalized first-order rate constants (k/duty cycle). Synergistic effects of both hydraulic mixing and LED duty cycle were manifested as novel oscillations in the effluent contaminant concentration. Further, LED output and efficiency were dependent upon duty cycle and less efficient over time perhaps due to heating effects on semiconductor performance.

  20. Controllable Assembly and Spectroscopic Behavior of Brilliant Cresyl Violet in Different Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Song, J.-P.; Guo, Y.; Shuang, Sh.-M.; Dong, Ch.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the aggregation behavior of brilliant cresyl violet (BCV) was studied using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. BCV aggregation depends not only on the properties of the solvent and electrolyte, and the temperature and concentration of the dye solution, but also on the anionic surfactant. The results demonstrate that Nafion triggers trimer formation. Graphene oxide adjusts the relative position of dye molecules on the template through the electrostatic force and π-π stacking interactions to form highly ordered H-aggregates. However, BCV molecules on the graphene surface form the so-called J-aggregates after removal of the oxygen-containing surface groups by hydrazine reduction. The major driving forces affecting BCV aggregation are the electrostatic force, π-π stacking interactions, and hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  1. From Brilliant Baby to Child Placed at Risk: The Perilous Path of African American Boys in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Hakim M.

    2009-01-01

    The preschool and early elementary years play a major role in transforming young African American boys from "brilliant babies" into "children placed at risk". A preschool to prison pipeline now exists that is becoming increasingly apparent. It runs from preschool settings through elementary and middle school, into the high schools from which young…

  2. A shorter 146Sm half-life measured and implications for 146Sm-142Nd chronology in the solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, N; Paul, M; Kashiv, Y; Collon, P; Deibel, C M; DiGiovine, B; Greene, J P; Henderson, D J; Jiang, C L; Marley, S T; Nakanishi, T; Pardo, R C; Rehm, K E; Robertson, D; Scott, R; Schmitt, C; Tang, X D; Vondrasek, R; Yokoyama, A

    2012-03-30

    The extinct p-process nuclide (146)Sm serves as an astrophysical and geochemical chronometer through measurements of isotopic anomalies of its α-decay daughter (142)Nd. Based on analyses of (146)Sm/(147)Sm α-activity and atom ratios, we determined the half-life of (146)Sm to be 68 ± 7 (1σ) million years, which is shorter than the currently used value of 103 ± 5 million years. This half-life value implies a higher initial (146)Sm abundance in the early solar system, ((146)Sm/(144)Sm)(0) = 0.0094 ± 0.0005 (2σ), than previously estimated. Terrestrial, lunar, and martian planetary silicate mantle differentiation events dated with (146)Sm-(142)Nd converge to a shorter time span and in general to earlier times, due to the combined effect of the new (146)Sm half-life and ((146)Sm/(144)Sm)(0) values.

  3. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    to European universities and colleges in the 2003/4 academic year, considerably more than the 60,000 in the US. Also the Chinese Communist Party has established many exchanges with European political parties. Twenty separate dialogues and working groups covered a variety of issues, from human rights...... common research project. As to political cooperation, numerous meetings have been institutionalised, among them, at the top level an annual EU-China Summit. The contacts have resulted in a number of agreements, for instance on group tourism. According to estimates 100,000 Chinese Students went...

  4. The expanding EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    identity in terms of particular cultural traditions. However, in spite of their diversity, the EU-member countries are united by their adherence to the principles of democracy, rule by law and human rights. Countries which do not share this basic consensus would not be accepted as members, nor is it likely...... that economic modernisation leads to a set of predictable cultural changes, among them exactly the spread of democratic ideals. Modernisation is thereby a powerful ally of the European project. Further geographical expansion and an intensification of the cooperation are the most likely scenarios, and so...

  5. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...... towards Vietnam. However, it is likely that the antidumping measures used by the EU are not primarily directed at Vietnam, but rather at China. This means that Vietnam is affected by the re-polarization of the world economy through its proximity to and links with China, but that the relation is perhaps...

  6. Konstruktioner i småhuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høffding Knutsson, H.

    Anvisningen er udarbejdet i tilknytning til Bygningsreglement for småhuse, 1985. Den indeholder eksempler på dimensionering og udførelse af konstruktioner i traditionelle og moderne småhuse med indtil 2 etager. Hvis man følger anvisningens eksempler, kræves der ikke ingeniørmæssig eftervisning af......, at reglementets krav er opfyldt med hensyn til styrke, fugt, varme, lyd og brand....

  7. 从(Sm-Sn/m-n)=(Sm+n/m+n)说开去

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阙程柯

    2004-01-01

    @@ 在等差数列{an}中,Sn为其前n项和,则有如下性质: (Sm-Sn/m-n)=(Sm+n/m+n)(m,n∈N*,且m≠n)(1) 证明∵Sm-Sn =ma1+(1/2)m(m-1)d-na1-(1/2)n(n-1)d =(m-n)[a1+1/2(m+n-1)d], ∴(Sm-Sn/m-n)=a1+(1/2)(m+n-1)d.

  8. Structural Characterization of Sm(III)(EDTMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Pushie, M J; Cooper, D M L; Doschak, M R

    2015-11-02

    Samarium-153 ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(methylenephosphonic acid) ((153)Sm-EDTMP, or samarium lexidronam), also known by its registered trademark name Quadramet, is an approved therapeutic radiopharmaceutical used in the palliative treatment of painful bone metastases. Typically, patients with prostate, breast, or lung cancer are most likely to go on to require bone pain palliation treatment due to bone metastases. Sm(EDTMP) is a bone-seeking drug which accumulates on rapidly growing bone, thereby delivering a highly region-specific dose of radiation, chiefly through β particle emission. Even with its widespread clinical use, the structure of Sm(EDTMP) has not yet been characterized at atomic resolution, despite attempts to crystallize the complex. Herein, we prepared a 1:1 complex of the cold (stable isotope) of Sm(EDTMP) under alkaline conditions and then isolated and characterized the complex using conventional spectroscopic techniques, as well as with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and density functional structure calculations, using natural abundance Sm. We present the atomic resolution structure of [Sm(III)(EDTMP)-8H](5-) for the first time, supported by the EXAFS data and complementary spectroscopic techniques, which demonstrate that the samarium coordination environment in solution is in agreement with the structure that has long been conjectured.

  9. Curie temperature rising by fluorination for Sm2Fe17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matahiro Komuro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine atoms can be introduced to Sm2Fe17 using XeF2 below 423 K. The resulting fluorinated Sm2Fe17 powders have ferromagnetic phases containing Sm2Fe17FY1(0Sm2Fe17FY2 (1Sm2Fe17, and α-Fe. The unit cell for Sm2Fe17 is elongated by the fluorination. The largest unit cell volume among the rhombohedral Sm2Fe17 compounds is 83.8 nm3, which is 5.8% larger than Sm2Fe17. The rhombohedral Sm2Fe17 with the largest unit cell volume is dissociated above 873 K, and fluorination increases Curie temperature from 403 K for Sm2Fe17 to 675 K. This increase can be explained by the magneto-volume effect.

  10. Development of Sacrificial Material for the Eu-APR1400 Core Catcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jung Soo; Kim, Mun Soo; Kim, Yong Soo [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    To increase and diversify the export marker of the Korean nuclear reactor design, we developed the Eu- APR1400 reactor design based on the APR1400 reactor design, satisfying the European nuclear design requirements including the European Utility Requirements (EUR) and the Finnish requirements of YVL. As recommended by both requirements, the so called core-catcher molten core ex-vessel cooling facility was developed to manage a severe accident at the Eu-APR1400 reactor involving a core meltdown and to mitigate its consequences. Usually, sacrificial material (SM), which controls the melt properties and modifies melt conditions favorable to corium retention, can be employed to protect the core catcher body from the molten core and increase its cooling capability. The EPR reactor design (by Areva, France) core catcher consists of the initial corium retention space, the transportation channel and the wide spreading room for core melt cooling. The EPR used two kinds of SM to protect the initial core retention space from core melt and to spread the core melt across the wide spreading room using the different compositions. The VVER (Russia) ensures melt localization in a water-cooled vessel located directly beneath the reactor. SM is used to remove the thermal focusing effect by the layer inversion process between metallic and oxidic melts. The functional requirements for the SM determined for the present core catcher are (1) melting spreading improvement, (2) focusing effect prevention, (3) hydrogen explosion prevention, (4) FP (fission product) release decreasing, and (5) melt recriticality exclusion. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. The next section provides detailed descriptions of the composition of the present SM, which satisfies its functional requirements. Following this, the manufacturing process of the SM is presented

  11. Carbon pricing in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Corjan; Vollebergh, Herman R.J.; Werf, van der Edwin

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies various options to support allowance prices in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), such as adjusting the cap, an auction reserve price, and fixed and variable carbon taxes in addition to the EU ETS. We use a dynamic computable general equilibrium model that explicitly allows

  12. National Courts and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    rights in the area of freedom, security and justice. The analysis of each is enriched through diverse research methods such as case-law analysis, citation network analysis, interviews, surveys and statistics. With its new legal and empirical assessment covering the newest member states of the EU......This insightful and discerning book offers a fresh discourse on the functioning of national courts as decentralised EU courts and a new thematic for revising some older understandings of how national judges apply EU law. Organised into three key sections, the interdisciplinary chapters combine...... approaches and theories originating from law, political science, sociology and economics. The first section addresses issues relating to judicial dialogue and EU legal mandates, the second looks at the topic of EU law in national courts and the third considers national courts’ roles in protecting fundamental...

  13. From EuCARD to EuCARD-2

    CERN Multimedia

    Chaudron, M

    2013-01-01

    The one word that best describes the spirit of the EuCARD ’13 event (see here) that took place from 10 to 14 June at CERN is "collaboration". The event brought together more than 180 accelerator specialists from all over the world to celebrate the conclusion of the EuCARD project and to kick off its successor, EuCARD-2.   EuCARD-2 brings a global view to particle accelerator research in order to address challenges for future generations of accelerators. The project officially began on 1 May 2013 and will run for four years. With a total budget of €23.4 million, including an €8 million EU contribution, it will build upon the success of EuCARD and push it into an even more innovative regime. EuCARD-2 aims to significantly enhance multidisciplinary R&D for European accelerators and will actively contribute to the development of a European Research Area in accelerator science. This will be accomplished by promoting complementary expertise, cross-d...

  14. EU Cadzie project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaim, M.

    2009-04-01

    The CADZIE project received nearly € 700,000 funding under the energy, environment and sustainable development section of the Fifth Framework Programme (FP5). Several scientists from France, Italy, Norway, Austria, Iceland and Switzerland were involved in this initiative, under the co-ordination of the Cemagref institute in Grenoble, France. The initiative was created in response to the extreme avalanche winter of 1999, during which 83 people were killed across Europe. Avalanche protection relies on two key processes: structural measures such as building defence structures to stop and / or contain the avalanche flow and non structural measures such as zoning the exposed areas. The consortium investigated these two areas in order to improve overall protection methods. This EU-funded collaboration has led to the development of more accurate methods for mapping and protection design.

  15. Improving EU biofuels policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinbank, Alan; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    in the WTO, as there would be a clearer link between policy measures and the objective of reductions in GHG emissions; and the combination of the revised RED and the FQD would lessen the commercial incentive to import biofuels with modest GHG emission savings, and thus reduce the risk of trade tension.......Both the EU's Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and Article 7a of its Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) seek to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transport fuels. The RED mandates a 10% share of renewable energy in transport fuels by 2020, whilst the FQD requires a 6% reduction in GHG emissions...... (from a 2010 base) by the same date. In practice, it will mainly be biofuels that economic operators will use to meet these requirements, but the different approaches can lead to either the RED, or the FQD, acting as the binding constraint. A common set of environmental sustainability criteria apply...

  16. Reduction of cytotoxicity of benzalkonium chloride and octenidine by Brilliant Blue G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartok, Melinda; Tandon, Rashmi; Alfaro-Espinoza, Gabriela; Ullrich, Matthias S; Gabel, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The irritative effects of preservatives found in ophthalmologic solution, or of antiseptics used for skin disinfection is a consistent problem for the patients. The reduction of the toxic effects of these compounds is desired. Brilliant Blue G (BBG) has shown to meet the expected effect in presence of benzalkonium chloride (BAK), a well known preservative in ophthalmic solutions, and octenidine dihydrochloride (Oct), used as antiseptic in skin and wound disinfection. BBG shows a significant protective effect on human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells against BAK and Oct toxicity, increasing the cell survival up to 51 % at the highest BAK or Oct concentration tested, which is 0.01 %, both at 30 min incubation. Although BBG is described as a P2x7 receptor antagonist, other selective P2x7 receptor antagonists, OxATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate-2',3'-dialdehyde) and DPPH (N'-(3,5-dichloropyridin-4-yl)-3-phenylpropanehydrazide), did not reduce the cytotoxicity of neither BAK nor Oct. Therefore we assume that the protective effect of BBG is not due to its action on the P2x7 receptor. Brilliant Blue R (BBR), a dye similar to BBG, was also tested for protective effect on BAK and Oct toxicity. In presence of BAK no significant protective effect was observed. Instead, with Oct a comparable protective effect was seen with that of BBG. To assure that the bacteriostatic effect is not affected by the combinations of BAK/BBG, Oct/BBG and Oct/BBR, bacterial growth inhibition was analyzed on different Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. All combinations of BAK or Oct with BBG hinder growth of Gram-positive bacteria. The combinations of 0.001 % Oct and BBR above 0.025 % do not hinder the growth of B. subtilis. For Gram-negative bacteria, BBG and BBR reduce, but do not abolish, the antimicrobial effect of BAK nor of Oct. In conclusion, the addition of BBG at bacterial inhibitory concentrations is suggested in the ready-to-use ophthalmic preparations and antiseptic solutions.

  17. الفائق التوصيل الكهربائي SmBa2Cu3O7-δ على خواص المركب Eu و Sn و Zn - تأثير التعويض الجزئي للعناصر

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    أحمد محمد كاظم

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available تمت دراسة تأثير التعويض الجزئي لعناصرEu  و Sr و Zn في كل من العناصرSm و Ba و Cu  على الترتيب على خواص المركب SmBa2Cu3O7-d ذي التوصيلية الكهربائيةالفائقة في درجات الحرارة العالية. أظهرت النتائج أن التعويض الجزئي لعنصر اليوروبيوم Eu في عنصر السماريوم Sm  أبقى المركب محافظا على هيئة تركيب المعيني القائم بينما أدى إلى زيادة درجة الحرارة الحرجة من K 88 الى 107 K عندما تزداد قيمة التعويض من 0 الى 0.2. أما التعويض الجزئي لعنصر السترونتيوم Sr في عنصر الباريومBa بنسب  0 و 0.1 و 0.2 و 0.3 و 0.4  و 0.5 قد اظهر تشوها في التركيب البلوري و انخفاض في قيم حجم وحدة الخلية و درجة الحرارة الحرجة. أما التعويض الجزئي لعنصر الخارصين Zn في عنصر النحاسCu  بنسبة 0.3 قد أدى إلى تشوه كبير جدا في التركيب البلوري و فقدان لخاصية التوصيل الكهربائي الفائق.

  18. The Cloud2SM Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinière, Antoine; Dumoulin, Jean; Mevel, Laurent; Andrade-Barosso, Guillermo; Simonin, Matthieu

    2015-04-01

    From the past decades the monitoring of civil engineering structure became a major field of research and development process in the domains of modelling and integrated instrumentation. This increasing of interest can be attributed in part to the need of controlling the aging of such structures and on the other hand to the need to optimize maintenance costs. From this standpoint the project Cloud2SM (Cloud architecture design for Structural Monitoring with in-line Sensors and Models tasking), has been launched to develop a robust information system able to assess the long term monitoring of civil engineering structures as well as interfacing various sensors and data. The specificity of such architecture is to be based on the notion of data processing through physical or statistical models. Thus the data processing, whether material or mathematical, can be seen here as a resource of the main architecture. The project can be divided in various items: -The sensors and their measurement process: Those items provide data to the main architecture and can embed storage or computational resources. Dependent of onboard capacity and the amount of data generated it can be distinguished heavy and light sensors. - The storage resources: Based on the cloud concept this resource can store at least two types of data, raw data and processed ones. - The computational resources: This item includes embedded "pseudo real time" resources as the dedicated computer cluster or computational resources. - The models: Used for the conversion of raw data to meaningful data. Those types of resources inform the system of their needs they can be seen as independents blocks of the system. - The user interface: This item can be divided in various HMI to assess maintaining operation on the sensors or pop-up some information to the user. - The demonstrators: The structures themselves. This project follows previous research works initiated in the European project ISTIMES [1]. It includes the infrared

  19. EU-Russia Cultural Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sidorova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.

  20. Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 Dye: An Application for Forensic Fingerprint Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Erica; Le, Anh Minh; Huynh, Crystal; Wingfield, Kelly; Halámková, Lenka; Agudelo, Juliana; Halámek, Jan

    2017-04-04

    The Bradford reagent, comprised of the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 dye, methanol, and phosphoric acid, has been traditionally used for quantifying proteins. Use of this reagent in the Bradford assay relies on the binding of the Coomassie Blue G-250 dye to proteins. However, the ability of the dye to react with a small group of amino acids (arginine, histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) makes it a viable chemical assay for fingerprint analysis in order to identify the biological sex of the fingerprint originator. It is recognized that the identification of biological sex has been readily accomplished using two other methods; however, both of those systems are reliant upon a large group of amino acids, 23 to be precise. The Bradford assay, described here, was developed specifically to aid in the transition from targeting large groups of amino acids, as demonstrated in the previous studies, to targeting only a single amino acid without compromising the intensity of the response and/or the ability to differentiate between two attributes. In this work, we aim to differentiate between female fingerprints and male fingerprints.

  1. Decolorization and biodegradation of remazol brilliant blue R by bilirubin oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youxun; Huang, Juan; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2009-12-01

    The dye-decolorizing potential of bilirubin oxidase (BOX) was demonstrated for an anthraquinone dye, remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR). The dye was decolorized 40% within 4 h by the BOX alone, whereas it was more efficient in the presence of 2, 2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), showing 91.5% decolorization within 25 min. The effects of operational parameters on decolorization were examined. The results showed that the decolorization efficiency decreased with increasing RBBR concentration, and a marked inhibition effect was exhibited when the dye concentrations were above 100 mg l(-1). The optimum temperature for enzymatic decolorization was 40 degrees C. BOX showed efficient decolorization of the dye with a wide pH range of 5-8.5. The maximum decolorization activity occurred at pH 8 with ABTS and at pH 5 without ABTS. Analysis of RBBR ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS) spectra after BOX treatment indicated that the decolorization of RBBR was due to biodegradation. Our results suggested that ABTS can serve as an electron mediator to facilitate the oxidation of RBBR, and the BOX-ABTS mediator-involved dye decolorization mechanism was similar to that of laccase. Operation over a wide range of pH and efficient decolorization suggested that the BOX can be used to decolorize synthetic dyes from effluents, especially for anthraquinonic dyes.

  2. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solairaj Dhananasekaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB, Bromophenol Blue (BPB and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798 shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  3. Decolorization of synthetic brilliant green carpet industry dye through fungal co-culture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Simpal; Naraian, Ram

    2016-09-15

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of fungal co-culture for the decolorization of synthetic brilliant green carpet industry dye. For this purpose two lignocellulolytic fungi Pleurotus florida (PF) and Rhizoctonia solani (RS) were employed. The study includes determination of enzyme profiles (laccase and peroxidase), dye decolorization efficiency of co-culture and crude enzyme extracts. Both fungi produced laccase and Mn peroxidase and successfully decolorized solutions of different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, & 8.0(w/v) of dye. The co-culture resulted highest 98.54% dye decolorization at 2% (w/v) of dye as compared to monocultures (82.12% with PF and 68.89% with RS) during 12 days of submerged fermentation. The lower levels of dyes were rapidly decolorized, while higher levels in slow order as 87.67% decolorization of 8% dye. The promising achievement of the study was remarkable decolorizing efficiency of co-culture over monocultures. The direct treatment of the mono and co-culture enzyme extracts to dye also influenced remarkable. The highest enzymatic decolorization was through combined (PF and RS) extracts, while lesser by monoculture extracts. Based on the observations and potentiality of co-culture technology; further it can be exploited for the bioremediation of areas contaminated with hazardous environmental pollutants including textile and other industry effluents.

  4. Ternary rare earth-lanthanide sulfides. [Re = Eu, Sm or Yb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Takuo; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Beaudry, B.J.

    1986-03-06

    Disclosed is a new ternary rare earth sulfur compound having the formula La/sub 3-x/M/sub x/S/sub 4/, where M is europium, samarium, or ytterbium, with x = 0.15 to 0.8. The compound has good high-temperature thermoelectric properties and exhibits long-term structural stability up to 1000/sup 0/C.

  5. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the evidence of strong influence on the incorporation of policy provisions from the U.S. antitrust into the recent competition policy reforms in the European Union (EU), few considerable attempts have been made to analyze the influence of U.S. antitrust on EU competition policy...... reforms, carry out a comparative analysis between EU and U.S. competition policies, detect convergence or divergence, and account for the degree of convergence and for the relevant mechanisms triggering convergence. The main focus is on the analysis of anticartel enforcement policy, antimonopoly policy...

  6. Equilibrium, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of Remazol Brilliant Blue R Dye Adsorption onto Activated Carbon Prepared from Pinang Frond

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Azhar Ahmad; Safarudin Gazali Herawan; Ahmad Anas Yusof

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption of remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR) dye on pinang frond based activated carbon (PF-AC) was investigated in a batch process. The effects of initial dye concentration, contact time, solution temperature, and solution pH were evaluated. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetic were found to follow Freundlich isotherm models and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. The mechanism of the adsorption process was found from the intraparticle diffusion model. Result from adsorpt...

  7. Conceptual Design Plan SM-43 Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, SCC Project Office

    2000-11-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual Design Plan for the SM-43 Replacement Project outlines plans for replacing the SM-43 Administration Building. Topics include the reasons that replacement is considered a necessity; the roles of the various project sponsors; and descriptions of the proposed site and facilities. Also covered in this proposal is preliminary information on the project schedule, cost estimates, acquisition strategy, risk assessment, NEPA strategy, safety strategy, and safeguards and security. Spreadsheets provide further detail on space requirements, project schedules, and cost estimates.

  8. OTF CCSDS SM and C Interoperability Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Walter F.; Lucord, Steven A.; Stevens, John E.

    2008-01-01

    A presentation is provided to demonstrate the interoperability between two space flight Mission Operation Centers (MOCs) and to emulate telemetry, actions, and alert flows between the two centers. One framework uses a COTS C31 system that uses CORBA to interface to the local OTF data network. The second framework relies on current Houston MCC frameworks and ad hoc clients. Messaging relies on SM and C MAL, Core and Common Service formats, while the transport layer uses AMS. A centralized SM and C Registry uses HTTP/XML for transport/encoding. The project's status and progress are reviewed.

  9. Decolorization of reactive brilliant red K-2BP by white rot fungus under sterile and non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Da-wen; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2006-01-01

    Almost all the studies both domestic and international using white rot fungus for dye wastewater treatment are performed under sterile conditions. However, it is obviously unpractical that wastewater with dyes is treated under sterile conditions. A feasible study was made for using white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade reactive brilliant red K-2BP dye under non-sterile conditions. The results showed that there was no decolorizing effect under non-sterile condition if white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile condition, and the decolorization was always near to 0% during decolorizing test for 3 d; in the meantime, a lot of yeast funguses were found in liquid medium when white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile conditions; however, if white rot fungus was incubated under sterile condition firstly, its decolorization was above 90% under non-sterile condition, which was similar to that of sterile condition. So we point out that the treating process for wastewater with dyes should be divided into two stages. The first stage is that white rot fungus should be incubated under sterile conditions, and the second stage is that reactive brilliant red K-2BP is decolorized under non-sterile conditions. The method not only save the operation cost which decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP under sterile condition, but also provide the feasibility for using white rot fungus to degrade wastewater with dyes under non-sterile conditions.

  10. GENERAL OVERWIEV ON EU ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the international economic crisis on new EU member states has proven to be more severe than the first estimates of the economic analysts. The situation is different for each Member State, the nature and the dimension of the challenges faced are not identical, and the pace of reform is not the same. The economic crisis has prompted intense and sustained action by the EU's national governments, the European Central Bank and the Commission. All have been working closely together to support growth and employment, ensure financial stability, and put in place a better governance system for the future. Sustainable development in the future is the common responsibility of all Member States and EU institutions, because our economies are closely interlinked, and the EU economic governance now reconfigured to provide more effective responses at the policy level, to give a good reaction to the present and the future challenges.

  11. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities. 

  12. STUDY OF HIGH-SPIN STATES IN EU-150 AND EU-151

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGMAN, [No Value; BACELAR, JCS; VANPOL, J; NYBERG, J; SLETTEN, G; DIONISIO, JS; VIEU, C; LAGRANGE, JM; PAUTRAT, M; Urban, W

    1995-01-01

    High-spin states in Eu-150,Eu-151 were populated by the Xe-136(F-19, xn)Eu-155-xn reaction. Extensive e gamma-, gamma gamma-measurements led to new level schemes of Eu-150,Eu-151. Most observed excitations are interpreted as quasi-rotational bands built on top of multi-p-h states. Enhanced E1 decays

  13. Fare- og smågrisestalde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.W.; Bøndergaard, E.

    Byggebladssamlingen omfatter 4 eksempler på farestalde til løsgående søer, 10 eksempler på farestalde til bundne søer, samt 3 eksempler på smågrisestalde. Detailtegningsmaterialet omfatter krybber, rensegange, gødningskanaler, ventilationskanaler og gulve. Tegningerne omfatter flere udførelser af...

  14. SmAHTR-CTC Neutronic Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Dan [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Building on prior experience for the 2010 initial SmAHTR neutronic design and on 2012 neutronic design for the advanced high temperature reactor (AHTR), this paper presents the main results of the neutronic design effort for the newly re-purposed SmAHTR-CTC reactor concept. The results are obtained based on full-core simulations performed with SCALE6.1. The dimensionality of the SmAHTR design space is reduced by using constraints originating in material fabricability, fuel licensing, molten salt chemistry, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical considerations. The new design represents in many regards a substantial improvement from the neutronic performance standpoint over the 2010 SmAHTR concept. Among other results, it is shown that fuel cycle length of over 2 years or discharged fuel burnup of 40GWd/MTHM are possible with a low, 8% fuel enrichment in a once-through fuel cycle, while 8-year once-through fuel cycle lengths are possible at higher fuel enrichments.

  15. Combined SM Higgs Limits at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumnack, N.

    2009-10-01

    We combine results from CDF and D{sup 0} on direct searches for a standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Compared to the previous Higgs Tevatron combination, more data and new channels WH {yields} {tau}{nu}b{bar b}, VH {yields} {tau}{tau}b{bar b}/jj{tau}{tau}, VH {yields} jjb{bar b}, t{bar t}H {yields} t{bar t}b{bar b} have been added. Most previously used channels have been reanalyzed to gain sensitivity. We use the latest parton distribution functions and gg {yields} H theoretical cross sections when comparing our limits to the SM predictions. With 2.0-3.6 fb{sup -1} of data analyzed at CDF, and 0.9-4.2 fb{sup -1} at D{sup 0}, the 95% C.L. upper limits on Higgs boson production are a factor of 2.5 (0.86) times the SM cross section for a Higgs boson mass of m{sub H} = 115 (165) GeV/c{sup 2}. Based on simulation, the corresponding median expected upper limits are 2.4 (1.1). The mass range excluded at 95% C.L. for a SM Higgs has been extended to 160 < m{sub H} < 170 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  16. China-EU Over Ten Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 10th China-EU Meeting took place in Beijing on November 28, 2007. This was an important annual meeting held at a critical point in the history of China-EU relations. Since this regularly scheduled meeting was first established in 1998, leaders from both China and the EU have met continuously. Over the past decade, many fundamental changes have taken place between China and the EU, and the China-EU relationship has evolved into full strategic partnership.

  17. Studies on phytoremediation potentiality of Typhonium flagelliforme for the degradation of Brilliant Blue R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagalkar, Anuradha N; Jagtap, Umesh B; Jadhav, Jyoti P; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Bapat, Vishwas A

    2010-06-01

    In vitro culture plants of Typhonium flagelliforme were found to decolorize a variety of dyes, including Malachite Green, Red HE 8B, Methyl Orange, Reactive Red 2, Direct Red 5B (DR5B), Red HE 7B, Golden Yellow HER, Patent Blue, and Brilliant Blue R (BBR), to varying extents within 4 days. The enzymatic analysis of plant roots of aseptically raised plantlets performed before and after degradation of the dye BBR by these plantlets showed a significant induction in the activities of peroxidase, laccase, tyrosinase, and 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol reductase, which indicated the involvement of these enzymes in the metabolism of the dye. Comparative study of the enzyme status of the plants Typhonium flagelliforme and Blumea malcolmii during the degradation of DR5B and BBR showed marked variations in the enzyme profile with respect to the use of different sources of the enzyme. Phytoremediation of BBR using Typhonium flagelliforme was confirmed with high performance liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis performed before and after the degradation of the dye. One of the products of the metabolism of the dye was identified as 4-(4-ethylimino-cyclohexa-2,5-dienylidinemethyl)-phenylamine with the aid of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. Significant decrease in the American Dye Manufacturer's Institute, biological oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand values of synthetic mixture of textile dyes and industrial effluent confirmed the decolorization and detoxification. Phytotoxicity studies also revealed the nontoxic nature of the metabolites of BBR.

  18. Brilliant radiation sources by laser-plasma accelerators and optical undulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debus, Alexander

    2012-09-06

    This thesis investigates the use of high-power lasers for synchrotron radiation sources with high brilliance, from the EUV to the hard X-ray spectral range. Hereby lasers accelerate electrons by laser-wakefield acceleration (LWFA), act as optical undulators, or both. Experimental evidence shows for the first time that LWFA electron bunches are shorter than the driving laser and have a length scale comparable to the plasma wavelength. Furthermore, a first proof of principle experiment demonstrates that LWFA electrons can be exploited to generate undulator radiation. Building upon these experimental findings, as well as extensive numerical simulations of Thomson scattering, the theoretical foundations of a novel interaction geometry for laser-matter interaction are developed. This new method is very general and when tailored towards relativistically moving targets not being limited by the focusability (Rayleigh length) of the laser, while it does not require a waveguide. In a theoretical investigation of Thomson scattering, the optical analogue of undulator radiation, the limits of Thomson sources in scaling towards higher peak brilliances are highlighted. This leads to a novel method for generating brilliant, highly tunable X-ray sources, which is highly energy efficient by circumventing the laser Rayleigh limit through a novel traveling-wave Thomson scattering (TWTS) geometry. This new method suggests increases in X-ray photon yields of 2-3 orders of magnitudes using existing lasers and a way towards efficient, optical undulators to drive a free-electron laser. The results presented here extend far beyond the scope of this work. The possibility to use lasers as particle accelerators, as well as optical undulators, leads to very compact and energy efficient synchrotron sources. The resulting monoenergetic radiation of high brilliance in a range from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to hard X-ray radiation is of fundamental importance for basic research, medical

  19. A practical method to generate brilliant hard x-rays with a tabletop electron storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, H. [Ritsumeikan Univ., Shiga (Japan); Amano, D.; Miyade, H. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tanashi-City (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    With electron storage rings not only synchrotron radiation(SR) but also bremsstrahlung(BS) from a thin target placed in the electron orbit are mechanisms to generate brilliant x-ray beams. The calculated brilliance of BS with a 50 MeV storage ring, which is nearly 10{sup 13} photons/s, mrad{sup 2}, mm{sup 2}, 0.1% band width for 100 keV x-rays, exceeds that of SR from a 1 GeV storage ring. This photon energy spectrum is almost constant and extend up to the electron energy. The reasons for this high brilliance with this new radiation scheme is that the electron beams penetrating the thin target are utilized repeatedly, the narrow angular divergence of BS is determined by the kinematics of relativistic electron as same as SR, and the x-ray source size of the order of 1 {mu}m is determined by the size of thin target instead of electron beam sizes. Continuous injection of electron beam to the storage ring at full energy is the way to keep high and constant beam current. Peak current and repetition rate determine x-ray out put power. Note that the power of x-ray beam is also provided from a RF cavity of the storage ring. In this paper we will report some experimental results and discuss further application on a coherent bremsstrahlung generated from a set of stacked foils placed in the electron orbit of the ring. Resulting from these investigations the photon storage ring which is based on a 50 MeV exact circular electron storage ring could provide wide range of coherent and incoherent radiations from far infrared to hard x-ray in a practical amount of radiation power.

  20. Preparation and quality control of {sup 153}Sm radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swasono, R. Tamat; Widyastuti, W.; Purwadi, B.; Laksmi, I. [Radioisotope Production Center - BATAN, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1998-10-01

    The paper summarizes the preparation and quality control of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP and three {sup 153}Sm-radiosynovectomy agents. Natural and enriched Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} (98.7% {sup 152}Sm) irradiated in RSG-GAS 30 MW reactor yielded pure and high specific activity {sup 153}Sm. Labeling of EDTMP with {sup 153}Sm was carried out by mixing {sup 153}SmCl{sub 3} solution of pH 4.0 to an EDTMP solution at room temperature then pH adjustment to 8. The {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP complex was separated from the free {sup 153}Sm{sup +3} on a Chelex 100 column. Radiochemical purity was determined by thin layer chromatography using Cellulose sheets and pyridine: ethanol: water (1: 2: 4) mixture as solvent. The {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP has been shown to be stable for two weeks. Three particulate preparations of {sup 153}Sm used for the irradiation of chronic synovitis have been studied. They are hydroxyapatite particles, human serum albumin microspheres and ferric hydroxide macroaggregates. The {sup 153}Sm-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates were prepared in a single step by coprecipitation of {sup 153}Sm in the formation of Fe(OH){sub 3}. Preparation of {sup 153}Sm-labelled hydroxyapatite particles and {sup 153}Sm-labelled albumin microspheres were carried out by {sup 153}Sm labelling of previously prepared particles. Radiolabelling efficiency were greater than 95% for hydroxyapatite particles and macroaggregates and was lower than 20% for albumin microspheres. The particle sizes were inspected using an optical microscope with a haemocytometer and micrometric ocular. (author)

  1. New AMS method to measure the atom ratio {sup 146}Sm/{sup 147}Sm for a half-life determination of {sup 146}Sm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, N. [Tandem Accelerator Complex, Research Facility Center for Science and Technology, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Paul, M., E-mail: paul@vms.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Alcorta, M. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Bowers, M.; Collon, P. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Deibel, C.M. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 46624 (United States); DiGiovine, B. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Goriely, S. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, CP-226, Brussels 1050 (Belgium); Greene, J.P.; Henderson, D.J.; Jiang, C.L. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Kashiv, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Kay, B.P.; Lee, H.Y.; Marley, S.T. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Nakanishi, T. [Faculty of Chemistry, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University (Japan); Pardo, R.C.; Patel, N.; Rehm, K.E. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Robertson, D. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); and others

    2013-01-15

    The extinct p-process nuclide {sup 146}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 103 {+-} 5 Myr) is known to have been present in the Early-Solar System and has been proposed as an astrophysical chronometer. {sup 146}Sm is also intensely used to date meteorite and planetary differentiation processes, enhancing the importance of an accurate knowledge of the {sup 146}Sm half-life. We are engaged in a new determination of the {sup 146}Sm half-life in which the {sup 146}Sm/{sup 147}Sm atom ratio is determined by accelerator mass spectrometry at the ATLAS facility of Argonne National Laboratory. In order to reduce systematic errors in the AMS determination of the {sup 146}Sm/{sup 147}Sm ratios (in the range of 10{sup -7}-10{sup -9}), {sup 146}Sm and {sup 147}Sm ions were alternately counted in the same detector in the focal plane of a gas-filled magnet, respectively in continuous-wave and attenuated mode. Quantitative attenuation is obtained with the 12 MHz pulsed and ns-bunched ATLAS beam by chopping beam pulses with an RF sweeper in a ratio (digitally determined) down to 1:10{sup 6}. The experiments and preliminary results are discussed.

  2. 31 CFR 208.5 - Availability of the ETA SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ETAs SM as Treasury's Financial Agent. A Federally-insured financial institution that elects to offer... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of the ETA SM. 208.5... DISBURSEMENTS § 208.5 Availability of the ETA SM. An individual who receives a Federal benefit, wage, salary,...

  3. Kampen om det sibiriske smør

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Inge Marie

    2001-01-01

    Afhandlingen følger opbygningen af og udviklingen i den vestsibiriske smørsektor og den internationale handel med sibirisk smør. Hvordan gik det til, at Rusland blev verdens næststørste smøreksportør? Indfaldsvinkelen er lokal sibirisk, national russisk og global, idet danske og engelske firmaers...

  4. Evaluation of Ablation rate by the change of Sacrificial Material for PECS in EU-APR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Do Hyun; Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Keun Sung [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    EU-APR, modified and improved from its original design of APR1400, has been developed to comply with European Utility Requirements (EUR) and nuclear design requirements of the European countries. In EU-APR, Severe Accident Mitigation Systems are dedicated to providing an independent defense line from that of Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) and Diverse Safety Feature (DSF). They consist of Emergency Reactor Depressurization System (ERDS), Passive Ex-vessel corium retaining and Cooling System (PECS), Severe Accident Containment Spray System (SACSS), Hydrogen Mitigation System (HMS) and Containment Filtered Vent System (CFVS). The PECS, so called core catcher, was introduced to prevent the Molten Core Concrete Interaction (MCCI) after Reactor Vessel (RV) failure. The PECS has experienced a lot of changes from its original design. Recently, the most significant change was that as a SM, limestone concrete is installed on PECS's body wall instead of previous sacrificial material rich in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The main reason of this design change is to overcome the issue that the sacrificial material is ablated rather too fast when reacting with corium that contains a large fraction of Zr metal. Other changes in the geometry of PECS's wall and downcomer design are considered as minor ones. In this paper, the comparison of ablation rates between previous SM and limestone concrete is carried out using MAAP5 code with respective MCCI model according to the material. In this paper, major improvements of MAAP5 model for PECS in EU-APR are presented and the evaluation of ablation rate for the previous SM model and the new LC model is carried out by means of ablation depths with LBLOCA sequence. Two models have respective unique ablation process. The ablation of LC model proceeds at a constant rate regardless of water while the ablation of SM model proceeds at a faster rate before the arrival of cooling water for corium and SM mixture. The change of sacrificial material

  5. SM09A and SM09B: Romaine Lettuce Breeding Lines Resistant to Dieback and with Improved Shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SM09A and SM09B are F8 romaine breeding lines of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) resistant to dieback and with good shelf-life. SM09B was selected from a cross between ‘Darkland’ and PI491224, while SM09A was developed from ‘Green Towers’ × (‘Darkland’ × PI491224). Resistance to the disease in both bree...

  6. XANES at Eu-L3 edge and valence of europium in SrB4O7: Eu and BaB8O13: Eu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG, Hong- Bin(梁宏斌); HU, Tian-Dou(胡天斗); WANG, Shu-Bin(王淑彬); ZENG, Qing-Hua(曾庆华); PEI, Zhi-Wu(裴治武); SU, Qiang(苏锵)

    2000-01-01

    The luminescent materials SrB4O7: Eu and BaB8O13: Eu were synthesized, and the valence states of europium in the materials were measured by means of XANES at Eu-L3 edge. It is found that the Eu3+ and Eu2+ ions are all present in the materials, and more Eu3+ ions can be reduced in SrB4O7:Eu than in BaB8O13:Eu. The excitation and emission spectra of Eu3+in SrB4O7:Eu and BaB8O13:Eu were determined.

  7. Luminescence and spectroscopic properties of Sm{sup 2+} and Er{sup 3+} doped SrI{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, Mikhail S.; Awater, Roy H.P. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Department RST-FAME, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Biner, Daniel A.; Krämer, Karl W. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Haas, Johan T.M. de [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Department RST-FAME, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Dorenbos, Pieter, E-mail: P.Dorenbos@tudelft.nl [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Department RST-FAME, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    The scintillation and luminescence properties of SrI{sub 2}:1% Sm{sup 2+} and SrI{sub 2}:1% Er{sup 3+} are reported. Single crystals were grown by the vertical Bridgman technique. Broad band Sm{sup 2+} 5d–4f emission was observed centered at 750 nm with a radiative lifetime of 1.25 µs. The photoluminescence decay time increases with temperature due to self-absorption. With Er{sup 3+} a clear charge transfer band was identified at 295 nm. The spectroscopic properties of Sm{sup 2+} and Er{sup 3+} are compared with those of Eu{sup 2+}, Yb{sup 2+}, Ce{sup 3+}, and Nd{sup 3+} doped in SrI{sub 2}. The results are combined to construct a diagram with the vacuum referred electron binding energies for all divalent and trivalent lanthanide ions in SrI{sub 2} which is fully consistent with the spectroscopic observations. - Highlights: • 750nm 5d–4f emission has been observed for Sm{sup 2+} in SrI{sub 2}. • A valence band to Er{sup 3+} charge band has been observed for Er{sup 3+} in SrI{sub 2}. • A binding energy diagram has been constructed from data on lanthanides in SrI{sub 2}.

  8. EU Climate Change Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 25, the CPAFFC, the China-EU Association (CEUA) and the Delegation of the European Commission to China jointly held the opening ceremony for the EU Exhibition on Climate Change in the CPAFFC. He Luli, former vice chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee and honorary president of the CEUA, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Li Jianping, vice president of the CPAFFC, attended the opening ceremony and made speeches. Honorary President He Luli highly praised the achievements made by China and the EU in their longtime cooperation of mutual benefits in various fields including environmental protection. She said, for many years China and EU have both committed to the development of all-round strategic partnership and establishment of a multi-level mechanism of political dialogue. She expressed, with increasing enthusiasm the CEUA would continue to actively carry out nongovernmental exchanges between China and the EU, and promote cooperation between the two sides in the fields of economy, society, environmental protection, science and technology, culture, etc.

  9. Metal Atom Dynamics in Superbulky Metallocenes : A Comparison of (Cp-BIG)(2)Sn and (Cp-BIG)(2)Eu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harder, Sjoerd; Naglav, Dominik; Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Nowik, Israel; Herber, Rolfe H.

    2014-01-01

    (Cp2Sn)-Sn-BIG (Cp-BIG = (4-n-Bu-C6H4)(5)cyclopentadienyl), prepared by reaction of 2 equiv of (CpNa)-Na-BIG with SnCl2, crystallized isomorphous to other known metallocenes with this ligand (Ca, Sr, Ba, Sm, Eu, Yb). Similarly, it shows perfect linearity, C-H center dot center dot center dot C(pi) b

  10. Fracture in sintered Sm-Co permanent magnetic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Anhua(李安华); DONG; Shengzhi(董生智); LI; Wei(李卫)

    2003-01-01

    The bending strength and fracture toughness of sintered Sm-Co permanent magnetic materials are measured. A scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system is employed to investigate the bending fractography. The fracture behavior and micromechanism are discussed. The fracture behavior of sintered Sm-Co permanent magnetic materials exhibits cleavage fracture. Some Sm-rich impurities are found in fracture plane, suggesting that the Sm-rich impurities help reduce the cleavage brittleness of sintered Sm-Co permanent magnetic materials. The possible methods for improving the strength and toughness are also proposed.

  11. Octupole collectivity in the Sm isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babilon, M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Wright Nuclear Structure Lab.]|[Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Zamfir, N.V. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Wright Nuclear Structure Lab.]|[National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Kusnezov, D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Sloane Physics Lab.; McCutchan, E.A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Wright Nuclear Structure Lab.; Zilges, A. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2005-08-27

    Microscopic models suggest the occurrence of strong octupole correlations in nuclei with N{approx}88. To examine the signatures of octupole correlations in this region, the spdf Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) Model is applied to the Sm isotopes with N = 86 - 92. The effects of including multiple negative parity bosons in the basis are compared to more standard one negative parity boson calculations and are analyzed in terms of signatures for strong octupole correlations. It is found that multiple negative parity bosons are needed to describe properties at medium spin. Bands with strong octupole correlations (multiple negative parity bosons) become yrast at medium spin in {sup 148,150}Sm. This region shares some similarities with the light actinides, where strong octupole correlations were also found at medium spin. (orig.)

  12. The Naturalness of the Fourth SM Family

    CERN Document Server

    Sultansoy, S

    2009-01-01

    The necessity of the fourth family follows from the SM basics. According to flavor democracy the Dirac masses of the fourth SM family fermions are almost equal with preferable value 450 GeV, which corresponds to common (for all fundamental fermions) Yukawa coupling equal to SU(2) gauge coupling gW. In principle, one expect u4 a little bit lighter than d4, while nu4 could be essentially lighter than l4 due to Majorana mass terms for right-handed components of neutrinos. Obviously, the fourth family quarks will be copiously produced at the LHC. However, the first indication of the fourth SM family may be provided by early Higgs boson observation due to almost an order enhancement of the gluon fusion to Higgs cross-section. For the same reason the Tevatron still has a chance to observe the Higgs boson before the LHC. Concerning the fourth family leptons, in general, best place will be NLC/CLIC. However, for some mass regions and MNS matrix elements double discovery of both the nu4 and H could be possible at the ...

  13. Enhanced stability and decolorization of Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 by dextran aldehyde-modified horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altikatoglu, Melda; Celebi, Mithat

    2011-06-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) was chemically modified by periodate-activated dextran. The activities of free and modified enzyme against organic-aqueous interface and some chemicals were determined. Modified HRP remained fully active in the presence of organic solvent for 4 h. However, the unmodified enzyme lost 50% of its activity within the first 2 h. The effects of possible inhibitors on enzyme activity were investigated. In addition, Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 was efficiently decolorized using the free and modified HRP. After 5 minutes of treatment, the color removal of dye was 80-90%. Modified HRP showed effective performance compared to free HRP.

  14. Laser Beam Welding with High-Frequency Beam Oscillation: Welding of Dissimilar Materials with Brilliant Fiber Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraetzsch, Mathias; Standfuss, Jens; Klotzbach, Annett; Kaspar, Joerg; Brenner, Berndt; Beyer, Eckhard

    Brilliant laser beam sources in connection with a high frequent beam oscillation make it now possible to join metallic material combinations, which have been conventionally non-laser weldable up to now. It concerns especially such combinations like Al- Cu, where brittle intermetallic phases occur. Extreme small weld seam with high aspect ratio leads to very short meld pool life time. These allow an extensive reduction of the heat input. On the other side the melting behavior at metallic mixed joint, seam geometry, meld pool turbulence and solidification behavior can be influenced by a high frequent time-, position- and powercontrolled laser beam oscillation.

  15. 31 CFR 585.413 - Imports of goods originating in the FRY (S&M), and purchases of goods from the FRY (S&M).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FRY (S&M), and purchases of goods from the FRY (S&M). 585.413 Section 585.413 Money and Finance... of goods originating in the FRY (S&M), and purchases of goods from the FRY (S&M). Goods originating in the FRY (S&M) imported into the United States pursuant to an authorization or license are...

  16. The emerging EU quality of care policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; van de Bovenkamp, Hester M.; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    involvement in healthcare policy over the last twenty years. Based on interviews and document and literature analysis we show that the scope of EU involvement has widened from public health and access to care, to quality of care. In this paper we concentrate on the latter. Focusing on the recent EU......Despite the fact that Member States and many citizens of the EU like to keep healthcare a foremost national competence and the EU treaties state that Member States remain primarily responsible for the organization and delivery of health care services, the European Union (EU) has expanded its...... and desirability of the EU's involvement is clearly needed, also considering the differences in quality of care policies between and within EU Member States. Both arguments in favour and against further EU involvement are discussed in this paper...

  17. Balancing China-EU Economic & Trade Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Accompanied by the maturing of China-EU political relations beginning in the 1990s,China-EU economic and trade relations have developed significantly each year.Now,theEU has become China's largest trading partner, as well as China's largest technology provider and fourth largest investment source for four consecutive years.China-EU cooperation has been expanded to include more than forty sectors.

  18. Whither the EU-China Strategic Partnership?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanley; Crossick

    2006-01-01

    EU and Chinese leaders met in Helsinki for their ninth bilateral summit on September 9 against a backdrop of growing tensions on trade issues. Only a few days after the summit, the EU requested the establishment of a WTO panel on Chinese auto parts tariffs. A "strategic partnership" between the EU and China was agreed as a joint aim at the EU-China summit in The Hague in December

  19. Environmental Protection and the EU Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Ježová, Zdeňka

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with a mutual relation between the competitiveness and environmental protection in the European Union. At the beginning, there is mentioned, why environmental protection has become an important priority. The main task of this bachelor thesis is to characterize a mutual interaction between environmental and economic objectives in the EU. There is described the EU environmental policy and its impact on the EU competitiveness. The EU strategy to strengthen its competit...

  20. Fundamentals of EU VAT law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doesum, A.; van Kesteren, H.W.M.; van Norden, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Fundamentals of EU VAT Law aims at providing a deep insight into the systematics, the functioning and the principles of the European Value Added Tax (VAT) system. VAT is responsible for generating approximately EUR 903 billion per year in tax revenues across the European Union – revenues that play a

  1. Coping with EU environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner; de Graaf, Kars; Purdy, Ray;

    2015-01-01

    A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...

  2. China vs.EU Protectionism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China files a complaint with the WTO for the first timeagainst the EU’s anti-dumping measures Recently,a trade row between the European Union(EU) and China-the world’s first and third biggesteconomies,respectively-hascaused concerns.

  3. EU ENLARGEMENT AT A CROSSROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Cătălina Paul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to explore the general theme of the EU enlargement strategy in the new 2012 European context. Until now, the EU’s enlargement strategy has yielded impressive results. It succeeded in transforming ten central and eastern European countries from post-communism confusion into open-market, mature and effective systems of democratic governments, and even on the economic front, they have also made astonishing progress. It is no doubt that people in the new EU countries live better then before. In this context, the EU must continue the enlargement process to help stabilize the Balkan region that lie beyond its expanded eastern border. No one can deny that major issues concerning western Balkan countries’ accession are still on the table, and they even exert a geopolitical influence of sorts. This makes it all the more important to see stability and regional co-operation there are strategically vital. An all-out effort must now be made to complete the enlargement process and ensure there is no strategic vacuum. This article provides the framework of analyses for the EU problems and the challenges for the Balkans governments as for Brussels.

  4. Mechanoluminescence and thermoluminescence of BaFCl:Sm 2+ and BaFBr:Sm 2+ crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahme, Nameeta; Shukla, M.; Choubey, A. K.; Kurrey, U.; Bisen, D. P.; Dhoble, S. J.

    2012-05-01

    The alkaline-earth fluorohalide crystals MFX, where M=Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb and X=Cl, Br, I, form an important class of materials crystallizing in the PbFCl-type tetragonal structure which is also called the matlockite structure. These compounds have long been of interest because of the various defect species which can be detected by spin resonance and associated techniques. The crystals were prepared by slow cooling of the melt of a stoichiometric mixture of BaF 2 and the corresponding chloride or bromide under 0.2 bar of ultrapure argon (5N5), often slightly fluorinated. We have studied the mechanoluminescence (ML) of BaFBr:Sm 2+ and BaFCl:Sm 2+ crystals. It is seen that after the impact of a moving piston, initially the ML intensity increases with time, attains a maximum value and then it decreases with time up to a particular minimum value, and then it increases again, attaining a peak value and finally disappears. The first peak lies in the deformation region and the second peak lies in the post-deformation region. The ML intensity of the BaFCl:Sm 2+ crystal is much higher than the ML intensity of the BaFBr:Sm 2+ crystal. For different impact velocities, the ML intensity increases with velocity; and the total ML intensity attains a saturation value for higher impact velocities. The total ML intensity increases with the increase in the applied load. It is suggested that the moving dislocation produced during deformation of crystals captures holes from hole-trapped centers (like H centers), and the subsequent radiative recombination of the dislocation holes with electron gives rise to ML. Thermoluminescence (TL) of BaFBr:Sm 2+ and BaFCl:Sm 2+ crystals was studied after exposure to ultraviolet rays with the help of a TLD reader. The peak of TL for the BaFBr:Sm 2+ crystal is found at ∼247°C and for BaFCl:Sm 2+ crystals at 283°C. The TL intensity initially increases with increase in the UV radiation and then it attains saturation for higher values of UV exposure. The

  5. Decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue Dye Effluent by Advanced Photo Oxidation Process (H2O2/UV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced photo oxidation processes hold great promise for the improved treatment of textile dye effluent. In this study, the effectiveness of a H2O2/UV system for the decolorization of remazol brilliant blue effluent was investigated by examining the optimum conditions for dye removal in two reactors (coil and conventional. The results showed that the coil reactor had a higher temperature profile than the conventional reactor. When the dye was fed into the reactors at 25˚C, UV radiation alone was not effective as the decolorization efficiency of the conventional reactor varied from 0.0 to 12.3%, while that of the coil reactor varied from 0.0 to 7.3%, depending on the residence time used. The effect of UV radiation at 100˚C was also negligible as the maximum decolorization efficiencies were 4.0 and 3.7% for the conventional and the coil reactors, respectively. Increasing the concentration of H2O2 increased decolorization efficiencies of both UV reactors. Dye decolorization also increased with residence time. More than 93% color removal of remazol brilliant blue dye was achieved with a residence time of 56 min and 100% decolorization achieved in 65 min using a H2O2 concentration of 12.50 mL Lˉ1.

  6. Determining Factors for EU Military Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    European Security Strategy,” http://ue.eu.int/ uedocs/cmsUpload /78367.pdf (accessed November 3, 2012). 45Kajsa Ji Noe Oest , “The EU as a Rectant...natolive/index.htm (accessed October 23, 2012). Oest , Kajsa Ji Noe. “The EU as a Reluctant Conflict Manager: The Case of Lebanon 2006.” Master’s thesis

  7. Photocatalytic Degradation of Municipal Wastewater and Brilliant Blue Dye Using Hydrothermally Synthesized Surface-Modified Silver-Doped ZnO Designer Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabasom Parvin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation of local municipal wastewater and brilliant blue FCF dye were investigated using silver-doped ZnO designer particles. The silver-doped ZnO designer particles were synthesized under mild hydrothermal conditions (T = 150–250∘C, =autogeneous, experimental duration = 16–24 h in the presence of surface modifiers. The resultant products were characterized using powder XRD, FTIR, Zeta potential, and SEM. Various parameters including catalyst amount, light source, pH, and photocatalytic time duration were studied to find out their effects on photodegradation efficiency with respect to municipal wastewater and brilliant blue dye. The effect of these parameters was evaluated using chemical oxygen demand (COD and % transmittance analyses. The photodegradation results showed that the surface-modified silver-doped ZnO designer particles had higher efficiency compared to the reagent-grade ZnO in photodegradation of municipal wastewater and brilliant blue dye.

  8. Citrate sol gel synthesis, phase formation, optical-properties and TEM analysis of nanocrystalline TaSr2SmCu2O8 materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, S.; George, Jincymol; Parthiban, P.

    2016-05-01

    We report the citrate sol gel (CSG) derived synthesis of nanocrystalline tantalo-cuprate, TaSr2SmCu2O8 (Ta1212Sm) materials and studied the thermal, phase formation, photoluminescence (PL) and photo-catalytic properties and TEM analysis. Like Ta1212Eu phase, the present Ta1212Sm phase is also successfully crystallized in tetragonal symmetry with lattice parameter, a = 0.3875(1) nm and c = 1.1690(5) nm with average crystalline size of ~61.5 nm upon subsequent annealing of the combustion product at 1100°C for 24 h under O2 atmosphere. The room temperature PL emission spectrum of nanocrystalline Ta1212Sm materials exhibits an emission peak at ~605 nm under excitation wavelength of 404 nm. The photo-degradation (~89 %) of methyl orange (MO) by the Ta1212Sm catalyst in the presence of H2O2 is explored. The TEM micro-images reveal that the particles are in nano-scale and irregular morphology.

  9. Application of monodispersive anion exchangers in sorption and separation of y3+ from Nd3+ and Sm3+ complexes with dcta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Halina Hubicka; Dorota Kolody(n)ska

    2008-01-01

    Rare earth complexes with trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (DCTA) of the Ln(dcta)- ype exhibited an unusual sequence of affinity on the polystyrene anion exchangers: pm3+>Nd3+>Sm3+>pr3+>Ce3+>Eu3+>Gd3+>La3+>Sc3+>Tb3+>Dy3+>Ho3+>y3+>Er3+>Tm3+>yb3+>Lu3+[1]. Taking into account the position of Y3+, Sm3+, and Nd3+ in this affinity series, for the monodispersive polystyrene anion exchangers, Lewafit MonoPlus M 500, Lewatit MonoPlus M 600, Lewatit MonoPlus MP 500, Lewatit MonoPlus MP 64,and for the heterodispersive anion exchanger, Lewatit MP 62, the weight (Dg,) and bed (Dv) distribution coefficients of these complexes and working ion exchange capacities (Cw) were determined. Based on these values, purifications of Y3+ from Nd3+ and y3+ from Sm3+ in the macro-micro component system on these anion exchangers were studied. The application potential of this method was highlighted for the separation of yz3+ in the presence of Nd3+ and Sm3+. With 1 L of monodispersive and strongly basic polystyrene gel anion exchanger Lewatit MonoPlus M 500 in the acetate form, it is possible to obtain approximately 79 g Y2O3 purified from Nd2O3 and 70 g Y2O3 purified from Sm2O3 in the same process condition.

  10. Structure and Evolution of EU Budget Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Mihaela Florea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although small size, representing only 1% of EU wealth, its budget is an important tool for achieving the objectives of integration. Basically, in one form or another, every EU citizen benefits from the EU budget at the local, national and European level: food and safer toys, new roads and better quality of security at EU borders. These are just a few examples of areas where the EU budget plays a decisive role. To fulfil its objectives, the European Union has traditional own resources, the VAT - based own resources and the GNI- based resources.

  11. Simultaneous in situ determination of U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopes in monazite by laser ablation ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudie, Dylan J.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Hanchar, John M.; Crowley, James L.; Ayers, John C.

    2014-06-01

    are presented for in situ simultaneous determination of U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopes in monazite using the Laser Ablation Split-Stream (LASS) method. This method uses a laser ablation system coupled to a magnetic-sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR) (ICP-MS) for measuring U-Pb isotopes and a multicollector (MC) ICP-MS for measuring Sm-Nd isotopes. Ablated material is split using a Y-connector and transported simultaneously to both mass spectrometers. In addition to Sm and Nd isotopes, the MC-ICP-MS is configured to also acquire Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd elemental abundances. This approach provides age, tracer isotope, and trace element data in the same ablation volume, reducing sampling problems associated with fine-scale zoning in accessory minerals and minimizing the material needed for ablation. Precision and accuracy of the U-Pb method (and the precision of the Sm-Nd method) is demonstrated with results from well-characterized monazite reference materials. The LASS results agree within uncertainty with the isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) U-Pb dates. The accuracy of the Sm-Nd method is assessed by comparing the LA-MC-ICP-MS results with ID-TIMS determinations on a well-characterized, in-house monazite reference material. The LASS method is then applied to monazite from the Birch Creek Pluton in the White Mountains of California as a case study to illustrate the utility of this method for solving geologic problems. The U-Pb ages and Sm-Nd isotopic data from the LASS method support the conclusions drawn from previous results that monazite can record timing and information about the source region(s) of hydrothermal fluids.

  12. Design and Fabrication of Eu-Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Venkat Sai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available EU-Cycle is a self balancing electric unicycle. A regular unicycle is powered by pedal and is balanced by a rider, whilst the EU-Cycle runs by an electric motor and balance by control system in the roll direction. The simple thing to do by rider is to lean forward for acceleration, to lean backward for braking. EU-Cycle is designed as to be a fast and portable means of transport among crowded area, home and office. Therefore, The EU-Cycle gives tough challenge to the unicycle. EU-Cycle has attracted print media including future stories in radio, television. Thus in addition to successful development of EU-Cycle in urban use, the project has to implement the EU-cycle as an educative device.

  13. Menneskerettigheder og handelspolitik i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    between acting ethically and being competitive? I think not. It is not an either / or. When I started researching the area was my attitude: "I do not care. I think it is worth the cost." Now, my attitude changed. If you actually look at improvements in working conditions, whether it comes to agricultural...... no tradition of democracy, the EU insisted that they adopted a certain level of human rights. At about the same time there was an innovation in development policy and a desire to link development aid with the promotion of human rights. Only then began to find a way into trade policy. Historically, the EU...... or industrial production, it does not mean that they are less productive. That was not the case in Europe 200 years ago, and this is not the case in developing countries now. The relationship between the employer and the employee changes. This results in a more engaged workforce. About Human Rights You...

  14. EU Legitimacy and Social Affiliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Jan Sture Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of European governance usually put the member states in the foreground, placing the citizens in the background. This article brings explanations of EU legitimacy down to the level of individuals. A method is suggested that combines explanations based on individual interests and a sociolo......Analyses of European governance usually put the member states in the foreground, placing the citizens in the background. This article brings explanations of EU legitimacy down to the level of individuals. A method is suggested that combines explanations based on individual interests...... and a sociological approach to identity. The paper investigates how work organisations become levers for a European outlook that may release legitimising from its national context. The individual level analysis is carried out for one particular occupational group (engineers) and the research questions are elucidated...

  15. Good Governance in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Livioara GOGA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the EU adhesion, good governance has been analyzed from different perspectives, in the judicial literature being an analytic model or a normative concept. Some authors have wondered if this concept is a fashion, comprising some older ideas and principles, while other authors have asserted that the reasons why different methods of governance appear in the EU are based on “the complexity and the uncertainty of the problems on the agenda, an irreducible, the new approaches on public administration and law, hidden competencies, legitimacy and subsidiarity”. At a normative level, the White Paper of European Governance consecrated five principles on which good governance is based upon: openness, participation, responsibility, efficiency and coherence.

  16. Limits of Evidence within EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of admissibility of evidence has been regulated only very scarcely in the EU. Judicial cooperation in criminal matters has been embracing the increasing number of instruments, covering plethora of aspects, however, the field of admissibility of evidence remains almost untouched. Can the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice be called the Common Evidence Area? From the national perspective, the issue of admissibility of evidence is still subject to divergent solutions in the Member States, concerning the common law and continental law systems, i.e. the right of access to a lawyer. Thus, the paper aims to take into account the tendencies of legal rule in matter of admissibility of evidence, the dynamic of evidence movement within EU area.

  17. EU Legitimacy and Social Affiliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Jan Sture Gunnar

    Analyses of European governance usually bring the member states into the fore placing the citizens in the background. By means of economic analysis, this paper brings explanations of EU legitimacy down to the level of individuals. A method will be suggested that combines explanations based......) and the research questions are elucidated by a small number of interviews with Danish engineers concerning their experience of policies and actions with technological knowledge...

  18. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  19. Luminescent Afterglow Behavior in the M2Si5N8: Eu Family (M = Ca, Sr, Ba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Van den Eeckhout

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Persistent luminescent materials are able to emit light for hours after being excited. The majority of persistent phosphors emit in the blue or green region of the visible spectrum. Orange- or red-emitting phosphors, strongly desired for emergency signage and medical imaging, are scarce. We prepared the nitrido-silicates Ca2Si5N8:Eu (orange, Sr2Si5N8:Eu (reddish, Ba2Si5N8:Eu (yellowish orange, and their rare-earth codoped variants (R = Nd, Dy, Sm, Tm through a solid state reaction, and investigated their luminescence and afterglow properties. In this paper, we describe how the persistent luminescence is affected by the type of codopant and the choice and ratio of the starting products. All the materials exhibit some form of persistent luminescence, but for Sr2Si5N8:Eu,R this is very weak. In Ba2Si5N8:Eu the afterglow remains visible for about 400 s, and Ca2Si5N8:Eu,Tm shows the brightest and longest afterglow, lasting about 2,500 s. For optimal persistent luminescence, the dopant and codopant should be added in their fluoride form, in concentrations below 1 mol%. A Ca3N2 deficiency of about 5% triples the afterglow intensity. Our results show that Ba2Si5N8:Eu(,R and Ca2Si5N8:Eu(,R are promising persistent phosphors for applications requiring orange or red light.

  20. Experimental Study on Decolorization and Degradation of Reactive Brilliant Red X—3B in a White Rot Fungal Biofilm Reacor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGMin-sheng; HUANGRong; 等

    2001-01-01

    Experimental results of an azo dye(reactive brilliant red X-3B,RBR X-3B) decolorization and degradation in a white rot fungal biofilm reactor were introduced and discussed.The fungal biofilm reactor is highly potential for dye decolorization and degradation with the highest decoloring rate of 95% within 96 hours reaction time at initial pH 4.5 under high nirogen level (HN) (24mmol/L ammonium tartrate)condition.Experimental conditions.such as nutrient nitrogen levels in reaction mixture and initial pH,significantly affected dye decolorization and degradation.Effluents from this bioilm reactor can be well treated to meet the discharging requirements by use of chemical flocculation.RBR X-3B was first absorbed onto fungal biomass and then degraded gradually,The SH-13 fungus monopolized the biofilm throughout the experiments,though the reactor was exposed to open air for 4 months.

  1. De-colorization of reactive brilliant Orange X-GN by a novel rotating electrochemical disc process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Dengjie; YANG Ji; XU Yunlan; JIA Jinping; WANG Yalin; SUN Tonghua

    2008-01-01

    A novel electrochemical setup for wastewater treatment-Rotating Electrochemical Disc Process (RECDP) is developed in this article. The anode and cathode are distributed alternatively and evenly on a flat round disc, which was designed to improve mass transfer of organics from bulk solution to electrode surface, while at the same time increasing oxygen transfer from air to the liquid to benefit the organics oxidization. The color removal of dye Reactive Brilliant Orange X-GN (RBO) was experimentally investigated using the setup. The results show that the RECDP could efficiently remove the color by 99.5% after 60-min electrolysis. The influence of factors such as the disc rotating speed, current intensity, pH and treating time was also explored, and the de-colorization mechanism was studied with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), UV-Vis, and IR. It has been confirmed that the free radicals oxidization leads to the dye de-coloration.

  2. Governance in EU illicit drugs policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Carel; Galla, Maurice

    2014-09-01

    This commentary represents the authors' views on EU governance in illicit drug policy, a field in which they were active for more than 10 years between them. EU drug policy has a narrow legal basis in the European Treaties and is mostly non-binding. The main policy instruments are 8-year EU Drug Strategies, underpinned by 4-year Action Plans which set out specific objectives at national, EU or international level. The approach that guides EU drug policy is known as the 'balanced approach'. It is remarkably restrained and reflects the reality that very few Member States have either the socio-political culture or the resources to consistently apply the punitive sanctions foreseen by the UN conventions. An important feature of EU governance in the field of drugs is the proactive support that is provided to non-governmental organisations both within the EU as well as in accession, associated or third countries. At a global level, the EU is a major financial aid donor also in this field. This position is not however reflected in corresponding political clout for the EU within the UN system. EU governance on drugs has made it possible for many of its Member States to accommodate the problem rather than to "solve" what by all the evidence from the last 100 years may well be insoluble, at least by means of criminalisation and prohibition. The big question is where EU drug policy is headed in the next few years. The EU has been promoting measures and practices that target real problems. It has done so without indulging too much in unhelpful rhetoric. However, like all successful formulae this one also has a sell-by date. EU governance in the field of drugs cannot afford to stand still. It needs to find a second wind.

  3. The Frequency of "Brilliant" and "Genius" in Teaching Evaluations Predicts the Representation of Women and African Americans across Fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Storage

    Full Text Available Women and African Americans-groups targeted by negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities-may be underrepresented in careers that prize brilliance and genius. A recent nationwide survey of academics provided initial support for this possibility. Fields whose practitioners believed that natural talent is crucial for success had fewer female and African American PhDs. The present study seeks to replicate this initial finding with a different, and arguably more naturalistic, measure of the extent to which brilliance and genius are prized within a field. Specifically, we measured field-by-field variability in the emphasis on these intellectual qualities by tallying-with the use of a recently released online tool-the frequency of the words "brilliant" and "genius" in over 14 million reviews on RateMyProfessors.com, a popular website where students can write anonymous evaluations of their instructors. This simple word count predicted both women's and African Americans' representation across the academic spectrum. That is, we found that fields in which the words "brilliant" and "genius" were used more frequently on RateMyProfessors.com also had fewer female and African American PhDs. Looking at an earlier stage in students' educational careers, we found that brilliance-focused fields also had fewer women and African Americans obtaining bachelor's degrees. These relationships held even when accounting for field-specific averages on standardized mathematics assessments, as well as several competing hypotheses concerning group differences in representation. The fact that this naturalistic measure of a field's focus on brilliance predicted the magnitude of its gender and race gaps speaks to the tight link between ability beliefs and diversity.

  4. The Frequency of "Brilliant" and "Genius" in Teaching Evaluations Predicts the Representation of Women and African Americans across Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage, Daniel; Horne, Zachary; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Women and African Americans-groups targeted by negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities-may be underrepresented in careers that prize brilliance and genius. A recent nationwide survey of academics provided initial support for this possibility. Fields whose practitioners believed that natural talent is crucial for success had fewer female and African American PhDs. The present study seeks to replicate this initial finding with a different, and arguably more naturalistic, measure of the extent to which brilliance and genius are prized within a field. Specifically, we measured field-by-field variability in the emphasis on these intellectual qualities by tallying-with the use of a recently released online tool-the frequency of the words "brilliant" and "genius" in over 14 million reviews on RateMyProfessors.com, a popular website where students can write anonymous evaluations of their instructors. This simple word count predicted both women's and African Americans' representation across the academic spectrum. That is, we found that fields in which the words "brilliant" and "genius" were used more frequently on RateMyProfessors.com also had fewer female and African American PhDs. Looking at an earlier stage in students' educational careers, we found that brilliance-focused fields also had fewer women and African Americans obtaining bachelor's degrees. These relationships held even when accounting for field-specific averages on standardized mathematics assessments, as well as several competing hypotheses concerning group differences in representation. The fact that this naturalistic measure of a field's focus on brilliance predicted the magnitude of its gender and race gaps speaks to the tight link between ability beliefs and diversity.

  5. Sm2+ sensitization of Nd3+ solid state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A.; Chase, L. L.

    1986-08-01

    We have measured the Sm2→Nd3+ energy transfer efficiency in CaF2 and have found that the transfer ocurs through the dipole-dipole interaction. Although efficiencies of 0.9 can be achieved with reasonable levels of Nd3+ doping, the Sm2+ luminescence begins to quench at T≳220K.

  6. The crystallization of Al-Sm amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzi, P. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Inorganica; Baricco, M. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Inorganica; Battezzati, L. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Inorganica; Schumacher, P. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science; Greer, A.L. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science

    1995-12-31

    Amorphous alloys with composition Al{sub 100-x}Sm{sub x} (8 {<=} x {<=} 14) have been prepared by melt spinning in controlled atmosphere. The quenching conditions significantly influence the microstructure of as-quenched samples and their crystallization mechanisms. The crystallization was followed by means of DSC, XRD, TEM and SEM. Different mechanisms are observed as a function of composition. For low Sm content (Al{sub 92}Sm{sub 8}), a primary crystallization occurs at about 180 C, with the formation of Al nanocrystals with a grain size of about 15 nm. A polymorphic crystallization is found in Al{sub 90}Sm{sub 10}, with the formation of a metastable intermetallic phase at about 220 C. For higher Sm content (Al{sub 88}Sm{sub 12} and Al{sub 86}Sm{sub 14}), a eutectic crystallization at about 230 C gives a mixture of stable (Al and Al{sub 11}Sm{sub 3}) and metastable phases. (orig.)

  7. GIFTS SM EDU Radiometric and Spectral Calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J.; Reisse, R. a.; Johnson, D. G.; Gazarik, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Sensor Module (SM) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is a high resolution spectral imager designed to measure infrared (IR) radiance using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The GIFTS instrument gathers measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. This paper describes the processing algorithms involved in the calibration. The calibration procedures can be subdivided into three categories: the pre-calibration stage, the calibration stage, and finally, the post-calibration stage. Detailed derivations for each stage are presented in this paper.

  8. Cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on $^{nat}$Sm for production of the therapeutic radionuclide $^{145}$Sm and $^{153}$Sm

    CERN Document Server

    Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Ditrói, F; Csikai, J; Ignatyuk, A V

    2014-01-01

    At present, targeted radiotherapy (TR) is acknowledged to have great potential in oncology. A large list of interesting radionuclides is identified, including several radioisotopes of lanthanides, amongst them $^{145}$Sm and $^{153}$Sm. In this work the possibility of their production at a cyclotron was investigated using a deuteron beam and a samarium target. The excitation functions of the $^{nat}$Sm(d,x)$^{145153}$Sm reactions were determined for deuteron energies up to 50 MeV using the stacked-foil technique and high-resolution $\\gamma$-ray spectrometry. The measured cross sections and the contributing reactions were analyzed by comparison with results of the ALICE, EMPIRE and TALYS nuclear reaction codes. A short overview and comparison of possible production routes is given.

  9. GIFTS SM EDU Level 1B algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jialin; Gazarik, Michael J.; Reisse, Robert A.; Johnson, David G.

    2007-10-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Sensor Module (SM) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is a high resolution spectral imager designed to measure infrared (IR) radiances using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The GIFTS instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. This paper describes the GIFTS SM EDU Level 1B algorithms involved in the calibration. The GIFTS Level 1B calibration procedures can be subdivided into four blocks. In the first block, the measured raw interferograms are first corrected for the detector nonlinearity distortion, followed by the complex filtering and decimation procedure. In the second block, a phase correction algorithm is applied to the filtered and decimated complex interferograms. The resulting imaginary part of the spectrum contains only the noise component of the uncorrected spectrum. Additional random noise reduction can be accomplished by applying a spectral smoothing routine to the phase-corrected spectrum. The phase correction and spectral smoothing operations are performed on a set of interferogram scans for both ambient and hot blackbody references. To continue with the calibration, we compute the spectral responsivity based on the previous results, from which, the calibrated ambient blackbody (ABB), hot blackbody (HBB), and scene spectra can be obtained. We now can estimate the noise equivalent spectral radiance (NESR) from the calibrated ABB and HBB spectra. The correction schemes that compensate for the fore-optics offsets and off-axis effects are also implemented. In the third block, we developed an efficient method of generating pixel performance assessments. In addition, a

  10. GIFTS SM EDU Level 1B Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jialin; Gazarik, Michael J.; Reisse, Robert A.; Johnson, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) SensorModule (SM) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is a high resolution spectral imager designed to measure infrared (IR) radiances using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The GIFTS instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. This paper describes the GIFTS SM EDU Level 1B algorithms involved in the calibration. The GIFTS Level 1B calibration procedures can be subdivided into four blocks. In the first block, the measured raw interferograms are first corrected for the detector nonlinearity distortion, followed by the complex filtering and decimation procedure. In the second block, a phase correction algorithm is applied to the filtered and decimated complex interferograms. The resulting imaginary part of the spectrum contains only the noise component of the uncorrected spectrum. Additional random noise reduction can be accomplished by applying a spectral smoothing routine to the phase-corrected spectrum. The phase correction and spectral smoothing operations are performed on a set of interferogram scans for both ambient and hot blackbody references. To continue with the calibration, we compute the spectral responsivity based on the previous results, from which, the calibrated ambient blackbody (ABB), hot blackbody (HBB), and scene spectra can be obtained. We now can estimate the noise equivalent spectral radiance (NESR) from the calibrated ABB and HBB spectra. The correction schemes that compensate for the fore-optics offsets and off-axis effects are also implemented. In the third block, we developed an efficient method of generating pixel performance assessments. In addition, a

  11. Micromagnetic Simulation of Magnetization Reversal in SmCo5/Sm2Co17 Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣传兵; 张宏伟; 杜晓波; 张健; 张绍英; 沈保根

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element micromagnetic algorithm was developed to study the magnetization reversal of the SmCo5/Sm2Co17 based magnets. The influences of the microstructure and magnetic parameters on the coercivity were studied based on the model consisting of 64 irregular cells according to the experimental microstructure. Numerical results show that the coercivity increases with increasing the 2∶17-type cell size. Large cell boundary thickness leads to small coercivity. The drop of anisotropy constant of 1∶5 phase leads to the coercivity reducing, while the effect of exchange constant of 1∶5 phase on coercivity is contrary to that of exchange constant. The calculated field dependence of coercivity can be predicted by an inhomogeneous domain-wall pinning model. The microstructure parameter was analyzed by comparing the calculated coercivity.

  12. Synthesis and sintering of samarium rich SmSxand its electrical property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Li; Shinji Hirai; Yohei Tasaki

    2016-01-01

    Non-stoichiometric samarium monosulfide (SmSx, 0.55≤x≤1.2) was synthesized from Sm2S3and SmH3at 1273 K for 3 h under vacuum. The influence of reaction ratio of Sm2S3to SmH3on the fabrication of SmSxwas investigated. The fabrication of SmS required the molarratio of Sm2S3to SmH3above 1. Lattice parameter of synthetic SmSxincreasedfirstly and then decreasedto satu-rate following with the addition of SmH3content. SmSxcompact was sintered at 1373 K by spark plasma sintering. Density of syn-theticSmSxwas about 99% of theory density. Seebeck coefficient of n-type semiconductor SmSxdecreasedas temperature rose. The absolute valuewas distributed between 170–280 μV/K. The electrical resistivity of SmSx(0.86≤x≤1.07) decreasedwith tem-perature increasing and showedsimilar temperature dependence. The surplus Sm which randomly distributed in the SmSx (0.55≤x≤0.75) matrix led to a remarked reduction of electricalresistivity. The optimized power factor for SmS0.6and SmS0.75 couldreach 1500 μW/(K2·m)at 600 K.

  13. Financial Integration into EU: The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bozkurt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of integration between stock market of Romania and other stock markets of European Union (EU countries. Correlations between the stock returns represent the level of integration between the stock markets. Empirical analysis are performed with daily stock returns of 24 EU members including Romania for 2002-2012 period using panel data gravity models and correlations are investigated. Findings reveal that the following factors have significant and robust effects on the financial integration process of Romania with other 23 EU members; (i EU membership, (ii bilateral trade, (iii GDP per capita, (iv 2012 sovereign debt crisis and (v East European location. The results emphasize that intensifying economic relations with EU members can contribute the integration of Romanian stock market with other EU members. designed & hoste

  14. Issues Related to EU's Foreign Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The European Union (EU) is widely regarded as an important international actor, and usually referred to as a big power like the U. S. , Russia, China and Japan. So naturally the foreign policy of the EU has caught attention of both officials and scholars over the world. However, the EU is also a combination of sovereign states, its foreign policy is different from others, and perhaps this is often ignored. For instance, unlike a single nation state, the EU's influence and power are different in various policy fields due to its different ways of decision-making and implementation. Also, different from the common currency, the forming of the common foreign policy of the EU doesn't mean the disappearance of respective member state's foreign policy. Only seeing or emphasizing one respect will lead to a misunderstanding of the EU. Moreover, as a unique "supranational and intergovernmental" organization in the world, the EU has too many complex institutions, names and terms. Of course, the situation is not better in the field of foreign policy, and it easily leads to confusion and misunderstanding. It is also necessary to point out that the EU is still in the process of evolvement, and in particular, as one of the major reforms of the EU in recent years, the foreign policy-making mechanism has been in the center of change and adjustment. It is no doubt that this adds to the difficulties of studying and understanding the EU's foreign policy. In a word, the author thinks it is necessary to raise some major issues related to the EU's foreign policy and delve into it in connecting with the EU's current development.

  15. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  16. Detection of antifungal properties in Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei SM20, SM29, and SM63 and molecular typing of the strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenninger, Susanne Miescher; von Ah, Ueli; Niederer, Brigitte; Teuber, Michael; Meile, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacilli isolated from different food and feed samples such as raw milk, cheese, yoghurt, olives, sour dough, as well as corn and grass silage, were screened for their antifungal activities. Out of 1,424 isolates tested, 82 were shown to be inhibitory to different yeasts (Candida spp. and Zygosaccharomyces bailii) and a Penicillium sp., which were previously isolated from spoiled yoghurt and fruits. Carbohydrate fermentation patterns suggested that a substantial portion, 25%, belonged to the Lactobacillus casei group, including L. casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus. The isolates SM20 (DSM14514), SM29 (DSM14515), and SM63 (DSM14516) were classified by PCR using species-specific primers to target the corresponding type strains (L. casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus) as controls. Further molecular typing methods such as randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene allowed classifying strains SM20, SM29, and SM63 as L. paracasei subsp. paracasei in accordance with the new reclassification of the L. casei group proposed by Collins et al.

  17. Shorter 146Sm half-life and revised 146Sm-142Nd ages of planetary mantle differentiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kinoshita, N; Kashiv, Y; Collon, P; Deibel, C M; DiGiovine, B; Greene, J P; Henderson, D J; Jiang, C L; Marley, S T; Nakanishi, T; Pardo, R C; Rehm, K E; Robertson, D; Scott, R; Schmitt, C; Tang, X D; Vondrasek, R; Yokoyama, A

    2011-01-01

    The extinct short-lived nuclide 146Sm, synthesized in stellar events by the p-process, serves as both an astrophysical and geochemical chronometer through measurements of isotopic anomalies of its alpha-decay daughter 142Nd. Evidence of live 146Sm, quantitatively established for the early Solar System, constrains the time between p-process nucleosynthesis and condensation of the first solid materials. Samarium-146 is used also to date silicate mantle differentiation events in a number of planetary bodies, including Earth. We performed a new measurement of the 146Sm half-life and our result, t = 68\\pm7 (1sigma) million year (Ma), is significantly shorter than the value currently used for 146Sm-142Nd chronology (103\\pm5 Ma). We show here that the shorter 146Sm half-life value implies a higher initial Solar System ratio, (146Sm/144Sm)_0 = 0.0094\\pm0.0005 (2sigma), than the recently derived value 0.0085\\pm0.0007, or that used in most studies 0.008\\pm0.001. Planetary differentiation processes dated by 146Sm-142Nd ...

  18. Den brede, folkelige debat om EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    2005-01-01

    I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet.......I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet....

  19. EU agricultural domestic support in GTAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, Pierre; Philippidis, George; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    9 includes EU domestic support which follows the approach adopted in the previous releases (Jensen, 2009, 2010). The difference is for pillar 1 support for which the CATS data are used (in previous GTAP database releases, pillar 1 support was based on EAGF financial reports). All together EU...... currently defined as General Services Support Estimate (GSSE) by the OECD). Finally, introducing this new accounting convention for the EU domestic support in the GTAP database would lead to data discrepancies with other non-EU countries and/or regions, jeopardising robust comparative analysis....

  20. Wage Implications at EU Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron Dumitrescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In all conditions of time and space, economic activity necessarily involves active work as a determinant factor of production and beneficiary of its results. In the market economy, labor services are provided to production, as with the other factors of production, through market transactions. This article aims labor factor, the role and characteristics of labor as a production factor and the employment in the EU. As a secondary market, labor market is influenced by other markets and generates, in turn, effects that are found in all other structures of the market economy system

  1. Sm-Nd dating and REE Composition of scheelite for the Honghuaerji scheelite deposit, Inner Mongolia, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhijun; Li, Jinwen; Xu, Xinying; Song, Zeyou; Dong, Xuzhou; Tian, Jing; Yang, Yuncheng; She, Hongquan; Xiang, Anping; Kang, Yongjian

    2016-09-01

    Sm-Nd analyses of seven scheelite samples from scheelite-quartz veins in the Honghuaerji scheelite deposit produce a well-defined linear array on an isochron diagram with a mean square weighted deviation (MSWD) of 0.87 corresponding to an age of 178.4 ± 2.9 Ma with εNd(t) = + 1.50. This age is interpreted to represent the age of scheelite mineralization. The scheelite Sm-Nd age is in good agreement with U-Pb ages obtained from a mineralization-related granite (179.4 ~ 178.6 Ma), indicating that there is no apparent age gap between granite crystallization and ore formation. Rare earth element (REE) abundances in the scheelite were determined by in situ laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and the scheelite samples contain elevated REE concentrations with total ΣREE + Y contents in the range of 3339 to 6321 ppm. The chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns of all scheelites are middle REE (MREE)-enriched, with strong negative Eu-anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.09 ~ 0.23). The REE characteristics of the Honghuaerji scheelite suggest that REE3 + substituted into the Ca site along with Na and Nb (dominated by Na), whereas Eu is predominantly present as Eu2 + in the scheelite and may have crystallized from relatively reduced fluids. All sulfur isotope data (δ34S) for sulfide separates range from + 2.0 to + 3.8‰, with an average of 3.2‰. Measured 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios vary from 18.243 to 18.451, 15.494 to 15.574, and 37.933 to 38.340, respectively. On the basis of common Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic characteristics between the scheelite and the host granite and the positive initial Nd isotope ratios (+ 1.46 - + 1.52), low 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.704983-0.705297) in the scheelites, it is inferred that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for tungsten mineralization at Honghuaerji were of magmatic origin with a mantle-derived signature. Based on the regional geology, tectonic evolution, and geochemical evidence, the

  2. Effects of saline-alkaline stress on benzo[a]pyrene biotransformation and ligninolytic enzyme expression by Bjerkandera adusta SM46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Ade; Tachibana, Sanro; Itoh, Kazutaka

    2016-03-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) accumulates in marine organisms and contaminated coastal areas. The biotreatment of waste water using saline-alkaline-tolerant white rot fungi (WRF) represents a promising method for removing BaP under saline-alkaline conditions based on WRF's ability to produce ligninolytic enzymes. In a pre-screening for degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of 82 fungal strains using Remazol brilliant blue R, Bjerkandera adusta SM46 exhibited the highest tolerance to saline-alkaline stress. Moreover, a B. adusta culture grown in BaP-containing liquid medium exhibited resistance to salinities up to 20 g l(-1). These conditions did not inhibit fungal growth or the expression of manganese peroxidase (MnP) or lignin peroxidase (LiP). The degradation rate also became higher as salinity increased to 20 g l(-1). Fungal growth and enzyme expression were inhibited at a salinity of 35 g l(-1). These inhibitory effects directly decreased the degradation rate (>24%). The presence of MnSO4 as an inducer improved the degradation rate and enzyme expression. MnP and LiP activity also increased by seven- and fivefold, respectively. SM46 degraded BaP (38-89% over 30 days) in an acidic environment (pH 4.5) and under saline-alkaline stress conditions (pH 8.2). Investigating the metabolites produced revealed BaP-1,6-dione as the main product, indicating the important role of ligninolytic enzymes in initializing BaP cleavage. The other metabolites detected, naphthalene acetic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, benzoic acid, and catechol, may have been ring fission products. The wide range of activities observed suggests that B. adusta SM46 is a potential agent for biodegrading BaP under saline conditions.

  3. Assessment of microseeds biodegradability of Sm and Sm:Ba splenic implants in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Savio Lana; Barroso, Thiago Vinicius Villar [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Anatomia; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2009-07-01

    The radioactive interstitial implants have applications in controlling neoplasm in several regions of the human body. Currently the permanent brachytherapy seeds implanted in the spleen and other organs are made of I-125 seeds. After the total emission of radiation, the metal encapsulated seed remains inert in the implanted area. Seeds of bioactive ceramics have been prepared with Sm-152 incorporation to be activated in Sm-153. This study aimed to develop surgical technique for implanting biodegradable micro-seeds in the spleen of the rabbit. Three micro-seeds were introduced by hypodermic needle in the spleen in eight rabbits by median laparotomy. Subsequently, there were clinical and functional reactions of the animal to the implanted foreign body. The other objective was to perform the animal monitoring by radiography, produced in time sequence, and pathological studies of a fragment of the spleens of rabbits. The results show the effectiveness of surgery, the identification of the implanted material by radiography in vivo, and the biocompatibility of micro-seeds most of Sm and Sm:Ba. These seeds of reduced volume, 0.3x 1.6 mm, could be monitored for radiological studies in 2 periods: early and later implant. On the later studies, radiography was taken at 60d post-implant. Biopsies were taken and radiographs of the samples were also performed for evidencing the degradation state of the seeds. The results of the two groups of four rabbits are presented. They show partial degradation of the seed verified by radiographic contrast which is related to the atomic number of the elements and mass density in the seed. The biopsy showed that the ceramic is clearly absorbed by the spleen tissue and form tissue-implant interface. The histological slides showed an inflammatory reaction with presence of fibrosis of the giant cell foreign body. In conclusion, the radiograph shows a suitable noninvasive technique for monitoring the degradation of micro-seed ceramics in vivo

  4. REE composition in scheelite and scheelite Sm-Nd dating for the Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be deposit in Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; DENG Jun; LI ChaoFeng; SHI GuangHai; ZHENG AiLi

    2007-01-01

    The scheelite with large size and euhedral shape from Xuebaoding, Sichuan Province is an ideal mineral to study REE patterns and Sm-Nd dating of non-gold deposits. The scheelite has diameters of 1―10 cm and colors of pale beige to deep orange. Most of these scheelites occur in association with beryl, cassiterite and muscovite. The rare earth elements indicate that scheelite samples from Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be deposits contain high concentrations of rare earth elements with total ΣREE+Y contents in the range of 369―1725 μg·g(-)1 and nearly all of these scheelite samples are enriched in LREE and depleted in HREE and have negative Eu anomalies. The REE patterns of the scheelites are similar to those of A-type granite with obvious tetrad effect, similar to that of type II scheelites. Based on reported fluid inclusion studies, the mineralizing-fluid of the Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be deposit indicates low Na activity. The REE patterns of the scheelite are probably controlled by partition coefficient in hydrothermal fluid. In the 147Sm/144Nd-143Nd/144Nd diagram, the scheelites show a linear array corresponding to an isochron age of 182.0±9.2 Ma (MSWD = 0.52). The Sm-Nd age represents the formation age of the scheelite and can indicate that the W, Sn and Be mineralization at Xuebaoding took place in the Early Yanshanian. The Sm-Nd dating result is important for the study of the multi-metal resources in western Sichuan Province.

  5. Eestimaa.eu kuulub lätlasele ja riik.eu hollandlasele / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Zone Medias eu domeeninimesid registreeriva Jaanus Puttingu hinnangul on Eesti riik olnud passiivne EL-i domeeninime .eu sisaldavate lehekülgede kaitsmisel, sajad Eestile olulised domeeninimed on juba nii siinsete kui ka piiritaguste inimeste käes. Lisa: Rahvaliit.eu kuulub kinnisvaraportaalile

  6. Tuning Mixed-Valent Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) in Strontium Formate Frameworks for Multichannel Photoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Lijia; Wang, Yanlong; Chen, Lanhua; McLeod, John A; Yang, Linju; Zhao, Jia; Liu, Zhiyong; Diwu, Juan; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Liu, Guokui; Wang, Shuao

    2016-08-01

    Cooperative performance of mixed-valent Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) in single-compound phosphors offers significant advantages in color rendering and luminescence efficiency, but their synthesis is challenging because of Eu(2+) oxidation. Using the tunable nature of the metal-ion nodes in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), we present an in situ reduction and crystallization route for preparing MOFs and doping Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) with a controlled ratio. These materials exhibit rich photoluminescence, including intrinsic- and sensitized-emissions of Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) , and long-lived luminescence from charge transfer. Color rendering can be easily achieved by fine-tuning the valence states of Eu. A linear relation between temperature and the intensity ratio of Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) emissions provides outstanding properties for applications as self-calibrated luminescent thermometers with a wide working temperature range. Further incorporation of Tb(3+) into the MOFs results in white light, utilizing all Eu(2+) ,Tb(3+) , and Eu(3+) emissions in a single crystalline lattice.

  7. EU-China Partenariat 2006:Tailor-made Opportunities for SMEs of EU and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franz Jessen

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2006 EU-China Partenariat 2006, the large-scale business-to-business event which will link almost one thousand European and Chinese companies is indeed a highly appropriate way to further enhance the already excellent relations between the EU and China moreover as this is the very year that we are celebrating 30 years of EU-China diplomatic ties.

  8. Education of EU Migrant Children in EU Member States. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Emma; Herrera, Facundo; Stepanek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This policy brief looks at the education of EU migrant children in the context of intra-EU mobility. It examines some of the literature and data on the topic in order to identify key differences between EU migrant children and non-migrant children. There are disparities in educational performance between migrants and non-migrants. The brief…

  9. Management by objectives in EU rural development policy : lessons from the EU cohesion and water policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roza, P.; Terluin, I.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study it is explored which ideas the EU cohesion policy and the EU water policy provide for the introduction of management by objectives in the EU rural development policy. Such an introduction may give rise to both flexibilities and inflexibilities. On the one hand management by objectives

  10. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  11. EuAu3Al2: Crystal and Electronic Structures and Spectroscopic, Magnetic, and Magnetocaloric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiegel, Jan-Patrick; Block, Theresa; Gerke, Birgit; Fickenscher, Thomas; Touzani, Rachid St; Fokwa, Boniface P T; Janka, Oliver

    2016-09-06

    The intermetallic compound EuAu3Al2 has been prepared by reaction of the elements in tantalum ampules. The structure was refined from single-crystal data, indicating that the title compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system (a = 1310.36(4), b = 547.87(1), c = 681.26(2) pm) with space group Pnma (wR2 = 0.0266, 1038 F(2) values, 35 parameters) and is isostructural to SrAu3Al2 (LT-SrZn5 type). Full ordering of the gold and aluminum atoms was observed. Theoretical calculations confirm that the title compound can be described as a polar intermetallic phase containing a polyanionic [Au3Al2](δ-) network featuring interconnected strands of edge-sharing [AlAu4] tetrahedra. Magnetic measurements and (151)Eu Mössbauer spectroscopic investigations confirmed the divalent character of the europium atoms. Ferromagnetic ordering below TC = 16.5(1) K was observed. Heat capacity measurements showed a λ-type anomaly at T = 15.7(1) K, in line with the ordering temperature from the susceptibility measurements. The magnetocaloric properties of EuAu3Al2 were determined, and a magnetic entropy of ΔSM = -4.8 J kg(-1) K(-1) for a field change of 0 to 50 kOe was determined. Band structure calculations found that the f-bands of Eu present at the Fermi level of non-spin-polarized calculations are responsible for the ferromagnetic ordering in this phase, whereas COHP chemical bonding coupled with Bader charge analysis confirmed the description of the structure as covalently bonded polyanionic [Au3Al2](δ-) network interacting ionically with Eu(δ+).

  12. Thermal neutron capture cross sections for the {sup 152}Sm(n,{gamma}){sup 153}Sm and {sup 154}Sm(n,{gamma}){sup 155}Sm reactions at 0.0536 eV energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M.S. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, GPO Box No. 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: shuza88@yahoo.co.in; Chowdhury, M.H. [Department of Physics, Comilla Victoria Government College, Comilla (Bangladesh); Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Hossain, S.M.; Latif, Sk.A.; Islam, M.A.; Hafiz, M.A.; Mubin, S.H.; Zakaria, A.K.M.; Yunus, S.M. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, GPO Box No. 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Azharul Islam, S.M. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2008-11-15

    The neutron capture cross sections for the {sup 152}Sm(n,{gamma}){sup 153}Sm and {sup 154}Sm(n,{gamma}){sup 155}Sm reactions at 0.0536 eV neutron energy were measured using an activation technique based on the TRIGA Mark-II research reactor, relative to the reference reaction {sup 197}Au(n,{gamma}){sup 198}Au. The activity was measured nondestructively using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Our measured values at this neutron energy are the first ones and are compared with 1/v based evaluated cross sections reported in the ENDF/B-VII and JENDL-3.3 libraries. The measured value for the {sup 152}Sm(n,{gamma}){sup 153}Sm reaction is 0.28% lower than JENDL-3.3 and 0.48% higher than ENDF/B-VII. Our value for the production of {sup 155}Sm is about 3% and 2.3% higher than the evaluated value with ENDF/B-VII and JENDL-3.3 at 0.0536 eV, respectively.

  13. Magnetocaloric properties of Eu1-xLaxTiO3 (0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) for cryogenic magnetic cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubi, Km; Midya, A.; Mahendiran, R.; Maheswar Repaka, D. V.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2016-06-01

    We report magnetic and magnetocaloric (MCE) properties of polycrystalline Eu1-xLaxTiO3 samples over a wide composition range (0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.20). It is found that the ground state changes from antiferromagnetic for x = 0.01 (TN = 5.2 K) to ferromagnetic for x ≥ 0.03 and the ferromagnetic Curie temperature increases from TC = 5.7 K for x = 0.03 to TC = 7.9 K for x = 0.20. The x = 0.01 sample shows a large reversible isothermal magnetic entropy change of -ΔSm = 23 (41.5) J/kg K and adiabatic temperature change of ΔTad = 9 (17.2) K around 6.7 K for a field change of μ0ΔH = 2 (5) Tesla. Although the peak value of -ΔSm decreases as La content increases, it is impressive in x = 0.2(-ΔSm = 31.41 J/kg K at T = 7.5 K for μ0ΔH = 5 T). The large value of MCE arises from suppression of the spin entropy associated with the localized moment (J = 7/2) of Eu2+:4f7 ions. This large MCE over a wide compositional range suggests that the Eu1-xLaxTiO3 series could be useful for magnetic cooling below 40 K.

  14. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of a red emitting phosphor NaSr2(NbO3)5:RE3+(RE=Sm, Pr) for white LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱革; 慈志鹏; 史玉茸; 王育华

    2013-01-01

    Rare earth Sm3+, Pr3+doped NaSr2(NbO3)5 red phosphors were successfully synthesized. X-ray diffraction analysis indi-cated that all the samples were single phased. The luminescence property was investigated in detail by diffuse-reflectance spectra and photoluminescence spectra measurement. Both NaSr2(NbO3)5:Sm3+and NaSr2(NbO3)5:Pr3+phosphors showed strong absorption in near ultraviolet region, which was suitable for application in LEDs. When excited by UV light, they both emitted bright red emission with CIE chromaticity coordinates (0.603, 0.397) and (0.669, 0.330), respectively. The optimal doping concentration of Sm3+doped NaSr2(NbO3)5 was measured to be 0.04 and that for Pr3+doped NaSr2(NbO3)5 was 0.01. The integral emission intensity was also measured and compared with the commercial red phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+. The results indicated that NaSr2(NbO3)5:RE3+(RE=Sm, Pr) have potential to serve as a red phosphor for UV pumped white LEDs.

  15. A major Sm epitope anchored to sequential oligopeptide carriers is a suitable antigenic substrate to detect anti-Sm antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovas, C J; Vlachoyiannopoulos, P G; Tzioufas, A G; Alexopoulos, C; Tsikaris, V; Sakarellos-Daitsiotis, M; Sakarellos, C; Moutsopoulos, H M

    1998-11-01

    A sensitive, highly reproducible, solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), was developed in order to investigate whether the synthetic heptapeptide PPGMRPP-a major epitope of the Sm autoantigen-anchored in five copies to a sequential oligopeptide carrier (SOC), [(PPGMRPP)5-SOC5] is a suitable antigenic substrate to identify anti-Sm/antibodies. Sera with different autoantibody specificities [45 anti-Sm, 40 anti-U1RNP, 40 anti-Ro (SSA)/La(SSB) positive, 21 Antinuclear antibody positive, but negative for antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ANA + /ENA - ) and 75 normal human sera, ANA negative] and 75 sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were tested for anti-(PPGMRPP)5-(SOC)5 reactivity in order to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the method to detect anti-Sm antibodies. RNA immunoprecipitation assays for the detection of anti-Sm and anti-U1RNP antibodies and counter immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) for the detection of anti-Ro(SSA) and anti-La(SSB) antibodies were used as reference techniques. The sensitivity of the method was 98% and the specificity was 68% for the determination of anti-Sm antibodies, while for the determination of anti-Sm and/or anti-U1RNP reactivity (antibodies to snRNPs) the corresponding values were 82% and 86%, respectively. In a comparison of the above assay with an ELISA, using Sm/U1RNP purified complex as immobilized antigen it was shown that the sensitivity of the anti-Sm/U1RNP ELISA in detecting anti-snRNPs was 74%; in addition sera with anti-Sm antibodies gave higher binding in the anti-(PPGMRPP)5-(SOC)5 ELISA compared with anti-Sm/U1RNP ELISA. Intra- and inter-assay precision was measured on four sera with reactivities extending into a wide range of absorbance values showed that the intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV%) ranged from 2.7 to 6 and the inter-assay CV% ranged from 9 to 14.5. These results indicate that the PPGMRPP peptide anchored to a pentameric SOC as a carrier is a suitable antigen for

  16. Hvordan vurderer vi småbørnstraumer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsberg, Sidsel

    2012-01-01

    Der er meget begrænset viden om, i hvilken grad små børn påvirkes af traumatiske og stressfulde oplevelser. En meget udbredt teori har været, at helt små børn ikke påvirkes af disse oplevelser i samme grad som ældre børn og voksne, fordi de er for små til at sætte ord på dem. Nyere forskning vise...

  17. Determination of the {sup 151}Sm half-life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Be, Marie-Martine; Cassette, Philippe [CEA, LIST, Gif sur Yvette (France). LNE-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel; Isnard, Helene [CEA-LANIE, Gif sur Yvette (France); and others

    2015-07-01

    New measurements have been undertaken to determine the half-life of {sup 151}Sm. A pure {sup 151}Sm solution was obtained after chemical separation from a samarium solution resulting from the dissolution of an irradiated samarium sample. The concentration of {sup 151}Sm in the solution was measured by mass spectrometry, combined with the isotope dilution technique. The activity of the solution was measured by liquid scintillation counting by six European laboratories as part of an international comparison. These combined results lead to a half-life of T{sub 1/2} = 94.6(6)a.

  18. Separated and unaccompanied children in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca O’Donnell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of EU law, policy and practical measures address the situation of separated and unaccompanied children who arrive in the EU. However, in the current sensitive political climate, there is a risk of attention and resources being diverted from building on progress.

  19. The border population effects of EU integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; van Marrewijk, Charles; Oumer, Abdella

    2012-01-01

    Border cities or regions are in theory more affected by the EU integration process than more central locations as it more drastically influences their transaction costs and market potential. We find a positive empirical effect of EU enlargement as measured by the growth in population share along the

  20. Argentina and Brazil's Relations to the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    Analysen diskuterer Argentina og Brasiliens relationer til EU i nyere tid med udgangspunkt i forhandlingerne om en associeringsaftale mellem EU og Mercosur, der igangsattes efter underskrivelsen af en bi-regional rammeaftale i 1995. Fokus er i særlig grad på, hvordan disse relationer bedst forstås...

  1. Inside the China-EU FDI Bond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeremy Clegg; Hinrich Voss

    2011-01-01

    For some 20 years, the rate of investment by EU enterprises into China has been rising, reaching an annual average of some US$5bn over the 10 years to 2009. Conversely, the EU has not been a focus for Chinese investments, nor has Chinese investment been i

  2. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-16

    the United States and the EU have established a high-level policy dialogue on border and transport security to discuss issues such as passenger data...level policy dialogue on these issues. Several agreements have also been concluded. In April 2004, the United States and EU signed a customs cooperation

  3. Respecting Constitutional Identity in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, Leonard F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses the Sayn-Wittgenstein judgment of the ECJ, in which for the first time an appeal to the constitutional identity of a member state in order to limit a right under EU law, under Article 4(2) TEU, i.e. the duty for the EU to respect the national identities of the Member States, was

  4. EU-Komissionens Rom II-udkast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2002-01-01

    Der redegøres for EU-Kommissionens udkast til forordning om, hvilket lands regler der skal gælde ved erstatning uden for kontrakt, hvor EU-Kommissionen har valgt en utraditionel fremgangsmåde. Udkastet fremtræder forholdsvist velstruktureret, selv om der kan rejses enkelte alvorlige indvendinger ...

  5. Mobile TV: An assessment of EU policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza; Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    The aim of the paper is to discuss EU policies in the area of mobile TV. The European Commission has strongly promoted an EU-wide common policy on mobile TV including the choice of DVB-H as the standard to be used. The paper aims at discussing this policy in view of the technological and market...

  6. News and campaign dynamics in EU 27

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.; Schuck, A.; Maier, M.; Stengel, K.; Haubold, V.; Süß, K.; Tenscher, J.

    2009-01-01

    The presentation provides an introduction to the media content analysis of the European election campaign conducted in the 27 EU member states in the 3 weeks leading up to the June 2009 elections. The analysis is an integral part of the PIREDEU project (www.piredeu.eu): Providing an Infrastructure f

  7. EU Studies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garski, Salla; Jørgensen, Knud Erik; Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In this brief chapter we take stock of Danish and Swedish scholarship on the European Union (EU). We intend to analyze and evaluate Danish and Swedish scholarship on EU issues, using a mixed methodology integrated into the analysis of this chapter. The method integrates a secondary analysis of le...

  8. Intra-EU Direct Investment and Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festa Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of the intra-EU direct investment (IDI into the New Member States (NMS using a panel dataset of bilateral capital flows for the period 1993-2013. It is found out by using a simple gravity model that EU membership is the most important determinant. Unlike previous studies including non-EU countries, the distance is insignificant, which is caused by proximity of these countries to one another. A separate analysis focused on subgroups of accession countries gives some evidence that even when size of their economy, distance, institutional quality and EU accession are taken into account, Central European countries receive more IDI than the Baltic and the Balkan states. On the contrary to that, the analysis restricted to the Balkan countries which have joined the EU shows the inexistence of a negative Balkans effect in attracting foreign investment. This finding is relevant because previous studies demonstrate a persistent negative Balkans effect for non-EU Balkan countries and suggests a crucial impact of the EU accession in determining the intra-EU capital flows.

  9. The "New Politics" of EU's Eastern Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    The paper gives an overview of EU's eastern enlargement and draws some theoretical conclusions. In particular, it stresses the point that the EU member states in the process of enlargement have entered a phase of "new politics", characterised by multilateralism, conditionality, help and binding a...

  10. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  11. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2013-01-01

    EU poultry meat producers have to comply with legislation on environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. This legislation has increased the production costs of poultry meat. At the same time the EU is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in agricu

  12. EU Experimentalist Governance in Times of Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the evolution of EU governance since the financial and eurozone crisis from an experimentalist perspective. It argues that EU governance in many key policy domains continues to take the form of an experimentalist decision-making architecture, based on a recursive process of frame

  13. Ambtshalve toepassing van EU-recht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ancery, Alain Gaston Francois

    2012-01-01

    Private law is increasingly influenced by international law, in particular by EU law. EU law prohibits, for example, the use of a cartel and awards consumers a special form of protection, for example against the use of unfair terms in consumer contracts or against door-to-door selling. It is in prin

  14. EU enlargement: towards an uncertain future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekestijn, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Never before has the EU been expanded with so many countries at the same time (10), never before was the economic gap between the existing and acceding countries so large, and never before have the existing countries (EU Fifteen) been playing the role of mister Scrooge so convincingly, and never be

  15. Outcomes of 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling with brilliant blue in macular hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohutcu A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Huseyin Sanisoglu1, Mehmet Sahin Sevim1, Betul Aktas1, Semra Sevim2, Ahmet Nohutcu11Haydarpasa Numune Education and Research Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, 2Uskudar State Hospital, Eye Clinic, Istanbul, TurkeyPurpose: The evaluation of anatomic and visual outcomes in macular hole cases treated with internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling, brilliant blue (BB, and 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV.Materials and methods: Fifty eyes of 48 patients who presented between July 2007 and December 2009 with the diagnosis of stage 2, 3, or 4 macular holes according to Gass Classification who had undergone PPV and ILM peeling were included in this study. Pre- and postoperative macular examinations were assessed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. 23 G sutureless PPV and ILM peeling with BB was performed on all patients.Results: The mean age of patients was 63.34 ± 9.6 years. Stage 2 macular hole was determined in 17 eyes (34%, stage 3 in 24 eyes (48%, and stage 4 in 9 eyes (18%. The mean follow-up time was 13.6 ± 1.09 months. Anatomic closure was detected in 46/50 eyes (92%, whereas, in four cases, macular hole persisted and a second operation was not required due to subretinal fluid drainage. At follow-up after 2 months, persistant macular hole was detected in one case and it was closed with reoperation. At 12 months, an increase in visual acuity in 41 eyes was observed, while it remained at the same level in six eyes. In three eyes visual acuity decreased. There was a postoperative statistically significant increase in visual acuity in stage 2 and 3 cases (P < 0.05, however, no increase in visual acuity in stage 4 cases was observed.Conclusion: PPV and ILM peeling in stage 2, 3, and 4 macular hole cases provide successful anatomic outcomes, however, in delayed cases, due to photoreceptor loss, it has no effect on functional recovery. BB, used for clarity of ILM, may be beneficial due to its low retinal toxicity.Keywords: macular

  16. Luminescence properties of the Sm-doped borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindrat, I.I. [University of Zielona Góra, Institute of Physics, Division of Spectroscopy of Functional Materials, 4a Szafrana Street, 65-516 Zielona Góra (Poland); Padlyak, B.V., E-mail: B.Padlyak@if.uz.zgora.pl [University of Zielona Góra, Institute of Physics, Division of Spectroscopy of Functional Materials, 4a Szafrana Street, 65-516 Zielona Góra (Poland); Vlokh Institute of Physical Optics, 23 Dragomanov Street, 79-005 Lviv (Ukraine); Drzewiecki, A. [University of Zielona Góra, Institute of Physics, Division of Spectroscopy of Functional Materials, 4a Szafrana Street, 65-516 Zielona Góra (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    The optical absorption and photoluminescence (emission and excitation) spectra as well as decay kinetics of a series of the Sm-doped glasses with Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}, LiKB{sub 4}O{sub 7}, CaB{sub 4}O{sub 7}, and LiCaBO{sub 3} compositions were investigated and analysed. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Sm, LiKB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Sm, CaB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Sm, and LiCaBO{sub 3}:Sm glasses of high optical quality have been obtained from the corresponding polycrystalline compounds in the air atmosphere, using a standard glass technology. On the basis of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical spectra analysis it was shown that the samarium impurity is incorporated into the glass network as Sm{sup 3+} (4f{sup 5}, {sup 6}H{sub 5/2}) ions, exclusively. All observed 4f – 4f transitions of the Sm{sup 3+} centres in the optical absorption and luminescence spectra of the investigated glasses are identified. Most intense emission band of the Sm{sup 3+} ions peaked about 598 nm ({sup 4}G{sub 5/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 7/2} transition) is characterised by a single exponential decay with typical lifetime values, which depend on the basic glass composition as well as concentration and local structure of the Sm{sup 3+} luminescence centres. The quantum efficiency has been evaluated for observed transitions of the Sm{sup 3+} centres using obtained experimental lifetimes and radiative lifetimes calculated by Judd–Ofelt theory. The calculated high quantum efficiencies and measured quantum yields of luminescence show that the investigated borate glasses are perspective luminescence materials. Energy transfer from the Ce{sup 3+} non-controlled impurity and intrinsic luminescence centres to the Sm{sup 3+} centres has been observed. Peculiarities of the Sm{sup 3+} local structure in the network of investigated glasses have been discussed based on the obtained spectroscopic results and structural data. - Highlights: • The Sm-doped Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}, LiKB{sub 4}O{sub 7}, Ca

  17. Crystal chemistry and electrical conductivity of Ln{sub 2}Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}F{sub 6} (Ln: Nd, La)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, Masayuki [Cooperative Research Center, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)]. E-mail: takashima@matse.fukui-u.ac.jp; Yonezawa, Susumu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)]. E-mail: yonezawa@matse.fukui-u.ac.jp; Kim, Jeo-ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)

    2006-02-09

    Binary rare-earth metal oxide fluorides Ln{sub 2}Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}F{sub 6} were synthesized by the solid-state reaction between 1mol Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Ln: La, Nd) and 2mol EuF{sub 3} at 1000-1200{sup o}C in a highly dry atmosphere. Nd{sub 2}Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}F{sub 6} exhibits the oxide ion conductivity of 2.0Sm{sup -1} at 500{sup o}C under P{sub O{sub 2}}=0.4Pa, and the transport numbers {tau}O{sup 2-} was 0.9 at a temperature ranging from 500 to 700{sup o}C. X-ray diffraction Rietveld analysis revealed Nd{sub 2}Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}F{sub 6} was the monoclinic lattice with the crystal parameters a{sub 0}=0.396nm, b{sub 0}=1.13nm, c{sub 0}=0.562nm, b=134.8{sup o}, Z=1. The structures of Nd{sub 2.1}Eu{sub 1.9}O{sub 3}F{sub 6} and La{sub 2}Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}F{sub 6} were also analyzed as the monoclinic structure (a{sub 0}=0.397nm, b{sub 0}=1.13nm, c{sub 0}=0.561nm, {beta}=135.0{sup o}, Z=1 for Nd{sub 2.1}Eu{sub 1.9}O{sub 3}F{sub 6} and a{sub 0}=0.404nm, b{sub 0}=1.14nm, c{sub 0}=0.574nm, {beta}=135.3{sup o}, Z=1 for La{sub 2}Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}F{sub 6}). The ionic arrangement was suggested to be not a little disordered in the crystal lattice of Nd{sub 2.1}Eu{sub 1.9}O{sub 3}F{sub 6} and La{sub 2}Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}F{sub 6} in contrast to that in the Nd{sub 2}Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}F{sub 6}. The disorder of anionic arrangement in Nd{sub 2.1}Eu{sub 1.9}O{sub 3}F{sub 6} and La{sub 2}Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}F{sub 6} lattice was assumed to result in the lower oxide ion conductivity Nd{sub 2.1}Eu{sub 1.9}O{sub 3}F{sub 6} ({sigma}=1.0Sm{sup -1}, {tau}O{sup 2-}=0.9) and La{sub 2}Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}F{sub 6} ({sigma}=0.8Sm{sup -1}, {tau}O{sup 2-}=0.7)

  18. Magnetic properties of Sm5Fe17 melt-spun ribbons and their borides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Saito

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sm5Fe17 melt-spun ribbons exhibited low coercivity and partly or mostly consisted of the amorphous phase. Annealing of Sm5Fe17 melt-spun ribbon resulted in the formation of the Sm5Fe17 phase. The annealed Sm5Fe17 melt-spun ribbon exhibited a high coercivity. It was found that the addition of B to the Sm5Fe17 alloy resulted in the promotion of the Sm2Fe14B phase. Annealed Sm5Fe17Bx (x = 0.5 melt-spun ribbons consisted of the Sm5Fe17 phase together with the Sm2Fe14B and SmFe2 phases. On the other hand, annealed Sm5Fe17Bx (x = 1.0-1.5 melt-spun ribbons consisted of the Sm2Fe14B and SmFe2 phases without the Sm5Fe17 phase. The resultant Sm5Fe17Bx (x = 1.0-1.5 melt-spun ribbons still showed a coercivity of around 2 kOe. The annealed Sm5Fe17 melt-spun ribbon exhibited a high coercivity over 25 kOe and a remanence of 40 emu/g, whereas the annealed Sm5Fe17B1.0 melt-spun ribbon exhibited a high remanence of 65 emu/g and a coercivity of 2.0 kOe.

  19. The Social Dimension of EU Trade Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Organisation (ILO) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as the United States and China, for example. The rest of the article will provide refl ections on the ideas raised in the special issue from a normative power perspective in six sections. First, it will elaborate on the role of labour rights...... as human rights in the EU's external action from a normative power perspective. Next, the article will use the tripartite analytical framework to examine the principles, actions, and impact of the social dimension in EU trade policies found in the contributions to this special issue. Then the article......This special issue on the social dimension of European Union (EU) external trade relations analyses the commitment, capacity, and consequences of the EU as a global social power. In other words, is the EU committed to social principles? Does it have the capacity to engage in persuasive actions...

  20. The Development of EU-Russian Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian

    2008-01-01

    The EU's strategy for Russia since the end of the cold war has to a large extent failed, and the direct consequences are the currently deadlocked EU-Russia relationship. There are three reasons for this: the EU and Russia's respective strength and status relative to each other have been changing since the beginning of this century; the EU's strategy towards Russia has been more fragmenting in recently years; and the American factor. The EU-Russia relations could continue to be in poor shape in the years to come, and it is very likely sometimes even further worsening. But the two sides would refrain from extreme measures and prevent their relations from sliding into real cold war.

  1. Why use experiments in EU Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    The past decades have witnessed an explosion in the use of experiments. Though experiments have been increasingly applied, their recognition as useful methodological tools to investigate EU-related research questions has lagged behind the rest of the political science community. This article does...... is paid on election, framing and deliberation studies. Second, the article argues for the promising potentials experimentation provides for EU studies, overcoming problems of causal estimation as well as endogeneity concerns. The article concludes by addressing some of the critiques often made against...... two things. First, by summarising the use of experiments in EU research, it provides an overview of the evolution of the use of experiments within EU studies. This includes a content exploration of the pioneering sub-areas within EU studies where experimentation is frequently used. Particular focus...

  2. Humanitarian Issues: the EU Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Navarro

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO and the 15 membercountries of the EU provide more than 50% of the humanitarian aid worldwide: ECHO assigns more than 90% of its budget (only 0.9% of the Community’s total to victims of man-made conflicts. For the author, the experience of ECHO shows the "limits of what is humanitarian": that is, the lack of security for humanitarian workers, the still-to-beoperational Permanent Tribunal for Crimes Against Humanity, the difficult access to refugees, and the fact that humanitarian efforts are not a substitute for policy and, therefore, that humanitarian efforts can not resolve a crisis that has a political origin and solution. The challenges to be faced in the coming years include denouncing the violations of humanitarian values, transferring these values into a future CFSP, organizing humanitarian aid efficiently, combating “donor fatigue” and supporting conflict prevention.

  3. Physical properties of superbulky lanthanide metallocenes: synthesis and extraordinary luminescence of [Eu(II)(Cp(BIG))2] (Cp(BIG) = (4-nBu-C6H4)5-cyclopentadienyl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Sjoerd; Naglav, Dominik; Ruspic, Christian; Wickleder, Claudia; Adlung, Matthias; Hermes, Wilfried; Eul, Matthias; Pöttgen, Rainer; Rego, Daniel B; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R; Herber, Rolfe H; Nowik, Israel

    2013-09-09

    The superbulky deca-aryleuropocene [Eu(Cp(BIG))2], Cp(BIG) = (4-nBu-C6H4)5-cyclopentadienyl, was prepared by reaction of [Eu(dmat)2(thf)2], DMAT = 2-Me2N-α-Me3Si-benzyl, with two equivalents of Cp(BIG)H. Recrystallizyation from cold hexane gave the product with a surprisingly bright and efficient orange emission (45% quantum yield). The crystal structure is isomorphic to those of [M(Cp(BIG))2] (M = Sm, Yb, Ca, Ba) and shows the typical distortions that arise from Cp(BIG)⋅⋅⋅Cp(BIG) attraction as well as excessively large displacement parameter for the heavy Eu atom (U(eq) = 0.075). In order to gain information on the true oxidation state of the central metal in superbulky metallocenes [M(Cp(BIG))2] (M = Sm, Eu, Yb), several physical analyses have been applied. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility data of [Yb(Cp(BIG))2] show diamagnetism, indicating stable divalent ytterbium. Temperature-dependent (151)Eu Mössbauer effect spectroscopic examination of [Eu(Cp(BIG))2] was examined over the temperature range 93-215 K and the hyperfine and dynamical properties of the Eu(II) species are discussed in detail. The mean square amplitude of vibration of the Eu atom as a function of temperature was determined and compared to the value extracted from the single-crystal X-ray data at 203 K. The large difference in these two values was ascribed to the presence of static disorder and/or the presence of low-frequency torsional and librational modes in [Eu(Cp(BIG))2]. X-ray absorbance near edge spectroscopy (XANES) showed that all three [Ln(Cp(BIG))2] (Ln = Sm, Eu, Yb) compounds are divalent. The XANES white-line spectra are at 8.3, 7.3, and 7.8 eV, for Sm, Eu, and Yb, respectively, lower than the Ln2O3 standards. No XANES temperature dependence was found from room temperature to 100 K. XANES also showed that the [Ln(Cp(BIG))2] complexes had less trivalent impurity than a [EuI2(thf)x] standard. The complex [Eu(Cp(BIG))2] shows already at room temperature

  4. Nuclear Sm antigens in the sperm of different organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F; Brito, M; Concha, I I; Schroeder, R; Burzio, L O

    1994-08-01

    Immunoblot analysis of sperm protein from several species revealed the presence of polypeptides recognised by anti-Sm sera obtained from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunoreactive polypeptides in human, bull, mouse and rat sperm were identified as protein B', B and D as compared with the Sm polypeptides of HeLa cells. In the sperm of rooster, the teleost fish Cyprinus carpio and the mussel Choromytilus chorus, the immunoreactive polypeptide profile was more complex. To ascertain the sperm origin of the Sm antigens, immunolocalisation with anti-Sm serum was carried out. The results demonstrated that in all the species studied staining was confined to the sperm nucleus, confirming that some polypeptides of the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex are present in the gamete.

  5. The simultaneous mass and energy evaporation (SM2E) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Rehan; Klauda, Jeffery B

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the Simultaneous Mass and Energy Evaporation (SM2E) model is presented. The SM2E model is based on theoretical models for mass and energy transfer. The theoretical models systematically under or over predicted at various flow conditions: laminar, transition, and turbulent. These models were harmonized with experimental measurements to eliminate systematic under or over predictions; a total of 113 measured evaporation rates were used. The SM2E model can be used to estimate evaporation rates for pure liquids as well as liquid mixtures at laminar, transition, and turbulent flow conditions. However, due to limited availability of evaporation data, the model has so far only been tested against data for pure liquids and binary mixtures. The model can take evaporative cooling into account and when the temperature of the evaporating liquid or liquid mixture is known (e.g., isothermal evaporation), the SM2E model reduces to a mass transfer-only model.

  6. Preparing different phases of Mg-Li-Sm alloys by molten salt electrolysis in LiCl-KCl-MgCl_2-SmCl_3 melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟; 田阳; 张密林; 叶克; 赵全友; 魏树权

    2010-01-01

    Different phases of Mg-Li-Sm alloys were prepared by galvanostatic electrolysis in LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-SmCl3 melts at 670 °C.The electrolysis process and phase control of Mg-Li-Sm alloys were studied.The microstructures of α,α+β,β phases of Mg-Li-Sm alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD) and optical microscope(OM).Analysis of scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and EDS mapping analysis showed that Mg distributed homogeneously in Mg-Li-Sm alloys.EDS result showed that the distribution of Sm was more at...

  7. Enhanced photocatalytic-electrolytic degradation of Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B in the presence of water jet cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoning; Jia, Jinping; Wang, Yalin

    2015-03-01

    Photocatalysis, electrolysis, water jet cavitation (WJC), alone and in combinations were applied to degrade an azo dye, Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B (X-3B). Experiments were conducted in a 4.0 L aqueous solution with different initial dye concentrations, TiO₂ dose, and solution pH. WJC substantially increased the photocatalytic, electrolytic and photocatalytic-electrolytic rates of the dye removal. The observed first-order rate of X-3B decolorization in the process of combined photocatalysis and electrolysis coupled with WJC was 1.6-2.9 times of that in the process of combined photocatalysis and electrolysis coupled with mechanical stirring. The rate enhancements may be attributed primarily to the reduced diffusion layer thickness on the electrodes and the deagglomeration of photocatalyst particles due to the chemical and physical effects of WJC. Under the conditions of 80 mg/L X-3B solution, 100 mg/L TiO₂ dose and solution pH 6.3, 97% and 71% of color and chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) were removed, respectively, within 90-min photocatalytic-electrolytic treatment coupled with WJC. During this process, azo groups and naphthalene, benzene and triazine structures of the dye can be destroyed. Industrial textile effluent was also investigated, and a positive synergistic effect between photocatalytic-electrolytic system and WJC was observed considering color removal.

  8. Production of laccase and decolouration of the textile dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R in temporary immersion bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2011-10-30

    Laccase production by Trametes pubescens grown on sunflower-seed shells (SS) under solid-state fermentation (SFF) conditions in temporary immersion bioreactors was studied. Three immersion cycles were considered: 1 min immersed and 9 min non-immersed, 1 min immersed and 30 min non-immersed and 1 min immersed and 60 min non-immersed. The latter led to the highest laccase activities (4000-6000 Ul(-1)). Also, the in vitro and in vivo decolouration of the recalcitrant textile dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) was assessed. It was found that RBBR (133.33 mg l(-1)) was efficiently decolourised by T. pubencens grown on SS under SSF conditions in temporary immersion bioreactors in five successive batches. The percentage of RBBR decolouration was higher than 55% in 4h and around 70% in 24h in all the batches. However, it was found that RBBR decolouration by the crude culture filtrates was more advantageous. Thus, an RBBR decolouration percentage of nearly 80% in 2h was obtained.

  9. Improvement of mannitol lysine crystal violet brilliant green agar for the selective isolation of H2S-positive Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaka, H; Mizuochi, S; Honda, T; Yamaguchi, K

    2000-12-01

    Mannitol lysine crystal violet brilliant green agar (MLCB) is widely used in Japan for Salmonella isolation because the medium has been commercially available. Colonies of Salmonella on MLCB appear colorless with black centers due to H2S gas production; however, most Citrobacter freundii also produce H2S gas. In order to distinguish H2S-positive Salmonella from C. freundii we have improved MLCB. To MLCB was added 1% lactose (L-MLCB). The relation for pH and black center colony formation was examined. The pH of MLCB and L-MLCB inoculated with Salmonella species was slightly acid after 7 h, but the pH of L-MLCB inoculated with C. freundii did not become acid for 24 h. The colony of C. freundii did not have a black center because the production of acid from lactose lowers the pH below 10 where it is needed for H2S to react with iron to produce black pigments. Of 99 Salmonella strains including 13 serotypes tested, all strains had the same colony morphologies on MLCB and L-MLCB. When MLCB and L-MLCB were evaluated with 36 C. freundii strains isolated from foods, only colonies on MLCB had black centers. We conclude that L-MLCB is useful for detection of nonlactose-fermenting, H2S-positive Salmonella in food samples.

  10. Removal of reactive dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R from aqueous solutions by using anaerobically digested sewage sludge based adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özçimen Didem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, adsorbents were produced from sewage sludge via chemical and thermal activation processes. Experiments were carried out in a tubular furnace at the heating rate of 20˚C min-1 and temperature of 550 ˚C with a nitrogen flow rate of 400 mL min-1 for 1 h. Dye adsorption experiments were performed with Remazol Brilliant Blue R for its several concentrations under batch equilibrium conditions by comparing sewage sludge based adsorbents with raw material and a commercial activated carbon. Maximum adsorption capacities of carbonized sewage sludge (CSWS and activated sewage sludge (ASWS were found as 7.413 mg g-1 and 9.376 mg g-1 for 100 mg L-1 dye solution, whereas commercial activated carbon had a capacity of 11.561 mg g-1. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were used to explain the adsorption mechanism together with pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Langmuir isotherm, which had adsorption capacities of 34.60 mg g-1 (CSWS and 72.99 mg g-1 (ASWS, provided better fit to the equilibrium data than that of Freundlich isotherm. Pseudo second-order, model which had adsorption capacities of 7.451 mg g-1 (CSWS and 9.319 mg g-1 (ASWS, was very favorable to explain the adsorption kinetics of the dye with high regression coefficients.

  11. Statistical Correlation between Ligninolytic Enzymes Secretion and Remazol Brilliant Yellow-3GL Dye Degradation Potential of Trametes versicolor IBL-04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgher, Muhammad; Shah, Syed Agha Hassan; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2016-04-01

    Trametes versicolor IBL-04 was used for biodegradation of Remazol Brilliant Yellow 3-GL (RBY3-GL) reactive textile dye in Kirk's basal salts medium. During the initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (93.5%) of RBY3-GL was achieved in 7 days' shaking incubation period at pH 4 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors were statistically optimized to enhance the efficiency of T. versicolor IBL-04 for maximum decolorization. Under optimal conditions T. versicolor IBL-04 completely decolorized (100%) the RBY3-GL in 2 days of incubation with negligible adsorption on fungal mycelia. Laccase was the major enzyme (938.3 U/mL) secreted by T. versicolor IBL-04 along with comparatively lower activities of MnP. In this article and for the first time, a statistical correlation has been successfully investigated between the ligninolytic enzymes from an indigenously isolated white rot fungi, T. versicolor IBL-04, and the degradation of RBY3-GL.

  12. Electrochemical Determination of Brilliant Blue and Tartrazine Based on an Ionic Liquid-Modified Expanded Graphite Paste Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenchang; Chen, Ye; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xue; Chen, Zhidong

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Brilliant Blue (BB) and tartrazine (Tz) using an ionic liquid-modified expanded graphite paste electrode (IL-EGPE). The IL-EGPE was prepared by mixing ionic liquid-expanded graphite composite (IL-EG) with solid paraffin. Compared with the EGPE, the IL-EGPE remarkably enhanced the electrocatalytic oxidation signals of BB and Tz. Under optimal experimental conditions, the designed IL-EGPE exhibited wide linear responses to BB and Tz ranging from 5.0×10(-9) to 4.0×10(-6) M and 1.0×10(-8) to 1.0×10(-6) M, respectively. The detection limits for BB and Tz were 2.0×10(-9) M (1.6 ng/mL) and 3.3×10(-9) M (1.8 ng/mL) at an S/N of 3, respectively. This electrode showed good reproducibility, stability, and reusability. The proposed method was successfully applied in the simultaneous determination of BB and Tz in a soft drink with satisfactory results.

  13. Effect of Activation Time on the Pinang Frond based Activated Carbon for Remazol Brilliant Blue R Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons are regularly used for dye wastewater treatment. They can be produced from various organic materials which have a high level of carbon content. In this study, Pinang frond based activated carbon (PFAC was produced by using a physical activation process to study the effect of different activation times in the range of 1–7 hours. The optimum PFAC sample was found with an activation time of 3 hours, which gives the highest BET surface area and pore volume of 958.23 m2/g and 0.5469 mL/g, respectively. This sample shows well-developed pore structure with a high fixed carbon content of 79.74%. The removal of 87.6% of Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR was achieved for a sample with initial RBBR concentration of 50 mg/L, and 40.8% was achieved with 500 mg/L. The results indicated that the PFAC is very effective for RBBR adsorption from aqueous solutio

  14. Giant low-field magnetocaloric effect in single-crystalline EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Roy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The magnetocaloric effect in ferromagnetic single crystal EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 has been investigated using magnetization and heat capacity measurements. EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 undergoes a continuous ferromagnetic phase transition at TC = 9.5 K due to the long range ordering of magnetic moments of Eu2+ (4f7. With the application of magnetic field, the spin entropy is strongly suppressed and a giant magnetic entropy change is observed near TC. The values of entropy change ΔSm and adiabatic temperature change ΔTad are as high as 51.3 J kg−1 K−1 and 22 K, respectively, for a field change of 0–9 T. The corresponding magnetic heating/cooling capacity is 700 J kg−1. This compound also shows large magnetocaloric effect even at low magnetic fields. In particular, the values of ΔSm reach 14.7 and 23.8 J kg−1 K−1 for field changes of 0–1 T and 0–2 T, respectively. The low-field giant magnetocaloric effect, together with the absence of thermal and field hysteresis makes EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 a very promising candidate for low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  15. Giant low-field magnetocaloric effect in single-crystalline EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S.; Khan, N.; Mandal, P.

    2016-02-01

    The magnetocaloric effect in ferromagnetic single crystal EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 has been investigated using magnetization and heat capacity measurements. EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 undergoes a continuous ferromagnetic phase transition at TC = 9.5 K due to the long range ordering of magnetic moments of Eu2+ (4f7). With the application of magnetic field, the spin entropy is strongly suppressed and a giant magnetic entropy change is observed near TC. The values of entropy change ΔSm and adiabatic temperature change ΔTad are as high as 51.3 J kg-1 K-1 and 22 K, respectively, for a field change of 0-9 T. The corresponding magnetic heating/cooling capacity is 700 J kg-1. This compound also shows large magnetocaloric effect even at low magnetic fields. In particular, the values of ΔSm reach 14.7 and 23.8 J kg-1 K-1 for field changes of 0-1 T and 0-2 T, respectively. The low-field giant magnetocaloric effect, together with the absence of thermal and field hysteresis makes EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 a very promising candidate for low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  16. Energetics of nonequilibrium solidification in Al-Sm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S. H.; Napolitano, R. E.

    2008-11-01

    Solution-based thermodynamic modeling, aided by first-principles calculations, is employed here to examine phase transformations in the Al-Sm binary system which may give rise to product phases that are metastable or have a composition that deviates substantially from equilibrium. In addition to describing the pure undercooled Al liquid with a two-state model that accounts for structural ordering, thermodynamic descriptions of the fcc phase, and intermediate compounds ( Al4Sm-β , Al11Sm3-α , Al3Sm-δ , and Al2Sm-σ ) are reanalyzed using special quasirandom structure and first-principles calculations. The possible phase compositions are presented over a range of temperatures using a “Baker-Cahn” analysis of the energetics of solidification and compared with reports of rapid solidification. The energetics associated with varying degrees of chemical partitioning are quantified and compared with experimental observations of the metastable Al11Sm3-α primary phase and reports of amorphous solids.

  17. Crystallization behaviour of Al-Sm amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battezzati, L. (Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Chimica Fisica e Chimica dei Materiali, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 9, 10125 Torino (Italy)); Baricco, M. (Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Chimica Fisica e Chimica dei Materiali, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 9, 10125 Torino (Italy)); Schumacher, P. (Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)); Shih, W.C.; Greer, A.L.

    1994-05-01

    Various Al[sub 100-x]Sm[sub x] alloys (10[<=]qslantx[<=]qslant14) have been rapidly solidified by single-roller melt spinning with careful control of the atmosphere in the quenching device. The structural state and subsequent devitrification behaviour of the melt-spun ribbons are found to be particularly sensitive to the quenching conditions. Except for the thinnest ribbons, there are inhomogeneities both through the ribbon thickness and along the length. Both fully and partially amorphous ribbons have been obtained. The crystallization processes of the amorphous phases have been followed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Al[sub 92]Sm[sub 8] shows primary crystallization of Al, followed by the formation of metastable phases; Al[sub 90]Sm[sub 10] transforms polymorphically to a metastable intermetallic; Al[sub 88]Sm[sub 12] and Al[sub 86]Sm[sub 14] display eutectic crystallization into Al and a metastable mixture of compounds. For Al[sub 90]Sm[sub 10], the DSC traces involve several overlapping peaks. This may be the result of transformations occurring in distinct parts of the ribbon with different mechanisms. A kinetic analysis of the crystallization processes has been performed by means of isothermal and non-isothermal DSC experiments. A discussion of the kinetic parameters derived from Kissinger and Avrami analyses is provided. ((orig.))

  18. Decolourisation Capabilities of Ligninolytic Enzymes Produced by Marasmius cladophyllus UMAS MS8 on Remazol Brilliant Blue R and Other Azo Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Ngieng Ngui Sing; Ahmad Husaini; Azham Zulkharnain; Hairul Azman Roslan

    2017-01-01

    Marasmius cladophyllus was examined for its ability to degradatively decolourise the recalcitrant dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and screened for the production of ligninolytic enzymes using specific substrates. Monitoring dye decolourisation by the decrease in absorbance ratio of A592/A500 shows that the decolourisation of RBBR dye was associated with the dye degradation. Marasmius cladophyllus produces laccase and lignin peroxidase in glucose minimal liquid medium containing RBBR. Both...

  19. Study of Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction in BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu prepared in different gas atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Marcos V. dos S., E-mail: mvsrezende@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Universitário, 49100-000 Itabaiana-SE (Brazil); Valerio, Mário E.G. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Universitário, 49100-000 São Cristovão-SE (Brazil); Jackson, Robert A. [School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The effect of different gas atmospheres on the Eu reduction process was studied. • The Eu reduction was monitored analyzing XANES region at the Eu L{sub III}-edge. • Hydrogen reducing agent are the most appropriate gas for Eu{sup 2+} stabilization. • Only a part of the Eu ions can be stabilized in the divalent state. • A model of Eu reduction process is proposed. - Abstract: The effect of different gas atmospheres such as H{sub 2}(g), synthetic air, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) on the Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction process during the synthesis of Eu-doped BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied using synchrotron radiation. The Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction was monitored analyzing XANES region when the sample are excited at the Eu L{sub III}-edge. The results show that the hydrogen reducing agent are the most appropriate gas for Eu{sup 2+} stabilization in BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and that only a part of the Eu ions can be stabilized in the divalent state. A model of Eu reduction process, based on the incorporation of charge compensation defects, is proposed.

  20. GIFTS SM EDU Data Processing and Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jialin; Johnson, David G.; Reisse, Robert A.; Gazarik, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Sensor Module (SM) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is a high resolution spectral imager designed to measure infrared (IR) radiances using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The GIFTS instrument employs three Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. This paper describes the processing algorithms involved in the calibration stage. The calibration procedures can be subdivided into three stages. In the pre-calibration stage, a phase correction algorithm is applied to the decimated and filtered complex interferogram. The resulting imaginary part of the spectrum contains only the noise component of the uncorrected spectrum. Additional random noise reduction can be accomplished by applying a spectral smoothing routine to the phase-corrected blackbody reference spectra. In the radiometric calibration stage, we first compute the spectral responsivity based on the previous results, from which, the calibrated ambient blackbody (ABB), hot blackbody (HBB), and scene spectra can be obtained. During the post-processing stage, we estimate the noise equivalent spectral radiance (NESR) from the calibrated ABB and HBB spectra. We then implement a correction scheme that compensates for the effect of fore-optics offsets. Finally, for off-axis pixels, the FPA off-axis effects correction is performed. To estimate the performance of the entire FPA, we developed an efficient method of generating pixel performance assessments. In addition, a random pixel selection scheme is designed based on the pixel performance evaluation.

  1. 31 CFR 585.315 - Person in the FRY (S&M).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person in the FRY (S&M). 585.315... General Definitions § 585.315 Person in the FRY (S&M). The term person in the FRY (S&M) includes any... under the laws of any jurisdiction in the FRY (S&M)....

  2. Direct synthesis of mesoporous molecular sieves of Ni-SBA-16 by internal pH adjustment method and its performance for adsorption of toxic Brilliant Green dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Tufail Shah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An ordered mesoporous novel material Ni-SBA-16 has been synthesized by internal pH-adjustment method. The synthesized material has been characterized by small angle XRD (SXRD, wide angle XRD (WXRD, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM, Fourier-transform Infra-red (FTIR spectroscope and Nitrogen Adsorption desorption techniques. The characterization results have shown that material possesses highly ordered mesostructure with high surface area (736 m2/g and large pore diameter (3.8 nm. FTIR and WXRD spectra revealed that nickel was uniformly dispersed on SBA-16 surface. The synthesized material has been used as adsorbent for removal of toxic Brilliant Green dye due to its large surface area and pore size. At optimized conditions, almost 100% of Brilliant Green dye was removed from aqueous solution by Ni-SBA-16. The isotherms analysis indicates that the Langmuir and Hill models provide the best correlation of the experimental data. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax of Ni-SBA-16 for Brilliant Green dye was 322.58 mg/g.

  3. Equilibrium, Thermodynamics, and Kinetic Sorption Studies for the Removal of Coomassie Brilliant Blue on Wheat Bran as a Low-Cost Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Ata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sorption studies of coomassie brilliant blue (CBB from aqueous solution have been carried out on wheat bran (WB. Coomassie brilliant blue on wheat bran was used to study the adsorption behavior under various parameters such as pH, dosage amount, and contact time. It was observed that under optimized conditions up to 95.70% dye could be removed from solution onto WB. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were used to elaborate the results. Freundlich model was found to be fitted well and favored multilayer adsorption. The Freundlich constants n and KF were determined as 0.53 and 2.5×10−4. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS studied were taking into account, showed spontaneous and favorable reaction for coomassie brilliant blue on wheat bran. The maximum adsorption capacity qm was found to be 6.410 mg/g. The investigations show that non treated WB is a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of dyes from textile industry effluents.

  4. Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of doped ternary Eu_(1-x)Ln_x(NPPD)_3·DPQ complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月琴; 李烨; 徐慧华; 陶弦; 张冬梅; 沈应中

    2010-01-01

    Rare earth (RE) ternary complexes of Eu0.5Ln0.5(NPPD)3·(DPQ) (HNPPD=1-(naphthalen-2-yl)-3-phenylpropane-1,3-dione; DPQ= dipyridobenzoquinone) and Eu1-xLax(NPPD)3·(DPQ) (Ln3+=La3+, Gd3+, Sm3+, Pr3+; x=0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9) were synthesized by the reaction of RECl3·6H2O with HNPPD and DPQ in stoichiometry. The complexes were characterized with IR, elemental analysis, TGA-DSC and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The UV-Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence properties of the complexes were also investiga...

  5. Emerging food safety issues: An EU perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, John D G

    2016-05-01

    Safe food is the right of every citizen of the European Union (EU). A comprehensive and dynamic framework of food and feed safety legislation has been put in place and the EU's executive arm - the European Commission - is responsible for ensuring that the EU member states apply food law consistently. Similarly, the Commission plays an important role in ensuring that imported food meets the EU's stringent food safety standards. Consumer perceptions of unsafe food tend to focus on acute outbreaks of bacterial or viral origin. In recent years there have been a number of diverse food crises associated with fraudulent activity which may (e.g. melamine in dairy products in China) or may not (e.g. the horse meat scandal in the EU) represent a genuine food safety risk. Well publicized incidents of chronic exposure to chemical contamination in the EU (e.g. dioxins in meat and mycotoxins in nuts) have required robust coordinated policy responses from the Commission. Despite the decreasing incidence of non-compliant residues of veterinary medicinal products and banned substances in animal products, EU consumers are increasingly concerned about the use of such products in food-producing animals, including in the context of the build-up of antimicrobial resistance in animals and transfer to humans. The Commission plays a key role in coordination of the EU member states' responses to such incidents, in risk management, and in preparation for emerging issues. This paper focuses on how the EU as a whole has dealt with a number of food crises, and what can be learned from past incidents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Public investment and the EU fiscal framework

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    It is often claimed that the introduction of the EU rules-based fiscal framework of the Maastricht Treaty and the Stability and Growth Pact was responsible for a decline in public investment shares in EU countries. Proposals have also been made in recent times in favour of a revision of the EU fiscal framework in such a way to grant special treatment to public capital expenditures (e.g., by amending it with a ‘golden rule'). This paper analyses empirically the relation between the introduct...

  7. EU Lobbying and Anti-Dumping Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2012-01-01

    of petitioning firms and Council voting in the case of anti-dumping policy. If the political position of countries in anti-dumping cases is influenced by domestic lobbying efforts, we expect that the empirical pattern of country distribution of petitioning firms in EU anti-dumping cases corresponds closely...... to the empirical pattern of EU country distribution in Council voting. Our results show a low petitioning intensity for anti-dumping investigations and a high voting intensity against anti-dumping measures in Northern Europe. Thus, it seems likely that domestic lobbying efforts have influenced the political...... position of countries in the special case of EU anti-dumping policy....

  8. Total neutron cross-sections of /sup 151/Eu, /sup 153/Eu and Eu below 1 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Hamouda, I.

    1981-01-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been carried out for natural Eu and its stable isotopes in the energy range from 3 meV to 1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(a) (/sup 151/Eu) = (9180 +- 150) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(s) (/sup 153/Eu) = (375 +- 20) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(d) (Eu) = (4600 +- 120) b at 0.0253 eV. The contribution of the resonance to the total neutron cross-sections, in the thermal region, was calculated using the single-level Breit-Wigner formula.

  9. Preparation and electromagnetic wave absorption properties of Sm2O3/α-Fe/Sm2Fe17Nx composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jinwen; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Jiao; Chen, Xianfu; Yao, Mingying

    2013-06-01

    Sm2O3/α-Fe/Sm2Fe17Nx composites were prepared in situ by hydrogenation-disproportionation-oxygen-desorption-recombination and nitrogen process, and their electromagnetic wave absorption properties were measured in the frequency range of 0.5-18 GHz. The result showed that saturation magnetization and coercivity of as-prepared powder with 25.3 wt% Sm2O3, 64.4 wt% α-Fe and 10.3 wt% Sm2Fe17N3 were 134.57 emu/g and 654.5 G, respectively. The dielectric constant of composites was low over the frequency range of 0.5-18 GHz, and their resonance frequencies were at a high frequency range. The resin composite of Sm2O3/α-Fe/Sm2Fe17N3 exhibited effective electromagnetic wave absorption (RL≤20 dB) in a frequency range 3-9 GHz, for absorber thickness ranging from 3 to 8 mm, respectively. A minimum reflection loss of -53 dB from the samples was observed at 7 GHz with an absorber thickness of 3.59 mm.

  10. EU-China Partenariat 2006:Tailor-made Opportunities for SMEs of EU and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franz; Jessen

    2006-01-01

      2006 EU-China Partenariat 2006, the large-scale business-to-business event which will link almost one thousand European and Chinese companies is indeed a highly appropriate way to further enhance the already excellent relations between the EU and China moreover as this is the very year that we are celebrating 30 years of EU-China diplomatic ties.……

  11. Role of SM22 in the differential regulation of phasic vs. tonic smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Satish; Ali, Mehboob

    2015-04-01

    Preliminary proteomics studies between tonic vs. phasic smooth muscles identified three distinct protein spots identified to be those of transgelin (SM22). The latter was found to be distinctly downregulated in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) vs. rectal smooth muscle (RSM) SMC. The major focus of the present studies was to examine the differential molecular control mechanisms by SM22 in the functionality of truly tonic smooth muscle of the IAS vs. the adjoining phasic smooth muscle of the RSM. We monitored SMC lengths before and after incubation with pFLAG-SM22 (for SM22 overexpression), and SM22 small-interfering RNA. pFLAG-SM22 caused concentration-dependent and significantly greater relaxation in the IAS vs. the RSM SMCs. Conversely, temporary silencing of SM22 caused contraction in both types of the SMCs. Further studies revealed a significant reverse relationship between the levels of SM22 phosphorylation and the amount of SM22-actin binding in the IAS and RSM SMC. Data showed higher phospho-SM22 levels and decreased SM22-actin binding in the IAS, and reverse to be the case in the RSM SMCs. Experiments determining the mechanism for SM22 phosphorylation in these smooth muscles revealed that Y-27632 (Rho kinase inhibitor) but not Gö-6850 (protein kinase C inhibitor) caused concentration-dependent decreased phosphorylation of SM22. We speculate that SM22 plays an important role in the regulation of basal tone via Rho kinase-induced phosphorylation of SM22.

  12. Intrinsic Ferromagnetism in Eu doped ZnO

    OpenAIRE

    Assadi, M. H. N.; Zhang,Y.B.; Ionescu, M.; Photongkam, P.; Li, S.

    2010-01-01

    We report room temperature ferromagnetism in as-implanted Eu doped ZnO (ZnO:Eu). To address the origin of ferromagnetism ab initio calculations of ZnO:Eu system are performed. Results show that the ferromagnetism is induced by ZnO point defects as Eu ions in perfect ZnO tend to align antiferromagnetically.

  13. Om afstanden mellem EU-systemet og dets borgere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Heyn

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer EU's demokratiske opbygning i forlængelse af debatten om EU-skepsis, der senest opstod som følge af Brexit-afstemningen.......Artiklen diskuterer EU's demokratiske opbygning i forlængelse af debatten om EU-skepsis, der senest opstod som følge af Brexit-afstemningen....

  14. EuCARD final project report

    CERN Document Server

    Koutchouk, J P

    2014-01-01

    After four years of activity, EuCARD has most of its objectives fulfilled, with some new objectives added and a few others on excellent tracks while requiring additional time. The management has been active in reinforcing the collaborative links between partners and projects, contributing to the preparation of FP7-EuCARD2, initiating FP7-HiLumi-LHC Design Study, to favour sustained collaborations beyond EuCARD. An out-of-contract network has been successfully launched on laser plasma acceleration, to combine forces between accelerator, laser and plasma communities. Communication and dissemination activities have led to two highlights: Accelerating News, an accelerator R&D newsletter initiated by EuCARD and now common to all FP7 accelerator projects (over 1000 subscribers) and a series of monographs on accelerator sciences that is progressively finding its public. The scientific networks have more than fulfilled their initial objectives: roadmaps are defined for neutrino facilities, submitted to the Europe...

  15. When Liminals Interact: EU-Hamas Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    , Eurocentric categories that dominate International Relations (IR). By analysing Hamas and the EU as liminals this article demonstrates how far certain collective discourses and non-state identities can go in challenging pre-existing categories on which the social order of international relations relies. Hamas...... does not ‘fit’ into pre-existing social categories of the social order in world politics. The EU does not fit into the system of states in international relations, although it attempts, in part, to behave like one at a supranational level. Empirically, both the EU and Hamas are able to exercise power...... their relations of Self. In exploring the procedural relations of the EU and Hamas it argues for the necessity of recognising liminal categories in IR theory and practice while at the same time highlighting the limits of such in-between categories in a world order still structured around the state....

  16. Liminality in EU-Hamas relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle; Pallister-Wilkins, Polly

    , Eurocentric categories that dominate International Relations (IR). By analysing Hamas and the EU as liminals this article demonstrates how far certain collective discourses and non-state identities can go in challenging pre-existing categories on which the social order of international relations relies. Hamas...... does not ‘fit’ into pre-existing social categories of the social order in world politics. The EU does not fit into the system of states in international relations, although it attempts, in part, to behave like one at a supranational level. Empirically, both the EU and Hamas are able to exercise power...... their relations of Self. In exploring the procedural relations of the EU and Hamas it argues for the necessity of recognising liminal categories in IR theory and practice while at the same time highlighting the limits of such in-between categories in a world order still structured around the state....

  17. EU and Tourism Development: Bark or Bite?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of major programmes to strengthen the quality and competitiveness of European destinations, the role of the EU in tourism development has often been seen as fairly limited. Despite this, spill-overs or side effects from adjoining policy areas with extensive European regulation...... or intervention can be equally important, and the paper examines key aspects of the EU's role in tourism development in order to discuss to what extent the traditional interpretation of a passive actor of little consequence should be modified or even discarded. Drawing upon European and Nordic documentary sources...... as well as existing specialist literature, the text first examines the development of an EU policy statement on tourism, and then two areas of EU policy - competition policy and regional development - are analysed with a view to establishing side-effects in European and Nordic destinations...

  18. The EU and its trickster practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    If one looks at the European Union (EU)’s southern neighbourhood and considers its response to the Israeli Palestinian conflict, one can only wonder how the EU can have any apologists left at all. While the tortured history of the conflict dates back more than a century, its roots lie in decades ....... Few international disputes have generated as much emotion, passion, anguish, and diplomatic gridlock as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.......If one looks at the European Union (EU)’s southern neighbourhood and considers its response to the Israeli Palestinian conflict, one can only wonder how the EU can have any apologists left at all. While the tortured history of the conflict dates back more than a century, its roots lie in decades...

  19. EU Enlargement between Economic and Political Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper answers at two important questions: Is the EU able to support new adhering processes? and Is the Euro area able to enlarge in 2014? The comparative analysis in the paper covers four economic competitors: EU, USA, China and Japan, and is based on GDP growth rate, unemployment and inflation rates. The second part of the paper deals with an economic forecast during 2015-2016, focused on EU27, Euro area, Croatia and Latvia, in order to discuss the effects of the adhering to EU and Euro area. The results of the two-level analysis are supported by pertinent diagrams and annexes. The analysis uses a neutral statistical database – Eurostat – and dedicated forecast software. The main conclusion of the paper is that the adhering processes from 2013 and 2014 are based on economic and political criteria.

  20. JAPAN RISKS MISSING EU DEADLINE ON ACCOUNTSJ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Japanese companies face being shut out of European Union capital markets owing to difficulties in harmonizing Japan's accounting standards with EU rules in time to meet a Brussels deadline,the Japanese regulator has warned.

  1. Phytoremediation potential of Petunia grandiflora Juss., an ornamental plant to degrade a disperse, disulfonated triphenylmethane textile dye Brilliant Blue G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watharkar, Anuprita D; Khandare, Rahul V; Kamble, Apurva A; Mulla, Asma Y; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2013-02-01

    Phytoremediation provides an ecofriendly alternative for the treatment of pollutants like textile dyes. The purpose of this study was to explore phytoremediation potential of Petunia grandiflora Juss. by using its wild as well as tissue-cultured plantlets to decolorize Brilliant Blue G (BBG) dye, a sample of dye mixture and a real textile effluent. In vitro cultures of P. grandiflora were obtained by seed culture method. The decolorization experiments were carried out using wild as well as tissue-cultured plants independently. The enzymatic analysis of the plant roots was performed before and after decolorization of BBG. Metabolites formed after dye degradation were analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Phytotoxicity studies were performed. Characterization of dye mixture and textile effluent was also studied. The wild and tissue-cultured plants of P. grandiflora showed the decolorized BBG up to 86 %. Significant increase in the activities of lignin peroxidase, laccase, NADH-2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol reductase, and tyrosinase was found in the roots of the plants. Three metabolites of BBG were identified as 3-{[ethyl(phenyl)amino]methyl}benzenesulfonic acid, 3-{[methyl (phenyl)amino]methyl}benzenesulfonic amino acid, and sodium-3-[(cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylideneamino)methyl]benzenesulfonate. Textile effluent sample and a synthetic mixture of dyes were also decolorized by P. grandiflora. Phytotoxicity test revealed the nontoxic nature of metabolites. P. grandiflora showed the potential to decolorize and degrade BBG to nontoxic metabolites. The plant has efficiently treated a sample of dye mixture and textile effluent.

  2. Selection of oocytes for in vitro maturation by brilliant cresyl blue staining: a study using the mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Guang Wu; Yong Liu; Ping Zhou; Guo-Cheng Lan; Dong Han; De-Qiang Miao; Jing-He Tan

    2007-01-01

    Selecting oocytes that are most likely to develop is crucial for in vitro fertilization and animal cloning. Brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining has been used for oocyte selection in large animals, but its wider utility needs further evaluation. Mouse oocytes were divided into those stained (BCB+) and those unstained (BCB-) according to their ooplasm BCB coloration. Chromatin configurations, cumulus cell apoptosis, cytoplasmic maturity and developmental competence were compared between the BCB+ and BCB- oocytes. The effects of oocyte diameter, sexual maturity and gonadotro-pin stimulation on the competence of BCB+ oocytes were also analyzed. In the large- and medium-size groups, BCB+ oocytes were larger and showed more surrounded nucleoli (SN) chromatin configurations and higher frequencies of early atresia, and they also gained better cytoplasmic maturity (determined as the intracellular GSH level and pattern of mitochondrial distribution) and higher developmental potential after in vitro maturation (IVM) than the BCB- oocytes. Adult mice produced more BCB+ oocytes with higher competence than the prepubertal mice when not primed with PMSG. PMSG priming increased both proportion and developmental potency of BCB+ oocytes. The BCB+ oocytes in the large-size group showed more SN chromatin configurations, better cytoplasmic maturity and higher developmental potential than their counterparts in the medium-size group. It is concluded that BCB staining can be used as an efficient method for oocyte selection, but that the competence of the BCB+ oocytes may vary with oocyte diameter, animal sexual maturity and gonadotropin stimulation. Taken together, the series of criteria described here would allow for better choices in selecting oocytes for better development.

  3. Production and Purification of Remazol Brilliant Blue R Decolorizing Peroxidase from the Culture Filtrate of Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K.; Oh, I.; Kim, C.

    1997-01-01

    An extracellular H(inf2)O(inf2)-requiring Remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR) decolorizing enzymatic activity was found in the culture medium of Pleurotus ostreatus. The enzymatic activity was maximally obtained in idiophase, and the optimum C/N ratio was 24. High C/N ratios repressed the enzymatic activity, and addition of veratryl alcohol had no effect on the production of enzyme. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephacryl S-200 HR chromatography, DEAE Sepharose CL-6B chromatography, and Mono Q chromatography. The purification of RBBR decolorizing peroxidase, as judged by the final specific activity of 6.00 U/mg, was 54.5-fold, with a yield of 9.9%. The molecular mass of the native enzyme determined by gel permeation chromatography was found to be about 73 kDa. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 71 kDa. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 3.0 to 3.5 and at 25(deg)C. Under standard assay conditions, the apparent K(infm) values of the enzyme toward RBBR and H(inf2)O(inf2) were 10.99 and 32.97 (mu)M, respectively. The enzyme had affinity toward various phenolic compounds and artificial dyes, and it was inhibited by Na(inf2)S(inf2)O(inf5), potassium cyanide, NaN(inf3), and cysteine. The absorption spectrum of the enzyme exhibited maxima at 407, 510, and 640 nm. The addition of H(inf2)O(inf2) to the enzyme resulted in an absorbance decrease at 407 and 510 nm. PMID:16535590

  4. Complexation study of brilliant cresyl blue with beta-cyclodextrin and its derivatives by UV-vis and fluorospectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Feng; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Guo, Yu-Xian; Li, Rong

    2008-01-01

    The complexation reactions of brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD), mono[2-O-(2-hydroxypropyl)]-beta-CD (2-HP-beta-CD), mono[2-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)]-beta-CD (2-HE-beta-CD), and heptakis(2,6-di-methyl) -beta-CD (DM-beta-CD) were investigated using UV-vis and fluorospectrometry. The complexation between BCB and CDs could inhibit the aggregation of BCB molecules and could cause its absorbance at 634nm gradually increasing. The fluorescence of BCB was also enhanced with the addition of CDs. The fluorescence enhancement was more notable in neutral and acidic media than in basic media. Hildebrand-Benesi equation was used to calculate the formation constants of beta-CDs with BCB based on the fluorescence differences in the CDs solution. The stoichiometry ratio was found to be 1:1. The complexing capacities of beta-CD and its three derivatives were compared and the results followed the order: 2-HP-beta-CD>2-HE-beta-CD>DM-beta-CD>beta-CD. The effect of temperature on the formation of BCB-beta-CD inclusion complexes has also been examined. The results revealed that the formation constants decreased with the increase of temperature from 1038.9 to 491.6l/mol. Enthalpy and entropy values were calculated and the values were -25.77kJ/mol and 35.04J/kmol, respectively. The thermodynamic measurements suggest that the inclusive process was enthalpic favor. The release of high-energy water molecules and Van der Waals force played an important role in the inclusive process.

  5. Molybdate templated assembly of Ln12Mo4-type clusters (Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd) containing a truncated tetrahedron core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Zhang, Qian-Chong; Long, La-Sheng; Huang, Rong-Bin; Müller, Achim; Schnack, Jürgen; Zheng, Lan-Sun; Zheng, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    Three heterometallic cluster complexes {Ln(12)Mo(4)} featuring an Ln(12) core of a distorted truncated tetrahedron were synthesized with the assistance of four MoO(4)(2-) anions as ancillary ligands. Magnetic studies of the {Gd(12)Mo(4)} cluster revealed a large magnetocaloric effect due to the presence of the large number of weakly coupled Gd(III) ions.

  6. EU's Plight, Changes and Their Impacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ On the stages of international politics and economics, the European Union (EU) is a key player, and its development has great impact on the global political and economic setup. In 2005, the "constitutional crisis" occurred in the EU, the fruits of European economic integration, which once was thought irreversible, like the Single European Market and the united currency of euro, now also might fall apart.

  7. EU-Turkey Relations: Changing Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Szigetvári

    2014-01-01

    The enlargement policy is important for the EU not only to extend its zone of peace, stability and prosperity, but also to increase its global competitiveness. Among the potential EU candidates, Turkey has a special place. As the only candidate that belongs to the group of newly emerging economic powers, Turkey may contribute significantly to the economic prosperity of Europe. Since its creation in 1923, Turkey showed an eager wish to belong to the European nations. Turkey adopted deep reform...

  8. Heterogeneous Isotopic Anomalies of Sm and Gd in the Norton County Meteorite: Evidence for Irradiation from the Active Early Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Kondo, Tomoyo; Yoneda, Shigekazu

    2012-02-01

    Large and heterogeneous isotopic variations of 150Sm/149Sm and 158Gd/157Gd due to neutron capture reactions caused by cosmic-ray irradiation were found in chemical and mineral separates from the Norton County meteorite. The light-colored separates, consisting mainly of enstatite (Mg2Si2O6), have a very large neutron fluence of 1.98 × 1017 n cm-2, which is 10 times higher than that of the whole rock. Furthermore, four chemical separates showed a large variation in neutron fluences, ranging from 1.82 × 1016 to 1.87 × 1017 n cm-2. The variable amounts of neutron fluences from a small single fragment of the Norton County meteorite cannot be simply explained by single-stage cosmic-ray irradiation in space. Rare earth element (REE) analyses revealed that the fractions with high neutron fluences have similar chemical properties to those in the early condensates in the solar system, showing depletions of Eu and Yb in their REE abundance patterns. The data provide evidence for an activity of the early Sun (T Tauri), suggesting the migration of early and intense irradiation materials into the Norton County meteorite's parent body.

  9. The EU Arbitration Convention : An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pit, Harm Mark

    2017-01-01

    The EU Arbitration Convention An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention Summary for non-experts The EU Arbitration Convention is a convention between EU Member States to eliminate double taxation arising from – for tax purposes – transfer pricing pro

  10. Magnetic property and microstructure of SmCo magnetic recording films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Ning; LI; Shuai

    2009-01-01

    Cr/SmCo/Cr thin films with Sm concentration of 37.7 at.% were deposited on glass substrates by magnetron sputtering. Meas-urement of magnetic properties showed that the SmCo film possessed good magnetic anisotropy, a high coercivity of 3019 kA/m and low magnetic exchange coupling. Microstructure analysis showed that crystallized SmCo5 magnetic phase, non-magnetic SmCo2 phase and Sm2Co7 phase co-existed ill the film. The non-magnetic SmCo2 phase might function as isolator of SmCo grains, leading to a decrease of magnetic exchange coupling. Moreover, a Cr2)3 oxide layer which could protect the SmCo layer from oxidation formed at the surface of the Cr cap layer.

  11. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  12. Eu(2+) luminescence in strontium aluminates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutczak, D; Jüstel, T; Ronda, C; Meijerink, A

    2015-06-21

    The luminescence properties of Eu(2+) doped strontium aluminates are reported and reviewed for a variety of aluminates, viz. SrAl12O19, SrAl4O7, Sr4Al14O25, SrAl2O4 and Sr3Al2O6. The aim of the research is to investigate the role of local coordination and covalency of the aluminate host lattice, related to the Sr/Al ratio, on the optical properties of the Eu(2+) ion. The UV and VUV excited luminescence spectra as well as luminescence decay curves were recorded to characterize the luminescence properties of the investigated aluminates. The emission of Eu(2+) ions varies over a wide spectral range, from ultraviolet (UV) to red, for the series of aluminates. The variation in emission color can be related to the crystal-field splitting of the 5d levels and the covalent interaction with the surrounding oxygen anions. In the least covalent material, viz. SrAl12O19:Eu(2+), narrow line emission due to the (6)P7/2-(8)S7/2 transition occurs at 4 K, indicating that the 4f(6)5d excited state is situated above the (6)P7/2(4f(7)) excited state around 360 nm. The most alkaline material, viz. Sr3Al2O6:Eu(2+) is the most covalent host and exhibits several d-f emission bands in the yellow to red spectral range due to the Eu(2+) ions located on different crystallographic Sr(2+) sites. The Eu(2+) emission spectra in the other aluminates confirm the trend that with increasing Sr/Al ratio the Eu(2+) emission shifts to longer wavelengths. Interesting differences are observed for the Eu(2+) from different crystallographic sites which cannot always be related with apparent differences in the first oxygen coordination sphere. The discussion gives insight into how in a similar class of materials, strontium aluminates, the emission color of Eu(2+) can be tuned over a wide spectral region.

  13. Superconductivity in Co-doped SmFeAsO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Yanpeng; Gao Zhaoshun; Wang Lei; Wang Dongliang; Zhang Xianping; Ma Yanwei [Key Laboratory of Applied Superconductivity, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2703, Beijing 100190 (China)], E-mail: ywma@mail.iee.ac.cn

    2008-11-15

    Here we report the synthesis and characterizations of SmFe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}AsO (x = 0.10, 0.15) for the first time. The parent compound SmFeAsO itself is not superconducting but shows an antiferromagnetic order near 150 K, which must be suppressed by doping before superconductivity emerges. With Co doping in the FeAs planes, antiferromagnetic order is destroyed and superconductivity occurs at 15.2 K. Similar to LaFe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}AsO, the SmFe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}AsO system appears to tolerate considerable disorder in the FeAs planes. This result is important, suggesting a different mechanism for cuprate superconductors compared to the iron-based arsenide ones.

  14. Low energy neutron inelastic scattering on /sup 152/Sm nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, D.J.R.; Cabezas, S.R.; Lopez, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of inelastic neutron scattering by the nucleus /sup 152/Sm at incident energies of 2.47 and 2.75 MeV using the coupled-channel method has been made. Consideration is made of the 2/sup +//0.122 MeV/, 4/sup +//0.366 MeV/ and 2/sup +//1.086 MeV/excited states. It is shown that in this energy range the process may be described satisfactorily considering /sup 152/Sm as a deformed nucleus with non-axial symmetry, given the quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations. The scattering process through the compound nucleus is calculated according to the Hauser-Feshbach formula with width fluctuation correction. It is shown that the presence of direct excitation process is partly due to the non-axiality of /sup 152/Sm.

  15. Succession of States in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martini Mario

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A specter is haunting Europe – the specter of separatism. Scotland, Catalonia, Flanders, South Tyrol – all these regions have separatist movements pursuing independence from their current National State. The breakup of an EU Member State no longer seems impossible. To date, it is unclear what impact this would have on the EU membership of the new entities (with consequences for the character of citizenship, voting rights in the council, number of MEPs etc. that emerge from the old States. The common rules of Public International Law governing the succession of States are insufficient in the case of a succession of States in the EU. Although the Treaties do not provide for such a situation and the past 60 years of European history offer only a few and not really persuasive precedents, the nature of the EU as a joint association of sovereign States (“Staatenverbund” demands a special approach: A separated State will neither be automatically excluded from the EU nor will it automatically become a new Member State. Drawing on the ideas of Articles 49 and 50 TEU this essay develops a procedure for balancing the interests of the EU, its Member States, and the people living in the seceding State, who are likely to be pro-EU. If a Member State breaks up, both the remaining State and the new entity will continue to represent the former Member State in the European institutions. The former Member State will provisionally continue to exist for both the EU and its Member States with respect to European matters. A process of negotiation between the two “new” States themselves and with the other Member States will lead to a new balance within the EU and the adaption of the Treaties – the solution has to be a political one. If the negotiations are successful, the former Member State can finally be dissolved at the EU level. In this case either both new States will become new Members or the remaining State will continue the membership (with

  16. Neutron Scattering from Heisenberg Ferromagnets EuO and EuS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O. W.; Passell, L.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron scattering has been used to study the magnetic ordering process in the isotropic exchange coupled ferromagnets EuO and EuS. Quantities investigated include the critical coefficients B and F+ and the critical exponents β, ν, and γ describing respectively the temperature dependence of the r...

  17. Critical neutron scattering from the Heisenberg ferromagnets EuO and EuS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O. W.; Passell, L.

    1972-01-01

    The magnetic neutron scattering from isotopically enriched powders of EuO and EuS near their Curie temperatures has been studied. Results of the critical exponents for the static properties in standard notation were * Thumbnail image of Spin wave scattering at T...

  18. The Appliance of Code Switching in the SM Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chang

    2014-01-01

    Code-switching, a natural phenomenon that consists of alternating two or more languages in bilinguals ’discourse, has traditionally been examined in its oral production. For over three decades, much attention has been emphasized on its form, meaning, and grammatical patterns. However, very little research focuses on code-switching in short message form. Code switch-ing is a quite common phenomenon. As cell phones become the communication tools used by people more frequently, short mes-sage language (SM) attracts more attention by people. Through analyzing the code switching in the SM language, it will help us understand more about its use and explore more information for our study.

  19. Sodium samarium tetrakis(polyphosphate, NaSm(PO34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhao

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available NaSm(PO34 has been prepared by solid state reactions. It belongs to type II of the structural family of MILnIII(PO34 compounds (MI = alkali metal and LnIII = rare earth metal and is composed of ∞(PO3n]n− polyphosphate chains with a repeating unit of four PO4 tetrahedra. The chains extend parallel to [100] and share O atoms with irregular SmO8 polyhedra, forming a three-dimensional framework which delimits tunnels occupied by Na+ cations in a distorted octahedral environment.

  20. The optical phonon spectrum of SmFeAsO

    OpenAIRE

    Marini, C.; Mirri, C.; Profeta, G.; Lupi, S.; Di Castro, D.; Sopracase, R.; Postorino, P.; Calvani, P.; Perucchi, A.; Massidda, S.; Tropeano, G. M.; Putti, M.; Martinelli, A.; Palenzona, A.; Dore, P.

    2008-01-01

    We measured the Raman and the Infrared phonon spectrum of SmFeAsO polycrystalline samples. We also performed Density Functional Theory calculations within the pseudopotential approximation to obtain the structural and dynamical lattice properties of both the SmFeAsO and the prototype LaFeAsO compounds. The measured Raman and Infrared phonon frequencies are well predicted by the optical phonon frequencies computed at the Gamma point, showing the capability of the employed ab-initio methods to ...

  1. Presence of magnetic excitations in SmFeAsO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliciari, Jonathan; Dantz, Marcus; Huang, Yaobo; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Xing, Lingyi; Wang, Xiancheng; Jin, Changqing; Schmitt, Thorsten

    2016-09-01

    We measured dispersive spin excitations in SmFeAsO, a parent compound of SmFeAsO1 -xFx and one of the highest temperature superconductors of Fe pnictides (TC ≈ 55 K). We determine the magnetic excitations to disperse with a bandwidth energy of ca 170 meV at (0.47, 0) and (0.34, 0.34), which merges into the elastic line approaching the Γ point. Comparing our results with other parent Fe pnictides, we show the importance of structural parameters for the magnetic excitation spectrum, with small modifications of the tetrahedron angles and As height strongly affecting the magnetism.

  2. Petri nets SM-cover-based on heuristic coloring algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacz, Jacek; Doligalski, Michał

    2015-09-01

    In the paper, coloring heuristic algorithm of interpreted Petri nets is presented. Coloring is used to determine the State Machines (SM) subnets. The present algorithm reduces the Petri net in order to reduce the computational complexity and finds one of its possible State Machines cover. The proposed algorithm uses elements of interpretation of Petri nets. The obtained result may not be the best, but it is sufficient for use in rapid prototyping of logic controllers. Found SM-cover will be also used in the development of algorithms for decomposition, and modular synthesis and implementation of parallel logic controllers. Correctness developed heuristic algorithm was verified using Gentzen formal reasoning system.

  3. Photoexcited Eu2+ spin dynamics in EuFe2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebna, A.; Mertelj, T.; Cao, G.; Xu, Z. A.; Mihailovic, D.

    2014-06-01

    Employing temperature dependent time-resolved optical femtosecond spectroscopy, we investigated the quasiparticle and Eu2+ spin relaxation dynamics in EuFe2As2 (EFA). As previously reported in other undoped iron-based pnictides, we observe the quasiparticle relaxation bottleneck due to the charge gap opening in the spin density wave (SDW) state below T SDW = 189 K. Below the Eu2+ antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin ordering temperature, T AFM = 19 K, we observe another slower relaxation component, which we attribute to the Eu2+ AFM order dynamics. The slow dynamics of this component suggests a weak coupling between the Eu2+ spins and the carriers in the Fe- d derived bands.

  4. Quadrupole splitting and Eu partial lattice dynamics in europium orthophosphate EuPO 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobes, B.; Arinicheva, Y.; Neumeier, S.; Simon, R. E.; Jafari, A.; Bosbach, D.; Hermann, R. P.

    2016-12-01

    Hyperfine interactions in europium orthophosphate EuPO4 were investigated using 151Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy from 6 to 300 K. The value of the quadrupole splitting and the asymmetry parameter were refined and further substantiated by nuclear forward scattering data obtained at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the relative absorption was modeled with an Eu specific Debye temperature of 221(1) K. Eu partial lattice dynamics were probed by means of nuclear inelastic scattering and the mean force constant, the Lamb-Mössbauer factor, the internal energy, the vibrational entropy, the average phonon group velocity were calculated using the extracted density of phonon states. In general, Eu specific vibrations are characterized by rather small phonon energies and contribute strongly to the total entropy of the system. Although there is no classical Debye like behavior at low vibrational energies, the average phonon group velocity can be reasonably approximated using a linear fit.

  5. Perceived Distributive Fairness of EU Transfer Payments, Outcome Favorability, Identity, and EU-Tax Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartner, Martina; Rechberger, Silvia; Kirchler, Erich; Wenzel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In a representative UK study (N = 1000) the link between distributive fairness perceptions, outcome favorability, identity, and tax compliance was researched in the context of European transfer payments. Results showed that both forms of tax compliance (i.e., individual and collective EU-tax compliance) were influenced by perceived distributive fairness judgments of EU transfer payments. Fairness itself was related to perceived outcome favorability (i.e., whether their own nation benefits from the EU in financial as well as socio-political terms). Additionally, national identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation, but not with Europe) perceived EU membership as unbeneficial in financial as well as in socio-political terms and thus considered the transfer payments as less fair. Dual identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation and with Europe) perceived the socio-political outcomes from EU membership as more beneficial and thus evaluated the transfer payments as fairer.

  6. Do supranational EU institutions make a difference? EU asylum law before and after 'communitarization'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll Servent, Ariadna; Trauner, Florian

    2014-09-14

    This article examines whether the empowerment of the European Union's (EU) supranational institutions has had an impact on the development of EU asylum. By systematically investigating EU asylum law before and after 'communitarization', it argues that its 'policy core' has maintained a high degree of continuity. An advocacy coalition under the leadership of the interior ministers managed to co-opt pivotal actors in the newly empowered European Commission and European Parliament. By contenting themselves with changes of secondary order, these EU institutions accepted and institutionalized the restrictive and weakly integrated core of EU asylum set by the Council in the first negotiation round. Their role and decisions were driven not only by the negotiation dynamics and political expediency, but also by new inter- and intra-institutional norms fostering consensual practices.

  7. The transformative power of EU: An Assessment of EU impact in the judicial system of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrie Besimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the process of EU integration, the aspiring and potential candidate countries have undergone a major process of reforms. The question that is aroused in this sense is to what extent the EU has had transformative power and impacted the internal judicial structures of Kosovo and under which conditions the EU is more effective. This article analyzes the findings of the Progress reports for a ten-year period (2005 – 2015 and the extent of the EU impact. It uses the conceptual and rational framework of external incentives model and argues that the EU impact in the judiciary system of Kosovo is crucial considering the starting low phase of reforms in Kosovo.

  8. Deregulering af arbejdsretlige EU-direktiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ole; Rønnow Bruun, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Europa-Kommissionen vil lette de ”reguleringsmæssige byrder” for små og mellemstore virksomheder (SMV). Langt hovedparten af de danske virksomheder er SMV´er. Konsekvenserne af initiativet kan derfor blive særdeles vidtgående på dansk grund. Artiklen drøfter, om det overhovedet er muligt i henhold...

  9. Competitive adsorption of Reactive Orange 16 and Reactive Brilliant Blue R on polyaniline/bacterial extracellular polysaccharides composite-A novel eco-friendly polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaki, V. [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011, Tamil Nadu (India); Vijayaraghavan, K. [Singapore-Delft Water Alliance, National University of Singapore, 117577 (Singapore); Ramasamy, A.K. [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011, Tamil Nadu (India); Lee, Kui-Jae [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570752 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Byung-Taek, E-mail: btoh@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570752 (Korea, Republic of); Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan, E-mail: kannan@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Competitive adsorption of reactive dyes onto polyaniline/bacterial extracellular polysaccharides composite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite have functional groups of both polyaniline and bacterial extracellular polysaccharides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of Reactive Brilliant Blue R diminished the uptake of Reactive Orange 16. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrostatic interaction was identified as a major mechanism in adsorption process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reactive Brilliant Blue R and Reactive Orange 16 adsorption was endothermic process. - Abstract: The performance of polyaniline/extracellular polymeric substances (Pn/EPS) composite as an adsorbent to remove the anionic reactive dyes, Reactive Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and Reactive Orange 16 (RO), was investigated in single and binary systems. The pH{sub pzc} of Pn/EPS composite was calculated as 3.7 through potentiometric mass titration method. Electrostatic interaction between the dye anion and the nitrogen present in the polymer was identified as a major mechanism in adsorption process. Single component isotherms followed the Langmuir model with the maximum adsorption capacity of 0.5775 mmol g{sup -1} for RBBR and 0.4748 mmol g{sup -1} for RO. In binary system, both the reactive dye anions compete with each other and resulted in lower uptake. Binary adsorption data were interpreted well by the Sheindorf-Rehbun-Sheintuch equation as compared to extended Langmuir model with constant interaction factor. Kinetic analysis of single solute followed pseudo-first order model. Thermodynamic studies computed that RBBR and RO adsorption was endothermic, spontaneous, and feasible process.

  10. Magnetization and transport properties of single crystalline RPd2P2 (R=Y, La-Nd, Sm-Ho, Yb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachuck, Gil; Böhmer, Anna E.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2016-11-01

    Single crystals of RPd2P2 (R=Y, La-Nd, Sm-Ho, Yb) were grown out of a high temperature solution rich in Pd and P and characterized by room-temperature powder X-ray diffraction, anisotropic temperature- and field-dependent magnetization and temperature-dependent in-plane resistivity measurements. In this series, YPd2P2 and LaPd2P2 YbPd2P2 (with Yb2+) are non-local-moment bearing. Furthermore, YPd2P2 and LaPd2P2 are found to be superconducting with Tc ≃ 0.75 and 0.96 K respectively. CePd2P2 and PrPd2P2 magnetically order at low temperature with a ferromagnetic component along the crystallographic c-axis. The rest of the series manifest low temperature antiferromagnetic ordering. EuPd2P2 has Eu2+ ions and both EuPd2P2 and GdPd2P2 have isotropic paramagnetic susceptibilities consistent with L=0 and J = S = 7/2 and exhibit multiple magnetic transitions. For R=Eu-Dy, there are multiple, T > 1.8 K transitions in zero applied magnetic field and for R=Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Dy there are clear metamagnetic transitions at T=2.0 K for H < 55 kOe. Strong anisotropies arising mostly from crystal electric field (CEF) effects were observed for most magnetic rare earths with L ≠ 0. The experimentally estimated CEF parameters B20 were calculated from the anisotropic paramagnetic θab and θc values and compared to theoretical trends across the rare earth series. The ordering temperatures as well as the polycrystalline averaged paramagnetic Curie-Weiss temperature, θave, were extracted from magnetization and resistivity measurements, and compared to the de-Gennes factor.

  11. EU NO "Plan B" Beyond Copenhagen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ "The EU wams to speed up the negotiations and will take firm actions to reduce its emissions by 20 percent regardless of what other countries do.Because the EU had no‘plan B'beyond Copenhagen",Sweden's Environment Minister Andreas Carlgren stressed the goal during his visit to Beijing in July.He led the European Union delegation and accompanied by EU Environment Commissioner Stavros Dimas and environment minister from Spain that will hold the EU presidency during the next term,to visit China.This is the first visit made by the EU Troika for bilateral climate negotiations during the Swedish Presidency.The purpose of the visit is to reach an agreement on climate change for the preparation of Copenhagen Conference to be held this December,in which,it is supposed to agree on a successor to the Kyoto Protocol,and to reinforce the message that emerging economies were also expected to reduce emissions by 15-30%from current levels by 2020.Carlgren called his visit was"laying the right foundation for a successful Copenhagen conference".

  12. Sorption of Cr(VI) by Amberlite XAD-7 resin impregnated with brilliant green and its determination by quercetin as a selective spectrophotometric reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mohammad Saeid; Hosseini-Bandegharaei, Ahmad; Raissi, Haidar; Belador, Foroogh

    2009-09-30

    A new chelating polymeric sorbent as an extractant-impregnated resin (EIR) has been developed using brilliant green (BG) and Amberlite XAD-7 resin. The BG-impregnated resin showed superior binding affinity for Cr(VI) in the presence of many co-existing ions and no considerable interference was observed. The influence of various physicochemical parameters on the recovery of Cr(VI) were optimized by both static and dynamic methods. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm gave a satisfactory fit of the equilibrium data. The kinetic studies performed for Cr(VI) sorption revealed that 93%, which confirmed accuracy of the measurements.

  13. The formin-homology protein SmDia interacts with the Src kinase SmTK and the GTPase SmRho1 in the gonads of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Quack

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis (bilharzia is a parasitic disease of worldwide significance affecting human and animals. As schistosome eggs are responsible for pathogenesis, the understanding of processes controlling gonad development might open new perspectives for intervention. The Src-like tyrosine-kinase SmTK3 of Schistosoma mansoni is expressed in the gonads, and its pharmacological inhibition reduces mitogenic activity and egg production in paired females in vitro. Since Src kinases are important signal transduction proteins it is of interest to unravel the signaling cascades SmTK3 is involved in to understand its cellular role in the gonads. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: Towards this end we established and screened a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H cDNA library of adult S. mansoni with a bait construct encoding the SH3 (src homology domain and unique site of SmTK3. Among the binding partners found was a diaphanous homolog (SmDia, which was characterized further. SmDia is a single-copy gene transcribed throughout development with a bias towards male transcription. Its deduced amino acid sequence reveals all diaphanous-characteristic functional domains. Binding studies with truncated SmDia clones identified SmTK3 interaction sites demonstrating that maximal binding efficiency depends on the N-terminal part of the FH1 (formin homology domain and the inter-domain region of SmDia located upstream of FH1 in combination with the unique site and the SH3 domain of SmTK3, respectively. SmDia also directly interacted with the GTPase SmRho1 of S. mansoni. In situ hybridization experiments finally demonstrated that SmDia, SmRho1, and SmTK3 are transcribed in the gonads of both genders. CONCLUSION: These data provide first evidence for the existence of two cooperating pathways involving Rho and Src that bridge at SmDia probably organizing cytoskeletal events in the reproductive organs of a parasite, and beyond that in gonads of eukaryotes. Furthermore, the FH1 and inter

  14. EU-Asia Free Trade Areas? Economic and Policy Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Plummer, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed key aspects of the changing economic relationship between the European Union (EU) and Asia, and explored the potential economic ramifications of deeper EU-Asian economic cooperation. We also investigated the possible costs to the EU of remaining “disengaged†from the Asian integration process and the likely impact of multi-nested EU-Asian trade agreements. Our empirical review of CGE models revealed trivial effects of several possible EU-Asian accords (e.g., EU-I...

  15. The Contradictions in the EU's Policy towards Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian

    2005-01-01

    @@ On December 17, 2004, after hard negotiations, the European summit finally reached an agreement to launch the negotiations with Turkey on its accession to the EU in October 2005. This is a very important change in the EU's policy towards Turkey. Under the background of so-called "war on terror" and "conflict of civilizations," the EU's above-mentioned decision is especially arresting. Through analyzing the dominant factors in the EU's policy towards Turkey, this paper tries to make a judgment on the future development of Turkish- EU relationship, the prospect of Turkey's accession to the EU and the influences over the development of European integration.

  16. Searches for Beyond SM Higgs Boson at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safonov, A.; /Texas A-M

    2006-05-01

    In the following, the authors describe preliminary results of searches for non-SM higgs bosons at the CDF and D0 experiments. Both experiments use data obtained in p{bar p} collisions at the Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV.

  17. Biofuels, Biolubricants and the BioPreferred(SM) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BioPreferred(SM) Program is a U.S. government initiative intended to encourage the development and widespread use of biofuels, biolubricants, and other biobased products in the U.S. The program consists of the preferred procurement and the voluntary labeling programs. Companies wishing to have t...

  18. A Smart EU Energy Policy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, J. [Clingendael International Energy Programme CIEP, Den Haag (Netherlands); Glachant, J.M. [The Loyola de Palacio Programme, Robert Schuman Center for Advanced Studies, European University Institute, San Domenico di Fiesole (Italy); Hafner, M. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei FEEM, Milan (Italy); Grant, R. (ed.) [Wilton Park, Wiston House, Steyning, West Sussex (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    A four-tier project has been organized to discuss the potential for a smart EU Energy Policy. The project consisted of three workshops where academics discussed the various interactions between the three core objectives of EU energy policy with stakeholders from governments, regulators, and industry. Following the three workshops a conference took place to examine the workshop reports and to formulate overall project conclusions and recommendations. The objective of the project was to come out with a set of 'smart' conclusions and recommendations for the 2010 EU energy policy review. The deliberations at the four project meetings greatly informed the views expressed in this document, but those views belong to the authors only and do not necessarily represent those of individual participants at the meetings or of the four supporting organisations.

  19. Migration from New EU Member Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to give predictions of the migration potential from the 7 new EU member countries to the EEA/EU-13 countries. Being able to analyze 'real' migration behavior from these particular countries over the period 1990-2000 helps me to avoid problems related to (double) out......-of sample forecasts and to the assumption of invariance of migration behavior across a space that previous studies had to hold. Results of the econometric analyses reveal the importance of controlling for pairs of countries unobserved heterogeneity. Preliminary results regarding the predictions of future...... gross and net migration flows show that the magnitude of the estimated gross and net migration flows is relatively high and lower, respectively, compared to forecasts from previous studies. Such a development in gross and net migration flows indicates that migration from the new EU member countries...

  20. EU CONTRIBUTION TO SUPPORT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Popa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the EU aid concerning to improved the economic situation from developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify how EU states contribute to helping poor countries, members of the World Trade Organization. For the beginning, we define the EU’position before, during and after the Doha Round – a round of WTO multilateral trade negotiations. Moreover, we analyse the development dimension, focusing on countries „marginalized” until early of XXI century in terms of international trade, because this represents the idea-axis of the Doha Round. In this context, the EU – one of the leading global commercial players and a key member of the institution mentioned above – has set several objectives to achieve the basic goal of negotiations and several ways to support developing countries. To conclude, we propose to define the key points of the European aid for least developed and developing countries.

  1. The EU as an international security provider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Wolff, Stefan; Whitman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This contribution develops a framework of analysis that covers the actors involved in the policy making process of international security provision, the dynamics of this process itself, its outcomes (concrete strategies and policies) and their impact. Our efforts to establish such a framework...... of analysis, which could serve as the foundation for a mid-range theory of the EU as an international security provider, will examine the relevance of, and apply, existing theories of international relations/international security and foreign policy analysis to the specific case of the EU. The framework...... that will emerge from this analysis will then be tested and applied empirically in the following contributions that focus on how particular policies are formulated and implemented, and that analyse, in single and comparative case studies, the impact and effectiveness of the EU as an international security provider....

  2. The Danish Folketing and EU Affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buskjær Christensen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    significant policy areas of EU cooperation. Denmark has a small, open economy. It became a member of the European Community in 1973, mainly motivated by the economic benefits that could be achieved through free trade in the common market. The Danes, however, have often only reluctantly endorsed the more...... crisis of democratic legitimacy, as a shift from the permissive consensus of EU public opinion became apparent. Danish conditions for accession to the Treaty were renegotiated in 1993, resulting in the Edinburgh Compromise in which Denmark obtained four opt-outs. All four opt-outs remain in place today......: (1) from the third phase of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), that is, the euro; (2) from supranational cooperation on Justice and Home Affairs (JHA); (3) from defence cooperation within the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP); and (4) from EU citizenship, which no longer has any practical...

  3. Anomalous Hall effect and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Sm{sub 28}Fe{sub 72} and Sm{sub 32}Fe{sub 68} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamala Bharathi, K., E-mail: kbkaruppanan@utep.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Venkatesh, S. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Markandeyulu, G. [Advanced Magnetic Materials Laboratory (AMMLa), Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ramana, C.V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Sm{sub 28}Fe{sub 72} and Sm{sub 32}Fe{sub 68} films of 100 nm thickness were grown using DC magnetron sputter deposition and their structure, magnetization, electrical and Hall resistance characteristics were investigated. An increase in electrical resistivity from 4.75x10{sup -6} to 5.62x10{sup -6} {Omega} m and from 2.26x10{sup -6} to 2.84x10{sup -6} {Omega} m for Sm{sub 28}Fe{sub 72} and Sm{sub 32}Fe{sub 68} films, respectively, with decrease in temperature from 300 to 40 K is attributed to the strain induced anisotropy that dominates at lower temperatures. The positive extraordinary Hall coefficients (R{sub S}) are observed for both films at 300 and 80 K. The existence of hysteresis indicates that Sm{sub 28}Fe{sub 72} and Sm{sub 32}Fe{sub 68} films possess perpendicular anisotropy at 300 K. Hysteresis loop becomes narrow at 80 K for both Sm{sub 28}Fe{sub 72} and Sm{sub 32}Fe{sub 68} films. Magnetization measurements at 300 K exhibiting small coercive field values of 31 and 49 Oe for Sm{sub 28}Fe{sub 72} and Sm{sub 32}Fe{sub 68} films, respectively, confirm the existence of perpendicular anisotropy at 300 K.

  4. Present developmental conditions petroleum substituting energies in the EU; Sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (EU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report outlines the policy of development and introduction of petroleum substituting energies, and its diffusion situation in the EU. On the policy, development, introduction and diffusion of petroleum substituting energies in the EU, based on the new EU energy white paper issued in fiscal 1996, the policy of energy and environment in every EU country is first outlined. The policy of and practical approach to petroleum substituting energies in every EU country are next described. In particular, since ALTENER which has been continuously promoted by the EU for 3 years as main control measures against CO2 is newly moving toward the second plan, the trend of ALTENER and the new SAVE2 plan are presented. The content of JOULE-THERMIE is also precisely presented which is the new energy program of the 4th framework R & D program. In relation to the developmental trend of alternative energies to oil in the EU until 2020, its prediction result is presented on the basis of the latest study promoted by EC committee in the ALTENER plan. 10 tabs.

  5. Preparation and properties of the SmOx/Rh(100) model surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The preparation of SmOx/Rh(100) and CO adsorption on this model surface have been investigated with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The oxygen adsorption on the SmRh alloy surface leads to the aggregation of Sm on the surface. The thermal treatment of this oxidized surface induces the further agglomeration of SmOx on the Rh(100) surface. Compared with CO TDS on the clean Rh(100) surface, three additional CO desorption peaks can be observed at 176, 331 and 600 K on the SmOx/Rh(100) surface. The CO desorption peak at 176 K may originate from CO adsorbed on SmOx islands, while the appearance of the CO adsorption peaks at 331 and 600 K, depending on the oxidation state of Sm, is attributed to CO species located at the interface of SmOx/Rh(100).

  6. Preparation and bio-distribution of bone tumor therapeutic radiopharmaceutical 153Sm-TTHMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    TTHMP (triethylenetetraaminehexamethylenephosphonic acid) was labeled with 153Sm. The labeling condition, stability, mole ratio of 153Sm to TTHMP, rabbit bone imaging and bio-distribution of 153Sm-TTHMP in mice were investigated. The results showed that weak basic media and high concentration ligands were favorable to form 153Sm-TTHMP; labeling compounds were stable at pH 7 in 7 days. The results also indicated that the chemical mole ratio of 153Sm-TTHMP is n(153Sm)﹕n(TTHMP) = 1﹕1 and skeleton uptake of 153Sm-TTHMP is high((13.96(3.51)%/g at 1h post injection and (13.54(2.98)%/g at 48h post injection), while the non-target tissue uptake is relatively low, so 153Sm-TTHMP is a promising bone tumor therapeutic agent.

  7. Highly efficient narrow-band green and red phosphors enabling wider color-gamut LED backlight for more brilliant displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Wang, Xiaojun; Kohsei, Takahashi; Yoshimura, Ken-ichi; Izumi, Makoto; Hirosaki, Naoto; Xie, Rong-Jun

    2015-11-02

    In this contribution, we propose to combine both narrow-band green (β-sialon:Eu(2+)) and red (K(2)SiF(6):Mn(4+)) phosphors with a blue InGaN chip to achieve white light-emitting diodes (wLEDs) with a large color gamut and a high efficiency for use as the liquid crystal display (LCD) backlighting. β-sialon:Eu(2+), prepared by a gas-pressure sinteing technique, has a peak emission at 535 nm, a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 54 nm, and an external quantum efficiency of 54.0% under the 450 nm excitation. K(2)SiF(6):Mn(4+) was synthesized by a twe-step co-precipitation methods, and exhibits a sharp line emission spectrum with the most intensified peak at 631 nm, a FWHM of ~3 nm, and an external quantum efficiency of 54.5%. The prepared three-band wLEDs have a high color temperature of 11,184 - 13,769 K (i.e., 7,828 - 8,611 K for LCD displays), and a luminous efficacy of 91 - 96 lm/W, measured under an applied current of 120 mA. The color gamut defined in the CIE 1931 and CIE 1976 color spaces are 85.5 - 85.9% and 94.3 - 96.2% of the NTSC stanadard, respectively. These optical properties are better than those phosphor-cpnverted wLED backlights using wide-band green or red phosphoprs, suggesting that the two narrow-band phosphors investigated are the most suitable luminescent materials for achieving more bright and vivid displays.

  8. EU-China cooperation on regional policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Minarčíková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the European Union and China are different in terms of area, population, economic, social, political and cultural development, both of them have to face similar challenge – the significant regional disparities and unbalanced regional development. Based on this the EU-China cooperation on regional policy has been launched and there is huge potential to develop mutual learning initiatives to allow their regions developed. The main aim of this paper is to outline the trends in evolution and perspectives of EU-China cooperation on regional policy.

  9. Relocating a Company within the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses how a public or private limited company can be relocated in another EU country via establishment of a subsidiary in the second country, followed by a reverse vertical merger (the parent ceases to exist and the subsidiary is the continuing company). The consideration for the ......This article analyses how a public or private limited company can be relocated in another EU country via establishment of a subsidiary in the second country, followed by a reverse vertical merger (the parent ceases to exist and the subsidiary is the continuing company). The consideration...

  10. The innovation of EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and alliances, the shifting balance between leader and laggard members, and the ongoing problem integrating the environment into other policy fields. The book also draws on theoretical approaches ranging from institutional to policy network analyses and examines such pertinent contemporary issues as packaging......Inspired by the recent accession of three environmentally progressive member states to the European Union (EU), this book explores the process of environmental policy innovation in the EU, the forces behind the introduction of new issues and policy approaches, and the roles played by the major...

  11. 31 CFR 585.311 - Government of the FRY (S&M).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of the FRY (S&M). 585.311... General Definitions § 585.311 Government of the FRY (S&M). The term Government of the FRY (S&M) includes: (a) The state and the Government of the FRY (S&M), the Government of Serbia, and the Government...

  12. Recent advances in the chemistry of SmI(2)-H(2)O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautier, Brice; Procter, David J

    2012-01-01

    Recent work from our laboratories has shown SmI(2)-H(2)O to be a versatile, readily-accessible and non-toxic reductant that is more powerful than SmI(2). This review describes the reduction of functional groups that were previously thought to lie beyond the reach of SmI(2) and complexity-generating cyclisations and cyclisation cascades triggered by the reduction of the ester carbonyl group with SmI(2)-H(2)O.

  13. Thermoluminescence characteristics of Sm3+ doped NaYF4 crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Ramana Reddy; Ch Gopal Reddy; K Narasimha Reddy

    2007-02-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of NaYF4 crystals doped with Sm3+ have been studied after -ray irradiation. Dependence of luminescence efficiency on Sm3+ concentration and radiation dose has been measured and possible applications of NaYF4 : Sm3+ as a novel phosphor for TL dosimetry have been investigated. The efficiency of 0.3 mole% Sm3+ doped NaYF4 crystal has been found to be maximum and comparable with commercial thermoluminescence dosimetric (TLD) materials.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of EuB6 by borothermic reduction of Eu2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon free high pure europium hexaboride is an urgent need for the fast breeder nuclear reactor program. The properties of EuB6 are highly influenced by the presence of one or more substitutional impurities, particularly, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. In the present investigation carbon and nitrogen free high pure europium hexaboride was synthesized by borothermic reduction of europium oxide Eu2O3 (using boron as a reducing agent at relatively low temperature ( 90 % of theoretical density was studied at 850°C and revealed that an adherent thin surface of Eu2O3 was formed which prevent further oxidation.

  15. A simple conductometric method for trace level determination of brilliant green in water based on β-cyclodextrin and silver nitrate and determination of their thermodynamic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Mohammad Zadeh Kakhki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A gravimetric and complexometric titration method based on conductometric technique is presented for the quantitative determination of brilliant green (BG in water. The equilibrium constants and the thermodynamic parameters for the complex formation of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD with brilliant green (BG and precipitation of silver nitrate with BG have been determined by conductivity measurements in water. The results suggest that stable 1:1 complex is formed between BG and β-cyclodextrin and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔHc°,ΔSc° for this complexation reaction have been determined from temperature dependence of the stability constant using the van’t Hoff plots. Based on the obtained results, the conductometric method for the determination of BG in the presence of β-CD at 25 °C was developed in the range of 10−8–10−3 molL−1 and with AgNO3 is 10−3–10−5 molL−1.

  16. Research on the magnetic material of Sm-Fe matrix nitrides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Chunxiang; SUN Jibing; ZHANG Ying; WANG Ru; LI Lin; LIANG Zhimei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the types of Sm-Fe matrix compounds and their correlations are introduced, and progress of research on the magnetic materials of Sm-Fe matrix nitrides is also reviewed. Possible research trends of future permanent magnetic materials of SmFe matrix nitrides are briefly predicted.

  17. 31 CFR 585.314 - Goods and services originating in the FRY (S&M).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FRY (S&M). 585.314 Section 585.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... HERZEGOVINA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 585.314 Goods and services originating in the FRY (S&M). The term goods or services originating in the FRY (S&M) includes: (a) Goods produced,...

  18. 31 CFR 586.304 - Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M). 586.304 Section 586.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M). The term Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro) or FRY (S&M) means the territory of the Republics of Serbia and Montenegro....

  19. 31 CFR 585.207 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving the FRY (S&M).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transactions involving the FRY (S&M). 585.207 Section 585.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... transactions involving the FRY (S&M). Except as otherwise authorized, the following are prohibited: (a) Any... transportation to or from the FRY (S&M); (b) The provision of transportation to or from the United States by:...

  20. 31 CFR 585.313 - Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M). 585.313 Section 585.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M). The term Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) or FRY (S&M) means the territory of Serbia and Montenegro....

  1. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 208 - Model Disclosure for Use After ETA SM Becomes Available

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Model Disclosure for Use After ETA SM... FEDERAL AGENCY DISBURSEMENTS Pt. 208, App. B Appendix B to Part 208—Model Disclosure for Use After ETA SM... through a basic, low-cost account called an ETA SM. If you receive a Federal benefit, wage, salary,...

  2. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 208 - Model Disclosure for Use Until ETA SM Becomes Available

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Model Disclosure for Use Until ETA SM... FEDERAL AGENCY DISBURSEMENTS Pt. 208, App. A Appendix A to Part 208—Model Disclosure for Use Until ETA SM... wait for a basic, low-cost account, called an ETA SM, to become available. If you do not have...

  3. EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2014-01-01

    EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Bart Van Vooren and Ramses A. Wessel, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2014.......EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Bart Van Vooren and Ramses A. Wessel, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2014....

  4. EU Commissioner Delivers a Speech at CAS Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ European Union (EU) Environment Commissioner Margot Wallstrom gave a talk on cooperation between the EU and China on environmental issues during her trip to the CAS Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR) on Nov. 13.

  5. EU-China Partenariat 2006,A Mighty "European Hong Niang"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Matchmaking is not only a profession, but also art.On April 26, a group of matchmakers from 24 EU member countries gathered into Chengdu city, the capital of Sichuan province, where 2006 EU-China Partenariat will be held.

  6. What does Brexit mean for nursing and our EU staff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Hannah; Kendall-Raynor, Petra; Longhurst, Chris

    2016-06-29

    Currently there is free movement of labour and mutual recognition of nurse training and qualifications between EU member states. This means UK hospitals can actively recruit nurses from across the EU to cover staff shortfalls. So what now?

  7. EuO and Gd-doped EuO thin films. Epitaxial growth and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutarto, Ronny

    2009-07-06

    Europium oxide (EuO) based materials exhibit a wealth of spectacular phenomena, including half-metallic ferromagnetism, metal-insulator transition, colossal magneto-resistance, large magneto-optical Kerr effect, tunable ferromagnetic ordering temperatures, and large and long-lived photo-induced conductivity. These extraordinary properties make EuO an ideal candidate for implementation in device applications, in particular, for spintronics. Most of the work in the past has been carried out on bulk EuO, but for device applications it is preferred to have the EuO in thin lm form. A urry of studies have therefore emerged in the last decade in order to explore a wide variety of preparation routes and to investigate the properties of the resulting EuO thin films. A recent highlight is the demonstration that doped EuO films can be fabricated on Si and GaN, thereby exhibiting the expected spin-polarized transport effects. Nevertheless, it is still far from a trivial task to prepare EuO thin films with well de ned properties. For bulk EuO, it is already known that stoichiometry is the key issue, and that the presence of small amounts of defects or impurities quickly lead to very large deviations of the material properties. In fact, to make bulk EuO to be stoichiometric one needs temperatures as high as 1800 C. It is obvious that such high temperatures are not compatible with device engineering processes. The preparation of thin films must therefore involve much lower temperatures, preferably not higher than 400-500 C. The consequences are very dear. It turned out that many of the recent studies on EuO thin films are suffering from sample quality problems, due to the presence of, e.g., trivalent Eu species (Eu{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}), oxygen vacancies, or even Eu metal clusters. Controlled doping of the EuO with trivalent rare-earth ions is also not trivial, since most often even the actual doping concentrations were not known. In fact, one could also question in

  8. Synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of the fullerene-based ferromagnets Eu3C70 and Eu9C70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenobu, Taishi; Chi, Dam H; Margadonna, Serena; Prassides, Kosmas; Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Fitch, Andrew N; Kato, Ken-Ichi; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2003-02-19

    Intercalation of C(70) with europium affords two kinds of magnetic compounds, a canted antiferromagnet Eu(x)C(70) (x approximately 3) and a ferromagnet Eu(x)C(70) (x approximately 9) with transition temperatures (T(C)) of 5 and 38 K, respectively. The Curie constants in the paramagnetic phase and the saturation moment in the ferromagnetic phase are both understood by the full moment of Eu(2+) for both systems. The structure of Eu(3)(-)(delta)C(70) (delta approximately 0.27) is pseudo-monoclinic, derived by a simple deformation of the parent face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. Eu(9)(-)(delta)C(70) (delta approximately 0.2) forms an fcc structure, in which cuboctahedral clustering of Eu(2+) ions is observed in the enhanced size octahedral holes. The observed T(C) of the Eu(9)(-)(delta)C(70) ferromagnet is comparable to or larger than those of simple binary Eu-based ferromagnets, such as Eu chalcogenides or carbides, despite the low atomic ratio of Eu in the chemical formulas. This can be understood by the short Eu(2+)-Eu(2+) distances and high coordination numbers permitted by the multiple occupation by Eu(2+) ions of the expanded octahedral interstitial sites in higher fullerene-based solids.

  9. Kaliningrad - One Common Space for the EU and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The thesis explores the possibilities and barriers of making the Russian Baltic exclave, Kaliningrad, a “pilot region” for cooperation between the EU and Russia. By analysing Kaliningrad’s political-geographic status as both Russian exclave and EU enclave, it is argued that Kaliningrad is influenced by the territoriality of the EU as well as the territoriality of Russia, and that development in Kaliningrad is depending on alignment of the EU and Russia’s territorial strategies in general and ...

  10. Doorkeepers and Gatecrashers: EU Enlargement and Negotiation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Schröder, Philipp; Weise, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the eastward enlargement process of the EU in the framework of a simple war of attrition bargaining game. Both players -- the existing EU members and the applicants -- benefit from enlargement, yet for the applicants, reform to the acquis is costly, while the EU prefers subst...... the benefits for new members are all effective negotiation strategies for the EU that have been applied in the process....

  11. Creating Coherence in EU Internet Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The internet presents regulators with an amorphous web of technical and legal issues with no simple solution. Andrej Savin, Associate Professor at Copenhagen Business School, says that the EU needs to develop a fluidity of process in order to tackle the big issues and cultivate the right legal...

  12. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear wheth...

  13. THE CRUCIAL THEMES OF EU ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Pelkmans

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical review of the “terms” of the ongoing EU enlargement, in the light of the European public interest. The European public interest ought to include the prospective (Central European members, within a perspective of an enlarged Union in 2010, or so. The following forms a personalised summary of a major report published (in Dutch in September 2001 by the WRR in The Hague (a think-tank, formally under the Dutch Prime Minister, but by statute fully independent. The author was one of the lead-writers of this report. The present article merely focuses on the policy recommendations of the report. It is hoped that these kinds of critical analyses will help to stimulate solid policy debate on the EU in Romania, on the road to EU membership. The article discusses why the notion of a “core-acquis” would improve the enlargement strategy; the application of the core acquis to the internal market, environment and justice and home affairs; judicial and administrative capacity; accession to “euro-land”; the rapid reform of the CAP; a reform of “cohesion” approaches; and a note on the EU budgetary implications.

  14. Towards a Practice Turn in EU Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    -oriented, anthropological and micro-sociological studies of the EU and European integration and shows how their findings challenge more traditional understandings of the dynamics of European integration. Moving beyond a stock-taking, the article distinguishes between ‘order- ing’ and ‘disordering’ practices and explores...

  15. Tax policy at the outskirts of EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterø Jensen, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2003-01-01

    on consumption, labour income and capital income, and compare these to similarmeasures for EU countries. In addition, we outline how Greenland's economic policy in other areasinterferes with tax policy. Especially fishery regulation, management of government-owned companies,and housing policy have major...... implications for the tax system.Key words: international benchmarking, effective tax rates, GreenlandJEL: H20, H25...

  16. The EU fusion programme and roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pero, H., E-mail: Herve.Pero@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, DG-RTD, CDMA 05/146, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Paidassi, S. [European Commission, DG-RTD, CDMA 05/146, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► The EU fusion programme has to evolve from today's research to a strong goal-oriented programme driven by an ambitious roadmap. ► The programme shall focus on ITER and reactor-relevant technologies development. ► A new structure based on joint programming will be developed to implement the programme during Horizon 2020. -- Abstract: To meet ITER and fusion energy challenges, a gradual transition of the EU fusion programme priorities from today's fusion research to a strongly goal-oriented programme with clear milestones is required. This transition and the programme priorities should be driven by an ambitious, yet realistic roadmap to be agreed by EU fusion stakeholders. The programme must primarily focus on: ensuring the success of ITER; and research and development of reactor-relevant technologies. Industry must be involved early in the implementation and international collaboration should be conducted as part of a strategic approach. Joint programming should be a cornerstone of the EU fusion programme in Horizon 2020. Options for the new structure and current actions required to implement the roadmap during Horizon 2020 will be presented.

  17. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina-Adriana IVANUS

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  18. HIGH-SPIN STATES IN EU-148

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGMAN, [No Value; BACELAR, JCS; BALANDA, A; NOORMAN, RF; STEENBERGEN, T; DEVOIGT, MJA; NYBERG, J; SLETTEN, G; DIONISIO, J; VIEU, C; LAGRANGE, JM; PAUTRAT, M; Urban, W

    1995-01-01

    High-spin states in the odd-odd nucleus Eu-148, populated by a carbon-13 induced reaction on a lanthanum target, were investigated with several different tools of in-beam nuclear spectroscopy. The low-energy levels show collective excitations, interpreted as 3- octupole-phonon couplings to multi-par

  19. Negotiations in the EU Council of Ministers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Sandrino

    Insiders and outsiders agree; there is something particular about negotiating in Brussels. This book analyses ten years of continuous negotiations about EU enlargement to the Western Balkans, answering questions such as When and how are decisions typically reached in the European Union? What is t...

  20. Migration from the new EU member countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Møller; Lund Thomsen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    and working conditions in their home countries as well as being of another cultural background than their Danish colleagues brings with it many challenges. This article examines the consequences of low-skilled labour migration to Denmark from the new EU member countries in Eastern Europe. The article...

  1. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  2. Mapping smart cities in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manville, C.; Cochrane, G.; Cave, J.; Millard, J.; Pederson, J.K.; Thaarup, R.K.; Liebe, A.; Wissner, M.; Massink, R.A.; Kotterink, B.

    2014-01-01

    This report was commissioned to provide background information and advice on Smart Cities in the European Union (EU) and to explain how existing mechanisms perform. In exploring this, a working definition of a Smart City is established and the cities fitting this definition across the Member States

  3. The principle of transparency in EU law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijze, A.W.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    ‘The principle of transparency in EU law’ explores a variety of transparency obligations in European law, and offers a comprehensive framework to classify and understand those obligations. The principle of transparency is ubiquitous and multifaceted. The obligations derived from it range from a duty

  4. The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in the context of Egyptian-European relations. The article argues that the EU policies, which earlier have been dominated by a pragmatic approach towards the Mubarak regime, now have to be rethought considering an Egyptian polity, where the contours of a new constitutionalism are developing....

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Farber, Daniel A.; Peeters, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    The major regulatory experiment with greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU enables legal scholars to learn lessons regarding its design options and implementation problems. Some fundamental concerns are: (1) the issue of how to develop a fair allocation method, also in view of carbon leakage; (

  6. Developing Multilateral Surveillance Tools in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, de Rik

    2008-01-01

    The development of the infrastructure of the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) is an unaddressed topic in scholarly debates. On the basis of secondary literature on the European Employment Strategy, it is hypothesised that a conflict between an incentive and reluctance to act on the EU level on the

  7. Why are most EU pigs tail docked?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'eath, R.B.; Niemi, J.K.; Vosough Ahmadi, B.

    2016-01-01

    To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive by examin...

  8. Suikerbeleid: vergelijking oxfam en EU-voorstellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, de C.J.A.M.; Jager, J.H.; Koole, B.; Leeuwen, van M.G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Dit rapport vergelijkt de mogelijke gevolgen van voorstellen met betrekking tot de hervorming van de EU-suikermarktordening. Het betreft de voorstellen van de Europese Commissie, gepresenteerd in juli 2004, en van Oxfam. Ingegaan wordt op de gevolgen voor de werkgelegenheid en de economie in Nederla

  9. The EU Dimension to Soil Science in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The EU as a context for science lessons may be given scant attention but EU decision-making is a vital factor in everyday life. Lessons on the emergence of soil science with Charles Darwin's simple scientific experiments can be linked with competence through action, inclusion and argumentations in science lessons. Decisions about an EU Soil…

  10. Sustainable development in the EU : Redefining and operationalizing the concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hees, Sander R W

    2014-01-01

    Although sustainable development plays an important role in EU law, neither EU law nor EU policy clearly explains what the concept means and how it must be put into practice. Policy-makers, NGOs, politicians and businesses do, however, need guidance on sustainable development for the purpose of good

  11. Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) co-activated LaAlO3 phosphor: synthesis and tuned luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanping

    2015-10-28

    Sr(2+) and Si(4+) ion doped LaAlO3:Eu phosphors were synthesized through a high-temperature solid-state reaction route. Their phase component and photoluminescence properties were investigated. Under ultraviolet (UV) light excitation, the phosphors show simultaneously blue emission of the Eu(2+) ion and orange-red emission of the Eu(3+) ion. The relative emission intensity of both Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) ions can be tuned by changing the doping concentration of the Sr(2+), Si(4+) and Eu(3+) ions. In contrast to the Sr(2+) ion, the incorporation of Si(4+) ion can effectively enhance the emission of Eu(2+). The optimal doping concentration of the Eu(3+) and Si(4+) ions are about 0.02 and 0.03, respectively. The results indicate that the phosphor may be a potential candidate for white LED lighting applications.

  12. EU-LISA, the new model of operational management of the various EU databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariona Illamola Dausà

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a new agency, EU-LISA, was created in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ to manage largescale IT systems. From then onwards, the agency has been responsible for the communication infrastructure of SIS II, VIS and Eurodac, without merging those databases. Due to its short time in operation, it is difficult to assess the effectiveness of EU-LISA, but this paper aims to give an overview of the agency to facilitate knowledge about it.

  13. Sm29, but not Sm22.6 retains its ability to induce a protective immune response in mice previously exposed to a Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Carvalho Alves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A vaccine against schistosomiasis would have a great impact in disease elimination. Sm29 and Sm22.6 are two parasite tegument proteins which represent promising antigens to compose a vaccine. These antigens have been associated with resistance to infection and reinfection in individuals living in endemic area for the disease and induced partial protection when evaluated in immunization trials using naïve mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPALS FINDINGS: In this study we evaluated rSm29 and rSm22.6 ability to induce protection in Balb/c mice that had been previously infected with S. mansoni and further treated with Praziquantel. Our results demonstrate that three doses of the vaccine containing rSm29 were necessary to elicit significant protection (26%-48%. Immunization of mice with rSm29 induced a significant production of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-4; significant production of specific antibodies; increased percentage of CD4+ central memory cells in comparison with infected and treated saline group and increased percentage of CD4+ effector memory cells in comparison with naïve Balb/c mice immunized with rSm29. On the other hand, although immunization with Sm22.6 induced a robust immune response, it failed to induce protection. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that rSm29 retains its ability to induce protection in previously infected animals, reinforcing its potential as a vaccine candidate.

  14. Neutron Scattering from the Heisenberg Ferromagnets EuO and EuS. I. The Exchange Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passell, L.; Dietrich, O. W.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1976-01-01

    Inelastic-neutron-scattering methods have been used to measure the spin-wave spectrum in EuO and EuS over the entire Brillouin zone. The samples were polycrystalline powders enriched in 153Eu. Defining the interaction between pairs of spins to be -2JnmS⃗n·S⃗m, we obtained for EuO, J1/kB=0.606±0.0...

  15. Assessing the Reliability of Quantitative Imaging of Sm-153

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Zijie; Dagan, Maáyan; Veldman, Jeanette; Trees, Brad

    2013-03-01

    Samarium-153 is used for palliation of and recently has been investigated for therapy for bone metastases. Patient specific dosing of Sm-153 is based on quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and knowing the accuracy and precision of image-based estimates of the in vivo activity distribution. Physical phantom studies are useful for estimating these in simple objects, but do not model realistic activity distributions. We are using realistic Monte Carlo simulations combined with a realistic digital phantom modeling human anatomy to assess the accuracy and precision of Sm-153 SPECT. Preliminary data indicates that we can simulate projection images and reconstruct them with compensation for various physical image degrading factors, such as attenuation and scatter in the body as well as non-idealities in the imaging system, to provide realistic SPECT images.

  16. Perspectives of SM Higgs measurements at the LHC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michael Dittmar

    2000-07-01

    The latest unsuccesful Higgs searches at LEP have pushed its mass well into the domain where significant signals can be expected from the LHC experiments. The most sensitive LHC Higgs signatures are reviewed and the discovery year is estimated as a function of the Higgs mass. Finally, we give some ideas about: ‘What might be known about the production and decays of a SM Higgs boson’ after 10 years of LHC?

  17. Decomposizione ed s-m rappresentazione di gruppi finiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Migliorini

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a survey of a few previous works of the authors with other new results. We introduce a special decomposition of a finite group [semigroup] and determine its main properties. From such a decomposition one can construct, for a special class of finite groups, a set-matrix representation. The group D_4 has such a representation. Several theorems were already obtained on groups with s-m representation.

  18. Vindmøller til små energisystemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, Henrik; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    Der er et meget stort behov for teknologi, der kan skaffe el til små landsbyer, der ikke hidtil har haft adgang til el. Det vurderes, at op mod 2 mia. mennesker ikke har adgang til el. Det er først og fremmest folk i Afrika syd for Sahara, men også store områder af Asien og Latinamerika er endnu...

  19. Installation of a new cryogenic infrastructure at SM18

    CERN Multimedia

    MS18

    2013-01-01

    Part of the SM18 Hall is devoted to tests on radiofrequency (RF) cavities and cryomodules used for beam acceleration in various CERN experiments and accelerators. This movie presents the installation of the new cryogenic infrastructure in this area. It consists of a cryogenic line and six service modules, which will supply each of the six test stations. Almost 50 m of line, from the helium tank to the last test station, have been replaced.

  20. EU Climate Policy Tracker 2011. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Geurts, F.; Teckenburg, E.; Blok, K.; Becker, D. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Limiting the rise in the average global temperature to 2C has been the EU goal since 1996, and in December 2010 the UN recognised the need to consider a 1.5C limit. Avoiding overshooting these levels will require massive emissions reductions - in the order of 80-95% for industrialised countries, like those in the EU. The next ten years are crucial in establishing whether society will be able to make this transition, or whether temperature increase limits will be irreversibly missed. Last year, the European Union Climate Policy Tracker (EU CPT) investigated each member state's implementation of policy and legislation, and rated their progress towards a 2050 vision of deep decarbonisation using renewable energy. The uniquely developed rating scheme, modelled on appliance efficiency labels (A-G), gave an indication of how member states were doing compared to a 'low-carbon policy package'. The average score was an 'E', indicating that the level of effort needed to treble, to be on a pace to reach the 2050 vision. However, aggregating best practices across sectors and countries doubled the score - meaning that the tools are already at hand for major improvements across Europe. This report builds on last year's EU CPT by giving an update on action in member states, and an indicative trend in the rating, as well as adding a new section on EU policy. The addition of an EU section is appropriate, with the Commission having produced a roadmap on a low-carbon economy by 2050, a transport white paper, and with another roadmap for 2050 focused on energy anticipated by the end of 2011. This report seeks to answer the question of whether these and other related initiatives are sufficient to help Europe reach its low-carbon goals. When interpreting the results of this report, it is important to understand that the goal underlying the vision here is not the same as the one in the European Commission's 'low-carbon economy' roadmap

  1. SM-SIP: Seamless Mobility Management for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Zeraoulia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation wireless networks (NGN and internet of Thing (IoT become two leaders of designing mobile multimedia services. The deployment of these services using heterogeneous wireless networks will be the important factor that leads to profound change in the way that these services are delivered. Also, how these services will be managed is a real challenge. Consequently, Seamless mobility management should be provided to support various services in heterogeneous networks. A SIP-based network appears as a very attractive alternative to mobile multimedia applications. In this paper, we introduce a novel mobility management strategy for mobile SIP networks, in which we develop a seamless handover used mobile SIP scheme called SM-SIP (Seamless Mobility Management for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks for Mobile SIP environment. SM-SIP can significantly reduce the system signaling cost and handover delay, by proactively processing the address allocation and session updates using link layer information of wireless networks. Also, our performance study shows that SM-SIP reduces efficiently packets loss using an anticipated buffering scheme.

  2. Complexation of Sm3+ and pamidronate:A DFT study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Arabieh; Mohammad Hassan Khodabandeh; Mohammad Hossein Karimi-Jafari; Carlos Platas-Iglesias; Karim Zare

    2015-01-01

    We reported a quantum mechanical study of the complexes formed between Sm3+ and the bisphosphonate ligand pamidro-nate in aqueous solution. According to available experimental pKa values pamidronate was expected to exist in aqueous solution, at physiologically relevant pH, in its di- and tri-protonated forms (denoted by H3L and H2L). The most stable structures of the ligands and Sm3+ complexes were found by using a detailed analysis of the conformational space with semiempirical and DFT methods. The results showed that both H2L and H3L bisphosphonates acted as a tridentate ligands in their complexes with Sm3+. The addition of ex-plicit water molecules to the coordination sphere of the metal not only gave different coordination numbers for H2L and H3L com-plexes (CN=9 and 10), but also provided different trends in stabilization energies. The results highlighted the importance of consider-ing not only an explicit first coordination shell, but also a second hydration shell, for an adequate description of this type of complexes in aqueous solution.

  3. External exposure in radionuclide therapy with 153 Sm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezio, M.T.; Vieira, M.R. [Instituto Portugues Oncologia de Francisco Gentil, CROL, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Aim: The radiopharmaceutical 153 Sm is an beta emitter used in metastatic bone pain palliation. The prescribed activity is 37 MBq/kg body weight.. The aim of this study is to measure the dose rate of the patients during 4 to 6 hours after 153 Sm - E.D.T.M.P. administration in order to prevent external exposure of nursing staff, family members and general public. Material and Methods: Twelve patients were treated with 153 Sm in our department. External exposure rates( {mu}Sv/h) at different times and at one meter were measured, with a Geiger-Muller detector. Results: The mean dose rate at one meter was 12 {mu}Sv/h, one hour after injection and 3{mu} Sv/h, 6 hours after injection. Conclusion: The policy in our department is to keep the patient in the hospital 4-6 h, due to the risk of contamination. Based on our results, the external exposure of the nursing staff, family members and the general public is very low, in agreement with other studies. (authors)

  4. Synthesis and structures of novel octadecanuclear clusters [Cu12RE6(μ3-OH)24(pyb)12(H2O)18(μ12-ClO4)]17+(RE=Sm, Eu)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小明; 吴玉銮; 王如骥

    1996-01-01

    The novel octadecanudear Cu-RE cluster haw been isolated from the reaction system of aqueous Cu2+-RE3+-pyb (RE=Sm, Eu; pyb=pyridine betaine) and characterized by single-crystal structural analysis. The results show that the clusters comprise a [Cu12RE6(μ3-OH)24(μ12-ClO4)]17+ octahedral core, which encapsulates a ClO4- ion and has 18 water molecules and 12 bridging pyb carboxylato ligands as external ligands.

  5. 改性膨润土处理酸性大红的实验研究%Study on Treatment of Acid Brilliant Scarlet GR with Modified Bentonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜全; 王玲玲; 张秋霞; 朱诗莹

    2012-01-01

    文章对膨润土分别进行了钠化、酸化和铁柱撑改性的研究,并利用改性后的膨润土处理酸性大红模拟废水,比较了不同改性后膨润土处理模拟废水的效果,确定较优的改性方法和最佳反应条件。实验结果表明,酸改性膨润土对酸性大红模拟废水的处理效果优于钠化改性膨润土和铁柱撑改性膨润土。对于50 mL酸性大红模拟废水,在酸改性膨润土的投加量为1.0 g、pH为3、反应时间为60 min时,COD去除率可达65%以上,色度去除率可达85%以上。%Modified bentonite with Na2CO3,H2SO4 and iron pillared agent respectively was studied and used to treat acid brilliant scarlet GR simulated wastewater in this paper.The treatment effect of acid brilliant scarlet GR with various modified bentonite was investigated and the optimal modification method and reaction conditions were determined according to treatment effects.Results show that the treatment efficiency of acid-modified bentonite is better than Na-modified bentonite and iron pillared modified bentonite.For 50 mL acid brilliant scarlet GR simulated wastewater,the COD removal rate is more than 65% and decolorization removal rate is more than 85% under the conditions that the dosage of acid-modified bentonite was 1.0g,the pH value was 3 and the reaction time was 60 min.

  6. Effect of Sm Volatilization on Magnetic Microstructures of Sintered Sm(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr)z Magnets at High Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Ai-Lin; FANG Yi-Kun; GUO Zhao-Hui; LI Wei; HAN Bao-Shan

    2006-01-01

    @@ We present a magnetic force microscopy study of surface magnetic microstructure changes at high temperatures in 2:17-type Sm( Co, Fe, Cu,Zr)z (z ~ 7.4) magnets. Surface magnetic microstructures are found to change greatly in parallel and vertical specimens after heat-treatment at 400℃ for one hour in vacuum of 10-5 Torr with Ar gas as protecting atmosphere. Changes of microstructures are attributed to the formation of a soft-magnetic surfaces layer in the specimens, resulting from Sm volatilization due to high temperature. This hypothesis is further confirmed by the heat-treatment experiments at 400℃ for 0.5 h and 2 h. Finally, the existence of the soft-magnetic layers, which consist primarily of Fe-Co compounds, is verified by the results of both XRD and XPS of the vertical specimens before and after heat-treatment.

  7. SM-1蜡膜防锈油的研制%Preparation of SM-1 Rust Prevention Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭胜; 付洪瑞; 陈学军; 刘东志

    2000-01-01

    以JD脂及酸和合成十八胺的复合物为成膜材料,制备了一种蜡膜防锈油。结果表明,该油具有油膜薄、防锈性好和油基稳定等特点,可用于机床、金属零备件及军械装备的封存与防护。%The SM-1 rust prevention oil was prepared by using complex of fatty acid and stearyl amine as basic film forming material, and a certain amount of oil soluble inhibitor was added. It was shown that the SM-1 rust prevention oil had favourite features in stability and rust prevention. It could be appropriate for sealing and rust preventing of machine tool, metal parts and ordnances.

  8. Pyrolytic synthesis and luminescence of porous lanthanide Eu-MOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guangya; Liu, Zhijian; Sun, Hongfa; Tian, Zhiyong

    2016-02-01

    A lanthanide metal coordination polymer [Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O)] was synthesized by the reaction of europium oxide with benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (H2BDC) in a mixed solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure of Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermo-gravimetric analysis of Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O) indicated that coordinated DMSO and H2O molecules could be removed to create Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O)-py with permanent microporosity, which was also verified by powder XRD (PXRD) and elemental analysis. Both Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O) and Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O)-py showed mainly Eu-based luminescence and had characteristic emissions in the range 550-700 nm.

  9. Electronic transport through EuO spin filter tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jutong, Nuttachai; Eckern, Ulrich [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Rungger, Ivan; Sanvito, Stefano [School of Physics and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Schwingenschloegl, Udo [KAUST, PSE Division, Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-07-01

    Spin filter tunnel junctions based on europium monoxide (EuO), a ferromagnetic semiconductor, are investigated by means of density functional theory. In particular, the spin transport of Cu/EuO/Cu junctions is investigated by using the self-consistent ab-initio electron transport code SMEAGOL. The dependence of the transmission coefficient on the interface spacing and on the EuO thickness is studied, and explained in terms of the density of states and the complex band structure of EuO. Our calculation indicates that EuO epitaxially grown on Cu can act as a perfect spin filter, with polarization close to 100%, which is related mainly to the Eu-4f states. The transmission coefficient is sensitive to the interface spacing, since this spacing determines the charge transfer between EuO and the Cu leads.

  10. Rethinking EU Citizenship: Towards the Postmodern Ethics of Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja IVIC

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of EU citizenship reflects EU politics of (fixed identity, which guarantees rights only to the homogenous groups (and individuals as representatives of these groups. Hence, it leaves room for marginalizing, othering, excluding and other forms of discrimination, by creating binary oppositions: we/they, citizen/alien, EU/non-EU and so forth. EU citizenship is based on the modernist ethics of priority of right over the good. It is created to promote European idea, so it has only instrumental value. On the other hand, the politics of affinity leads to the substantive EU citizenship founded on multiple identities. The politics of affinity requires a new ethics which will lead to transformation of the main concepts of EU legal discourse.

  11. Eu{sup 3+} luminescence properties of Eu- and Mg-codoped AlGaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemoto, Masayoshi [Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Sekiguchi, Hiroto, E-mail: sekiguchi@ee.tut.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Yamane, Keisuke [Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Okada, Hiroshi [Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Wakahara, Akihiro [Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    We investigated the effect of Mg codoping on luminescence properties of AlGaN:Eu to improve emission through synergy effect between an increase in bandgap by AlGaN and the Mg codoping technique. The luminescence properties of AlGaN:(Eu, Mg) are strongly influenced by the Mg concentration and Al composition. Mg codoping in AlGaN was observed to contribute to increasing photoluminescence (PL) integrated intensity and to improve thermal quenching from 7.3% to 60% while the dominant optical site remained site B (622.3-nm peak) with low excitation cross section. The total concentration of optically activated Eu at 25 K was a constant at for either optical site, indicating that Mg codoping did not affect the formation of optical sites. The PL decay times at room temperature (RT) increased with Mg concentration because of suppression of the back-transfer process. For optimized Mg concentration, an increase in the Al composition contributed to the total activated Eu concentration and changed the dominant optical site from A (620.3-nm peak) to B. The activation energy E{sub a}, which is the difference in energy between the {sup 5}D{sub 0} energy level and the trap level in the host material, was estimated from temperature dependence of PL decay time. The E{sub a} for site A was larger than that for site B, suggesting that the back-transfer rate for site A was less than that for site B. - Highlights: • Eu and Mg codoped AlGaN was grown on GaN template by NH{sub 3}-MBE. • The effect of Mg codoping on optical properties of Eu doped AlGaN was investigated. • Mg codoping contributed to increase PL intensity at RT and improve thermal quenching. • An increase in the Al content affected total activated N{sub Eu} and dominant optical site.

  12. Channeling the SmI₂ reactions to the radical path: radicals resisting reduction by SmI₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yella, Ramesh; Hoz, Shmaryahu

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the reaction of 4-(2,2-diphenylvinyl)pyridine with SmI2 revealed that the intermediate radical strongly resists further reduction to the corresponding anion. The resistance of the radical to accepting another electron is traced to its stabilization by the nitrogen lone pair. The literature suggests that oxygen may also play a role similar to that of nitrogen in directing the course of the reaction toward radical rather than to anionic chemistry.

  13. 31 CFR 585.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from the FRY (S&M).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... services from the FRY (S&M). 585.204 Section 585.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... services from the FRY (S&M). Except as otherwise authorized, no goods originating in, or services performed in, the FRY (S&M), exported from the FRY (S&M) after May 30, 1992, may be imported into the...

  14. New EU project supports LHC theorists

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    LHCPhenonet, a new EU-funded research network aimed at improving the theoretical predictions that guide the LHC experiments, has begun its 4-year run as a Marie Curie Initial Training Network. CERN joins the network as an associate partner, along with almost 30 multinational institutions and computing companies.   Theorists from around the world gathered in Valencia to attend LHCPhenonet's kick-off meeting. LHCPhenonet will create research opportunities for young, talented European theorists, providing funding for both doctoral and post-doctoral positions across the various participating institutions – including the University of Durham, DESY, and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). LHCPhenoNet aims to improve the Quantum Field Theory calculations that set the parameters of the LHC experiments, focusing on the LHC phenomenology that gave it its name. The 4.5 million euro project is funded by the EU's 7th Research Framework Programme and will be coordinated through the Span...

  15. Economic integration in NAFTA and the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Sven

    respects: not only are the "side effects" on labour markets, social and environmental conditions considered inadequately addressed. Without offering adequate replacements, the book claims, the economic integration projects are actually undermining some of the core institutions that serve the needs......This te×t critically analyzes the institutions of the EU and NAFTA. It covers both the general problems of building new and integrated markets, and several policy areas that are related to economic integration. The institutions established in both Europe and America are seen as deficient in several...... of the market economies institutions upon the integration process itself depends. This te×t analyzes the institutions of the EU and NAFTA. It covers both the general problems of building new and integrated markets, and several policy areas that are related to economic integration. The institutions established...

  16. Heterogeneous fenton-like degradation of an azo dye reactive brilliant orange by the combination of activated carbon-FeOOH catalyst and H 2O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jinhua; Lin, Guanghui; Li, Ping;

    2013-01-01

    The decoloration of an azo dye reactive brilliant orange (X-GN) by a heterogeneous Fenton system using activated carbon-FeOOH catalyst (AC-FeOOH) and H2O2 was studied. Under typical conditions (pH 7.0, H2O2 10 mmol/L, AC-FeOOH 1.0g/L and 30°C), 98% decoloration rate of X-GN was achieved in 240 mm...... that the decoloration of X-GN followed a pseudo-first order reaction and the activation energy was 17.2 kJ/mol. Iron leaching from AC-FeOOH occurred during the reaction, but the decoloration efficiency of X-GN was still higher than 80% after four runs. The AC-FeOOH has a good stability and can be reused. Besides...

  17. Magnetic Anisotropy in Sm2Fe17-xMx (M=A1, Ga)and (Sm1-xTmx)2Fe14Al3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In Sm2Fe17-xMx(M=Al, Ga), there was observed a kind of spin-reorientation with temperature, and in (Sm1-xTmx)2Fe14Al3, the anisotropy field HA increases as high as 20% from 5.4 up to 6.5 kOe with Tm.

  18. EU Film Policy: between Art and Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Herold

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the European internal market has involved the cinematographic sector as a result of its economic nature. However, film, as a cultural medium, does not lend itself easily to the trends towards uniformity, inherent in the process of economic integration. This becomes visible in the relationship between national cinematographic legislation, reflecting cultural values, and the free market philosophy pursued within the European integration process. There seems to be a contradiction between national measures, which seek to correct the workings of the market, and the efforts to establish a European common market for audiovisual goods and services. This situation has been further complicated by the introduction of Article 151 into the EU legal order by the Maastricht Treaty, which recognised protection of cultural values as one of the EU constitutional tasks. However, it happened without calling into question the acquis communautaire on cultural matters. As a result, the audiovisual policy at the EU level is characterised by a contradiction between the economic logic of market integration and the goal of preservation of cultural diversity. The inherent conflict between these two objectives becomes very clear when looking at the development of the European film policy. This policy agenda creates an amalgam of two not easily reconcilable aims: promotion of cultural diversity and establishment of an internal film market. This horizontal tension is exacerbated by the clash between the European competition policy measures affecting the film sector and the national cultural policy considerations, which demonstrates how controversial remains the vertical power sharing within the EU. The aim of this paper is to investigate, on the basis of the European Commission policy documents and practice, these two-level tensions within the framework of the European film policy and draw conclusions for its future sustainability.

  19. Eu2+ luminescence in strontium aluminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutczak, D.; Juestel, T.; Ronda, C.; Meijerink, A.

    2015-01-01

    The luminescence properties of Eu2+ doped strontium aluminates are reported and reviewed for a variety of aluminates, viz. SrAl12O19, SrAl4O7, Sr4Al14O25, SrAl2O4 and Sr3Al2O6. The aim of the research is to investigate the role of local coordination and covalency of the aluminate host lattice, relat

  20. The Fluctuating U.S.-EU Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, the U.S.-EU relations have gone through twists and turns. From the beginning of 2003 when the United States launched the Iraq War to the spring of 2005 when President George W. Bush paid a visit to Europe, the allies across the Atlantic Ocean had uncompromising confrontations at first, and then showed apparent reconciliation and strengthened

  1. EU-GUAM: ENGAGEMENT OR ESTRANGEMENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Norling, Nicklas; Nilsson, Niklas

    2008-01-01

    The wider Black Sea and Caspian Sea regions have so far figured as relatively peripheral concerns for the European Union. While the enlargement of the EU has created incentives for a stronger commitment to these regions, the motives for a more strategic European engagement in the Caucasus, Central Asia, and around the Black Sea have always existed. These regions provide access to energy outside the control of OPEC and Russia and provide a transit corridor connecting Europe with the Middle Eas...

  2. Performance indicators for SMEs accessing EU funds

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Being the best supporters of national economies Small and Medium Sized Enterprises are actively searching alternative sources of finance for sustaining their goals and their performances. European Union is sustaining the SMEs access to finance by direct funding: grants from the European Commission and indirect funding: financial intermediaries in the SMEs origin country. Considering the importance of SMEs for national and European economy we will analyze the relationship between the EU fundin...

  3. Physical dispersion state and fluorescent property of Eu-complex in the Eu-complex/silicon rubber composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Shipeng; HU Shui; ZHANG Xiaoping; ZHANG Liqun; LIU Li

    2008-01-01

    The fluorescent complex Eu(TTA)2(Phen)(MA) (HTTA=2-Thenoyltdfluoroacetone, Phen=l,10-phenanthroline, MA=Maleic an-hydrider) was synthesized and characterized with elemental analysis, infrared spectrum (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray Diffraction(XRD), differential scanning calorimetry(DSC), and fluorescent measurement. To explore the effect of different physical disper-sion state of Eu-complex on the fluorescent property of the Eu-complex/silicon rubber composites, various quantities of Eu(TTA)2(phen) (MA) were mixed with silicon rubber (SIR) and peroxide to form uncured composites. These composites were vulcanized to obtain cured Eu-complex/SiR composites at 250 ℃, which was higher than the melting-point of Eu-complex. The SEM, XRD, DSC, and the fluorescent measurement of these composites showed that both the complex molecules dispersed in the silicon rubber during the melting process and the parent Eu-complex particles had positive effects on fluorescent property, whereas the re-crystallized Eu-complex particles and the ggregating complexes formed during the melting-process had negative effects on fluorescent property. For the uncured composites, their fluorescent intensities almost did not change with the increasing amount of Eu-complex. Furthermore, for the composites with small content of Eu-complex, their fluorescent intensities decreased significantly after curing, and this difference in fluorescent intensity became smaller as the content of Eu-complex increases.

  4. EU Think Tank Fora as Transaction Cost Reducers: A Study of Informal Interest Intermediation in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marybel Perez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By examining the organisational structure of EU think tank fora (seminars, workshops and conferences, this article proposes that fora can play the role of transaction cost reducers in EU policymaking. I argue that certain aspects of EU policymaking, including i controlled processes of consultation, ii diminishing costs of management, and iii the risk of state capture, incentivise EU institutions to outsource part of the consultation activity to policy actors that can help EU institutions fulfil their informational and legitimacy needs. I argue that think tanks are able to play this role because they i reduce information asymmetries by connecting a wide variety of policy actors and ii act as intermediaries that mitigate opportunistic behaviour. The empirical assessment reveals that the dimensions characterising transactions are present in EU think tank fora. It shows that policy actors that do not usually participate in formal consultation processes frequently attend fora where they meet representatives of EU institutions, particularly Parliament and Commission representatives.

  5. Framing the EU as Common Project vs. Common Heritage: Effects on Attitudes Towards the EU Deepening and Widening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Barbera, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of framing the European Union (EU) as a common project vs. a common heritage on participants' attitude towards EU integration (Experiment 1) and EU enlargement (Experiment 2). An additional aim was exploring whether the different frames affected the strength of identification with the EU, and if the framing effect on attitudes was mediated by participants' identification with the EU and/or by their message evaluation (Experiment 3). Results showed that a common project-based frame was more effective than a common heritage-based frame in promoting positive attitude toward EU integration and enlargement, as well as participants' identification with the EU, which mediated the framing effect on both attitudes; the mediation of participants' message evaluation was not significant. The procedure of the last experiment was replicated on a British sample (Experiment 4), showing a similar pattern of results.

  6. EU POLICY REGARDING THE COMPETITIVENESS ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bârsan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with one of the most important, but also challenging economic issues nowadays, which is economic competitiveness. The literature is not unanimous in recognizing the importance of competitiveness, especially where it concerns the state level. However, the relevance of international competitiveness is increasingly brought into light by theory, specific policy measures and by periodical evaluations made by international organizations. Against this background, the EU is one of the main players whose position is still lagging behind the USA, and, according to recent evaluations, behind the other OECD countries. The European Council in March 2000, held in Lisbon, had launched a very inciting challenge – that of transforming the EU economy into the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, by 2010. Such an ambitious target requires an evaluation of the competitiveness level and also new measures to be taken in order to accomplish this objective.The article presents opinions on the EU competitiveness issue, and on the main weak and strong points, concluding that even the target and especially the schedule seem to be unrealistic, the new direction of action, i.e. towards better business conditions for enterprises being correct.

  7. Economic disparities between EU states and regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion CIUREA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available EU has 27 Member States representing a community and a market of 493million citizens, which creates further economic and social disparities between thestates and their 271 regions. In a region in four, the GDP (gross domestic product percapita is 75% below the average for the EU-27. Based on the concepts of solidarity andcohesion, regional policy of the European Union favors reducing structural disparitiesbetween EU regions, the balanced development of the community and promoting aneffective equality of opportunity between people. Over the past 50 years, Europeancooperation has helped build highways, sewage plants, bridges, laboratories forbiotechnology. She helped to revive urban areas and neglected activities, throughcountless projects in the poorest regions of the Union.. Two key values: solidarity andcohesion, underlying these projects and the regional policy of the European Union. Theeconomic, social and territorial cohesion will always be at the heart of Europe Strategy2020, a key mechanism for achieving the priorities for a smart growth, sustainable andinclusive in the Member States and regions.

  8. EU attitudes in Catalonia and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hau, Mark Friis

    2016-01-01

    The generally pro-European stance of minority nationalist parties is well-established in the literature. It is clear that the framework of the European Union confers certain benefits both structurally and ideologically to these parties, the majority of which sit in the EFA-Greens group in the Eur......The generally pro-European stance of minority nationalist parties is well-established in the literature. It is clear that the framework of the European Union confers certain benefits both structurally and ideologically to these parties, the majority of which sit in the EFA-Greens group...... of the Republican Left of Catalonia and the Scottish National Party respectively, I examine the nature of minority nationalist parties’ supposed Europhilia. I argue that there are two principal, ideal ways in which these two parties relate to the EU. 1) Instrumentally, where the focus is on how the EU benefits...... the party and movement politically and economically and 2) identitarian, where the EU and ‘Europe’ figures more as a facet of national identity and focus is on shared values and history. Although both aspects are present in the Scottish and Catalan independence movements, the former is more prevalent...

  9. Additive Technology for EU Ecolabel Formulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Nehls; Tassilo Habereder; Edward Ng

    2009-01-01

    Currently, Bio -lubricants are still regarded as niche products. Within the global lubricant market, however, the ar-ea of environmentally acceptable fluids represents one of the fast growing markets with an estimated annual growth of more than 6% per year. This growth is supported by various market drivers such as legal regulations, public subsidies and the im-plementation of national or international labeling schemes.With the implementation of the European Ecolabel for lubricants in 2005, a common standard specifying ecological and performance requirements for Bio - lubricants was defined. Applying for the EU Ecolabel requires a comprehensive assess-ment, not only of the final formulation, but also of the additives used. Additives are required to meet specifications for oxi-dation and thermal stability, as well as to impart metal protection (of both steel and yellow metals), thus improving corro-sion protection and wear performance of the formulation. Therefore, it is challenging in terms of formulation technology to develop the right formulation that meets the technical specifications as well as the stringent requirements of the EU - Ecola-bel.The paper describes how, by using ester base fluids and additives currently available in the market, lubricants can be developed to meet the technical and eco - toxicological requirements of the EU - Ecolabel, approaching the performance lev-els of lubricants formulated with traditional base fluids.

  10. The EU's Antidumping Actions Against Chinese Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yinan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As the importance of tariffs in international trade has declined with the reduction of tariff rates under the GATT/WTO programs of multilateral trade liberalization, most governments prefer to protect domestic industries from foreign competitors through a variety of non-tariff barriers. Antidumping actions have recently become the world's biggest trade impediment due to their specific features and the antidumping activity of new users. Since China has become the major engine of world trade growth in recent years, it also has become the largest anti-dumping target in the world. However, the present world competition situation implies that world trade liberalization might arouse regional trade friction. The objective of this research is to identify whether China's WTO accession changed China's situation with regard to EU antidumping actions. The research analysis empirically proved that trade liberalization could partly affect the EU's antidumping actions against Chinese exports and the higher degree of industrial concentricity becomes a motive to increase the EU's antidumping activities against China.

  11. CERN-EU relationship provides various opportunities

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony-Kittelsen

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the EU and CERN continues to grow stronger, as the Director-General and the President of Council recently visited Brussels to discuss the progress made since the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) in July 2009. With financial cuts and budget reductions plaguing research programmes across the world, the MoU is a solid basis for enhancing existing or developing new synergies between the two parties.    Rolf Heuer, Michel Spiro and other members of the CERN delegation photographed with Máire Geoghegan-Quinn, EU Commissioner for Research, Innovation and Science, during the 2010 Annual CERN-EC meeting. Credits: © European Union, 2010 In recent times, due to the global economic downturn and reductions in national research budgets, the competition for funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7, 2007-2013) has become extremely tough. However, given the large number of CERN proposals accepted by the EC since the start of FP7...

  12. Crystal structure and negative magnetization in Sm{sub 2}Al and Sm{sub 1.988}Gd{sub 0.012}Al compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pramod, E-mail: pkumar@iiita.ac.in [Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad, Allahabad 211012 (India); Department of Physics, IIT Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Kumar, Rachana [National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Pandey, S. [Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad, Allahabad 211012 (India); Suresh, K.G. [Department of Physics, IIT Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Nigam, A.K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2014-09-01

    Here we report Sm{sub 2}Al and Sm{sub 1.988}Gd{sub 0.012}Al compounds, with orthorhombic crystal structure (space group: Pnma), showing negative magnetization in temperature dependence magnetization data. Both compounds magnetically order at ∼150 and 200 K respectively and below this temperature, magnetization data shows a compensation temperature (T{sub comp}) which shifts with field. Hysteresis loops obtained below T{sub comp} signify that both Sm{sub 2}Al and Sm{sub 1.988}Gd{sub 0.012}Al possess exchange anisotropy. Both, exchange anisotropy field and coercive field are found to be quite large and comparable to those of the classical spin–orbit compensated ferromagnet (Sm,Gd)Al{sub 2}.

  13. Composition dependence of luminescence of Eu and Eu/Tb doped silicate glasses for LED applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, C.F.; Chaussedent, S.; Liu, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Eu and Eu/Tb doped silicate glasses are good candidates for light emitting diode (LED) applications. But the optical performance of these glasses is sensitive to variations in chemical composition. In this paper we report our recent findings about the effect of addition of minor components....... The results show that the asymmetry factor and luminescence lifetimes of as-prepared materials are dependent on composition. White fluorescence is achieved in Eu/Tb co-doped glasses, which can be attributed to the simultaneous generation of red, green and blue wavelengths from Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions...... such as B2O3, Al2O3 and CaF2 on the luminescent properties of the above-mentioned glasses. We explore the role of Eu3+ ions as a structural probe of the glasses by determining the asymmetry factor, i.e., the ratio of the emission intensity of the 5D0→7F2 transition to that of the 5D0 →7F1 transition...

  14. Structure, magnetization, and magnetostriction of Sm-R-Fe (R = Pr, Nd) thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bowen; CAO Shuying; WENG Ling; HUANG Wenmei; SUN Ying

    2006-01-01

    The structure, magnetization, and magnetostriction of Sm0.9Pr0.1Fex and Sm1-xNdxFe1.9 thin films have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, and optical cantilever method. It is found that the structure of Sm0.9Pr0.1Fex thin films consists of an Sm-Pr-Fe amorphous phase when x ≤ 2.69 and that of Sm1-xNdxFe1.9 thin films consists of an Sm-Nd-Fe amorphous phase. The in-plane magnetization of Sm0.9Pr0.1Fex thin films increases with increase in the Fe content, and low values of the in-plane coercivity occur in the range of 1.62 ≤ x ≤ 2.28. The magnetostriction value of Sm0.9Pr0.1Fex thin films increases with increasing the Fe content when x ≤ 1.94 and decreases when x > 1.94. The in-plane magnetostriction of Sm1-xNdxFe1.9 thin films under low magnetic fields has been improved by the substitution of Nd for Sm when x = 0.2.

  15. Structure and properties of SmCu6−In6+ ( = 0, 1, 2)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Udumula Subbarao; Sebastian C Peter

    2013-11-01

    High quality single crystals of SmCu6In6 were obtained from the reactions run in excess liquid indium and characterized by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction data. SmCu6In6 crystallizes in the YCu6In6 structure type, tetragonal space group 4/ and lattice constants are = = 9.2036(3) Å and = 5.4232(3) Å. SmCu6−In6+ ( = 0, 1, 2) compounds were obtained using arc melting and characterized using powder X-ray diffraction. Magnetic susceptibility data follow modified Curie-Weiss law behaviour above 50K and the experimentally measured magnetic moment values in SmCu4In8, SmCu5In7 and SmCu6In6 are 0.83 B, 1.45 B and 0.90 B per Sm atom, respectively. SmCu5In7 and SmCu6In6 compounds show antiferromagnetic ordering at N = 7.8 K, and no magnetic ordering was observed for SmCu4In8 down to 2 K. Electrical resistivity measurements show that all compounds are of metallic nature.

  16. Electronic and magnetic phase diagram of superconductors, SmFeAsO1-xFx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamihara, Yoichi; Nomura, Takatoshi; Hirano, Masahiro; Kim, Jung Eun; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Higashitaniguchi, Satoshi; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Seto, Makoto; Hosono, Hideo

    2010-03-01

    A crystallographic and magnetic phase diagram of SmFeAsO1-xFx is determined as a function of x in terms of temperature based on electrical transport and magnetization, synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction, 57Fe Mössbauer spectra (MS), and 149Sm nuclear resonant forward scattering (NRFS) measurements. MS revealed that the magnetic moments of Fe were aligned antiferromagnetically at ~144 K (TN(Fe)). The magnetic moment of Fe (MFe) is estimated to be 0.34 μB/Fe at 4.2 K for undoped SmFeAsO; MFe is quenched in superconducting F-doped SmFeAsO. 149Sm NRFS spectra revealed that the magnetic moments of Sm start to order antiferromagnetically at 5.6 K (undoped) and 4.4 K (TN(Sm)) (x=0.069). Results clearly indicate that the antiferromagnetic (AF) Sm sublattice coexists with the superconducting phase in SmFeAsO1-xFx below TN(Sm), while the AF Fe sublattice does not coexist with the superconducting phase.

  17. r-Sm14 - pRSETA efficacy in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Celso Raul Romero

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies carried out with Sm14 in experimental vaccination against Schistosoma mansoni or Fasciola hepatica infections were performed with recombinant Sm14 (rSm14 produced in Escherichia coli by the pGEMEX system (Promega. The rSm14 was expressed as a 40 kDa fusion protein with the major bacteriophage T7 capsid protein. Vaccination experiments with this rSm14 in animal models resulted in consistent high protective activity against S. mansoni cercariae challenge and enabled rSm14 to be included among the vaccine antigens endorsed by the World Health Organization for phase I/II clinical trials. Since the preparation of pGEMEX based rSm14 is time consuming and results in low yield for large scale production, we have tested other E. coli expression systems which would be more suitable for scale up and downstream processing. We expressed two different 6XHis-tagged Sm14 fusion proteins in a T7 promoter based plasmids. The 6XHis-tag fusions allowed rapid purification of the recombinant proteins through a Ni+2-charged resin. The resulted recombinant 18 and 16 kDa proteins were recognized by anti-Sm14 antibodies and also by antiserum against adult S. mansoni soluble secreted/excreted proteins in Western-Blot. Both proteins were also protective against S. mansoni cercariae infection to the same extent as the rSm14 expressed by the pGEMEX system.

  18. Europium gallium garnet (Eu3Ga5O12) and Eu3GaO6: Synthesis and material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kenji; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Adachi, Sadao

    2016-10-01

    Eu-Ga-O ternary compounds were synthesized from a mixture of cubic (c-) Eu2O3 and monoclinic Ga2O3 (β-Ga2O3) raw powders using the solid-state reaction method by calcination at Tc = 1200 °C. The structural and optical properties of the Eu-Ga-O ternary compounds were investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis, photoluminescence (PL) analysis, PL excitation (PLE) spectroscopy, and Raman scattering measurements. Stoichiometric compounds such as cubic Eu3Ga5O12 (EGG) and orthorhombic Eu3GaO6 were synthesized using molar ratios of x = 0.375 and 0.75 [x≡Eu2O3/(Eu2O3 + Ga2O3)], respectively, together with the end-point binary compounds β-Ga2O3 (x = 0) and monoclinic (m-) Eu2O3 (x = 1.0). The structural change from "cubic" to "monoclinic" in Eu2O3 is due to the structural phase transition occurring at Tc ≥ 1050 °C. In principle, the perovskite-type EuGaO3 and monoclinic Eu4Ga2O9 can also be synthesized at x = 0.5 and 0.667, respectively; however, such stoichiometric compounds could not be synthesized in this study. The PL and PLE properties of EGG and Eu3GaO6 were studied in detail. The temperature dependence of the PL spectra was observed through measurements carried out between T = 20 and 300 K and explained using a newly developed model. Raman scattering measurements were also performed on the Eu-Ga-O ternary systems over the entire composition range from x = 0 (β-Ga2O3) to 1.0 (m-Eu2O3).

  19. Photoswitchable Faraday effect in EuS-Au nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Akira; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Fushimi, Koji; Hasegawa, Yasuchika [Division of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, North-13 West-8, Kita-ku, 060-8628, Sapporo (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Effective photoswitchable europium sulfide nanocrystals with gold nanoparticles using dithiol (DDT: 1,10-decanedithiol) joint molecules, EuS-Au nanosystems, are demonstrated. The TEM image indicates the formation of EuS-Au nanosystems composed of cube-shaped EuS nanocrystals and spherical Au nanoparticles. Under visible-light irradiation, a drastic change of absorption band of EuS-Au nanosystems at around 600 nm was observed. The Faraday effects of EuS-Au nanosystems were estimated using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurements. The effective change of the MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems under visible-light irradiation was successfully observed at around 670 nm for the first time. The effective reversible changes in MCD spectra with the alternative irradiation cycles of visible light (>440 nm) and dark are also presented. The decrease rate of rotation angle at 670 nm of EuS-Au nanosystems is larger than that of absorbance. These results indicate that the effective change of MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems would be dominated not only by a drastic change of absorption band related to enhanced LSPR of Au nanoparticles but also by specific interaction between EuS and Au in nanosystem under irradiation. Illustration of photoswitch and TEM image of EuS-Au nanosystems. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Should the EU climate policy framework be reformed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ELLISON

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Though to-date the European Union (EU has played the most significant leadership role in international negotiations to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, the emission-reducing performance of individual EU Member states has for many been less than stellar. Several EU15 Member states continue to raise rather than lower emissions. Analysing the most successful policy instruments, this paper argues EU policy efforts could benefit from three important innovations. The following strategies – the adoption of an EU-wide FIT (feed-in tariff, an EU-wide carbon tax and more flexibility in the trading of carbon credits – could significantly improve emission reductions, their relative cost-efficiency and spread burden-sharing more evenly across technologies and Member states. This raises important questions, both about the effectiveness of EU and Kyoto-style commitments, as well as the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS. The commitment strategy, and in particular the EU ETS mechanism, have had the smallest impact on emission reductions. The proposed set of strategies could make a far greater contribution to future EU efforts and potentially lock in the impressive progress already made. Such a policy shift, if successful, would also greatly enhance the EU’s already significant credibility and bargaining power in international climate negotiations.