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Sample records for brighton great britain

  1. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  2. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  3. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  4. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  5. Gypsum karst in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Great Britain the most spectacular gypsum karst development is in the Zechstein gypsum (late Permian mainly in north-eastern England. The Midlands of England also has some karst developed in the Triassic gypsum in the vicinity of Nottingham. Along the north-east coast, south of Sunderland, well-developed palaeokarst, with magnificent breccia pipes, was produced by dissolution of Permian gypsum. In north-west England a small gypsum cave system of phreatic origin has been surveyed and recorded. A large actively evolving phreatic gypsum cave system has been postulated beneath the Ripon area on the basis of studies of subsidence and boreholes. The rate of gypsum dissolution here, and the associated collapse lead to difficult civil engineering and construction conditions, which can also be aggravated by water abstraction.

  6. History of photodynamic therapy in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton, D; Ackroyd, R

    2005-12-01

    Although the concept photodynamic therapy has been recognised for over a century, it is only over the last 25 years that it has been used in Great Britain. The first applications in the UK were in 1981 by John Carruth, who treated patients with advanced ENT and skin cancers. The following year, he and Stephen Bown set up the British Medical Laser Association (BMLA). Since that time, the use of PDT in the UK has slowly expanded in all fields of medicine and surgery. In 1986, Bown set up the National Medical Laser Centre (NMLC) and later collaborated with Liverpool gastroenterologist, Neville Krasner, in animal studies on rat colon. In 1997, Keyvan Moghissi founded the Yorkshire Laser Centre (YLC) and began treating patients with advanced inoperable bronchial and oesophageal cancers. Stan Brown in Leeds set up the Centre for Photobiology and Photodynamic Therapy at the University of Leeds, working in close collaboration with the Yorkshire Cancer Research Centre. Other pioneers include Hugh Barr in Gloucester, Colin Hopper in London, Grant Fullarton in Glasgow and Roger Ackroyd, Malcolm Reed and Nicky Brown in Sheffield. PDT has now been used in the UK in the treatment of skin, oral, ENT, oesophageal, lung, bladder and gynaecological malignancies.

  7. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2016-03-15

    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  8. Regional Personality Differences in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentfrow, Peter J.; Jokela, Markus; Lamb, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent investigations indicate that personality traits are unevenly distributed geographically, with some traits being more prevalent in certain places than in others. The geographical distributions of personality traits are associated with a range of important political, economic, social, and health outcomes. The majority of research on this subject has focused on the geographical distributions and macro-level correlates of personality across nations or regions of the United States. The aim of the present investigation was to replicate and extend that past work by examining regional personality differences in Great Britain. Using a sample of nearly 400,000 British residents, we mapped the geographical distributions of the Big Five Personality traits across 380 Local Authority Districts and examined the associations with important political, economic, social, and health outcomes. The results revealed distinct geographical clusters, with neighboring regions displaying similar personality characteristics, and robust associations with the macro-level outcome variables. Overall, the patterns of results were similar to findings from past research. PMID:25803819

  9. Restraint use by car occupants: Great Britain, 1982-91.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major developments in road safety in Great Britain during the last decade has been the increasing use of seat belts by people travelling in cars. This has been achieved by legislation, with supporting publicity.

  10. Restraint use by car occupants: Great Britain, 1982-91.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major developments in road safety in Great Britain during the last decade has been the increasing use of seat belts by people travelling in cars. This has been achieved by legislation, with supporting publicity.

  11. Epidemiological analysis of data for scrapie in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Donnelly, C.; Ferguson, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the control or eradication of scrapie and any other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) possibly circulating in the sheep population has become a priority in Britain and elsewhere in Europe. A better understanding of the epidemiology of scrapie would greatly aid the dev

  12. Muslim Women and Islamophobia in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    CHAIB, Fatima Zohra

    2016-01-01

    The principle issues of Islam have a great impact on the British society which had shared a mission of reflecting the realities of feminism before Islam. The manifestation of Islam is also considered as a proof of the best realization in the history of women rights in UK. Thus, this research investigates Muslim woman’s life by showing her social status through time and space and studying her roles in the construction of the society. We tend mainly, to focus on the way she fought for her relig...

  13. Enriching Great Britain's National Landslide Database by searching newspaper archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Freeborough, Katy; Demeritt, David

    2015-11-01

    Our understanding of where landslide hazard and impact will be greatest is largely based on our knowledge of past events. Here, we present a method to supplement existing records of landslides in Great Britain by searching an electronic archive of regional newspapers. In Great Britain, the British Geological Survey (BGS) is responsible for updating and maintaining records of landslide events and their impacts in the National Landslide Database (NLD). The NLD contains records of more than 16,500 landslide events in Great Britain. Data sources for the NLD include field surveys, academic articles, grey literature, news, public reports and, since 2012, social media. We aim to supplement the richness of the NLD by (i) identifying additional landslide events, (ii) acting as an additional source of confirmation of events existing in the NLD and (iii) adding more detail to existing database entries. This is done by systematically searching the Nexis UK digital archive of 568 regional newspapers published in the UK. In this paper, we construct a robust Boolean search criterion by experimenting with landslide terminology for four training periods. We then apply this search to all articles published in 2006 and 2012. This resulted in the addition of 111 records of landslide events to the NLD over the 2 years investigated (2006 and 2012). We also find that we were able to obtain information about landslide impact for 60-90% of landslide events identified from newspaper articles. Spatial and temporal patterns of additional landslides identified from newspaper articles are broadly in line with those existing in the NLD, confirming that the NLD is a representative sample of landsliding in Great Britain. This method could now be applied to more time periods and/or other hazards to add richness to databases and thus improve our ability to forecast future events based on records of past events.

  14. Strategies of Higher Education Institutions Development in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Komochkova Olga

    2015-01-01

    The current stage of higher education sector transformation in Ukraine has been indicated. The study of foreign experience, namely of Great Britain, and the use of positive aspects of such experience have been justified. Information sources of Universities UK (Universities UK Strategic Plan 2013-2018; Efficiency and Effectiveness in Higher Education: A report by the Universities UK Efficiency and Modernisation Task Group; Annual Report and Consolidated Financial Statements of UUK) and The Str...

  15. Woodland Survey of Great Britain 1971-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C. M.; Smart, S. M.; Bunce, R. G. H.

    2015-08-01

    The Woodland Survey of Great Britain is a unique data set, consisting of a detailed range of ecological measurements at a national scale, covering a time span of 30 years. A set of 103 woods spread across Britain were first surveyed in 1971, which were again surveyed in 2000-2003 (for convenience referred to subsequently as the "2001 survey"). Standardised methods of describing the trees, shrubs, ground flora, soils and general habitats present were used for both sets of surveys. The sample of 1648 plots spread through 103 woodland sites located across Britain makes it probably the most extensive quantitative ecological woodland survey undertaken in Britain; it is also notable for the range of sites that have been revisited after such a long interval. The data set provides a unique opportunity to explore the effects of a range of potential drivers of woodland change that operated between 1971 and 2001. The data set is available in four discrete parts, which have been assigned the following DOIs: 10.5285/4d93f9ac-68e3-49cf-8a41-4d02a7ead81a (Kirby et al., 2013b), 10.5285/d6409d40-58fe-4fa7-b7c8-71a105b965b4 (Kirby et al., 2013d), 10.5285/fb1e474d-456b-42a9-9a10-a02c35af10d2 (Kirby et al., 2013c), 10.5285 (Kirby et al., 2013a).

  16. Review of Infectious Disease Report in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Sorokhan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an analysis of infectious disease report in Great Britain that is a member of the European Union. There are listed the infectious diseases and infectious agents of these diseases. There are described in detail how to fill the notification form and the methods and terms of sending it to Public Health England. Attention is focused on the importance of the analysis of infectious disease report in the European Union in the light of cooperation between Ukraine and the EU after the economic component of the Association Agreement has been signed.

  17. An Overview of the Smart Grid in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Nick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the current status of the development of the smart grid in Great Britain (GB. The definition, policy and technical drivers, incentive mechanisms, technological focus, and the industry's progress in developing the smart grid are described. In particular, the Low Carbon Networks Fund and Electricity Network Innovation Competition projects, together with the rollout of smart metering, are detailed. A more observable, controllable, automated, and integrated electricity network will be supported by these investments in conjunction with smart meter installation. It is found that the focus has mainly been on distribution networks as well as on real-time flows of information and interaction between suppliers and consumers facilitated by improved information and communications technology, active power flow management, demand management, and energy storage. The learning from the GB smart grid initiatives will provide valuable guidelines for future smart grid development in GB and other countries.

  18. EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF THE MEDICAL LIBRARIAN IN GREAT BRITAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUSSELL, M P

    1964-01-01

    This paper describes the education of the librarians under whose care the medical libraries of Great Britain have flourished and the way junior assistants now move toward higher qualification. It expresses the hope that the changed Library Association syllabus gives the medical library assistant an earlier chance of using his knowledge of medical library practice in the papers presented; that the inclusion of medical material in the examination will encourage library schools to provide appropriate instruction in this field, thus achieving a system like that in the United States. For its encouragement of continuing education for the senior librarian, our debt is acknowledged to the Medical Section or Group of the Library Association, which through its meetings gives opportunity for cooperation and discussion of suggestions for further improvement.

  19. Food-related life style in Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    . The adventurous food consumers stand for 12% of the population. Food and food products are the most important element in these consumers' lives. The decisive motives are recognition and self-fulfilment. Cooking is a creative and social process for the whole family.......Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Great Britain, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The British consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain...... their central life values. We call them the uninvolved, the careless, the uninterested conservative, the interested conservative, and the adventurous food consumers. The segments have only little relation to demographic variables. 3. The interested conservative food consumer stands for 33% of the population...

  20. Repercussions of the Spanish War of 1808 on Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. ESDAILE

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In Great Britain the news that Spain had risen in revolt against the forces of Napoleon Bonaparte became the sensation of the year. Brought in the first instance by a delegation sent from the province of Asturias by its traditional assembly, it gave rise to a great wave of joy and excitement that found expression bothin the press and in the actions of the Tory government of Lord Portland, which immediately decided to send an expeditionary force to succour the Patriot cause. It was a moment of real national unity: despite their increasing misgivings with respect to the war against Napoleon, even the opposition Whigs shared in the general jubilation.This article examines the reasons for this phenomenon, and argues that they were founded more on the desperate military, political and economic situation in which the British found themselves than on a realistic appreciation of the capacities of the Spanish insurgents. From disillusionment to which the hope of June 1808 gave way, there stemmed many of the problems that so troubled Anglo-Spanish relations IN the six years of war that followed.

  1. Conscientious objections in pharmacy practice in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists who refuse to provide certain services or treatment for reasons of conscience have been criticized for failing to fulfil their professional obligations. Currently, individual pharmacists in Great Britain can withhold services or treatment for moral or religious reasons, provided they refer the patient to an alternative source. The most high-profile cases have concerned the refusal to supply emergency hormonal contraception, which will serve as an example in this article. I propose that the pharmacy profession's policy on conscientious objections should be altered slightly. Building on the work of Brock and Wicclair, I argue that conscientious refusals should be acceptable provided that the patient is informed of the service, the patient is redirected to an alternative source, the refusal does not cause an unreasonable burden to the patient, and the reasons for the refusal are based on the core values of the profession. Finally, I argue that a principled categorical refusal by an individual pharmacist is not morally permissible. I claim that, contrary to current practice, a pharmacist cannot legitimately claim universal exemption from providing a standard service, even if that service is available elsewhere.

  2. Public understanding in Great Britain of ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capstick, Stuart B.; Pidgeon, Nick F.; Corner, Adam J.; Spence, Elspeth M.; Pearson, Paul N.

    2016-08-01

    Public engagement with climate change is critical for maintaining the impetus for meaningful emissions cuts. Ocean acidification (OA) is increasingly recognized by marine scientists as an important, but often overlooked, consequence of anthropogenic emissions. Although substantial evidence now exists concerning people’s understanding of climate change more generally, very little is known about public perceptions of OA. Here, for the first time, we characterize in detail people’s understanding of this topic using survey data obtained in Great Britain (n = 2,501) during 2013 and 2014. We draw on theories of risk perception and consider how personal values influence attitudes towards OA. We find that public awareness of OA is very low compared to that of climate change, and was unaffected by the publication of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Using an experimental approach, we show that providing basic information can heighten concern about OA, however, we find that attitude polarization along value-based lines may occur if the topic is explicitly associated with climate change. We discuss the implications of our findings for public engagement with OA, and the importance of learning lessons from communications research relating to climate change.

  3. Carbon dynamics of land use in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adger, W.N.; Brown, K.; Shiel, R.S.; Whitby, M.C. (East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment)

    1992-10-01

    Aggregate yearly carbon fluctuations from 20 categories of land use are calculated and presented for groupings of these categories by estimating biomass carbon changes in the vegetation associated with the land use category and soil carbon changes for soil types associated with the same land use categories. The results are then compared with an aggregate carbon balance for the land-using sector for one year, by estimating carbon fixations and emissions from agricultural and forestry activities. The results show that conversion of land to arable cultivation leads to medium-term reductions in soil and biomass carbon, when the limits of the study are set to count agricultural and forestry products leaving the sector as having been fixed by that sector. Forestry in the period studied has not fixed large amounts of carbon because new planting initially causes losses of previously fixed biomass and soil carbon. The aggregate estimates of carbon sequestration are critically dependent on the boundaries of the study, but the estimates are still relatively minor in relation to total carbon emissions from other sectors of the economy in Great Britain. 31 refs., 9 tabs.

  4. Strategies of Higher Education Institutions Development in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komochkova Olga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current stage of higher education sector transformation in Ukraine has been indicated. The study of foreign experience, namely of Great Britain, and the use of positive aspects of such experience have been justified. Information sources of Universities UK (Universities UK Strategic Plan 2013-2018; Efficiency and Effectiveness in Higher Education: A report by the Universities UK Efficiency and Modernisation Task Group; Annual Report and Consolidated Financial Statements of UUK and The Strategic Plan 2009-2015 of Lancaster University have been studied. Vision, mission, functions,pressing issues, strategic aims of the Strategic Plan of UUK for the next five years have been presented. The achievements of UKK for 2013-2014 in accordance with strategic aims have been outlined. The actions of the organization aimed at providing British universities with various supports have been presented. The constituents of Strategic Plan of Lancaster University for 2009-2015, namely vision, mission, sectors of development (International, Teaching, Research and Impact, Finance and Organisation, the Lancaster experience and consequently successfully achieved results have been presented. Positive aspects of British experience in strategic development of higher education institutions have been defined. Perspectives for further researches in this area have been outlined.

  5. Estimating the hidden burden of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J K Conlan

    Full Text Available The number of cattle herds placed under movement restrictions in Great Britain (GB due to the suspected presence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB has progressively increased over the past 25 years despite an intensive and costly test-and-slaughter control program. Around 38% of herds that clear movement restrictions experience a recurrent incident (breakdown within 24 months, suggesting that infection may be persisting within herds. Reactivity to tuberculin, the basis of diagnostic testing, is dependent on the time from infection. Thus, testing efficiency varies between outbreaks, depending on weight of transmission and cannot be directly estimated. In this paper, we use Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC to parameterize two within-herd transmission models within a rigorous inferential framework. Previous within-herd models of bTB have relied on ad-hoc methods of parameterization and used a single model structure (SORI where animals are assumed to become detectable by testing before they become infectious. We study such a conventional within-herd model of bTB and an alternative model, motivated by recent animal challenge studies, where there is no period of epidemiological latency before animals become infectious (SOR. Under both models we estimate that cattle-to-cattle transmission rates are non-linearly density dependent. The basic reproductive ratio for our conventional within-herd model, estimated for scenarios with no statutory controls, increases from 1.5 (0.26-4.9; 95% CI in a herd of 30 cattle up to 4.9 (0.99-14.0 in a herd of 400. Under this model we estimate that 50% (33-67 of recurrent breakdowns in Britain can be attributed to infection missed by tuberculin testing. However this figure falls to 24% (11-42 of recurrent breakdowns under our alternative model. Under both models the estimated extrinsic force of infection increases with the burden of missed infection. Hence, improved herd-level testing is unlikely to reduce recurrence

  6. A Profile of Independent Local Radio (Commercial Radio in Great Britain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidel, M. Kent

    Commercial and noncommercial radio in the United States and Great Britain have followed opposite paths of development. Unlike the United States, where commercial radio was the historical cornerstone of the broadcasting system, the Independent Local Radio (ILR) of Britain is the newcomer into an environment heavy with the heritage of the…

  7. Detection of Neospora caninum in wild carnivorans in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, P M; Wright, S E; Zimmer, I A; Roy, S; Kitchener, A C; Meredith, A; Innes, E A; Katzer, F

    2013-02-18

    Samples of brain and other tissues were collected from 99 ferrets (Mustela furo), 83 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 70 European polecats (Mustela putorius), 65 American mink (Neovison vison), 64 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and 9 stoats (Mustela erminea), from around Great Britain. DNA was extracted from approximately 1g of tissue and tested by specific nested ITS1 PCR for Neospora caninum. The results from the PCR demonstrated that Neospora specific DNA was detected in all species of wild carnivorans with the exception of the stoats (0/9). Neospora DNA positive samples were detected in: polecats 18.6% (13/70), badgers 10.9% (7/64), ferrets 10.1% (10/99), foxes 4.8% (4/83) and mink 4.6% (3/65). In the badgers N. caninum DNA positive samples were found in brain (n=2), liver (n=2) and neck muscle (n=3). Selected positive ITS1 DNA sequences were submitted to Genbank. Sequence UKwildlife1 (accession number JX857862) was found in two badgers, whilst UKwildlife2 and UKwildlife3 (accession numbers JX857863 and JX857864 respectively) were found in ferrets, all three sequences demonstrated point mutations at a single base, while sequence UKwildlife4 (accession number JX857865) was found in all the species that tested positive and showed complete identity when compared against published reference sequences for: N. caninum (Nc Liverpool isolate, EU564166). Our data shows that almost all the wild carnivoran mammal species tested are intermediate hosts for N. caninum and are therefore capable of acting as reservoirs of infection for other species. These species could also act as useful sentinel species, demonstrating the presence of the parasite in particular geographical and environmental locations.

  8. Patterns and trends of beverage consumption among children and adults in Great Britain, 1986–2009

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Shu Wen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jebb, Susan A; Popkin, Barry M

    2012-01-01

    ... and household food expenditure surveys to provide a picture of patterns and trends in beverage intake and purchases in Great Britain from 1986 to 2009, and estimates the potential for pricing p...

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY REGARDING THE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM IN ROMANIA, FRANCE, GREAT BRITAIN AND USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA MORARU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a comparative study of accounting methods and treatments regarding the establishment of revenues and evaluation of fixed assets and investment securities reported in four countries: Romania, France, Great Britain and USA.

  10. DUALISM OF GEOSTRATEGIC PROSPECTS OF GREAT BRITAIN IN THE MODERN SYSTEM OF GLOBAL UNCERTAINTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey N. Yeletsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of a modern position of Great Britain in the global economy are analysed. Its role as one of the local centres of influence in the European Union is emphasized. «Special relationship» between England and the United States in the context of formation of a new «Anglo-Saxon empire» is examined. Particular attention is paid to the key role of Great Britain in the alliance of English-speaking powers.

  11. Flexible working: understanding the locum pharmacist in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shann, Phillip; Hassell, Karen

    2006-09-01

    There is a growing trend in Great Britain (GB) for pharmacists to work as self-employed "locums" rather than as permanent employees. Despite this trend, little is known about their work patterns or why they choose to pursue nonstandard forms of work. The overall aim of the study was to explore why locums choose self-employment over a permanent contract and to explore a number of issues commonly associated with nonstandard working, such as marginalization and job satisfaction. A qualitative interview study was undertaken. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with 34 locum pharmacists randomly selected from the GB register of pharmacists. Locums from a range of age groups, different sectors of practice, and with different work patterns were selected to ensure that a wide range of experiences and views were covered. The need or desire for flexibility was the overriding factor for choosing to work as a locum. A wide range and variety of individual personal circumstances were important drivers, but a desire for work-life balance was fundamental to many. A variety of work patterns were found, ranging from those with more ad hoc working arrangements to those who worked in the same store on a regular basis. Avoiding stress, paperwork, and nonprofessional duties were among reasons for choosing to locum. Disadvantages associated with being a locum included being viewed and treated negatively by peers, and having fewer opportunities for training. No conclusive evidence could be found for locums being marginalized, except for the training issues for some pharmacists. The findings do suggest some cause for concern, with some locums selecting places to work on the basis of attitudes not congruent with socially inclusive approaches to public health care. The locum workforce is far from homogenous or uniform. Freelance working of this kind has advantages for the individual: freedom and independence. But there may be risks for the profession if nonstandard work practices

  12. Great Britain and German-Polish Relations, 1929–1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotova Ekaterina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of British-German relations during the period of exacerbation of territorial disputes between Germany and Poland in 1929-1931. Germany was making plans for revising the eastern borders. It sought to enlist the support of the new Labour government. Britain didn’t only approve of Germany's intention to carry out revision of the Treaty of Versailles (reparation issue, the evacuation of the Rhineland and the change in the German-Polish border, but also supported the strengthening of the political and economic situation in Germany as a whole. Assistance to Germany was advantageous for Britain. Firstly, the British support helped to improve the capacity of the purchasing power of the German market as one of the traditional markets of the English sale. Secondly, the strengthening of the position of the German cabinet meant failure of the French policy in Europe at this stage. The defeat of France in a dispute on the issue of early evacuation of the Rhineland would seriously devalue the foreign policy initiatives of Paris. Thirdly, the British government hoped that Germany will go into orbit of British political influence. The identity of the positions of the German and the British cabinets were considered as the components of British policy success not only in relations with France and Italy, but also with Czechoslovakia and Poland. Since the formation of the MacDonald’s cabinet, anti-Polish moods increased in the British course for the settlement of German-Polish relations. However, the threat of an attack on Poland by Germany was regarded by the government of Britain as unacceptable way of resolving the German-Polish conflict. Britain tried to follow the traditional foreign policy concept of “balance of power”, but the inefficiency of British policy “mediation” in European affairs was clearly shown in times of growing financial and economic crisis. The issue of the German-Polish border remained unsolved.

  13. The stability and instability of organic expenditures in Denmark, Great Britain, and Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Christensen, Tove; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård;

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns demand for organic foods in 3 European countries: Denmark, Great Britain, and Italy. Based on extensive sets of household panel data we categorize households into 4 groups according to their levels of organic consumption. Importance of sociodemographics is estimated by apply......This article concerns demand for organic foods in 3 European countries: Denmark, Great Britain, and Italy. Based on extensive sets of household panel data we categorize households into 4 groups according to their levels of organic consumption. Importance of sociodemographics is estimated...

  14. Congenital anomalies and childhood cancer in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narod, S.A. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Hawkins, M.M.; Robertson, C.M.; Stiller, C.A. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1997-03-01

    The presence of cancer and a congenital anomaly in the same child may be explained in certain cases by an underlying genetic abnormality. The study of these associations may lead to the identification of genes that are important in both processes. We have examined the records of 20,304 children with cancer in Britain, who were entered into the National Registry of Childhood Tumors (NRCT) during 1971-86, for the presence of congenital anomalies. The frequency of anomalies was much higher among children with solid tumors (4.4%) than among those with leukemia or lymphoma (2.6%; P < .0001). The types of cancer with the highest rates of anomalies were Wilms tumor (8.1 %), Ewing sarcoma (5.8%), hepatoblastoma (6.4%), and gonadal and germ-cell tumors (6.4%). Cases of spina bifida and abnormalities of the eye, ribs, and spine were more common in children with cancer than among population-based controls. Future studies may be directed toward identifying the developmental pathways and the relevant genes that are involved in the overlap between pediatric cancer and malformation. 46 refs., 12 tabs.

  15. 19 CFR 10.69 - Samples to Great Britain and Ireland under reciprocal agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC... Trade § 10.69 Samples to Great Britain and Ireland under reciprocal agreement. Descriptive lists of... declarations of December 3 and 8, 1910 (State Department treaty series 552), shall be required in...

  16. Motivation to Study in Higher Education: A Comparison between Germany and Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Sandra; Higson, Helen E.

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with reasons for the motivation to study in higher education. To find out about motives, around 200 A-level students in Germany and Great Britain were asked about their plans for the time after completion of their A-levels. Through socio-demographic data the authors could deploy facts about social backgrounds and the…

  17. Socio-Pedagogical Portrait of a Master's Degree Student in International Arbitration: Experience of Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagorna, Olga

    2016-01-01

    International arbitration as the efficient means of alternative dispute resolution has become, due to globalization, a highly specialised service rendered by professionals. Master's degree program (LLM) completion enables those interested to become competent and competitive specialists in arbitration on the international arena. Great Britain has…

  18. The convenience food market in Great Britain: convenience food lifestyle (CFL) segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Marie; Cowan, Cathal; McCarthy, Mary

    2007-11-01

    Convenience foods enable the consumer to save time and effort in food activities, related to shopping, meal preparation and cooking, consumption and post-meal activities. The objective of this paper is to report on the attitudes and reported behaviour of food consumers in Great Britain based on a review of their convenience food lifestyle (CFLs). The paper also reports the development and application of a segmentation technique that can supply information on consumer attitudes towards convenience foods. The convenience food market in Great Britain is examined and the key drivers of growth in this market are highlighted. A survey was applied to a nationally representative sample of 1000 consumers (defined as the persons primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking in the household) in Great Britain in 2002. Segmentation analysis, based on the identification of 20 convenience lifestyle factors, identified four CFL segments of consumers: the 'food connoisseurs' (26%), the 'home meal preparers' (25%), the 'kitchen evaders' (16%) and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' (33%). In particular, the 'kitchen evaders' and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' are identified as convenience-seeking segments. Implications for food producers, in particular, convenience food manufacturers are discussed. The study provides an understanding of the lifestyles of food consumers in Great Britain, and provides food manufacturers with an insight into what motivates individuals to purchase convenience foods.

  19. Conceptual Ideas of Masters' Professional Training in International Relations in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretko, Vitalii

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual positions of professional training of Masters in International Relations in Great Britain have been studied. On the basis of literary and documentary sources the basic concepts laid into contemporary theories of constructivism and cognitivism, theory of development and self-realisation of creative personality on the basis of…

  20. Interprofessional Learning of Physiotherapists Under Conditions of Higher Education in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guk Svitlana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of implementing interprofessional training of physiotherapists in universities and at the bases of the practical training of students in Great Britain have been analyzed. The role of physiotherapists in issues of medical education and practical assistance within their own profession has been defined. The list of leading training bases that took part in the pilot implementation of common learning for health professions including physiotherapy and the list of the most common topics for interprofessional learning among health professions in universities of Great Britain are given. The role of public authorities and civil communities of Great Britain in providing financing, monitoring and defining requirements for interprofessional learning in the field of physiotherapists' training has been considered. Positive results and the significance of use of interprofessional learning in physiotherapists' training to improve interprofessional communication and collabouration for more effective health services that meet the modern needs of British society have been marked out. Project tasks that will ensure the development and implementation of innovative interprofessional clinical bases of learning in the field of health care in Great Britain have been analyzed. The importance of use of positive foreign experience in the preparation of national experts in physiotherapy has been emphasized.

  1. Conceptual Ideas of Masters' Professional Training in International Relations in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretko, Vitalii

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual positions of professional training of Masters in International Relations in Great Britain have been studied. On the basis of literary and documentary sources the basic concepts laid into contemporary theories of constructivism and cognitivism, theory of development and self-realisation of creative personality on the basis of…

  2. Internationally trained pharmacists in Great Britain: what do registration data tell us about their recruitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassell Karen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally trained health professionals are an important part of the domestic workforce, but little is known about pharmacists who come to work in Great Britain. Recent changes in the registration routes onto the Register of Pharmacists of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain may have affected entries from overseas: reciprocal arrangements for pharmacists from Australia and New Zealand ended in June 2006; 10 new states joined the European Union in 2004 and a further two in 2007, allowing straightforward registration. Aims The aims of the paper are to extend our knowledge about the extent to which Great Britain is relying on the contribution of internationally trained pharmacists and to explore their routes of entry and demographic characteristics and compare them to those of pharmacists trained in Great Britain. Methods The August 2007 Register of Pharmacists provided the main data for analysis. Register extracts between 2002 and 2005 were also explored, allowing longitudinal comparison, and work pattern data from the 2005 Pharmacist Workforce Census were included. Results In 2007, internationally trained pharmacists represented 8.8% of the 43 262 registered pharmacists domiciled in Great Britain. The majority (40.6% had joined the Register from Europe; 33.6% and 25.8% joined via adjudication and reciprocal arrangements. Until this entry route ended for pharmacists from Australia and New Zealand in 2006, annual numbers of reciprocal pharmacists increased. European pharmacists are younger (mean age 31.7 than reciprocal (40.0 or adjudication pharmacists (43.0, and the percentage of women among European-trained pharmacists is much higher (68% when compared with British-trained pharmacists (56%. While only 7.1% of pharmacists registered in Great Britain have a London address, this proportion is much higher for European (13.9%, adjudication (19.5% and reciprocal pharmacists (28.9%. The latter are more likely to

  3. Conceptual Ideas of Masters' Professional Training in International Relations in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretko Vitalii

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The conceptual positions of professional training of Masters in International Relations in Great Britain have been studied. On the basis of literary and documentary sources the basic concepts laid into contemporary theories of constructivism and cognitivism, theory of development and self-realisation of creative personality on the basis of learner-centered learning, theories of intellectual, human and cultural capital, the idea of education, science and industry integration have been revealed.

  4. Concepts on border control of the immigration movements supporters in the Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya D. Lada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current activization of immigration movements towards Europe the problem of border control and possibility of free migration has become especially topical and critical in political and social discussion in the countries of the European Union and Great Britain in particular. The arguments of free border supporters in modern Great Britain are reviewed in terms of the research of works by Teresa Hayter. Teresa Hayter – scientist, publicist, active participant of the antiracist movement and one of the most radical supporters of «free migration» in Great Britain Her views were fully presented in the monograph «Open borders: case against immigration controls» (first edition 2000, second – 2004, third – 2015. The key arguments of the supporters of active migration movements include the very idea of such movements being objectively and historically predetermined, while their control or preventing is a form of discrimination. Teresa Hayter debunks a range of myths and stereotypes concerning this problem, in particular the effectiveness of repressive methods of control and absolutely negative consequences for the population and country caused by these movements. The researcher states that the only way to ensure that the refuges are truly protected is to eliminate immigration control. Such sphere of government policy as immigration regulation and control is a form of racism. The majority of her arguments have moral and political context. On the other hand, they can be a special source of studying social discussion of the issue of free borders and migration processes in Great Britain.

  5. The International Relations Committee of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, H; O'Sullivan, E

    2007-12-01

    The International Relations Committee of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland was established over 30 years ago to assist anaesthetists working in developing countries. The committee has attempted to make an impact through distribution of educational materials, supporting training courses and investing in a number of small equipment projects. In 2005, the Overseas Anaesthesia Fund was set up to allow members to donate directly to support our work.

  6. Fish, field, habitus and madness: the first wave mental health users movement in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, N

    1999-12-01

    This paper traces and explains the emergence of the mental health users movement in Great Britain, focusing specifically upon the formation of the Mental Patients Union in the early 1970s. The analysis presented in the paper draws, to some extent, from conventional movement theory. In addition, however, it draws from the work of Pierre Bourdieu. This represents an innovation in movement analysis and the necessity of this innovation is argued for in an early section of the paper.

  7. The Characteristics of the Systems of Continuing Pedagogical Education in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Nataliya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the systems of continuing pedagogical education in Great Britain, Canada and the USA have been characterized. The main objectives are defined as the theoretical analysis of scientific-pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; identification of the common and distinctive features of the systems of continuing pedagogical education in Great Britain, Canada, the USA. The legislative and normative framework of teachers’ CPD in Great Britain, Canada and the USA has been highlighted; the levels of the systems of continuing pedagogical education have been presented; the main functions of these systems have been determined; the key models, forms and methods of teachers’ CPD have been defined. Foreign and domestic scientists have studied the teachers’ CPD: teacher leadership (T. Bush, M. Clement, D. Jackson, D. Pavlou, R. Venderberghe, models, forms and methods of teachers’ CPD (L. Chance, A. Hollingsworth, D. Ross, E. Villegas-Reimers, non-formal teachers’ CPD (J. Scheerens. The research methodology comprises theoretical (logical, induction and deduction, comparison and compatibility, structural and systematic, analysis and synthesis and applied (observations, questioning and interviewing methods. The research results have been presented.

  8. Between resentment and aid: German and Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist refugees in Great Britain since 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is a historiographical exploration of the experiences that German and Austrian émigré psychiatrists and neurologists made in Great Britain since 1933, after the Nazi Governments in Central Europe had ousted them from their positions. When placing these occurrences in a wider historiographical perspective, the in-depth analysis provided here also describes the living and working conditions of the refugee neuroscientists on the British Isles. In particular, it looks at the very elements and issues that influenced the international forced migration of physicians and psychiatrists during the 1930s and 1940s. Only a fraction of refugee neuroscientists had however been admitted to Britain. Those lucky ones were assisted by a number of charitable, local, and academic organizations. This article investigates the rather lethargic attitude of the British government and medical circles towards German-speaking Jewish refugee neuroscientists who wished to escape Nazi Germany. It will also analyze the help that those refugees received from the academic establishment and British Jewish organizations, while likewise examining the level and extent of the relationship between social and scientific resentments in Great Britain. A special consideration will be given to the aid programs that had already began in the first year after the Nazis had seized power in Germany, with the foundation of the British Assistance Council by Sir William Henry Beveridge (1879-1963) in 1933.

  9. Entry to lone parenthood: an analysis of marital dissolution in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermisch, J F; Wright, R E

    1994-01-01

    "This paper examines some...socio-economic determinants of lone parenthood in Great Britain, in an attempt to understand further the reasons behind the rapid growth in lone parenthood. Since divorce and separation are the major 'causes' of lone parenthood, this paper focuses on the determinants of marital dissolution among women with dependent children. The empirical analysis is guided by hypotheses suggested by the 'economic theory of marriage'. Hazard regression equations are estimated with data collected in the 1980 Women and Employment Survey...." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA)

  10. The resilience of citizenship traditions: Civic integration in Germany, Great Britain and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Per

    2013-01-01

    Many western European states are adopting integration and naturalization policies that focus on the practices, values and identities of citizenship. On this background, and given the combined crisis of multiculturalism and decline of old-school ethno-nationalism, it has been argued that national......, cultural–ideological distinctiveness matters less for what is traditionally the heartland of national sovereignty and identity. A comparison of three citizenship/integration trajectories – Germany, Great Britain and Denmark – suggests that the thesis of liberal convergence must be qualified. Although...

  11. Post-Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplow, J.S.; Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology and Hydrology,

    2015-07-01

    The data set ''Post Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain'' was developed to enable data collected by the Natural Environment Research Council after the Chernobyl accident to be made publicly available. Data for samples collected between May 1986 (immediately after Chernobyl) to spring 1997 are presented. Additional data to radiocaesium concentrations are presented where available. The data have value in trying to assess the contribution of new sources of radiocaesium in the environment, providing baseline data for future planned releases and to aid the development and testing of models.

  12. Urban-rural mental health differences in Great Britain: findings from the National Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paykel, E; Abbott, R; Jenkins, R; Brugha, T; Meltzer, H

    2003-01-01

    Studies of urban-rural differences in prevalence of non-psychotic mental disorder have not given consistent findings. Such differences have received relatively little study in Great Britain. Data from 9777 subjects in the Household Survey of the National Morbidity Survey of Great Britain were analysed for differences between urban, semi-rural, and rural areas. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed by scores on the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), together with alcohol dependence, drug dependence, and receipt of treatment from general practitioners. Associations with other characteristics were examined by logistic regression. Urban subjects had higher rates than rural of CIS-R morbidity, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence, with semi-rural subjects intermediate. Urban subjects also tended to be members of more deprived social groups, with more adverse living circumstances and greater life stress--factors themselves associated with disorder. Urban-rural differences in alcohol and drug dependence were no longer significant after adjustment for these factors by logistic regression, and differences on CIS-R morbidity were considerably reduced. There were no differences in treatment. There are considerable British urban-rural differences in mental health, which may largely be attributable to more adverse urban social environments.

  13. Fasciola hepatica from naturally infected sheep and cattle in Great Britain are diploid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, N J; Cwiklinski, K; Williams, D J L; Hodgkinson, J

    2015-08-01

    Diploid (2n = 2x = 20) and triploid (2n = 3x = 30) Fasciola hepatica have been reported in the UK, and in Asia diploid, triploid and mixoploid (2x/3x) Fasciola spp. exist but there is little information to indicate how common triploidy is, particularly in UK fluke. Here the ploidy of 565 adult F. hepatica from 66 naturally infected British sheep and 150 adult F. hepatica from 35 naturally infected British cattle was determined. All 715 of these parasites were diploid, based on observation of 10 bivalent chromosomes and sperm (n = 335) or, since triploids are aspermic, sperm alone (n = 380). This constitutes the first extensive analysis of the ploidy of F. hepatica field isolates from Great Britain and shows that most F. hepatica isolated from cattle and sheep are diploid and have the capacity to sexually reproduce. These data suggest that triploidy, and by extension parthenogenesis, is rare or non-existent in wild British F. hepatica populations. Given that F. hepatica is the only species of Fasciola present in Britain our results indicate that the parasite is predominantly diploid in areas where F. hepatica exists in isolation and suggests that triploidy may only originate in natural populations where co-infection of F. hepatica and its sister species Fasciola gigantica commonly occurs.

  14. Injuries in amateur horse racing (point to point racing) in Great Britain and Ireland during 1993–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balendra, Ganesh; Turner, Michael; McCrory, Paul; Halley, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To provide a breakdown of injury incidence from amateur jump racing (also known as point to point racing) in Great Britain and Ireland during 1993–2006 and to compare the injury epidemiology with professional horse racing in Great Britain, Ireland and France. Design Retrospective review. Setting Great Britain and Ireland. Participants Amateur jockeys. Main outcome measures Injury rates. Results Injury data suggest that point to point racing is more dangerous from an injury point of view than professional jump racing, which has previously been shown to be more dangerous than flat racing. Amateur jockeys have more falls than their professional counterparts, and this in turn puts them at greater risk of sustaining more serious injuries. Conclusions Amateur (point to point) jockeys represent a sporting population that previously has been little studied. They represent a group at high risk of injury, and hence formal injury surveillance tracking and counter measures for injury prevention are recommended. PMID:17138629

  15. Injuries in amateur horse racing (point to point racing) in Great Britain and Ireland during 1993-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balendra, Ganesh; Turner, Michael; McCrory, Paul; Halley, Walter

    2007-03-01

    To provide a breakdown of injury incidence from amateur jump racing (also known as point to point racing) in Great Britain and Ireland during 1993-2006 and to compare the injury epidemiology with professional horse racing in Great Britain, Ireland and France. Retrospective review. Great Britain and Ireland. Amateur jockeys. Injury rates. Injury data suggest that point to point racing is more dangerous from an injury point of view than professional jump racing, which has previously been shown to be more dangerous than flat racing. Amateur jockeys have more falls than their professional counterparts, and this in turn puts them at greater risk of sustaining more serious injuries. Amateur (point to point) jockeys represent a sporting population that previously has been little studied. They represent a group at high risk of injury, and hence formal injury surveillance tracking and counter measures for injury prevention are recommended.

  16. The National Landslide Database of Great Britain: Acquisition, communication and the role of social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Catherine; Freeborough, Katy; Dashwood, Claire; Dijkstra, Tom; Lawrie, Kenneth

    2015-11-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) is the national geological agency for Great Britain that provides geoscientific information to government, other institutions and the public. The National Landslide Database has been developed by the BGS and is the focus for national geohazard research for landslides in Great Britain. The history and structure of the geospatial database and associated Geographical Information System (GIS) are explained, along with the future developments of the database and its applications. The database is the most extensive source of information on landslides in Great Britain with over 17,000 records of landslide events to date, each documented as fully as possible for inland, coastal and artificial slopes. Data are gathered through a range of procedures, including: incorporation of other databases; automated trawling of current and historical scientific literature and media reports; new field- and desk-based mapping technologies with digital data capture, and using citizen science through social media and other online resources. This information is invaluable for directing the investigation, prevention and mitigation of areas of unstable ground in accordance with Government planning policy guidelines. The national landslide susceptibility map (GeoSure) and a national landslide domains map currently under development, as well as regional mapping campaigns, rely heavily on the information contained within the landslide database. Assessing susceptibility to landsliding requires knowledge of the distribution of failures, an understanding of causative factors, their spatial distribution and likely impacts, whilst understanding the frequency and types of landsliding present is integral to modelling how rainfall will influence the stability of a region. Communication of landslide data through the Natural Hazard Partnership (NHP) and Hazard Impact Model contributes to national hazard mitigation and disaster risk reduction with respect to weather and

  17. Flood frequency estimation by national-scale continuous hydrological simulations: an application in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Stewart, Elizabeth; Bell, Victoria; Reynard, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Estimation of peak discharge for an assigned return period is a crucial issue in engineering hydrology. It is required for designing and managing hydraulic infrastructure such as dams, reservoirs and bridges. In the UK, the Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH) recommends the use of the index flood method to estimate the design flood as the product of a local scale factor (the index flood, IF) and a dimensionless regional growth factor (GF). For gauged catchments the IF is usually estimated as the median annual maximum flood (QMED), while for ungauged catchments it is computed through multiple linear regression models based on a set of morpho-climatic indices of the basin. The GF is estimated by fitting the annual maxima with the generalised logistic distribution (GL) using two methods depending on the record length and the target return period: single-site or pooled analysis. The single site-analysis estimates the GF from the annual maxima of the subject site alone; the pooled analysis uses data from a set of catchments hydrologically similar to the subject site. In this work estimates of floods up to 100-year return period obtained from the FEH approach are compared to those obtained using Grid-to-Grid, a continuous physically-based hydrological model. The model converts rainfall and potential evapotranspiration into river flows by modelling surface/sub-surface runoff, lateral water movements, and snow-pack. It is configured on a 1km2 grid resolution and it uses spatial datasets of topography, soil, and land cover. It was set up in Great Britain and has been evaluated for the period 1960-2014 in forward-mode (i.e. without parameter calibration) using daily meteorological forcing data. The modelled floods with a given return period (5,10, 30, 50, and 100 years) were computed from the modelled discharge annual maxima and compared to the FEH estimates for 100 catchments in Great Britain. Preliminary results suggest that there is a good agreement between modelled and

  18. Transmission parameters of the 2001 foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Chis Ster

    Full Text Available Despite intensive ongoing research, key aspects of the spatial-temporal evolution of the 2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD epidemic in Great Britain (GB remain unexplained. Here we develop a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method for estimating epidemiological parameters of the 2001 outbreak for a range of simple transmission models. We make the simplifying assumption that infectious farms were completely observed in 2001, equivalent to assuming that farms that were proactively culled but not diagnosed with FMD were not infectious, even if some were infected. We estimate how transmission parameters varied through time, highlighting the impact of the control measures on the progression of the epidemic. We demonstrate statistically significant evidence for assortative contact patterns between animals of the same species. Predictive risk maps of the transmission potential in different geographic areas of GB are presented for the fitted models.

  19. Diseases of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris Schreber, 1777) in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOrist, S

    1992-12-01

    The author describes an examination conducted in collaboration with the Nature Conservancy Council of Great Britain into the status with regard to disease, conservation and genetics of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris). Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) infection was detected by positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in blood from 2 of 23 wildcats and was tested and confirmed by FeLV isolation in one of the two cats. This is the first time the virus has been clearly demonstrated in a free-living felid, other than the domestic cat. Toxoplasmosis was detected in all cats tested, but neither feline coronavirus nor feline immunodeficiency virus was detected in any sample. The genetic analysis indicated that only 8 of 42 wildcats tested were genetically distinct. These were mainly located in the western highlands of Scotland where "relict" populations may have survived. Interbreeding with domestic cats and persecution by trapping and hunting represent major threats to the survival of the European wildcat.

  20. Forms and Methods of Chinese Students Attracting to Study in the USA and the Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Belchenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers Chinese policy of sending students to study in the US and the Great Britain. Chinese government and its educational system, exchange and cooperation with European countries and the US has made steady and smooth progress with expanding scale, diversifying forms, enriching content and improving quality. Chinese students, studying in the US, provide China's modernization, develop exchange and cooperation between the Chinese educational community and other parts of the world, promote education, culture, science and technology, and strengthen understanding and friendship among people. This policy provides valuable opportunities for young people from China and the United States to build ties for better understanding, so as to enhance friendship between the two nations.

  1. The ITE Land classification: Providing an environmental stratification of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, R G; Barr, C J; Gillespie, M K; Howard, D C

    1996-01-01

    The surface of Great Britain (GB) varies continuously in land cover from one area to another. The objective of any environmentally based land classification is to produce classes that match the patterns that are present by helping to define clear boundaries. The more appropriate the analysis and data used, the better the classes will fit the natural patterns. The observation of inter-correlations between ecological factors is the basis for interpreting ecological patterns in the field, and the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (ITE) Land Classification formalises such subjective ideas. The data inevitably comprise a large number of factors in order to describe the environment adequately. Single factors, such as altitude, would only be useful on a national basis if they were the only dominant causative agent of ecological variation.The ITE Land Classification has defined 32 environmental categories called 'land classes', initially based on a sample of 1-km squares in Great Britain but subsequently extended to all 240 000 1-km squares. The original classification was produced using multivariate analysis of 75 environmental variables. The extension to all squares in GB was performed using a combination of logistic discrimination and discriminant functions. The classes have provided a stratification for successive ecological surveys, the results of which have characterised the classes in terms of botanical, zoological and landscape features.The classification has also been applied to integrate diverse datasets including satellite imagery, soils and socio-economic information. A variety of models have used the structure of the classification, for example to show potential land use change under different economic conditions. The principal data sets relevant for planning purposes have been incorporated into a user-friendly computer package, called the 'Countryside Information System'.

  2. Patterns and trends of beverage consumption among children and adults in Great Britain, 1986-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Wen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jebb, Susan A; Popkin, Barry M

    2012-08-01

    Many dietary recommendations include reduction of excessive intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and other energy-rich beverages such as juices and alcohol. The present study examines surveys of both individual dietary intake data and household food expenditure surveys to provide a picture of patterns and trends in beverage intake and purchases in Great Britain from 1986 to 2009, and estimates the potential for pricing policy to promote more healthful beverage purchase patterns. In 2008-9, beverages accounted for 21, 14 and 18 % of daily energy intake for children aged 1·5-18 and 4-18 years, and adults (19-64 years), respectively. Since the 1990s, the most important shifts have been a reduction in consumption of high-fat dairy products and an increased consumption of fruit juices and reduced-fat milk among preschoolers, children and adolescents. Among adults, consumption of high-fat milk beverages, sweetened tea and coffee and other energy-containing drinks fell, but reduced-fat milk, alcohol (particularly beer) and fruit juice rose. In testing taxation as an option for shifting beverage purchase patterns, we calculate that a 10 % increase in the price of SSB could potentially result in a decrease of 7·5 ml/capita per d. A similar 10 % tax on high-fat milk is associated with a reduction of high-fat milk purchases by 5 ml/capita per d and increased reduced-fat milk purchase by 7 ml/capita per d. This analysis implies that taxation or other methods of shifting relative costs of these beverages could be a way to improve beverage choices in Great Britain.

  3. Perinatal and infant mortality and low birth weight among residents near cokeworks in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolk, H.; Pattenden, S.; Vrijheid, M.; Thakrar, B.; Armstrong, B.

    2000-02-01

    With growing evidence of the adverse health effects of air pollution--especially fine particulates--investigators must concentrate on the fetus, neonate, and infant as potentially vulnerable groups. Cokeworks are a major source of smoke and sulfur dioxide. In the current study, the authors investigated whether populations residing near cokeworks had a higher risk of adverse perinatal and infant outcomes. Zones of 7.5-km radius around 22 cokeworks in Great Britain were studied, within which the authors assumed that exposure declined from highest levels within 2 km to background levels. Routinely recorded birth and death data for Great Britain during the period 1981--1992 were analyzed. Each individual record had a postcode that referred to a small geographical area of typically 15--17 addresses. The authors calculated expected numbers on the basis of regional rates, stratified by year, sex, and a small-area socio-economic deprivation score. For all cokeworks combined, the observed/expected ratio within 2 km of cokeworks was 1.00 for low-birth-weight infants; 0.94 for still births; 0.95 for infant mortality; 0.86 for neonatal mortality; 1.10 for postneonatal mortality; 0.79 for respiratory postneonatal mortality; and 1.07 for postneonatal Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Respiratory postneonatal mortality was low throughout the entire 0--7.5-km study area. There was no statistically significant decline in risk with distance from cokeworks for any of the outcomes studied. The authors concluded that there was no evidence of an increased risk of low birth weight, stillbirths, and/or neonatal mortality near cokeworks, and there was no strong evidence for any association between residence near cokeworks and postneonatal mortality. One must remember, however, the limited statistical power of the study to detect small risks.

  4. The National Landslide Database and GIS for Great Britain: construction, development, data acquisition, application and communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Catherine; Dashwood, Claire; Freeborough, Katy

    2014-05-01

    The National Landslide Database has been developed by the British Geological Survey (BGS) and is the focus for national geohazard research for landslides in Great Britain. The history and structure of the geospatial database and associated Geographical Information System (GIS) are explained, along with the future developments of the database and its applications. The database is the most extensive source of information on landslides in Great Britain with over 16,500 records of landslide events, each documented as fully as possible. Data are gathered through a range of procedures, including: incorporation of other databases; automated trawling of current and historical scientific literature and media reports; new field- and desk-based mapping technologies with digital data capture, and crowd-sourcing information through social media and other online resources. This information is invaluable for the investigation, prevention and mitigation of areas of unstable ground in accordance with Government planning policy guidelines. The national landslide susceptibility map (GeoSure) and a national landslide domain map currently under development rely heavily on the information contained within the landslide database. Assessing susceptibility to landsliding requires knowledge of the distribution of failures and an understanding of causative factors and their spatial distribution, whilst understanding the frequency and types of landsliding present is integral to modelling how rainfall will influence the stability of a region. Communication of landslide data through the Natural Hazard Partnership (NHP) contributes to national hazard mitigation and disaster risk reduction with respect to weather and climate. Daily reports of landslide potential are published by BGS through the NHP and data collected for the National Landslide Database is used widely for the creation of these assessments. The National Landslide Database is freely available via an online GIS and is used by a

  5. "Against Fascism, War and Economies": The Communist Party of Great Britain's Schoolteachers during the Popular Front, 1935-1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The Popular Front line made the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) a more hospitable place for "brain workers." The emphasis the line placed on mass ideological and cultural struggle against fascism meant that they became important allies to be won for the working class. As the principal transmitters of ideology and culture to the…

  6. "Against Fascism, War and Economies": The Communist Party of Great Britain's Schoolteachers during the Popular Front, 1935-1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The Popular Front line made the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) a more hospitable place for "brain workers." The emphasis the line placed on mass ideological and cultural struggle against fascism meant that they became important allies to be won for the working class. As the principal transmitters of ideology and culture to the…

  7. Factors in the Development of School Libraries in Great Britain and the United States: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Rebecca

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of school library development in Great Britain and the United States and discusses five factors that have facilitated or retarded school library development in each country: standards, staffing and certification, government support, rationale for school libraries, and professional organizations. (Author/LRW)

  8. Genetic composition of cultured and wild mussels Mytilus from The Netherlands and transfers from Ireland and Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijewski, T.; Wijsman, J.W.M.; Hummel, H.; Wenne, R.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic composition of wild and cultured mussel populations from the Oosterschelde, The Netherlands, is compared to representative samples of mussel shipments from culture sites in Ireland and Great Britain. A total of 2272 mussels from 27 samples were assayed for the nuclear DNA markers Me 1511

  9. A method to add richness to the National Landslide Database of Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Faith; Freeborough, Katy; Malamud, Bruce; Demeritt, David

    2014-05-01

    Landslides in Great Britain (GB) pose a risk to infrastructure, property and livelihoods. Our understanding of where landslide hazard and impact will be greatest is based on our knowledge of past events. Here, we present a method to supplement existing records of landslides in GB by searching electronic archives of local and regional newspapers. In Great Britain, the British Geological Survey (BGS) are responsible for updating and maintaining records of GB landslide events and their impacts in the National Landslide Database (NLD). The NLD contains records of approximately 16,500 landslide events in Great Britain. Data sources for the NLD include field surveys, academic articles, grey literature, news, public reports and, since 2012, social media. Here we aim to supplement the richness of the NLD by (i) identifying additional landslide events and (ii) adding more detail to existing database entries. This is done by systematically searching the LexisNexis digital archive of 568 local and regional newspapers published in the UK. The first step in the methodology was to construct Boolean search criteria that optimised the balance between minimising the number of irrelevant articles (e.g. "a landslide victory") and maximising those referring to landslide events. This keyword search was then applied to the LexisNexis archive of newspapers for all articles published between 1 January and 31 December 2012, resulting in 1,668 articles. These articles were assessed to determine whether they related to a landslide event. Of the 1,668 articles, approximately 30% (~700) referred to landslide events, with others referring to landslides more generally or themes unrelated to landslides. Examples of information obtained from newspaper articles included: date/time of landslide occurrence, spatial location, size, impact, landslide type and triggering mechanism, although the amount of detail and precision attainable from individual articles was variable. Of the 700 articles found for

  10. Abu Dhabi-Great Britain and the crisis over jurisdiction 1959-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Velez

    2011-06-01

    Abu Dhabi and Great Britain.Keywords: Abu Dhabi, Great Britain, colonialism.

  11. The social value of carbon sequestered in Great Britain's woodlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, Julii; Bateman, Ian J.; Lovett, Andrew A. [Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    The economic value of carbon storage associated with British woodland is calculated. Models were developed to estimate C flux associated with live trees, forest floor litter, soils, wood products, harvest, fossil fuel used in manufacturing and C displacement from biofuels and products for representative British plantation species: Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and beech (Fagus sylvatica). Map databases of publicly and privately owned woodlands were compiled for Great Britain. Carbon flux was determined for individual woodland sites, and monetised using candidate parameters for the social discount rate (1, 3, 3.5 or 5%) and social value of carbon (USD109.5, USD1, USD10 or USD17.10/t). A conventional discount function was applied. Final results are expressed as Net Present Values, for the base year 2001, with discounting commencing in 2002. The minimum suggested NPV (discount rate = 3% and social value of carbon = USD1) of GB woodlands already existing in 2001 is USD82 million, with a further USD72 million that might be added by future afforestation. These figures rise dramatically if a discount rate of 1% and social value of sequestered carbon = USD109.5/t are assumed. The calculated total value of C stored in British woodland depends significantly on parameter assumptions, especially about appropriate discount rate and social value of sequestered carbon. (author)

  12. Recent acceleration in coastal cliff retreat rates on the south coast of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Martin D; Rood, Dylan H; Ellis, Michael A; Anderson, Robert S; Dornbusch, Uwe

    2016-11-22

    Rising sea levels and increased storminess are expected to accelerate the erosion of soft-cliff coastlines, threatening coastal infrastructure and livelihoods. To develop predictive models of future coastal change we need fundamentally to know how rapidly coasts have been eroding in the past, and to understand the driving mechanisms of coastal change. Direct observations of cliff retreat rarely extend beyond 150 y, during which humans have significantly modified the coastal system. Cliff retreat rates are unknown in prior centuries and millennia. In this study, we derived retreat rates of chalk cliffs on the south coast of Great Britain over millennial time scales by coupling high-precision cosmogenic radionuclide geochronology and rigorous numerical modeling. Measured (10)Be concentrations on rocky coastal platforms were compared with simulations of coastal evolution using a Monte Carlo approach to determine the most likely history of cliff retreat. The (10)Be concentrations are consistent with retreat rates of chalk cliffs that were relatively slow (2-6 cm⋅y(-1)) until a few hundred years ago. Historical observations reveal that retreat rates have subsequently accelerated by an order of magnitude (22-32 cm⋅y(-1)). We suggest that acceleration is the result of thinning of cliff-front beaches, exacerbated by regional storminess and anthropogenic modification of the coast.

  13. The effectiveness of antilock braking systems in reducing accidents in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Jeremy; Baughan, Chris

    2002-05-01

    Antilock braking systems (ABS) are fitted to many new cars with the aims of improving their ability to steer while braking heavily and of reducing stopping distances on some road surfaces. This paper presents the findings of a project that assessed the effectiveness of ABS in reducing accidents in Great Britain. A large postal survey was carried out of the owners of modern cars. asking for details of any accidents in which they had been involved during the previous year as well as factors that might influence their likelihood of being involved in an accident. Questions were also asked to test respondents' knowledge of ABS. ABS cars ditfered in several respects from non-ABS cars, as did the two groups of drivers. Consequently, a sophisticated statistical analysis was required to provide unbiased estimates of the effectiveness of ABS. Various results did not achieve statistical significance, but the overall stability of the results indicates that real effects have been measured. They confirm that ABS does have the potential to reduce the number of accidents, but show that this has not been fully achieved. One reason may be that many drivers have little or no knowledge of ABS.

  14. The impact of reducing car weight on global emissions: the future fleet in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrenho, André Cabrera; Norman, Jonathan B.; Allwood, Julian M.

    2017-05-01

    Current European policies define targets for future direct emissions of new car sales that foster a fast transition to electric drivetrain technologies. However, these targets do not consider the emissions produced in electricity generation and material production, and therefore fail to incentivise car manufacturers to consider the benefits of vehicle weight reduction. In this paper, we examine the potential benefits of limiting the average weight and altering the material composition of new cars in terms of global greenhouse gas emissions produced during the use phase, electricity generation and material production. We anticipate the emissions savings for the future car fleet in Great Britain until 2050 for various alternative futures, using a dynamic material flow analysis of ferrous metals and aluminium, and considering an evolving demand for car use. The results suggest that fostering vehicle weight reduction could produce greater cumulative emissions savings by 2050 than those obtained by incentivising a fast transition to electric drivetrains, unless there is an extreme decarbonization of the electricity grid. Savings promoted by weight reduction are immediate and do not depend on the pace of decarbonization of the electricity grid. Weight reduction may produce the greatest savings when mild steel in the car body is replaced with high-strength steel. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  15. WIND TURBINES CAUSE CHRONIC STRESS IN BADGERS (MELES MELES) IN GREAT BRITAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Roseanna C N; Smith, Valerie J; Fowkes, Robert C

    2016-07-01

    A paucity of data exists with which to assess the effects of wind turbines noise on terrestrial wildlife, despite growing concern about the impact of infrasound from wind farms on human health and well-being. In 2013, we assessed whether the presence of turbines in Great Britain impacted the stress levels of badgers ( Meles meles ) in nearby setts. Hair cortisol levels were used to determine if the badgers were physiologically stressed. Hair of badgers living wind farm had a 264% higher cortisol level than badgers >10 km from a wind farm. This demonstrates that affected badgers suffer from enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity and are physiologically stressed. No differences were found between the cortisol levels of badgers living near wind farms operational since 2009 and 2012, indicating that the animals do not become habituated to turbine disturbance. Cortisol levels in the affected badgers did not vary in relation to the distance from turbines within 1 km, wind farm annual power output, or number of turbines. We suggest that the higher cortisol levels in affected badgers is caused by the turbines' sound and that these high levels may affect badgers' immune systems, which could result in increased risk of infection and disease in the badger population.

  16. Recent acceleration in coastal cliff retreat rates on the south coast of Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Martin D.; Rood, Dylan H.; Ellis, Michael A.; Anderson, Robert S.; Dornbusch, Uwe

    2016-11-01

    Rising sea levels and increased storminess are expected to accelerate the erosion of soft-cliff coastlines, threatening coastal infrastructure and livelihoods. To develop predictive models of future coastal change we need fundamentally to know how rapidly coasts have been eroding in the past, and to understand the driving mechanisms of coastal change. Direct observations of cliff retreat rarely extend beyond 150 y, during which humans have significantly modified the coastal system. Cliff retreat rates are unknown in prior centuries and millennia. In this study, we derived retreat rates of chalk cliffs on the south coast of Great Britain over millennial time scales by coupling high-precision cosmogenic radionuclide geochronology and rigorous numerical modeling. Measured 10Be concentrations on rocky coastal platforms were compared with simulations of coastal evolution using a Monte Carlo approach to determine the most likely history of cliff retreat. The 10Be concentrations are consistent with retreat rates of chalk cliffs that were relatively slow (2-6 cmṡy-1) until a few hundred years ago. Historical observations reveal that retreat rates have subsequently accelerated by an order of magnitude (22-32 cmṡy-1). We suggest that acceleration is the result of thinning of cliff-front beaches, exacerbated by regional storminess and anthropogenic modification of the coast.

  17. Fatal accidents at railway level crossings in Great Britain 1946-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew W

    2011-09-01

    This paper investigates fatal accidents and fatalities at level crossings in Great Britain over the 64-year period 1946-2009. The numbers of fatal accidents and fatalities per year fell by about 65% in the first half of that period, but since then have remained more or less constant at about 11 fatal accidents and 12 fatalities per year. At the same time other types of railway fatalities have fallen, so level crossings represent a growing proportion of the total. Nevertheless, Britain's level crossing safety performance remains good by international standards. The paper classifies level crossings into three types: railway-controlled, automatic, and passive. The safety performance of the three types of crossings has been very different. Railway-controlled crossings are the best-performing crossing type, with falling fatal accident rates. Automatic crossings have higher accident rates per crossing than railway controlled or passive crossings, and the accident rates have not decreased. Passive crossings are by far the most numerous, but many have low usage by road users. Their fatal accident rate has remained remarkably constant over the whole period at about 0.9 fatal accidents per 1000 crossings per year. A principal reason why fatal accidents and fatalities have not fallen in the second half of the period as they did in the first half is the increase in the number of automatic crossings, replacing the safer railway controlled crossings on some public roads. However, it does not follow that this replacement was a mistake, because automatic crossings have advantages over controlled crossings in reducing delays to road users and in not needing staff. Based on the trends for each type of crossing and for pedestrian and non-pedestrian accidents separately, in 2009 a mean of about 5% of fatal accidents were at railway controlled crossings, 52% were at automatic crossings, and 43% were at passive crossings. Fatalities had similar proportions. About 60% of fatalities were

  18. The Production of National Scale Models for Natural Geohazards in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royse, Katherine

    2010-05-01

    Although Great Britain (GB), is untroubled by large-magnitude earthquakes or tsunamis, there is a growing financial and health threat from geohazards affecting both people and property (principally from flooding, shrink-swell clays, landslides, coastal erosion, radon and soluble rocks). This is both in terms of direct costs for remediation and indirectly from higher insurance premiums. For example, the Association of British Insurers reported that the 2007 summer floods cost Britain approximately £3billion; a figure which is predicted to triple every decade due to the increasing value of assets and potential increase in flood occurrence due to environmental change. Remediation from damage caused by shrink-swell clays alone is estimated to cost the insurance industry an average of over £300 million per year an amount that will inevitably increase given current predictions for future climate it is therefore essential that we are able to quantify and strategically assess the occurrence of geohazards in GB as a whole. This will enable us to understand their relationship to critical infrastructure (hospitals, utilities and major transportation routes), industry and major urban centres and provide an understanding of the environmental impacts that an increase in any one of these geohazards might have on, the lives of the British people, for example, flooding and associated landslides can affect the mobilisation of confined contaminants and subsequently the character and use of available land in the future. Since 2002 the British Geological Survey (BGS) has been developing national-scale models of natural geohazards in GB for just this purpose. These include, to date, landslides, shrink-swell, soluble rocks, compressible and collapsible deposits, groundwater flooding, geological indicators of flooding, radon potential, potentially harmful elements in soil, and mining hazards. The models have been created using a combination of expert knowledge (from both within BGS and

  19. Long-term vegetation monitoring in Great Britain - the Countryside Survey 1978-2007 and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claire M.; Smart, Simon M.; Bunce, Robert G. H.; Norton, Lisa R.; Maskell, Lindsay C.; Howard, David C.; Scott, W. Andrew; Henrys, Peter A.

    2017-07-01

    The Countryside Survey (CS) of Great Britain provides a globally unique series of datasets, consisting of an extensive set of repeated ecological measurements at a national scale, covering a time span of 29 years. CS was first undertaken in 1978 to monitor ecological and land use change in Britain using standardised procedures for recording ecological data from representative 1 km squares throughout the country. The same sites, with some additional squares, were used for subsequent surveys of vegetation undertaken in 1990, 1998 and 2007, with the intention of future surveys. Other data records include soils, freshwater habitats and invertebrates, and land cover and landscape feature diversity and extents. These data have been recorded in the same locations on analogous dates. However, the present paper describes only the details of the vegetation surveys. The survey design is a series of gridded, stratified, randomly selected 1 km squares taken as representative of classes derived from a statistical environmental classification of Britain. In the 1978 survey, 256 one-kilometre sample squares were recorded, increasing to 506 in 1990, 569 in 1998 and 591 in 2007. Initially each square contained up to 11 dispersed vegetation plots but additional plots were later placed in different features so that eventually up to 36 additional sampling plots were recorded, all of which can be relocated where possible (unless the plot has been lost, for example as a consequence of building work), providing a total of 16 992 plots by 2007. Plots are estimated to have a precise relocation accuracy of 85 %. A range of plots located in different land cover types and landscape features (for example, field boundaries) are included. Although a range of analyses have already been carried out, with changes in the vegetation being related to a range of drivers at local and national scales, there is major potential for further analyses, for example in relation to climate change. Although the

  20. Landscape as the Locus for Artistic Transfers Between Ireland, Northern Ireland and Great Britain (1968 - Present Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Gould

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This conference was the result of an observation: the violent events that occurred between the end of the 1960s and the Good Friday Agreement in 1998 have often been a focal point in the artistic practices in Ireland, Northern Ireland and Great Britain. The study of Irish art has privileged work based on the political situation in Northern Ireland during and after the Troubles. Recently, the Holden Gallery at Manchester Metropolitan University presented the exhibition Archiving Place and Time...

  1. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni isolates associated with sheep abortion in the United States and Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zuowei; Sippy, Rachel; Sahin, Orhan; Plummer, Paul; Vidal, Ana; Newell, Diane; Zhang, Qijing

    2014-06-01

    Campylobacter infection is a leading cause of ovine abortion worldwide. Historically, genetically diverse Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter jejuni strains have been implicated in such infections, but since 2003 a highly pathogenic, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (named SA) has become the predominant cause of sheep abortions in the United States. Whether clone SA was present in earlier U.S. abortion isolates (before 2000) and is associated with sheep abortions outside the United States are unknown. Here, we analyzed 54 C. jejuni isolates collected from U.S. sheep abortions at different time periods and compared them with 42 C. jejuni isolates associated with sheep abortion during 2002 to 2008 in Great Britain, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Although clone SA (ST-8) was present in the early U.S. isolates, it was not as tetracycline resistant (19% versus 100%) or predominant (66% versus 91%) as it was in the late U.S isolates. In contrast, C. jejuni isolates from Great Britain were genetically diverse, comprising 19 STs and lacking ST-8. PFGE and CGH analyses of representative strains further confirmed the population structure of the abortion isolates. Notably, the Great Britain isolates were essentially susceptible to most tested antibiotics, including tetracycline, while the late U.S. isolates were universally resistant to this antibiotic, which could be explained by the common use of tetracyclines for control of sheep abortions in the United States but not in Great Britain. These results suggest that the dominance of clone SA in sheep abortions is unique to the United States, and the use of tetracyclines may have facilitated selection of this highly pathogenic clone.

  2. The Paranormal is (Still) Normal: The Sociological Implications of a Survey of Paranormal Experiences in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, MA; Burrows, R.; Wooffitt, R

    2014-01-01

    Historically, there has been limited sociological interest in the paranormal and no systematic study of reported paranormal experiences. There are also few medium-to-large-scale survey results with nationally representative populations focusing on paranormal experiences. This paper provides details of an exploratory survey conducted in 2009 with a nationally representative sample of 4,096 adults aged 16 years and over across Great Britain . Our findings show that 37 per cent of British adults...

  3. HERBERT HOOVER, GREAT BRITAIN, AND THE RUBBER CRISIS, 1923-1926

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano A. Wueschner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the controversy arising out of Great Britain’s decision to implement the Stevenson plan. It examines, in particular, the role played by Herbert Hoover, both behind the scenes and in an effort to affect the repeal of the Stevenson scheme and at the same time to encourage and support the development of new sources of rubber under the control of American producers. During the period 1920-1922 rubber producing countries were confronted by the specter of overproduction. The existence of even a short term oversupply coupled with the business slump, a reaction from the war, led to a decline in the price of rubber. British producers succeeded in inducing the British Colonial authorities to support a scheme whereby rubber exports would be regulated in order to bring about an increase in the price of rubber. This plan, developed by the Stevenson Committee, called for a small minimum tax on all exports. Moreover, it soughtto limit production by establishing a quota based on the actual production of rubber during the 1919-1920 growing season. A progressive tax was applied to exports beyond standard production. American reaction to the scheme was varied. Secretary of Commerce Hoover, while publicly stating that the price of rubber had been low and was supportive of efforts to regulate production, behind the scenes showed a great deal of concern about the actions of the British government in regulating a commodity of which the United States was the single largest consumer. He was also linked, by some, to the idea that Great Britain sought to pay its war debt to the United States through the application of this tax. Much was made in American newspapers and the British press about Hoover’s criticism of British rubber restrictions. He was not opposed to regulating the supply of rubber, but only to the involvement of a government in the process, especially when it affected American producers and consumers. In response he proposed a scheme

  4. Angiostrongylus vasorum and Eucoleus aerophilus in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, E R; Tomlinson, A; Hunter, S; Nichols, T; Roberts, E; Fox, M T; Taylor, M A

    2008-06-14

    The nematode parasite Angiostrongylus vasorum is a source of increasing concern in several parts of the world, where it causes significant disease in dogs. Wild canids, especially foxes, are likely to have a role in the epidemiology of canine infection, and the parasite could also affect fox health and population dynamics. The heart and pulmonary vasculature of 546 foxes culled mostly by gamekeepers in Great Britain in 2005-2006 were examined by dissection and a modified flushing technique. Forty foxes were found to be infected, giving an overall prevalence in the UK fox population of 7.3% (5.3-9.9). Prevalence varied widely between regions, from 0% (0-3) in Scotland and northern England to 23% (16-32) in south-east England. This closely matches the perceived incidence of disease in dogs, which is commonly diagnosed in the south-east but rarely in the north. In the Midlands, where disease has recently appeared in dogs, prevalence in foxes was 4.8% (2-11). Close geographical overlap of parasite distribution in foxes and dogs does not necessarily indicate an important wildlife reservoir of infection, but does suggest that A. vasorum might be spreading northwards. The hearts of infected foxes had thicker right ventricles than those of uninfected foxes, suggesting that the parasite could affect fox health and fitness. Burdens ranged from 1 to 59 adult nematodes. Sex, age and body condition were not significantly associated with infection. Eucoleus aerophilus and Crenosoma vulpis, nematode parasites of the respiratory system, were found in 213 and 11 foxes respectively, with slightly higher prevalence of E. aerophilus in the south and east. No specimens of the heartworm Dirofilaria immitis were found, giving an upper 95% confidence interval for prevalence of 0.84%.

  5. Species distribution models for crop pollination: a modelling framework applied to Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polce, Chiara; Termansen, Mette; Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesus; Boatman, Nigel D; Budge, Giles E; Crowe, Andrew; Garratt, Michael P; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Potts, Simon G; Ramirez, Jorge A; Somerwill, Kate E; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C

    2013-01-01

    Insect pollination benefits over three quarters of the world's major crops. There is growing concern that observed declines in pollinators may impact on production and revenues from animal pollinated crops. Knowing the distribution of pollinators is therefore crucial for estimating their availability to pollinate crops; however, in general, we have an incomplete knowledge of where these pollinators occur. We propose a method to predict geographical patterns of pollination service to crops, novel in two elements: the use of pollinator records rather than expert knowledge to predict pollinator occurrence, and the inclusion of the managed pollinator supply. We integrated a maximum entropy species distribution model (SDM) with an existing pollination service model (PSM) to derive the availability of pollinators for crop pollination. We used nation-wide records of wild and managed pollinators (honey bees) as well as agricultural data from Great Britain. We first calibrated the SDM on a representative sample of bee and hoverfly crop pollinator species, evaluating the effects of different settings on model performance and on its capacity to identify the most important predictors. The importance of the different predictors was better resolved by SDM derived from simpler functions, with consistent results for bees and hoverflies. We then used the species distributions from the calibrated model to predict pollination service of wild and managed pollinators, using field beans as a test case. The PSM allowed us to spatially characterize the contribution of wild and managed pollinators and also identify areas potentially vulnerable to low pollination service provision, which can help direct local scale interventions. This approach can be extended to investigate geographical mismatches between crop pollination demand and the availability of pollinators, resulting from environmental change or policy scenarios.

  6. Neuroanatomical distribution of abnormal prion protein in naturally occurring atypical scrapie cases in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah Jo; Simmons, Marion; Chaplin, Melanie; Spiropoulos, John

    2008-11-01

    Scrapie belongs to a group of diseases known as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases. Two different categories of naturally occurring scrapie have been identified: classical scrapie, which was first recorded around 1750, and atypical scrapie or 'Nor-98', which was first identified in Norway in 1998. The molecular characteristics of atypical scrapie have been well defined, but detailed descriptions of the neuropathological phenotype are rare since the majority of cases have been detected through active surveillance programmes where only brainstem and cerebellum are collected for statutory diagnosis. In order to characterise the neuropathology of naturally occurring atypical scrapie in sheep, we examined multiple brain levels from 15 whole brains from field cases of atypical scrapie, both clinical suspects and fallen stock, collected in Great Britain between 2004 and 2006. We found that the distribution of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) and vacuolation in atypical scrapie cases are very different to both classical scrapie and experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep. Immunolabelling for PrP(Sc) is mild and restricted at the obex and more intense and widespread rostrally, particularly in the cerebellum, substantia nigra, thalamus and basal nuclei. Intracellular immunolabelling types are not seen, but distinctive white matter immunolabelling is widespread. Vacuolation associated with PrP(Sc) deposits was not observed in the brainstem neuroanatomical areas commonly affected in classical scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, but was instead most prominent in the cerebellar cortex and neocortex. This is the largest comprehensive descriptive study of atypical scrapie pathology to date, and provides baseline data against which other natural or experimental cases can be compared. It also reinforces the current recommendation to collect cerebellum in addition to brainstem to enable confident confirmation of this

  7. Current Welfare Problems Facing Horses in Great Britain as Identified by Equine Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horseman, Susan V.; Buller, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concerns about the welfare of horses in Great Britain (GB) there has been little surveillance of the welfare status of the horse population. Consequently we have limited knowledge of the range of welfare problems experienced by horses in GB and the situations in which poor welfare occurs. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with a cross -section of equine stakeholders, in order to explore their perceptions of the welfare problems faced by horses in GB. Welfare problems relating to health, management and riding and training were identified, including horses being under or over weight, stabling 24 hours a day and the inappropriate use of training aids. The interviewees also discussed broader contexts in which they perceived that welfare was compromised. The most commonly discussed context was where horses are kept in unsuitable environments, for example environments with poor grazing. The racing industry and travellers horses were identified as areas of the industry where horse welfare was particularly vulnerable to compromise. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were perceived to be the root cause of poor welfare by many interviewees. The findings give insight into the range of welfare problems that may be faced by horses in GB, the contexts in which these may occur and their possible causes. Many of the problems identified by the interviewees have undergone limited scientific investigation pointing to areas where further research is likely to be necessary for welfare improvement. The large number of issues identified suggests that some form of prioritisation may be necessary to target research and resources effectively. PMID:27501387

  8. Risk factors for epistaxis in jump racing in Great Britain (2001-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Richard J M; Boden, Lisa A; Mellor, Dominic J; Love, Sandy; Newton, Richard J; Stirk, Anthony J; Parkin, Timothy D

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors associated with developing epistaxis in jump racing in Great Britain (GB). A retrospective analysis of records from horses running in all hurdle and steeplechase races in GB between 2001 and 2009 identified diagnoses of epistaxis whilst still at the racecourse. Data were used from 603 starts resulting in epistaxis (event) and 169,065 starts resulting in no epistaxis (non-event) in hurdle racing, and from 550 event starts and 102,344 non-event starts in steeplechase racing. Two multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate risk factors associated with epistaxis were produced. The potential effect of clustering of data (within horse, horse dam, horse sire, trainer, jockey, course, race and race meet) on the associations between risk factors and epistaxis was examined using mixed-effects models. Multiple factors associated with increased risk of epistaxis were identified. Those identified in both types of jump racing included running on firmer ground; horses with >75% of career starts in flat racing and a previous episode of epistaxis recorded during racing. Risk factors identified only in hurdle racing included racing in the spring and increased age at first race; and those identified only in steeplechase racing included running in a claiming race and more starts in the previous 3-6 months. The risk factors identified provide important information about the risk of developing epistaxis. Multiple avenues for further investigation are highlighted, including unmeasured variables at the level of the racecourse. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of interventions to minimise the risk of epistaxis in jump racing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Small-area analyses of bone cancer diagnosed in Great Britain provide clues to aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNally Richard J Q

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aetiology of bone cancers is poorly understood. This study examined geographical patterning in incidence of primary bone cancers diagnosed in 0–49 year olds in Great Britain during 1980–2005 to provide information on factors linked with disease development. We investigated putative associations with deprivation and population density. Methods Data on osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma were obtained from national population-based registries. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the relationship between incidence rates and the Townsend deprivation score (and its component variables and small-area population density. Results The study analyzed 2566 osteosarcoma and 1650 Ewing sarcoma cases. For females with osteosarcoma, statistically significant decreased risk was associated with higher levels of deprivation (relative risk [RR] per unit increase in deprivation score = 0.969; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.946–0.993. For all Ewing sarcoma combined, statistically significant decreased risk was associated with greater area-level population density and higher levels of non-car ownership (RR per person per hectare increase = 0.984; 95% CI 0.976–0.993, RR per 1% increase in non-car ownership = 0.994; 95% CI 0.991–0.998. Conclusions Higher incidence of osteosarcoma was observed for females in areas with lower deprivation levels indicating increased risk is linked to some aspect of affluent living. Higher incidence of Ewing sarcoma occurred in areas of low population density and where more people owned cars, both characteristic of rural environments. The study adds substantially to evidence associating Ewing sarcoma risk with rural environmental exposures. Putative risk factors include agricultural exposures, such as pesticides and zoonotic agents.

  10. Species distribution models for crop pollination: a modelling framework applied to Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Polce

    Full Text Available Insect pollination benefits over three quarters of the world's major crops. There is growing concern that observed declines in pollinators may impact on production and revenues from animal pollinated crops. Knowing the distribution of pollinators is therefore crucial for estimating their availability to pollinate crops; however, in general, we have an incomplete knowledge of where these pollinators occur. We propose a method to predict geographical patterns of pollination service to crops, novel in two elements: the use of pollinator records rather than expert knowledge to predict pollinator occurrence, and the inclusion of the managed pollinator supply. We integrated a maximum entropy species distribution model (SDM with an existing pollination service model (PSM to derive the availability of pollinators for crop pollination. We used nation-wide records of wild and managed pollinators (honey bees as well as agricultural data from Great Britain. We first calibrated the SDM on a representative sample of bee and hoverfly crop pollinator species, evaluating the effects of different settings on model performance and on its capacity to identify the most important predictors. The importance of the different predictors was better resolved by SDM derived from simpler functions, with consistent results for bees and hoverflies. We then used the species distributions from the calibrated model to predict pollination service of wild and managed pollinators, using field beans as a test case. The PSM allowed us to spatially characterize the contribution of wild and managed pollinators and also identify areas potentially vulnerable to low pollination service provision, which can help direct local scale interventions. This approach can be extended to investigate geographical mismatches between crop pollination demand and the availability of pollinators, resulting from environmental change or policy scenarios.

  11. 2014 Beller Lectureship: Chinese Physicists Educated in the Great Britain during the First Half of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaodong

    2014-03-01

    More than 30 Chinese students went to Great Britain to study physics during the first half of the 20th century. They were concentrated in London University (13), Cambridge University (9), Edinburgh University (5) and Manchester University (3) and so on. All these students returned to China after finishing their study and most of them later became excellent physicists. They contributed to the development of physics in China. Based on newly discovered primary materials concerning these Chinese physicists, I examine their study in UK and subsequent accomplishments after their return to China. I will then analyze these British-trained Chinese physicists and compare them with those studying in Japan and America. I would argue that Chinese physicists educated in Britain have high degree of specialization as a whole and formed unique style. They made certain unique contributions to Chinese physics development.

  12. No change in topsoil carbon levels of Great Britain, 1978–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Chamberlain

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an important store of carbon (C and there has been recent concern that accelerated loss of carbon from the soil may be reinforcing climate change. There is therefore a need to both track current trends in soil C storage and to identify how soil can contribute to carbon emission reduction targets. Countryside Survey (CS is an integrated national monitoring program in which vegetation, topsoil, water and land use measurements are made across Great Britain (GB. The soil component of CS is unique as topsoil C concentrations have been measured at three time points (1978, 1998 and 2007 together with topsoil bulk density (2007 only, vegetation composition (all years, and land use (i.e. Broad Habitat, 1998, 2007. The combined dataset allows estimates of change in topsoil C stock over time and the influence of land use change on topsoil C to be investigated. Results indicate that although there was a small increase (8% in topsoil C concentration between 1978 and 1998 and small decrease (6.5% between 1998 and 2007, there was no significant change in GB topsoil C concentration (in g kg−1, density (in t ha−1 or stock (in Tg between 1978 and 2007. Within individual habitats some consistent trends were observed and by examining plots which had consistent vegetation composition since 1978 we demonstrate that land use change was not responsible for the few significant changes that were found. These results are comparable with the few other estimates of recent topsoil C concentration and stock changes in W. Europe, with the exception of a previous study in England and Wales which reported significant topsoil C losses of up to 50% over a similar period. Possible reasons for the contradictory findings are discussed. An extra 220–730 Tg of C would be stored in topsoil C stocks if all GB soils were optimised at the top 5–25% C densities as recorded for each habitat in 2007.

  13. LGBT Youth from Brighton to Jerusalem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jess

    2009-01-01

    Allsorts Youth Project works with lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) young people in Brighton and Hove. It provides a safe drop-in space and one-to-one support. It also enables LGBT young people to learn new skills and participate in a wide range of volunteering opportunities including delivering homophobia awareness workshops to their peers.

  14. LGBT Youth from Brighton to Jerusalem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jess

    2009-01-01

    Allsorts Youth Project works with lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) young people in Brighton and Hove. It provides a safe drop-in space and one-to-one support. It also enables LGBT young people to learn new skills and participate in a wide range of volunteering opportunities including delivering homophobia awareness workshops to their peers.

  15. Barriers to accessing abortion services and perspectives on using mifepristone and misoprostol at home in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Abigail R A; Guthrie, Katherine A; Schellekens, Marlies; Trussell, James; Gomperts, Rebecca

    2017-09-20

    To examine reasons for seeking abortion services outside the formal healthcare system in Great Britain, where abortion is legally available. We conducted a mixed-methods study among women resident in England, Scotland, and Wales who requested at-home medication abortion through online telemedicine initiative Women on Web (WoW) between November 22, 2016, and March 22, 2017. We examined the demographics and circumstances of all women requesting early medication abortion and conducted a content analysis of a sample of their anonymized emails to the service to explore their reasons for seeking help. Over a 4-month period, 519 women contacted WoW seeking medication abortion. These women were diverse with respect to age, parity, and circumstance. One hundred eighty women reported 209 reasons for seeking abortion outside the formal healthcare setting. Among all reasons, 49% were access barriers, including long waiting times, distance to clinic, work or childcare commitments, lack of eligibility for free NHS services, and prior negative experiences of abortion care; 30% were privacy concerns, including lack of confidentiality of services, perceived or experienced stigma, and preferring the privacy and comfort of using pills at home; and 18% were controlling circumstances, including partner violence and partner/family control. Despite the presence of abortion services in Great Britain, a diverse group of women still experiences logistical and personal barriers to accessing care through the formal healthcare system, or prefer the privacy of conducting their abortions in their own homes. Health services commissioning bodies could address existing barriers if supported by policy frameworks. The presence of multiple barriers to accessing abortion care in Great Britain highlights the need for future guidelines to recommend a more woman-centered approach to service provision. Reducing the number of clinic visits and designing services to meet the needs of those living in

  16. ["TECHNIKA I NAUKA" ["SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY"] (1958-)--MAGAZINE OF THE ASSOCIATION OF POLISH ENGINEERS IN GREAT BRITAIN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwastyk-Kowalczyk, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the history of establishment, functioning and the role of "Science and Technology"--quarterly of the Association of Polish Engineers in Great Britain--in shaping Polish technical thought in the environment of Polish engineers and technicians living in exile. The analysis of the content of the journal published in London in the years 1958-2008 made it evident that this official scientific organ of Polish technical intelligentsia edited in 500 copies reaches members of engineering, technical and scientific milieu across many continents. Despite the fact that Polish language dominates in the articles and thanks to the interdisciplinary character of their content - science and technology, biology, the humanities, sociology and others--the journal makes it possible for the reader to participate in an intellectual adventure. "Science and Technology" was created in 1958 on the initiative of Eng. Prof. Roman Wajda in Great Britain, with support of other Polish technical associations abroad, and embraced the achievements and organisational life of the Polish technical milieu dispersed around the world. On the basis of the London Society's archive materials and old annual volumes of the journal, the author listed editors-in-chief, composition of editorial committees, collaborators, determined editing costs, changeable periodicity, successive print shops, seats of editorial office that always followed the Association in Great Britain. She also showed the effort of a handful of members of editorial committees, working on a voluntary basis to obtain materials for the journal; the role of the journal linking Polish engineers and technicians in exile and its function as a link with the Country, as well as its role in the sphere of information and propaganda. Finally, the author made an analysis of the journal's content, focusing on categories of articles published in "Science and Technology" in the years 1958-2008. Methods used by the author in the article

  17. Development of models to inform a national Daily Landslide Hazard Assessment for Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Tom A.; Reeves, Helen J.; Dashwood, Claire; Pennington, Catherine; Freeborough, Katy; Mackay, Jonathan D.; Uhlemann, Sebastian S.; Chambers, Jonathan E.; Wilkinson, Paul B.

    2015-04-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) provides landside hazard information as part of its strategic role. This includes, among others, the issuing of a national Daily Landslide Hazard Assessment (DLHA) one of the hazards assessments issued by the Natural Hazard Partnership. A range of tools are currently under development to further develop reliability and enhance the granularity of these assessments. The BGS has three datasets that support and underpin this research; the National Landslide Database (NLD), the DiGMap mass movement layer and GeoSure. The NLD holds more than 16,500 records of landslides across Great Britain (GB) stored in an Oracle database that is accessible through an ESRI ® ArcGIS interface. DiGMap comprises a digital map layer with outlines of all landslides recorded by field geologists. GeoSure is a BGS product that assesses the potential for ground movement across GB in six layers, one of which is landslide potential. The GeoSure landslide potential layer incorporates information on conditioning factors, such as local geology, geotechnical parameters and topography. These are combined within a GIS to derive a map showing where a landslide may occur under favourable conditions (e.g. persistent wet conditions due to adverse weather). Different types of terrain will be affected by different modes of landsliding and a series of hierarchical landslide domains have been established capturing the spatial consistency of slope deformation response. Each landslide domain represents an area of similar physiographic and geological characteristics which has shaped the style of landsliding (recognising relic, active and potentially active processes). In turn, this enables development of regional thresholds that are relevant to characteristic landslides in these domains. The wet period from summer 2012 into early spring 2013 resulted in a surge of recorded landslides, particularly in SW England and S Wales. Approximations of regional effective precipitation

  18. Increased prevalence and geographic spread of the cardiopulmonary nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum in fox populations in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C S; Garcia Gato, R; Learmount, J; Aziz, N A; Montgomery, C; Rose, H; Coulthwaite, C L; McGarry, J W; Forman, D W; Allen, S; Wall, R; Morgan, E R

    2015-08-01

    The nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum is becoming more widely recorded globally, and is of increasing concern as a cause of disease in dogs. Apparent geographic spread is difficult to confirm due to a lack of standardized disease recording systems, increasing awareness among veterinary clinicians, and recent improvements in diagnostic technologies. This study examines the hypothesis that A. vasorum has spread in recent years by repeating the methods of a previous survey of the fox population. The hearts and lungs of 442 foxes from across Great Britain were collected and examined by dissection and flushing of the pulmonary circulation and microscopic inspection of tracheal scrapes. Sampling and parasite extraction methods were identical to an earlier survey in 2005 to ensure comparability. Prevalence of A. vasorum was 18·3% (exact binomial confidence bounds 14·9-22·3), compared with 7·3% previously (5·3-9·9, n = 546), and had increased significantly in most regions, e.g. 7·4% in the Northern UK (previously zero) and 50·8% in the south-east (previously 23·2%). Other nematodes identified were Crenosoma vulpis (prevalence 10·8%, CI 8·1-14·2) and Eucoleus aerophilus (31·6%, CI 27·3-36·2). These data support the proposal that A. vasorum has increased in prevalence and has spread geographically in Great Britain.

  19. From Shell Shock to Shellac: The Great War, Blindness, and Britain's Talking Book Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubery, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Britain's Talking Book Service began as a way of providing reading material to soldiers blinded during the First World War. This account traces the talking book's development from the initial experiments after the War to its debut and reception among blind soldiers and civilians in the 1930s. It has been put together using archives held by the Royal National Institute of Blind People (before its Royal Charter, the NIB) and Blind Veterans UK (formerly St. Dunstan's), the two organizations responsible for Britain's Talking Book Service. The essay's first section reconstructs the search for an alternative way of reading that would benefit people with vision impairments. The next part demonstrates the talking book's impact on the lives of people with disabilities, recovering the voices of blind readers left out of most histories of books, literacy, and reading practices in the twentieth century. The final section reconstructs a debate over the value of recorded books, showing that disputes over their legitimacy are as old as recorded books themselves. In sum, this essay confronts the central issue raised by the convergence of books, media, and disability in the War's aftermath: can a book talk?

  20. A Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre: Talent Shows in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Esser, Andrea; Keinonen, Heidi;

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in early 2013. Within the international business model of selling and adapting...... television formats, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, Got Talent, X Factor and, more recently, Voice have sold to a large variety of countries. As an example, Idols alone has been adapted in over 40 territories, covering all...... programming. A consensus seems to have developed that television formats such as Voice and X Factor to a considerable degree are adapted according to national audiences and, hence, national cultural tastes and mentalities. In our research approach, we recognize that musical talent shows appear to contribute...

  1. A Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre: Talent Shows in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Esser, Andrea; Keinonen, Heidi

    television formats, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, Got Talent, X Factor and, more recently, Voice have sold to a large variety of countries. As an example, Idols alone has been adapted in over 40 territories, covering all......This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in early 2013. Within the international business model of selling and adapting...... programming. A consensus seems to have developed that television formats such as Voice and X Factor to a considerable degree are adapted according to national audiences and, hence, national cultural tastes and mentalities. In our research approach, we recognize that musical talent shows appear to contribute...

  2. The impact of tropospheric ozone pollution on trial plot winter wheat yields in Great Britain - an econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliakatsou, Evridiki; Bell, J Nigel B; Thirtle, Colin; Rose, Daniel; Power, Sally A

    2010-05-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated reductions in the yields of cereal crops due to tropospheric O(3), with losses of up to 25%. However, the only British econometric study on O(3) impacts on winter wheat yields, found that a 10% increase in AOT40 would decrease yields by only 0.23%. An attempt is made here to reconcile these observations by developing AOT40 maps for Great Britain and matching levels with a large number of standardised trial plot wheat yields from many sites over a 13-year period. Panel estimates (repeated measures on the same plots with time) show a 0.54% decrease in yields and it is hypothesised that plant breeders may have inadvertently selected for O(3) tolerance in wheat. Some support for this is provided by fumigations of cultivars of differing introduction dates. A case is made for the use of econometric as well as experimental studies in prediction of air pollution induced crop loss.

  3. Socio-Pedagogical Portrait of a Master’s Degree Student in International Arbitration: Experience of Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagorna Olga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available International arbitration as the efficient means of alternative dispute resolution has become, due to globalization, a highly specialised service rendered by professionals. Master’s degree program (LLM completion enables those interested to become competent and competitive specialists in arbitration on the international arena. Great Britain has accumulated broad practical experience in organizing professional training in the field of international arbitration. Many leading British universities offer prospective students Master’s programs in this speciality, encouraging all comers, even those with the initial non-legal background. Basic competences of LLM graduates in international arbitration (systemic competences, professional instrumental competences, professional social and personal competences have been identified and clarified on the basis of relevant sources analysis. Professionally important knowledge, abilities and skills have been generalized and explained. For instance, an international arbitration LLM graduate is obliged to possess communicative and social skills, cognitive abilities and skills in the subject area, must be competent in English law, etc.

  4. A restatement of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfray, H Charles J; Donnelly, Christl A; Kao, Rowland R; Macdonald, David W; McDonald, Robbie A; Petrokofsky, Gillian; Wood, James L N; Woodroffe, Rosie; Young, Douglas B; McLean, Angela R

    2013-10-07

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a very important disease of cattle in Great Britain, where it has been increasing in incidence and geographical distribution. In addition to cattle, it infects other species of domestic and wild animals, in particular the European badger (Meles meles). Policy to control bTB is vigorously debated and contentious because of its implications for the livestock industry and because some policy options involve culling badgers, the most important wildlife reservoir. This paper describes a project to provide a succinct summary of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bTB, couched in terms that are as policy-neutral as possible. Each evidence statement is placed into one of four categories describing the nature of the underlying information. The evidence summary forms the appendix to this paper and an annotated bibliography is provided in the electronic supplementary material.

  5. The latest statistics of scientific procedures on living animals reveal little three rs progress in great britain in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Michelle

    2011-09-01

    The 2010 Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals showed that the level of animal experimentation in Great Britain continues to rise, with just over 3.7 million procedures being conducted. This is almost exclusively due to the sustained increase in the breeding and utilisation of genetically-altered animals. Here, the general trends in the species used and the numbers and types of procedures are reviewed. In addition, the impact of the recent Government announcement to ban testing of household products on animals is discussed, along with the implications of the fish becoming the second most frequently used animal in scientific research. Finally, concerns about primate use, the REACH System, cosmetics testing and the new EU Directive on the protection of laboratory animals are explained.

  6. Soil erosion under climate change in Great Britain: long-term simulations using high-resolution regional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Kendon, Elizabeth; Constantine, José Antonio; Schindewolf, Marcus; Hall, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Twenty-first century climate change simulations for Great Britain reveal an increase in heavy precipitation that may lead to widespread soil loss and reduced soil carbon stores by increasing the likelihood of surface runoff. We find the quality and resolution of the simulated rainfall used to drive soil loss variation can widely influence the results. Hourly high definition rainfall simulations from a 1.5km resolution regional climate model are used to examine the soil erosion response in two UK catchments. The catchments have different sensitivity to soil erosion. "Rother" in West Sussex, England, reports some of the most erosive events that have been observed during the last 50 years in the UK. "Conwy" in North Wales, is resilient to soil erosion because of the abundant natural vegetation cover and very limited agricultural practises. We modelled with Erosion3D to check variations in soil erosion as influenced by climate variations for the periods 1996-2009 and 2086-2099. Our results indicate the Rother catchment is the most erosive, while the Conwy catchment is confirmed as the more resilient to soil erosion. The values of the reference-base period are consistent with the values of those locally observed in the previous decades. A soil erosion comparison for the two periods shows an increasing of sediment production (off-site erosion) for the end of the century at about 27% in the Rother catchment and about 50% for the Conwy catchment. The results, thanks to high-definition rainfall predictions, throw some light on the effect of climatic change effects in Great Britain.

  7. Experiences with Railway Regulation in Great Britain and the Czech Republic – Round Table Report1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nash Chris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Round Table was to compare British and Czech experiences with railway regulation and competition introduction and to determine which lessons can be learnt. Special attention was paid to the question of whether the very complex British reform can be an inspiration for further liberalisation of the railway sector in the Czech Republic or whether there are any reform mistakes that are best avoided. Based on two introductory presentations and subsequent plenary discussion, some consensus emerged. The participants agreed that there is no one-size-fits-all solution to railway regulation and that the introduction of competition should take into account the different circumstances of a particular country. Franchising in passenger operations in Britain successfully stimulated demand but also increased costs to the industry, so its implementation should be completed with care. It seems very unlikely that open-access competition would be a viable solution for the whole passenger rail market because it is limited to a few commercially attractive routes, and as Czech experience suggests, it creates many new problems. Finally, it was confirmed that a strong and dedicated regulator is needed in a newly liberalised environment in order to solve many emerging conflicts and disputes.

  8. Values and love styles in Turkey and Great Britain: an intercultural and intracultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanrı, Çağla; Goodwin, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Little previous research has examined the relationship between values and love styles, and none has done so across cultures or intracultural regions. This research was the first attempt to explore the correlation between individual-level values and love styles, and examined both within- and between-cultural variations in love styles. In this study 224 participants from Turkey and Britain, from urban or rural locations, completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire and the Love Attitudes Scale measure of love styles. Pancultural analyses demonstrated significant correlations between certain value dimensions and love styles. In particular, agape (selfless love) was positively correlated with self-transcendence, ludus (game-playing love) was positively correlated with self-enhancement, and pragma (realistic love) was positively correlated with conservation. The inclusion of location and nationality and their interactions with values in the multiple regression analyses significantly increased the variance explained by values for five of the six love styles. Multivariate analyses indicated that ludus, storge, mania, and pragma were all significantly higher among Turkish respondents; pragma, mania, and agape all higher amongst rural respondents. Eros was highest among rural British respondents; storge, pragma, and agape highest among rural Turks. When these culture effects were explored, conservation significantly mediated the relationship between the groups of more conservative rural Turks (versus other participants) and both pragmatic and storgic love styles. Findings are discussed in the light of disparities in values and relationship styles within cultures, and the need to include both intracultural and intercultural variations in cross cultural research.

  9. The National Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys of Great Britain--initial findings from the household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, R; Lewis, G; Bebbington, P; Brugha, T; Farrell, M; Gill, B; Meltzer, H

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the Household Survey from the National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity. This covered a sample drawn at random from the population of Britain, with the exception of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. The Postcode Address File was used as the sampling frame. Nearly 13,000 adults aged 16-65 were selected for interview, of which 10,108 (79.4%) were successfully interviewed. Eight percent could not be contacted and 13% refused interview. Psychiatric assessment was carried out by lay interviewers using the CIS-R. Subjects were also screened for psychosis, and screen-positive individuals were examined by psychiatrists using SCAN. Sixteen per cent of subjects scored above the standard cut-off of 12 on the CIS-R. The overall one-week prevalence of neurotic disorder was 12.3% in males and 19.5% in females. Unmarried and post-marital groups had high rates of disorder, as did single parents and people living on their own. Respondents in Social Class I had notably lower rates of neurotic disorder than the remainder of the sample. Unemployment was strongly associated with disorder. Subjects living in urban areas had a higher overall prevalence, but there was no significant variation by region. Black respondents had higher rates of disorders that were entirely explained by their age, family type, and social class. Individual neurotic disorders were all significantly commoner in women, with the exception of panic disorder. The one-year prevalence of functional psychoses was four per 1000, with no sex difference. Alcohol and drug dependence was considerably more prevalent in men. For the first time, the survey provides data on the prevalence and correlates of psychiatric disorder on a nationwide sample that can be used to inform equitable and effective national psychiatric services.

  10. Cognitive Ageing in Great Britain in the New Century: Cohort Differences in Episodic Memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gindo Tampubolon

    Full Text Available Dementias in high income countries are set to be the third major burden of disease even as older people are increasingly required to think for themselves how to provide for their lives in retirement. Meanwhile the period of older age continues to extend with increase in life expectancy. This challenge demands an understanding of how cognition changes over an extended period in later life. But studying cognitive ageing in the population faces a difficulty from the fact that older respondents are liable to leave (attrite before study completion. This study tested three hypotheses: trajectories of cognitive ageing in Britain show an improvement beyond the age of 50; and they are lifted by secular improvement in cognition across cohorts; lastly they are susceptible to distortion due to attrition.Using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, this paper studied trajectories of episodic memory of Britons aged 50-89 from 2002 to 2013 (N = 5931. Using joint models the analysis found that levels of episodic memory follow a curvilinear shape, not a steady decline, in later life. The findings also revealed secular improvement in cognitive ageing such that as a cohort is being replaced episodic memory levels in the population improve. The analysis lastly demonstrated that failure to simultaneously model attrition can produce distorted pictures of cognitive ageing.Old age in this century is not necessarily a period dominated by cognitive decline. In identifying behavioural factors associated with better cognitive ageing, such as social connections of traditional and online kinds, the paper raises possibilities of mustering an adequate response to the cognition challenge.

  11. Entanglement and Transnational Transfer in the History of Infant Schools in Great Britain and "Salles D'asile" in France, 1816-1881

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    The historical developments of infant schools in Great Britain and "salles d'asile" in France--both precursors of present-day preschools--were interconnected. However, historians have not yet analysed specifically how transnational exchange influenced the growth and nature of these institutions. Drawing on archival data and secondary…

  12. The Model of Unification and the Model of Diversification of Public School Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Myskiv, Iryna; Kravets, Svitlana

    2016-01-01

    In the article the theoretical framework of public school teachers' continuing professional development (CPD) in Great Britain, Canada and the USA has been presented. The main objectives have been defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; presentation…

  13. Providing Retraining and Advancement Training for Primary/Elementary School Teachers at the State Level in Great Britain and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chychuk, Antonina

    2017-01-01

    In Great Britain and the USA the normative basis of primary/elementary school teachers' qualification advancement is being actively developed, i. e. this issue is considered at the state level. For a long time the development of retraining and advancement training system for primary/elementary school teachers has been grounded on conceptual…

  14. Implementation of guidelines on oxytocin use at caesarean section: a survey of practice in Great Britain and Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheehan, Sharon R

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed major operations on women worldwide. Operative morbidity includes haemorrhage, anaemia, blood transfusion and in severe cases, maternal death. Various clinical guidelines address oxytocin use at the time of caesarean section. We previously reported wide variation in practice amongst clinicians in the United Kingdom in the use of oxytocin at caesarean section. The aim of this current study was to determine whether the variation in approach is universal across the individual countries of Great Britain and Ireland and whether this reflects differences in interpretation and implementation of clinical practice guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a survey of practice in the five individual countries of Great Britain and Ireland. A postal questionnaire was sent to all lead consultant obstetricians and anaesthetists with responsibility for the labour ward. We explored the use of oxytocin bolus and infusion, the measurement of blood loss at caesarean section and the rates of major haemorrhage. Existing clinical guidelines from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) and ALSO (Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics) were used to benchmark reported practice against recommended practice for the management of blood loss at caesarean section. RESULTS: The response rate was 82% (391 respondents). Use of a 5 IU oxytocin bolus was reported by 346 respondents (85-95% for individual countries). In some countries, up to 14% used a 10 IU oxytocin bolus despite recommendations against this. Routine use of an oxytocin infusion varied greatly between countries (11% lowest-55% highest). Marked variations in choice of oxytocin regimens were noted with inconsistencies in the country-specific recommendations, e.g. NICE (which covers England and Wales) recommends a 30 IU oxytocin infusion over 4h, but only 122 clinicians (40%) used this. CONCLUSIONS

  15. Regional alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality in Great Britain: novel insights using retail sales data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Shipton, Deborah; Walsh, David; Whyte, Bruce; McCartney, Gerry

    2015-01-07

    Regional differences in population levels of alcohol-related harm exist across Great Britain, but these are not entirely consistent with differences in population levels of alcohol consumption. This incongruence may be due to the use of self-report surveys to estimate consumption. Survey data are subject to various biases and typically produce consumption estimates much lower than those based on objective alcohol sales data. However, sales data have never been used to estimate regional consumption within Great Britain (GB). This ecological study uses alcohol retail sales data to provide novel insights into regional alcohol consumption in GB, and to explore the relationship between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality. Alcohol sales estimates derived from electronic sales, delivery records and retail outlet sampling were obtained. The volume of pure alcohol sold was used to estimate per adult consumption, by market sector and drink type, across eleven GB regions in 2010-11. Alcohol-related mortality rates were calculated for the same regions and a cross-sectional correlation analysis between consumption and mortality was performed. Per adult consumption in northern England was above the GB average and characterised by high beer sales. A high level of consumption in South West England was driven by on-trade sales of cider and spirits and off-trade wine sales. Scottish regions had substantially higher spirits sales than elsewhere in GB, particularly through the off-trade. London had the lowest per adult consumption, attributable to lower off-trade sales across most drink types. Alcohol-related mortality was generally higher in regions with higher per adult consumption. The relationship was weakened by the South West and Central Scotland regions, which had the highest consumption levels, but discordantly low and very high alcohol-related mortality rates, respectively. This study provides support for the ecological relationship between alcohol

  16. Future Flows Climate: an ensemble of 1-km climate change projections for hydrological application in Great Britain

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    C. Prudhomme

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The dataset Future Flows Climate was developed as part of the project ''Future Flows and Groundwater Levels'' to provide a consistent set of climate change projections for the whole of Great Britain at both space and time resolutions appropriate for hydrological applications, and to enable climate change uncertainty and climate variability to be accounted for in the assessment of their possible impacts on the environment.

    Future Flows Climate is derived from the Hadley Centre's ensemble projection HadRM3-PPE that is part of the basis of UKCP09 and includes projections in available precipitation (water available to hydrological processes after snow and ice storages have been accounted for and potential evapotranspiration. It corresponds to an 11-member ensemble of transient projections from January 1950 to December 2098, each a single realisation from a different variant of HadRM3. Data are provided on a 1-km grid over the HadRM3 land areas at a daily (available precipitation and monthly (PE time step as netCDF files.

    Because systematic biases in temperature and precipitation were found between HadRM3-PPE and gridded temperature and precipitation observations for the 1962–1991 period, a monthly bias correction procedure was undertaken, based on a linear correction for temperature and a quantile-mapping correction (using the gamma distribution for precipitation followed by a spatial downscaling. Available precipitation was derived from the bias-corrected precipitation and temperature time series using a simple elevation-dependant snow-melt model. Potential evapotranspiration time series were calculated for each month using the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equations and bias-corrected temperature, cloud cover, relative humidity and wind speed from HadRM3-PPE along with latitude of the grid and the day of the year.

    Future Flows Climate is freely available for non-commercial use under certain licensing conditions. It is the

  17. HERBERT HOOVER, GREAT BRITAIN, AND THE RUBBER CRISIS, 1923-1926

    OpenAIRE

    Silvano A. Wueschner

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the controversy arising out of Great Britain’s decision to implement the Stevenson plan. It examines, in particular, the role played by Herbert Hoover, both behind the scenes and in an effort to affect the repeal of the Stevenson scheme and at the same time to encourage and support the development of new sources of rubber under the control of American producers. During the period 1920-1922 rubber producing countries were confronted by the specter of overproduction. The exi...

  18. The potential spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus via dynamic contacts between poultry premises in Great Britain

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    Kao Rowland R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI viruses have had devastating effects on poultry industries worldwide, and there is concern about the potential for HPAI outbreaks in the poultry industry in Great Britain (GB. Critical to the potential for HPAI to spread between poultry premises are the connections made between farms by movements related to human activity. Movement records of catching teams and slaughterhouse vehicles were obtained from a large catching company, and these data were used in a simulation model of HPAI spread between farms serviced by the catching company, and surrounding (geographic areas. The spread of HPAI through real-time movements was modelled, with the addition of spread via company personnel and local transmission. Results The model predicted that although large outbreaks are rare, they may occur, with long distances between infected premises. Final outbreak size was most sensitive to the probability of spread via slaughterhouse-linked movements whereas the probability of onward spread beyond an index premises was most sensitive to the frequency of company personnel movements. Conclusions Results obtained from this study show that, whilst there is the possibility that HPAI virus will jump from one cluster of farms to another, movements made by catching teams connected fewer poultry premises in an outbreak situation than slaughterhouses and company personnel. The potential connection of a large number of infected farms, however, highlights the importance of retaining up-to-date data on poultry premises so that control measures can be effectively prioritised in an outbreak situation.

  19. Supplying trees in an era of environmental uncertainty: Identifying challenges faced by the forest nursery sector in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittet, Richard; Cottrell, Joan; Cavers, Stephen; Pecurul, Mireia; Ennos, Richard

    2016-12-15

    In recent years, numerous articles have addressed management strategies aimed at assisting forests to adapt to climate change. However, these seldom take into account the practical and economic implications of implementing these strategies, notably, supply of forest plants and seed. Using semi-structured interviews with practitioners involved in the plant and seed supply chain in Great Britain, we highlight a series of practical and economic bottlenecks commonly encountered in the supply of locally sourced seed and domestically produced planting stock for native woodland and hedging markets. We find that adoption of alternative seed sourcing strategies, designed specifically to account for directional climate warming, is likely to exacerbate existing problems by adding further complexity to decisions nurseries make about tree species and seed origins to produce. The lack of long-term market predictability brought about by the current configuration of forestry grants and regulations and, in particular, the administrative systems for processing grant applications is identified as a major impediment to having a sustainable and competitive supply of home-grown and currently adapted planting stock. Finally, the time and effort it takes to supply healthy plants for native woodland creation projects deserves much wider recognition throughout the industry and will be crucial if planting objectives are to be met sustainably.

  20. Variation with socioeconomic status of indoor radon levels in Great Britain: The less affluent have less radon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Gerald M; Miles, Jon C H; Rees, David; Wakeford, Richard; Bunch, Kathryn J; Vincent, Tim J; Little, Mark P

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate a strong correlation between domestic radon levels and socio-economic status (SES) in Great Britain, so that radon levels in homes of people with lower SES are, on average, only about two thirds of those of the more affluent. This trend is apparent using small area measures of SES and also using individual social classes. The reasons for these differences are not known with certainty, but may be connected with greater underpressure in warmer and better-sealed dwellings. There is also a variation of indoor radon levels with the design of the house (detached, terraced, etc.). In part this is probably an effect of SES, but it appears to have other causes as well. Data from other countries are also reviewed, and broadly similar effects seen in the United States for SES, and in other European countries for detached vs other types of housing. Because of correlations with smoking, this tendency for the lower SES groups to experience lower radon levels may underlie the negative association between radon levels and lung cancer rates in a well-known ecological study based on US Counties. Those conducting epidemiological studies of radon should be alert for this effect and control adequately for SES. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk-based surveillance for H5N1 avian influenza virus in wild birds in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, L C; Newson, S E; Musgrove, A J; Cranswick, P A; Crick, H Q P; Wilesmith, J W

    2007-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of the H5N1 strain of avian influenza in Europe have highlighted the need for continuous surveillance and early detection to reduce the likelihood of a major outbreak in the commercial poultry industry. In Great Britain (gb), one possible route by which H5N1 could be introduced into domestic poultry is through migratory wild birds from Europe and Asia. Extensive monitoring data on the 24 wild bird species considered most likely to introduce the virus into GB, and analyses of local poultry populations, were used to develop a risk profile to identify the areas where H5N1 is most likely to enter and spread to commercial poultry. The results indicate that surveillance would be best focused on areas of Norfolk, Suffolk, Lancashire, Lincolnshire, south-west England and the Welsh borders, with areas of lower priority in Anglesey, south-west Wales, north-east Aberdeenshire and the Firth of Forth area of Scotland. These areas have significant poultry populations including a large number of free-range flocks, and a high abundance of the 24 wild bird species.

  2. Drivers of inequality in disability-free expectancy at birth and age 85 across space and time in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohland, Pia; Rees, Phil; Gillies, Clare; Alvanides, Seraphim; Matthews, Fiona E; O'Neill, Vikki; Jagger, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Background Although mortality and health inequalities at birth have increased both geographically and in socioeconomic terms, little is known about inequalities at age 85, the fastest growing sector of the population in Great Britain (GB). Aim To determine whether trends and drivers of inequalities in life expectancy (LE) and disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) at age 85 between 1991 and 2001 are the same as those at birth. Methods DFLE at birth and age 85 for 1991 and 2001 by gender were calculated for each local authority in GB using the Sullivan method. Regression modelling was used to identify area characteristics (rurality, deprivation, social class composition, ethnicity, unemployment, retirement migration) that could explain inequalities in LE and DFLE. Results Similar to values at birth, LE and DFLE at age 85 both increased between 1991 and 2001 (though DFLE increased less than LE) and gaps across local areas widened (and more for DFLE than LE). The significantly greater increases in LE and DFLE at birth for less-deprived compared with more-deprived areas were still partly present at age 85. Considering all factors, inequalities in DFLE at birth were largely driven by social class composition and unemployment rate, but these associations appear to be less influential at age 85. Conclusions Inequalities between areas in LE and DFLE at birth and age 85 have increased over time though factors explaining inequalities at birth (mainly social class and unemployment rates) appear less important for inequalities at age 85. PMID:24907279

  3. Constructivist Approach in a Paradigm of Public School Teachers′ Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada, the USA

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    Mukan Nataliya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on professional development of public school teachers as an inevitable constituent of education systems in the 21st century. In such economically developed countries as Great Britain, Canada and the USA, the problem of preparing teachers to a difficult and responsible task of upbringing and educating future citizens always remains topical. The authors define the following aim and objectives of their research: to conduct analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature and to define the notion of teachers′ “professional development”; to research a place and role of the constructivist approach to professional development of teachers. Some aspects of the problem under research have been studied by foreign and domestic scientists: political, social, cultural and economic aspects of teachers′ professional development (L. Darling-Hammond, M. Tight; elaboration of professional development curricula (C. Pratt; content of teachers′ professional development (N. Dana Fichtman, S. Zepeda; concept-oriented instruction (J. Guthrie; continuing professional development (Ya. Belmaz, A. Kuzminskyi, O. Kuznietsova. The research methodology comprises theoretical (logical, structural and systematic methods, induction and deduction, comparison and compatibility, analysis and synthesis and applied (observations, questioning and interviewing methods. The research results have been presented.

  4. Service utilization by children with conduct disorders: findings from the 2004 Great Britain child mental health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivram, Raghuram; Bankart, John; Meltzer, Howard; Ford, Tamsin; Vostanis, Panos; Goodman, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Children with conduct disorders (CD) and their families are in contact with multiple agencies, but there is limited evidence on their patterns of service utilization. The aim of this study was to establish the patterns, barriers and correlates of service use by analysing the cohort of the 2004 Great Britain child mental health survey (N = 7,977). Use of social services was significantly higher by children with CD than emotional disorders (ED) in the absence of co-morbidity, while use of specialist child mental health and paediatric was significantly higher by children with hyperkinetic disorders (HD) than CD. Children who had comorbid physical disorders used more primary healthcare services compared to those without physical disorders. Utilization of specialist child mental heath and social services was significantly higher among children with unsocialized CD than socialized CD and oppositional defiant disorders. Services utilization and its correlates varied with the type of service. Overall, specialist services use was associated with co-morbidity with learning disabilities, physical and psychiatric disorders. Several correlates of services use in CD appeared non-specific, i.e. associated with use of different services indicating the possibility of indiscriminate use of different types of services. The findings led to the conclusion that there is the need for effective organization and co-ordination of services, and clear care pathways. Involvement of specialist child mental health services should be requested in the presence of mental health co-morbidity.

  5. Training Of Teacher-Researcher As Prior Consideration Of Professional Training Of Pedagogues In Great Britain Abstract

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    Kozubovska Iryna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of professional training of pedagogues in foreign countries. Special attention has been paid to the experience of Great Britain. It has been underlined that the teacher has to acquire thorough knowledge in profession as well as to master the methods of teaching. Nevertheless, this is not enough to reach success in a professional field. The educational system today needs a teacher-researcher. It has been proved that the process which provides scientific and educational unity by means of involving students into scientific work is stirring up in European pedagogical institutions. The problem of orientating the teachers to be on research work is considered to be the most important condition of their personal professional self-determination and professional culture. A new teacher-researcher training pattern in British higher educational system has been made. This pattern includes some interdependent components and is successful under certain pedagogic conditions: the possession of research position by a teacher-to-be; ensuring creative interaction and cooperation among students and teachers; introduction of special educative modules with research orientation; the use of project technologies; the arrangement of creative educational atmosphere; establishing friendly relationships among university teachers (lecturers, students and school teachers. The accent is made on the urgent necessity of implementation of British experience in Ukraine.

  6. Boxing injury epidemiology in the Great Britain team: a 5-year surveillance study of medically diagnosed injury incidence and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosemore, Michael; Lightfoot, Joseph; Palmer-Green, Deborah; Gatt, Ian; Bilzon, James; Beardsley, Chris

    2015-09-01

    There has been no comprehensive injury report of elite-level amateur boxers in competition and training. We reviewed injuries in training and competition in the Great Britain (GB) amateur boxing squad between 2005 and 2009. Longitudinal, prospective injury surveillance over 5 years of the GB boxing squad from 2005 to 2009. 66 boxers passed through the squad. The location, region affected, description, and the duration of each injury were recorded by the team doctor and team physiotherapist. We recorded whether the injury occurred during competition or training, and also whether it was a new or a recurrent injury. The injury rate during competition was calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 h. More injuries affected the hand than any other body location. This was the case overall, in training and competition individually, and for both new and recurrent injuries. More injuries occurred during training than during competition, and most injuries were new rather than recurrent. Total injury rate during competition was 828 per 1000 h and hand injury rate in competition was 302 injuries per 1000 h. Hand injury rate in competition was significantly higher than at the other locations. The incidence of concussion is comparatively low. Injury prevention should aim to protect the hands and wrists of elite amateur boxers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. An exploration of the utility of appraisals for the revalidation of pharmacy professionals in community pharmacy in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Samuel D; Jacobs, Sally; Schafheutle, Ellen I; Elvey, Rebecca; Hassell, Karen; Noyce, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    With revalidation in pharmacy in the United Kingdom fast approaching, appropriate systems of revalidation in community pharmacy are required. With little known about the potential use of appraisals for evaluating fitness to practice in pharmacy professionals (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) in this sector, research was undertaken to explore their potential utility in a revalidation process. To examine existing structures and processes in community pharmacy appraisals in Great Britain (ie, England, Scotland, and Wales) and consider the views of pharmacy stakeholders on if, and how, appraisals could contribute to revalidation of pharmacy professionals. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with senior staff (eg, superintendents and professional development managers) from chain community pharmacies as well as pharmacy managers/owners from independent pharmacies. Senior staff from locum agencies and pharmacy technician stakeholders were also interviewed. Appraisals were in place for pharmacists in most chain pharmacies but not in independent pharmacies. Locum pharmacists were not appraised, either by the companies they worked for or by the locum agencies. Pharmacy managers/owners working in independent pharmacies were also not appraised. Pharmacy technicians were appraised in most chain pharmacies but only in some independent pharmacies. Where appraisals were in operation, they were carried out by line managers who may or may not be a pharmacist. Appraisals did not seem to cover areas relevant to fitness to practice but instead focused more on performance related to business targets. This was particularly true for those in more senior positions within the organization such as area managers and superintendent pharmacists. Existing systems of appraisal, on their own, do not seem to be suitable for revalidating a pharmacy professional. Considerable changes to the existing appraisal systems in community pharmacy and employer engagement may be necessary

  8. Prevalence of and risk factors for equine obesity in Great Britain based on owner-reported body condition scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, C A; Ireland, J L; Wylie, C E; Collins, S N; Verheyen, K L P; Newton, J R

    2015-03-01

    Few data are available on the prevalence of obesity in the general equine population of Great Britain (GB), and its associated risk factors. To estimate the prevalence of owner-reported obesity in veterinary-registered horses and ponies in GB, and identify factors associated with obesity. A cross-sectional survey of horse/pony owners in GB was undertaken using a postal questionnaire. Thirty veterinary practices randomly selected horse/pony owners to complete a self-administered postal questionnaire. Owners estimated body condition score using a modified Carroll and Huntington method (1-6 scale), and animals were classified as obese if they were scored as either 5 (fat) or 6 (very fat). Factors associated with obesity were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Prevalence of obesity was 31.2% (n = 247/792; 95% confidence interval [CI] 27.9-34.2%). Factors associated with increased odds of obesity were breed (Pobese. Animals described as 'good doers' were more likely to be obese than those described as readily maintaining normal weight (OR 3.7; 95% CI 2.6-5.3). Compared to competition animals, animals used for pleasure riding (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.4-4.4) and nonridden animals (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.5-5.5) were more likely to be obese. Identification of at-risk breeds and other horse- and management-level risk factors for obesity will enable optimal targeting of owner education regarding management strategies to reduce the frequency of equine obesity. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  9. In vitro amplification of ovine prions from scrapie-infected sheep from Great Britain reveals distinct patterns of propagation

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    Thorne Leigh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA is a method that facilitates the detection of prions from many sources of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE. Sheep scrapie represents a unique diversity of prion disease agents in a range of susceptible PRNP genotypes. In this study PMCA was assessed on a range of Great Britain (GB sheep scrapie isolates to determine the applicability to veterinary diagnosis of ovine TSE. Results PrPSc amplification by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA was assessed as a diagnostic tool for field cases of scrapie. The technique was initially applied to thirty-seven isolates of scrapie from diverse geographical locations around GB, and involved sheep of various breeds and PRNP genotypes. All samples were amplified in either VRQ and/or ARQ PrPC substrate. For PrPSc from sheep with at least one VRQ allele, all samples amplified efficiently in VRQ PrPC but only PrPSc from ARH/VRQ sheep amplified in both substrates. PrPSc from ARQ/ARQ sheep displayed two amplification patterns, one that amplified in both substrates and one that only amplified in ARQ PrPC. These amplification patterns were consistent for a further 14/15 flock/farm mates of these sheep. Furthermore experimental scrapie strains SSBP1, Dawson, CH1641 and MRI were analysed. SSBP1 and Dawson (from VRQ/VRQ sheep amplified in VRQ but not ARQ substrate. MRI scrapie (from ARQ/ARQ sheep nor CH1641 did not amplify in ARQ or VRQ substrate; these strains required an enhanced PMCA method incorporating polyadenylic acid (poly(A to achieve amplification. Conclusions PrPsc from 52 classical scrapie GB field isolates amplified in VRQ or ARQ or both substrates and supports the use of PMCA as a rapid assay for the detection of a wide range of ovine classical scrapie infections involving multiple PRNP genotypes and scrapie strains.

  10. Occurrence and characterization of mcr-1-harbouring Escherichia coli isolated from pigs in Great Britain from 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggett, Nicholas A; Sayers, Ellie; AbuOun, Manal; Ellis, Richard J; Nunez-Garcia, Javier; Randall, Luke; Horton, Robert; Rogers, Jon; Martelli, Francesca; Smith, Richard P; Brena, Camilla; Williamson, Susanna; Kirchner, Miranda; Davies, Robert; Crook, Derrick; Evans, Sarah; Teale, Chris; Anjum, Muna F

    2017-03-01

    To determine the occurrence of mcr-1 -harbouring Escherichia coli in archived pig material originating in Great Britain (GB) from 2013 to 2015 and characterize mcr-1 plasmids. Enrichment and selective culture of 387 archived porcine caecal contents and recovery from archive of 1109 E. coli isolates to identify colistin-resistant bacteria by testing for the presence of mcr-1 by PCR and RT-PCR. mcr-1 -harbouring E. coli were characterized by WGS and compared with other available mcr-1 WGS. Using selective isolation following enrichment, the occurrence of mcr-1 E. coli in caeca from healthy pigs at slaughter from unique farms in GB was 0.6% (95% CI 0%-1.5%) in 2015. mcr-1 E. coli were also detected in isolates from two porcine veterinary diagnostic submissions in 2015. All isolates prior to 2015 were negative. WGS analysis of the four mcr-1 -positive E. coli indicated no other antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes were linked to mcr-1 -plasmid-bearing contigs, despite all harbouring multiple AMR genes. The sequence similarity between mcr-1 -plasmid-bearing contigs identified and those found in GB, Chinese and South African human isolates and Danish, French and Estonian livestock-associated isolates was 90%-99%. mcr-1- harbouring plasmids were diverse, implying transposable elements are involved in mcr-1 transmission in GB. The low number of mcr-1 -positive E. coli isolates identified suggested mcr-1 is currently uncommon in E. coli from pigs within GB. The high sequence similarity between mcr-1 plasmid draft genomes identified in pig E. coli and plasmids found in human and livestock-associated isolates globally requires further investigation to understand the full implications.

  11. Different prion disease phenotypes result from inoculation of cattle with two temporally separated sources of sheep scrapie from Great Britain

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    Hawkins Steve AC

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the theoretical proposal that bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE could have originated from sheep scrapie, this study investigated the pathogenicity for cattle, by intracerebral (i.c. inoculation, of two pools of scrapie agents sourced in Great Britain before and during the BSE epidemic. Two groups of ten cattle were each inoculated with pools of brain material from sheep scrapie cases collected prior to 1975 and after 1990. Control groups comprised five cattle inoculated with sheep brain free from scrapie, five cattle inoculated with saline, and for comparison with BSE, naturally infected cattle and cattle i.c. inoculated with BSE brainstem homogenate from a parallel study. Phenotypic characterisation of the disease forms transmitted to cattle was conducted by morphological, immunohistochemical, biochemical and biological methods. Results Disease occurred in 16 cattle, nine inoculated with the pre-1975 inoculum and seven inoculated with the post-1990 inoculum, with four cattle still alive at 83 months post challenge (as at June 2006. The different inocula produced predominantly two different disease phenotypes as determined by histopathological, immunohistochemical and Western immunoblotting methods and biological characterisation on transmission to mice, neither of which was identical to BSE. Whilst the disease presentation was uniform in all scrapie-affected cattle of the pre-1975 group, the post-1990 inoculum produced a more variable disease, with two animals sharing immunohistochemical and molecular profile characteristics with animals in the pre-1975 group. Conclusion The study has demonstrated that cattle inoculated with different pooled scrapie sources can develop different prion disease phenotypes, which were not consistent with the phenotype of BSE of cattle and whose isolates did not have the strain typing characteristics of the BSE agent on transmission to mice.

  12. Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

  13. 20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

    CERN Multimedia

    Pantelia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

  14. A review of exotic animal disease in Great Britain and in Scotland specifically between 1938 and 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onneile O Peiso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Incursions of contagious diseases of livestock into disease-free zones are inevitable as long as the diseases persist elsewhere in the world. Knowledge of where, when and how incursions have occurred helps assess the risks, and regionalize preventative and reactive measures. METHODOLOGY: Based on reports of British governmental veterinary services, we review occurrence of the former OIE List A diseases, and of Aujeszky's disease, anthrax and bovine tuberculosis (bTB in farm-animals in Great Britain (GB between 1938 and 2007. We estimate incidence of each disease on GB agricultural holdings and fraction of susceptible farm-animals culled to control the disease each year. We then consider the frequency and incidence of the diseases in Scotland alone. The limitations of available data on historical disease occurrence and denominator populations are detailed in Text S2. CONCLUSIONS: The numbers of livestock and poultry farmed in GB grew over the years 1938-2007; the number of agricultural holdings decreased. An amalgamation of production on larger holdings took place from the 1940s to the 1980s. The maximum annual incidence of a reviewed disease in GB 1938-2007 was reported for bTB, 1.69% of holdings in 1961. This was followed by Newcastle disease, 1.50% of holdings in 1971, and classical swine fever, 1.09% of holdings in 1940. The largest fractional cull of susceptible livestock in a single year in each of the four decades 1950s-1980s was due to a viral disease primarily affecting swine. During the periods 1938-1949 and 2000-2007 this was due to outbreaks of foot and mouth disease. In the absence of incursions of the former OIE List A diseases in the 1990s, this was due to bTB. Over the 70 years, the diseases were reported with lower frequency and lower annual incidence in Scotland, as compared to when these statistics are considered for GB as a whole.

  15. The evolution of the prevalence of classical scrapie in sheep in Great Britain using surveillance data between 2005 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Mark; Ortiz-Pelaez, Angel

    2014-11-01

    After the decline of the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in Great Britain (GB), scrapie remains the most prevalent animal Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) present in GB. A number of control measures have been implemented for classical scrapie, and since 2005 there has been a large reduction in the number of observed cases. The objective of this study is to estimate two measures of disease frequency using up to date surveillance data collected during and after the implementation of different control measures established since 2004, and breeding for resistance schemes that ran from 2001 until 2009. This would enable an assessment of the effectiveness of both the breeding for resistance programme and the compulsory eradication measures in reducing the prevalence of scrapie in GB. Evaluation of the sensitivity of the rapid post-mortem test for scrapie indicated that it detected scrapie in the last 25% of the incubation period. A back-calculation model was developed to estimate the prevalence of infection at animal and flock-level. The results of the model indicated a mean drop of infection prevalence of 31% each year, leading to a 90% drop in infection prevalence between 2005, with an estimate of 5737 infected sheep in GB in 2012. The risks of classical scrapie infection in animals with genotypes of National Scrapie Plan Types I-IV (all other genotypes), relative to Type V (all genotypes containing V136 R154 Q171 and not A136 R154 R171), were estimated to be: 0, 0.0008, 0.07, and 0.21 respectively. The model estimated a very low rate of reporting of clinical suspects and a large decline from 2007 of the probability of a sheep being reported as a clinical suspect. The model also estimated that the expected number of sheep holdings with classical scrapie in 2012 was 215 (95% confidence interval: 33-437), out of a total of approximately 72,000 sheep holdings in GB. Model estimates indicate that the prevalence in 2012 has dropped to 10% of that

  16. Impact of Climate Change on high and low flows across Great Britain: a temporal analysis and uncertainty assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevers, Lindsay; Collet, Lila

    2017-04-01

    Over the past decade there have been significant challenges to water management posed by both floods and droughts. In the UK, since 2000 flooding has caused over £5Bn worth of damage, and direct costs from the recent drought (2011-12) are estimated to be between £70-165M, arising from impacts on public and industrial water supply. Projections of future climate change suggest an increase in temperature and precipitation trends which may exacerbate the frequency and severity of such hazards, but there is significant uncertainty associated with these projections. It thus becomes urgent to assess the possible impact of these changes on extreme flows and evaluate the uncertainties related to these projections, particularly changes in the seasonality of such hazards. This paper aims to assess the changes in seasonality of peak and low flows across Great Britain as a result of climate change. It is based on the Future Flow database; an 11-member ensemble of transient river flow projections from January 1951 to December 2098. We analyse the daily river flow over the baseline (1961-1990) and the 2080s (2069-2098) for 281 gauging stations. For each ensemble member, annual maxima (AMAX) and minima (AMIN) are extracted for both time periods for each gauging station. The month of the year the AMAX and AMIN occur respectively are recorded for each of the 30 years in the past and the future time periods. The uncertainty of the AMAX and AMIN occurrence temporally (monthly) is assessed across the 11 ensemble members, as well as the changes to this temporal signal between the baseline and the 2080s. Ultimately, this work gives a national picture (spatially) of high and low flows occurrence temporally and allows the assessment of possible changes in hydrological dynamics as a result of climate change in a statistical framework. Results will quantify the uncertainty related to the Climate Model parameters which are cascaded into the modelling chain. This study highlights the issues

  17. Cross-scale modelling of alien and native vascular plant species richness in Great Britain: where is geodiversity information most relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Joseph; Field, Richard; Boyd, Doreen

    2016-04-01

    We assess the scale-dependency of the relationship between biodiversity and novel geodiversity information by studying spatial patterns of native and alien (archaeophytes and neophytes) vascular plant species richness at varying spatial scales across Great Britain. Instead of using a compound geodiversity metric, we study individual geodiversity components (GDCs) to advance our understanding of which aspects of 'geodiversity' are most important and at what scale. Terrestrial native (n = 1,490) and alien (n = 1,331) vascular plant species richness was modelled across the island of Great Britain at two grain sizes and several extent radii. Various GDCs (landforms, hydrology, geology) were compiled from existing national datasets and automatically extracted landform coverage information (e.g. hollows, valleys, peaks), the latter using a digital elevation model (DEM) and geomorphometric techniques. More traditional predictors of species richness (climate, widely-used topography metrics, land cover diversity, and human population) were also incorporated. Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) models were produced at all grain sizes and extents for each species group and the dominant predictors were assessed. Models with and without geodiversity data were compared. Overarching patterns indicated a clear dominance of geodiversity information at the smallest study extent (12.5km radius) and finest grain size (1x1km), which substantially decreased for each increase in extent as the contribution of climatic variables increased. The contribution of GDCs to biodiversity models was chiefly driven by landform information from geomorphometry, but hydrology (rivers and lakes), and to a lesser extent materials (soil, superficial deposits, and geology), were important, also. GDCs added significantly to vascular plant biodiversity models in Great Britain, independently of widely-used topographic metrics, particularly for native species. The wider consideration of geodiversity alongside

  18. J.M. Gratale on Tore T. Petersen’s Richard Nixon, Great Britain and the Anglo-American Alignment in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tore T. Petersen. Richard Nixon, Great Britain and the Anglo-American Alignment in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula: Making Allies out of Clients. Sussex Academic Press, 2009.  172pp.  978-1-84519-277-8.Since the events of 9-11 there has been a sizeable quantity of books published on American foreign policy in broad terms, as well as more focused studies on contemporary developments in southwest Asia, more commonly referred to as the Middle East. Many of these volumes are highly politic...

  19. The image of Great Britain in the interpretation of journalists of the military periodical “The Chronicle of the War against Japan”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vasiliy Vladimirovich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines and analyses the image of Great Britain which at the beginning of the last century was formed by Russian journalists on the pages of the pro-government periodical “The Chronicle of the War against Japan”. Within this work the British Empire appears to be one of Russia's main competitors in the struggle for the leading positions in the international arena. This research analyses more than 60 issues of this periodical. In conclusion, in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century periodicals had a special role in informational impact on people's minds.

  20. A first estimate of the structure and density of the populations of pet cats and dogs across Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegerter, James; Fouracre, David; Smith, Graham C

    2017-01-01

    Policy development, implementation, and effective contingency response rely on a strong evidence base to ensure success and cost-effectiveness. Where this includes preventing the establishment or spread of zoonotic or veterinary diseases infecting companion cats and dogs, descriptions of the structure and density of the populations of these pets are useful. Similarly, such descriptions may help in supporting diverse fields of study such as; evidence-based veterinary practice, veterinary epidemiology, public health and ecology. As well as maps of where pets are, estimates of how many may rarely, or never, be seen by veterinarians and might not be appropriately managed in the event of a disease outbreak are also important. Unfortunately both sources of evidence are absent from the scientific and regulatory literatures. We make this first estimate of the structure and density of pet populations by using the most recent national population estimates of cats and dogs across Great Britain and subdividing these spatially, and categorically across ownership classes. For the spatial model we used the location and size of veterinary practises across GB to predict the local density of pets, using client travel time to define catchments around practises, and combined this with residential address data to estimate the rate of ownership. For the estimates of pets which may provoke problems in managing a veterinary or zoonotic disease we reviewed the literature and defined a comprehensive suite of ownership classes for cats and dogs, collated estimates of the sub-populations for each ownership class as well as their rates of interaction and produced a coherent scaled description of the structure of the national population. The predicted density of pets varied substantially, with the lowest densities in rural areas, and the highest in the centres of large cities where each species could exceed 2500 animals.km-2. Conversely, the number of pets per household showed the opposite

  1. Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals Great Britain 2015 - highlighting an ongoing upward trend in animal use and missed opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Shore, Michelle

    2016-12-01

    The Annual Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals Great Britain 2015 indicate that the Home Office were correct in recommending that caution should be exercised when interpreting the 2014 data as an apparent decline in animal experiments. The 2015 report shows that, as the changes to the format of the annual statistics have become more familiar and less problematic, there has been a re-emergence of the upward trend in animal research and testing in Great Britain. The 2015 statistics report an increase in animal procedures (up to 4,142,631) and in the number of animals used (up to 4,069,349). This represents 1% more than the totals in 2013, and a 7% increase on the procedures reported in 2014. This paper details an analysis of these most recent statistics, providing information on overall animal use and highlighting specific issues associated with genetically-altered animals, dogs and primates. It also reflects on areas of the new format that have previously been highlighted as being problematic, and concludes with a discussion about the use of animals in regulatory research and testing, and how there are significant missed opportunities for replacing some of the animal-based tests in this area.

  2. Derivation of RCM-driven potential evapotranspiration for hydrological climate change impact analysis in Great Britain: a comparison of methods and associated uncertainty in future projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prudhomme

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Potential evapotranspiration (PET is the water that would be lost by plants through evaporation and transpiration if water was not limited in the soil, and it is commonly used in conceptual hydrological modelling in the calculation of runoff production and hence river discharge. Future changes of PET are likely to be as important as changes in precipitation patterns in determining changes in river flows. However PET is not calculated routinely by climate models so it must be derived independently when the impact of climate change on river flow is to be assessed. This paper compares PET estimates from 12 equations of different complexity, driven by the Hadley Centre's HadRM3-Q0 model outputs representative of 1961–1990, with MORECS PET, a product used as reference PET in Great Britain. The results show that the FAO56 version of the Penman–Monteith equations reproduces best the spatial and seasonal variability of MORECS PET across GB when driven by HadRM3-Q0 estimates of relative humidity, total cloud, wind speed and linearly bias-corrected mean surface temperature. This suggests that potential biases in HadRM3-Q0 climate do not result in significant biases when the physically based FAO56 equations are used. Percentage changes in PET between the 1961–1990 and 2041–2070 time slices were also calculated for each of the 12 PET equations from HadRM3-Q0. Results show a large variation in the magnitude (and sometimes direction of changes estimated from different PET equations, with Turc, Jensen–Haise and calibrated Blaney–Criddle methods systematically projecting the largest increases across GB for all months and Priestley–Taylor, Makkink, and Thornthwaite showing the smallest changes. We recommend the use of the FAO56 equation as, when driven by HadRM3-Q0 climate data, this best reproduces the reference MORECS PET across Great Britain for the reference period of 1961–1990. Further, the future changes of PET estimated by FAO56 are within

  3. Decomposition of factors determining the trend of CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel in Great Britain (1970-2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae-Hyeong [The Korea Transport Institute (KOTI), 2311 Daehwa-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-Shi, Gyeonggi-do, 411-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-04-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the most important of the greenhouse gases that are causing global warming. The transport sector currently accounts for more than one-quarter of CO{sub 2} emissions and more importantly its share in total emissions is increasing in most countries. This paper investigates the key factors in the change in CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel in Great Britain over the last 30 years. It attempts to disentangle determinants of growth in CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel, which has the largest share of emissions in road transport. The study is based on various decomposition analyses, starting from the IPAT identity. As summarised in the IPAT identity, the degree of the Impact of human activity on the environment is determined by changes in Population, Affluence (per-capita consumption) and Technology (environmental impact per quantity of consumption). In the case of CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel in Great Britain, the affluence (A) factor (car driving distance per person) was a dominant force for the growth of emissions over the last 30 years. Not only do people travel longer distances by cars than 30 years ago, but car occupancy rates have also decreased, contributing to the growth of car driving distance per person. Although technology (T) factors such as fuel efficiency and fuel substitution to diesel fuel partly cancelled out these growth effects of affluence factors, this contribution was relatively small. However, in the 1990s there emerged a different pattern in the trend. Of the affluence (A) factors, the growth rate of car trip distance per person weakened considerably. As for the technology (T) effect, the carbon intensity of car driving kept decreasing over this period. Therefore, although CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel (I) continued to increase, the growth rate became substantially lower than in the earlier periods. More detailed investigation into the determinants of both affluence (A) factors and technology (T

  4. Derivation of RCM-driven potential evapotranspiration for hydrological climate change impact analysis in Great Britain: a comparison of methods and associated uncertainty in future projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prudhomme

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential evapotranspiration PET is the water that would be lost by plants through evaporation and transpiration if water was not limited in the soil, and it is commonly used in conceptual hydrological modelling in the calculation of runoff production and hence river discharge. Future changes of PET are likely to be as important as changes in precipitation patterns in determining changes in river flows. However PET is not calculated routinely by climate models so it must be derived independently when the impact of climate change on river flow is to be assessed. This paper compares PET estimates from twelve equations of different complexity, driven by the Hadley Centre's HadRM3-Q0 model outputs representative of 1961–1990, with MORECS PET, a product used as reference PET in Great Britain. The results show that the FAO56 version of the Penman-Monteith equations reproduce best the spatial and seasonal variability of MORECS PET across GB when driven by HadRM3-Q0 estimates of relative humidity, total cloud, wind speed and linearly bias-corrected mean surface temperature. This suggests that potential biases in HadRM3-Q0 climate do not result in significant biases when the physically-based FAO56 equations are used. Percentage changes in PET between the 1961–1990 and 2041–2070 time slices were also calculated for each of the twelve PET equations. Results show a large variation in the magnitude (and sometimes direction of changes estimated from different PET equations, with Turc, Jensen-Hense and calibrated Blaney-Criddle methods systematically projecting the largest increases across GB for all months and Priestley-Taylor, Makkink and Thornthwaite showing the smallest changes. We recommend the use of the FAO56 equation as when driven by HadRM3-Q0 climate data this best reproduces the reference MORECS PET across Great Britain for the reference period of 1961–1990. Further, the future changes of PET estimated by FAO56 are within the range of

  5. Retrospective detection by negative contrast electron microscopy of faecal viral particles in free-living wild red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) with suspected enteropathy in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everest, D J; Stidworthy, M F; Milne, E M; Meredith, A L; Chantrey, J; Shuttleworth, C; Blackett, T; Butler, H; Wilkinson, M; Sainsbury, A W

    2010-12-25

    Transmission electron microscopy identified adenovirus particles in 10 of 70 (14.3 per cent) samples of large intestinal content collected at postmortem examination from free-living wild red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) across Great Britain between 2000 and 2009. Examination was limited to cases in which an enteropathy was suspected on the basis of predetermined macroscopic criteria such as semi-solid or diarrhoeic faeces, suspected enteritis or the presence of intussusception. In most cases, meaningful histological examination of enteric tissue was not possible due to pronounced autolysis. Two (2.9 per cent) of the samples were negative for adenovirus but were found to contain rotavirus particles, a novel finding in this species.

  6. Serious neck injuries in U19 rugby union players: an audit of admissions to spinal injury units in Great Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, James G B; Hutchison, James D

    2012-06-01

    To obtain data regarding admissions of U19 rugby players to spinal injury units in Great Britain and Ireland and to compare this with a recent peak in presentation in Scotland. To assess the current state of data collection and subsequent analysis of serious neck injuries. To analyse the mechanism of injury in this group of at-risk players. Retrospective case series. Spinal injury units in Great Britain and Ireland. Annual frequency of serious neck injuries. Analysis of injury types, neurological deficit and mechanism of injury. 36 Injuries were recorded. 10 Of these occurred in Scotland since 1996 of which six have occurred in the past 4 years. This compared with 14 in Ireland over the same period. 12 Cases were traced in England and Wales since 2000; records were not available before this date. No prospective collation of data is performed by the home unions and inconsistency of data collection exists. The mean age was 16.2 years. 16 Of the 36 admissions had complete neurological loss, 9 had incomplete neurological injury and 11 had cervical column injury without spinal cord damage. The mechanism of injury was tackle in 17 (47%), scrum in 13 (36%), two each due to the maul and collision, and one each due to a kick and a ruck. Some degree of spinal cord injury occurred in 92% of scrum injuries (61% complete) and 53% of tackle injuries (29% complete). U19 rugby players continue to sustain serious neck injuries necessitating admission to spinal injury units with a low but persistent frequency. The recent rate of admission in Scotland is disproportionately high when the respective estimated playing populations are considered. While more injuries were sustained in the tackle, spinal cord injury was significantly more common in neck injury sustained in the scrum (pscrum engagement and the tackle can be made safer.

  7. Smoking patterns in Great Britain: the rise of cheap cigarette brands and roll your own (RYO) tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Hiscock, Rosemary; Taylor, Gordon

    2015-03-01

    In Britain, the tobacco industry segments cigarettes into four price categories-premium, mid-price, economy and ultra-low-price (ULP). Our previous work shows that tobacco companies have kept ULP prices stable in real terms. Roll your own (RYO) tobacco remains cheaper still. Analysis of 2001-08 General Household Survey data to examine trends in use of these cheap products and, using logistic regression, the profile of users of these products. Among smokers, the proportion using cheap products (economy, ULP and RYO combined) increased significantly in almost all age groups and geographic areas. Increases were most marked in under 24 year olds, 76% of whom smoked cheap cigarettes by 2008. All cheap products were more commonly used in lower socio-economic groups. Men and younger smokers were more likely to smoke RYO while women smoked economy brands. Smokers outside London and the South East of England were more likely to smoke some form of cheap tobacco even once socio-economic differences were accounted for. This paper demonstrates that cheap tobacco use is increasing among young and disadvantaged smokers compromising declines in population smoking prevalence. Thus, tobacco industry pricing appears to play a key role in explaining smoking patterns and inequalities in smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  8. Geogenic lead isotope signatures from meat products in Great Britain: Potential for use in food authentication and supply chain traceability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jane A.; Pashley, Vanessa [NIGL, BGS, Keyworth, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Richards, Gemma J. [School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom); Brereton, Nicola [The Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom); Knowles, Toby G. [School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents lead (Pb) isotope data from samples of farm livestock raised in three areas of Britain that have elevated natural Pb levels: Central Wales, the Mendips and the Derbyshire Peak District. This study highlights three important observations; that the Pb found in modern British meat from these three areas is geogenic and shows no clear evidence of modern tetraethyl anthropogenic Pb contribution; that the generally excellent match between the biological samples and the ore field data, particularly for the Mendip and Welsh data, suggests that this technique might be used to provenance biological products to specific ore sites, under favourable conditions; and that modern systems reflect the same process of biosphere averaging that is analogous to cultural focusing in human archaeological studies that is the process of biological averaging leading to an homogenised isotope signature with increasing Pb concentration. - Highlights: • Lead (Pb) isotopes measured in modern British meat were geogenic in origin. • The match indicates that this technique may be used to provenance biological products. • There was no evidence for a contribution from modern anthropogenic Pb sources.

  9. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-09-01

    To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey. We compared 148 MSM aged 18-64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010-2012, with men in the same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS); 797 in the London Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey; and 1234 in Scotland's Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey. Analyses compared men reporting at least one male sexual partner (past year) on similarly worded questions and multivariable analyses accounted for sociodemographic differences between the surveys. MSM in convenience surveys were younger and better educated than MSM in Natsal-3, and a larger proportion identified as gay (85%-95% vs 62%). Partner numbers were higher and same-sex anal sex more common in convenience surveys. Unprotected anal intercourse was more commonly reported in EMIS. Compared with Natsal-3, MSM in convenience surveys were more likely to report gonorrhoea diagnoses and HIV testing (both past year). Differences between the samples were reduced when restricting analysis to gay-identifying MSM. National probability surveys better reflect the population of MSM but are limited by their smaller samples of MSM. Convenience surveys recruit larger samples of MSM but tend to over-represent MSM identifying as gay and reporting more sexual risk behaviours. Because both sampling strategies have strengths and weaknesses, methods are needed to triangulate data from probability and convenience surveys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Changes in the distribution of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in urban areas in Great Britain: findings and limitations of a media-driven nationwide survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Scott

    Full Text Available Urbanization is one of the major forms of habitat alteration occurring at the present time. Although this is typically deleterious to biodiversity, some species flourish within these human-modified landscapes, potentially leading to negative and/or positive interactions between people and wildlife. Hence, up-to-date assessment of urban wildlife populations is important for developing appropriate management strategies. Surveying urban wildlife is limited by land partition and private ownership, rendering many common survey techniques difficult. Garnering public involvement is one solution, but this method is constrained by the inherent biases of non-standardised survey effort associated with voluntary participation. We used a television-led media approach to solicit national participation in an online sightings survey to investigate changes in the distribution of urban foxes in Great Britain and to explore relationships between urban features and fox occurrence and sightings density. Our results show that media-based approaches can generate a large national database on the current distribution of a recognisable species. Fox distribution in England and Wales has changed markedly within the last 25 years, with sightings submitted from 91% of urban areas previously predicted to support few or no foxes. Data were highly skewed with 90% of urban areas having <30 fox sightings per 1000 people km(-2. The extent of total urban area was the only variable with a significant impact on both fox occurrence and sightings density in urban areas; longitude and percentage of public green urban space were respectively, significantly positively and negatively associated with sightings density only. Latitude, and distance to nearest neighbouring conurbation had no impact on either occurrence or sightings density. Given the limitations associated with this method, further investigations are needed to determine the association between sightings density and actual fox

  11. Edited Responses to the Danish Narrative "Per Smed's Whip" from Readers in Denmark, Great Britain, India, and Nigeria in the Folktale Project. Folktale: A Cross-Cultural, Interdisciplinary Study of the Experience of Literature. Paper 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollerup, Cay; And Others

    This paper, number eight in an ongoing series, is part of an interdisciplinary project on the context of reading and reading research that explores similarities and dissimilarities in the response to literature in readers from different cultures. Presented are the written responses from 129 readers in Denmark, Greenland, Great Britain, India, and…

  12. Style Congruency and Persuasion: A Cross-Cultural Study Into the Influence of Differences in Style Dimensions on the Persuasiveness of Business Newsletters in Great Britain and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, B.C.; Meurs, W.F.J. van; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Pair, R.G. le; Blanc-Damen, S. le

    2012-01-01

    Abstract—Research problem: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether style congruency on the dimensions succinct-elaborate and instrumental-affective influenced the persuasiveness of business newsletters in the Netherlands and Great Britain. Research question: Is a writing style mo

  13. Reducing young driver crash casualties in Great Britain - use of routine police crash data to estimate the potential benefits of graduated driver licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah J; Begg, Dorothy J; Palmer, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Crashes involving young drivers (YD) cause significant morbidity and mortality in Great Britain (GB). Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) is used in some countries to address this. This study assessed potential casualty and cost savings of possible GDL programmes in GB. Police road crash data were analysed to identify YD crashes at night or while carrying passengers. These data were then used to estimate the potential effects of GDL. 314,561 casualties and 3469 fatalities occurred in YD crashes. 25.1% of YD crashes occurred between 9 pm and 6 am and 24.4% occurred with a 15- to 24-year old passenger in the car. A 'strict' form of GDL in GB (night time restriction 9 pm-6 am, no 15-24 year old passengers) with 50% compliance would prevent 114 deaths and 872 serious casualties each year. The estimated value of prevention is £424M pa. A 'less strict' form of GDL (night time restriction 10 pm-5 am, maximum of one 15-19 year old passenger) with 50% compliance would prevent 81 deaths and 538 serious injuries. The estimated value of prevention is £273M pa. Implementing GDL in GB could save significant numbers of lives. Public health organisations have a duty to advocate for such legislation.

  14. Where are the horses? With the sheep or cows? Uncertain host location, vector-feeding preferences and the risk of African horse sickness transmission in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Robin, Charlotte A; Newton, J Richard; Gubbins, Simon; Wood, James L N

    2013-06-06

    Understanding the influence of non-susceptible hosts on vector-borne disease transmission is an important epidemiological problem. However, investigation of its impact can be complicated by uncertainty in the location of the hosts. Estimating the risk of transmission of African horse sickness (AHS) in Great Britain (GB), a virus transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, provides an insightful example because: (i) the patterns of risk are expected to be influenced by the presence of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts (cattle and sheep) and (ii) incomplete information on the spatial distribution of horses is available because the GB National Equine Database records owner, rather than horse, locations. Here, we combine land-use data with available horse owner distributions and, using a Bayesian approach, infer a realistic distribution for the location of horses. We estimate the risk of an outbreak of AHS in GB, using the basic reproduction number (R0), and demonstrate that mapping owner addresses as a proxy for horse location significantly underestimates the risk. We clarify the role of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts by showing that the risk of disease in the presence of many hosts (susceptible and non-susceptible) can be ultimately reduced to two fundamental factors: first, the abundance of vectors and how this depends on host density, and, second, the differential feeding preference of vectors among animal species.

  15. El estudio de la historia del Reino Unido y la tecnología educativa / IT supportedlearning of the history of Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Macias Macias

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The major in English Language was inaugurated in 2005 in the University of Camagüey, starting with the improved Syllabus “C”. Prevailing conditions in the Cuban economy cause that literature for teaching the vast number of students in higher education to become a critical issue for the teaching-learning process. Nonetheless, with the ever-increasing existence of computers, laptops, and tablets, the number of computer labs in schools, and the Youth Computer Clubs in neighborhoods, to provide computer products for independent study is one of the solutions to the aforementioned problem of literature. Out of this reality, there emerged the idea of developing a computer program as a teaching aid for the subject History of the English Speaking People (Great Britain, which will not only offer the contents for studying but also exercises to help assimilate these contents. The program was used in the second semester of the 15-16 school term with good results as exposed in this paper. Keywords: Foreign languages, IT, independent study, CALL

  16. Hand and Wrist Injuries in Elite Boxing: A Longitudinal Prospective Study (2005-2012) of the Great Britain Olympic Boxing Squad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosemore, Michael; Lightfoot, Joseph; Gatt, Ian; Hayton, Mike; Beardsley, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to explore prospectively the nature and duration of hand and wrist injuries in training and competition in the Great Britain (GB) amateur boxing squad between 2005 and 2012. Methods: Longitudinal prospective injury surveillance of the GB boxing squad was performed from 2005 to 2012. The location, region affected, description, and the duration of each injury were recorded by the team doctor and team physiotherapist. We recorded whether the injury occurred during competition or training and also whether it was a new or a recurrent injury. The injury rate during competition was calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 hours. Results: Finger carpometacarpal instability and finger metacarpophalangeal joint extensor hood and capsule sprain also known as "boxer's knuckle" injuries were significantly more common than other injury diagnoses. The number of injuries during training or competition was similar, which is remarkable given the far greater number of training hours than competition hours performed. Injury rate for hand and wrist injuries in competition was 347 injuries per 1000 hours, while the estimated injury rate in training was <0.5 injuries per 1000 hours. Conclusion: Carpometacarpal instability and boxer's knuckle were more common than any other kind of hand and wrist injury in this cohort of elite amateur boxers. The rate of hand and wrist injuries was higher in competition than in training. Our study highlights the importance of hand and wrist injury prevention in the competition environment.

  17. Britain's bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Richard

    2012-10-01

    On the 60th anniversary of Britain's first nuclear test, Richard Corfield explores how Operation Hurricane - the British effort to develop the atomic bomb in the 1940s and 1950s - compares with states such as Iran that today wish to have such devices.

  18. Beyond Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    Postwar Britain witnessed the concurrent evolution of two new intellectual movements which have since become institutionalized as two major academic fields of enquiry: cultural studies and postcolonial studies. Although both fields are enormously diverse, they have developed a parallel focus arou...

  19. Description of veterinary events and risk factors for fatality in National Hunt flat racing Thoroughbreds in Great Britain (2000-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S E; Rosanowski, S M; Stirk, A J; Verheyen, K L P

    2017-02-24

    No large-scale studies have described veterinary events occurring in National Hunt (NH) flat racing or investigated risk factors for fatality in this race type. To describe injuries and conditions requiring veterinary attendance on race day and to determine risk factors for racehorse fatality in NH flat racing in Great Britain. Retrospective cohort study (2000-2013). Information from all NH flat races held over the study period, including horse, race and veterinary event report details, was combined. Veterinary events were described by type and anatomical structure(s) affected. Incidence per 1000 starts were calculated for all veterinary events and by event group, and stratified by certain horse- and race-level variables. Risk factors for fatality were determined using multivariable logistic regression modelling. Over the 14-year study period, 544 veterinary events were recorded, providing an overall incidence of 13.0 events per 1000 starts. The most common events were bone injuries (23.5%) and tendon or ligament injuries (16.4%). A fatal outcome was recorded for 117 horses (21.5% of all events), resulting in an incidence of 2.9 deaths per 1000 starts. Odds of fatality were 4.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.59-11.82; P = 0.02) times higher in races restricted to conditional jockeys compared to those that were not. Horses starting in their first race experienced 1.44 (95% CI 1.00-2.08; P = 0.05) times the odds of death compared to those that had raced before. Classification of veterinary events frequently relied upon presumptive diagnosis. This study provides a benchmark for the ongoing surveillance of veterinary events in NH flat racing. These results support the phasing out of NH flat races restricted to conditional jockeys and highlight the need for further work to establish why NH flat racing Thoroughbreds competing in their first race are at increased risk for death. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  20. Comparing post-combustion CO2 capture operation at retrofitted coal-fired power plants in the Texas and Great Britain electric grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stuart M.; Chalmers, Hannah L.; Webber, Michael E.; King, Carey W.

    2011-04-01

    This work analyses the carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system operation within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and Great Britain (GB) electric grids using a previously developed first-order hourly electricity dispatch and pricing model. The grids are compared in their 2006 configuration with the addition of coal-based CO2 capture retrofits and emissions penalties from 0 to 100 US dollars per metric ton of CO2 (USD/tCO2). CO2 capture flexibility is investigated by comparing inflexible CO2 capture systems to flexible ones that can choose between full- and zero-load CO2 capture depending on which operating mode has lower costs or higher profits. Comparing these two grids is interesting because they have similar installed capacity and peak demand, and both are isolated electricity systems with competitive wholesale electricity markets. However, differences in capacity mix, demand patterns, and fuel markets produce diverging behaviours of CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Coal-fired facilities are primarily base load in ERCOT for a large range of CO2 prices but are comparably later in the dispatch order in GB and consequently often supply intermediate load. As a result, the ability to capture CO2 is more important for ensuring dispatch of coal-fired facilities in GB than in ERCOT when CO2 prices are high. In GB, higher overall coal prices mean that CO2 prices must be slightly higher than in ERCOT before the emissions savings of CO2 capture offset capture energy costs. However, once CO2 capture is economical, operating CO2 capture on half the coal fleet in each grid achieves greater emissions reductions in GB because the total coal-based capacity is 6 GW greater than in ERCOT. The market characteristics studied suggest greater opportunity for flexible CO2 capture to improve operating profits in ERCOT, but profit improvements can be offset by a flexibility cost penalty.

  1. Exploring Attitudes and Beliefs towards Implementing Cattle Disease Prevention and Control Measures: A Qualitative Study with Dairy Farmers in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L. Brennan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Disease prevention and control practices are frequently highlighted as important to ensure the health and welfare of farmed animals, although little is known as to why not many practices are carried out. The aim of this study was to identify the motivators and barriers of dairy cattle farmers towards the use of biosecurity measures on dairy farms using a health psychology approach. Twenty-five farmers on 24 farms in Great Britain (GB were interviewed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. Results indicated that farmers perceived they had the ability to control what happened on their farms in terms of preventing and controlling disease, and described benefits from being proactive and vigilant. However, barriers were cited in relation to testing inaccuracies, effectiveness and time-efficiency of practices, and disease transmission route (e.g., airborne transmission. Farmers reported they were positively influenced by veterinarians and negatively influenced by the government (Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA and the general public. Decisions to implement practices were influenced by the perceived severity of the disease in question, if disease was diagnosed on the farm already, or was occurring on other farms. Farmers described undertaking a form of personal risk assessment when deciding if practices were worth doing, which did not always involve building in disease specific factors or opinions from veterinarians or other advisors. These results indicate that further guidance about the intricacies of control and prevention principles in relation to specific animal diseases may be required, with an obvious role for veterinarians. There appears to be an opportunity for farm advisors and herd health professionals to further understand farmer beliefs behind certain attitudes and target communication and advice accordingly to further enhance dairy cattle health and welfare.

  2. Exploring Attitudes and Beliefs towards Implementing Cattle Disease Prevention and Control Measures: A Qualitative Study with Dairy Farmers in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Marnie L; Wright, Nick; Wapenaar, Wendela; Jarratt, Susanne; Hobson-West, Pru; Richens, Imogen F; Kaler, Jasmeet; Buchanan, Heather; Huxley, Jonathan N; O'Connor, Heather M

    2016-10-11

    Disease prevention and control practices are frequently highlighted as important to ensure the health and welfare of farmed animals, although little is known as to why not many practices are carried out. The aim of this study was to identify the motivators and barriers of dairy cattle farmers towards the use of biosecurity measures on dairy farms using a health psychology approach. Twenty-five farmers on 24 farms in Great Britain (GB) were interviewed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. Results indicated that farmers perceived they had the ability to control what happened on their farms in terms of preventing and controlling disease, and described benefits from being proactive and vigilant. However, barriers were cited in relation to testing inaccuracies, effectiveness and time-efficiency of practices, and disease transmission route (e.g., airborne transmission). Farmers reported they were positively influenced by veterinarians and negatively influenced by the government (Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA)) and the general public. Decisions to implement practices were influenced by the perceived severity of the disease in question, if disease was diagnosed on the farm already, or was occurring on other farms. Farmers described undertaking a form of personal risk assessment when deciding if practices were worth doing, which did not always involve building in disease specific factors or opinions from veterinarians or other advisors. These results indicate that further guidance about the intricacies of control and prevention principles in relation to specific animal diseases may be required, with an obvious role for veterinarians. There appears to be an opportunity for farm advisors and herd health professionals to further understand farmer beliefs behind certain attitudes and target communication and advice accordingly to further enhance dairy cattle health and welfare.

  3. Responses to diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis in dairy and non-dairy cattle naturally exposed to Mycobacterium bovis in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, S H; Broughan, J M; Goodchild, A V; Upton, P A; Durr, P A

    2016-10-01

    Field surveillance of British cattle using the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test shows a higher incidence rate of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in dairy compared to beef herds, but a lower probability of post-mortem examination confirmed (PMC) Mycobacterium bovis infection in dairy herds. A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare animal level differences in bTB detection between dairy and non-dairy cattle in Great Britain. During the period from 2002 to 2005, 200 (41% dairy) reactors in the SICCT test (standard interpretation) were randomly selected, and 200 in-contact cattle (43% dairy) were purposively selected from bTB-infected herds. Interferon (IFN)-γ responses in blood to bovine and avian purified protein derivative (PPD), and early secretory antigen target 6 kDa and culture filtrate protein 10 (ESAT-6/CFP10), were measured. The post-mortem examination included gross pathological examination, mycobacterial culture and histopathology. The proportions of cattle positive to ESAT6/CFP10 were 26% (95% confidence interval, CI, 15-39%) in dairy reactors and 62% (95% CI 51-72%) in non-dairy reactors (P dairy reactors and 69% (95% CI 60-78%) in non-dairy reactors (P dairy reactors compared to non-dairy reactors, after controlling for bTB prevalence, herd size and SICCT test response, was 0.27 (95% CI 0.14-0.53; P dairy reactors than for beef reactors aged >2 years (P <0.001).

  4. Physical activity and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in diabetic adults from Great Britain: pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadarangani, Kabir P; Hamer, Mark; Mindell, Jenny S; Coombs, Ngaire A; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine associations between specific types of physical activity and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a large nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes from Great Britain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS There were a total of 3,038 participants (675 deaths) with diabetes in the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Surveys conducted between 1997 and 2008. Participants aged ≥50 years at baseline were followed up for an average of 75.2 months for all-cause and CVD mortality. Data were collected on self-reported frequency, duration, and intensity of participation in sports and exercise, walking, and domestic physical activity, from which the number of MET-hours/week were derived. Sex-specific medians of time spent in each type of physical activity (for those physically active) were calculated, and Cox proportional hazards regression conducted to examine type-specific associations between the level of physical activity and all-cause and CVD mortality risk. RESULTS Inverse associations with all-cause and CVD mortality were observed for overall physical activity in a dose-response manner after adjusting for covariates. Compared with those who individuals were inactive, participants who reported some activity, but below the recommended amount, or who met the physical activity recommendations had a 26% (95% CI 39-11) and 35% (95% CI 47-21) lower all-cause mortality, respectively. Similar results were found for below/above median physical activity levels. Sports and exercise participation was inversely associated with all-cause (but not CVD) mortality, as were above average levels of walking. Domestic physical activity was not associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS Moderate physical activity levels were associated with better prognosis in diabetic adults.

  5. Non-European Union doctors in the National Health Service: why, when and how do they come to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Edward B

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As many as 30% of doctors working for the National Health System (NHS of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK have obtained their primary qualifications from a country outside the European Union. However, factors driving this migration of doctors to the UK merit continuing exploration. Our objective was to obtain training and employment profile of UK doctors who obtained their primary medical qualification outside the European Union (non-European doctors and to assess self-reported reasons for their migration. Methods We conducted an online survey of non-European doctors using a pre-validated questionnaire. Results One thousand six hundred and nineteen doctors of 26 different nationalities completed the survey. Of the respondents, 90.1% were from India and over three-quarters migrated to the UK mainly for 'training'. Other reasons cited were 'better pay' (7.2%, 'better work environment' (7.1% and 'having family and friends in the UK' (2.8%. Many of the respondents have been in the UK for more than a year (88.8%, with 31.3% having spent more than 3 years gaining experience of working in the NHS. Most respondents believe they will be affected by recent changes to UK immigration policy (86.6%, few report that they would be unaffected (3.7% and the rest are unsure (9.8%. Conclusion The primary reason for many non-European doctors to migrate to the UK is for training within the NHS. Secondary reasons like better pay, better work environment and having friends and family in the UK also play a role in attracting these doctors, predominantly from the Indian subcontinent and other British Commonwealth countries.

  6. The history and role of the criminal law in anti-FGM campaigns: Is the criminal law what is needed, at least in countries like Great Britain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berer, Marge

    2015-11-01

    The history of campaigns against female genital mutilation (FGM) began in the 1920s. From the beginning, it was recognised that FGM was considered an important rite of passage between childhood and adulthood for girls, based on the importance of controlling female sexuality to maintain chastity and family honour, and to make girls marriageable. How to separate the "cut" from these deeply held norms is a question not yet adequately answered, yet I believe the answer is key to stopping the practice. Since the 1994 ICPD, national and international action against FGM has grown and resolutions have been passed in global forums which define FGM as a form of violence and a violation of children's human rights. These resolutions have contributed to building consensus against FGM and developing national legislation criminalising FGM. Prosecutions or arrests involving FGM have been reported in several African countries and Great Britain, but apart from France, there have been very few. This paper summarises this history and how FGM has been criminalised. It argues that criminalisation may not be the best means of stopping FGM, but can have serious harmful effects itself. It calls for community-led educational information and more support for dialogue within FGM-practising communities, and argues that what is important is addressing the sexual and reproductive health consequences of FGM and gaining the understanding of women who have experienced it and their families as to why they should not make their daughters and grand-daughters go through it too. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Repercussions of the Spanish War of 1808 on Great Britain La repercusión de la guerra de 1808 en Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. ESDAILE

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In Great Britain the news that Spain had risen in revolt against the forces of Napoleon Bonaparte became the sensation of the year. Brought in the first instance by a delegation sent from the province of Asturias by its traditional assembly, it gave rise to a great wave of joy and excitement that found expression bothin the press and in the actions of the Tory government of Lord Portland, which immediately decided to send an expeditionary force to succour the Patriot cause. It was a moment of real national unity: despite their increasing misgivings with respect to the war against Napoleon, even the opposition Whigs shared in the general jubilation.This article examines the reasons for this phenomenon, and argues that they were founded more on the desperate military, political and economic situation in which the British found themselves than on a realistic appreciation of the capacities of the Spanish insurgents. From disillusionment to which the hope of June 1808 gave way, there stemmed many of the problems that so troubled Anglo-Spanish relations IN the six years of war that followed.En Gran Bretaña las noticias de que España se había alzado contra las fuerzas de Napoleón Bonaparte se convirtió en la sensación del año. Comunicadas por medio de una delegación enviada desde la provincia de Asturias por la Asamblea Tradicional, dieron lugar a una oleada de júbilo y excitación que se expresó tanto en la prensa como en la actuación del gobierno Tory de lord Portland, el cual inmediatamente decidió enviar un cuerpo expedicionario para ayudar a la causa patriota. Fue un momento de gran unión nacional, a pesar de sus sospechas crecientes respecto de la Guerra en contra de Napoleón.En este artículo se examinan las razones de este fenómeno, las cuales se centraron más en una apreciación errónea de las verdaderas razones de la insurrección española. De aquí la desilusión que sucedió a la esperanza de junio de 1808 y muchos de los

  8. Britain and Europe: what ways forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold James

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed some of the reasons why Britain participated only half-way in the European Union and ended up voting for Bremen on 23 June 2016. It also examines the options open to the European Union and Great Britain. Europe must show that it can work by showing results. In Britain it is necessary to break the established molds of thought and reshape the structure of political parties

  9. Future Flows Hydrology: an ensemble of daily river flow and monthly groundwater levels for use for climate change impact assessment across Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prudhomme

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dataset Future Flows Hydrology was developed as part of the project "Future Flows and Groundwater Levels" to provide a consistent set of transient daily river flow and monthly groundwater levels projections across England, Wales and Scotland to enable the investigation of the role of climate variability on river flow and groundwater levels nationally and how this may change in the future.

    Future Flows Hydrology is derived from Future Flows Climate, a national ensemble projection derived from the Hadley Centre's ensemble projection HadRM3-PPE to provide a consistent set of climate change projections for the whole of Great Britain at both space and time resolutions appropriate for hydrological applications. Three hydrological models and one groundwater level model were used to derive Future Flows Hydrology, with 30 river sites simulated by two hydrological models to enable assessment of hydrological modelling uncertainty in studying the impact of climate change on the hydrology.

    Future Flows Hydrology contains an 11-member ensemble of transient projections from January 1951 to December 2098, each associated with a single realisation from a different variant of HadRM3 and a single hydrological model. Daily river flows are provided for 281 river catchments and monthly groundwater levels at 24 boreholes as .csv files containing all 11 ensemble members. When separate simulations are done with two hydrological models, two separate .csv files are provided.

    Because of potential biases in the climate-hydrology modelling chain, catchment fact sheets are associated with each ensemble. These contain information on the uncertainty associated with the hydrological modelling when driven using observed climate and Future Flows Climate for a period representative of the reference time slice 1961–1990 as described by key hydrological statistics. Graphs of projected changes for selected hydrological indicators are also provided for

  10. Future Flows Hydrology: an ensemble of daily river flow and monthly groundwater levels for use for climate change impact assessment across Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prudhomme

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The dataset Future Flows Hydrology was developed as part of the project "Future Flows and Groundwater Levels'' to provide a consistent set of transient daily river flow and monthly groundwater level projections across England, Wales and Scotland to enable the investigation of the role of climate variability on river flow and groundwater levels nationally and how this may change in the future. Future Flows Hydrology is derived from Future Flows Climate, a national ensemble projection derived from the Hadley Centre's ensemble projection HadRM3-PPE to provide a consistent set of climate change projections for the whole of Great Britain at both space and time resolutions appropriate for hydrological applications. Three hydrological models and one groundwater level model were used to derive Future Flows Hydrology, with 30 river sites simulated by two hydrological models to enable assessment of hydrological modelling uncertainty in studying the impact of climate change on the hydrology. Future Flows Hydrology contains an 11-member ensemble of transient projections from January 1951 to December 2098, each associated with a single realisation from a different variant of HadRM3 and a single hydrological model. Daily river flows are provided for 281 river catchments and monthly groundwater levels at 24 boreholes as .csv files containing all 11 ensemble members. When separate simulations are done with two hydrological models, two separate .csv files are provided. Because of potential biases in the climate–hydrology modelling chain, catchment fact sheets are associated with each ensemble. These contain information on the uncertainty associated with the hydrological modelling when driven using observed climate and Future Flows Climate for a period representative of the reference time slice 1961–1990 as described by key hydrological statistics. Graphs of projected changes for selected hydrological indicators are also provided for the 2050s time slice

  11. A longitudinal study of factors associated with acute and chronic mastitis and their impact on lamb growth rate in 10 suckler sheep flocks in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Claire; Smith, Edward Mark; Green, Laura Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    A 2-year prospective, longitudinal study of 10 suckler sheep flocks in Great Britain was run to identify factors associated with acute mastitis (AM) and chronic mastitis, and their impact on lamb growth rate. Data were collected on AM, intramammary masses (IMM; a marker for chronic mastitis), udder and teat conformation, teat lesions, body condition, ewe nutrition, litter size, lamb weight and general flock management. Each flock was visited twice each year, approximately 4 weeks before lambing and 9 weeks into lactation, for two years and all ewes present at a visit were examined. There were 7021 examinations in total. AM was reported in 2.1-3.0% of ewes/year; this ranged from 0.0% to 37.1% by flock. IMM were detected in 4.7% of ewes in pregnancy and 10.9% of ewes in lactation. Once an IMM had been detected there was an increased risk of future IMM although IMM were not consistently present. The majority of ewes had good udder conformation to suckle lambs. Factors associated with AM, IMM in pregnant and lactating ewes, udder conformation and lamb daily live weight gain were explored using mixed effect multivariable models. An increased risk of AM was associated with underfeeding protein in pregnancy (OR 4.05), forward pointing teats (OR 2.54), downward pointing teats (OR 4.68), rearing≥2 lambs (OR 2.65), non-traumatic teat lesions (OR 2.09); and marginally associated with the presence of IMM. An increased risk of IMM in lactation was associated with AM during lactation (OR 12.39), IMM in pregnancy (OR 4.79), IMM in the previous lactation (OR 4.77), underfeeding energy in pregnancy (OR 6.66) and traumatic teat lesions (OR 2.48). An increased risk of IMM in pregnancy was associated with IMM in the previous pregnancy, IMM in the previous lactation and underfeeding energy in the previous lactation (OR 2.95). Lower lamb daily live weight gain was associated with traumatic teat lesions, IMM in lactation (-0.01kg/day) and AM (-0.04kg/day). We conclude that inadequate

  12. Hillslope gullying in the Solway Firth — Morecambe Bay region, Great Britain: Responses to human impact and/or climatic deterioration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiverrell, R. C.; Harvey, A. M.; Foster, G. C.

    2007-02-01

    In the Solway Firth — Morecambe Bay region of Great Britain there is evidence for heightened hillslope instability during the late Holocene (after 3000 cal. BP). Little or no hillslope geomorphic activity has been identified occurring during the early Holocene, but there is abundant evidence for late Holocene hillslope erosion (gullying) and associated alluvial fan and valley floor deposition. Interpretation of the regional radiocarbon chronology available from organic matter buried beneath alluvial fan units suggests much of this geomorphic activity can be attributed to four phases of more extensive gullying identified after 2500-2200, 1300-1000, 1000-800 and 500 cal. BP. Both climate and human impact models can be evoked to explain the crossing of geomorphic thresholds: and palaeoecological data on climatic change (bog surface wetness) and human impact (pollen), together with archaeological and documentary evidence of landscape history, provide a context for addressing the causes of late Holocene geomorphic instability. High magnitude storm events are the primary agent responsible for gully incision, but neither such events nor cooler/wetter climatic episodes appear to have produced gully systems in the region before 3000 cal. BP. Increased gullying after 2500-2200 cal. BP coincides with population expansion during Iron Age and Romano-British times. The widespread and extensive gullying after 1300-1000 cal. BP and after 1000-800 cal. BP coincides with periods of population expansion and a growing rural economy identified during Norse times, 9-10th centuries AD, and during the Medieval Period, 12-13th centuries AD. These periods were separated by a downturn associated with the 'harrying of the north' AD 1069 to 1070. The gullying episode after 500 cal. BP also coincides with increased anthropogenic pressure on the uplands, with population growth and agricultural expansion after AD 1500 following 150 years of malaise caused by livestock and human (the Black Death

  13. Price promotions on healthier compared with less healthy foods: a hierarchical regression analysis of the impact on sales and social patterning of responses to promotions in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Pechey, Rachel; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing concern, but limited evidence, that price promotions contribute to a poor diet and the social patterning of diet-related disease. We examined the following questions: 1) Are less-healthy foods more likely to be promoted than healthier foods? 2) Are consumers more responsive to promotions on less-healthy products? 3) Are there socioeconomic differences in food purchases in response to price promotions? With the use of hierarchical regression, we analyzed data on purchases of 11,323 products within 135 food and beverage categories from 26,986 households in Great Britain during 2010. Major supermarkets operated the same price promotions in all branches. The number of stores that offered price promotions on each product for each week was used to measure the frequency of price promotions. We assessed the healthiness of each product by using a nutrient profiling (NP) model. A total of 6788 products (60%) were in healthier categories and 4535 products (40%) were in less-healthy categories. There was no significant gap in the frequency of promotion by the healthiness of products neither within nor between categories. However, after we controlled for the reference price, price discount rate, and brand-specific effects, the sales uplift arising from price promotions was larger in less-healthy than in healthier categories; a 1-SD point increase in the category mean NP score, implying the category becomes less healthy, was associated with an additional 7.7-percentage point increase in sales (from 27.3% to 35.0%; P sales uplift from promotions was larger for higher-socioeconomic status (SES) groups than for lower ones (34.6% for the high-SES group, 28.1% for the middle-SES group, and 23.1% for the low-SES group). Finally, there was no significant SES gap in the absolute volume of purchases of less-healthy foods made on promotion. Attempts to limit promotions on less-healthy foods could improve the population diet but would be unlikely to reduce health

  14. Exploring Attitudes and Beliefs towards Implementing Cattle Disease Prevention and Control Measures: A Qualitative Study with Dairy Farmers in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Marnie L.; Wright, Nick; Wapenaar, Wendela; Jarratt, Susanne; Hobson-West, Pru; Richens, Imogen F.; Kaler, Jasmeet; Buchanan, Heather; Huxley, Jonathan N.; O’Connor, Heather M.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Further understanding of why dairy farmers do not engage in disease prevention and control strategies (biosecurity) is required. Using semi-structured interviews informed by a health psychology approach with 25 dairy farmers, a number of barriers, such as disease testing inaccuracies, types of disease transmission, perceived lack of risk and effectiveness of measures, were identified. Motivators included being advised to undertake measures by veterinarians, and the increased threat and severity of the disease in focus. These results suggest there is an advantage to farm advisors and herd health professionals understanding and working with the beliefs of individual dairy farmers to target appropriate communication and advice strategies relating to biosecurity recommendations. Abstract Disease prevention and control practices are frequently highlighted as important to ensure the health and welfare of farmed animals, although little is known as to why not many practices are carried out. The aim of this study was to identify the motivators and barriers of dairy cattle farmers towards the use of biosecurity measures on dairy farms using a health psychology approach. Twenty-five farmers on 24 farms in Great Britain (GB) were interviewed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. Results indicated that farmers perceived they had the ability to control what happened on their farms in terms of preventing and controlling disease, and described benefits from being proactive and vigilant. However, barriers were cited in relation to testing inaccuracies, effectiveness and time-efficiency of practices, and disease transmission route (e.g., airborne transmission). Farmers reported they were positively influenced by veterinarians and negatively influenced by the government (Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA)) and the general public. Decisions to implement practices were influenced by the perceived severity of the disease in question, if

  15. Britain Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    provides introductions to prominent ideas, social, political, and cultural critique and responses, all of contemporary relevance. In addition to providing the necessary basic and factual information, the book and its homepage suggest student assignments, topics for presentations and essays, and literature...... for further reading.. The chapters of the book are organized thematically and arranged in balanced and substantial modules. This means that each chapter can stand alone and need not be read or taught as part of a particular sequence. This allows lecturers to easily design a course on the basis of Britain...

  16. Towards monitoring of geohazards with ESA's Sentinel-1 C-band SAR data: nationwide feasibility mapping over Great Britain calibrated using ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT PSI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Francesca; Bateson, Luke; Dashwood, Claire; Jordan, Colm

    2013-04-01

    Following the success of its predecessors ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT, ESA's Sentinel-1 constellation will provide routine, free of charge and globally-available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observations of the Earth's surface starting in 2013, with 12day repeat cycle and up to 5m spatial resolution. The upcoming availability of this unprecedented and long-term radar-based observation capacity is stimulating new scientific and operational perspectives within the geohazards and land monitoring community, who initiated and is being working on target preparatory studies to exploit this attractive and rich reservoir of SAR data for, among others, interferometric applications. The Earth and Planetary Observation and Monitoring, and the Shallow Geohazards and Risks Teams of the British Geological Survey (BGS) are routinely assessing new technologies for geohazard mapping, and carrying out innovative research to improve the understanding of landslide processes and their dynamics. Building upon the successful achievements of recent applications of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) to geohazards mapping and monitoring in Europe, and with the aim of enhancing further the research on radar EO for landslide management in Britain, since the beginning of 2012 the BGS has been carrying out a research project funded by internal NERC grants aimed at evaluating the potential of these techniques to better understand landslide processes over Great Britain. We mapped the PSI feasibility over the entire landmass, based on the combination of topographic and landuse effects which were modelled by using medium to high resolution DEMs, land cover information from the EEA CORINE Land Cover map 2006, and six PSI datasets over London, Stoke-on-Trent, Bristol/Bath, and the Northumberland-Durham region, made available to BGS through the projects ESA-GMES Terrafirma and EC-FP7 PanGeo. The feasibility maps for the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT ascending and descending modes showed that topography is not

  17. GREENHOUSE BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Haley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We believe that the cultural landscape is largely formed by the dominant cultures of a place. “It is formed by a sometimes conflicted, sometimes consensual discourse or narrative from an array of stories, observations and intentions, first spoken by people of these dominant cultures and thereafter enacted on the ground. To our view, such a story has certain fluidity about it, and may change directions for any number of reasons. This work, Greenhouse Britain, is designed literally to express what the risingof waters would mean to the landscape of the island. It takes the 3 positions of defense, withdrawal and then defense, withdrawal to the high grounds. We suggest that the existing plans for greenhouse emissions control will be insufficient to keep temperature rise at 2° or less. In fact, we believe that the tipping point is past. In this context, the rising ocean becomes a form determinant. By “form determinant”, we mean, the rising ocean will determine many of the new forms that culture, industry and many other elements of civilization will have to take. There is another piece of this picture that we wish to give Voice to. That is up until this present rising of the world oceans, the creators of Western civilization have held and enacted the belief that all limitations in the physical world, particularly in the ecological world are there to be used and overcome. We think that the rising ocean is an opportunity for transformation, but it is exactly the reverse of a new frontier to overcome from civilization’s perspective. Now, from the ocean’s perspective, its boundary is perhaps a continuing, evolving transforming new frontier. Therefore, assuming a rapid rise of waters, even for a modest 5 meters in 100 years, there are apparently no models of precedence, no information, design, nor planning on the table, with the exception of ocean defenses and typical development models, albeit more energy efficient ones. It is the intention of

  18. A Delphi study to develop the Association for Palliative Medicine consensus syllabus for undergraduate palliative medicine in Great Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, P; Wee, B

    2008-06-01

    The Association for Palliative Medicine (APM) produced a previous undergraduate palliative medicine syllabus in 1992. This study describes the process of developing the new APM consensus syllabus against the background of changes in medical education and palliative medicine since 1992. The syllabus was derived by means of a Delphi study carried out amongst experts in palliative medicine across Britain and Ireland. Forty-three participants agreed to take part. Three rounds of the Delphi study took place. Consensus (75% agreement) was achieved in over 90% of the outcomes. The new syllabus is broken down into the following sections: basic principles, physical care, psychosocial care, culture, language, religious and spiritual issues, ethics and legal frameworks. Learning outcomes are categorised as essential or desirable. Using a Delphi study, we have developed a consensus syllabus for undergraduate palliative medicine. This is sufficiently flexible to allow all medical schools to ensure that their students achieve the essential learning outcomes by the time they graduate, whereas those with more generous curricular space will additionally be able to deliver selected desirable learning outcomes.

  19. 9 April 2013 - Minister for Universities and Science United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland D. Willetts in the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Beams Department Head P. Collier. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Editor at the Communication Group K. Kahle and Beams Department Engineer R. Veness present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    9 April 2013 - Minister for Universities and Science United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland D. Willetts in the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Beams Department Head P. Collier. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Editor at the Communication Group K. Kahle and Beams Department Engineer R. Veness present.

  20. 6 March 2013 - Committee for Employment and Learning, Northern Ireland Legislative Assembly, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the LHC tunnel and visiting the LHCb experiment at LHC Point 8. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers with Vice-Chair T. Buchanan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    6 March 2013 - Committee for Employment and Learning, Northern Ireland Legislative Assembly, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the LHC tunnel and visiting the LHCb experiment at LHC Point 8. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers with Vice-Chair T. Buchanan.

  1. 27 June 2012 - Ambassador K. Pierce, Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Department Head P. Collier and CMS control room with Former Collaboration Spokesperson J. Virdee.

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent Egli

    2012-01-01

    27 June 2012 - Ambassador K. Pierce, Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Department Head P. Collier and CMS control room with Former Collaboration Spokesperson J. Virdee.

  2. Take detection,prevention and treatment of superbugs seriously: interpretation and deliberation of the Guidance on Carbapenem Resistance Producers published by National Health Service of Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi SHI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The term "superbugs" refers to microbes with resistance to almost all antibiotics specifically recommended for the treatment.The infection caused by Gram negative bacilli with resistance to carbapenem antibiotics has posed a great challenge to clinical work in recent years,and it has become tougher with the improper use of antibiotics.As for prevention from formation and spread of carbapenem resistance producers,detection and monitoring of carbapenemase should be strengthened,in which the engagement of the board and executive of hospitals,quality control in laboratory,optimized and proper use of antibiotics,and prevention of hospital infection are of great importance.

  3. Revision of the types of species of Alloxysta described by Cameron and Fergusson (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Charipinae and deposited in the Natural History Museum (London, including a key to the fauna of Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli Pujade-Villar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Type material of the species of Alloxysta described by Cameron and Fergusson and deposited in the Natural History Museum of London has been revised. Seven species are considered valid: Alloxysta abdera Fergusson, 1986, A. basimacula (Cameron, 1886, A. crassa (Cameron, 1889, A. mullensis (Cameron, 1883, A. piceomaculata (Cameron, 1883, A. pleuralis (Cameron, 1879 and A. semiaperta Fergusson, 1986. A. basimacula, A. crassa, A. maculicollis (Cameron, 1886, A. perplexa (Cameron, 1889 and A. piceomaculata are here removed from synonymy with A. macrophadna (Hartig,1841. A. ruficeps (Cameron, 1883 is removed from synonymy with A. victrix (Westwood, 1833. A. caledonica (Cameron, 1886 and A. perplexa are here synonymized with A. basimacula. A. maculicollis, A. ruficeps and A. ruficollis (Cameron, 1883 are here synonymized with A. castanea (Hartig, 1841. A. ancylocera (Cameron, 1886 was correctly synonymized with A. fuscicornis (Hartig, 1841, A. curvicornis (Cameron, 1883 was correctly synonymized with A. victrix and A. filicornis (Cameron, 1889 was correctly synonymized with A. macrophadna. Complete redescriptions and illustrations are given for valid species. A key for all the Alloxysta species found so far in Great Britain is given.

  4. REVISITING PUBLIC SPACE IN POST-WAR SOCIAL HOUSING IN GREAT BRITAIN / Repensando el espacio público de las viviendas sociales de post-guerra en Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sendra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY This paper addresses the issue of the urban obsolescence of public space of social housing neighbourhoods built during the post-war period in Great Britain. Great Britain has been chosen because of the active role played by modern architects in the construction of the welfare state advocated by post-war governments, which involved building large areas of social housing. The aims of this paper are to understand the context in which these neighbourhoods were built as well as their evolution and the complexity of their obsolescence. To achieve these objectives, it first looks at the causes that prompted the slum clearance process, at its implementation during the post-war reconstruction and at the effects that this process has had on contemporary cities. Secondly, it is illustrated through a detailed analysis of a case study, Loughborough Estate in Brixton, London, looking at the initial conditions of the council estate when it was built, investigating its evolution over the past five decades and factors that may have contributed to the obsolescence of its public space and to its social problems. The paper concludes with a warning that a generalist critique of modern architecture does not solve the problems of such neighbourhoods, but a substantial intervention on the public space is needed to bring them to life. These interventions should focus on the spatial configuration of public space and its design and maintenance.RESUMEN Este artículo aborda la cuestión de la obsolescencia urbana del espacio público en las barriadas de viviendas sociales construidas durante el periodo de post-guerra en Gran Bretaña. Se ha escogido el caso de Gran Bretaña debido al papel tan activo que tuvieron los arquitectos del movimiento moderno en la construcción del estado del bienestar, por la que abogaron los gobiernos de post-guerra y la cual implicó la construcción de una gran cantidad de viviendas. Los objetivos de este artículo son comprender el

  5. Preferences for care towards the end of life when decision-making capacity may be impaired: A large scale cross-sectional survey of public attitudes in Great Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gemma; Fistein, Elizabeth; Holland, Anthony; Barclay, Matthew; Theimann, Pia; Barclay, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    There is continuing public debate about treatment preferences at the end of life, and the acceptability and legal status of treatments that sustain or end life. However, most surveys use binary yes/no measures, and little is known about preferences in neurological disease when decision-making capacity is lost, as most studies focus on cancer. This study investigates changes in public preferences for care towards the end of life, with a focus on measures to sustain or end life. Large-scale international public opinion surveys using a six-stage patient vignette, respondents chose a level of intervention for each stage as health and decision-making capacity deteriorated. Cross-sectional representative samples of the general public in Great Britain and the USA (N = 2016). Primary outcome measure: changes in respondents' preferences for care, measured on a four-point scale designed before data collection. The scale ranged from: maintaining life at all costs; to intervention with agreement; to no intervention; to measures for ending life. There were no significant differences between GB and USA. Preference for measures to sustain life at all costs peaked at short-term memory loss (30.2%, n = 610). Respondents selecting 'measures to help me die peacefully' increased from 3.9% to 37.0% as the condition deteriorated, with the largest increase occurring when decision-making capacity was lost (10.3% to 23.0%). Predictors of choosing 'measures to help me die peacefully' at any stage were: previous personal experience (OR = 1.34, pdecision-making capacity was compromised, which increased as dementia progressed. In contrast, a significant number chose preservation of life at all costs, even in end stage dementia. It is challenging to respect the longstanding values of people with dementia concerning either the inviolability of life or personal autonomy, whilst protecting those without decision-making capacity.

  6. Labor Law and Practice in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douty, H.M.

    This 4-part report is one of a series prepared to provide background material for United States businessmen and others employing local workers abroad, trade union and labor specialists, consulting economists, and students. The data used were obtained from personnel in London's Departments of Employment, Health and Social Security, the Commission…

  7. GREAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY SUPREME AUDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobre Cornelia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Overall progress recorded in contemporary society, has increased at the same time the aspirations and expectations of the population, marked by phenomena which are based on the financial policy of the Executive. Of course, for the legislature to know the financial activity carried out by the Executive Board, in each State was established a Supreme Audit Institution (SAI, whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution, as it is in Germany, or by law, as is the case of the United Kingdom. The variety of powers of supreme audit, is the result of various economic areas, each demonstrations through specific activities and suitable approaches to organizational cultures, which gives them their distinct identities. The work is conducted under the public responsibility with an emphasis on developing and improving continuously audit methodologies to present best practices. The two supreme institutions operate according to an annual plan of action which includes financial audit or regularity and performance auditing actions, and additional Federal Court of Audit of Germany practice preventive control institutions contained in its area of activity. By tradition, the role of supreme consists of the evaluation as regards the legality and regularity of financial management and accounting, but since the 80's but it was noticeable trend internationally to audit performance or "value for money" (United Kingdom, since the latter refers to the essence of the problem and is the final attainment of the envisaged at the time of allocation of resources. The topic researched is distinguished by originality, marked being the fact that a area so important as that of external public audit is least known works, and I wish to point out the vacuum bibliographic Supreme Audit Institutions experience in the international arena and beyond. Research methodology consists in the evaluation of resources in the area, using foreign literature. For the study of the subject of this material have been followed the official sites of the Federal Court of Audit of Germany and of the National Audit Office of United Kindom, including consulting on hypothetical case studies submitted by the specialists of the two institutions on the occasion of seminars held at the Romanian Court of Auditors. This work focuses on developing institutional development,role, experience and traditions performed in the field of external public audit, as well as their relationship with the Parliament, including the measures taken as a result of recovery audit reports. Thus, the supreme institutions analysed may constitute "models" for Romania's economic reality. In our opinion, any "model" should be adapted to the situation on the field and in this case the model becomes the solution. An assessment of the current business of the supreme audit institutions, we ask where is heading and how they will look in the future. Perhaps the future will provide this response.

  8. Social encounter networks: characterizing Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danon, Leon; Read, Jonathan M; House, Thomas A; Vernon, Matthew C; Keeling, Matt J

    2013-08-22

    A major goal of infectious disease epidemiology is to understand and predict the spread of infections within human populations, with the intention of better informing decisions regarding control and intervention. However, the development of fully mechanistic models of transmission requires a quantitative understanding of social interactions and collective properties of social networks. We performed a cross-sectional study of the social contacts on given days for more than 5000 respondents in England, Scotland and Wales, through postal and online survey methods. The survey was designed to elicit detailed and previously unreported measures of the immediate social network of participants relevant to infection spread. Here, we describe individual-level contact patterns, focusing on the range of heterogeneity observed and discuss the correlations between contact patterns and other socio-demographic factors. We find that the distribution of the number of contacts approximates a power-law distribution, but postulate that total contact time (which has a shorter-tailed distribution) is more epidemiologically relevant. We observe that children, public-sector and healthcare workers have the highest number of total contact hours and are therefore most likely to catch and transmit infectious disease. Our study also quantifies the transitive connections made between an individual's contacts (or clustering); this is a key structural characteristic of social networks with important implications for disease transmission and control efficacy. Respondents' networks exhibit high levels of clustering, which varies across social settings and increases with duration, frequency of contact and distance from home. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for the transmission and control of pathogens spread through close contact.

  9. An Adult Literacy Campaign in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arthur E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the British government's program to eliminate adult illiteracy. Discusses the program's organization at both the national and local levels, the recruitment and training of literacy instructors, and the materials and instructional techniques used in the program. (Author/FL)

  10. Standardization of Primary Education in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarovaya, Yelena B.

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the standardization of primary education as one of the development trends of the British school at the present moment in the context of improving its efficiency and quality. It analyses the positive results of the standard-based reforms (modernization of primary education content, improvement of younger students' outcomes,…

  11. Origins of Megalithic Astronomy in Britain

    CERN Document Server

    Higginbottom, Gail

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of free-standing stones in Britain during the Late Neolithic, there was a significant change in the lithification of people's cosmology. Such monuments continued to be erected across Britain almost until the end of the Bronze Age. It has been empirically verified that for many Bronze Age monuments erected in Scotland between 1400-900 BC, there is a common set of complex landscape and astronomical patternings. However, when and where these patterns were first introduced through standing-stone structures was unknown. Here we show that the visible astronomical-landscape variables found at Bronze Age sites on the inner isles and mainland of western Scotland were first established nearly two millennia earlier, with the erection of the first standing-stone 'great circles' in Britain: Callanish and Stenness of Scotland.

  12. Price promotions on healthier compared with less healthy foods: a hierarchical regression analysis of the impact on sales and social patterning of responses to promotions in Great Britain12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Pechey, Rachel; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a growing concern, but limited evidence, that price promotions contribute to a poor diet and the social patterning of diet-related disease. Objective: We examined the following questions: 1) Are less-healthy foods more likely to be promoted than healthier foods? 2) Are consumers more responsive to promotions on less-healthy products? 3) Are there socioeconomic differences in food purchases in response to price promotions? Design: With the use of hierarchical regression, we analyzed data on purchases of 11,323 products within 135 food and beverage categories from 26,986 households in Great Britain during 2010. Major supermarkets operated the same price promotions in all branches. The number of stores that offered price promotions on each product for each week was used to measure the frequency of price promotions. We assessed the healthiness of each product by using a nutrient profiling (NP) model. Results: A total of 6788 products (60%) were in healthier categories and 4535 products (40%) were in less-healthy categories. There was no significant gap in the frequency of promotion by the healthiness of products neither within nor between categories. However, after we controlled for the reference price, price discount rate, and brand-specific effects, the sales uplift arising from price promotions was larger in less-healthy than in healthier categories; a 1-SD point increase in the category mean NP score, implying the category becomes less healthy, was associated with an additional 7.7–percentage point increase in sales (from 27.3% to 35.0%; P sales uplift from promotions was larger for higher–socioeconomic status (SES) groups than for lower ones (34.6% for the high-SES group, 28.1% for the middle-SES group, and 23.1% for the low-SES group). Finally, there was no significant SES gap in the absolute volume of purchases of less-healthy foods made on promotion. Conclusion: Attempts to limit promotions on less-healthy foods could improve the

  13. The relationship between governmental and industrial players in national contexts. A multi-dimensional analysis of power in the telecommunication and energy sectors in Great Britain and Germany; Das Verhaeltnis von staatlichen und marktwirtschaftlichen Akteuren im nationalen Kontext. Eine mehrdimensionale Machtanalyse der Telekommunikations- und Energiebranche in Grossbritannien und Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippi, Roland Gottfried

    2011-07-01

    Using the telecommunication and energy sectors in Great Britain and Germany as a case example the present study examines the power relationships between states and transnational companies. A multi-dimensional study of power relationships covering instrumental, structural and discursive dimensions was designed and carried out by empirical means. The results are discussed on the basis of theories of international relations and international political economy. This is used as a point of departure for seeking answers to frequently asked questions regarding the state's ability to act and the shift in power towards industrial players.

  14. Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    H. E. Mr Christopher Hulse, Ambassador of United Kingdom in Switzerland, CERN Director General Luciano Maiani, Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International and Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of research visit the Britain at CERN exhibition. From 14 to 17 November 30 British companies exhibited leading edge technologies at CERN. This is Britain's 18th exhibition at CERN since 1968. Out of the 30 companies, which attended the Britain at CERN exhibition in 1998, 25 have received an order or a contract relating to CERN during the last two years. The exhibition was inaugurated on Tuesday by Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International. He was accompanied by H.E. Mr Christopher Hulse CMG, OBE, Her Majesty's Ambassador to Switzerland, and Mr. David Roberts, Deputy Head of Mission and Director of Trade Promotion at the British Embassy in Bern. CERN Director-General, Professor Luciano Maiani, underlined the major contribution of British physicists to CERN, pointing out the fact ...

  15. Health in the urban environment: a qualitative review of the Brighton and Hove WHO Healthy City Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Caroline; Davies, John Kenneth; Sherriff, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Phase IV of the WHO European Region's Healthy Cities Program ended in December 2008. This article presents the findings from a recently completed review of Brighton and Hove's Healthy City Program which aimed to scope whether added value had accrued from the city's role as a WHO Healthy City during phase IV. In contrast to most other evaluations of healthy cities, this review adopted a qualitative approach representing an appraisal of the Brighton and Hove Healthy City Program from the internal viewpoint of its local stakeholders. In addition to documentary analysis and a facilitated workshop, a series of in-depth interviews (N = 27) were conducted with stakeholders from the Brighton and Hove Healthy City Partnership representing each of the sectors reflected in the Local Strategic Partnership (public, statutory, elected, community and voluntary, neighborhood and communities, business). The key findings of the review are presented in a way which reflects the three key areas of the review including (1) the healthy cities approach, (2) participation in phase IV of the WHO Healthy Cities Program, and (3) the Brighton and Hove Healthy City Partnership. These findings are discussed, and recommendations for action at local, national, and European levels are proposed. In particular, we argue that there is an urgent need to develop a suitable monitoring and evaluation system for the WHO Healthy Cities Program with appropriate indicators that are meaningful and relevant to local stakeholders. Moreover, it would be important for any such system to capitalize on the benefits that qualitative methodologies can offer alongside more traditional quantitative indicators.

  16. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Abel/SPL-PS

    2002-01-01

    12 - 14 November 2002 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09h30 - 17h00 OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 12 November Twenty-seven companies will present their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors, A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accles & Pollock Argon Services BOC Edwards Cadburn-MDC Ltd Calder Industrial Materials Essex X-Ray &...

  17. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    14 - 17 November 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-nine companies will present their latest technology at the “Britain at CERN” exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers’ Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1. A S Scientific Products Ltd 2. BICC General UK 3. BOC Edwards 4. D+J Fabrications (Atherton) Ltd 5. Data Systems & Solutions (Advanced Con...

  18. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Abel/SPL

    2002-01-01

    12 - 14 November 2002 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09h30 - 17h00 OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 12 November Twenty-seven companies will present their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors, A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accles & Pollock Argon Services BlueArc UK Ltd BOC Edwards Cadburn-MDC Ltd Calder Industrial Materials Essex...

  19. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    12 - 14 November 2002 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09h30 - 17h00 OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 12 November Twenty-seven companies will present their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors, A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accles & Pollock Argon Services BlueArc UK Ltd BOC Edwards Cadburn-MDC Ltd Calder Industrial Materials E...

  20. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    14 - 17 November 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-nine companies will present their latest technology at the “Britain at CERN” exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers’ Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1. A S Scientific Products Ltd 2. BICC General UK 3. BOC Edwards 4. D+J Fabrications (Atherton) Ltd 5. Data Systems & Solutions (Advanced Con...

  1. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    14 - 17 November 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs (Friday 09h00-12h00) Thirty companies will present their latest technology at the “Britain at CERN” exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers’ Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors the list of lectures. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1. A S Scientific Products Ltd 2. BICC General UK (Pirelli Cables) 3. BOC Edwards 4. D+J Fabrications (Atherto...

  2. Reviews Book: Voyage to the Heart of the Matter: The ATLAS Experiment at CERN Equipment: SEP Spectroscope Books: Quantum Gods / The Universe Places to visit: The Royal Institution of Great Britain Book: What is this Thing Called Science? Book: Don't be Such a Scientist: Talking Substance in the Age of Style Equipment: La Crosse Anemometer Book: Wonder and Delight Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    WE RECOMMEND SEP Spectroscope Flatpacked classroom equipment for pupils aged 10 and over Quantum Gods Book attacks spiritualism and religion with physics The Universe Study of whether physics alone can explain origin of universe La Crosse Anemometer Handheld monitor is packed with useful features Wonder and Delight Essays in science education in honour of Eric Rogers WORTH A LOOK Voyage to the Heart of the Matter: The ATLAS Experiment at CERN Pop-up book explains background to complex physics The Royal Institution of Great Britain RI museum proves interesting but not ideal for teaching What is this Thing Called Science? Theory and history of science in an opinionated study Don't be Such a Scientist: Talking Substance in the Age of Style Explanation of how science is best communicated to the public WEB WATCH Particle physics simulations vary in complexity, usefulness and how well they work

  3. CUATRO PAÍSES, DOS TRIÁNGULOS. ARGENTINA Y BRASIL FRENTE A ESTADOS UNIDOS Y GRAN BRETAÑA DURANTE LA DÉCADA DE 1930. HISTORIA, CONDICIONES Y CONSECUENCIAS / FOUR COUNTRIES, TWO TRIANGLES. ARGENTINA AND BRAZIL IN RELATION TO THE UNITED STATES AND GREAT BRITAIN IN THE 1930S. HISTORY, CONDITIONS AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Zícari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo buscará abordar cómo se manejaron las relaciones y vínculos triangulares de Argentina, por un lado, y Brasil, por otro, con las principales potencias capitalistas durante la compleja década de 1930: la declinante Gran Bretaña y la nueva potencia en ascenso, los Estados Unidos, ambos igualmente en crisis. Así, buscaremos analizar cada lado de los respectivos triángulos, primero abordando el vínculo de Argentina con Gran Bretaña y luego de aquella con EE.UU., para después hacer lo propio de la relación de Brasil con las mismas potencias. Finalmente intentaremos comparar las formas de relacionarse, la dinámica y consecuencias de los triángulos, sacando algunas conclusiones al respecto. / This paper attempts to give an account of how the triangular relations between Argentina, Brazil and the major capitalist powers during the complex 1930s were handled: the declining Great Britain and the new emerging power, the United States, both equally in crisis. Thus, we analyze each side of the respective triangles, first addressing the link between Argentina and Great Britain and the link between the former and the US. Then, the triangular link between Brazil and the above-mentioned world powers is analyzed as well. Finally, we compare and reach to conclusions about the different ways of establishing relations between these countries, the dynamics and the consequences of the respective triangles.

  4. Childhood Developmental Risk for Teen Childbearing in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T.

    2002-01-01

    Used prospective life history data from the National Child Development Study of Great Britain to examine family life risk factors and how their effects on teen childbearing risk varied, depending on the childhood age at which they were experienced. Demonstrated that socioeconomic status, family stress, and parental involvement in education during…

  5. Educational Revolution from Above: Thatcher's Britain and Gorbachev's Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Martin; Voskresenskaya, Natalia

    1991-01-01

    Educational revolutions in Great Britain and the former Soviet Union were initiated by charismatic national leaders, looked back to more "authentic" conditions where teachers and students dominated formal education, encouraged parent participation, and sought to destroy bureaucratic intermediary agencies in the educational decision-making process.…

  6. Five Views of Multi-Racial Britain; Talks on Race Relations Broadcast by BBC TV. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This booklet presents reprints of television broadcasts by five authorities on race relations in Great Britain. Included are: (1) "Race and the Inner City," by Professor John Rex; (2) "Racism and Reaction," by Dr. Stuart Hall; (3) "Asians in Britain: Problem or Opportunity?" by Dr. Bhikhu Parekh; (4) "Schools and…

  7. Occupational cancer in Britain. Preventing occupational cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqun; Osman, John

    2012-06-19

    Although only a relatively small proportion of cancer is attributable to occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents, the estimated number of deaths due to occupational cancer is high when compared to other deaths due to work-related ill health and injury. However, risk from occupational exposure to carcinogens can be minimised through proportionate but effective risk management. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the regulator of workplace health and safety in Great Britain. As part of its aim to reduce ill health arising from failures to control properly exposure to hazards at work, HSE commissioned the research presented elsewhere in this supplement to enable it to identify priorities for preventing occupational cancer. The research has shown that occupational cancer remains a key health issue and that low-level exposure of a large number of workers to carcinogens is important. The finding that a small number of carcinogens have been responsible for the majority of the burden of occupational cancer provides key evidence in the development of priorities for significant reduction of occupational cancer. Although the research presented in this supplement reflects the consequences of past exposures to carcinogens, occupational cancer remains a problem. The potential for exposure to the agents considered in this research is still present in the workplace and the findings are relevant to prevention of future disease. In this article, the principle approaches for risk reduction are described. It provides supporting information on some of the initiatives already being undertaken, or those being put in place, to reduce occupational cancer in Great Britain. The need also for systematic collection of exposure information and the importance of raising awareness and changing behaviours are discussed.

  8. "The Queen Has Been Dreadfully Shocked": Aspects of Teaching Experimental Physiology Using Animals in Britain, 1876-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, E. M.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the impact of legislation on animal experimentation that has been in effect since 1876 in Great Britain. Focuses on the impact of these laws on the teaching of practical physiology to undergraduate students. Contains 26 references. (DDR)

  9. "The Queen Has Been Dreadfully Shocked": Aspects of Teaching Experimental Physiology Using Animals in Britain, 1876-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, E. M.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the impact of legislation on animal experimentation that has been in effect since 1876 in Great Britain. Focuses on the impact of these laws on the teaching of practical physiology to undergraduate students. Contains 26 references. (DDR)

  10. Small particle aerosol inoculation of cowpox Brighton Red in rhesus monkeys results in a severe respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reed F; Hammoud, Dima A; Lackemeyer, Matthew G; Yellayi, Srikanth; Solomon, Jeffrey; Bohannon, Jordan K; Janosko, Krisztina B; Jett, Catherine; Cooper, Kurt; Blaney, Joseph E; Jahrling, Peter B

    2015-07-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) inoculation of nonhuman primates (NHPs) has been suggested as an alternate model for smallpox (Kramski et al., 2010, PLoS One, 5, e10412). Previously, we have demonstrated that intrabronchial inoculation of CPXV-Brighton Red (CPXV-BR) into cynomolgus monkeys resulted in a disease that shared many similarities to smallpox; however, severe respiratory tract disease was observed (Smith et al., 2011, J. Gen. Virol.). Here we describe the course of disease after small particle aerosol exposure of rhesus monkeys using computed tomography (CT) to monitor respiratory disease progression. Subjects developed a severe respiratory disease that was uniformly lethal at 5.7 log10 PFU of CPXV-BR. CT indicated changes in lung architecture that correlated with changes in peripheral blood monocytes and peripheral oxygen saturation. While the small particle aerosol inoculation route does not accurately mimic human smallpox, the data suggest that CT can be used as a tool to monitor real-time disease progression for evaluation of animal models for human diseases.

  11. Small particle aerosol inoculation of cowpox Brighton Red in rhesus monkeys results in a severe respiratory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Reed F. [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Hammoud, Dima A. [Center for Infectious Disease Imaging, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Lackemeyer, Matthew G.; Yellayi, Srikanth [Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Solomon, Jeffrey [Center for Infectious Disease Imaging, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Bohannon, Jordan K.; Janosko, Krisztina B.; Jett, Catherine; Cooper, Kurt [Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Blaney, Joseph E. [Office of the Scientific Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Jahrling, Peter B. [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) inoculation of nonhuman primates (NHPs) has been suggested as an alternate model for smallpox (Kramski et al., 2010, PLoS One, 5, e10412). Previously, we have demonstrated that intrabronchial inoculation of CPXV-Brighton Red (CPXV-BR) into cynomolgus monkeys resulted in a disease that shared many similarities to smallpox; however, severe respiratory tract disease was observed (Smith et al., 2011, J. Gen. Virol.). Here we describe the course of disease after small particle aerosol exposure of rhesus monkeys using computed tomography (CT) to monitor respiratory disease progression. Subjects developed a severe respiratory disease that was uniformly lethal at 5.7 log{sub 10} PFU of CPXV-BR. CT indicated changes in lung architecture that correlated with changes in peripheral blood monocytes and peripheral oxygen saturation. While the small particle aerosol inoculation route does not accurately mimic human smallpox, the data suggest that CT can be used as a tool to monitor real-time disease progression for evaluation of animal models for human diseases. - Highlights: • Small particle aerosol exposure of rhesus results in a severe respiratory disease. • CT findings correlated with peripheral oxygen saturation and monocyte increases. • Virus dissemination was limited and mainly confined to the respiratory tract. • CT provides insight into pathogenesis to aid development of animal models of disease.

  12. Undergraduate Courses in Linguistics at Universities of Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komochkova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The concept of linguistics as a branch of science has been considered. Key abilities linguists possess have been defined. The need to apply to foreign experience, in particular, British one, has been justified. Relevant information sources, namely, Benchmark Statement for Linguistics (2007), data on Education UK, the official website for…

  13. The Effects of Great Britain's Exit from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarița Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union directly influences the economicdevelopment of Romania, which will force our country to take all the necessary measures in thecurrent economic conjuncture in order to anchor in the international trade relations.

  14. National Health Service and Military Medicine in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-07

    medicine. These guidelines, along with creation of a two-year Masters degree (Master of Science in Social Medicine ) were designed to train physicians for...MSc Social Medicine and pass appropriate examinations. It is difficult for one unaccustomed to the system to determine what is really different about a

  15. Food-related life style in Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    . They also like shopping. They are not completely dismissive of new ways of cooking food, but recipes must be based on traditions, and preferably also on familiar products. 4. The uninterested conservative food consumers stand for 19% of the population. Also this segment stresses the security...... is not equated with security, but then eating and food products are not linked to any other values either. They plan little, but are tempted by new products - as long as they don't req more effort or new cooking skills, and especially if they fit in with eating habits characterized by a large propensity to eat...

  16. The 18th International Geological Congress, Great Britain, 1948

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RudolfTrümpy

    2004-01-01

    The International Geological Congresses (IGCs) had been interrupted for nine years during World War I, between Toronto (1913)and Brussels (1922). World War II caused an even longer break of eleven years, between Moscow (1937) and London (1948).

  17. The System of Teacher Education Management in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chychuk, Antonina

    2015-01-01

    The system of teacher education management, namely, forms and principles of teacher education management according to the normative base (Education Reform Act (1988); Education Act (1992; 1993; 1996; 1997; 2002); School Standards and Framework Act (1998); Higher Education Act (2004), etc.), monitoring and participation of the public in its…

  18. Undergraduate Courses in Linguistics at Universities of Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komochkova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The concept of linguistics as a branch of science has been considered. Key abilities linguists possess have been defined. The need to apply to foreign experience, in particular, British one, has been justified. Relevant information sources, namely, Benchmark Statement for Linguistics (2007), data on Education UK, the official website for…

  19. Oxfam Great Britain and Sustainable Livelihoods in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Gina

    2003-01-01

    Oxfam is using a sustainable livelihoods framework in its antipoverty programs. Identifying assets and asset gaps illuminated gender difference in asset bases and survival strategies as well as the huge impact of the state on livelihood choices. (SK)

  20. Ascoyonus monascus, a new species of Ascomycetes from Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelen, van J.; Richardson, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Ascozonus monascus Brumm. & M.J. Richardson, a new coprophilous ascomycete from Scotland, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by ascomata developing only a single multispored ascus, with a subapical ring and a small operculum at the apex, and a few excipular cells near the base.

  1. The Multilayer Temporal Network of Public Transport in Great Britain

    CERN Document Server

    Gallotti, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread availability of information concerning Public Transport from different sources, it is extremely hard to have a complete picture, in particular at a national scale. Here, we integrate timetable data obtained from the United Kingdom open-data program together with timetables of domestic flights, and obtain a comprehensive snapshot of the temporal characteristics of the whole UK public transport system for a week in October 2010. In order to focus on the multi-modal aspects of the system, we use a coarse graining procedure and define explicitly the coupling between different transport modes such as connections at airports, ferry docks, rail, metro, coach and bus stations. The resulting weighted, directed, temporal and multilayer network is provided in simple, commonly used formats, ensuring easy accessibility and the possibility of a straightforward use of old or specifically developed methods on this new and extensive dataset.

  2. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  3. Britain and Energy Policy: Problems of Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Britain's energy policies and changing energy sources since World War II. North Sea natural gas and oil should prevent shortages in the near future. Planning is complicated by Britain's entry into the European Common Market, questionable progress in nuclear production, and the uncertain availability of Middle Eastern oil. (JR)

  4. Myxomatosis in 1950s Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrip, P W J

    2008-01-01

    In 1953 myxomatosis, a viral disease of rabbits, broke out in Britain for the first time. It rapidly killed tens of millions of the animals from Kent to the Shetlands. Many farmers and foresters welcomed a disease that virtually eliminated a longstanding and serious agricultural pest. Others were horrified by the sight of thousands of dead and dying animals. With meat still rationed, consumers rued the loss of a cheap and nutritious foodstuff. Rough shooters deplored the loss of prey and hatters and furriers the unavailability of the fur on which their businesses depended. Rabbits also had champions within the 'establishment'; these included Winston Churchill who was personally influential in making deliberate transmission of the disease a criminal offence. The arrival in Britain of myxomatosis presented the authorities with difficult questions: should they try to contain it, spread it or do nothing; should they take advantage of rabbit depopulation and try to exterminate such a destructive animal? In the event the outbreak was allowed to run its course and rabbit extermination became government policy. This article considers who or what was responsible for the disease reaching the UK and how it then spread throughout the country. It examines the responses of government, other institutions and members of the public. Finally, it explores the impact of rabbit de-population on agriculture, the natural environment and public opinion.

  5. Britain honours its particle physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental particle physicists figure among the winners for 2004 of Britain's most prestigious prizes for physics, awarded by the Institute of Physics (IOP). The IOP's own Paul Dirac medal and prize, goes to this year to CERN's John Ellis for "his highly influential work on particle-physics phenomenology; in particular on the properties of gluons, the Higgs boson and the top quark". One of the institute's premier wards, it is made for outstanding contributions to theoretical (including mathematical and computational) physics. The Duddell medal and prize, in memory of William du Bois Duddell, the inventor of the electromagnetic oscillograph, is awarded for outstanding contributions to the advancement of knowledge through the application of physics, including the invention or design of scientific instruments or the discovery of materials used in their construction. It is shared this year by Geoff Hall, of Imperial College London, Alessandro Marchioro from CERN and Peter Sharp of the Rutherfor...

  6. Occupation and cancer in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, L; Bagga, S; Bevan, R; Brown, T P; Cherrie, J W; Holmes, P; Fortunato, L; Slack, R; Van Tongeren, M; Young, C; Hutchings, S J

    2010-04-27

    Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer). This project is the first to quantify in detail the burden of cancer and mortality due to occupation specifically for Britain. It highlights the impact of occupational exposures, together with the occupational circumstances and industrial areas where exposures to carcinogenic agents

  7. The Mental Health of Children and Adolescents with Learning Disabilities in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Hatton, Chris

    2007-01-01

    A previous project by the Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities analysed data that had been collected by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) in 1999 in their survey of the mental health of children and adolescents in Great Britain. The Foundation found that in this nationally representative sample of just over 10,000 children, 39%…

  8. Agricultural Extension: Farm Extension Services in Australia, Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald B.

    By analyzing the scope and structure of agricultural extension services in Australia, Great Britain, and the United States, this work attempts to set guidelines for measuring progress and guiding extension efforts. Extension training, agricultural policy, and activities of national, international, state, and provincial bodies are examined. The…

  9. Brighton's Toy Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Duncan

    1978-01-01

    Describes a successful toy library in a public library in terms of staffing and patrons, toy selection, toy breakage problem, and sources of toys. In addition to children, users include an adult literacy group, a school for the mentally handicapped, the local social services department, and home for the elderly. (JAB)

  10. The development of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1984-06-01

    The presence of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in a sample of wild rabbits from one area in England was reported in 1977. Rabbits from three other areas in Great Britain have been tested subsequently, and all cases showed similar resistance to a moderately virulent strain of myxoma virus. Rabbits from one area also showed a significant degree of resistance to a fully virulent strain of virus. It is concluded that genetic resistance to myxomatosis is widespread in wild rabbit populations in Britain. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to the co-evolution of the disease and its host.

  11. Occupation and cancer in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushton, L.; Bagga, S.; Bevan, R.; Brown, T.P.; Cherrie, J.W.; Holmes, P.; Fortunato, L.; Slack, R.; Van Tongeren, M.; Young, C.; Hutchings, S.J. [University of London Imperial College of Science Technology & Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-27

    Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13, 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer).

  12. Abortion Policy in Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francome, Colin

    1980-01-01

    Compares the number of legal abortions performed in the United States and Britain. Reveals that the rate of abortion in the United States is more than twice that of Britain. Analyzes the reasons for the different rates. (Author)

  13. Time Travel: Australian Tourists and Britain's Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard White

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Across the twentieth century, Britain drew more Australian tourists for longer and more intense experiences than anywhere else, though as early as the 1970s Asia was attracting more Australians than Europe. They found much to admire and to deprecate in Britain but above all they were seduced by Britain’s past, or what they imagined it to be. This paper examines the Australian experience of history in Britain, their admiration for notions of tradition, for an unchanging village life, for fading imperial glory, for sheer antiquity. Some looked for their own ancestors and family but most were satisfied to have their school lessons and imaginative reading validated by being there. The response they had to British history was an intensely emotional one: this article argues that it was a result not of imperial sentiment but of a desire for a deep and meaningful past.

  14. Aspects of diabetes care in Britain, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, H M; Lockwood, D

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in Britain is rising rapidly. Hospital clinics are overcrowded and may only provide a rudimentary service. Various schemes have been devised to improve community care by involving hospital physicians and nurses. Trends towards increasing usage of human insulin, fixed ratio insulin mixtures and the Novopen, the declining popularity of CSII, and current attitudes towards diet are briefly summarised. Diabetic care in Britain has improved markedly over the past decade due particularly to improved patient education and the appointment of diabetes specialist nurses, but enormous logistical problems remain.

  15. Return migration from Canada to Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, A H

    1968-07-01

    Abstract Statistics of migrants returning from Canada to Britain and re-registering for national insurance purposes are compared with labour force immigrants entering Canada between 1956 and 1965. Short and long-term indices are calculated which suggest that return migration has been increasing since 1960. A sample survey carried out in 1962-63 distinguishes three types of returning migrant: (a) quasi-migrants who originally planned to return to Britain; (b) permanent repatriates who originally intended to settle in Canada but now expect to remain in Britain; (c) transilient migrants who exhibit a high propensity to move backwards and forwards between two or more countries without becoming permanently rooted in anyone. The demographic, economic and social characteristics of the three types are described. A further comparison is made between migrants who plan to settle in Britain, those who intend to come back again to Canada, and those who are uncertain of their future plans or who intend to move on to a third country.

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS POLICY OF GERMANY, BRITAIN AND FRANCE IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Yun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Germany, Great Britain and France stated their interests in Central Asia immediately after the disintegration of USSR. In 1994 and 1995 the policies of the leading European countries towards Central Asia stressed the restraining of Russia’s neo-imperial ambitions in the post-soviet space and the support of economic independence of Central Asian states. As of late 1990s the regional policies prioritized fighting the drug threat and after September 11, 2001 — the terrorism threat. The...

  17. The development of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in Britain.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J; Sanders, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The presence of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in a sample of wild rabbits from one area in England was reported in 1977. Rabbits from three other areas in Great Britain have been tested subsequently, and all cases showed similar resistance to a moderately virulent strain of myxoma virus. Rabbits from one area also showed a significant degree of resistance to a fully virulent strain of virus. It is concluded that genetic resistance to myxomatosis is widespread in wild rabbit populations in...

  18. Religion, Muslims and the state in Britain and France: from  Westphalia to 9/11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Schøler

    2008-01-01

    Starting from a comparison of the relationships between state and religion in France and Great Britain since 1648, the paper analyses the impact of Muslim immigration and settlement since 1945. The practical policies which have been followed in the two countries by both Muslims and the state...

  19. Britain Seeks Compromise on Animal Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura Nelson; 陈青

    2004-01-01

    @@ Attacks on facilities, assaults on lab staff and a distinct lack of public support have combined to make animal research a significant problem for the British government. On the one hand, it wants to support biomedical② research and bolster③ the pharmaceutical④ industry, Britain's most successful high-technology sector. But by doing so it might alienate⑤ a public that is largely ambivalent⑥about the value of animal experiments.

  20. Putting Partnership Into Practice In Britain

    OpenAIRE

    William Brown

    2000-01-01

    The paper reviews industrial relations developments in Britain during 1999 by assessing how New Labour's policy commitment to encouraging 'partnership' is developing in practice. After a discussion of the Employment Relations Act it considers the wider influence of European legislation. It then describes how partnership approaches have been developing in trade union policy and industrial practice. This leads to an analysis of the operation of two explicit 'social partnership' institutions, AC...

  1. Land-Use Analysis and Simulated Effects of Land-Use Change and Aggregate Mining on Groundwater Flow in the South Platte River Valley, Brighton to Fort Lupton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L.R.; Mladinich, C.S.; Langer, W.H.; Daniels, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Land use in the South Platte River valley between the cities of Brighton and Fort Lupton, Colo., is undergoing change as urban areas expand, and the extent of aggregate mining in the Brighton-Fort Lupton area is increasing as the demand for aggregate grows in response to urban development. To improve understanding of land-use change and the potential effects of land-use change and aggregate mining on groundwater flow, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the cities of Brighton and Fort Lupton, analyzed socioeconomic and land-use trends and constructed a numerical groundwater flow model of the South Platte alluvial aquifer in the Brighton-Fort Lupton area. The numerical groundwater flow model was used to simulate (1) steady-state hydrologic effects of predicted land-use conditions in 2020 and 2040, (2) transient cumulative hydrologic effects of the potential extent of reclaimed aggregate pits in 2020 and 2040, (3) transient hydrologic effects of actively dewatered aggregate pits, and (4) effects of different hypothetical pit spacings and configurations on groundwater levels. The SLEUTH (Slope, Land cover, Exclusion, Urbanization, Transportation, and Hillshade) urban-growth modeling program was used to predict the extent of urban area in 2020 and 2040. Wetlands in the Brighton-Fort Lupton area were mapped as part of the study, and mapped wetland locations and areas of riparian herbaceous vegetation previously mapped by the Colorado Division of Wildlife were compared to simulation results to indicate areas where wetlands or riparian herbaceous vegetation might be affected by groundwater-level changes resulting from land-use change or aggregate mining. Analysis of land-use conditions in 1957, 1977, and 2000 indicated that the general distribution of irrigated land and non-irrigated land remained similar from 1957 to 2000, but both land uses decreased as urban area increased. Urban area increased about 165 percent from 1957 to 1977 and about 56 percent from

  2. First report of Trichinella pseudospiralis in a red fox in mainland Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmount, Jane; Boughtflower, Valerie; Allanson, Peter C; Hartley, Kayleigh M; Gutierrez, Alba Barrecheguren; Stephens, Nathalie A; Marucci, Gianluca; Smith, Graham C

    2015-03-15

    Active surveillance of red foxes for Trichinella has been undertaken in mainland Britain since 1999. Post-mortems are carried out, followed by a magnetic stirrer method for sample digestion based on European Commission (EC) Regulation 216/2014 (which amends 2075/2005). Initially samples are tested in batches of 20 foxes and in December 2013, for the first time under the surveillance programme, a batch tested positive for Trichinella at the Animal and Plant Health Agency, York. Further individual tests identified one infected fox, from the Bristol area. The larvae were identified as Trichinella pseudospiralis. This is the first report of T. pseudospiralis in Great Britain and suggests the possibility of a cycle of infection existing in wildlife.

  3. Connections: the relationships between Neolithic and Bronze Age Megalithic Astronomy in Britain

    CERN Document Server

    Higginbottom, Gail

    2015-01-01

    It has already been empirically verified that for many Bronze Age monuments erected in Scotland between 1400-900 BC, there was a concerted effort on behalf of the builders to align their monuments to astronomical bodies on the horizon. It has also been found that there are two common sets of complex landscape and astronomical patternings, combining specific horizon qualities, like distance and elevation, with the rising and setting points of particular astronomical phenomena. However, it has only been very recently demonstrated by us that that the visible astronomical-landscape variables found at Bronze Age sites on the inner isles and mainland of western Scotland were first established nearly two millennia earlier, with the erection of the mooted first standing-stone 'great circles' in Britain: Callanish and Stenness of Scotland (see G. Higginbottom and R. Clay, The Origins of Standing Stone Astronomy in Britain submitted to Journal of Archaeological Science & available on ArXiv). In the current paper we...

  4. Ptaquiloside in bracken spores from Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Schmidt, Bjørn; Sheffield, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Secondary metabolites from bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn) are suspected of causing cancer in humans. The main carcinogen is the highly water-soluble norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside, which may be ingested by humans through food, e.g. via contaminated water, meat or milk. It has...... in a collection of spores from Britain. Ptaquiloside was present in all samples, with a maximum of 29μgg−1, which is very low compared to other parts of the fern. Considering the low abundance of spores in breathing air under normal conditions, this exposure route is likely to be secondary to milk or drinking...

  5. The Long American Grain Invasion of Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    This paper provides evidence that transatlantic commodity market integration began prior to the "first era of globalization" at the end of the nineteenth century. It does so by giving a long term perspective to the story of the development of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the United States......, specific periods are identified when market integration might have been possible. Using price data for wheat in America and Britain, some evidence is found that markets were integrated, but this process was continuously being interrupted by "exogenous" events, such as trade policy, war and politics...

  6. The Long American Grain Invasion of Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    This paper provides evidence that transatlantic commodity market integration began prior to the "first era of globalization" at the end of the nineteenth century. It does so by giving a long term perspective to the story of the development of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the United States...... and Britain. Both trade statistics and contemporary comment reveal the importance of this trade from the middle to late eighteenth century, long before the so-called grain invasion of the late nineteenth century. Using data on imports from America and a large volume of substantiating primary evidence...

  7. Privatization in Britain brings winners, losers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, C.M.W. [Univ. of Leicester (United Kingdom)

    1995-08-01

    Since privatizing British Gas in 1986, the British government has discovered that not everyone benefits from the competition that the privatization framework promoted, writes Catherine M. Waddams Price, a senior economics lecturer at the University of Leicester in Leicester, England. The sale of British Gas (BG) was part of an aggressive program launched by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher to sell Britain`s public assets to raise revenues for the government. {open_quotes}A company with more than 100,000 employees and annual revenues of almost 8 billion pounds (12 billion U.S. dollars) had been transformed from a government-owned utility to a private company in less than two years,{close_quotes} reports Price. According to Price, one consequence of privatization has been that large users who negotiate individual contracts now pay proportionately less than small users who are subject to regulated tariffs. The outcome of the emerging distribution and equity debate will help shape the United Kingdom`s gas industry in the years ahead.

  8. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Simpson, V.R. [Wildlife Veterinary Investigation Centre, Jollys Bottom Farm, Chacewater, Truro, Cornwall TR4 8PB (United Kingdom); Rockett, L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Wienburg, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Shore, R.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rfs@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb.

  9. Traumatic Brain Injury Studies in Britain during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the wartime urgency to understand, prevent, and treat patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) during World War II (WWII), clinicians and basic scientists in Great Britain collaborated on research projects that included accident investigations, epidemiologic studies, and development of animal and physical models. Very quickly, investigators from different disciplines shared information and ideas that not only led to new insights into the mechanisms of TBI but also provided very practical approaches for preventing or ameliorating at least some forms of TBI. Neurosurgeon Hugh Cairns (1896-1952) conducted a series of influential studies on the prevention and treatment of head injuries that led to recognition of a high rate of fatal TBI among motorcycle riders and subsequently to demonstrations of the utility of helmets in lowering head injury incidence and case fatality. Neurologists Derek Denny-Brown (1901-1981) and (William) Ritchie Russell (1903-1980) developed an animal model of TBI that demonstrated the fundamental importance of sudden acceleration (i.e., jerking) of the head in causing concussion and forced a distinction between head injury associated with sudden acceleration/deceleration and that associated with crush or compression. Physicist A.H.S. Holbourn (1907-1962) used theoretical arguments and simple physical models to illustrate the importance of shear stress in TBI. The work of these British neurological clinicians and scientists during WWII had a strong influence on subsequent clinical and experimental studies of TBI and also eventually resulted in effective (albeit controversial) public health campaigns and legislation in several countries to prevent head injuries among motorcycle riders and others through the use of protective helmets. Collectively, these studies accelerated our understanding of TBI and had subsequent important implications for both military and civilian populations. As a result of the wartime urgency to understand

  10. Water resources of the Hartford-New Britain area, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Robert Vittum; Tanski, D.; Thomas, M.P.

    1964-01-01

    Connecticut River in the vicinity of Hartford offers an almost unlimited source of water of good chemical quality to the Hartforcd, New Britain area. The Connecticut River and many of its tributaries, however, are polluted to some degree, and the cost of treatment for pollution and of delivery of water to the area presents an economic problem in the further development of these sources. The Hartford-New Britain area in the vicinity of Hartford has been plagued by floods since the time of its settlement. Most of the damage to property and loss of life in the Hartford area has been caused by tloodin: of the Connecticut and Park Rivers. Floods have occurred on the ConIJecticut River and its tributaries in every month of the year, but the most sever floods occur in the spring and fall. The mast devastating :flood on the Conr icut River occurred on March 21, 1986, when the stage at Hartford reached 37.0 feet above mean sea level. The maximum :flood on the Park River occurr on August 19, 1955, when the stage reached 43.5 feet above mean sea levE'1. Floods on the other tributaries have been frequent and some have been larg , but damage has not been as great because the streams :flow mostly through rural areas: Small to moderate supplies of water suitable for domestic use and for small municipalities and industries are available from wells in the Hartford-New Britain area. Moderate supplies are obtainable from five definable sand-and-gravel aquifers and from widespread consolidated sedimentary rocks. Yields to individual wells range from 15 to 400 gpm (gallons per minute) for wells penetrating sand and gravel and from 1 to 578 gpm for wells penetrating consolidated sedimentary rocks. Sand and gravel deposits bordering the Connecticut River downstream from Rocky Hill afford the greatest potential for the development of large supplies of ground water. Small supplies ranging from 1 to 40 gpm are obtainable from glacial till and from consolidated cr

  11. Methods for snowmelt forecasting in upland Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Moore

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow, whilst not a dominant feature of Britain's maritime climate, can exert a significant influence on major floods through its contribution as snowmelt. Flood warning systems which fail to take account of melting snow can prove highly misleading. Selected results of a study on methods for improved snowmelt forecasting using trail catchments in upland Britain are presented here. Melt models considered range from a temperature excess formulation, with the option to include wind and rain heating effects, to a full energy budget melt formulation. Storage of melt in the pack is controlled by a store with two outlets, allowing slow release of water followed by rapid release once a critical liquid water content is reached. For shallow snow packs, a partial cover curve determines the proportion of the catchment over which snow extends. The melt, storage and release mechanisms together constitute the PACK snowmelt module which provides inputs to the catchment model. Either a lumped or distributed catchment model can be used, configured to receive snowmelt inputs from elevation zones within the catchment; a PACK snowmelt module operates independently within each zone and its inputs are controlled by appropriate elevation lapse rates. Measurements of snow depth and/or water equivalent, from snow cores or a snow pillow, are assimilated to correct for a lack of direct snowfall measurements needed to maintain a water balance during snowfall. The updating scheme involves operating a PACK module at the measurement site (the 'point model' in parallel to PACK modules in the catchment model, with point model errors being transferred using a proportioning scheme to adjust the snowpack water contents of the catchment model. The results of the assessment of different model variants broadly favour the simpler model formulations. Hourly automatic monitoring of water equivalent using the snow pillow can help in updating the model but preferential melting from the

  12. Hierarchical organisation of Britain through percolation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Arcaute, Elsa; Hatna, Erez; Murcio, Roberto; Vargas-Ruiz, Camilo; Masucci, Paolo; Wang, Jiaqiu; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations, which are the outcome of geographical, political and historical constraints. Using percolation theory on the street intersections and on the road network of Britain, we obtain hierarchies at different scales that are independent of administrative arrangements. Natural boundaries, such as islands and National Parks, consistently emerge at the largest/regional scales. Cities are devised through recursive percolations on each of the emerging clusters, but the system does not undergo a phase transition at the distance threshold at which cities can be defined. This specific distance is obtained by computing the fractal dimension of the clusters extracted at each distance threshold. We observe that the fractal dimension presents a maximum over all the different distance thresholds. The clusters obtained at this maximum are in very good correspondence to the morphological definition of...

  13. National-scale vegetation change across Britain; an analysis of sample-based surveillance data from the Countryside Surveys of 1990 and 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smart, S.M.; Clarke, R.T.; Poll, van de H.M.; Robertson, E.J.; Shield, E.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Maskell, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Patterns of vegetation across Great Britain (GB) between 1990 and 1998 were quantified based on an analysis of plant species data from a total of 9596 fixed plots. Plots were established on a stratified random basis within 501 1 km sample squares located as part of the Countryside Survey of GB. Resu

  14. Textual Transformations in Contemporary Black Writing in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawhar Ahmed Dhouib

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While the first wave of Caribbean immigrant writers brilliantly explored race-related issues, black Britons like Andrea Levy, Zadie Smith and Caryl Phillips, among others, have sought to depart from earlier fiction, motivated in their project by the changing white face of Britain. In this article, I would like to argue that cultural change in Britain has deeply influenced literary production and has, consequently, laid the ground for a series of textual transformations. To capture instances of creative excess in contemporary black writing in Britain, I will bring under examination Caryl Phillips’s (2009 novel In the Falling Snow. My intention is to show to what extent Phillips’s work surpasses the ‘noose of race’ and already-familiar representations of multicultural Britain to celebrate a ‘post-racial’ society.

  15. "Britain at CERN" exhibition, from 14 to 17 November 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    H.E. Mr. Christopher Hulse, Ambassador of United Kingdom in Switzerland, CERN Director General Luciano Maiani, Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International and Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of research visit the Britain at CERN exhibition

  16. book and video reviews battles in britain and their political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is given to strategy, tactics and the principles of war - the professed focus of the book. The discussion is in ... Britain, witnessed numerous and fundamental changes in both weapons and tactics. ... Due to financial stringency(?), the. Wordsworth.

  17. CCPIT meet with Delegation from Sino-Britain Trade Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On April 25,Vice-chairman Dong Songgen met with President of SinoBritain Trade Association Stephen Phillips and the delegation during the fourth China Central Investment and Trade Expo in Hefei,Anhui.The two sides conducted exchange on further promoting economic and trade relanons between Britain and China,strengthening cooperation on coping with the financial crisis and doing more practical things for companies of the two countries.

  18. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  19. Great Concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Women of China magazine was first published in 1956. When the "cultural revolution" started in 1966 the magazine was obliged to stop publication. In 1979, when the magazine resumed publication, Mme. Soong Ching Ling, late vice chairperson of the National People’s Congress, wrote her congratulations—"Congratulations and Great Expectation."

  20. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip encount

  1. Great Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Robert

    2000-05-01

    Spectacular and mysterious objects that come and go in the night sky, comets have dwelt in our popular culture for untold ages. As remnants from the formation of the Solar system, they are objects of key scientific research and space missions. As one of nature's most potent and dramatic dangers, they pose a threat to our safety--and yet they were the origin of our oceans and perhaps even life itself. This beautifully illustrated book tells the story of the biggest and most awe-inspiring of all comets: those that have earned the title "Great." Robert Burnham focuses on the Great comets Hyakutake in 1996 and Hale-Bopp in 1997, which gripped attention worldwide because, for many, they were the first comets ever seen. He places these two recent comets in the context of their predecessors from past ages, among them the famous Comet Halley. Great Comets explains the exciting new discoveries that have come from these magnificent objects and profiles the spaceprobes to comets due for launch in the next few years. The book even takes a peek behind Hollywood's science-fiction fantasies to assess the real risks humanity faces from potential impacts of both comets and asteroids. For everyone interested in astronomy, this exciting book reveals the secrets of the Great Comets and provides essential tools for keeping up to date with comet discoveries in the future. Robert Burnham has been an amateur astronomer since the mid-1950s. He has been a senior editor of Astronomy magazine (1986-88) and is the author of many books and CD-ROMS, including Comet Hale-Bopp: Find and Enjoy the Great Comet and Comet Explorer.

  2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS POLICY OF GERMANY, BRITAIN AND FRANCE IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Germany, Great Britain and France stated their interests in Central Asia immediately after the disintegration of USSR. In 1994 and 1995 the policies of the leading European countries towards Central Asia stressed the restraining of Russia’s neo-imperial ambitions in the post-soviet space and the support of economic independence of Central Asian states. As of late 1990s the regional policies prioritized fighting the drug threat and after September 11, 2001 — the terrorism threat. The article reveals specific interests and country priorities of the leading European states in Central Asia and the differences in the general approach to the region and in the actual policies including the amounts of resources spent. The author argues that Germany occupies the most solid place in Central Asia due to a set of political, economic, military and humanitarian interests, though in general the regional policies of Germany, Great Britain and France lack any particular interests and standpoints, that could hinder the formation of the joint EU policy in the region.

  3. Great Expectations for "Great Expectations."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Cheryl

    Designed to make the study of Dickens'"Great Expectations" an appealing and worthwhile experience, this paper presents a unit of study intended to help students gain (1) an appreciation of Dickens' skill at creating realistic human characters; (2) an insight into the problems of a young man confused by false values and unreal ambitions and ways to…

  4. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  5. Great Britain and the United States: Analogy of Two Great Powers Separated by Time and a Common Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Gandhi , who through political genius and personal influence avoided nationalistic violence for almost fifty years. 36 The British forces in India in 1921...States (known as the Triple Entente) negotiated the treaty, they did so with almost complete carte blanche power. If Germany refused the unconditional

  6. Ambiguous symbols: why there were no figurines in Neolithic Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the scarcity of representational art, and particularly of representations of the human body, in Neolithic Britain, in contrast with the Neolithic of south-east Europe. My suggestion is that this contrast can be linked with differing notions of personal identity and bodily integrity. In later Neolithic Britain, a complex mode of non-representational decoration developed, which elaborated the practice of making reference to absent persons and things by using deliberately ambiguous motifs, which connected past and present as well as remote locations.

  7. Why are more women working in Britain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, H E; Layard, R; Owen, S J

    1985-01-01

    Using a pooled time series, cross section supply function for single year age groups of Britain women, it is determined that female labor force participation rose steadily from World War II to 1977. Until the 1970s, the main increase was among married women aged 35 and over. Possible explanations for the post World War II rise in female labor participation are: 1) part time jobs were more available to women, 2) the drop in real prices of domestic appliances, processed foods, and easy care fabrics reduced the time required to take care of a family, and 3) the effect of long term changes in the roles women see for themselves in life. Women's wages rose sharply between 1973 and 1975, by around 15%; this was due to the Equal Pay Act of 1970. In addition, the educational attainment of women relative to men was constant or declining for cohorts entering the labor force up to the 1960s. Age specific employment rates are explained by 3 kinds of variables: 1) those whose values change from year to year and are age specific--life cycle variables, 2) those whose values change from year to year but affect all ages equally--calendar time variables, and 3) those that differ between cohorts but do not change over the life cycle--cohort variables. Results show that: 1) each preschool child lowers participation by 35% each primary school child by 14% and each secondary school child by 7%; 2) the relative earnings of women are highest early in life, 3) age leads to a decline in participation at an increasing rate, and 4) vacancies registered at employment exchanges are more or less untrended between 1950 and 1974. Completed family size, education, and early unemployment and wartime work experience do not explain the strong trend in the coefficients on the cohort dummies; however, real wages do. In time series, men's wages and women's wages are highly correlated, and each is nearly as highly correlated with time. During the 1970s, the female/male ratio index in each industry rose by

  8. Individualism, collectivism and ethnic identity: cultural assumptions in accounting for caregiving behaviour in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Rosalind

    2012-09-01

    Britain is experiencing the ageing of a large number of minority ethnic groups for the first time in its history, due to the post-war migration of people from the Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent. Stereotypes about a high level of provision of informal caregiving among minority ethnic groups are common in Britain, as in the US, despite quantitative studies refuting this assumption. This paper reports on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with older people from five different ethnic groups about their conceptualisation of their ethnic identity, and their attributions of motivations of caregiving within their own ethnic group and in other groups. It is argued that ethnic identity becomes salient after migration and becoming a part of an ethnic minority group in the new country. Therefore, White British people who have never migrated do not have a great sense of ethnic identity. Further, a strong sense of ethnic identity is linked with identifying with the collective rather than the individual, which explains why the White British participants gave an individualist account of their motivations for informal care, whereas the minority ethnic participants gave a collectivist account of their motivations of care. Crucially, members of all ethnic groups were providing or receiving informal care, so it was the attribution and not the behaviour which differed.

  9. Teachers' Pension Systems in Great Britain. Bulletin, 1913, No. 34. Whole Number 544

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sies, Raymond W.

    1913-01-01

    There is in the United States an increasing interest in pensions for teachers. In several cities and States some form of pension system has been adopted. Public opinion on this subject is, however by no means unanimous. Many doubt the wisdom or justice extending to one class of public servants a consideration and help withheld from another class.…

  10. The Oldest Jurassic Dinosaur: A Basal Neotheropod from the Hettangian of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martill, David M; Vidovic, Steven U; Howells, Cindy; Nudds, John R

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 40% of a skeleton including cranial and postcranial remains representing a new genus and species of basal neotheropod dinosaur is described. It was collected from fallen blocks from a sea cliff that exposes Late Triassic and Early Jurassic marine and quasi marine strata on the south Wales coast near the city of Cardiff. Matrix comparisons indicate that the specimen is from the lithological Jurassic part of the sequence, below the first occurrence of the index ammonite Psiloceras planorbis and above the last occurrence of the Rhaetian conodont Chirodella verecunda. Associated fauna of echinoderms and bivalves indicate that the specimen had drifted out to sea, presumably from the nearby Welsh Massif and associated islands (St David's Archipelago). Its occurrence close to the base of the Blue Lias Formation (Lower Jurassic, Hettangian) makes it the oldest known Jurassic dinosaur and it represents the first dinosaur skeleton from the Jurassic of Wales. A cladistic analysis indicates basal neotheropodan affinities, but the specimen retains plesiomorphic characters which it shares with Tawa and Daemonosaurus.

  11. The Oldest Jurassic Dinosaur: A Basal Neotheropod from the Hettangian of Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Martill

    Full Text Available Approximately 40% of a skeleton including cranial and postcranial remains representing a new genus and species of basal neotheropod dinosaur is described. It was collected from fallen blocks from a sea cliff that exposes Late Triassic and Early Jurassic marine and quasi marine strata on the south Wales coast near the city of Cardiff. Matrix comparisons indicate that the specimen is from the lithological Jurassic part of the sequence, below the first occurrence of the index ammonite Psiloceras planorbis and above the last occurrence of the Rhaetian conodont Chirodella verecunda. Associated fauna of echinoderms and bivalves indicate that the specimen had drifted out to sea, presumably from the nearby Welsh Massif and associated islands (St David's Archipelago. Its occurrence close to the base of the Blue Lias Formation (Lower Jurassic, Hettangian makes it the oldest known Jurassic dinosaur and it represents the first dinosaur skeleton from the Jurassic of Wales. A cladistic analysis indicates basal neotheropodan affinities, but the specimen retains plesiomorphic characters which it shares with Tawa and Daemonosaurus.

  12. Species Distribution Models for Crop Pollination: A Modelling Framework Applied to Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polce, C.; Termansen, M.; Aguirre-Gutiérrez, J.; Boatman, N.D.; Budge, G.E.; Crowe, A.; Garratt, M.P.; Pietravalle, S.; Potts, S.G.; Ramirez, J. A.; Somerwill, K.E.; Biesmeijer, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Insect pollination benefits over three quarters of the world's major crops. There is growing concern that observed declines in pollinators may impact on production and revenues from animal pollinated crops. Knowing the distribution of pollinators is therefore crucial for estimating their

  13. Vocational Training and Career Employment Precariousness in Great Britain, the Netherlands and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpi, Tomas; Graaf, Paul de; Hendrickx, John; Layte, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The skills, qualifications and credentials generated by educational systems are strongly related to labour market attainment. The centrality of the educational system for the structuring of individuals’ life chances has generated a long-lived and intense debate around the proper design of

  14. Vocational training and career employment precariousness in Great Britain, the Netherlands and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpi, T.; Graaf, P.M. de; Hendrickx, J.A.M.; Layte, R.

    2003-01-01

    The skills, qualifications and credentials generated by educational systems are strongly related to labour market attainment. The centrality of the educational system for the structuring of individuals' life chances has generated a long-lived and intense debate around the proper design of

  15. Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

  16. Perception and Reception: The Introduction of Licensing of Adventure Activities in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollven, Rowland; Allison, Pete; Higgins, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The Lyme Bay kayaking incident of 1993, in which four children died, led to an Act of Parliament and the introduction by the British Government of the Adventure Activities Licensing Authority (AALA), a body established to regulate adventurous recreational and educational outdoor activities. The perception at the time, a view to which some …

  17. Measurement equivalence of the food related lifestyle instrument (FRL) in Ireland and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Sullivan, C.; Scholderer, Joachim; Cowan, Cathal

    2005-01-01

    The food-related lifestyle instrument (FRL) is tested for cross-cultural validity. Representative consumer samples from the UK 1998 ( N = 1000) and Ireland 2001 (N = 1024) are compared using multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis with structured means. The results suggest that, in all five FRL...

  18. The Faults of the Generals: How Great Britain Lost the War for America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    creation of the United States of America. 1 Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince, trans. W.K. Marriot (New...Niccolò. The Prince. Translated by W.K. Marriot . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1908. Mackesy, Piers. The War for America, 1775–1783. Lincoln, Nebraska

  19. Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

  20. Applying a non-parametric efficiency analysis to measure conversion efficiency in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binder, M.; Broekel, T.

    2011-01-01

    In the literature on Sen's capability approach, studies focusing on the empirical measurement of conversion factors are comparatively rare. We add to this field by adopting a measure of 'conversion efficiency' that captures the efficiency with which individuals convert their resources into achieved

  1. The effects of Air Pollution on Health Status in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the effects of air pollution on self-reported health status. Moreover, this study explores the willingness to pay for improving the air quality in UK. The estimates are based on data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). The effects of air pollution on individuals’ health status are estimated and their monetary value is calculated. In particular, two main air pollutants are examined; ground-level ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO). Moreover, various approaches ...

  2. The Public Sector Pay Gap in France, Great Britain and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    We investigate public-private pay determination using French, British and Italian microdata. While traditional methods focus on parametric methods to estimate the public sector pay gap, in this paper, we use both non-parametric (kernel) and quantile regression methods to analyse the distribution of wages across sectors. We show that the public-private (hourly) wage differential is sensitive to the choice of quantile and that the pattern of premia varies with both gender and skill. In all coun...

  3. The criminal use of improvised and re-activated firearms in Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlow, Thomas A

    2007-11-01

    Following the Hungerford Massacre the British Government imposed additional strict firearms legislation in 1988 that involved several classes of arms being placed into the prohibited category. By way of compensation a scheme was introduced to allow the unrestricted possession and transfer of the newly prohibited arms, other firearms and "prohibited weapons", if de-activated to a standard acceptable to the Secretary of State. Approved standards for firearm de-activation were drawn up in 1989. The inspection of the de-activated arms was devolved to the two Gun Barrel Proof Houses at London and Birmingham, as otherwise the task of inspecting the thousands of guns involved would have overloaded the firearms section at the Huntingdon Forensic Science Service Laboratory, who were already dealing with criminal firearms cases submitted by 41 of the 43 police forces throughout England and Wales, as well as providing technical assistance to the Home Office and Government Ministers. Members of the Gun Trade made representations to the Minister involved during the initial stages of setting up the official de-activation standards. This resulted in some measure of compromise in the range and nature of the de-activation requirements. Although it was clear that some individuals possessing the necessary skill and equipment might attempt to restore the odd weapon to a working condition, the scheme appeared to work reasonably well for the next few years. However, over the passage of time, criminal casework submissions to the Huntingdon Laboratory from industrial city areas along the M62 corridor of northern England revealed a steadily growing trend in the use of re-activated arms, which in a significant number of cases involved the use of fully automatic weapons. At first, the nature of the re-activation processes used to restore these arms was quite crude. However, with the passage of time a steady improvement in the machining and welding skills used by the some of the culprits involved became more and more apparent, as was a move by them to bulk restoration. The use of restored arms in serious and often drug related crime, spread to the other mainland British cities, and eventually to Northern Ireland. More rigorous de-activation standards were introduced in 1995 to help counter this perceived threat, particularly in respect of handguns and full-automatic weapons. Blank cartridge pistols and air cartridge pistols were also being modified to allow their use with bulleted ammunition in the commission of criminal offences. As a result all air cartridge guns were placed into the prohibited weapons category in 2003, and the possession of imitation firearms in a public place without good reason, also became an offence. The Government is now considering further legislation, which will affect the sale of replica firearms and cartridge reloading equipment and materials.

  4. Prevalence of Babesia and Anaplasma in ticks infesting dogs in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Faith D; Wall, Lauren Ellse Richard

    2013-11-15

    Ticks are important vectors of disease in companion animals and transmit an extensive range of viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens to dogs and cats. They may also be vectors of zoonotic pathogens which affect the health of in-contact owners. In recent years, babesiosis, and anaplasmosis have all shown signs of increased prevalence and distribution in various parts of Europe. Here, the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. pathogens in Ixodes ticks, collected from dogs in the UK in 2009, were evaluated using PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA or 18S rDNA regions respectively. Species identification was performed by alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. After sequencing, 5 out of 677 tick samples (0.74%) contained rDNA which shared 97-100%% sequence homology with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Of these, three samples came from Ixodes ricinus and two from Ixodes hexagonus. Sixteen out of 742 ticks (2.4%) were positive for Babesia and of these 11 showed 97-100% homology with B. gibsoni. All of these 11 samples were derived from I. ricinus. One sample, again from I. ricinus, showed 99% homology for B. divergens. Four of the Babesia spp sequences were of the "venatorum" or EU1 type, three of which came from I. ricinus and one from an Ixodes canisuga. This strain has been associated with severe human cases of babeisiosis. A further 246 positive results, which appeared to show the presence of Anaplasma following PCR, were shown by sequence analysis to be derived from the bacterium Candidatus "Midichloria mitochondrii", which to date has been assumed to be non-pathogenic. The results are of interest because the presence of B. gibsoni in the UK further confirms the worldwide distribution of this piroplasm and supports the inference that I. ricinus may act as a vector for Babesia of the gibsoni-complex.

  5. Competing Claims Among Argentina, Chile, and Great Britain in the Antarctic: Economic and Geopolitical Undercurrents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    and has a hotel with accommodations for 80, both air and sea transportation to the mainland, air traffic control (ATC) facility, mail and cargo service...one by General Pinochet, Geopolitica, and Leyes que se Deducen del Estudio de la Expansion de los Estados, authored by Julio von Chrismar. These works

  6. THE FUNDAMENTALS OF TEACHING CREATIVITY (BASED ON THE EXAMPLE OF GREAT BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Skvortsova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to find out the fundamentals of creative activity of pupils in a comprehensive school and reveal its main characteristics on the basis of analysis of the British system of education experience considering the original modern official educational documents devoted to optimization of education and its increased focus on the creative development of children and teenagers. Methods. Author uses the methods of theoretical analysis of original foreign materials; systematization and classification of the data from original foreign sources. Results. The main characteristics of creativity are purposefulness, aiming at search of a new idea or creation of worthy product, and also dependence on the environment that means search of sphere of educational activity for disclosing of individual creative potential of the pupil. Character of creative activity depends on personal characteristics of the performer, the high level of motivation and active use of imagination. Scientific novelty. The main characteristics of creative activity as seen by British educators are specified, particularly such feature as dependence on the environment is exposed, and the importance of using traditional teaching methods within the innovative ones is proved; the methods of teaching creativity used by British teachers are picked out and classified according to the levels of creative activity; practical recommendations for successful implementation of teaching creativity are described, such as taking advantage of spontaneous educational situations and the following changes in the work agenda. Practical significance. Analysis and systematization of the foreign researchers’ experience enriches Russian theory of education with understanding the fundamentals of teaching creativity. The singled out peculiarities of teaching creativity give perspectives for the scientific substantiation of adaption of the innovative components into Russian system of education and make it possible to predict the ways of developing the process of teaching creativity in Russia. The classification of creative teaching methods and practical recommendation for their implementation can be adapted to Russian system of education. 

  7. Financial aspects of apprenticeship training in Germany, Great Britain and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Financial attributes are potentially important influences on the viability of apprenticeship as a mode of vocational education and training. Two financial aspects are considered: apprentices’ pay, which determines the division of training costs between the trainee and the employer; and corporate ownership, which may influence the incentive to employers to provide training, insofar as it promotes or deters short-termist practice concerning investment in employees’ skills. Evidence is ta...

  8. Applying a non-parametric efficiency analysis to measure conversion efficiency in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binder, M.; Broekel, T.

    2011-01-01

    In the literature on Sen's capability approach, studies focusing on the empirical measurement of conversion factors are comparatively rare. We add to this field by adopting a measure of 'conversion efficiency' that captures the efficiency with which individuals convert their resources into achieved

  9. Descriptive epidemiology of veterinary events in flat racing Thoroughbreds in Great Britain (2000 to 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanowski, S M; Chang, Y M; Stirk, A J; Verheyen, K L P

    2017-05-01

    To date, no large scale studies have reported race-day events requiring veterinary attention in British Thoroughbreds racing on the flat. Quantifying and describing common injuries and health conditions affecting racehorses will enable targeted risk factor analysis aimed at reducing their occurrence. To describe the type and incidence of race-day veterinary events experienced by Thoroughbred racehorses participating in flat racing in the UK. Retrospective cohort study (2000 to 2013). Veterinary events recorded by race-day veterinarians were retrieved and linked to race start data. Race-day veterinary events were described by type, location and anatomical structure(s) affected and whether the outcome was fatal or not. Incidence per 1000 starts was calculated, both overall and by year. Stratified incidence rates were calculated for selected event categories by specific course- and horse-level variables. There were 7993 events experienced by 6727 horses, with an incidence of 9.37 events per 1000 starts. Soft tissue injuries other than tendon and ligament injuries were the most commonly occurring veterinary events (24.1%), followed by gait observations (21.2%) and respiratory conditions (21.2%). In total, 13.8% of events were bone injuries. The incidence of fatality (n = 628) was 0.76 per 1000 starts. Most (485/628, 77.2%) fatal events were bone injuries, 64 were due to cardiac conditions and 54 due to tendon and ligament injuries. All-weather tracks had a higher incidence of veterinary events and fatalities than turf tracks. Firmer (turf) or faster (all-weather) going were associated with a higher incidence of all veterinary events. Events were based on presumptive, rather than definitive, veterinary diagnosis. The most common events experienced by racehorses on race-day were relatively minor and not career-ending. Although more severe bone, joint, tendon and ligament injuries were less common, they had a greater impact on whether the outcome of the event was fatal. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  10. Species Distribution Models for Crop Pollination: A Modelling Framework Applied to Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Polce; M. Termansen; J. Aguirre-Gutiérrez; N.D. Boatman; G.E. Budge; A. Crowe; M.P. Garratt; S. Pietravalle; S.G. Potts; J. A. Ramirez; K.E. Somerwill; J.C. Biesmeijer

    2013-01-01

    Insect pollination benefits over three quarters of the world's major crops. There is growing concern that observed declines in pollinators may impact on production and revenues from animal pollinated crops. Knowing the distribution of pollinators is therefore crucial for estimating their availabilit

  11. Comparison of land-use regression models between Great Britain and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vienneau, D.; de Hoogh, K.; Beelen, R.M.J.; Fischer, P.; Hoek, G.; Briggs, D.

    2010-01-01

    Land-use regression models have increasingly been applied for air pollution mapping at typically the city level. Though models generally predict spatial variability well, the structure of models differs widely between studies. The observed differences in the models may be due to artefacts of data an

  12. A Comparative Thematic Review of Vocational Leadership Literature from the USA, Great Britain and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Brian; Cameron, Roslyn

    2014-01-01

    Vocational education and its leadership is an important sphere of economic activity worldwide and is being impacted by several trends including: the increasing significance and centrality of skills development in today's economies; economic trends associated with globalisation (internationalisation of education and emergence of global labour…

  13. Videotex at the Street Level: Public Acceptance of Viewdata Services in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Stephen T.

    1983-01-01

    Examines British public reaction to videotex--a telecommunications method for disseminating information from a central source--by presenting information from interviews with sales personnel supplemented with comments from industry representatives. Videotex's origin and development, clientele, their perceived views, complaints, prospects for…

  14. Determinant Agents Analysis of Dividend Policies Practiced by Companies Listed in Great Britain and France

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca-Georgiana MOSCU

    2012-01-01

    Dividend policy is one of the most intriguing topics in financial research. Even now, economists provide considerable attention and thought to solving the dividend puzzle, resulting a large number of conflicting hypotheses, theories and explanations. This paper aims to determine the dividend policies for 209 listed on London Stock Exchange and Paris Stock Exchange in 2010 and to explain their dividend payment behavior. So this paper investigates why companies in different countries have estab...

  15. Interpreting the marketisation of employment services in Great Britain and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Wright, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    choice; prevent poor quality services; or increase efficiency/effectiveness through better job outcomes. In the absence of the intended effects, we question why policymakers in such different socio-political contexts continued to support the marketization strategy. The explanation is found in combination......Marketization is an important component of international shifts in the governance of employment services. Despite contrasting underlying welfare systems and employment services of different scale and character, both Denmark and the UK were distinct from many other comparable countries...... in contracting-out employment services in the late 1990s. We compare the starting positions and divergent trajectories of marketization; then assess the extent to which it delivered on its promises. We find that in neither case did contracting-out reduce bureaucracy; save money through innovation; realise user...

  16. Motor neuron disease mortality in Great Britain continues to rise: examination of mortality rates 1975 - 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Thomas G; Scott, Martin; Perring, Roslyn; Doyle, Pat

    2007-12-01

    Motor neuron disease (MND) mortality rates are rising in Europe and the USA. The most comprehensive UK study was conducted more than 15 years ago. This study examines trends in mortality from MND in England & Wales, and Scotland, between 1975 and 2004. Age, gender, and cause-specific mortality rates were calculated for the period 1975-2004 using national data from England & Wales, and Scotland. Rates were directly age-standardized to the European standard population. Trends in mortality rates over time were examined for men and women separately, as well as by the age groups 0-59 years, and 60 or more years. MND mortality rates rose steadily over the 30-year period 1975-2004 in both sexes in England & Wales, and Scotland. There is a clear upward trend in all four groups (p for trend <0.001). All increases were largely restricted to the age group 60 years and above, with rates showing increases of 70-80%, and no evidence of a flattening of this trajectory. Rates for the 0-59 years age group remained stable over the period. There is evidence of a narrowing of the male-female gap in mortality rates for the age group over 60 years in England and Wales.

  17. Great Britain in the Age of Sail: Scarce Resources, Ruthless Actions and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    By the later stages of its life, ships often had to be renovated piece by piece of wood that it was scarcely the original . Apart from the pest...best masts, so dependence on foreign lands for masts had been ongoing since 1652 and lasted throughout the age of sail.26 Devoid of large coniferous

  18. The transit of Venus enterprise in Victorian Britain

    CERN Document Server

    Ratcliff, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    In nineteenth century, the British Government spent money measuring the distance between the earth and the sun using observations of the transit of Venus. This book presents a narrative of the two Victorian transit programmes. It draws out their cultural significance and explores the nature of 'big science' in late-Victorian Britain.

  19. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  20. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

  1. Influences of Customs In Britain on English Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Ya Qing

    2009-01-01

    Idioms, which reflect customs, are the essence of culture in every country. It is necessary for us to become aware of the increasing significance of idioms learning. This article will be of help to you to learn about the meaning and usages of some idioms related to customs in Britain as well as the influence of the customs on these idioms.

  2. Review Essay: Race and Electoral Politics in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Tatari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the literature on race and electoral politics in Britain through some of the major works in this field starting from late 1980s to the present, written mainly from sociological and political science perspectives. The prime focus of these studies is to understand the dynamics of electoral participation and representation of racial minorities in Britain, chiefly Asians and Afro-Caribbeans as the largest ethnic minority groups. They examine the trends in electoral participation and representation of ethnic minorities, seek to identify the socioeconomic and political factors that have been shaping the electoral participation of minority populations, and investigate the relationship between mainstream political institutions in Britain (such as the major political parties and policy interests of ethnic minorities, in particular, vis-à-vis electoral involvement. This article presents the major strengths and findings of the literature, followed by a discussion of some of the key debates that are still unresolved. It then discusses the substantive theoretical and methodological weaknesses of the literature on race and electoral politics in Britain, and concludes by suggesting unexplored research areas for future research.

  3. Boom or Bust: Britain’s Nuclear Deterrent Beyond 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    today’s rapidly changing world the sentiments of author Mark Steyn strikes a chord when he states: North Korea is assisting the Iranians with their...Security? General Sir Hugh Beach, a vocal and long-term critic of British nuclear weapons, argued that, "Britain cannot claim any direct security

  4. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  5. Punjabi Childrearing in Britain: Development of Identity, Religion and Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, J. S.; Ghuman, Paul A. S.

    1997-01-01

    Interviewed two generations of Punjabi mothers living in Britain. Found that while second-generation Punjabis are changing some traditional mores (equal treatment of boys and girls, modified system of arranged marriage), they are also eager to transmit the core values (religion, mother tongue, familial spirit) of their culture and want their…

  6. Understanding Public Attitudes in Britain towards Faith Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of different aspects of public attitudes towards faith schools in Britain. It examines two questions relating to government policy on this issue and two questions that ask about the perceived outcomes of this type of school. After discussing existing public opinion on this issue it uses data from the British…

  7. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  8. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

  9. Predictors of sociocultural adjustment among sojourning Malaysian students in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2009-08-01

    The process of cross-cultural migration may be particularly difficult for students travelling overseas for further or higher education, especially where qualitative differences exist between the home and host nations. The present study examined the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning Malaysian students in Britain. Eighty-one Malay and 110 Chinese students enrolled in various courses answered a self-report questionnaire that examined various aspects of sociocultural adjustment. A series of one-way analyses of variance showed that Malay participants experienced poorer sociocultural adjustment in comparison with their Chinese counterparts. They were also less likely than Chinese students to have contact with co-nationals and host nationals, more likely to perceive their actual experience in Britain as worse than they had expected, and more likely to perceive greater cultural distance and greater discrimination. The results of regression analyses showed that, for Malay participants, perceived discrimination accounted for the greatest proportion of variance in sociocultural adjustment (73%), followed by English language proficiency (10%) and contact with host nationals (4%). For Chinese participants, English language proficiency was the strongest predictor of sociocultural adjustment (54%), followed by expectations of life in Britain (18%) and contact with host nationals (3%). By contrast, participants' sex, age, and length of residence failed to emerge as significant predictors for either ethnic group. Possible explanations for this pattern of findings are discussed, including the effects of Islamophobia on Malay-Muslims in Britain, possible socioeconomic differences between Malay and Chinese students, and personality differences between the two ethnic groups. The results are further discussed in relation to practical steps that can be taken to improve the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning students in Britain.

  10. A White Atlantic? The Idea of American Art in Nineteenth-Century Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Barringer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with the contention that 'American art' is a powerful retrospective construction, rooted in the institutional practices of art history and museology. Through a focus on the experiences of expatriate American artists (John Singleton Copley and Benjamin West in London at the start of the nineteenth century, and the genre or landscape painting in transatlantic art (including the work of the British artist Thomas Cole, this essay exposes the complex and dynamic cultural interrelationship that existed between the United States and Europe in the period. It extends Paul Gilroy's and Joseph Roach's recent concept of the 'Black Atlantic', in which they argue that a single cultural zone brought together London and New Orleans, Kingston, Jamaica and the ports of the Ivory coast, to analyse the cultural and performative exchanges that were also taking place between America and Europe (particularly Great Britain, and that have hitherto been neglected in dominant art history narratives.

  11. Dependence between sea surge, river flow and precipitation in south and west Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Svensson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries around Great Britain may be at heightened risk of flooding because of the simultaneous occurrence of extreme sea surge and river flow, both of which may be caused by mid-latitude cyclones. A measure especially suited for extremes was employed to estimate dependence between river flow and sea surge. To assist in the interpretation of why flow-surge dependence occurs in some areas and not in others, the dependence between precipitation and surge and between precipitation and river flow was also studied. Case studies of the meteorological situations leading to high surges and/or river flows were also carried out. The present study concerns catchments draining to the south and west coasts of Great Britain. Statistically significant dependence between river flow and daily maximum sea surge may be found at catchments spread along most of this coastline. However, higher dependence is generally found in catchments in hilly areas with a southerly to westerly aspect. Here, precipitation in south-westerly airflow, which is generally the quadrant of prevailing winds, will be enhanced orographically as the first higher ground is encountered. The sloping catchments may respond quickly to the abundant rainfall and the flow peak may arrive in the estuary on the same day as a large sea surge is produced by the winds and low atmospheric pressure associated with the cyclone. There are three regions where flow-surge dependence is strong: the western part of the English south coast, southern Wales and around the Solway Firth. To reduce the influence of tide-surge interaction on the dependence analysis, the dependence between river flow and daily maximum surge occurring at high tide was estimated. The general pattern of areas with higher dependence is similar to that using the daily maximum surge. The dependence between river flow and daily maximum sea surge is often strongest when surge and flow occur on the same day. The west coast from Wales and

  12. Impacts of nitrogen deposition on vascular plants in Britain: an analysis of two national observation networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Henrys

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of Great Britain currently have nitrogen (N deposition at rates which exceed the thresholds above which there is risk of damage to sensitive components of the ecosystem (critical loads. Previous studies have focussed primarily on the relationship of species richness to nitrogen, whereas here we look at individual species. We used data from two national observation networks over Great Britain to examine the response of individual vascular plant species to N in acid grasslands, calcareous grasslands and heathlands. Presence absence records of individual species, along with mean Ellenberg N scores, within 10 km hectads were modelled against N deposition whilst at the same time controlling for the effects of climate, land use and sulphur deposition using generalised additive models. Ellenberg N showed a significant increase with increasing N deposition in almost all habitats across both surveys indicating increased fertility. Many individual species showed strong relationships with N deposition and clear negative trends in species prevalence to increasing nitrogen were found in all habitats. A number of these species were either habitat dominants or possessed traits known to be influential in controlling ecosystem function. Many community dominants showing significant negative relationships with N deposition highlight a potentially significant loss of function. Some species that showed negative relationships to N showed signs of decline at low levels, far below the current critical load levels. Some species also showed continuous changes as N deposition levels rose above the current critical load values. This work contributes to the growing evidence base suggesting species level impacts at low N deposition values.

  13. Prophets of Progress: Authority in the Scientific Projections and Religious Realizations of the Great Eastern Steamship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillin, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Naval architect John Scott Russell heralded the Great Eastern steamship as a beacon of modern science and used it to promote his own approaches to shipbuilding among Britain's science elites. While Russell defined the project through a rhetoric of science, to popular audiences the ship was analogous to biblical teachings, embodying profound moral lessons. This article places Russell's projections within this wider cultural context of religious interpretation and argues that in Victorian Britain the right to define the meaning of engineering spectacles was not the exclusive privilege of men of science, but open to broader cultural understandings. Religious, as much as scientific, values shaped social constructions of the project.

  14. Press self-regulation in Britain: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Almagor, Raphael

    2015-02-01

    This article reviews the history of press self-regulation in Britain, from the 1947 Ross Commission to the 2012 Leveson Inquiry Commission. It considers the history of the Press Council and the Press Complaints Commission, analysing the ways they developed, their work, and how they have reached their current non-status. It is argued that the existing situation in Britain is far from satisfactory, and that the press should advance more elaborate mechanisms of self-control, establishing a new regulatory body called the Public and Press Council that will be anchored in law, empowering the new regulator with greater and unprecedented authority, and equipping it with substantive sanctioning abilities. The Public and Press Council should be independent and effective, with transparent policies, processes and responsibilities. Its adjudication should be made in accordance with a written, detailed Code of Practice.

  15. Diet, social differentiation and cultural change in Roman Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Christina; Schroeder, Hannes; Hedges, R. E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses stable isotope analyses (d 13 C and d 15 N) of human bone collagen to reconstruct the diet of three Romano-British (first to early fifth century AD) populations from Gloucestershire in South West England. Gloucestershire was an important part of Roman Britain with two major admini...... sensitive, if settlement-specific, indicator of social differentiation and culture change.......This study uses stable isotope analyses (d 13 C and d 15 N) of human bone collagen to reconstruct the diet of three Romano-British (first to early fifth century AD) populations from Gloucestershire in South West England. Gloucestershire was an important part of Roman Britain with two major...

  16. Cohabitation and marriage in Britain since the 1970s

    OpenAIRE

    Beaujouan, Éva; Ní Bhrolcháin, Máire

    2011-01-01

    The article presents an overview of trends in cohabitation and marriage in Britain over several decades, using a consistent set of retrospective histories from the General Household Survey 1979–2007. Time-trends are presented, for men and women, of: the experience of different types of partnership by specified ages, the frequency of premarital cohabitation, the average time spent in different types of partnership, the timing of life course transitions, and the outcome of cohabitation and marr...

  17. Britain at CERN, from 12 to 14 November 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-seven companies presented their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition from 12 to 14 November. British industry exhibited products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects were cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition was organised by BEAMA, the Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations.

  18. A new area classification for understanding internal migration in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Adam; Stillwell, John

    2011-01-01

    This article details the development of a new area classification for Britain based on internal migration variables taken from the 2001 Census. An explanation of why general-purpose area classifications already in existence are not ideal for internal migration analysis is provided, before an account of the construction of the new classification is given. The latter involves justification of the choice of variables, explanation of the methodology adopted and presentation of the final typology.

  19. WEBSITE DESIGN AND LOCALISATION: A COMPARISON OF MALAYSIA AND BRITAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Tanveer Ahmed; Haralambos Mouratidis; David Preston

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s ...

  20. Business Groups Exist in Developed Markets Also: Britain Since 1850

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey G. Jones

    2016-01-01

    Diversified business groups are well-known phenomenon in emerging markets, both today and historically. This is often explained by the prevalence of institutional voids or the nature of government-business relations. It is typically assumed that such groups were much less common in developed economies, and largely disappeared during the twentieth century. This working paper contests this assumption with evidence from Britain between 1850 and the present day. During the nineteenth century merc...

  1. Parasitoid wasps new to Britain (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Eurytomidae, Braconidae & Bethylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Notton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One genus and five species are recorded as new to Britain: Fidiobia, Fidiobia hispanica, Macroteleia bicolora (Platygastridae; Sycophila binotata (Eurytomidae; Schizoprymnus collaris (Braconidae; and Laelius pedatus (Bethylidae. Keys to British Macroteleia and Laelius are provided. Provisional synonymy is proposed between Macroteleia minor and M. brevigaster, and synonymy is proposed between Laelius femoralis, L. microneurus and L. nigricrus. The possible mode of introduction of Sycophila binotata is discussed. A lectotype is designated for Schizoprymnus collaris.

  2. Business Groups Exist in Developed Markets Also: Britain Since 1850

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey G. Jones

    2016-01-01

    Diversified business groups are well-known phenomenon in emerging markets, both today and historically. This is often explained by the prevalence of institutional voids or the nature of government-business relations. It is typically assumed that such groups were much less common in developed economies, and largely disappeared during the twentieth century. This working paper contests this assumption with evidence from Britain between 1850 and the present day. During the nineteenth century merc...

  3. On the Material and Immaterial Architecture of Organised Positivism in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Wilson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Positivism captured the Victorian imagination. Curiously, however, no work has focused on the architectural history and theory of Positivist halls in Britain. Scholars present these spaces of organised Positivism as being the same in thought and action throughout their existence, from the 1850s to the 1940s. Yet the British Positivists’ inherently different views of the work of their leader, the French philosopher Auguste Comte (1798–1857, caused such friction between them that a great schism in the movement occurred in 1878. By the 1890s two separate British Positivist groups were using different space and syntax types for manifesting a common goal: social reorganisation. The 'raison d’être' of these institutions was to realize Comte’s utopian programme, called the Occidental Republic. In the rise of the first organised Positivist group in Britain, Richard Congreve’s Chapel Street Hall championed the religious ritualism and cultural festivals of Comte’s utopia; the terminus for this theory and practice was a temple typology, as seen in the case of Sydney Style’s Liverpool Church of Humanity. Following the Chapel Street Hall schism of 1878, Newton Hall was in operation by 1881 and under the direction of Frederic Harrison. Harrison’s group coveted intellectual and humanitarian activities over rigid ritualism; this tradition culminated in a synthetic, multi-function hall typology, as seen in the case of Patrick Geddes’ Outlook Tower. Thus though seeking the same end – to transform society for the better – the two Positivist groups went about their work in inherently different ways.

  4. South China Sea: Disputes and Great Powers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jinming

    2011-01-01

    In the South China Sea disputes, China has ample proof to claim sovereignty over the Xisha Islands (the Paracel Islands) and Nansha Islands (the Spratly Islands) while the claims of certain southeast Asian countries do not hold any water. The South China Sea disputes have their origins in the San Francisco Peace Treaty signed in 1951, the result of intervention by the United States and Great Britain in regional affairs. Even today, the United States has not discarded its Cold War mentality and continues to intervene in the South China Sea disputes. The only change in the United States' attitude is that it has changed its pretext for intervention from "containing Communist expansion" in the past to "preserving freedom of navigation in the South China Sea" in the present.

  5. BREXIT: THE ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL IMPACT OF A POSSIBLE WITHDRAWAL OF GREAT BRITAIN’S FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA MOAGĂR - POLADIAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Great Britain’s withdrawal from the European Union would not only change the internal political climate, but it could have important political repercussions within the EU and also on its relations with other European Community’s countries. Also, it could stimulate the other EU Member States to re-evaluate the terms and conditions of their membership. The same applies if Great Britain fails to renegotiate these terms and conditions while keeping the status of EU member. A priority for the UK is to maintain close trade relations with the EU, even if politically it would opt for withdrawal. In the event of possible withdrawal from the EU, Great Britain could conclude an agreement with the EU following the example of a customs union (after Turkey’s model. In this case, it would not be obliged to contribute to the EU budget or accept immigration from the EU member states. Last but not least, from a geopolitical point of view, Great Britain's exit from the EU could be seen externally as a sign of decline, EU losing its financial, economic, political and military powerhouse. From this point of view, the European Union itself have a significant political and economic interest to conclude a mutually beneficial agreement with Great Britain considering that it could terminate its EU membership.

  6. The Great Recession was not so Great

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a hi

  7. The Plymouth Laboratory and the institutionalization of experimental zoology in Britain in the 1920s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlingsson, Steindór J

    2009-01-01

    The Plymouth Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (1884) was founded in 1888. In addition to conducting morphological and other biological research, the founders of the laboratory aimed at promoting research in experimental zoology which will be used in this paper as a synonym for e.g. experimental embryology, comparative physiology or general physiology. This dream was not fully realized until 1920. The Great War and its immediate aftermath had a positive impact on the development of the Plymouth Laboratory. The war greatly upset the operation of the Zoological Station in Naples and the ensuing crisis in its operations was closely related to the establishment of the physiological department in Plymouth in 1920. Two other key factors in the Plymouth story were the establishment of the Development Fund in 1909, which began contributing funds to the Plymouth Laboratory in 1912, and the patronage of the Cambridge zoologist George P. Bidder (1863-1954). This paper will focus on the combined influence of the Development Fund and Bidder on the development of the Plymouth Laboratory from around 1902 through the early 1920s, and the important role the laboratory played in promoting experimental zoology in Britain in the 1920s.

  8. Cohabitation and marriage in Britain since the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujouan, Eva; Ní Bhrolcháin, Máire

    2011-01-01

    The article presents an overview of trends in cohabitation and marriage in Britain over several decades, using a consistent set of retrospective histories from the General Household Survey 1979-2007. Time-trends are presented, for men and women, of: the experience of different types of partnership by specified ages, the frequency of premarital cohabitation, the average time spent in different types of partnership, the timing of life course transitions, and the outcome of cohabitation and marriage at the fifth and tenth anniversaries.

  9. Young Socialist Men in Mid-Sixties Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the political, social and psychological experiences of a group of young working-class men who in the early-to-mid 1960s became active members in branches of the Labour Party Young Socialists. Concentrated in London's East End, these branches had become increasingly open...... maturation from child to adult intersected with the formation of a new and distinctive extra-parliamentary culture on the British left that came to full fruition around Britain's anti-war movement, the Vietnam Solidarity Campaign. The formation of this collection of inner lives occurred simultaneously...

  10. Domesday 2000 - a National Land Information System for Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabel, C. E.; Ralphs, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    The Domesday 2000 Project aims to ensure that by the year 2000 there will be a National Land Information System for Britain, containing up to date information on land and property ownership, value and use. It is proposed that the system will make use of distributed databases connected over a wide......-area network, to integrate data from a wide variety of sources, using GIS technology to enable interested parties to access the on-line information via locally based terminals. This article explains the background to the project, before moving on to discuss the proposed format and data holdings...

  11. The Impact of Criminal Anthropology in Britain (1880-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Davie

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Only one book devoted entirely to the theories of Cesare Lombroso was published in Britain in the period 1880-1918, and that is The Criminal, by Havelock Ellis. In his book, Ellis noted the paradox of the British reaction to criminal anthropology. While researching the book, he had canvassed opinion among criminal justice professionals on the subject, hoping to garner home-grown reactions to the impassioned criminological debates taking place at the time on the Continent. Ellis was familiar w...

  12. Cultural Identity and Acculturation Preferences among South Asian Adolescents in Britain: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The study reported in this article is part of a wider research project on the adaptation of South Asians in Britain. It examines and compares the acculturation attitudes and cultural identity of Indian and Pakistani second-generation adolescents Indian (Punjabi Sikh and Gujarati Hindu) and Pakistani (Muslim) in Britain. The research project…

  13. A Comparative Study on Different Connotations of the Same Color Word between Britain and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Color has a close relationship with people’s life. No matter in Britain or in China, expect owning the property of color, color words are attached with abundant symbolic meanings and cultural connotations. Because the diverse historical tradition, national psychology, religious beliefs and thinking model exit in Britain and China, the symbolized meaning of the same color words are different.

  14. Why Are Child Poverty Rates Higher in Britain than in Germany? A Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Stephen P.; Schluter, Christian

    2003-01-01

    We analyze why child poverty rates were much higher in Britain than in Western Germany during the 1990s, using a framework focusing on poverty transition rates. Child poverty exit rates were significantly lower, and poverty entry rates significantly higher, in Britain. We decompose these cross-national differences into differences in the…

  15. Identity Articulations, Mobilization, and Autonomy in the Movement for Muslim Schools in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meer, Nasar

    2009-01-01

    Muslim schools in Britain have emerged as a highly salient issue that at times reinforces, and at other times cuts across, political and philosophical divides. It therefore comes as some surprise to learn that despite a general proliferation of literature on "Muslims" in Britain very little research has explicitly investigated how…

  16. The Political Economy of Educational Reform in France and Britain: 1980-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deer, Cecile; de Meulemeester, Jean-Luc

    2004-01-01

    In this article we analyse the role given to education and training by policy-makers in France and Britain from 1980 onwards, in relation to their overall chosen economic (and social) strategies, and highlight conjunctions between education, exchange-rate regimes, and the level of economic openness. Britain opted for a monetarist route against…

  17. Genomic signals of migration and continuity in Britain before the Anglo-Saxons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martiniano, Rui; Caffell, Anwen; Holst, Malin; Hunter-Mann, Kurt; Montgomery, Janet; Müldner, Gundula; McLaughlin, Russell L; Teasdale, Matthew D; van Rheenen, Wouter; Veldink, Jan H; van den Berg, Leonard H; Hardiman, Orla; Carroll, Maureen; Roskams, Steve; Oxley, John; Morgan, Colleen; Thomas, Mark G; Barnes, Ian; McDonnell, Christine; Collins, Matthew J; Bradley, Daniel G

    2016-01-01

    The purported migrations that have formed the peoples of Britain have been the focus of generations of scholarly controversy. However, this has not benefited from direct analyses of ancient genomes. Here we report nine ancient genomes (∼1 ×) of individuals from northern Britain: seven from a Roman e

  18. Sending Children to School "Back Home": Multiple Moralities of Punjabi Sikh Parents in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Kaveri

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how Punjabi Sikh parents in Britain try to produce "good children" through moral reasoning about their schooling. Parents compare schooling in Britain with India and sometimes wonder about sending their children to school "back home", in the hope of immersing them in Indian culture, traditions and…

  19. Grammar of Kove: An Austronesian Language of the West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a descriptive grammar of Kove, an Austronesian language spoken in the West New Britain Province of Papua New Guinea. Kove is primarily spoken in 18 villages, including some on the small islands north of New Britain. There are about 9,000 people living in the area, but many are not fluent speakers of Kove. The dissertation…

  20. Cities and regions in Britain through hierarchical percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaute, Elsa; Molinero, Carlos; Hatna, Erez; Murcio, Roberto; Vargas-Ruiz, Camilo; Masucci, A. Paolo; Batty, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations which are the outcome of complex geographical, political and historical processes which leave almost indelible footprints on infrastructure such as the street network. In this work, we uncover a set of hierarchies in Britain at different scales using percolation theory on the street network and on its intersections which are the primary points of interaction and urban agglomeration. At the larger scales, the observed hierarchical structures can be interpreted as regional fractures of Britain, observed in various forms, from natural boundaries, such as National Parks, to regional divisions based on social class and wealth such as the well-known North-South divide. At smaller scales, cities are generated through recursive percolations on each of the emerging regional clusters. We examine the evolution of the morphology of the system as a whole, by measuring the fractal dimension of the clusters at each distance threshold in the percolation. We observe that this reaches a maximum plateau at a specific distance. The clusters defined at this distance threshold are in excellent correspondence with the boundaries of cities recovered from satellite images, and from previous methods using population density.

  1. Incorporating private lands in conservation planning: protected areas in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah F; Gaston, Kevin J

    2008-06-01

    Evaluations of the effectiveness of protected areas often report their inadequate representation of regional variation in environmental conditions, land cover, and biological diversity. One frequent contributory explanation is the heavy reliance placed upon the designation of public as opposed to private lands for statutory protection. Given that protected area designation in Britain has no such constraint, and indeed that more than half of such areas are on private lands, we tested the a priori assumption that within this region the representation of environmental conditions and land cover within statutory protected areas would be more equitable. Despite the reduction in land ownership constraints on where protected areas can be established, a marked bias in protected area coverage remains. Protected areas in Britain tend toward regions of higher elevation, soils of lower economic potential, and coastal/estuarine habitat and fail adequately to represent areas of lower elevation and woodland habitats. Improving the current situation requires not only a more systematic approach to site selection, but a more equitable and diverse portfolio of incentives for private landowners to facilitate the decision to manage sites for conservation.

  2. Shiatsu in Britain and Japan: Personhood, holism and embodied aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Glyn

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, globalisation processes are examined through the prism of shiatsu, an originally Japanese, touch-based therapy, now practised in Europe, Japan, North America, and many other places. Examining this emergent plane of therapeutic practice provides an opportunity to reflect on categories of personhood, notably that of the individual, and its place within processes of globalisation. The article is divided into two parts. In the first part the holisms inherent to East Asian medical practice and underlying notions of personhood in Japan and Britain are critically examined. The seemingly reductionistic practice of 'bodily holism' in Japan is shown to reflect socio-centred notions of the person. The concept of holism animating shiatsu in a British school in London, far from being Japanese, 'ancient', or 'timeless', is shown to reflect individualism characteristic of the New Age movement. In the second part of the paper, using an auto-phenomenological approach, a description of practitioner (my own) and client's lived experience of shiatsu is given in case study form. This illustrates how 'holism' is felt within the context of a shiatsu treatment. The aesthetic form of the shiatsu touch described is shown to be implicitly individualising. This has, it is argued, profound implications for understanding the embodied dimensions of practitioner-patient encounters, the potential efficacy of treatment, and more generally the practice of globalised East Asian 'holistic' therapies in Britain and other settings.

  3. Cities and regions in Britain through hierarchical percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaute, Elsa; Molinero, Carlos; Hatna, Erez; Murcio, Roberto; Vargas-Ruiz, Camilo; Masucci, A. Paolo; Batty, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations which are the outcome of complex geographical, political and historical processes which leave almost indelible footprints on infrastructure such as the street network. In this work, we uncover a set of hierarchies in Britain at different scales using percolation theory on the street network and on its intersections which are the primary points of interaction and urban agglomeration. At the larger scales, the observed hierarchical structures can be interpreted as regional fractures of Britain, observed in various forms, from natural boundaries, such as National Parks, to regional divisions based on social class and wealth such as the well-known North–South divide. At smaller scales, cities are generated through recursive percolations on each of the emerging regional clusters. We examine the evolution of the morphology of the system as a whole, by measuring the fractal dimension of the clusters at each distance threshold in the percolation. We observe that this reaches a maximum plateau at a specific distance. The clusters defined at this distance threshold are in excellent correspondence with the boundaries of cities recovered from satellite images, and from previous methods using population density. PMID:27152211

  4. Beyond capital? The challenge for sociology in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmwood, John

    2014-12-01

    This article offers a 'local', British, reading of Piketty's landmark book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, suggesting that the challenge it offers to sociological approaches to inequality is more fundamental than hitherto recognized. The variations in 'national trajectories' exposed by Piketty reveal Britain to be anomalous in terms of standard approaches to the path dependencies embedded in different welfare regimes. Using the recent work of Monica Prasad on 'settler capitalism' in the USA and the tax and debt-finance regime associated with it, the article suggests that colonialism and empire and its postwar unravelling has had deep consequences for British social stratification, albeit largely neglected by British sociologists. Finally, it points to the fact that the form of tax and debt-finance regime that has become reinforced in Britain is at the heart of recent radical reforms to higher education. These are the currently unexplicated conditions of our future practice as sociologists and, therefore, an obstacle to building a critical sociology on the foundations laid out by Piketty.

  5. The End of Roman Pottery Production in Southern Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Lyne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to show that a full or partial monetary economy may have continued to operate in parts of Britain into the 2nd quarter of the 5th century at least; changing our perception of early 5th century material culture in South-East Britain from one leaving very few traces in the archaeological record to one which is an extension of that previously thought to be restricted to the period c.AD 370-410 but which can now be seen to span the period c.AD 370-430/440. Some Romano-British style pottery appears to have continued being made on a much more limited scale into the mid-5th century: a distinctive type of convex-sided dish with solid spaced bosses can be shown to have been made at or near Dorchester-upon-Thames, Portchester and Alice Holt Forest during the 5th century and continued being produced at the first-mentioned place for long enough to be copied by local Anglo-Saxon potters. Adjustments in dating mean that certain peculiarly insular types of military equipment such as the Tortworth strap-end and horse-headed buckle, hitherto dated to the last years of the 4th century, could belong to British soldiers of the early 5th century.

  6. Job-Related Well-Being Through the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    GREEN, F.; Felstead, A.; Gallie, D.; Inanc, H.

    2016-01-01

    We study how job-related well-being (measured by Warr’s ‘Enthusiasm’ and ‘Contentment’ scales) altered through the Great Recession, and how this is related to changing job quality. Using nationally representative data for Britain, we find that job-related well-being was stable between 2001 and 2006, but then declined between 2006 and 2012. We report relevant changes in job quality. In modelling the determinants of job-related well-being, we confirm several previously-studied hypotheses and pr...

  7. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  8. The impact of Thatcherism on health and well-being in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Samuel, Alex; Bambra, Clare; Collins, Chik; Hunter, David J; McCartney, Gerry; Smith, Kat

    2014-01-01

    Margaret Thatcher (1925-2013) was the United Kingdom's prime minister from 1979 to 1990. Her informal transatlantic alliance with U.S. President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1989 played an important role in the promotion of an international neoliberal policy agenda that remains influential today. Her critique of UK social democracy during the 1970s and her adoption of key neoliberal strategies, such as financial deregulation, trade liberalization, and the privatization of public goods and services, were popularly labeled Thatcherism. In this article, we consider the nature of Thatcherism and its impact on health and well-being during her period as prime minister and, to a lesser extent, in the years that follow; we focus mainly on Great Britain (England, Scotland, and Wales). Thatcher's policies were associated with substantial increases in socioeconomic and health inequalities: these issues were actively marginalized and ignored by her governments. In addition, her public-sector reforms applied business principles to the welfare state and prepared the National Health Service for subsequent privatization.

  9. Nitrogen impacts on vascular plants in Britain: an analysis of two national observation networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Henrys

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of the United Kingdom currently have nitrogen (N deposition at rates which exceed the thresholds above which there is risk of damage to sensitive components of the ecosystem (critical loads, and are predicted to continue to do so. Previous studies have shown that this excess N can be very damaging to semi-natural ecosystems. However, such studies have focussed primarily on the relationship of species richness to nitrogen, possibly missing the risk that increased deposition can have on individual plant species. To address this gap in knowledge, we used data from two national observation networks over Great Britain: the vascular plant database and the Botanical Society of the British Isles local change network to examine the response of individual vascular plant species to nitrogen in acid grasslands, calcareous grasslands and heathlands. Presence absence records of individual species, along with mean Ellenberg scores, within 10 km hectads were modelled against N deposition whilst at the same time controlling for the effects of climate, land use and sulphur deposition using generalised additive models. Ellenberg N showed a significant increase with increasing N deposition in almost all habitats across both surveys. Many individual species showed strong relationships with N deposition and clear negative trends in species prevalence to increasing nitrogen were found in all habitats. Species that showed negative relationships to N showed signs of decline at low levels, far below the current critical load levels.

  10. Website Design and Localisation: A Comparison of Malaysia and Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism, and power distance, and Hall’s high/low-context cultural dimensions, and analyses how these cultural values are reflected in Malaysian and British websites. A content analysis of the websites highlights considerable differences in representing local cultural values on the local websites.

  11. WEBSITE DESIGN AND LOCALISATION: A COMPARISON OF MALAYSIA AND BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism, and power distance, and Hall’s high/low-context cultural dimensions, and analyses how these cultural values are reflected in Malaysian and British websites. A content analysis of the websites highlights considerable differences in representing local cultural values on the local websites.

  12. The veterinary medicine industry in Britain in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, T A B; Godley, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Economic historians have focused research effort on accounting for the growth and significance of Britain's pharmaceutical industry, but little effort has so far been directed at the veterinary medicine industry, which formed an important part of the wider sector. This article addresses that gap. Factors responsible for that sector's relative insignificance until the 1950s included a general tendency to slaughter rather than to treat sick animals, the absence of advanced medicines until the innovation of sulpha drugs and antibiotics, and difficult relations with the wider pharmaceutical industry. Thereafter output of veterinary medicines increased dramatically, arising from an exponential growth in the demand for intensively farmed poultry meat. Since the 1980s a decline in the use of drugs in agriculture has caused the industry to concentrate on the health needs of domestic animals rather than those of livestock.

  13. Bottom currents and shelf sediments, southwest of Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D.; Sommerville, J. H.; Stanford, P. N.

    1980-04-01

    The shelf sediments southwest of Britain range from large boulders to muddy fine sands. The large boulders, which occur in patches, were probably dropped from icebergs. A reworked basal bed forms an extensive pavement over which well to very well sorted medium to fine sands are transported, whilst muddy sediments occur between sandbanks. Measurements of boundary layer currents show that the threshold friction velocities for the sands are exceeded by maximum tidal flows over most of the area. Repeated selective entrainment by tidal currents, in a virtually closed sediment system, is proposed as the mechanism for the formation of these very well sorted mobile sands, which have a mean size close to that of the most easily entrained grains and size frequency distributions approaching log-normality.

  14. An Early Medieval Tradition of Building in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardiner, Mark

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Early medieval houses in Britain were largely constructed of timber. Various approaches have been adopted for interpreting the character of these buildings, since no standing structure survives. These include the study of water-logged timber, the reproduction of methods of working and the reconstruction of buildings, as well as the conventional analysis of the plans of excavations. The problems of identifying the ethnic affiliations of houses in Britain are particularly acute because the structural features which define the building traditions in England and Scotland have rarely been identified. However, it is argued that it is possible to identify a distinctive tradition of building in timber which persists from the fifth to the eleventh or even twelfth century, and is found throughout England and into southern Scotland.En la Gran Bretaña de la alta Edad Media se solían construir las viviendas de madera y por consiguiente no queda ninguna estructura en pie. Así, se han adoptado varios enfoques para interpretar las características de dichas viviendas, como el análisis de la madera saturada de agua, la recreación de la metodología de trabajo y la reconstrucción de edificios, así como los tradicionales análisis de las plantas de las construcciones en las excavaciones. La atribución étnica de las viviendas en Gran Bretaña resulta especialmente difícil porque rara vez se han identificado las tradiciones constructivas de Inglaterra y Escocia. No obstante, se ha argumentado que es posible identificar a una tradición característica de construcción en madera que se mantuvo del siglo V al siglo XI e incluso hasta el siglo XII y que se puede encontrar en toda Inglaterra y en el sur de Escocia.

  15. Climate-driven expansion of blanket bogs in Britain during the Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gallego-Sala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Blanket bog occupies approximately 6 % of the area of the UK today. The Holocene expansion of this hyperoceanic biome has previously been explained as a consequence of Neolithic forest clearance. However, the present distribution of blanket bog in Great Britain can be predicted accurately with a simple model (PeatStash based on summer temperature and moisture index thresholds, and the same model correctly predicts the highly disjunct distribution of blanket bog worldwide. This finding suggests that climate, rather than land-use history, controls blanket-bog distribution in the UK and everywhere else. We set out to test this hypothesis for blanket bogs in the UK using bioclimate envelope modelling compared with a database of peat initiation age estimates. We used both pollen-based reconstructions and climate model simulations of climate changes between the mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP, 6 ka and modern climate to drive PeatStash and predict areas of blanket bog. We compiled data on the timing of blanket-bog initiation, based on 228 age determinations at sites where peat directly overlies mineral soil. The model predicts large areas of northern Britain would have had blanket bog by 6000 yr BP, and the area suitable for peat growth extended to the south after this time. A similar pattern is shown by the basal peat ages and new blanket bog appeared over a larger area during the late Holocene, the greatest expansion being in Ireland, Wales and southwest England, as the model predicts. The expansion was driven by a summer cooling of about 2 °C, shown by both pollen-based reconstructions and climate models. The data show early Holocene (pre-Neolithic blanket-bog initiation at over half of the sites in the core areas of Scotland, and northern England. The temporal patterns and concurrence of the bioclimate model predictions and initiation data suggest that climate change provides a parsimonious explanation for the early Holocene distribution and later

  16. The survival of the great financial journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira CALVO GUTIÉRREZ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the economic international journalism has had in the Anglo-Saxon groups Dow Jones (USA and Pearson (Great Britain, publishers of The Wall Street and Financial Times respectively, his big world models. Nevertheless, the new century has brought enormous convulsions to the sector, to the newspapaers of elite and big agencies specialized in economic information as Reuters, Thomson or Bloomberg. To the battle in Internet, there add the expansion of the informative economic power and the changes of mentality of the companies and of the audiences. All this has derived in a fierce war led by the big leaders who, with more than one century of tradition someones, have been object of sales or mergers, financial indispensable operations to be able to adapt to the new times. The aim of this article is to analyze the path of the great economic journalism, with special dedication to two fronts: one, to know how these neswspapers of elite are positioned in the network; other one, the dilemma between continuing being a journalism of quality, rigorous, cosmopolitan and expensive of supporting, or to change towards an ideological, gruesome journalism or amarillista that, since in other specialities, also has spread between the financial journalism

  17. Britain in Europe: international and regional comparisons of fertility levels and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D

    1993-01-01

    "This chapter compares fertility patterns and trends in Britain with those in other West European countries. Britain shares many features in common with the rest of Western Europe: fertility below the replacement level, late childbearing with births over age 30 becoming more common. Britain stands out, however, by having one of the highest birth rates in Europe and is one of the few European countries not facing population decline in the medium term. Average age at first marriage and first birth are relatively young. Britain also has one of the highest proportions (30 per cent) of births outside marriage...[with] at least a quarter of all children...likely to experience a single parent home or a reconstituted family before age 16." Some data for the rest of the United Kingdom are also discussed.

  18. Employers, the government, and industrial fatigue in Britain, 1890-1918.

    OpenAIRE

    McIvor, A J

    1987-01-01

    The evolution of the concept of industrial fatigue and the responses of employers and the government in Britain to research initiatives in this field of industrial medicine up to the end of the first world war is explored. The discussion dovetails in with the broader debate about the characteristics and dissemination of scientific labour management in Britain. The first section focuses on attitudes towards human energy expenditure and overwork in the nineteenth century. Following this is a di...

  19. Atlas of Great Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyan, Ronald; Dunlop, Storm

    2015-01-01

    Foreword; Using this book; Part I. Introduction: Cometary beliefs and fears; Comets in art; Comets in literature and poetry; Comets in science; Cometary science today; Great comets in antiquity; Great comets of the Middle Ages; Part II. The 30 Greatest Comets of Modern Times: The Great Comet of 1471; Comet Halley 1531; The Great Comet of 1556; The Great Comet of 1577; Comet Halley, 1607; The Great Comet of 1618; The Great Comet of 1664; Comet Kirch, 1680; Comet Halley, 1682; The Great Comet of 1744; Comet Halley, 1759; Comet Messier, 1769; Comet Flaugergues, 1811; Comet Halley, 1835; The Great March Comet of 1843; Comet Donati, 1858; Comet Tebbutt, 1861; The Great September Comet of 1882; The Great January Comet of 1910; Comet Halley, 1910; Comet Arend-Roland, 1956; Comet Ikeya-Seki, 1965; Comet Bennett, 1970; Comet Kohoutek, 1973-4; Comet West, 1976; Comet Halley, 1986; Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, 1994; Comet Hyakutake, 1996; Comet Hale-Bopp, 1997; Comet McNaught, 2007; Part III. Appendices; Table of comet data; Glossary; References; Photo credits; Index.

  20. Science, providence, and progress at the Great Exhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Geoffrey

    2012-09-01

    The Great Exhibition of 1851 is generally interpreted as a thoroughly secular event that celebrated progress in science, technology, and industry. In contrast to this perception, however, the exhibition was viewed by many contemporaries as a religious event of considerable importance. Although some religious commentators were highly critical of the exhibition and condemned the display of artifacts in the Crystal Palace as giving succor to materialism, others incorporated science and technology into their religious frameworks. Drawing on sermons, tracts, and the religious periodical press, this essay pays close attention to the ways in which science and technology were endowed with providentialist significance and particularly examines the notion of human progress used by a number of Christian writers, especially Congregationalists, who set scientific and technological progress within a teleological religious perspective. This discussion sheds fresh light not only on the Great Exhibition itself but also on the deployment of natural theology in mid-nineteenth-century Britain.

  1. THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR AND ITS FALSIFICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melsitov V. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the results of the lessons and consequences of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 in the context of modernity, as well as falsification attempts to distort, defame and otherwise detract the role of the USSR in the victory over Nazi Germany. They argue that the knowledge of the truth about the Great Patriotic War gives us the opportunity not only proud of the feat of their fathers and grandfathers, our homeland, but also strengthen the belief in the great future of modern Russia. They say that for a long time in Western historiography, and, unfortunately, in the domestic, and plant abstracts, not only contrary to the truth, archival materials and documents, but also the common logic. In particular, the article in question of who is to blame for fueling the war - the Soviet Union and Germany, Stalin or Hitler? The authors argue that, despite some external similarities in politics and ideology of the two historical actors of Stalin and Hitler, the two totalitarian regimes, it is really only superficial similarities. The authors show that it is the ideology and politics of fascism and Nazism became the primary cause of the outbreak of Hitler started World War II, and then the attack on the Soviet Union. The article stated a direct continuity between past and present Nazi fascism, emerging after the coup in the Ukraine with the direct support of the West. The article analyzes and that assistance provided by the Soviet Union and its allies in the anti-Hitler Germany - United States and Britain. Without belittling their contribution to winning, the authors, however, have proved a decisive role of our country in it

  2. Seekership, Spirituality and Self-Discovery: Ayurveda Trainees in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Maya

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the backgrounds and motivations of persons trained or training as Ayurvedic practitioners at two London-based institutions offering Ayurveda programmes at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. It draws upon in-depth interviews with individuals at various stages of their training and practice in order to examine the paths that bring them to Ayurveda, their motivations for undergoing training, and the ways in which they apply their knowledge of Ayurveda during and after their training period. The findings here corroborate what other scholars have demonstrated in the case of Asian traditions like Yoga and Ayurveda in the West; these traditions have inevitably undergone shifts in meaning by virtue of their assimilation into the Western, in this case British, holistic health milieu. Most significant in Ayurveda's case is the shift away from a preoccupation with remedial medicine (the bedrock of mainstream Ayurveda in modern South Asia), to a focus on self-knowledge and self-empowerment as a path to 'holistic healing' (understood to address mental and spiritual, not just physical, wellbeing). Even though the Ayurvedic curriculum transmitted at the educational institutions in London is based largely on that taught at Ayurveda colleges in India, the completely different orientations and dispositions of students in Britain (as compared to their South Asian counterparts) ensures that the Ayurveda they go on to apply and practise is radically different - this is 'spiritualised' Ayurveda, in radical contrast to the 'biomedicalised' version obtaining in modern mainstream South Asian contexts.

  3. Language shift, bilingualism and the future of Britain's Celtic languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Anne; Unger, Roman; Steele, James

    2010-12-12

    'Language shift' is the process whereby members of a community in which more than one language is spoken abandon their original vernacular language in favour of another. The historical shifts to English by Celtic language speakers of Britain and Ireland are particularly well-studied examples for which good census data exist for the most recent 100-120 years in many areas where Celtic languages were once the prevailing vernaculars. We model the dynamics of language shift as a competition process in which the numbers of speakers of each language (both monolingual and bilingual) vary as a function both of internal recruitment (as the net outcome of birth, death, immigration and emigration rates of native speakers), and of gains and losses owing to language shift. We examine two models: a basic model in which bilingualism is simply the transitional state for households moving between alternative monolingual states, and a diglossia model in which there is an additional demand for the endangered language as the preferred medium of communication in some restricted sociolinguistic domain, superimposed on the basic shift dynamics. Fitting our models to census data, we successfully reproduce the demographic trajectories of both languages over the past century. We estimate the rates of recruitment of new Scottish Gaelic speakers that would be required each year (for instance, through school education) to counteract the 'natural wastage' as households with one or more Gaelic speakers fail to transmit the language to the next generation informally, for different rates of loss during informal intergenerational transmission.

  4. High-magnitude flooding across Britain since AD 1750

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Neil; Sangster, Heather

    2017-03-01

    The last decade has witnessed severe flooding across much of the globe, but have these floods really been exceptional? Globally, relatively few instrumental river flow series extend beyond 50 years, with short records presenting significant challenges in determining flood risk from high-magnitude floods. A perceived increase in extreme floods in recent years has decreased public confidence in conventional flood risk estimates; the results affect society (insurance costs), individuals (personal vulnerability) and companies (e.g. water resource managers). Here, we show how historical records from Britain have improved understanding of high-magnitude floods, by examining past spatial and temporal variability. The findings identify that whilst recent floods are notable, several comparable periods of increased flooding are identifiable historically, with periods of greater frequency (flood-rich periods). Statistically significant relationships between the British flood index, the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation Index are identified. The use of historical records identifies that the largest floods often transcend single catchments affecting regions and that the current flood-rich period is not unprecedented.

  5. Historic tsunami in Britain since AD 1000: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Haslett

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The British coast is not considered at particular risk from tsunami, a view that is supported by a number of recent government reports. However, these reports largely ignore some written historic records that suggest southern Britain has experienced a number of events over the past 1000 yrs. This study briefly assesses these records and recognises four groups of events: 1 sea disturbance and coastal floods in southeast England linked to earthquakes in the Dover Straits (e.g. 1382 and 1580, 2 far-field tsunami reaching the coast of the British Isles, for example, from earthquakes along the Azores-Gibraltar Fault Zone offshore Portugal (e.g. 1755, 3 tsunami associated with near-coastal low magnitude earthquakes (e.g. 1884 and 1892, and 4 a flood event in AD 1014 that has been linked to comet debris impact. The seismogenic events range from minor water disturbance, through seismic seiching, to small and "giant" waves, suggesting near-coastal, low-magnitude, shallow earthquakes may be capable of triggering disturbance in relatively shallow water, as supported by similar occurrences elsewhere, and that the British tsunami risk requires a more careful evaluation.

  6. Amino acid geochronology of raised beaches in south west Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, D. Q.; Sykes, G. A.; Reeves (nee Henry), Alayne; Miller, G. H.; Andrews, J. T.; Brew, J. S.; Hare, P. E.

    Based on (1) the epimerization of L:isoleucine to D:alloisoleucine ( {D}/{L} ratios) in Patella vulgata, Littorina littorea, L. littoralis, L. saxatilis, Littorina species and Nucella lapillus from raised beaches in south west Britain, (2) statistical analysis of the {D}/{L} ratios, and (3) lithostratigraphic and geomorphic evaluation, three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are proposed. The {D}/{L} ratios for all the species measured are converted to a Patella vulgata standard. The three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are: (1) The Minchin Hole ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.175 ± 0.014, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. (2) A provisionally defined, but as yet, unamed ( {D}/{L}) Stage, because of the current unavailability of a suitable stratotype, with {D}/{L} ratios of 0.135 ± 0.014 (3) The Pennard ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.105 ± 0.016, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. Two geochronological models of the three high sea-level events representing the {D}/{L} Stages are constrained by uranium-series age determinations on stalagmite interbedded with marine beds in Minchin Hole and Bacon Hole Caves, Gower, Wales. A potential 'fixed point' in model evaluation is an age determination which is equivalent to Oxygen Isotope Sub-stage 5e (122 ka). The two models are:

  7. Specialization and medical mycology in the US, Britain and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homei, Aya

    2008-03-01

    This paper attempts to bring new insights to a long-standing historical debate over medical specialization by analyzing the formation of medical mycology, a somewhat marginal biomedical discipline that emerged in the mid-twentieth century around studies of fungal disease in humans. The study of fungi predates that of bacteria and viruses, but from the 1880s it became eclipsed by bacteriology. However, in the postwar period, there were moves to establish medical mycology as an independent speciality. I trace the processes that led to the launch of professional societies in the United States, Britain and Japan, three major players in medical mycology, and more broadly in biomedicine. The analysis of the three different national contexts illustrates how geographical, medico-technological, epidemiological, political and social conditions gave the specialty a distinctive character in each country; this was further complicated by the different and changing medical fields in which fungal diseases were studied and treated. The three case studies show medical specialization as a process that is not simply cumulative but responds to specific historical events and developments.

  8. Millennial scale variability in high magnitude flooding across Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, N.

    2014-09-01

    The last decade has witnessed severe flooding across much of the globe, but have these floods really been exceptional? Globally, relatively few instrumental river flow series extend beyond 50 years, with short records presenting significant challenges in determining flood risk from high-magnitude floods. A perceived increase in extreme floods in recent years has decreased public confidence in conventional flood risk estimates; the results affect society (insurance costs), individuals (personal vulnerability) and companies (e.g. water resource managers - flood/drought risk). Here we show how historical records from Britain have improved understanding of high magnitude floods, by examining past spatial and temporal variability. The findings identify that whilst recent floods are notable, several comparable periods of increased flooding are identifiable historically, with periods of greater frequency (flood-rich periods) or/and larger floods. The use of historical records identifies that the largest floods often transcend single catchments affecting regions and that the current flood rich period is not exceptional.

  9. The spatiotemporal association of non-prescription retail sales with cases during the 2009 influenza pandemic in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Stacy; Diggle, Peter J; White, Peter J; Fearne, Andrew; Read, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess whether retail sales of non-prescription products can be used for syndromic surveillance and whether it can detect influenza activity at different spatial scales. A secondary objective was to assess whether changes in purchasing behaviour were related to public health advice or levels of media or public interest. Setting The UK. Participants National and regional influenza case estimates and retail sales from a major British supermarket. Outcome measures Weekly, seasonally adjusted sales of over-the-counter symptom remedies and non-pharmaceutical products; recommended as part of the advice offered by public health agencies; were compared with weekly influenza case estimates. Comparisons were made at national and regional spatial resolutions. We also compared sales to national measures of contemporaneous media output and public interest (Internet search volume) related to the pandemic. Results At a national scale there was no significant correlation between retail sales of symptom remedies and cases for the whole pandemic period in 2009. At the regional scale, a minority of regions showed statistically significant positive correlations between cases and sales of adult ‘cold and flu’ remedies and cough remedies (3.2%, 5/156, 3.8%, 6/156), but a greater number of regions showed a significant positive correlation between cases and symptomatic remedies for children (35.6%, 55/156). Significant positive correlations between cases and sales of thermometers and antiviral hand gels/wash were seen at both spatial scales (Cor 0.477 (95% CI 0.171 to 0.699); 0.711 (95% CI 0.495 to 0.844)). We found no significant association between retail sales and media reporting or Internet search volume. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the British public responded appropriately to health messaging about hygiene. Non-prescription retail sales at a national level are not useful for the detection of cases. However, at finer spatial scales, in particular age-groups, retail sales may help augment existing surveillance and merit further study. PMID:24780494

  10. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J.; Cattadori, Isabella M.; Fitch, Adam; Geber, Adam; Liu, June; Sim, Derek G.; Boag, Brian; Ghedin, Elodie

    2017-01-01

    The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954–1955) and between 2008–2013. The later UK viruses fell into three distinct lineages indicative of a long period of separation and independent evolution. Although rates of evolutionary change were almost identical to those previously described for MYXV in Australia and strongly clock-like, genome evolution in the UK and Australia showed little convergence. The phenotypes of eight UK viruses from three lineages were characterized in laboratory rabbits and compared to the progenitor (release) Lausanne strain. Inferred virulence ranged from highly virulent (grade 1) to highly attenuated (grade 5). Two broad disease types were seen: cutaneous nodular myxomatosis characterized by multiple raised secondary cutaneous lesions, or an amyxomatous phenotype with few or no secondary lesions. A novel clinical outcome was acute death with pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, often associated with bacteria in many tissues but an absence of inflammatory cells. Notably, reading frame disruptions in genes defined as essential for virulence in the progenitor Lausanne strain were compatible with the acquisition of high virulence. Combined, these data support a model of ongoing host-pathogen co-evolution in which multiple genetic pathways can produce successful outcomes in the field that involve both different virulence grades and disease phenotypes, with alterations in tissue tropism and disease mechanisms. PMID:28253375

  11. Female domestic servants as desirable refugees: gender, labour needs and immigration policy in Belgium, The Netherlands and Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caestecker, Frank; Moore, Bob

    2011-01-01

    The immigration policies adopted by Western European states during the interwar period were marked by increasing restriction, especially after 1933. One notable exception to this was the relatively generous treatment afforded to women who were prepared to take up employment as domestic servants. This article looks at the reasons behind this anomaly and compares the responses of three states that were in the front line of the refugee efflux from Germany and Eastern Europe in the years leading up to the Second World War.

  12. Manfred Kets de Vries: The Leadership Mystique – a users’ manual for the human enterprise. Prentice Hall, Great Britain. 2001.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Love

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Manfred Kets de Vries is one of Europe’s leading management thinkers and writers. He is an academic of international standing (Econ. Drs. Amsterdam, DBA Harvard & Psychoanalyst of International Psychoanalytical Association who currently holds the Chair of Human Resource Management at INSEAD. He is programme director of INSEAD’s top management programme, The Challenge of Leadership: Developing your Emotional Intelligence, and director of the INSEAD/HEC joint programme, Coaching and Consulting for Change. He also consults widely on organisational transformation and strategic human resource management.

  13. Application of rapid test kits for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve molluscs from Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Keith; Johnson, Sarah; Turner, Andrew D

    2016-09-01

    Six different commercial rapid screening assays for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning toxins were assessed with the analysis of shellfish samples from GB. The performance of each kit was assessed through comparison with the current regulatory HPLC method. Samples assessed consisted of a wide variety of shellfish species of importance to the shellfish industry in GB. These had been sourced over a number of years and with a wide variety of geographical origins. One lateral flow immunoassay was found to provide a quick qualitative assessment of PSP toxicity, with a low proportion of false negative results for PSP-positive samples, but with higher numbers of false positives. The performance of the five quantitative ELISA assays varied considerably, with two demonstrating an inappropriate linear range, with others either over-estimating or under-estimating toxicity. One ELISA from R-Biopharm was found to show a good correlation with the HPLC toxicity results. All ELISAs, however, returned some false negative results, most notably for samples containing high proportions of toxins with low cross reactivity to saxitoxin such as GTX1&4. Whilst the lateral flow assays on the market are of particular use to Food Business Operators for end product testing, further work is required in parallel with instrumental testing methods using a larger number of samples to assess the reliability and accuracy of these kits over the long term.

  14. The Roaring Thirties. Productivity Growth and Technological Change in Great Britain and the United States During the Early Twentieth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltjer, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    A recent study in American economic history has shown that the 1930s, though scarred by relentless unemployment, mass migration and profound social and cultural change, were far from gloomy in terms of technological and business innovation. In light of these dynamic productivity developments and

  15. "The Dangerous Age of Childhood": Child Guidance and the "Normal" Child in Great Britain, 1920-1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John

    2011-01-01

    British child guidance was a form of psychiatric, preventive medicine for children and young people and centred, at least in principle, on specialist clinics led by psychiatrists. From small beginnings in the aftermath of the First World War, child guidance expanded steadily, in terms of both numbers of patients and numbers of clinics, and came to…

  16. OSGM02: A new model for converting GPS-derived heights to local height datums in Great Britain and Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliffe, J.C.; Ziebart, M.; Cross, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    to the GPS and levelling networks in the various regions of the British Isles in such a way that it can be used in conjunction with GPS to form a replacement for the existing system of bench marks. The error sources induced in this procedure are discussed, and the theoretical basis given for the fitting...

  17. A Doctrine Reader: The Navies of United States, Great Britain France, Italy, and Spain (Newport Paper, Number 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Chaves, Qulltri partitu en cosmografia prlletiell, also known as Espejo de navegantes (Madri: Instituto de Historia y Cultura Navar, 1 983 [original...dated 9 June 1994. 2. Alonso de Chaves, QuAtri partitu en wsmografia practiaJ, also known as Espejo de navegantes (Madrid: Instituto de Historia y...Society], 1 993), pp. 86-7. 9. Padfield, pp. 47-8. 10. Flotas de Nueva Espana (Mexico) and Tierra Firme (Colombia and Venezuela) escorted by the Armada

  18. Application of rapid test kits for the determination of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins in bivalve molluscs from Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah; Harrison, Keith; Turner, Andrew D

    2016-03-01

    Four commercial rapid screening methods for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning were applied to the analysis of naturally contaminated shellfish samples from GB. The performance of each kit was assessed through comparison with the reference LC-MS/MS method on a range of both positive and negative bivalve mollusc samples. A quantitative PP2A protein phosphatase assay was the only assay to show the complete absence of false negative results. It showed a fair correlation with LC-MS/MS but with an overall overestimation of sample toxicity together with some indications of interference from sample matrix, most notably within oyster species. A quantitative competitive ELISA also gave a fair correlation with LC-MS/MS, with no evidence of toxicity overestimation and with a good response to samples containing little or no DST's, although one false negative was recorded. The two qualitative lateral flow assays both provided a high percentage agreement with the LC-MS/MS results and there were no indications of false positive results, although both kits also returned one false negative result. The false negative results returned by the three assays were all associated with samples containing high proportions of DTX2, a toxin which occurs commonly in UK shellfish. The scanners provided with both lateral flow assays were easy to use and the provision of numerical results enables a semi-quantitative assessment of toxicities which would significantly benefit the end user. Whilst key differences exist between the proposed assays they are all rapid, do not require expensive equipment and the work here has provided some evidence for suitability for indicative testing for some species of bivalve shellfish from GB. Further work is required however using a larger number of test kit batches on a greater number of samples, particularly for those containing high proportions of DTX2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An analysis of the potential for the sale of food products through the Internet in Denmark and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Kim Bjarne

    The Internet is being used for e-commerce both on the B-2-B and B-2-C market. However, on the B-2-B market with varying success. Many of the sites run with a deficit or have even had to close down.......The Internet is being used for e-commerce both on the B-2-B and B-2-C market. However, on the B-2-B market with varying success. Many of the sites run with a deficit or have even had to close down....

  20. Growing Up in Poverty, Growing Old in Infirmity: The Long Arm of Childhood Conditions in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, Gindo

    2015-01-01

    Background The ageing population poses a tremendous challenge in understanding the sources of inequalities in health. Though they appear to be far removed, childhood conditions are known to be inextricably linked with adult health, and in turn on health in later life. The long arm of childhood conditions hypothesis is often tested using recollection of childhood circumstances, but such subjective recall can yield potentially inaccurate or possibly biased inferences. We tested the long arm hypothesis on three outcomes in later life, arrayed from objective to subjective health, namely: gait speed, episodic memory and mental health. Methods and Findings We used the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing 2006 enriched with retrospective life history (N = 5,913). To deal with recall problems two solutions, covariate measurement and endogenous treatment models, were applied. Retrospective childhood material lack includes growing up without running hot or cold water, fixed bath, indoor lavatory and central heating. Adjustment is made for an extensive set of confounders including sex, age, adult health, wealth, education, occupation, social support, social connections, chronic conditions, smoking, drinking, and physical exercise. It is found that material poverty when growing up shows no association with health when growing old, assuming accurate recall. Once recall problems are controlled, we found that childhood material poverty changes inversely with later life health. Conclusion A poorer childhood goes with slower gait, poorer memory and more depression in later life. This result provides a further impetus to eliminate child poverty. PMID:26675009

  1. The development of an approach to assess critical loads of acidity for woodland habitats in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Langan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Alongside other countries that are signatories to the UNECE Convention Long Range Transboundary on Air Pollution, the UK is committed to reducing the impact of air pollution on the environment. To advise and guide this policy in relation to atmospheric emissions of sulphur and nitrogen, a critical load approach has been developed. To assess the potential impact of these pollutants on woodland habitats a steady state, simple mass balance model has been parameterised. For mineral soils, a Ca:Al ratio in soil solution has been used as the critical load indicator for potential damage. For peat and organic soils critical loads have been set according to a pH criterion. Together these approaches have been used with national datasets to examine the potential scale of acidification in woodland habitats across the UK. The results can be mapped to show the spatial variability in critical loads of the three principal woodland habitat types (managed coniferous, managed broadleaved/ mixed woodland and unmanaged woodland. The results suggest that there is a wide range of critical loads. The most sensitive (lowest critical loads are associated with managed coniferous followed by unmanaged woodland on peat soils. Calculations indicate that at steady state, acid deposition inputs reported for 1995–1997 result in a large proportion of all the woodland habitats identified receiving deposition loads in excess of their critical load; i.e. critical loads are exceeded. These are discussed in relation to future modelled depositions for 2010. Whilst significant widespread negative impacts of such deposition on UK woodland habitats have not been reported, the work serves to illustrate that if acid deposition inputs were maintained and projected emissions reductions not achieved, the long-term sustainability of large areas of woodland in the UK could be compromised. Keywords: critical loads, acid deposition, acidification, woodland, simple mass balance model, sustainability

  2. Growing Up in Poverty, Growing Old in Infirmity: The Long Arm of Childhood Conditions in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gindo Tampubolon

    Full Text Available The ageing population poses a tremendous challenge in understanding the sources of inequalities in health. Though they appear to be far removed, childhood conditions are known to be inextricably linked with adult health, and in turn on health in later life. The long arm of childhood conditions hypothesis is often tested using recollection of childhood circumstances, but such subjective recall can yield potentially inaccurate or possibly biased inferences. We tested the long arm hypothesis on three outcomes in later life, arrayed from objective to subjective health, namely: gait speed, episodic memory and mental health.We used the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing 2006 enriched with retrospective life history (N = 5,913. To deal with recall problems two solutions, covariate measurement and endogenous treatment models, were applied. Retrospective childhood material lack includes growing up without running hot or cold water, fixed bath, indoor lavatory and central heating. Adjustment is made for an extensive set of confounders including sex, age, adult health, wealth, education, occupation, social support, social connections, chronic conditions, smoking, drinking, and physical exercise. It is found that material poverty when growing up shows no association with health when growing old, assuming accurate recall. Once recall problems are controlled, we found that childhood material poverty changes inversely with later life health.A poorer childhood goes with slower gait, poorer memory and more depression in later life. This result provides a further impetus to eliminate child poverty.

  3. Competency-Based Approach to Education in International Documents and Theoretical Researches of Educators in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshina-Pala, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Modern educators consider that the acquiring of important-for-life competencies can give an individual the opportunities to orient in a modern society, informational space, changing development of labour and post-graduation education. Competency-based approach became a new conceptual orientation of schools in foreign countries and causes a number…

  4. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J; Cattadori, Isabella M; Rogers, Matthew B; Fitch, Adam; Geber, Adam; Liu, June; Sim, Derek G; Boag, Brian; Eden, John-Sebastian; Ghedin, Elodie; Read, Andrew F; Holmes, Edward C

    2017-03-01

    The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954-1955) and between 2008-2013. The later UK viruses fell into three distinct lineages indicative of a long period of separation and independent evolution. Although rates of evolutionary change were almost identical to those previously described for MYXV in Australia and strongly clock-like, genome evolution in the UK and Australia showed little convergence. The phenotypes of eight UK viruses from three lineages were characterized in laboratory rabbits and compared to the progenitor (release) Lausanne strain. Inferred virulence ranged from highly virulent (grade 1) to highly attenuated (grade 5). Two broad disease types were seen: cutaneous nodular myxomatosis characterized by multiple raised secondary cutaneous lesions, or an amyxomatous phenotype with few or no secondary lesions. A novel clinical outcome was acute death with pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, often associated with bacteria in many tissues but an absence of inflammatory cells. Notably, reading frame disruptions in genes defined as essential for virulence in the progenitor Lausanne strain were compatible with the acquisition of high virulence. Combined, these data support a model of ongoing host-pathogen co-evolution in which multiple genetic pathways can produce successful outcomes in the field that involve both different virulence grades and disease phenotypes, with alterations in tissue tropism and disease mechanisms.

  5. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Kerr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954-1955 and between 2008-2013. The later UK viruses fell into three distinct lineages indicative of a long period of separation and independent evolution. Although rates of evolutionary change were almost identical to those previously described for MYXV in Australia and strongly clock-like, genome evolution in the UK and Australia showed little convergence. The phenotypes of eight UK viruses from three lineages were characterized in laboratory rabbits and compared to the progenitor (release Lausanne strain. Inferred virulence ranged from highly virulent (grade 1 to highly attenuated (grade 5. Two broad disease types were seen: cutaneous nodular myxomatosis characterized by multiple raised secondary cutaneous lesions, or an amyxomatous phenotype with few or no secondary lesions. A novel clinical outcome was acute death with pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, often associated with bacteria in many tissues but an absence of inflammatory cells. Notably, reading frame disruptions in genes defined as essential for virulence in the progenitor Lausanne strain were compatible with the acquisition of high virulence. Combined, these data support a model of ongoing host-pathogen co-evolution in which multiple genetic pathways can produce successful outcomes in the field that involve both different virulence grades and disease phenotypes, with alterations in tissue tropism and disease mechanisms.

  6. KEY ELEMENTS OF HEURISTIC METHODS USAGE IN FOREIGN THEORY OF EDUCATION (ON THE BASIS OF GREAT BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skvortsova Svetlana Valerevna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identify key elements of employing heuristic teaching methods in foreign theory of education. Methodology: a theoretical analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature on the issues of teaching creativity. Results: on the basis of theoretical analysis the main criteria of heuristic teaching methods are revealed: repeatability; absence of a single decision; need for group discussions; flexibility; wide variability; promotion of creative teaching; influence on the character of knowledge and relationships between the teacher and the students. Heuristic teaching methods have been divided into: methods of working with information, methods of working with problems, methods of research and methods of analyzing the decisions. The main characteristics of each group of methods are presented and certain recommendations for applying them in teaching creativity are given. Practical implications: the system of education.

  7. OSGM02: A new model for converting GPS-derived heights to local height datums in Great Britain and Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliffe, J.C.; Ziebart, M.; Cross, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    The background to the recent computation of a new vertical datum model for the British Isles (OSGM02) is described After giving a brief description of the computational techniques and the data sets used for the derivation of the gravimetric geoid, the paper focuses on the fitting of this surface...

  8. Historical nectar assessment reveals the fall and rise of floral resources in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baude, Mathilde; Kunin, William E.; Boatman, Nigel D.; Conyers, Simon; Davies, Nancy; Gillespie, Mark A. K.; Morton, R. Daniel; Smart, Simon M.; Memmott, Jane

    2016-02-01

    There is considerable concern over declines in insect pollinator communities and potential impacts on the pollination of crops and wildflowers. Among the multiple pressures facing pollinators, decreasing floral resources due to habitat loss and degradation has been suggested as a key contributing factor. However, a lack of quantitative data has hampered testing for historical changes in floral resources. Here we show that overall floral rewards can be estimated at a national scale by combining vegetation surveys and direct nectar measurements. We find evidence for substantial losses in nectar resources in England and Wales between the 1930s and 1970s; however, total nectar provision in Great Britain as a whole had stabilized by 1978, and increased from 1998 to 2007. These findings concur with trends in pollinator diversity, which declined in the mid-twentieth century but stabilized more recently. The diversity of nectar sources declined from 1978 to 1990 and thereafter in some habitats, with four plant species accounting for over 50% of national nectar provision in 2007. Calcareous grassland, broadleaved woodland and neutral grassland are the habitats that produce the greatest amount of nectar per unit area from the most diverse sources, whereas arable land is the poorest with respect to amount of nectar per unit area and diversity of nectar sources. Although agri-environment schemes add resources to arable landscapes, their national contribution is low. Owing to their large area, improved grasslands could add substantially to national nectar provision if they were managed to increase floral resource provision. This national-scale assessment of floral resource provision affords new insights into the links between plant and pollinator declines, and offers considerable opportunities for conservation.

  9. Great attractor really a great wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbins, A.; Turner, M.S.

    1988-11-01

    Some of the cosmological consequences are discussed of a late time phase transition which produces light domain walls. The observed peculiar velocity field of the Universe and the observed isotropy of the microwave background radiation severely constrain the wall surface density in such a scenario. The most interesting consequence of such a phase transition is the possibility that the local, coherent streaming motion reported by the Seven Samurai could be explained by the repulsive effect of a relic domain wall with the Hubble volume (the Great Wall).

  10. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  11. Great Principles of Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science. The website ...April 2008 (Rev. 8/31/08) The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science.

  12. Sexual health of ethnic minority MSM in Britain (MESH project: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority MSM living in Britain. Methods/Design The main objectives of the MESH project were to explore among ethnic minority MSM living in Britain: (i sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence; (ii their experience of stigma and discrimination; (iii disclosure of sexuality; (iv use of, and satisfaction with sexual health services; (v the extent to which sexual health services (for treatment and prevention are aware of the needs of ethnic minority MSM. The research was conducted between 2006 and 2008 in four national samples: (i ethnic minority MSM living in Britain; (ii a comparison group of white British MSM living in Britain; (iii NHS sexual health clinic staff in 15 British towns and cities with significant ethnic minority communities and; (iv sexual health promotion/HIV prevention service providers. We also recruited men from two "key migrant" groups living in Britain: MSM born in Central or Eastern Europe and MSM born in Central or South America. Internet-based quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Ethnic minority MSM were recruited through advertisements on websites, in community venues, via informal networks and in sexual health clinics. White and "key migrant" MSM were recruited mostly through Gaydar, one of the most popular dating sites used by gay men in Britain. MSM who agreed to take part completed a questionnaire online. Ethnic minority MSM who completed the online questionnaire were asked if they would be willing to take part in an online qualitative interview using email. Service providers were identified through the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH and

  13. Language shift, bilingualism and the future of Britain's Celtic languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Anne; Unger, Roman; Steele, James

    2010-01-01

    ‘Language shift’ is the process whereby members of a community in which more than one language is spoken abandon their original vernacular language in favour of another. The historical shifts to English by Celtic language speakers of Britain and Ireland are particularly well-studied examples for which good census data exist for the most recent 100–120 years in many areas where Celtic languages were once the prevailing vernaculars. We model the dynamics of language shift as a competition process in which the numbers of speakers of each language (both monolingual and bilingual) vary as a function both of internal recruitment (as the net outcome of birth, death, immigration and emigration rates of native speakers), and of gains and losses owing to language shift. We examine two models: a basic model in which bilingualism is simply the transitional state for households moving between alternative monolingual states, and a diglossia model in which there is an additional demand for the endangered language as the preferred medium of communication in some restricted sociolinguistic domain, superimposed on the basic shift dynamics. Fitting our models to census data, we successfully reproduce the demographic trajectories of both languages over the past century. We estimate the rates of recruitment of new Scottish Gaelic speakers that would be required each year (for instance, through school education) to counteract the ‘natural wastage’ as households with one or more Gaelic speakers fail to transmit the language to the next generation informally, for different rates of loss during informal intergenerational transmission. PMID:21041210

  14. Tom goodey: the father of nematology in britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, D J

    1994-01-01

    Tom Goodey O.B.E., D.Sc., F.R.S. is generally recognized as the Father of Nematology in Britain. Although his early postgraduate work was on soil protozoa, from 1920 he worked exclusively on nematodes. His first text book, Plant Parasitic Nematodes and the Diseases They Cause, published in 1933, was a notable landmark in the development of nematology (48). His second book Soil and Freshwater Nematodes (80) indicated his breadth of understanding of this vast group of animals. From 1921 until 1946 he was a member of the team working under Professor R.T. Leiper based for most of that time at the Institute of Agricultural Parasitology, Winches Farm, St. Albans, England. He was author, or coauthor, of 125 publications, which included the proposal of 9 new genera, 37 new species and 49 detailed redescriptions of nematodes. In 1947 he was made head of the newly formed Nematology Department at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where he stayed until his retirement in 1952. In his later years he struck up a very close friendship with Gerald Thorne, the American nematologist, with whom he exchanged ideas on techniques in hematology. In 1951, he was responsible for the very successful nematology symposium held in Harpenden, which marked the beginning of the biennial nematology symposia in Europe. As well as a very full and successful scientific career, he was also a professional singer with a fine tenor voice and he frequently performed for the theater, concert hall, and radio broadcasts under his stage name of Roger Clayson.

  15. BLOTS AND ALL: A HISTORY OF THE RORSCHACH INK BLOT TEST IN BRITAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Katherine; Hegarty, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the easily recognizable nature of the Rorschach ink blot test very little is known about the history of the test in Britain. We attend to the oft-ignored history of the Rorschach test in Britain and compare it to its history in the US. Prior to the Second World War, Rorschach testing in Britain had attracted advocates and critiques. Afterward, the British Rorschach Forum, a network with a high proportion of women, developed around the Tavistock Institute in London and The Rorschach Newsletter. In 1968, the International Rorschach Congress was held in London but soon after the group became less exclusive, and fell into decline. A comparative account of the Rorschach in Britain demonstrates how different national institutions invested in the 'projective hypothesis' according to the influence of psychoanalysis, the adoption of a nationalized health system, and the social positioning of 'others' throughout the twentieth century. In comparing and contrasting the history of the Rorschach in Britain and the US, we decentralize and particularize the history of North American Psychology.

  16. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  17. Great Indoors Awards 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Hollandis Maastrichtis jagati 17. XI esimest korda rahvusvahelist auhinda The Great Indoors Award. Aasta sisekujundusfirmaks valiti Masamichi Katayama asutatud Wonderwall. Auhinna said veel Zaha Hadid, Heatherwick Studio, Ryui Nakamura Architects ja Item Idem

  18. Great ape foresight is looking great.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvath, Mathias

    2010-09-01

    Suddendorf, Corballis and Collier-Baker (Anim Cogn 12: 751-754, 2009) comment on a study on great ape foresight (Osvath and Osvath, Anim Cogn 11: 661-674, 2008). That study consisted of four experiments investigating foresight in chimpanzees and orangutans, examining in particular whether the planning they exhibit is best explained by assuming an episodic cognitive system. This system has widely been regarded as exclusive to humans. Indeed, the Bischof-Köhler hypothesis explicitly states that planning for a future need is outside the abilities of non-humans. In our paper, we argued that the results implied the presence of episodic abilities and challenged the Bischof-Köhler hypothesis. Suddendorf et al. are not ready to accept this claim. They critique each experiment in detail and maintain their view that episodic cognition is unique to humans. Here, I point out the misapprehensions and weaknesses in their critique notably a lack of appreciation for how the experiments in the study are interrelated and serve as controls for each other and for the baseline experiment. I reinforce my earlier conclusions with a number of recently published findings.

  19. Leadership in Crisis : A Case Study on Leadership during the Economic Crisis in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Eugene Arnolis de; Jonah, Olivia NanaYaa Glynis

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the behaviour of business leaders during the economic crisis in Britain during the period 2007-2010. It looks at the theory of Leadership as presented by DuBrin, other writers and researchers comparing it to what is practiced in Britain in order to see if it is the right approach. Through historical data with proper research we are able to tell the approach that these Leaders have exhibited. We also looked at the Leadership style used in other countries that have gone or ...

  20. Growth or stagnation in pre-industrial Britain? A revealed income growth approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Persson, Karl Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The extent of growth in pre-industrial Europe in general and in Britain in particular has attracted intense scholarly focus. Growth or Malthusian stagnation? No consensus has evolved. Reconstructions of national income from 1300 and up to the Industrial Revolution come to opposing conclusions...... and so do econometric studies. Applying Engels’ law, we suggest a new approach in which income growth is revealed by changes in occupational structure. Data needed for this approach are less contested than the wage and output series used in the existing literature. We find that pre-industrial Britain...

  1. Russian in the University Curriculum: A Case-Study of the Impact of the First World War on Language Study in Higher Education in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckle, James

    2008-01-01

    The outbreak of the First World War and the emergence of Russia as Britain's "glorious ally" swiftly changed public attitudes in Britain, which had been largely, but not entirely, hostile to Russia. The sense that Britain needed to cure its 'abysmal ignorance' of Russia, coupled with the strong desire to replace Germany, the enemy, as a…

  2. Russian in the University Curriculum: A Case-Study of the Impact of the First World War on Language Study in Higher Education in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckle, James

    2008-01-01

    The outbreak of the First World War and the emergence of Russia as Britain's "glorious ally" swiftly changed public attitudes in Britain, which had been largely, but not entirely, hostile to Russia. The sense that Britain needed to cure its 'abysmal ignorance' of Russia, coupled with the strong desire to replace Germany, the enemy, as a trading…

  3. Great Zimbabwe's water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pikirayi, Innocent; Sulas, Federica; Musindo, Tendai Treddah

    2016-01-01

    in the region's well-watered granite hills and valleys, and culminating in a vast urban and trading society. Later, c.1550 AD, it is argued, drying climate, land overexploitation, and changing regional trading patterns would lead to the decline of Great Zimbabwe. A review of this model is necessary since Great...... Zimbabwe and communities living around it survive in a region constantly threatened by water crises. However, we still know very little on the forms and uses of water and how these have influenced its development and demise. This article offers a multilayered review of available information on water......, including new records on environmental sequences, modern water sources, and provisioning models from in and around Great Zimbabwe. The integration of both old and new datasets allows us to follow the history of people-water interaction from early times to the present. We argue that understanding...

  4. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  5. The Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This introduction to the natural history of the Great Dismal Swamp is presented at a time when 50,000 acres of the Swamp are being converted from private holdings to...

  6. The Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  7. Between Transnationalism and Localization: The Pan-European TV Miniseries 14 - Diaries of the Great War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tea Sindbæk; Arnold-de Simine, Silke

    2017-01-01

    14 –Diaries of the Great War is a transmedial project consisting of a documentary TV-series, a website, a radio programme, a photo book and a museum exhibition, produced for the centenary of World War One in 2014. The project was created by a transnational collaboration and aimed for a transnatio......14 –Diaries of the Great War is a transmedial project consisting of a documentary TV-series, a website, a radio programme, a photo book and a museum exhibition, produced for the centenary of World War One in 2014. The project was created by a transnational collaboration and aimed...... for a transnational audience. The TV-series aspired to create a new kind of historical documentary, showing history as it was experienced by ordinary people. This article compares how 14 – Diaries of the Great War was realised and received in Great Britain, Germany, Denmark and Sweden. We argue that the TV-series...

  8. Missing from the "Minority Mainstream": Pahari-Speaking Diaspora in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Pahari speakers form one of the largest ethnic non-European diasporas in Britain. Despite their size and over 60 years of settlement on British shores, the diaspora is shrouded by confusion regarding official and unofficial categorisations, remaining largely misunderstood as a collective with a shared ethnolinguistic memory. This has had…

  9. Older People and Poverty in Rural Britain: Material Hardships, Cultural Denials and Social Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbourne, Paul; Doheny, Shane

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the relations between older people, poverty and place in rural Britain. It develops previous work on rural poverty that has pointed both to the significance of older people within the rural poor population and to their denials of poverty. The paper also connects with recent discussions on the complexity of relations between…

  10. Indian migrants in britain: mirror image of social linkages between Gujarat and London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.; Patel, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the social linkages between Gujarati migrants in Britain and their family members in India. It considers the home and the migrant community in the same unit of analysis rather than as separate communities. It is based on fieldwork conducted in 1998 among members of the Patidar

  11. Parallel Declines in Pollinators and Insect-Pollinated Plants in Britain and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesmeijer, J.S.; Roberts, S.P.M.; Reemer, M.; Ohlemüller, R.; Edwards, M.; Peeters, T.; Schaffers, A.P.; Potts, S.G.; Kleukers, R.; Thomas, C.D.; Settele, J.; Kunin, W.E.

    2006-01-01

    Despite widespread concern about declines in pollination services, little is known about the patterns of change in most pollinator assemblages. By studying bee and hoverfly assemblages in Britain and the Netherlands, we found evidence of declines (pre-versus post-1980) in local bee diversity in both

  12. Tomorrow We Live: Fascist Visions of Education in 1930s Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Pamela; Fisher, Roy

    2009-01-01

    The present paper explores the fascist vision for education in 1930s Britain through the presentation of extracts from official publications of the British Union of Fascists (BUF), as well as from the writings of Party members. The paper presents a socio-historical study of British adherents to fascism and provides an account of their thinking in…

  13. Household Labour Supply in Britain and Denmark: Some Interpretations Using a Model of Pareto Optimal Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barmby, Tim; Smith, Nina

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the labour supply behaviour of households in Denmark and Britain. It employs models in which the preferences of individuals within the household are explicitly represented. The households are then assumed to decide on their labour supply in a Pareto-Optimal fashion. Describing...

  14. Mapping the Digital Divide in Britain: Implications for Learning and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynon, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The internet presents many potential opportunities for people to learn for both formal and informal purposes. However, not everyone is able to make the most of the internet for learning. This paper utilises quantitative nationally representative survey data of internet use in Britain in order to explore the digital divide in relation to learning…

  15. Tomorrow We Live: Fascist Visions of Education in 1930s Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Pamela; Fisher, Roy

    2009-01-01

    The present paper explores the fascist vision for education in 1930s Britain through the presentation of extracts from official publications of the British Union of Fascists (BUF), as well as from the writings of Party members. The paper presents a socio-historical study of British adherents to fascism and provides an account of their thinking in…

  16. Photography as an Agent of Transformation: Education, Community and Documentary Photography in Post-War Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Radical political activism in the 1970s and 1980s had a huge impact on documentary photography in Britain. Community organisations and photography collectives emerged and endeavoured to democratise the arts for those who would not otherwise have come into contact with them. Community photography used the technology to break down the barriers…

  17. Choices Which Change Life Satisfaction: Similar Results for Australia, Britain and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headey, Bruce; Muffels, Ruud; Wagner, Gert G.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from national socio-economic panel surveys in Australia, Britain and Germany, this paper analyzes the effects of individual preferences and choices on subjective well-being (SWB). It is shown that, in all three countries, preferences and choices relating to life goals/values, partner's personality, hours of work, social participation…

  18. The Evolution of Multiculturalism in Britain and Germany: An Historical Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayi, Panikos

    2004-01-01

    This paper is an introductory survey of the evolution of multiculturalism in Britain and Germany over the past two centuries. The historical approach argues that the main determinants of difference between these nation states lie in their long-term traditional attitudes towards immigrants and ethnic minorities. It focuses upon the patterns of…

  19. Education, Alcohol Use and Abuse among Young Adults in Britain. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Borgonovi, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the relationship between education and alcohol consumption. We examine whether the probability of abusing alcohol differs across educational groups. We use data from the British Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of one week's birth in Britain in 1970. Measures of alcohol abuse include alcohol consumption above NHS…

  20. The Turning Tides of Intoxication: Young People's Drinking in Britain in the 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measham, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of recent changes in young people's consumption of alcohol in Britain before then charting emerging academic perspectives and some of the recent regulatory and legislative changes. Design/methodology/approach: The approach takes the form of a selective narrative review of young people's…

  1. Meritocracy through Education and Social Mobility in Post-War Britain: A Critical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themelis, Spyros

    2008-01-01

    After the Second World War, education in advanced capitalist societies has been perceived as the main "saviour" of the meritocratic ideal. In this paper I will investigate some of the implications of the lasting emphasis that has been placed upon education in Britain, in the pursuit of a more just and equal society. Initially, I will…

  2. Photography as an Agent of Transformation: Education, Community and Documentary Photography in Post-War Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Radical political activism in the 1970s and 1980s had a huge impact on documentary photography in Britain. Community organisations and photography collectives emerged and endeavoured to democratise the arts for those who would not otherwise have come into contact with them. Community photography used the technology to break down the barriers…

  3. 2005 China- Britain Standardization Conference -Environmental Protection ·Energy Saving & Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ 2005 China-Britain Standardization Conference was held at Beijing International Convention Center on June 29th 2005, jointly hosted by Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China (SAC) and British Standards Institute (BSI), with "Environmental Protection . Energy Saving & Standardization" as its theme.

  4. Behaviourism and Training: The Programmed Instruction Movement in Britain, 1950-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the influence of behaviourism on vocational education and training in Britain in the period between the Second World War and the mid-1970s. By the 1970s, behaviourism provided deeply-rooted underlying curricular and pedagogic principles that were widely accepted by VET professionals in the UK. Insofar as behaviourist ideas were…

  5. Why do few Afro-Siberian Knots Calidris canutus canutus now visit Britain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyd, H; Piersma, T

    2001-01-01

    The nominate (Afro-Siberian) subspecies of the Knot Calidris canutus canutus breeds on the Taimyr Peninsula in Siberia and occurs commonly in the westernmost Wadden Sea during migration to West and South Africa. The recoveries and controls of 2045 Knots ringed in Britain and Ireland provide no evide

  6. Education, Alcohol Use and Abuse among Young Adults in Britain. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Borgonovi, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the relationship between education and alcohol consumption. We examine whether the probability of abusing alcohol differs across educational groups. We use data from the British Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of one week's birth in Britain in 1970. Measures of alcohol abuse include alcohol consumption above NHS…

  7. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  8. Great Zimbabwe's water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pikirayi, Innocent; Sulas, Federica; Musindo, Tendai Treddah;

    2016-01-01

    , including new records on environmental sequences, modern water sources, and provisioning models from in and around Great Zimbabwe. The integration of both old and new datasets allows us to follow the history of people-water interaction from early times to the present. We argue that understanding......Once a thriving center with commercial links to the Indian Ocean, what remains of Great Zimbabwe is its monumental architecture. Its rise and decline have long been linked to environmental changes in southern Zimbabwe, beginning in the second half of the 13th century with agropastoralists thriving...... of the local environment was vital in managing both water excesses and shortages in the past, and show that some of this knowledge survives among indigenous communities linked to the site and living in the surrounding landscape. While nearby Masvingo town has persistently lived under water-emergency conditions...

  9. Not so Great Lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  10. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  11. Paleontology in parts: Richard Owen, William John Broderip, and the serialization of science in early Victorian Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Gowan

    2012-12-01

    While a great deal of scholarly attention has been given to the publication of serialized novels in early Victorian Britain, there has been hardly any consideration of the no less widespread practice of issuing scientific works in parts and numbers. What scholarship there has been has insisted that scientific part-works operated on entirely different principles from the strategies for maintaining readerly interest that were being developed by serial novelists like Charles Dickens. Deploying the methods of book history, this essay examines the reporting of Richard Owen's celebrated paleontological reconstructions from the 1830s and 1840s in the serialized formats of the Proceedings of the Zoological Society, his own History of British Fossil Mammals, and, in particular, the Penny Cyclopaedia. It argues that Owen, along with his close friend William John Broderip, clearly recognized the affective possibilities of the serial format and that they exploited the Penny Cyclopaedia's sequential mode of publication to evoke suspense and expectation in their anonymous but collaboratively authored accounts of Owen's paleontological researches.

  12. Message Drafted by General Eisenhower in Case the D-Day Invasion Failed and Photographs Taken on D-Day. The Constitution Community: The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traill, David

    Planning for "Operation Overlord" had been under way for about a year when General Dwight Eisenhower, commander of all the Allied forces in Europe, was ordered in February 1944 to invade the continent. Thousands of troops from the United States, Great Britain, France, Canada, and other nations were assembled in southern England and trained for the…

  13. Great software debates

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A

    2004-01-01

    The industry’s most outspoken and insightful critic explains how the software industry REALLY works. In Great Software Debates, Al Davis, shares what he has learned about the difference between the theory and the realities of business and encourages you to question and think about software engineering in ways that will help you succeed where others fail. In short, provocative essays, Davis fearlessly reveals the truth about process improvement, productivity, software quality, metrics, agile development, requirements documentation, modeling, software marketing and sales, empiricism, start-up financing, software research, requirements triage, software estimation, and entrepreneurship.

  14. Idiopathic great saphenous phlebosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Jodati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.

  15. Modernity and the Rise of Britain's Consumer Society%论现代性与英国消费社会的兴起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹瑞臣

    2014-01-01

    The"Glorious Revolution"and the industrial revolution marked the start of modern political civilization and industrial civilization in Britain. By the end of the 18th century, Britain had become the most developed country in terms of modernity and modernization. An important feature of modern British society in the 18th Century was its gradual move towards a modern consumer society, consumption increasingly becoming a key driving force for economic and social development in Britain. The modernity and its idea of value including rationality, freedom, economism, materialism and consumerism, deeply influencing the concept of wealth and consumption in modern Europe and Britain. Moreover, the pursuit of material wealth and luxury consumption did not suffer moral criticism any longer;luxury consumption played a positive role in promoting the development of capitalism, with the expansion of foreign trade and technological innovation in Britain. As one of the most important features of modernity, industrial society was becoming a solid foundation for the rise of British consumer society. The study of the relationship between modernity and the rise of modern consumer society will help to explore the great social change in the 18th century British society, and provide a good reference for the social transformation in China today.%“光荣革命”与工业革命的发生标志着英国开创现代政治文明和工业文明,至18世纪晚期英国成为欧洲和世界上现代性和现代化程度最高的国家。18世纪英国现代社会的一个重要特征就是逐步迈向现代消费社会,消费活动日益成为英国经济与社会发展的重要动力。现代性及其价值理念带来的理性、自由、经济主义、物质主义和消费主义,深深影响了近代以来欧洲和英国社会的财富观和消费观,于是对物质财富的追求和奢侈消费不再背负道德批判,奢侈消费在推动英国资本主义发展、外贸扩张以

  16. The role of income differences in explaining social inequalities in self rated health in Sweden and Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngwe, M A; Diderichsen, F; Whitehead, M

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse to what extent differences in income, using two distinct measures-as distribution across quintiles and poverty-explain social inequalities in self rated health, for men and women, in Sweden and Britain. DESIGN: Series of cross sectional surveys, the Swedish Survey...... 15 766 people in the Swedish dataset and 49 604 people in the British dataset. MAIN RESULTS: The magnitude of social inequalities in less than good self rated health was similar in Sweden and in Britain, but adjusting for income differences explained a greater part of these in Britain than in Sweden....... In Britain the distribution across income quintiles explained 47% of the social inequalities in self rated health among women and 31% among men, while in Sweden it explained, for women 13% and for men 20%. Poverty explained 22% for British women and 8% for British men of the social inequalities in self rated...

  17. The Great Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  18. Europa's Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Blankenship, D. D.; Patterson, G. W.; Schenk, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    Unique to the surface of Europa, chaos terrain is diagnostic of the properties and dynamics of its icy shell. While models have suggested that partial melt within a thick shell or melt-through of a thin shell may form chaos, neither model has been able to definitively explain all observations of chaos terrain. However, we present a new model that suggests large melt lenses form within the shell and that water-ice interactions above and within these lenses drive the production of chaos. Our analysis of the geomorphology of Conamara Chaos and Thera Macula, was used to infer and test a four-stage lens-collapse chaos formation model: 1) Thermal plumes of warm, pure ice ascend through the shell melting the impure brittle ice above, producing a lake of briny water and surface down draw due to volume reduction. 2) Surface deflection and driving force from the plume below hydraulically seals the water in place. 3) Extension of the brittle ice lid generates fractures from below, allowing brines to enter and fluidize the ice matrix. 4) As the lens and now brash matrix refreeze, thermal expansion creates domes and raises the chaos feature above the background terrain. This new "lense-collapse" model indicates that chaos features form in the presence of a great deal of liquid water, and that large liquid water bodies exist within 3km of Europa's surface comparable in volume to the North American Great Lakes. The detection of shallow subsurface "lakes" implies that the ice shell is recycling rapidly and that Europa may be currently active. In this presentation, we will explore environments on Europa and their analogs on Earth, from collapsing Antarctic ice shelves to to subglacial volcanos in Iceland. I will present these new analyses, and describe how this new perspective informs the debate about Europa's habitability and future exploration.

  19. Weight discrepancy and body appreciation of Zimbabwean women in Zimbabwe and Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Mada, Rujeko; Tovée, Martin J

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have investigated a cultural group's corporeal experiences in both its country of origin and a host, Western country using the same methodology. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study examined body image among 140 women in Harare, Zimbabwe, and an age-matched sample of 138 Zimbabwean migrants in Britain. Participants completed measures of actual-ideal weight discrepancy, body appreciation, and lifetime exposure to Western and Zimbabwean media. Preliminary analyses showed that there were no significant differences in body mass index between the two groups. Further analyses showed that Zimbabwean women in Britain had significantly greater weight discrepancy and lower body appreciation than their counterparts in Zimbabwe. In addition, weight discrepancy and body appreciation among both samples were significantly associated with exposure to Western media, but not Zimbabwean media. These findings support the contention that transcultural migration may place individuals at risk for symptoms of negative body image. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Healthcare complaints handling systems: a comparison between Britain, Australia and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sophie Yahui

    2011-05-01

    This paper explores the health care complaints handling reforms enacted in Britain, Australia and Taiwan. A documentary search for policy documents, reports and studies related to the reforms of the health care complaints handling system was conducted. A keyword search was performed within PubMed and ProQuest for the period 1985-2009 to identify relevant articles. The study found that the major difference in health care complaints handling systems between countries, is the mechanism for running a complaints system. Both Britain and Australia have attempted to incorporate patient complaints into their national quality systems. Their intention was to set up mechanisms to create an effective bridge, at a national policy level, between the patient complaints management system and the quality management system.

  1. "A dedicated missionary". Charles Galton Darwin and the new quantum mechanics in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jaume

    In this paper I discuss the work on quantum physics and wave mechanics by Charles Galton Darwin, a Cambridge wrangler of the last generation, as a case study to better understand the early reception of quantum physics in Britain. I argue that his proposal in the early 1920s to abandon the strict conservation of energy, as well as his enthusiastic embracement of wave mechanics at the end of the decade, can be easily understood by tracing his ontological and epistemological commitments to his early training in the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos. I also suggest that Darwin's work cannot be neglected in a study of quantum physics in Britain, since he was one of very few fellows of the Royal Society able to judge and explain quantum physics and quantum mechanics.

  2. The palaeobotany of the upper Westphalian and Stephanian of southern Britain and its geological significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleal, C.J. [National Museum of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Dept. of Botany

    1997-01-01

    Southern Britain has a continuous palaeobotanical record from the Bolsovian to the lower Cantabrian, and includes the classic areas of South Wales, the Forest of Dean, Radstock and Oxfordshire. These areas are in the only part of the Variscan Foreland Basin Complex that extends through into the lower Stephanian (Cantabrian) in facies which are abundant in plant macrofossils. This gives the areas a unique biostratigraphical importance, and it was work here that resulted in the establishment of the currently accepted upper Westphalian macropalaeobotanical biostratigraphy. Also importantly, southern Britain occupies an intermediate palaeophytogeographical position between mainland Europe and North America. Although mostly preserved as highly coalified compressions, there is some potential for cuticular studies; some petrifaction have also been reported. The area has a central role to play in understanding the later phases of the Late Carboniferous swamp forests of Europe and North America.

  3. Integration versus apartheid in post-Roman Britain: a response to Thomas et Al. (2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, John E

    2011-12-01

    The genetic surveys of the population of Britain conducted by Weale et al. and Capelli et al. produced estimates of the Germani immigration into Britain during the early Anglo-Saxon period, c.430-c.730. These estimates are considerably higher than the estimates of archaeologists. A possible explanation suggests that an apartheid-like social system existed in the early Anglo-Saxon kingdoms resulting in the Germani breeding more quickly than the Britons. Thomas et al. attempted to model this suggestion and showed that it was a possible explanation if all Anglo-Saxon kingdoms had such a system for up to 400 years. I noted that their explanation ignored the probability that Germani have been arriving in Britain for at least the past three millennia, including Belgae and Roman soldiers, and not only during the early Anglo-Saxon period. I produced a population model for Britain taking into account this long term, low level migration that showed that the estimates could be reconciled without the need for introducing an apartheid-like system. In turn, Thomas et al. responded, criticizing my model and arguments, which they considered persuasively written but wanting in terms of methodology, data sources, underlying assumptions, and application. Here, I respond in detail to those criticisms and argue that it is still unnecessary to introduce an apartheid-like system in order to reconcile the different estimates of Germani arrivals. A point of confusion is that geneticists are interested in ancestry, while archaeologists are interested in ethnicity: it is the bones, not the burial rites, which are important in the present context.

  4. The stratigraphical potential of blattodean insects from the late Carboniferous of southern Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarzembowski, E.A.; Schneider, J.W. [Maidstone Museum & Bentlif Art Gallery, Maidstone (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    The Blattodea (cockroaches sensu lato or roachoids) from the southern coalfields of the UK are reviewed or examined, especially species occurring in more than one coal basin including Mylacris abrupta (Bolton, 1930) comb. nov., and undescribed material from Writhlington (Somerset). It is proposed that a derived mylacrid Mylacris-Sooblatta assemblage is used to extend the latest Westphalian and earliest Stephanian insect zonation from the continent to southern Britain, thus augmenting the European Pennsylvanian scheme.

  5. 'A Sea of Small Boats': places and practices on the prehistoric seascape of western Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Robinson

    2013-01-01

    In the last 20 years landscape archaeology in Britain has developed in many directions, providing increasingly sophisticated understandings of prehistoric people's sense of place. In contrast to the growing body of work considering landscape, little attention has been given to the sea. Some archaeologists have noted the significance of the sea to the settings of monuments, where the sea is interpreted as a symbolic or metaphorical backdrop to life, and death, on the land. But prehistoric coas...

  6. Disciplining Medicine: Science and the Rhetoric of Medical Education Reform in Britain, 1770-1858

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Pollei, Kimberly A.

    In Britain, medical education evolved significantly between roughly 1770 and 1858. The doctrines established by medical teachers in the late eighteenth century not only revised or overturned received theories of disease, physiology, and therapeutics, but also entailed new approaches to instruction. Though this educational reform process met some resistance, by the mid-nineteenth century, the new scientific perspective had displaced the traditional humanistic paradigm in medical pedagogy. In Britain, this evolution was initiated in Scotland, where its leading medical teachers would gain considerable fame for championing a new science-based educational curriculum. A contribution to the fields of rhetoric of medicine and rhetoric of science, this study investigates the rhetorical demarcation of the medical discipline in Britain during the years of medical education reform. It draws attention to how the medical discipline evolved and transformed between these years, ultimately defining itself as a science. Focusing on documents addressed to questions of pedagogical method, curricular emphases, and doctrinal disputes, this study identifies the chief arguments, assumptions, and aspirations that motivated and justified innovations in the teaching of medicine at specific British institutions and promoted broader, sweeping reform of the whole system of British medical education. The analysis of these texts highlights the complexities of medical education reform in Britain, and the diverse perspectives that coalesced to shape medical education in new ways. Moreover, these discourses serve as historical markers for how the medical discipline was (re)shaped scientifically. Finally, this study contends that disciplines are most apparently shaped through what is taught, and to understand the rhetoric of disciplinarity in British medical education reform, one must understand the history of its teaching practices.

  7. Euroscepticism in Britain and France: Implications for NATO and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    then the leader of the parliamentary Labour Party, threatened Brexit if Britain did not see reform of the EEC.5 In 2002, former British Prime Minister...foundations of statehood or imperial power that it can only exist through the satisfaction of accumulated vested interests.”34 In 2016, the possibility of a...crash39; and, of course, his Conservative and Labour party opponents. Farage, a member of the EP (MEP), uses his speaking time at the parliament to

  8. A reappraisal of the role of mosquitoes in the transmission of myxomatosis in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service, M W

    1971-03-01

    Field experiments were made in southern England to re-examine the possibility that mosquitoes in Britain might feed on wild rabbits and hence be vectors of myxomatosis. Mosquitoes of several species were attracted to rabbits enclosed in cylindrical traps and in a trap in which the animal was placed in a wire mesh cage. Substantial numbers of mosquitoes were also caught biting, or attempting to bite, tethered rabbits which were not in cages or traps. Evidence that mosquitoes fed on wild rabbits under natural conditions was obtained from results of precipitin tests made on blood-smears collected from mosquitoes caught resting amongst vegetation. On a few evenings mosquitoes were seen to be attracted to healthy wild rabbits and apparently attempting to feed on them. Batches of two mosquito species collected from the field were infected with myxoma virus.It was concluded that contrary to previous beliefs mosquitoes in Britain feed to a certain extent on wild rabbits, and therefore are potential vectors of myxomatosis. No attempts were made to assess their relative importance in the transmission of the disease, which in Britain is transmitted mainly by the rabbit flea.

  9. Ten years of invasion: Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Helen E; Brown, Peter M J

    2015-08-01

    1. Harmonia axyridis was first recorded in Britain in 2004. Two subsequent earlier records were received from 2003. 2. The UK Ladybird Survey, a citizen science initiative involving online recording, was launched in 2005 to encourage people across Britain to track the spread of H. axyridis. Tens of thousands of people have provided records of H. axyridis and other species of ladybirds, creating an invaluable dataset for large-scale and long-term research. Declines in the distribution of seven (of eight assessed) native species of ladybird have been demonstrated, and correlated with the arrival of H. axyridis, using the records collated through the UK Ladybird Survey. 3. Experimental research and field surveys have also contributed to our understanding of the ecology of H. axyridis and particularly the process of invasion. Harmonia axyridis arrived in Britain through dispersal and introduction events from regions in which it was deliberately released as a biological control agent. The rapid spread of this species has been attributed to its high natural dispersal capability by means of both flight and anthropogenic transport. A number of factors have contributed to the successful establishment and indeed dominance of this polymorphic species within aphidophagous guilds, including high reproductive capacity, intra-guild predation, eurytopic nature, high resistance to natural enemies within the invaded range, and potentially phenotypic plasticity. 4. The global invasion by H. axyridis and subsequent research on this species has contributed to the general understanding of biological invasions.

  10. Social Class and Social Capital in China and Britain: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaojun Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We use the China General Social Survey (2005 and the Home Office Citizenship Survey (2005 to study civic engagement and neighbourhood trust in China and Britain in this paper. We focus on class differences in participation in sports/recreation, religion, children's/adult education and public-welfare activities, and trust in the neighbours. We find higher levels of civic involvement in Britain but greater neighbourhood trust in China. This is mainly due to structural differences. China has a large proportion of peasants who have very low levels of civic involvement but very high levels of neighbourhood trust. Among the non-peasant population, the two countries have similar levels of class differences in civic (except religious involvement. There are small class differences in China on neighbourhood trust, but marked effects in Britain. Overall, there is a greater similarity than difference in class effects in both civic engagement and social trust in the two countries. While differences in demographic attributes (and China's specific institutional arrangement, the household registration system, or hukou account for some of the observed patterns, we also find more pronounced class than demographic effects in the two countries. Class plays a major role in the development of social capital.

  11. Issue Salience and the Domestic Legitimacy Demands of European Integration. The Cases of Britain and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Viehrig

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The salience of European issues to the general public is a major determinant of the domestic legitimacy demands that governments face when they devise their European policies. The higher the salience of these issues, the more restrictive will be the legitimacy demands that governments have to meet on the domestic level. Whereas the domestic legitimacy of European policy can rest on a permissive consensus among the public in cases of low issue salience, it requires the electorate’s explicit endorsement in cases of high issue salience. Polling data from Britain and Germany show that the salience of European issues is clearly higher in Britain than in Germany. We thus conclude that British governments face tougher domestic legitimacy demands when formulating their European policies than German governments. This may contribute to accounting for both countries’ different approaches to the integration process: Germany as a role model of a pro-integrationist member state and, in contrast, Britain as the eternal 'awkward partner'.

  12. Belonging and ‘Unbelonging’: Jewish refugee and survivor women in 1950s Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Angela

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article analyses the life stories of female Jewish refugees and survivors in 1950s Britain in order to explore their relationship with the existing Jewish community and wider society. The paper is based on an analysis of twenty-one oral history testimonies from the Jewish survivors of the Holocaust collection held at the British library. Around 50,000 Jewish refugees from Central Europe came to Britain in the 1930s after fleeing from Hitler. In addition, a relatively small number of camp survivors and former hidden children settled in the country after the war; the Board of Deputies of British Jews Demographic Unit estimates the figure at 2000. This article considers how these refugee and survivor women tried to find a place for themselves within 1950s Britain. Looking at their experiences of arrival, work and home, it reflects upon the discrimination and hostility they faced, and they ways they tried to deal with this. Finally it discusses what this meant for their sense of belonging or ‘unbelonging’. PMID:28190937

  13. Social Class and Social Capital in China and Britain: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaojun Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We use the China General Social Survey (2005 and the Home Office Citizenship Survey (2005 to study civic engagement and neighbourhood trust in China and Britain in this paper. We focus on class differences in participation in sports/recreation, religion, children's/adult education and public-welfare activities, and trust in the neighbours. We find higher levels of civic involvement in Britain but greater neighbourhood trust in China. This is mainly due to structural differences. China has a large proportion of peasants who have very low levels of civic involvement but very high levels of neighbourhood trust. Among the non-peasant population, the two countries have similar levels of class differences in civic (except religious involvement. There are small class differences in China on neighbourhood trust, but marked effects in Britain. Overall, there is a greater similarity than difference in class effects in both civic engagement and social trust in the two countries. While differences in demographic attributes (and China's specific institutional arrangement, the household registration system, or hukou account for some of the observed patterns, we also find more pronounced class than demographic effects in the two countries. Class plays a major role in the development of social capital.

  14. Trait correlates of distribution trends in the Odonata of Britain and Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Powney

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in ecology is understanding why certain species persist, while others decline, in response to environmental change. Trait-based comparative analyses are useful in this regard as they can help identify the key drivers of decline, and highlight traits that promote resistance to change. Despite their popularity trait-based comparative analyses tend to focus on explaining variation in range shift and extinction risk, seldom being applied to actual measures of species decline. Furthermore they have tended to be taxonomically restricted to birds, mammals, plants and butterflies. Here we utilise a novel approach to estimate occurrence trends for the Odonata in Britain and Ireland, and examine trait correlates of these trends using a recently available trait dataset. We found the dragonfly fauna in Britain and Ireland has undergone considerable change between 1980 and 2012, with 22 and 53% of species declining and increasing, respectively. Distribution region, habitat specialism and range size were the key traits associated with these trends, where habitat generalists that occupy southern Britain tend to have increased in comparison to the declining narrow-ranged specialist species. In combination with previous evidence, we conclude that the lower trend estimates for the narrow-ranged specialists could be a sign of biotic homogenization with ecological specialists being replaced by warm-adapted generalists.

  15. Trait correlates of distribution trends in the Odonata of Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powney, Gary D; Cham, Steve S A; Smallshire, Dave; Isaac, Nick J B

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in ecology is understanding why certain species persist, while others decline, in response to environmental change. Trait-based comparative analyses are useful in this regard as they can help identify the key drivers of decline, and highlight traits that promote resistance to change. Despite their popularity trait-based comparative analyses tend to focus on explaining variation in range shift and extinction risk, seldom being applied to actual measures of species decline. Furthermore they have tended to be taxonomically restricted to birds, mammals, plants and butterflies. Here we utilise a novel approach to estimate occurrence trends for the Odonata in Britain and Ireland, and examine trait correlates of these trends using a recently available trait dataset. We found the dragonfly fauna in Britain and Ireland has undergone considerable change between 1980 and 2012, with 22 and 53% of species declining and increasing, respectively. Distribution region, habitat specialism and range size were the key traits associated with these trends, where habitat generalists that occupy southern Britain tend to have increased in comparison to the declining narrow-ranged specialist species. In combination with previous evidence, we conclude that the lower trend estimates for the narrow-ranged specialists could be a sign of biotic homogenization with ecological specialists being replaced by warm-adapted generalists.

  16. A reappraisal of the role of mosquitoes in the transmission of myxomatosis in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service, M. W.

    1971-01-01

    Field experiments were made in southern England to re-examine the possibility that mosquitoes in Britain might feed on wild rabbits and hence be vectors of myxomatosis. Mosquitoes of several species were attracted to rabbits enclosed in cylindrical traps and in a trap in which the animal was placed in a wire mesh cage. Substantial numbers of mosquitoes were also caught biting, or attempting to bite, tethered rabbits which were not in cages or traps. Evidence that mosquitoes fed on wild rabbits under natural conditions was obtained from results of precipitin tests made on blood-smears collected from mosquitoes caught resting amongst vegetation. On a few evenings mosquitoes were seen to be attracted to healthy wild rabbits and apparently attempting to feed on them. Batches of two mosquito species collected from the field were infected with myxoma virus. It was concluded that contrary to previous beliefs mosquitoes in Britain feed to a certain extent on wild rabbits, and therefore are potential vectors of myxomatosis. No attempts were made to assess their relative importance in the transmission of the disease, which in Britain is transmitted mainly by the rabbit flea. ImagesPlate 1 PMID:4401995

  17. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  18. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  19. Land management of bracken needs to account for bracken carcinogens - a case study from Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Donnelly, Eric; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    in bracken stands at any given time is difficult to predict and did not show any correlations with edaphic growth factors. The content of ptaquiloside turned out to be higher in fronds emerging after cutting compared to uncut fronds. Environmental risk assessment and bracken management must therefore...... with ptaquiloside may be the cause. The aim of this study was to monitor the content of ptaquiloside in 20 bracken stands from Britain to obtain a better understanding of the ptaquiloside dynamics and to evaluate the environmental implications of using different cutting regimes in bracken management...

  20. Brexit : Eurosceptic Victory In British Referendum In Term Of Britain Membership Of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Munzilin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available On June 23, 2016, eurosceptic group won a British referendum on Britain's motion of leaving the European Union. This paper will explore the factors related to the victory of  eurosceptic group  in the historic referendum. This paper uses theory of voting behaviour and strategy of campaign to answer the research of this paper. Eurosceptic group victory in this referendum couldn’t be separated from eurosceptic's success in influencing the mindset of Britishsociety as the voter in this referendum. By using the concept of the campaign strategy, the writer will examine various forms of brexit campaign strategy that used to influence voters behaviour.

  1. Terms of trade and backwardeness: testing the prebisch for spain and britain during the industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Prados de la Escosura, Leandro

    1994-01-01

    A historical test of prebisch-singer thesis of a long-run deterioration of primary producers' terms of trade vis-a-vis industrial nations is performed in this paper as part of an inquiry on the consequences of economic relations between DCs and LDCs on the latter's welfare. The setting is Europe in the age of the Industrial Revolution and spain and Britain are the countries chosen. The results strongly reject Prebisch-Singer doctrine as the welfare of Spain's productive factors embod...

  2. Evangelicalism and the early vegetarian movement in Britain c.1847–1860.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the complex inter-relationship between evangelicalism and the formation of an organised vegetarian movement in Britain in the period 1847–1860. As well as adding insight into existing historical research into the diet, I will comment on the potential of evangelicalism's influence to reach into various areas of society, a claim that has often been contested in the existing historiography. I will explore the manner by which religious belief interacted with medico-scientific views pertaining to diet; and how it penetrated views on the role of diet to family life.

  3. From cruelty to welfare: the emergence of farm animal welfare in Britain, 1964-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Abigail

    2012-03-01

    There is a long history of concern in Britain for how animals are treated. Until the 1960s, these concerns were expressed largely in terms of cruelty or suffering, which was prevented through various acts of Parliament. Over the period 1964-71, amidst public debates about intensive farming, a new discourse of animal welfare emerged. To understand what welfare meant and how it became established as a term, a concept and a target of government regulation, it is necessary to examine farming politics and practices, the existing tradition of animal protection and attempts to rethink the nature of animal suffering.

  4. The New Britain trench and 149° embayment, Western Solomon Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffin, D. L.; Davies, H. L.; Honza, E.; Lock, J.; Okuda, Y.

    1987-09-01

    The western New Britain Trench contains relatively thin sediment fill in the east, compared to the west where a sequence of thick turbidites is ponded behind a basement high in the trench axis, The trench trends toward Huon Gulf, but intersects the Trobriand Trench at an acute angle at the 149° Embayment, where both trenches end. Seismic structure west of the trench is incoherent, related to incipient collision of the Indian-Australia Plate and the South Bismarck Plate. The collision suture is marked by the Markham Canyon, continuous in its upper reaches with the Ramu-Markham Fault Zone on shore.

  5. Housing Mobility and Downsizing at Older Ages in Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James; Blundell, Richard; Oldfield, Zoë; Smith, James P

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines geographic mobility and housing downsizing at older ages in Britain and America. Americans downsize housing much more than the British largely because Americans are much more mobile. The principal reasons for greater mobility among older Americans are two fold: (1) greater spatial distribution of geographic distribution of amenities (such as warm weather) and housing costs and (2) greater institutional rigidities in subsidized British rental housing providing stronger incentives for British renters not to move. This relatively flat British housing consumption with age may have significant implications for the form and amount of consumption smoothing at older ages.

  6. Separating the men from the boys: masculinity and maturity in understandings of shell shock in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This article examines gendered discourses of shell shock in Britain during the First World War. Located within the context of the ideas about shell shock as a form of male hysteria put forward by Elaine Showalter, it examines the ways in which the contemporary discourses of soldiers, medical professionals and popular novelists used ideas of maturity and self-control to understand a condition that appeared to undermine both the war effort and national masculinity. It argues that contemporary understandings of authority and maturity helped to normalize shell shock as a medical condition, thereby lessening its perceived threat to society.

  7. Britain and the Ottoman Empire in the First World War: Clashing Interests of Two Belligerents

    OpenAIRE

    Ediz, İsmail

    2017-01-01

    Course of the relations between the British and the Ottoman Empire affected the future of extremely large areas including The Balkans, Anatolia and the Arab territories. Intersection of the mutual interests of the two states throughout the 19th century allowed them to continue the relations at a certain stable level. But since the last quarter of the same century the relations between the Ottoman Empire and Britain started to deteriorate. In addition to developments in European politics, with...

  8. Phantasm of Freud: Nandor Fodor and the psychoanalytic approach to the supernatural in interwar Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the appearance of "psychoanalytic psychical research" in interwar Britain, notably in the work of Nandor Fodor, Harry Price and others, including R. W. Pickford and Sylvia Payne. The varying responses of Sigmund Freud and Ernest Jones to the area of research are discussed. These researches are placed in the context of the increasingly widespread use of psychoanalytic and psychological interpretations of psychical events in the period, which in turn reflects the penetration of psychoanalysis into popular culture. The saturation of psychical research activity with gender and sexuality and the general fascination with, and embarrassment about, psychical activity is explored.

  9. Coinage and Collapse? The contribution of numismatic data to understanding the end of Roman Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Walton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coinage forms one of the most recognisable categories of material culture dating to the late fourth and early fifth centuries. As a result, it has played a pivotal role in dating the ‘end’ of Roman Britain. This article summarises key numismatic evidence for the period and tries to go beyond chronology, illustrating how hoards and site finds can be used to explore the nature of coin use throughout the diocese of Britannia and to provide some insight into its apparent collapse in the fifth century AD.

  10. Collisions Between Britain And Ottoman Empire In Iraq Front During the World War I (1915)

    OpenAIRE

    Sakin, Serdar

    2010-01-01

    Soon after the outbreak of the World War I, 12th and 13th Army Corps as a power were settled in the Iraq front because a British campaign was not expected in this front. By the beginning of the war, British powers captured Basra in Iraq. However, these powers easily had a rapid advance from South to North because of the weakness of Ottoman Powers. Britain captured this region after defeating Ottoman Powers at the battles of Kurna, Shaibe, Amara, Nasırıyeh and Kut Al Amara. The main reason of ...

  11. A comparative study of Caribbean return migration from Britain and France: towards a context-dependent explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, M; Condon, S

    1996-01-01

    "The currently dominant element in the labour migration from the Caribbean to Britain and France is a return flow of migrants. This paper focuses on the migrations from the Commonwealth and the French Caribbean to Britain and France respectively. While these migrations are historically similar in origin, subsequent differences in the colonial and immigration policies of Britain and France have resulted in divergent migration trends and experiences. New sources of data are drawn on in this comparative study of return migration to the Caribbean, providing up-to-date information on the size and demographic characteristics of the returnee populations. Equally important to this study is the section of the migrant population who are likely to remain in Europe. The authors argue that a comprehensive model of labour migration would need to incorporate the non-return situation in its dynamic entirety."

  12. The foundations of autism: the law concerning psychotic, schizophrenic, and autistic children in 1950s and 1960s britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    While the origins of child psychiatry in Britain can be traced to the interwar period, contemporary concepts and methodological approaches to pathological mental development in children were not created until the 1950s and 1960s. It was at this time that one of the most salient and lasting diagnoses in child psychiatry, autism, was established through a network of intellectual, institutional, and legal changes in Britain. This article argues that the work of child psychiatrists at the Maudsley Hospital was central in driving these changes and uses archival sources from this hospital, along with other legal and intellectual sources, to explore attempts to conceptualize pathological thought in infants in the 1950s and 1960s. When the first epidemiological study of autism was published in 1966, this finally established the autistic child as a scientific, demographic, and social reality in Britain.

  13. Translatio studii: The contribution of exiles to the establishment of Sociology and Art History in Britain, 1933-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This story is a small part of a larger one, the Great Diaspora of central and east European intellectuals in the 1930s, to Britain, USA, France, Latin America etc. Exile may be regarded as a school, a form of adult education, not only for the exiles themselves but also for some of the natives who came to know them. Focussing still more sharply, let us consider the intellectual consequences of the diaspora on an insular culture, with special reference to two relatively new and small disciplines. Both sociology and art history were more highly developed in central Europe in the 1930s than they were in Britain, allowing a few remarkable immigrants to make a contribution quite disproportionate to their numbers. How does one establish a new discipline? In short, what is offered here is a kind of social history or historical sociology of both art history and sociology itself, suggesting that the contribution of the exiles should be regarded not a simple import or transfer of knowledge but rather as a cultural encounter leading to changes on both sides, to a kind of cultural hybridization.Este ensayo es una pequeña parte de una historia más amplia, la gran diáspora de intelectuales del Centro y Este de Europa en los años treinta, hacia Gran Bretaña, EEUU, Francia, América latina, etc. El exilio puede ser observado como una escuela, una forma de educación de adultos, no sólo para los propios exiliados sino también para algunos de los nativos que llegaron a conocerlos. De forma más precisa, consideramos las consecuencias intelectuales de la diáspora en una cultura insular, con mención especial a dos disciplinas relativamente nuevas y pequeñas. La sociología y la historia del arte estaban en los años treinta mucho más desarrolladas en Europa central de lo que lo estaban en las islas Británicas, permitiendo a algunos destacados inmigrantes realizar una desproporcionada contribución si tenemos en cuenta su número. ¿Cómo se establece una

  14. Don’t Apologize for Your Commercial. The Discourse on the Content of Television Advertising During the Early Years in Britain and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Schreurs (Wilbert)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe central enquiry of this monograph will be how advertising practitioners in Britain and the Netherlands viewed television advertising - and especially its content - in the years before and after its launch: from the early 1950s to the mid-1960s in Britain and from the early 1960s to t

  15. [The disfigured men represented by the great painters (O. Dix - G. Grosz - R. Freida.) Disfiguration in the history of art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Louis-Paul; Méroc, Nicolas; Frapat, Jean; Chauvin, Frédéric; Rousset, Chantal

    2007-01-01

    Sophie Delaporte's book, Philippe Paillard's, Chantal Roussels's novels and Dupeyron's movie underline the difficulties of repairing physical and moral sufferings of the "disfigured men" wounded during the Great War. Beside medical and technical didactic aimed drawings the exhibition of wasted, mutilated or out of repair faces remains little known. In France, Germany or Great Britain there are many artists who took part in war. Among the artists the French painter Raphael Freida and some German expressionists like Otto Dix, Max Beckmann or George Grosz are the most famous. Their works are often confidential, set apart in the museums and showed in rare exhibitions in Great Britain and the United States of America. The sight of ruined faces inspired such horror that the artists depicted it only exceptionally and with discretion, before 1914. Without doubt it is the fear of touching the privacy of the face which is a part of the human identity. There are no "disfigured men" in the countless religious paintings of torture, neither in the Disasters of Warfrom painters or engravers like Goya or Jacques Callot.

  16. Cash boost to Great British science unveiled

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Trade and Industry Secretary, Patricia Hewitt today unveiled new plans for the DTI's record science budget over the next three years, to keep Britain at the forefront of world science. The plans include funding to develop life saving new health techniques, to seek alternative energy sources, to help our rural economy, to develop the computers of tomorrow and boost business with the next generation of leading edge technologies" (1 page).

  17. How users experience great products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz Nicolas, J.C.; Aurisicchio, M.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports qualitative research about how users experience great products. Eighteen interviews were conducted in which participants were asked to bring along a ‘great’ product that they own. During the interviews participants explained why they consider a product great and how they experienc

  18. Great Explorers to the East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rosalie F., Ed.; Baker, Charles F. III, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "Calliope," a world history magazine for young people is devoted to "Great Explorers of the East" and features articles on famous explorers of the eastern hemisphere. The following articles are included: "Ancient Egyptian Mariners"; "Alexander: The Great Reconciler"; "Marco Polo:…

  19. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  20. Great Explorers to the East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rosalie F., Ed.; Baker, Charles F. III, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "Calliope," a world history magazine for young people is devoted to "Great Explorers of the East" and features articles on famous explorers of the eastern hemisphere. The following articles are included: "Ancient Egyptian Mariners"; "Alexander: The Great Reconciler"; "Marco Polo: Describing the World"; "By Water to India";…

  1. Rethinking China's new great wall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Zhijun; Melville, David S; Liu, Jianguo; Chen, Ying; Yang, Hongyan; Ren, Wenwei; Zhang, Zhengwang; Piersma, Theunis; Li, Bo

    2014-01-01

    ... enclosed by thousands of kilometers of seawalls, whose length exceeds that of China’s famous ancient “Great Wall” (see photos and map). This new “Great Wall,” covering 60% of the total length of coast-line along mainland China...

  2. The climatological relationships between wind and solar energy supply in Britain

    CERN Document Server

    Bett, Philip E

    2016-01-01

    We use reanalysis data to investigate the daily co-variability of wind and solar irradiance in Britain, and its implications for renewable energy supply balancing. The joint distribution of daily-mean wind speeds and irradiances shows that irradiance has a much stronger seasonal cycle than wind, due to the rotational tilt of the Earth. Irradiance is weakly anticorrelated with wind speed throughout the year ($-0.4 \\lesssim \\rho \\lesssim -0.2$): there is a weak tendency for windy days to be cloudier. This is particularly true in Atlantic-facing regions (western Scotland, south-west England). The east coast of Britain has the weakest anticorrelation, particularly in winter, primarily associated with a relative increase in the frequency of clear-but-windy days. We also consider the variability in total power output from onshore wind turbines and solar photovoltaic panels. In all months, daily variability in total power is always reduced by incorporating solar capacity. The scenario with the least seasonal variabi...

  3. All in the family: media presentations of family assisted suicide in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birenbaum-Carmeli, Daphna; Banerjee, Albert; Taylor, Steve

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary investigation of the press coverage of family assisted suicide in Britain during the mid to late 1990s. The newspaper articles we examine focus on court cases in which a family member had been charged with assisting a terminally ill relative to put an end to their lives. The paper aims to typify basic characteristics of the coverage and to explore their potential political implications. The observations reveal a consistently supportive stance towards family assisted suicide that is produced by depictions of dying persons and perpetrators as autonomous and conscientious individuals; by idyllic portrayals of family relations; and by praising judges for their lenient verdicts. Presentations of the law as a dated State system, as well as the marginalization of opposing voices, further enhanced the supportive message. We suggest that the commending of actors' self-reliance and the call for decreased State interference in personal affairs aligns with the neo-liberal spirit that has come into prominence in Britain since the 1980s. Within this context, we raise some questions regarding the broader political significance of such media representations.

  4. Religion and Fertility in Western Europe: Trends Across Cohorts in Britain, France and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri-Rotem, Nitzan

    The role of religion in explaining fertility differences is often overlooked in demographic studies, particularly in Western Europe, where there has been a substantial decline in institutional forms of religious adherence. The current study explores the changing relationships between religion and childbearing in Britain, France and the Netherlands. Using data from the Generations and Gender Programme and the British Household Panel Survey, religious differences in completed fertility and the transition to first birth are explored across cohorts of women. In addition, a longitudinal analysis is employed to examine the influence of religion on subsequent childbearing. Although the secularization paradigm assumes that the influence of religion on individual behavior will diminish over time, it is found that religious affiliation and practice continue to be important determinants of fertility and family formation patterns. However, there is some variation in the relationship between religion and fertility across countries; while in France and the Netherlands fertility gaps by religiosity are either consistent or increasing, in Britain, this gap appears to have narrowed over time. These findings suggest that fertility differences by religion also depend on the particular social context of religious institutions in each country.

  5. First births by age and education in Britain, France and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Michael; Couet, Christine; Lappegard, Trude; Robert-Bobée, Isabelle; Rønsen, Marit; Smallwood, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Progressively later starting of childbearing has been a feature of cohort change in fertility across Europe and elsewhere over recent decades. Growing differences in the age patterns of childbearing between the Anglo-American and continental European countries, however, have also been found. The present study uses large linked-record databases in Britain, France and Norway to analyse these differences in more detail, focussing on age at entry to motherhood (first childbearing) by level of educational attainment among women born in the 1950s and in the 1960s. The shift between these two cohorts towards a later pattern of first childbearing in Britain was confined to women with secondary school qualifications and above. For women born in the 1960s, the peak age for risk of first childbearing among those with secondary school qualifications grew to be between seven and eleven years later than among women without secondary school qualifications. In France and Norway, the peak ages for risk of first childbearing shifted more uniformly across education levels between the two cohorts. For these 1950s and 1960s cohorts, improvements in women's educational levels also occurred more uniformly in France and Norway, moving more women into education categories characterised by later patterns of first childbearing.

  6. Sowing the seeds of economic entomology: houseflies and the emergence of medical entomology in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J F M

    2008-12-01

    The golden age of medical entomology, 1870-1920, is often celebrated for the elucidation of the aetiology of vector-borne diseases within the rubric of the emergent discipline of tropical medicine. Within these triumphal accounts, the origins of vector control science and technology remain curiously underexplored; yet vector control and eradication constituted the basis of the entomologists' expertise within the emergent specialism of medical entomology. New imperial historians have been sensitive to the ideological implications of vector control policies in the colonies and protectorates, but the reciprocal transfer of vector-control knowledge, practices and policies between periphery and core have received little attention. This paper argues that medical entomology arose in Britain as an amalgam of tropical medicine and agricultural entomology under the umbrella of "economic entomology". An examination of early twentieth-century anti-housefly campaigns sheds light on the relative importance of medical entomology as an imperial science for the careers, practices, and policies of economic entomologists working in Britain. Moreover, their sensitivity to vector ecology provides insight into late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century urban environments and environmental conditions of front-line war.

  7. Dilemmatic human-animal boundaries in Britain and Romania: post-materialist and materialist dehumanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Afrodita; Lyons, Evanthia; Hegarty, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Theories of dehumanization generally assume a single clear-cut, value-free and non-dilemmatic boundary between the categories 'human' and 'animal'. The present study highlights the relevance of dilemmas involved in drawing that boundary. In six focus groups carried out in Romania and Britain, 42 participants were challenged to think about dilemmas pertaining to animal and human life. Four themes were identified: rational autonomy, sentience, speciesism and maintaining materialist and post-materialist values. Sentience made animals resemble humans, while humans' rational autonomy made them distinctive. Speciesism underlay the human participants' prioritization of their own interests over those of animals, and a conservative consensus that the existing social system could not change supported this speciesism when it was challenged. Romanian participants appealed to Romania's lack of modernity and British participants to Britain's modernity to justify such conservatism. The findings suggest that the human-animal boundary is not essentialized; rather it seems that such boundary is constructed in a dilemmatic and post hoc way. Implications for theories of dehumanization are discussed.

  8. A regional appraisal of source rocks north and west of Britain and Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotchman, I.C.; Dore, A.G. [Statoil UK Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    1995-08-01

    Potential source rocks in the string of basins on the Atlantic Margin north and west of Britain and Ireland range in age from Devonian to Tertiary, although the Jurassic appears to have been effective. In the Palaeozoic, thick developments of lacustrine Type I kerogen rich shales occur in the Lower and Middle Devonian of the Orcadian Basin in northeast Scotland while Carboniferous coals and coaly shales are known from well and outcrop in basins flanking the Rockall Trough. The Jurassic contains major source rock developments, the Lias Portree and Pabba and the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation shales which have been correlated to oil shows in the Slyne Trough, and oil discoveries in the West of Shetlands respectively. Anoxic black shales are also tentatively developed in the early Cretaceous. In the younger section, developments of gas-prone, organic poor basinal shales are known in the Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene while coals provide a minor gas source in the topmost Palaeocene and Eocene. Regionally, effective source rocks appear to be concentrated in the Jurassic rift basins extending known trends from the Jeanne D`Arc basin through East Greenland to the North Sea/Mid-Norway through the largely unexplored Atlantic Margin area NW of Britain and Ireland.

  9. Multiculturalism and Community Cohesion in Britain: The Case of Arab Minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Benitto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article falls within the scope of debate about 'Community Cohesion' in Britain. Community cohesion is at the centre of public policy initiated in response to the urban disturbances in northern towns. Many official reports pointed out that lack of community cohesion is an element jeopardizing security and safe coexistence. In this sense, this article explores hindrances to intergroup coexistence, given that this issue is the main concern in this pluralist society since the attacks in London in July, 7, 2005, through the study of intercultural relations between Arab minority of London and mainstream society in Britain. This research adopts an approach which aims to contribute to the understanding of the reasons hampering community cohesion through juxtaposition of viewpoints of both the minority and majority group. The originality of this approach lies in the fact that it tackles the issue of integration from two sided points of view: the point of the majority group and the point of view of the minority group; unlike most literature on intergroup relations which basically focus on the integration of the minority and its daptation to the dominant culture.

  10. Wartime women giving birth: narratives of pregnancy and childbirth, Britain c. 1939-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Angela

    2014-09-01

    Women in Second World War Britain benefitted from measures to improve maternal and child health. Infant and maternal mortality rates continued to fall, new drugs became available, and efforts were made to improve the health of mothers and babies through the provision of subsidised milk and other foodstuffs. However, in return, women were also expected to contribute to the war effort through motherhood, and this reflected wider cultural ideas in the North Atlantic world in the first half of the twentieth century which equated maternity with military service. The aim of this article is to examine the interplay between narratives of birth and narratives of war in the accounts of maternity from women of the wartime generation. It will explore how the military-maternity analogy sheds light on women's experiences of pregnancy and childbirth in Britain during the Second World War, whilst also considering maternity within women's wider role as 'domestic soldiers', contributing to the war effort through their traditional work as housewives and mothers. In doing so, the article reveals the complexity of women's narratives. It demonstrates that they do not simply conform to the 'medical vs. social' binary, but reflect the wider cultural context in which women gave birth. Women incorporated the dominant discourses of the period, namely those around war, into their accounts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis and Comparison of Naturalistic Themes in Iranian and Britain Modern Children's Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh Ebrahimi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, children's literature given the concept of childhood, has gained a special status in the studies of humanities. Children's poetry is one of the branches of this type of literature. Naturalistic themes have the highest frequency among the themes of children poems in two countries. The population of this research consists of collections that have been published from 1921 to 2011. Children's literature was born in England in the eighteenth century and before that the first didactic books for children had come into existence in England. In addition, due to industrial growth, the emergence of the new middle class and expansion of formal education the UK was pioneering among Europe and the world countries. Therefore, to find the roots of the formation of children's literature should be referred to the UK. Therefore, in this paper Britain children’s poem has been selected to be compared with Iranian children’s poem so that by revealing the similarities and differences one can deal with the pathology of poems for children in Iran and to detect shortcomings and strengths and present some guidelines that be helpful for children and young poets as well as critics and researchers in this field. Keywords: Naturalistic themes, children literature, Iranian children's poems, Britain children's poems, comparative literature

  12. Accounting for trends in health poverty: a decomposition analysis for Britain, 1991-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Michal

    2015-03-01

    We use data from the British Household Panel Survey to analyse changes in poverty of self-reported health from 1991 to 2008. We use the indices recently introduced by Bennett and Hatzimasoura (Poverty measurement with ordinal data. Institute for International Economic Policy, IIEP-WP-2011-14, 2011), which can be interpreted as ordinal counterparts of the classical Foster et al. (Econometrica 52(3):761-766, 1984) poverty measures. We decompose changes in self-reported health poverty over time into within-group health poverty changes and population shifts between groups. We also provide statistical inference for the Bennett and Hatzimasoura's (Poverty measurement with ordinal data. Institute for International Economic Policy, IIEP-WP-2011-14, 2011) indices. Results suggest that when "fair" self-reported health status is chosen as a health poverty threshold all of the used indices indicate the growth of health poverty in Britain. However, when the health poverty threshold is lower ("poor" self-reported health status) the increase in health poverty incidence was compensated by decreasing average health poverty depth and improving health inequality among those who are poor with respect to health. The subgroup decompositions suggest that the most important factors accounting for the changes in total health poverty in Britain include a rise of both health poverty and population shares of persons cohabiting and couples with no children as well as an increase of the population of retired persons.

  13. Sinanthropus in Britain: human origins and international science, 1920-1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Chris

    2015-06-01

    The Peking Man fossils discovered at Zhoukoudian in north-east China in the 1920s and 1930s were some of the most extensive palaeoanthropological finds of the twentieth century. This article examines their publicization and discussion in Britain, where they were engaged with by some of the world's leading authorities in human evolution, and a media and public highly interested in human-origins research. This international link - simultaneously promoted by scientists in China and in Britain itself - reflected wider debates on international networks; the role of science in the modern world; and changing definitions of race, progress and human nature. This article illustrates how human-origins research was an important means of binding these areas together and presenting scientific work as simultaneously authoritative and credible, but also evoking mystery and adventurousness. Examining this illustrates important features of contemporary views of both science and human development, showing not only the complexities of contemporary regard for the international and public dynamics of scientific research, but wider concerns over human nature, which oscillated between optimistic notions of unity and progress and pessimistic ones of essential differences and misdirected development.

  14. Britain Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    provides introductions to prominent ideas, social, political, and cultural critique and responses, all of contemporary relevance. In addition to providing the necessary basic and factual information, the book and its homepage suggest student assignments, topics for presentations and essays, and literature...

  15. The Great Cacti: Ethnobotany & Biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Hooper

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of The Great Cacti: Ethnobotany & Biogeography. David Yetman. 2007. The University of Arizona, Tucson. Pp. 320, 366 color photographs, 17 maps. $59.95 (cloth. ISBN 9780816524310.

  16. Juyongguan on the Great Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Juyongguan Pass on the Great Wall,one ofthe most important strategic passes of the oldcapital Beijing,is now repaired and a goodplace for tourists to see ancient Chinesemilitary and cultural facilities,as well asbeautiful local scenery.

  17. Critical Realism in Great Expectations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚雪莲

    2014-01-01

    Great Expectations is an important work by English novelist Dickens.His novels not only reflect the life experience of a whole generation genuinely,but also disclose the social reality vividly in England in the middle 19th century.Its depth and width go beyond most of the works of his contemporaries.Great Expectations is the excellent novel of critical realism in the later period of Dickens.It describes the de-velopment of Pip’s grown-up and the disillusion of his“great expectations”.Educated by the reality,he came to realize what he pursued in the Vanity Fair was not valuable at all.So as to see clearer the great power of critical realism in Dickens’works and thus can understand the no-vel,this thesis analyzes the hero’s character development and the influential factors upon the formation of his character.

  18. "I Climbed the Great Wall"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    I finally climbed the Great Wall, A dream of my childhood; my heart is filled with pleasure at the indescribable beauty of the Wall. China’s ancient civilization is best documented by the grandeur of the Wall.

  19. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  20. Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) Clearinghouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Initiative Toxicity Data Clearinghouse is a central location for information on criteria, toxicity data, exposure parameters and other supporting...