WorldWideScience

Sample records for bright radio-quiet quasar

  1. On the peculiar X-ray properties of the bright nearby radio-quiet quasar PDS456

    OpenAIRE

    Vignali, C; Comastri, A.; F. Nicastro; Matt, G.; Fiore, F.; Palumbo, G. G. C.

    2000-01-01

    BeppoSAX and ASCA observations of the nearby (z=0.184), high-luminosity, radio-quiet quasar PDS456 are presented. The X-ray spectrum is characterized by a prominent ionized edge at 8-9 keV (originally discovered by RXTE, Reeves et al. 2000) and by a soft excess below 1.5 keV. The lack of any significant iron K alpha emission line suggests for the edge an origin from line-of-sight material rather than from reflection from a highly ionized accretion disc. The hard X-ray continuum is indeed well...

  2. On the peculiar X-ray properties of the bright nearby radio-quiet quasar PDS456

    CERN Document Server

    Vignali, C; Nicastro, F; Matt, G; Fiore, F; Palumbo, G G C

    2000-01-01

    BeppoSAX and ASCA observations of the nearby (z=0.184), high-luminosity, radio-quiet quasar PDS456 are presented. The X-ray spectrum is characterized by a prominent ionized edge at 8-9 keV (originally discovered by RXTE, Reeves et al. 2000) and by a soft excess below 1.5 keV. The lack of any significant iron K alpha emission line suggests for the edge an origin from line-of-sight material rather than from reflection from a highly ionized accretion disc. The hard X-ray continuum is indeed well modelled by transmission through a highly-ionized medium with a large column density (N_H warm = 4.5 x 10^24 cm^-2) plus an additional cold absorber with a lower column density (N_H cold = 2.7 x 10^22 cm^-2).

  3. Radio emission from radio-quiet quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a search for radio emission from bright, optically selected quasars at 5 GHz are reported. The work was initiated to examine the distribution of radio - to -optical luminosity ratios and also, by optical and IR photometry, to seek correlations between IR - optical properties and radio emission. It is shown that quasars of bright apparent magnitude exhibit a significantly higher incidence of radio emission than would be expected on the basis of a scaling of detection thresholds. (UK)

  4. Discovery of Universal Elliptical Outflow Structures in Radio-Quiet Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Lovegrove, Justin; Leiter, Darryl

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-nine quasars in the background of the Magellanic Clouds had brightness records monitored by the MACHO project during the years 1992 - 99. Because the circumpolar fields of these quasars had no seasonal sampling defects, their observation produced data sets well suited to further careful analysis. Following a preliminary report wherein we showed the existence of reverberation in the data for one of the radio-quiet quasars in this group, we now show that similar reverberations have been seen in all of the 55 radio-quiet quasars with adequate data, making possible the determination of the quasar inclination to the observer's line of sight. The reverberation signatures indicate the presence of large-scale elliptical outflow structures similar to that predicted by the Elvis (2000) and "dusty torus" models of quasars, whose characteristic sizes vary within a surprisingly narrow range of scales. More importantly the observed opening angle relative to the polar axis of the universal elliptical outflow structure...

  5. The radio structure of radio-quiet quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Leipski, C; Bennert, N; Hüttemeister, S; Leipski, Christian; Falcke, Heino; Bennert, Nicola; Huettemeister, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the radio emitting structures of radio-quiet active galactic nuclei with an emphasis on radio-quiet quasars to study their connection to Seyfert galaxies. We present and analyse high-sensitivity VLA radio continuum images of 14 radio-quiet quasars and six Seyfert galaxies. Many of the low redshift radio-quiet quasars show radio structures that can be interpreted as jet-like outflows. However, the detection rate of extended radio structures on arcsecond scales among our sample decreases with increasing redshift and luminosity, most likely due to a lack of resolution. The morphologies of the detected radio emission indicate strong interactions of the jets with the surrounding medium. We also compare the radio data of seven quasars with corresponding HST images of the [OIII] emitting narrow-line region (NLR). We find that the scenario of interaction between the radio jet and the NLR gas is confirmed in two sources by structures in the NLR gas distribution as previously known for Seyfert galaxies. ...

  6. Radio Variability of Radio Quiet and Radio Loud Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Barvainis, Richard; Lehar, Joseph; Birkinshaw, Mark; Falke, Heino; Blundell, Katherine M.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of quasars are weak in their radio emission, with flux densities comparable to those in the optical, and energies far lower. A small fraction, about 10%, are hundreds to thousands of times stronger in the radio. Conventional wisdom holds that there are two classes of quasars, the radio quiets and radio louds, with a deficit of sources having intermediate power. Are there really two separate populations, and if so, is the physics of the radio emission fundamentally different betwe...

  7. Chandra Survey of Radio-quiet, High-redshift Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Bechtold, J; Shields, J; Czerny, B; Janiuk, A; Hamann, F; Aldcroft, T L; Elvis, M; Dobrzycki, A; Bechtold, Jill; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Shields, Joseph; Czerny, Bozena; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Hamann, Fred; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Elvis, Martin; Dobrzycki, Adam

    2003-01-01

    We observed 17 optically-selected, radio-quiet high-redshift quasars with the Chandra Observatory ACIS, and detected 16 of them. The quasars have redshift between 3.70 and 6.28 and include the highest redshift quasars known. When compared to low-redshift quasars observed with ROSAT, these high redshift quasars are significantly more X-ray quiet. We also find that the X-ray spectral index of the high redshift objects is flatter than the average at lower redshift. These trends confirm the predictions of models where the accretion flow is described by a cold, optically-thick accretion disk surrounded by a hot, optically thin corona, provided the viscosity parameter alpha >= 0.02. The high redshift quasars have supermassive black holes with masses ~10^{10} M_{sun}, and are accreting material at ~0.1 the Eddington limit. We detect 10 X-ray photons from the z=6.28 quasar SDS 1030+0524, which may have a Gunn-Peterson trough and be near the redshift of reionization of the intergalactic medium. The X-ray data place an...

  8. Covering factors of the dusty obscurers in radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Maitrayee; Sikora, Marek; Nalewajko, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    We compare covering factors of circumnuclear dusty obscurers in radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars. The radio-loud quasars are represented by a sample of FR~II quasars obtained by cross-matching a catalog of the FR~II radio sources selected by van Velzen et al. with the SDSS DR7 catalog of quasars. Covering factors of FR~II quasars are compared with covering factors of the radio-quiet quasars matched with them in redshift, black hole mass, and Eddington-ratio. We found that covering factors, ...

  9. Covering factors of the dusty obscurers in radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Maitrayee; Nalewajko, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    We compare covering factors of circumnuclear dusty obscurers in radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars. The radio-loud quasars are represented by a sample of FR~II quasars obtained by cross-matching a catalog of the FR~II radio sources selected by van Velzen et al. with the SDSS DR7 catalog of quasars. Covering factors of FR~II quasars are compared with covering factors of the radio-quiet quasars matched with them in redshift, black hole mass, and Eddington-ratio. We found that covering factors, proxied by the infrared-to-bolometric luminosity ratio, are on average slightly smaller in FR~II quasars than in radio-quiet quasars. For both samples, no statistically significant dependence of a median covering factor on Eddington ratio, black hole mass, nor redshift can be claimed.

  10. Observations of feedback from radio-quiet quasars - I. Extents and morphologies of ionized gas nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guilin; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Nesvadba, Nicole P. H.; Liu, Xin

    2013-04-01

    Black hole feedback - the strong interaction between the energy output of supermassive black holes and their surrounding environments - is routinely invoked to explain the absence of overly luminous galaxies, the black hole versus bulge correlations and the similarity of black hole accretion and star formation histories. Yet direct probes of this process in action are scarce and limited to small samples of active nuclei. In this paper, we present Gemini Integral Field Unit observations of the distribution of ionized gas around luminous, obscured, radio-quiet quasars at z ˜ 0.5. We detect extended ionized gas nebulae via [O III] λ5007 Å emission in every case, with a mean diameter of 28 kpc. These nebulae are nearly perfectly round, with Hβ surface brightness declining ∝R-3.5 ± 1.0. The regular morphologies of nebulae around radio-quiet quasars are in striking contrast with lumpy or elongated [O III] nebulae seen around radio galaxies at low and high redshifts. We present the uniformly measured size-luminosity relationship of [O III] nebulae around Seyfert 2 galaxies and type 2 quasars spanning six orders of magnitude in luminosity and confirm the flat slope of the correlation (R_{[O III]}∝ L_{[O III]}^{0.25± 0.02}). We propose a model of clumpy nebulae in which clouds that produce line emission transition from being ionization-bounded at small distances from the quasar to being matter-bounded in the outer parts of the nebula. The model - which has a declining pressure profile - qualitatively explains line ratio profiles and surface brightness profiles seen in our sample. It is striking that we see such smooth and round large-scale gas nebulosities in this sample, which are inconsistent with illuminated merger debris and which we suggest may be the signature of accretion energy from the nucleus reaching gas at large scales.

  11. The Far-Infrared Emission of Radio Loud and Radio Quiet Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polletta, M.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Wilkes, B. J.; Hooper, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    Continuum observations at radio, millimeter, infrared and soft X-ray energies are presented for a sample of 22 quasars, consisting of flat and steep spectrum radio loud, radio intermediate and radio quiet objects. The primary observational distinctions, among the different kinds of quasars in the radio and IR energy domains are studied using large observational datasets provided by ISOPHOT on board the Infrared Space Observatory, by the IRAM interferometer, by the sub-millimetre array SCUBA on JCMT, and by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) facilities IRAC1 on the 2.2 m telescope and SEST. The spectral energy distributions of all quasars from radio to IR energies are analyzed and modeled with non-thermal and thermal spectral components. The dominant mechanism emitting in the far/mid-IR is thermal dust emission in all quasars, with the exception of flat spectrum radio loud quasars for which the presence of thermal IR emission remains rather uncertain, since it is difficult to separate it from the bright non-thermal component. The dust is predominantly heated by the optical/ultraviolet radiation emitted from the external components of the AGN. A starburst contributes to the IR emission at different levels, but always less than the AGN (quasar type.

  12. Star formation in quasar hosts and the origin of radio emission in radio-quiet quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Zakamska, Nadia L; Petric, Andreea; Dicken, Daniel; Greene, Jenny E; Heckman, Timothy M; Hickox, Ryan C; Ho, Luis C; Krolik, Julian H; Nesvadba, Nicole P H; Strauss, Michael A; Geach, James E; Oguri, Masamune; Strateva, Iskra V

    2015-01-01

    Radio emission from radio-quiet quasars may be due to star formation in the quasar host galaxy, to a jet launched by the supermassive black hole, or to relativistic particles accelerated in a wide-angle radiatively-driven outflow. In this paper we examine whether radio emission from radio-quiet quasars is a byproduct of star formation in their hosts. To this end we use infrared spectroscopy and photometry from Spitzer and Herschel to estimate or place upper limits on star formation rates in hosts of ~300 obscured and unobscured quasars at z<1. We find that low-ionization forbidden emission lines such as [NeII] and [NeIII] are likely dominated by quasar ionization and do not provide reliable star formation diagnostics in quasar hosts, while PAH emission features may be suppressed due to the destruction of PAH molecules by the quasar radiation field. While the bolometric luminosities of our sources are dominated by the quasars, the 160 micron fluxes are likely dominated by star formation, but they too should...

  13. Radio-Variability in Radio-Quiet Quasars and Low-Luminosity AGN

    OpenAIRE

    Falcke, Heino; Lehar, Joseph; Barvainis, Richard; Nagar, Neil M.; Wilson, Andrew S.

    2000-01-01

    We report on two surveys of radio-weak AGN to look for radio variability. We find significant variability with an RMS of 10-20% on a timescale of months in radio-quiet and radio-intermediate quasars. This exceeds the variability of radio cores in radio-loud quasars (excluding blazars), which vary only on a few percent level. The variability in radio-quiet quasars confirms that the radio emission in these sources is indeed related to the AGN. The most extremely variable source is the radio-int...

  14. Herschel-ATLAS: Far-infrared properties of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Kalfountzou, E; Jarvis, M J; Hardcastle, M J; Smith, D J B; Bourne, N; Dunne, L; Ibar, E; Eales, S; Ivison, R J; Maddox, S; Smith, M W L; Valiante, E; de Zotti, G

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed a sample of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars from the Faint Im- ages Radio Sky at Twenty-one centimetres (FIRST) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7), over the H-ATLAS Phase 1 Area (9h, 12h and 14.5h). Using a stacking analysis we find a significant correlation between the far-infrared luminosity and 1.4-GHz luminosity for radio-loud quasars. Partial correlation analysis confirms the intrinsic correlation after removing the redshift contribution while for radio-quiet quasars no partial correlation is found. Using a single-temperature grey-body model we find a general trend of lower dust temperatures in the case of radio-loud quasars comparing to radio-quiet quasars. Also, radio-loud quasars are found to have almost constant mean values of dust mass along redshift and optical luminosity bins. In addition, we find that radio-loud quasars at lower optical luminosities tend to have on average higher FIR and 250-micron luminosity with respect to radio-quiet quasars with ...

  15. Quasar feedback and the origin of radio emission in radio-quiet quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Zakamska, Nadia L

    2014-01-01

    We conduct kinematic analysis of the SDSS spectra of 568 obscured luminous quasars, with the emphasis on the kinematic structure of the [OIII]5007 emission line. [OIII] emission tends to show blueshifts and blue excess, which indicates that at least part of the narrow-line gas is undergoing an organized outflow. The velocity width containing 90% of line power ranges from 370 to 4780 km/sec, suggesting outflow velocities up to 2000 km/sec. The velocity width of the [OIII] emission is positively correlated with the radio luminosity among the radio-quiet quasars. We propose that radio emission in radio-quiet quasars is due to relativistic particles accelerated in the shocks within the quasar-driven outflows; star formation in quasar hosts is insufficient to explain the observed radio emission. The median radio luminosity of the sample of nu L_nu[1.4GHz] = 10^40 erg/sec suggests a median kinetic luminosity of the quasar-driven wind of L_wind=3x10^44 erg/sec, or about 4% of the estimated median bolometric luminosi...

  16. Discovery of universal outflow structures above and below the accretion disc plane in radio-quiet quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Justin; Schild, Rudolph E.; Leiter, Darryl

    2011-04-01

    59 quasars in the background of the Magellanic Clouds had brightness records monitored by the MACHO project during the years 1992-99. Because the circumpolar fields of these quasars had no seasonal sampling defects, their observation produced data sets well suited to further careful analysis. Following a preliminary report wherein we showed the existence of reverberation in the data for one of the radio-quiet quasars in this group, we now show that similar reverberations have been seen in all of the 55 radio-quiet quasars with adequate data, making possible the determination of the quasar inclination to the observer's line of sight. The reverberation signatures indicate the presence of large-scale elliptical outflow structures similar to that predicted by the Elvis and 'dusty torus' models of quasars, whose characteristic sizes vary within a surprisingly narrow range of scales. More importantly, the observed opening angle relative to the polar axis of the universal elliptical outflow structure present was consistently found to be on the order of 78°.

  17. The empirical difference between radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobe-dominant radio quasars and radio-quiet quasars have very similar spectral energy distributions in the infrared through ultraviolet spectral regions. The former class show flat-spectrum radio synchrotron cores as well. Are the radio cores the self-absorbed tails of nonthermal infrared sources, or are they separate components with properties expected for misdirected relativistic jets? Morphologically, do the spectra peak in the millimeter region as expected under the first hypothesis, or do they show deep minima there as expected under the second? Centimeter, infrared, and new millimeter observations show that the second hypothesis is correct for all six known IRAS-detected lobe-dominant quasars. 20 refs

  18. MULTIBAND COMPARATIVE STUDY OF OPTICAL MICROVARIABILITY IN RADIO-LOUD VERSUS RADIO-QUIET QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of an optical multiband (BVR) photometric monitoring program of 22 core-dominated radio-loud quasars (CRLQs) and 22 radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). The aim was to compare the properties of microvariability in both types of quasars. We detected optical microvariability in five RQQs and four CRLQs. Our results confirm that microvariability in RQQs may be as frequent as in CRLQs. In addition, we compare microvariability duty cycles in different bands. Finally, the implications for the origin of the microvariations are briefly discussed.

  19. Inferences from a study of Fe II emission in radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From intermediate-resolution spectrophotometry of 33 quasars with redshift z < 0.7, significant statistical differences in the line properties emerge between the radio and radio-quiet objects. Fe II optical emission is rarer in radio quasars and less intense on average when present, whereas Fe II UV emission is always detected in both classes. Moreover, for the radio sample, Fe II optical emission is not correlated with the radio morphology, contrary to previous suggestions. Finally, in radio quasars the full-width at half maximum of Hβ and/or Mg II is statistically larger by nearly a factor of 2 than in radio-quiet ones. (author)

  20. The highest redshift quasar at z = 7.085: A radio-quiet source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present 1-2 GHz Very Large Array A-configuration continuum observations on the highest redshift quasar known to date, the z = 7.085 quasar ULAS J112001.48+064124.3. The results show no radio continuum emission at the optical position of the quasar or its vicinity at a level of ≥3σ or 23.1 μJy beam–1. This 3σ limit corresponds to a rest-frame 1.4 GHz luminosity density limit of L ν, 1.4 GHz < 1.76 × 1024 W Hz–1 for a spectral index of α = 0, and L ν, 1.4 GHz < 1.42 × 1025 W Hz–1 for a spectral index of α = –1. The rest-frame 1.4 GHz luminosity limits are L rad < 6.43 × 106 L ☉ and L rad < 5.20 × 107 L ☉ for α = 0 and α = –1, respectively. The derived limits for the ratio of the rest-frame 1.4 GHz luminosity density to the B-band optical luminosity density are R1.4∗<0.53 and <4.30 for the above noted spectral indices, respectively. Given our upper limits on the radio continuum emission and the radio-to-optical luminosity ratio, we conclude that this quasar is radio-quiet and located at the low end of the radio-quiet distribution of high-redshift (z ≳ 6) quasars.

  1. A search for rapid optical variability in radio-quiet quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Rabbette, M; Smith, N; Steel, S

    1998-01-01

    The detection of rapid variability on a time-scale of hours in radio-quiet quasars (RQQSOs) could be a powerful discriminator between starburst, accretion disc and relativistic jet models of these sources. This paper contains an account of a dedicated search for rapid optical variability in RQQSOs. The technique used differential photometry between the RQQSO and stars in the same field of view of the CCD. The 23 RQQSOs that were observed all have high luminosities (-27 1. The total amount of observation time was about 60 hours and these observations are part of an ongoing programme, started in September 1990, to search for rapid variability in RQQSOs. No evidence for short-term variability greater than about 0.1 magnitudes was detected in any of the 23 sources, however long-term variability was recorded for the radio-quiet quasar PG 2112+059. The finding charts are included here because they identify the RQQSO and the reference stars used in the photometry, and hence are available for use by other observers.

  2. Radio-Loud and Radio-Quiet BAL Quasars: A Detailed Ultraviolet Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Rochais, Thomas B; Myers, Adam D; Brotherton, Michael S; Runnoe, Jessie C; Hall, Shannon W

    2014-01-01

    Studies of radio-loud (RL) broad absorption line (BAL) quasars indicate that popular orientation-based BAL models fail to account for all observations. Are these results extendable to radio-quiet (RQ) BAL quasars? Comparisons of RL and RQ BAL quasars show that many of their properties are quite similar. Here we extend these analyses to the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectral properties, using a sample of 73 RL and 473 RQ BAL quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Each RQ quasar is individually matched to a RL quasar in both redshift (over the range $1.5 < z < 3.5$) and continuum luminosity. We compare several continuum, emission line, and absorption line properties, as well as physical properties derived from these measurements. Most properties in the samples are statistically identical, though we find slight differences in the velocity structure of the BALs that cause apparent differences in CIV emission line properties. Differences in the velocities may indicate an interaction bet...

  3. Intranight Optical Variability of Radio-Quiet Weak Emission Line Quasars-IV

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Parveen; Gopal-Krishna,

    2016-01-01

    We report an extension of our program to search for radio-quiet BL Lac candidates using intra-night optical variability (INOV) as a probe. The present INOV observations cover a well-defined representative set of 10 `radio-quiet weak-emission-line quasars' (RQWLQs), selected from a newly published sample of 46 such sources, derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (Data release 7). Intra-night CCD monitoring of the 10 RQWLQs was carried out in 18 sessions lasting at least 3.5 hours. For each session, differential light curves (DLCs) of the target RQWLQ were derived relative to two steady comparison stars monitored simultaneously. Combining these new data with those already published by us for 15 RQWLQs monitored in 30 sessions, we estimate an INOV duty cycle of $\\sim 3\\%$ for the RQWLQs, which appears inconsistent with BL Lacs. However, the observed INOV events (which occurred in just two of the sessions) are strong (with a fractional variability amplitude $\\psi >$ 10\\%), hence blazar-like. We briefly point o...

  4. Intranight optical variability of radio-quiet weak emission line quasars - IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parveen; Chand, Hum; Gopal-Krishna

    2016-09-01

    We report an extension of our programme to search for radio-quiet BL Lac candidates using intranight optical variability (INOV) as a probe. The present INOV observations cover a well-defined representative set of 10 `radio-quiet weak-emission-line quasars' (RQWLQs), selected from a newly published sample of 46 such sources, derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (Data release 7). Intranight CCD monitoring of the 10 RQWLQs was carried out in 18 sessions lasting at least 3.5 h. For each session, differential light curves of the target RQWLQ were derived relative to two steady comparison stars monitored simultaneously. Combining these new data with those already published by us for 15 RQWLQs monitored in 30 sessions, we estimate an INOV duty cycle of ˜3 per cent for the RQWLQs, which appears inconsistent with BL Lacs. However, the observed INOV events (which occurred in just two of the sessions) are strong (with a fractional variability amplitude ψ > 10 per cent), hence blazar-like. We briefly point out the prospects of an appreciable rise in the estimated INOV duty cycle for RQWLQs with a relatively modest increase in sensitivity for monitoring these rather faint objects.

  5. Intranight Optical Variability of Radio-Quiet Weak Emission Line Quasars-II

    CERN Document Server

    Chand, Hum; Gopal-Krishna,

    2014-01-01

    This is continuation of our search for the elusive radio-quiet blazars, by carrying out a systematic programme to detect intranight optical variability (INOV) in a subset of `Weak-Lines-Quasars' (WLQs) which are designated as `high confidence BL Lac candidates' and are known to be radio-quiet. For 10 such RQWLQs, we present here the INOV observations taken in 16 sessions of durations > 3.5 hours each. Combining these data with our previously published INOV monitoring of RQWLQs in 13 sessions, gives a set of INOV observations of 15 RQWLQs monitored in 29 sessions each lasting more than 3.5 hours. The 29 differential light curves (DLCs), thus obtained for the 15 RQWLQs, were subjected to an statistical analysis using the F-test and the deduced INOV characteristics of the RQWLQs are compared with those published recently for several prominent AGN classes, also using the F-test. However, since the RQWLQs are generally 1-2 magnitudes fainter, a rigorous comparison has to wait for somewhat more sensitive INOV obser...

  6. Observations of Feedback from Radio-Quiet Quasars: I. Extents and Morphologies of Ionized Gas Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Guilin; Greene, Jenny E; Nesvadba, Nicole P H; Liu, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Black hole feedback -- the strong interaction between the energy output of supermassive black holes and their surrounding environments -- is routinely invoked to explain the absence of overly luminous galaxies, the black hole vs. bulge correlations and the similarity of black hole accretion and star formation histories. Yet direct probes of this process in action are scarce and limited to small samples of active nuclei. We present Gemini IFU observations of the distribution of ionized gas around luminous, obscured, radio-quiet (RQ) quasars at z~0.5. We detect extended ionized gas nebulae via [O III]5007 emission in every case, with a mean diameter of 28 kpc. These nebulae are nearly perfectly round. The regular morphologies of nebulae around RQ quasars are in striking contrast with lumpy or elongated nebulae seen around radio galaxies at low and high redshifts. We present the uniformly measured size-luminosity relationship of [O III] nebulae around Seyfert 2 galaxies and type 2 quasars spanning 6 orders of ma...

  7. Observations of Feedback from Radio-Quiet Quasars: II. Kinematics of Ionized Gas Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Guilin; Greene, Jenny E; Nesvadba, Nicole P H; Liu, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence and energetics of quasar feedback is a major unresolved problem in galaxy formation theory. In this paper, we present Gemini Integral Field Unit observations of ionized gas around eleven luminous, obscured, radio-quiet quasars at z~0.5 out to ~15 kpc from the quasar; specifically, we measure the kinematics and morphology of [O III]5007 emission. The round morphologies of the nebulae and the large line-of-sight velocity widths (with velocities containing 80% of the emission as high as 1000 km/s combined with relatively small velocity difference across them (from 90 to 520 km/s) point toward wide-angle quasi-spherical outflows. We use the observed velocity widths to estimate a median outflow velocity of 760 km/s, similar to or above the escape velocities from the host galaxies. The line-of-sight velocity dispersion declines slightly toward outer parts of the nebulae (by 3% per kpc on average). The majority of nebulae show blueshifted excesses in their line profiles across most of their extents, s...

  8. IFU Observations of Feedback from Radio-Quiet Quasars at 0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guilin; Zakamska, N. L.; Greene, J. E.; Nesvadba, N.; Liu, X.

    2014-01-01

    Feedback from black holes is now understood to be a key ingredient in galaxy formation modeling, but direct probes of this process in action are scarce and limited to small samples of active nuclei. Meanwhile, theories have long predicted an evolutionary scenario in which galaxy mergers induce both star formation and nuclear activity, triggering a violent transition from an obscured accretion stage to an unobscured phase as a Type 1 quasar, yet direct evidence is lacking. We present Gemini Integral Field Unit (IFU) observations of the distribution of warm ionized gas 104 K) around two luminous radio-quiet quasars: 11 obscured (Type 2) and 12 unobscured (Type 1) quasars with matched [O III]5007 luminosities (L[O III] > 1042.7-43.6 erg/s) and redshifts ( 0.5). For the Type 2 quasar sample, we have found that their gas nebulae are: (1) existent and extended on galactic scales in every case (15-39 kpc across); (2) nearly perfectly round, in striking contrast with lumpy and/or elongated nebulae around radio galaxies; (3) signifying wide-angle quasi-spherical outflows by their roundness and large velocity dispersion (FWHM˜1000 km/s); (4) likely escaping from the host galaxies (the derived median outflow velocity is 760 km/s); (5) showing slightly declining velocity dispersions toward their outer parts (˜3% per kpc); (6) blowing winds with high kinetic energy (1045 erg/s, ˜2% of Lbol) and mass (2×103-4 M⊙/yr) flows. (7) showing a universal radial profile of [O III]/Hβ (8) constructing a size-luminosity relation with a flat slope, implying clumpy nebulae that transition from being ionization-bounded at small radii to being matter-bounded in the outer parts. For the Type 1 quasar sample, we also detect extended nebulae surrounding all quasars with sizes, morphology and gas kinematics surprisingly similar to the Type 2 quasar nebulae. In conclusion, energetic quasi-spherical outflows are ubiquitous in luminous quasars of all types at 0.5. Such striking smooth and

  9. Observations of radio-quiet quasars at 10mas resolution by use of gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Neal; Roberts, Carl; Sluse, Dominique; Stacey, Hannah; Vives-Arias, Hector; Wucknitz, Olaf; Volino, Filomena

    2015-01-01

    We present VLA detections of radio emission in four four-image gravitational lens systems with quasar sources: HS0810+2554, RXJ0911+0511, HE0435$-$1223 and SDSSJ0924+0219, and e-MERLIN observations of two of the systems. The first three are detected at a high level of significance, and SDSS J0924+0219 is detected. HS0810+2554 is resolved, allowing us for the first time to achieve 10-mas resolution of the source frame in the structure of a radio quiet quasar. The others are unresolved or marginally resolved. All four objects are among the faintest radio sources yet detected, with intrinsic flux densities in the range 1-5$\\mu$Jy; such radio objects, if unlensed, will only be observable routinely with the Square Kilometre Array. The observations of HS0810+2554, which is also detected with e-MERLIN, strongly suggest the presence of a mini-AGN, with a radio core and milliarcsecond scale jet. The flux densities of the lensed images in all but HE0435-1223 are consistent with smooth galaxy lens models without the req...

  10. Observations of feedback from radio-quiet quasars - II. Kinematics of ionized gas nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guilin; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Nesvadba, Nicole P. H.; Liu, Xin

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence and energetics of quasar feedback is a major unresolved problem in galaxy formation theory. In this paper, we present Gemini Integral Field Unit observations of ionized gas around 11 luminous, obscured, radio-quiet quasars at z ˜ 0.5 out to ˜15 kpc from the quasar; specifically, we measure the kinematics and morphology of [O III] λ5007 Å emission. The round morphologies of the nebulae and the large line-of-sight velocity widths (with velocities containing 80 per cent of the emission as high as 103 km s-1) combined with relatively small velocity difference across them (from 90 to 520 km s-1) point towards wide-angle quasi-spherical outflows. We use the observed velocity widths to estimate a median outflow velocity of 760 km s-1, similar to or above the escape velocities from the host galaxies. The line-of-sight velocity dispersion declines slightly towards outer parts of the nebulae (by 3 per cent kpc-1 on average). The majority of nebulae show blueshifted excesses in their line profiles across most of their extents, signifying gas outflows. For the median outflow velocity, we find dot{E}_kin between 4 × 1044 and 3 × 1045 erg s-1 and dot{M} between 2 × 103 and 2 × 104 M⊙ yr-1. These values are large enough for the observed quasar winds to have a significant impact on their host galaxies. The median rate of converting bolometric luminosity to kinetic energy of ionized gas clouds is ˜2 per cent. We report four new candidates for `superbubbles' - outflows that may have broken out of the denser regions of the host galaxy.

  11. Unveiling the origin of the radio emission in radio-quiet quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz, Noelia Herrera; Norris, Ray P; Maini, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the radio emission in radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) has been a matter of debate for a long time. It is not well understood whether the emission is caused by star formation in the host galaxy or by black hole activity of the active galactic nuclei (AGN). We shed some light on these questions using the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique to search for RQQs in the field of the Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS). The extensive multi-wavelength coverage of the field (from radio to X-rays) was used to classify RQQs, and the milli-arcsecond resolution of VLBI provides a direct way to identify AGNs. In a sample of 18 RQQs we detected 3 using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 1.4 GHz. In this letter we report for the first time on a sample of RQQs with a measured lower limit on the fraction of radio emission coming from the AGN, thus demonstrating that the radio emission of at least some RQQs is dominated by an AGN.

  12. Exploratory X-ray Monitoring of Luminous Radio-Quiet Quasars at High Redshift: Initial Results

    CERN Document Server

    Shemmer, Ohad; Paolillo, Maurizio; Kaspi, Shai; Vignali, Cristian; Stein, Matthew S; Lira, Paulina; Schneider, Donald P; Gibson, Robert R

    2014-01-01

    We present initial results from an exploratory X-ray monitoring project of two groups of comparably luminous radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). The first consists of four sources at 4.10 <= z <= 4.35, monitored by Chandra, and the second is a comparison sample of three sources at 1.33 <= z <= 2.74, monitored by Swift. Together with archival X-ray data, the total rest-frame temporal baseline spans ~2-4 yr and ~5-13 yr for the first and second group, respectively. Six of these sources show significant X-ray variability over rest-frame timescales of ~10^2 - 10^3 d; three of these also show significant X-ray variability on rest-frame timescales of ~1-10 d. The X-ray variability properties of our variable sources are similar to those exhibited by nearby and far less luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). While we do not directly detect a trend of increasing X-ray variability with redshift, we do confirm previous reports of luminous AGNs exhibiting X-ray variability above that expected from their luminosities...

  13. Optical and infrared observations of the luminous quasar PDS 456: a radio-quiet analogue of 3C 273?

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Chris; Ward, Martin; O' Brien, Paul; Reeves, James,

    1998-01-01

    We present infrared photometry and optical and infrared spectroscopy of the recently-discovered, extremely luminous nearby quasar PDS 456. A number of broad emission features are seen in the near-infrared which we are unable to identify. We measure a more accurate redshift from a narrow forbidden emission line and compare the optical-infrared spectrum to that of 3C 273. The close similarity suggests that PDS 456 is a radio-quiet analogue of 3C 273, although radio observations do not support t...

  14. Exploratory X-ray monitoring of luminous radio-quiet quasars at high redshift: Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Stein, Matthew S. [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Paolillo, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università Federico II di Napoli, via Cinthia 6, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Kaspi, Shai [School of Physics and Astronomy and the Wise Observatory, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Vignali, Cristian [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università degli studi di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Lira, Paulina [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Santiago (Chile); Gibson, Robert R., E-mail: ohad@unt.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We present initial results from an exploratory X-ray monitoring project of two groups of comparably luminous radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). The first consists of four sources at 4.10 ≤ z ≤ 4.35, monitored by Chandra, and the second is a comparison sample of three sources at 1.33 ≤ z ≤ 2.74, monitored by Swift. Together with archival X-ray data, the total rest-frame temporal baseline spans ∼2-4 yr and ∼5-13 yr for the first and second group, respectively. Six of these sources show significant X-ray variability over rest-frame timescales of ∼10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} days; three of these also show significant X-ray variability on rest-frame timescales of ∼1-10 days. The X-ray variability properties of our variable sources are similar to those exhibited by nearby and far less luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). While we do not directly detect a trend of increasing X-ray variability with redshift, we do confirm previous reports of luminous AGNs exhibiting X-ray variability above that expected from their luminosities, based on simplistic extrapolation from lower luminosity sources. This result may be attributed to luminous sources at the highest redshifts having relatively high accretion rates. Complementary UV-optical monitoring of our sources shows that variations in their optical-X-ray spectral energy distribution are dominated by the X-ray variations. We confirm previous reports of X-ray spectral variations in one of our sources, HS 1700+6416, but do not detect such variations in any of our other sources in spite of X-ray flux variations of up to a factor of ∼4. This project is designed to provide a basic assessment of the X-ray variability properties of RQQs at the highest accessible redshifts that will serve as a benchmark for more systematic monitoring of such sources with future X-ray missions.

  15. An Investigation into the Effects of Luminosity on the Mid-Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Radio-Quiet Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Gallagher, S C; Lacy, M; Hines, D C; Elitzur, M; Storrie-Lombardi, L J

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis of the effects of luminosity on the shape of the mid-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 234 radio-quiet quasars originally presented by Richards et al. In quasars without evident dust extinction, the spectrally integrated optical and infrared luminosities are linearly correlated over nearly three decades in luminosity. We find a significant (>99.99% confidence) correlation between the 1.8-8.0 micron spectral index and infrared luminosity that indicates an enhancement of the mid-infrared continuum with increasing luminosity. Coupled with strong evidence for spectral curvature in more luminous quasars, we conclude this trend is likely a manifestation of the `near-infrared (3-5 micron) bump' noticed in earlier quasar SED surveys. The strength of this feature is indicative of the contribution of emission from the hottest (>1000 K) dust to the mid-infrared spectrum; higher luminosity quasars tend to show more hot dust emission. Finally, the comparable distribution of bolometric...

  16. Sampling Studies Of Quasars, Radio-loud Galaxies, & Radio-quiet Galaxies -- Searching For The Cause Of Radio Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, G.; Salois, Amee; Soechting, I.; Smith, M.

    2011-01-01

    Comparing the environments of Radio-Loud Galaxies, Radio-Quiet Galaxies, and Quasars offers an opportunity to study the evolution of these objects. Our samples have been carefully chosen from Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, which also includes samples studied in the FIRST survey, and have been cut to determine the best possible results. Our study includes three samples. The Quasar sample currently contains 69 objects, the Radio-Loud Galaxy (RLG) sample has 1,335 objects, and the Radio-Quiet Galaxy (RQG) sample contains 2,436 objects (any updates will be given at the meeting). A number of trims were made to produce (smaller) samples with characteristics suited for precise results. By comparing the environments of these three samples we will be able to see any similarities or differences between them. If similarities are detected it suggests that the central object has evolved according to 'nature' - in an isolated manner with little environmental feedback, which may or may not have an effect on its evolution, as supposed by Coldwell et al. (2009). If differences are detected it suggests that the central object has evolved according to `nurture’ and that the environment may have played an important role in the development of their properties. We employ similar procedures used by Coldwell et al. (2009) in their study of blue and red AGNs. Upon the completion of an accurate sample, future work will be pursued studying a number of properties of the environments including studies of: the stellar masses, star formation rates, sersic morphologies, as well as densities and ages of the environments.

  17. SDSS J0159+0105: A Radio-Quiet Quasar with a Centi-Parsec Supermassive Black Hole Binary Candidate

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Shen, Yue; Jiang, Linhua; Wang, Jun-Xian; Chen, Xian; Cuadra, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We report a candidate centi-parsec supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) in the radio-quiet quasar SDSS J0159+0105 at z=0.217. The 8.1-year Catalina V-band light curve for this quasar reveals two significant (at P>99%) periodic signals at ~741 day and ~1500 day. The period ratio, which is close to 1:2, is typical of a black-hole binary system with a mass ratio of 0.05quasars. The UV excess indicates the existence of a mini-disk around each BH of the binary. SDSS J0159+0105 also has two SDSS spectroscopic observations separated by ~10 years. There is a significant change in the broad H-beta profile between the two epochs, which can be explained by a single broad-line region (BLR) around the binary system illuminated by the aforementioned mini-disks, or a stream of gas flowing from the c...

  18. STRONG RESPONSE OF THE VERY BROAD Hβ EMISSION LINE IN THE LUMINOUS RADIO-QUIET QUASAR PG 1416-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report new spectroscopic observations performed in 2010 and 2011 for the luminous radio-quiet quasar PG 1416-129. Our new spectra with high quality cover both Hβ and Hα regions, and show negligible line profile variation within a timescale of one year. The two spectra allow us to study the variability of the Balmer line profile by comparing the spectra with previous ones taken at 10 and 20 years ago. By decomposing the broad Balmer emission lines into two Gaussian profiles, our spectral analysis suggests a strong response to the continuum level for the very broad component, and significant variations in both bulk blueshift velocity/FWHM and flux for the broad component. The new observations additionally indicate flat Balmer decrements (i.e., too strong Hβ emission) at the line wings, which is hard to reproduce using recent optically thin models. With these observations we argue that a separate inner optically thin emission-line region might not be necessary in the object to reproduce the observed line profiles.

  19. The complex optical to soft x-ray spectrum of the low-redshift radio-quiet quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Fabrizio; Elvis, Martin; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Wilkes, Belinda J.

    1994-01-01

    Eight high signal-to-noise ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) observations of six low-redshift (o.048 less than z less than 0.155) radio-quiet quasars have been analyzed to study ant soft excess. All the spectra can, at least roughly, be described int eh 0.1-2.5 keV band by simple power laws reduced at low energies by Galactic absorption. The strong oxygen edges seen in the PSPC spectra of several Seyfert galaxies and quasars are not observed in this sample. The limits implied for the abount of absorbing gas intrinsic to the quasars are particularly tight: of the order of approximately 10(exp 20)/sq cm. THe range of energy indices is broad: 1.3 less than alpha(sub E) less than 2.3. The energy indices are systematically steeper than those found in the same sources at higher energies (by DELTA alpha(sub E) approximately 0.5-1 with respect to Ginga or EXOSAT (2-10 keV) measurements, and by DELTA alpha(sub E) approximately 0.5 with respect to IPC (0.2-3.5 keV) measurements). This suggests a break between the hard and soft components in the keV region and, therefore, that the PSPC spectra are strongly dominated by the soft compnents. In fact, a fit tot he composite, high signal-to-noise spectrum reveals a significant excess above approximately 1 keV withrespect to the simple power-law model. No evidence for strong emission lines is found in any of the quasars. This argues against emission from an ionized plasma as the main contributor to the soft X-ray compnentunless there is a distribution of te mperatures. If the soft X-ray spectrum of thee quasars is dominated by radiation reflected by the photoinonized surface of an accretion disk, the absence of strong emissionlines suggests high ionization parameters and therefore high accretion rates. We include in two Appendices a comarison of the two official PSPC resolution matrices, those released on1992 March and on 1993 January, a discussion of the amplitude of the residual systematic uncertainties in 1993

  20. VLA observations of objects in the Palomar Bright Quasar Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results on the VLA observations (with 18 arcsec resolution) of all 114 objects from the Palomar Bright Quasar Survey (BQS) are presented, and the relation between the radio luminosity and optical luminosity is discussed. It was found that most of the BQS quasars are radio quiet and have a radio flux density close to that of the optical flux density; however, 15-20 percent of the quasars are radio loud and are much brighter at radio than at optical wavelengths. The radio luminosity function was derived. It is shown that the radio emission from high-red-shift (z greater than 0.5) quasars is dominated by compact components; most quasars with R above 100 have small red shifts. 39 refs

  1. STORM IN A {sup T}EACUP{sup :} A RADIO-QUIET QUASAR WITH ≈10 kpc RADIO-EMITTING BUBBLES AND EXTREME GAS KINEMATICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, C. M.; Thomson, A. P.; Alexander, D. M.; Edge, A. C.; Hogan, M. T.; Swinbank, A. M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bauer, F. E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontifica Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Mullaney, J. R., E-mail: c.m.harrison@mail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S7 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-10

    We present multi-frequency (1-8 GHz) Very Large Array data, combined with VIsible MultiObject Spectrograph integral field unit data and Hubble Space Telescope imaging, of a z = 0.085 radio-quiet type 2 quasar (with L {sub 1.4} {sub GHz} ≈ 5 × 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup –1} and L {sub AGN} ≈ 2 × 10{sup 45} erg s{sup –1}). Due to the morphology of its emission-line region, the target (J1430+1339) has been referred to as the ''Teacup'' active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the literature. We identify ''bubbles'' of radio emission that are extended ≈10-12 kpc to both the east and west of the nucleus. The edge of the brighter eastern bubble is co-spatial with an arc of luminous ionized gas. We also show that the ''Teacup'' AGN hosts a compact radio structure, located ≈0.8 kpc from the core position, at the base of the eastern bubble. This radio structure is co-spatial with an ionized outflow with an observed velocity of v = –740 km s{sup –1}. This is likely to correspond to a jet, or possibly a quasar wind, interacting with the interstellar medium at this position. The large-scale radio bubbles appear to be inflated by the central AGN, which indicates that the AGN can also interact with the gas on ≳ 10 kpc scales. Our study highlights that even when a quasar is formally ''radio-quiet'' the radio emission can be extremely effective for observing the effects of AGN feedback.

  2. The Nature of Radio-Intermediate Quasars: What is Radio-Loud and what is Radio-Quiet?

    OpenAIRE

    Falcke, Heino; Sherwood, William; Patnaik, Alok

    1996-01-01

    We have performed quasi-simultaneous radio flux density measurements at 2.7 and 10 GHz for all PG quasars with radio flux densities between 4-200 mJy. We find that a large fraction of these sources are variable, flat-spectrum quasars. This brings the total fraction of flat-spectrum quasars with a ratio between radio and optical flux of R>10 - a value previously used to define a radio-loud quasar - to 40% in the PG quasar sample. We also find that the median R-parameter of these flat-spectrum ...

  3. Radio-Quiet Quasars in the VIDEO Survey: Evidence for AGN-powered radio emission below 1 mJy

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah; Jarvis, Matt; Haeussler, Boris; Maddox, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the interaction between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation is responsible for the co-evolution of black hole mass with galaxy bulge mass. Therefore studying this interplay is crucial to our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The new generation of radio surveys are able to play a key role in this area, as both processes produce radio emission.We use a combination of optical and near-infrared photometry to select a sample of 72 quasars from the VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO) Survey, over 1 deg2. The depth of VIDEO allows us to study very low accretion rates and/or lower-mass black holes. 26% of the candidate quasar sample has been spectroscopically confirmed using the Southern African Large Telescope and the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey. We then use a radio-stacking technique to sample below the nominal flux-density threshold of existing Very Large Array data at 1.4 GHz. In agreement with other work, we show that a power-law fit to the radio number counts is inadequate, with an upturn in the counts being observed at these faint luminosities. Previous authors attribute this to an emergent star-forming population. However, by comparing radio emission from our quasars with that from a control sample of galaxies, we suggest that this emission is predominantly caused by accretion activity. Further support for an AGN origin is provided by a comparison of two independent estimates of star formation rate. These findings have important implications for modelling radio populations below 1 mJy, which is necessary for the development of the Square Kilometre Array.

  4. An Accretion Disc-Irradiation Hybrid Model for The Optical/UV Variability in Radio-Quiet Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hui; Gu, Minfeng

    2016-01-01

    The optical/ultraviolet (UV) variability of quasars has been discovered to be correlated with other quasar properties, such as luminosity, black hole mass and rest-frame wavelength. However,the origin of variability has been a puzzle so far. In this work, we upgrade the accretion disc model (Li & Cao 2008), which assumed the variability is caused by the change of global mass accretion rate, by constraining the disc size to match the viscous timescale of accretion disc to the variability timescale observed and by including the irradiation/X-ray reprocessing to make the emitted spectrum become steeper. We find this hybrid model can reproduce the observed bluer-when-brighter trend quite well, which is used to validate the theoretical model by several works recently. The traditional correlation between the variability amplitude and rest-frame wavelength can also be well fitted by our model. In addition, a weak positive correlation between variability amplitude and black hole mass is present, qualitatively con...

  5. The FIRST Bright Quasar Survey. II. 60 Nights and 1200 Spectra Later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used the Very Large Array (VLA) FIRST survey and the Automated Plate Measuring Facility (APM) catalog of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey I (POSS-I) plates as the basis for constructing a new radio-selected sample of optically bright quasars. This is the first radio-selected sample that is competitive in size with current optically selected quasar surveys. Using only two basic criteria, radio-optical positional coincidence and optical morphology, quasars and BL Lac objects can be identified with 60% selection efficiency; the efficiency increases to 70% for objects fainter than 17 mag. We show that a more sophisticated selection scheme can predict with better than 85% reliability which candidates will turn out to be quasars. This paper presents the second installment of the FIRST Bright Quasar Survey (FBQS), with a catalog of 636 quasars distributed over 2682 deg2. The quasar sample is characterized and all spectra are displayed. The FBQS detects both radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars out to redshift z>3. We find a large population of objects of intermediate radio loudness; there is no evidence in our sample for a bimodal distribution of radio characteristics. The sample includes ∼29 broad absorption line quasars, both high and low ionization, and a number of new objects with remarkable optical spectra. (c) (c) 2000. The American Astronomical Society

  6. The FIRST Bright Quasar Survey. II. 60 Nights and 1200 Spectra Later

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Richard L.; Becker, Robert H.; Gregg, Michael D.; Laurent-Muehleisen, Sally A.; Brotherton, Michael S.; Impey, Chris D.; Petry, Catherine E.; Foltz, Craig B.; Chaffee, Frederic H.; Richards, Gordon T. (and others)

    2000-02-01

    We have used the Very Large Array (VLA) FIRST survey and the Automated Plate Measuring Facility (APM) catalog of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey I (POSS-I) plates as the basis for constructing a new radio-selected sample of optically bright quasars. This is the first radio-selected sample that is competitive in size with current optically selected quasar surveys. Using only two basic criteria, radio-optical positional coincidence and optical morphology, quasars and BL Lac objects can be identified with 60% selection efficiency; the efficiency increases to 70% for objects fainter than 17 mag. We show that a more sophisticated selection scheme can predict with better than 85% reliability which candidates will turn out to be quasars. This paper presents the second installment of the FIRST Bright Quasar Survey (FBQS), with a catalog of 636 quasars distributed over 2682 deg2. The quasar sample is characterized and all spectra are displayed. The FBQS detects both radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars out to redshift z>3. We find a large population of objects of intermediate radio loudness; there is no evidence in our sample for a bimodal distribution of radio characteristics. The sample includes {approx}29 broad absorption line quasars, both high and low ionization, and a number of new objects with remarkable optical spectra. (c) (c) 2000. The American Astronomical Society.

  7. Width of Radio-Loud and Radio-Quiet CMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Michalek, G.; Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper we report on the difference in angular sizes between radio-loud and radio-quiet CMEs. For this purpose we compiled these two samples of events using Wind/WAVES and SOHO/LASCO observations obtained during 1996-2005. It is shown that the radio-loud CMEs are almost two times wider than the radio-quiet CMEs (considering expanding parts of CMEs). Furthermore we show that the radio-quiet CMEs have a narrow expanding bright part with a large extended diffusive structure. These r...

  8. Through BAL Quasars Brightly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartas, George

    2003-01-01

    We report on an observation of the broad absorption line (BAL) quasar PG 1115+080 performed with the XMM-Newton observatory. Spectral analysis reveals the second case of a relativistic X-ray-absorbing outflow in a BAL quasar. The first case was revealed in a recent observation of APM 08279+5255 with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. As in the case of APM 08279+5255, the observed flux of PG 1115+080 is greatly magnified by gravitational lensing. The relatively high redshift (z=1.72) of the quasar places the redshifted energies of resonant absorption features in a sensitive portion of the XMM- Newton spectral response. The spectrum indicates the presence of complex low-energy absorption in the 0.2-0.6 keV observed energy band and high-energy absorption in the 2-5 keV observed energy band. The high-energy absorption is best modeled by two Gaussian absorption lines with rest-frame energies of 7.4 and 9.5 keV. Assuming that these two lines axe produced by resonant absorption due to Fe XXV, we infer that the X-ray absorbers are outflowing with velocities of approx. 0.10c and approx. 0.34c respectively. We have detected significant variability of the energies and widths of the X-ray BALs in PG 1115+080 and APM 08279+5255 over timescales of 19 and 1.8 weeks (proper time), respectively. The BAL variability observed from APM 08279+5255 supports our earlier conclusion that these absorbers are most likely launched at relatively small radii of less than 10(exp 16)(Mbh/M8)(sup 1/2) cm. A comparison of the ionization properties and column densities of the low-energy and high-energy absorbers indicates that these absorbers are likely distinct; however, higher spectral resolution is needed to confirm this result. Finally, we comment on prospects for constraining the kinematic and ionization properties of these X-ray BALs with the next generation of X-ray observatories.

  9. Optical spectra of radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many radio galaxies have strong emission lines in their optical spectra. The fraction with such lines is much larger than in ''normal'' galaxies. Radio galaxies generally also have very bright nuclei; thus those with strong emission lines are similar in both respects to Seyfert galaxies. Hence radio and Seyfert galaxies are both generally considered to be similar physical objects: active galactic nuclei. Their observational properties show they are closely related to quasars (quasi-stellar radio sources) and (radio-quiet) QSOs. A short table of the space density of these objects is presented and their optical spectra are discussed. (Auth.)

  10. X-ray quasars and the X-ray background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Einstein X-ray observations of a sample of 202 radio-and optically-selected quasars due to Ku, Helfand and Lucy and to Zamorani et al. are analysed. Correlations between X-ray, optical and radio luminosities are examined. The contribution of radio-loud quasars to the 2-keV X-ray background is estimated using high-frequency radio-source counts, and the contribution due to radio-quiet, optically bright quasars using optical counts. It is shown that radio-loud quasars and radio-quiet optically bright quasars together contribute approximately 15 per cent of the observed 2-keV X-ray background. The contribution of optically faint radio-quiet quasars is uncertain, but may be limited to a maximum of approximately 30 per cent if recent indications of a flattening in optical counts at faint magnitudes are correct. (author)

  11. THE XMM-NEWTON X-RAY SPECTRA OF THE MOST X-RAY LUMINOUS RADIO-QUIET ROSAT BRIGHT SURVEY-QSOs: A REFERENCE SAMPLE FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QSO SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the broadband X-ray properties of four of the most X-ray luminous (LX ≥ 1045 erg s-1 in the 0.5-2 keV band) radio-quiet QSOs found in the ROSAT Bright Survey. This uniform sample class, which explores the extreme end of the QSO luminosity function, exhibits surprisingly homogenous X-ray spectral properties: a soft excess with an extremely smooth shape containing no obvious discrete features, a hard power law above 2 keV, and a weak narrow/barely resolved Fe Kα fluorescence line for the three high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectra. The soft excess can be well fitted with only a soft power law. No signatures of warm or cold intrinsic absorbers are found. The Fe Kα centroids and the line widths indicate emission from neutral Fe (E = 6.4 keV) originating from cold material from distances of only a few light days or further out. The well-constrained equivalent widths (EW) of the neutral Fe lines are higher than expected from the X-ray Baldwin effect which has been only poorly constrained at very high luminosities. Taking into account our individual EW measurements, we show that the X-ray Baldwin effect flattens above LX ∼ 1044 erg s-1 (2-10 keV band) where an almost constant (EW) of ∼100 eV is found. We confirm the assumption of having very similar X-ray active galactic nucleus properties when interpreting stacked X-ray spectra. Our stacked spectrum serves as a superb reference for the interpretation of low S/N spectra of radio-quiet QSOs with similar luminosities at higher redshifts routinely detected by XMM-Newton and Chandra surveys.

  12. Discovery program for bright quasars: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program has been undertaken to obtain a complete sample of bright quasars on the basis of ultraviolet color excess. Spectroscopic examination of candidates selected from two-color Schmidt telescope films has yielded four new quasars brighter than B = 16/sup m/5, with the candidate list containing two more previously identified. Magnitudes, color indices, and redshifts are presented for the new discoveries, along with positions and finding charts. Although the sample is not yet complete, these first results suggest that bright quasars have a low surface density

  13. Radio-Quiet Quasars in the VIDEO Survey: Evidence for AGN-powered radio emission at S_1.4GHz < 1 mJy

    CERN Document Server

    White, Sarah V; Häußler, Boris; Maddox, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between black-hole accretion and star formation, and how to disentangle the two, is crucial to our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. To investigate, we use a combination of optical and near-infrared photometry to select a sample of 74 quasars from the VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO) Survey, over 1 deg^2. The depth of VIDEO allows us to study very low accretion rates and/or lower-mass black holes, and 26 per cent of the candidate quasar sample has been spectroscopically confirmed. We use a radio-stacking technique to sample below the nominal flux-density threshold using data from the Very Large Array at 1.4 GHz and find, in agreement with other work, that a power-law fit to the quasar-related radio source counts is inadequate at low flux density. By comparing with a control sample of galaxies (where we match in terms of stellar mass), and by estimating the star formation rate, we suggest that this radio emission is predominantly caused by accretion activ...

  14. Radio-quiet quasars in the VIDEO survey: evidence for AGN-powered radio emission at S_{1.4 GHz < 1} mJy

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah V.; Jarvis, Matt J.; Häußler, Boris; Maddox, Natasha

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the interplay between black-hole accretion and star formation, and how to disentangle the two, is crucial to our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. To investigate, we use a combination of optical and near-infrared photometry to select a sample of 74 quasars from the VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO) survey, over 1 deg2. The depth of VIDEO allows us to study very low accretion rates and/or lower-mass black holes, and 26 per cent of the candidate quasar sample has been spectroscopically confirmed. We use a radio-stacking technique to sample below the nominal flux-density threshold using data from the Very Large Array at 1.4 GHz and find, in agreement with other work, that a power-law fit to the quasar-related radio source counts is inadequate at low flux density. By comparing with a control sample of galaxies (where we match in terms of stellar mass), and by estimating the star formation rate, we suggest that this radio emission is predominantly caused by accretion activity rather than star-formation activity.

  15. Radio Loud and Radio Quiet Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Kellermann, K I; Kimball, A E; Perley, R A; Ivezic, Zeljko

    2016-01-01

    We discuss 6 GHz JVLA observations covering a volume-limited sample of 178 low redshift ($0.2 5 \\mathrm{~mJy~beam}^{-1}$ ($log(L) \\gtrsim 24$). The radio luminosity function of optically selected QSOs and the extended radio emission associated with RLQs are both inconsistent with simple "unified" models that invoke relativistic beaming from randomly oriented QSOs to explain the difference between RLQs and RQQs. Some intrinsic property of the AGNs or their host galaxies must also determine whether or not a QSO appears radio loud.

  16. Quasar evolution derived from the Palomar bright quasar survey and other complete quasar surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the Bright Quasar Survey (BQS) consisting of 114 objects to an average limiting magnitude B = 16.16 over an area of 10,714 deg2. There are 92 quasars with M/sub B/<-23 in the sample. We use the BQS and complete samples from published surveys to derive models of the statistical evolution of quasars. The increase of space density with redshift depends strongly on absolute luminosity, being close to zero for low-luminosity quasars. Detailed predictions are given for the distribution of redshifts and magnitudes and for the total counts based on the evolution models

  17. WFPC2 Imaging of Quasar Environments: A Comparison of LBQS and HST Archive Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, R. A.; Impey, C. D.; Hooper, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) data on the large-scale environments of 16 0.39 < z < 0.51 quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey (LBQS). The LBQS quasars are representative of the radio-quiet population, and this is the first look at their large-scale environments. We compare the LBQS environments with the environments of 27 0.15 < z < 0.55 quasars selected from the HST Archive. The majority of the Archive quasars are from the PG and PKS sur...

  18. The Bright Quasar 3C 273

    OpenAIRE

    Courvoisier, Thierry J. -L.

    1998-01-01

    We review the observed properties of the bright quasar 3C~273 and discuss the implications of these observations for the emission processes and in view of gaining a more global understanding of the object. Continuum and line emission are discussed. The emission from the radio domain to gamma rays are reviewed. Emphasis is given to variability studies across the spectrum as a means to gain some understanding on the relationships between the emission components. 3C~273 has a small scale jet and...

  19. Seoul National University Bright Quasar Survey in Optical (SNUQSO). II. Discovery of 40 Bright Quasars Near the Galactic Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Im, Myungshin; Cho, Yunseok; Choi, Changsu; Ko, Jongwan; Song, Mimi

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of 40 bright quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at low Galactic latitude (b<20deg). The low Galactic latitude region has been considered a place to avoid when searching for extragalactic sources, because of the high Galactic extinction, as well as a large number of stars contaminating the sample selection. Bright quasars (R<~17) suffer more from such difficulties because they look like bright stars, which are numerous at low b, yet their surface number density is very low. In order to find quasars in this region of the sky less explored for extragalactic sources, we have started a survey of low Galactic latitude bright quasars as a part of the Seoul National University Quasar Survey in Optical (SNUQSO). Quasar candidates have been selected from radio and near-infrared (NIR) data. Out of 88 targets, we identify 29 bright quasars/AGNs around the antigalactic center, and 11 bright quasars/AGNs in the outskirts of the Galactic center, from two observing runs in 2006 at the Boh...

  20. Concentration of bright quasars in the Sculptor Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent objective prism searches for quasars confirm the grouping of bright quasars in the direction of the Sculptor Group of galaxies. The density of such quasars with V -2. The concentration in the NGC 55, NGC 300 and NGC 253 areas is 0.65 deg-2. Around NGC 253 the density is over 20 times the average and has a chance of -4 of being accidental. (author)

  1. The statistics of radio emission from quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radio properties of quasars have traditionally been discussed in terms of the radio-to-optical flux-density ratio R, implying a correlation between emission in these wavebands. It is here shown that, for bright quasars, this apparent correlation is largely due to an abrupt change in the radio properties of the quasar population near absolute magnitude Msub(B)=-24. It is suggested that this change in due to the existence of two classes of quasar with differing host galaxies: a proportion of quasars brighter than Msub(B)approx.=-24 lie in elliptical galaxies and thus generate powerful radio sources, while elliptical galaxies with weaker nuclear quasar components are classified as N-galaxies rather than quasars; quasars fainter than Msub(B)approx.=-24 lie in spiral galaxies and thus are high-luminosity analogues of radio-quiet Seyfert galaxies. (author)

  2. Optical Variability of the Three Brightest Nearby Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Gaskell, C M; Campbell, J S; George, T A; Hedrick, C H; Hiller, M E; Klimek, E S; Leonard, J P; Masatoshi, S; Peterson, B W; Peterson, K C; Sanders, K M; Benker, Andrew J.; Campbell, Jeffrey S.; George, Thomas A.; Hedrick, Cecelia H.; Hiller, Mary E.; Klimek, Elizabeth S.; Leonard, Joseph P.; Masatoshi, Shoji; Peterson, Bradley W.; Peterson, Kelly C.; Sanders, Kelly M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the relative optical variability of the three brightest nearby quasars, 3C 273, PDS 456, and PHL 1811. All three have comparable absolute magnitudes, but PDS 456 and PHL 1811 are radio quiet. PDS 456 is a broad-line object, but PHL 1811 could be classified as a high-luminosity Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 (NLS1). Both of the radio-quiet quasars show significant variability on a timescale of a few days. The seasonal rms V-band variability amplitudes of 3C 273 and PDS 456 are indistinguishable, and the seasonal rms variability amplitude of PHL 1811 was only exceeded by 3C 273 once in 30 years of monitoring. We find no evidence that the optical variability of 3C 273 is greater than or more rapid than the variability of the comparably-bright, radio-quiet quasars. This suggests that not only do radio-loud and radio-quiet AGNs have similar spectral energy distributions, but that the variability mechanisms are also similar. The optical variability of 3C 273 is not dominated by a "blazer" component.

  3. VLA observations of the Palomar bright quasar survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have optically surveyed some 10000 square degrees of the northern sky to search for bright quasars. Their final sample contains about 100 quasars. The B magnitudes of the sample range from 13.1 to 16.5, with most in the range 15.0-16.2. The redshifts range from 0.03 to over 2, considerably concentrated toward smaller values (median of 0.18). They observed 94 of these quasars with the partially complete VLA in November/December 1979, and detected radio emission from 27 of them, or 29%, to a limit of 1-2 mJy. It is concluded that bright quasars are definitely more likely to be detectable radio sources. (Auth.)

  4. X-ray observations of the bright quasar survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Einstein Observatory, X-ray observations of about 80 percent of the quasars in the Bright Quasar Survey located outside the declination range defined by 30 and 60 deg. X-ray emission has been detected above the 3-sigma level for 57 out of 66 quasars observed. This paper describes observations and data reduction and provides a summary of the more detailed analyses and discussion contained in the two accompanying papers (Schmidt and Green 1986, Avni and Tananbaum 1986). 22 references

  5. Compact radio cores in radio-quiet AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Maini, Alessandro; Norris, Ray P; Giovannini, Gabriele; Spitler, Lee R

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of radio emission in radio-quiet (RQ) active galactic nuclei (AGN) is still debated and might arise from the central AGN, from star formation activity in the host, or from either of these sources. A direct detection of compact and bright radio cores embedded in sources that are classified as RQ can unambiguously determine whether a central AGN significantly contributes to the radio emission. We search for compact, high-surface-brightness radio cores in RQ AGNs that are caused unambiguously by AGN activity. We used the Australian Long Baseline Array to search for compact radio cores in four RQ AGNs located in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS). We also targeted four radio-loud (RL) AGNs as a control sample. We detected compact and bright radio cores in two AGNs that are classified as RQ and in one that is classified as RL. Two RL AGNs were not imaged because the quality of the observations was too poor. We report on a first direct evidence of radio cores in RQ AGNs at cosmological reds...

  6. Optical variability of the medium-bright quasar sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variability study of the 32-member Medium-Bright Quasar Sample is reported. It is found that the star US 1953 has undergone a noticeable variation in the course of 26 hr. Apparent variations in the extragalactic object US 3498 may be illusory, owing to its partially resolved appearance. No other evidence for variability was detected. 34 refs

  7. Are there Radio-quiet Solar Flares?

    CERN Document Server

    Benz, A O; Magdalenic, J; Benz, Arnold O.; Brajsa, Roman; Magdalenic, Jasmina

    2007-01-01

    Some 15% of solar flares having a soft X-ray flux above GOES class C5 are reported to lack coherent radio emission in the 100 - 4000 MHz range (type I - V and decimetric emissions). A detailed study of 29 such events reveals that 22 (76%) of them occurred at a radial distance of more than 800'' from the disk center, indicating that radio waves from the limb may be completely absorbed in some flares. The remaining seven events have statistically significant trends to be weak in GOES class and to have a softer non-thermal X-ray spectrum. All of the non-limb flares that were radio-quiet > 100 MHz were accompanied by metric type III emission below 100 MHz. Out of 201 hard X-ray flares, there was no flare except near the limb (R>800'') without coherent radio emission in the entire meter and decimeter range. We suggest that flares above GOES class C5 generally emit coherent radio waves when observed radially above the source.

  8. Intranight optical variability of radio-quiet BL Lacertae objects

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Shuang Nan

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The intranight variation (or microvariation) is a common phenomenon of radio-loud BL Lac objects. However, it is not clear whether the recently found radio-quiet BL Lac objects have the same properties. The occurrence rate of intranight variation is helpful in distinguishing the mechanism of the continuum of radio-quiet BL Lac objects. Methods: We conducted a photometric monitoring of 8 radio-quiet BL Lac objects by Xinglong 2.16m and Lijiang 2.4m telescopes. The differential light curves are calculated between each target and two comparison stars. To qualify the variation, the significance of variation is examined by scaled $F$-test. Results: No significant variation is found in the 11 sessions of light curves of 8 radio-quiet BL Lac objects (one galactic source is excluded). The lack of microvariation in radio-quiet BL Lac objects is consistent with the detection rate of microvariation in normal radio-quiet AGNs, but much lower than that of radio-loud AGNs. This result indicates that the continua of t...

  9. The UV-bright Quasar Survey (UVQS): DR1

    CERN Document Server

    Monroe, TalaWanda R; Tejos, N; Worseck, G; Hennawi, Joseph F; Schmidt, Tobias; Tumlinson, Jason; Shen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    We present the first data release (DR1) from our UV-bright Quasar Survey (UVQS) for new $z \\sim 1$ active galactic nuclei (AGN) across the sky. Using simple GALEX UV and WISE near-IR color selection criteria, we generated a list of 1450 primary candidates with $FUV 0.5$. Including a small set of observed secondary candidates, we report the discovery of 217 AGN with $FUV < 18$ mag that had no previously reported spectroscopic redshift. These are excellent potential targets for UV spectroscopy before the end of the {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} mission. The main data products are publicly released through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes.

  10. Quasars near bright galaxies - results from the Jodrell Bank 966-MHz survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of bright galaxies around quasars from the Jodrell Bank 966-MHz survey has been investigated. No statistical evidence is found to support the hypothesis that nearby bright galaxies and quasars are physically associated. Some selection effects which lead to a correlation between pair separation and galaxy redshift are discussed. (author)

  11. An Exploratory Chandra Survey of a Well-Defined Sample of 35 Large Bright Quasar Survey Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, S. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Chartas, G.; Priddey, R.; Garmire, G.P.; Sambruna, R. M.

    2006-01-01

    We present 4-7 ks Chandra observations of 35 Broad Absorption Line (BAL) quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the largest sample of sensitive, 0.5-8.0 keV X-ray observations of this class of quasars to date. The limited ranges in both redshift (z=1.42-2.90) and UV luminosity (a factor of ~12) of the sample also make it relatively uniform. Of 35 targets, 27 are detected for a detection fraction of 77%, and we confirm previous studies that find BAL quasars to be generally X-ray weak. Fi...

  12. Comparative statistical study of the chronometric and Friedman cosmologies based on the palomar bright quasar and other complete quasar surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Palomar Bright Quasar Survey and other complete samples derived by Schmidt and Green from quasar surveys are used for comparative cosmological studies and for predictions of quasar counts. Systematic self-tests and mutual cross-tests of the chronometric and Friedman cosmologies are made. Nonparametric estimates of the normalized luminosity function are made that involve no assumption as to the homogeneity of the spatial distribution of quasars and are statistically optimal in this respect. The homogeneity question is studied independently by V/V/sub m/ tests

  13. Seoul National University Bright Quasar Survey in Optical (SNUQSO) I: First Phase Observations and Results

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Induk; Kim, Minjin; Kang, Eugene; Shim, Hyunjin; Richards, Gordon T; Edge, Alastair C; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Park, Changbom; Park, Myeong-Gu

    2008-01-01

    We present results from the first phase of the Seoul National University Bright Quasar Survey in Optical (SNUQSO) as well as its basic observational setup. Previous and current large-area surveys have been successful in identifying many quasars, but they could have missed bright quasars due to their survey design. In order to help complete the census of bright quasars, we have performed spectroscopic observations of new bright quasar candidates selected from various methods based on optical colors, near-infrared colors, radio, and X-ray data. In 2005/2006, we observed 55 bright quasar candidates using the Bohyunsan Optical Echelle Spectrograph (BOES) on the 1.8 m telescope at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory in Korea. We identify 14 quasars/Seyferts from our observation, including an optically bright quasar with i=14.98 mag at z=0.092 (SDSS J003236.59-091026.2). Non-quasar/Seyfert objects are found to be mostly stars, among which there are five M-type stars and one cataclysmic variable. Our result ...

  14. Radio Quiet Protection at the Australian Square Kilometre array site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Smith, Lisa

    2015-08-01

    Radio astronomy relies on the detection of very faint signals from the universe. Many radio telescopes are now detrimentally affected by radio frequency interference (RFI), which results from a wide range of active spectrum users such as communications, aviation and satellites. This is why many new radio observatories are being sited at increasingly remote locations.The site for the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders in Australia is the Murchison Radio-Astronomy Observatory (MRO). The MRO is located more than 350km from the nearest population centre and has a large radio-quiet zone that is managed under a range of legislative agreements.In this talk I will describe the radio quiet zone, what protection it gives, how it works and how astronomers interact with the spectrum management authorities.

  15. An X-ray survey of variable radio bright quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sample consisting primarily of radio bright quasars was observed in X-rays with the Einstein Observatory for times ranging from 1500 to 5000 seconds. Detected sources had luminosities ranging from 0.2 to 41.0 x 10 to the 45th power ergs/sec in the 0.5 to 4.5 keV band. Three of the fourteen objects which were reobserved showed flux increases greater than a factor of two on a time scale greater than six months. No variability was detected during the individual observations. The optical and X-ray luminosities are correlated, which suggests a common origin. However, the relationship (L sub x is approximately L sub op to the (.89 + or - .15)) found for historic radio variables may be significantly different than that reported for other radio bright sources. Some of the observed X-ray fluxes were substantially below the predicted self-Compton flux, assuming incoherent synchrotron emission and using VLBI results to constrain the size of the emission region, which suggests relativistic expansion in these sources. Normal CIV emission in two of the sources with an overpredicted Compton component suggests that although they, like BL Lac objects, have highly relativistic material apparently moving at small angle to the line of sight, they have a smaller fraction of the continuum component in the beam

  16. Discovery of the optically bright, wide separation double quasar SDSS J1442+4055

    CERN Document Server

    Sergeyev, Alexey V; Shalyapin, Vyacheslav N; Goicoechea, Luis J

    2015-01-01

    Optically bright, wide separation double (gravitationally lensed) quasars can be easily monitored, leading to light curves of great importance in determining the Hubble constant and other cosmological parameters, as well as the structure of active nuclei and halos of galaxies. Searching for new double quasars in the SDSS-III database, we discovered SDSS J1442+4055. This consists of two bright images (18-19 magnitudes in the r band) of the same distant quasar at redshift z = 2.575. The two quasar images are separated by about 2.1 arcsec, show significant parallel flux variations and can be monitored from late 2015. We also found other two double quasar candidates, SDSS J1617+3827 (z = 2.079) and SDSS J1642+3200 (z = 2.264), displaying evidence for the presence of a lensing object and parallel flux variations, but requiring further spectroscopic observations to be confirmed as lensed quasars.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Quasar composite made from bright QSOs (Selsing+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selsing, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Christensen, L.; Krogager, J.-K.

    2015-10-01

    Quasar composite made from bright QSOs, as described in the paper. The composite consists of wavelength with corresponding arbitrarily normalized flux and error. The source code and composite is also made available at https://github.com/jselsing/QuasarComposite (1 data file).

  18. Mass Functions of the Active Black Holes in Distant Quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Color-Selected Sample of the SDSS Fall Equatorial Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Osmer, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    We present mass functions of distant actively accreting supermassive black holes residing in luminous quasars discovered in the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Fall Equatorial Stripe of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The quasars cover a wide range of redshifts (0...... functions at similar redshifts based on the SDSS Data Release 3 quasar catalog presented by Vestergaard et al. We see clear evidence of cosmic downsizing in the comoving space density distribution of active black holes in the LBQS sample alone. In forthcoming papers, further analysis, comparison......, and discussion of these mass functions will be made with other existing black hole mass functions, notably that based on the SDSS DR3 quasar catalog. We present the relationships used to estimate the black hole mass based on the MgII emission line; the relations are calibrated to the Hbeta and CIV relations...

  19. The SDSS view of the Palomar-Green bright quasar survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jester, Sebastian; Schneider, Donald P.; Richards, Gordon T.; Green, Richard F.; Schmidt, Maarten; Hall, Patrick B.; Strauss, Michael A.; Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Stoughton, Chris; Gunn, James E.; Brinkmann, Jon; Kent, Stephen M.; Smith, J.Allyn; Tucker, Douglas, L.; Yanny, Brian; /Fermilab /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /Princeton U.

    2005-02-01

    The author investigates the extent to which the Palomar-Green (PG) Bright Quasar Survey (BQS) is complete and representative of the general quasar population by comparing with imaging and spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A comparison of SDSS and PG photometry of both stars and quasars reveals the need to apply a color and magnitude recalibration to the PG data. Using the SDSS photometric catalog, they define the PG's parent sample of objects that are not main-sequence stars and simulate the selection of objects from this parent sample using the PG photometric criteria and errors. This simulation shows that the effective U-B cut in the PG survey is U-B < -0.71, implying a color-related incompleteness. As the color distribution of bright quasars peaks near U-B = -0.7 and the 2-{sigma} error in U-B is comparable to the full width of the color distribution of quasars, the color incompleteness of the BQS is approximately 50% and essentially random with respect to U-B color for z < 0.5. There is however, a bias against bright quasars at 0.5 < z < 1, which is induced by the color-redshift relation of quasars (although quasars at z > 0.5 are inherently rare in bright surveys in any case). They find no evidence for any other systematic incompleteness when comparing the distributions in color, redshift, and FIRST radio properties of the BQS and a BQS-like subsample of the SDSS quasar sample. However, the application of a bright magnitude limit biases the BQS toward the inclusion of objects which are blue in g-i, in particular compared to the full range of g-i colors found among the i-band limited SDSS quasars, and even at i-band magnitudes comparable to those of the BQS objects.

  20. Spectroscopy of extended Ly\\alpha\\ envelopes around z=4.5 quasars

    CERN Document Server

    North, P L; Eigenbrod, A; Chelouche, D

    2012-01-01

    What are the frequency, shape, kinematics, and luminosity of Ly\\alpha\\ envelopes surrounding radio-quiet quasars at high redshift, and is the luminosity of these envelopes related to that of the quasar or not? As a first step towards answering these questions, we have searched for Ly\\alpha\\ envelopes around six radio-quiet quasars at z~4.5, using deep spectra taken with the FORS2 spectrograph attached to the UT1 of the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Using the multi-slit mode allows us to observe several point spread function stars simultaneously with the quasar, and to remove the point-like emission from the quasar, unveiling the faint underlying Ly\\alpha\\ envelope with unprecedented depth. An envelope is detected around four of the six quasars, which suggests that these envelopes are very frequent. Their diameter varies in the range 26brightness in the range 3x10^{-19}<\\mu<2x10^{-17} erg/s/cm^2/arcsec^2, and their luminosity in the range 10^{42}

  1. QUASARS PROBING QUASARS. IV. JOINT CONSTRAINTS ON THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM FROM ABSORPTION AND EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have constructed a sample of 29 close projected quasar pairs where the background quasar spectrum reveals absorption from optically thick H I gas associated with the foreground quasar. These unique sightlines allow us to study the quasar circumgalactic medium (CGM) in absorption and emission simultaneously, because the background quasar pinpoints large concentrations of gas where Lyα emission, resulting from quasar-powered fluorescence, resonant Lyα scattering, and/or cooling radiation, is expected. A sensitive search (1σ surface-brightness limits of SBLyα≅3 × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2) for diffuse Lyα emission in the environments of the foreground (predominantly radio-quiet) quasars is conducted using Gemini/GMOS and Keck/LRIS slit spectroscopy. We fail to detect large-scale ∼100 kpc Lyα emission, either at the location of the optically thick absorbers or in the foreground quasar halos, in all cases except a single system. We interpret these non-detections as evidence that the gas detected in absorption is shadowed from the quasar UV radiation due to obscuration effects, which are frequently invoked in unified models of active galactic nuclei. Small-scale R ∼Lyα > 50 Å) Lyα-emitter with luminosity LLyα = 2.1 ± 0.32 × 1041 erg s–1 at small impact parameter R = 134 kpc from one foreground quasar, and argue that it is more likely to result from quasar-powered fluorescence, than simply be a star-forming galaxy clustered around the quasar. Our observations imply that much deeper integrations with upcoming integral-field spectrometers such as MUSE and KCWI will be able to routinely detect a diffuse Lyα glow around bright quasars on scales R ∼ 100 kpc and thus directly image the CGM.

  2. On the Absorption of X-ray Bright Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Giustini, Margherita; Vignali, Cristian

    2008-01-01

    Most X-ray studies of BALQSOs found significant (N_H~10^{22-24} cm^{-2}) intrinsic column densities of gas absorbing an underlying typical power-law continuum emission, in agreement with expectations from radiatively driven accretion disk wind models. However, direct spectral analysis was performed only on a limited number of bright sources. We investigate the X-ray emission of a large BALQSO sample at medium to high redshift (0.8 ~ 5 x 10^{22} cm^{-2}) even including the faintest sources analyzed through hardness ratio analysis. The mean photon index is Gamma~1.9, with no significant evolution with redshift. The alpha_ox are typical of radio-quiet broad line AGN, in contrast with the known (from previous X-ray studies) ``soft X-ray weakness'' of BALQSOs and in agreement with the lack of X-ray absorption. We found the low-Absorption Index (AI) subsample to host the lowest X-ray absorbing column densities of the entire sample. X-ray selected BALQSOs show lower X-ray absorption than purely optically selec ted o...

  3. A new magnetic white dwarf discovered during the Large Bright Quasar Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previously unknown magnetic white dwarf has been discovered as part of the Large, Bright Quasar Survey (Foltz et al., 1988). The absorption features are identified with transitions of hydrogen and are analyzed in the context of high-field Zeeman models to derive a polar dipole field strength of 24 x 10 to the 6th G at the stellar surface. 11 refs

  4. Long-term Optical Variability of Radio-Selected Quasars from the FIRST Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Helfand, D J; Willman, B; White, R L; Becker, R H; Price, T; Gregg, M D; McMahon, R G; Helfand, David J.; Stone, Remington P.S.; Willman, Beth; White, Richard L.; Becker, Robert H.; Price, Trevor; Gregg, Michael D.; Mahon, Richard G. Mc

    2001-01-01

    We have obtained single-epoch optical photometry for 201 quasars, taken from the FIRST Bright Quasar Survey, which span a wide range in radio loudness. Comparison with the magnitudes of these objects on the POSS-I plates provides by far the largest sample of long-term variability amplitudes for radio-selected quasars yet produced. We find the quasars to be more variable in the blue than in the red band, consistent with work on optically selected samples. The previously noted trend of decreasing variability with increasing optical luminosity applies only to radio-quiet objects. Furthermore, we do not confirm a rise in variability amplitude with redshift, nor do we see any dependence on radio flux or luminosity. The variability over a radio-optical flux ratio range spanning a factor of 60,000 from radio-quiet to extreme radio-loud objects is largely constant, although there is a suggestion of greater variability in the extreme radio-loud objects. We demonstrate the importance of Malmquist bias in variability st...

  5. Molecular hydrogen emission from the bright quasar 3C273

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of broad emission lines in polarized light from the type 2 Seyfert galaxy NGCl068 led to postulation of the existence of a type 1 Seyfert nucleus shrouded from our direct view by a torus of molecular gas. Theoretical development of this idea included the suggestion that low-angular-momentum clouds in the torus are captured by the central source, fuelling the observed activity. The difficulty in applying this model to all active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is the lack of convincing evidence for molecular gas in 'bare' nucleus objects such as the quasar 3C273, which exhibits a simple power-law continuum and no excess of thermal dust emission. Here we present observations, made during the course of a survey for rotation and vibration lines of H2 emission from type 1 Seyferts and quasars, of molecular hydrogen emission from 3C273. This is the first time such emission has been seen from a radio-loud quasar. (author)

  6. Molecular hydrogen emission from the bright quasar 3C273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawara, Kimiaki (National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan)); Nishida, Minoru (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Gregory, Brooke (Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile) Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (UK))

    1989-09-21

    The discovery of broad emission lines in polarized light from the type 2 Seyfert galaxy NGCl068 led to postulation of the existence of a type 1 Seyfert nucleus shrouded from our direct view by a torus of molecular gas. Theoretical development of this idea included the suggestion that low-angular-momentum clouds in the torus are captured by the central source, fuelling the observed activity. The difficulty in applying this model to all active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is the lack of convincing evidence for molecular gas in 'bare' nucleus objects such as the quasar 3C273, which exhibits a simple power-law continuum and no excess of thermal dust emission. Here we present observations, made during the course of a survey for rotation and vibration lines of H{sub 2} emission from type 1 Seyferts and quasars, of molecular hydrogen emission from 3C273. This is the first time such emission has been seen from a radio-loud quasar. (author).

  7. Radio Quiet Zones (RQZ) - Working with national communication administrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzioumis, Anastasios

    Radio Astronomy detects extremely faint radio signals from space, and hence is very susceptible to Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) from other radio communication services. Although radio astronomy has been allocated some radio bands by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), cosmic radio emissions occur over the whole of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thus, there is a need for radio telescopes to operate over very wide radio bands and avoid RFI. Radio Quiet Zones (RQZ) in various forms have been implemented around many radio astronomy observatories, to minimise the impact of RFI on radio astronomy observations by coordinating with nearby radiocommunication services. The history and characteristics of such RQZ around the world will be reviewed, with emphasis on recent experience. For the next generation radio astronomy telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), it will be of critical importance to minimise RFI over the whole operating frequency range 200 MHz - 25 GHz. Progress towards establishing strict RQZ for the SKA will be reviewed. The main experience and lesson learned is that it is critical to work closely with national communication administrations. Work on RQZ in international bodies and the implications for radio sciences will also be discussed.

  8. Intra-night Optical Variability of Luminous Radio Quiet QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, A C

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper we report the detection of intra-night variability in some of the RQQSOs and one LDQ. To study intra-night variability, we carried out photometric monitoring of seven RQQSOs and one LDQ in Johnson V-passband using 1.2 meter optical/IR telescope at Gurushikhar, Mount Abu, India. Observations were made in nine nights during the first half of the year 2000; seven RQQSOs: 0748+291, 0945+438, 1017+280, 1029+329, 1101+319, 1225+317, 1252+020 and one LDQ: 1103-006 were observed. RQQSOs 0748+291, 1225+317 and LDQ 1103-006 have shown existence of intra-night variations. In the case of 1017+280 (RQQSO) there is indication of intra-night variation in one night where as the observations in another night do not show convincingly the existence of intra-night variability. RQQSOs 0945+438, 1029+329, 1101+319 and 1252+020 have not shown any intra-night variations. We compiled intra-night variability data for radio-loud and radio-quiet AGNs from the literature for statistical analysis. It is found that a g...

  9. What is the difference between radio-loud and radio-quiet quasi-stellar objects?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measures of the nuclear and host galaxy luminosities and colors and a morphological discussion of the host galaxies are presented for a sample of low-redshift, high-luminosity, radio-quiet QSOs whose redshift and luminosity distribution matches that of a radio-loud sample previously discussed. Radio-quiet QSOs are found to reside in galaxies which are smaller, fainter, and redder than the host galaxies of radio-loud QSOs. These properties are generally consistent with the suggestion that radio-quiet QSOs are located in spiral-type galaxies and radio-loud QSOs are located in more elliptical-type galaxies. Significantly less evidence is found for tidal interactions among the radio-quiet objects, although they appear to reside in somewhat richer environments in terms of nearby companions. 10 refs

  10. The SDSS View of the Palomar-Green Bright Quasar Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Jester, S; Richards, G T; Green, R F; Schmidt, M; Hall, P B; Strauss, M A; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Stoughton, C; Gunn, J E; Brinkmann, J; Kent, S M; Smith, J A; Tucker, D L; Yanny, B; Jester, Sebastian; Schneider, Donald P.; Richards, Gordon T.; Green, Richard F.; Schmidt, Maarten; Hall, Patrick B.; Strauss, Michael A.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Stoughton, Chris; Gunn, James E.; Brinkmann, Jon; Kent, Stephen M.; Tucker, Douglas L.; Yanny, Brian

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which the Palomar-Green (PG) Bright Quasar Survey (BQS) is complete and representative of the general quasar population by comparing with imaging and spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A comparison of SDSS and PG photometry of both stars and quasars reveals the need to apply a color and magnitude recalibration to the PG data. Using the SDSS photometric catalog, we define the PG's parent sample of objects that are not main-sequence stars and simulate the selection of objects from this parent sample using the PG photometric criteria and errors. This simulation shows that the effective U-B cut in the PG survey is U-B 0.5 are inherently rare in bright surveys in any case). We find no evidence for any other systematic incompleteness when comparing the distributions in color, redshift, and FIRST radio properties of the BQS and a BQS-like subsample of the SDSS quasar sample. However, the application of a bright magnitude limit biases the BQS toward the inclusion of objects w...

  11. X-RAY AND MULTIWAVELENGTH INSIGHTS INTO THE NATURE OF WEAK EMISSION-LINE QUASARS AT LOW REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the X-ray and multiwavelength properties of 11 radio-quiet quasars with weak or no emission lines identified by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with redshift z = 0.4-2.5. Our sample was selected from the Plotkin et al. catalog of radio-quiet, weak-featured active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The distribution of relative X-ray brightness for our low-redshift weak-line quasar (WLQ) candidates is significantly different from that of typical radio-quiet quasars, having an excess of X-ray weak sources, but it is consistent with that of high-redshift WLQs. Over half of the low-redshift WLQ candidates are X-ray weak by a factor of ∼> 5, compared to a typical SDSS quasar with similar UV/optical luminosity. These X-ray weak sources generally show similar UV emission-line properties to those of the X-ray weak quasar PHL 1811 (weak and blueshifted high-ionization lines, weak semiforbidden lines, and strong UV Fe emission); they may belong to the notable class of PHL 1811 analogs. The average X-ray spectrum of these sources is somewhat harder than that of typical radio-quiet quasars. Several other low-redshift WLQ candidates have normal ratios of X-ray-to-optical/UV flux, and their average X-ray spectral properties are also similar to those of typical radio-quiet quasars. The X-ray weak and X-ray normal WLQ candidates may belong to the same subset of quasars having high-ionization 'shielding gas' covering most of the wind-dominated broad emission-line region, but be viewed at different inclinations. The mid-infrared-to-X-ray spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these sources are generally consistent with those of typical SDSS quasars, showing that they are not likely to be BL Lac objects with relativistically boosted continua and diluted emission lines. The mid-infrared-to-UV SEDs of most radio-quiet weak-featured AGNs without sensitive X-ray coverage (34 objects) are also consistent with those of typical SDSS quasars. However, one source in our X

  12. X-Ray and Multiwavelength Insights into the Nature of Weak Emission-line Quasars at Low Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Brandt, W. N.; Anderson, Scott F.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Hall, Patrick B.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shemmer, Ohad

    2012-03-01

    We report on the X-ray and multiwavelength properties of 11 radio-quiet quasars with weak or no emission lines identified by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with redshift z = 0.4-2.5. Our sample was selected from the Plotkin et al. catalog of radio-quiet, weak-featured active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The distribution of relative X-ray brightness for our low-redshift weak-line quasar (WLQ) candidates is significantly different from that of typical radio-quiet quasars, having an excess of X-ray weak sources, but it is consistent with that of high-redshift WLQs. Over half of the low-redshift WLQ candidates are X-ray weak by a factor of >~ 5, compared to a typical SDSS quasar with similar UV/optical luminosity. These X-ray weak sources generally show similar UV emission-line properties to those of the X-ray weak quasar PHL 1811 (weak and blueshifted high-ionization lines, weak semiforbidden lines, and strong UV Fe emission); they may belong to the notable class of PHL 1811 analogs. The average X-ray spectrum of these sources is somewhat harder than that of typical radio-quiet quasars. Several other low-redshift WLQ candidates have normal ratios of X-ray-to-optical/UV flux, and their average X-ray spectral properties are also similar to those of typical radio-quiet quasars. The X-ray weak and X-ray normal WLQ candidates may belong to the same subset of quasars having high-ionization "shielding gas" covering most of the wind-dominated broad emission-line region, but be viewed at different inclinations. The mid-infrared-to-X-ray spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these sources are generally consistent with those of typical SDSS quasars, showing that they are not likely to be BL Lac objects with relativistically boosted continua and diluted emission lines. The mid-infrared-to-UV SEDs of most radio-quiet weak-featured AGNs without sensitive X-ray coverage (34 objects) are also consistent with those of typical SDSS quasars. However, one source in our X

  13. Isotropic AGN Heating with Small Radio Quiet Bubbles in the NGC 5044 Group

    CERN Document Server

    David, L; Giacintucci, S; Forman, W; Nulsen, P; Vrtilek, J; O'Sullivan, E; Raychaudhuri, S

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) A Chandra observation of the X-ray bright group NGC 5044 shows that the X-ray emitting gas has been strongly perturbed by recent outbursts from the central AGN and also from motion of the central dominant galaxy relative to the group gas. The NGC 5044 group hosts many small radio quiet cavities with a nearly isotropic distribution, cool filaments, a semi-circular cold front and a two-armed spiral shaped feature of cool gas. A GMRT observation of NGC 5044 at 610 MHz shows the presence of extended radio emission with a "torus-shaped" morphology. The largest X-ray filament appears to thread the radio torus, suggesting that the lower entropy gas within the filament is material being uplifted from the center of the group. The radio emission at 235 MHz is much more extended than the emission at 610 MHz, with little overlap between the two frequencies. One component of the 235 MHz emission passes through the largest X-ray cavity and is then deflected just behind the cold front. A second detatched radio lo...

  14. Deep searches for decameter wavelength pulsed emission from radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Maan, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of (a) extensive follow-up observations of the gamma-ray pulsar J1732-3131 that has been recently detected at decameter wavelengths, and (b) deep searches for counterparts of 9 other radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars at 34 MHz, using the Gauribidanur radio telescope. No periodic signal from J1732-3131 could be detected above a detection threshold of $8\\sigma$, even with an effective integration time of more than 40 hours. However, the average profile obtained by combining data from several epochs, at a dispersion measure of 15.44 pc/cc, is found to be consistent with that from the earlier detection of this pulsar at a confidence level of 99.2 %. We present this consistency between the two profiles as an evidence that J1732-3131 is a faint radio pulsar with an average flux density of 200--400 mJy at 34 MHz. Detection sensitivity of our deep searches, despite the extremely bright sky background at such low frequencies, is generally comparable to that of higher frequency searches for these puls...

  15. The VLA Survey of Chandra Deep Field South. V. Evolution and Luminosity Functions of Sub-millijansky Radio Sources and the Issue of Radio Emission in Radio-quiet Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, P.; Miller, N.; Kellermann, K. I.; Mainieri, V.; Rosati, P.; Tozzi, P.

    2011-10-01

    We present the evolutionary properties and luminosity functions of the radio sources belonging to the Chandra Deep Field South Very Large Array survey, which reaches a flux density limit at 1.4 GHz of 43 μJy at the field center and redshift ~5 and which includes the first radio-selected complete sample of radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We use a new, comprehensive classification scheme based on radio, far- and near-IR, optical, and X-ray data to disentangle star-forming galaxies (SFGs) from AGNs and radio-quiet from radio-loud AGNs. We confirm our previous result that SFGs become dominant only below 0.1 mJy. The sub-millijansky radio sky turns out to be a complex mix of SFGs and radio-quiet AGNs evolving at a similar, strong rate; non-evolving low-luminosity radio galaxies; and declining radio powerful (P >~ 3 × 1024 W Hz-1) AGNs. Our results suggest that radio emission from radio-quiet AGNs is closely related to star formation. The detection of compact, high brightness temperature cores in several nearby radio-quiet AGNs can be explained by the coexistence of two components, one non-evolving and AGN related and one evolving and star formation related. Radio-quiet AGNs are an important class of sub-millijansky sources, accounting for ~30% of the sample and ~60% of all AGNs, and outnumbering radio-loud AGNs at bypassing the problems of obscuration that plague the optical and soft X-ray bands.

  16. MASS FUNCTIONS OF THE ACTIVE BLACK HOLES IN DISTANT QUASARS FROM THE LARGE BRIGHT QUASAR SURVEY, THE BRIGHT QUASAR SURVEY, AND THE COLOR-SELECTED SAMPLE OF THE SDSS FALL EQUATORIAL STRIPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present mass functions of distant actively accreting supermassive black holes residing in luminous quasars discovered in the Large Bright Quasar Survey (LBQS), the Bright Quasar Survey (BQS), and the Fall Equatorial Stripe of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The quasars cover a wide range of redshifts from the local universe to z = 5 and were subject to different selection criteria and flux density limits. This makes these samples complementary and can help us gain additional insight on the true underlying black hole mass distribution free from selection effects and mass estimation errors through future studies. By comparing these quasar samples, we see evidence that the active black hole population at redshift four is somewhat different than that at lower redshifts, including that in the nearby universe. In particular, there is a sharp increase in the space density of the detected active black holes (M BH ∼>108 M sun) between redshifts ∼4 and ∼2.5. Also, the mass function of the SDSS quasars at 3.6 ≤ z ≤ 5 has a somewhat flatter high-mass-end slope of β = -1.75 ± 0.56, compared to the mass functions based on quasars below z of 3 (BQS and LBQS quasars), which display typical slopes of β ∼ -3.3; the latter are consistent with the mass functions at similar redshifts based on the SDSS Data Release 3 quasar catalog presented by Vestergaard et al. We see clear evidence of cosmic downsizing in the comoving space density distribution of active black holes in the LBQS sample alone. In forthcoming papers, further analysis, comparison, and discussion of these mass functions will be made with other existing black hole mass functions, notably that based on the SDSS DR3 quasar catalog. We present the relationships used to estimate the black hole mass based on the Mg II emission line; the relations are calibrated to the Hβ and C IV relations by means of several thousand high-quality SDSS spectra. Mass estimates of the individual black holes of these

  17. The New Generation Atlas of Quasar Spectral Energy Distributions from Radio to X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, Zhaohui; Wills, Beverley J; Wills, Derek; Cales, Sabrina; Dale, Daniel A; Green, Richard F; Runnoe, Jessie; Nemmen, Rodrigo S; Gallagher, Sarah; Ganguly, Rajib; Hines, Dean C; Kelly, Benjamin; Kriss, Gerard A; Li, Jun; Tang, Baitian; Xie, Yanxia

    2011-01-01

    We have produced the next generation of quasar spectral energy distributions (SEDs), essentially updating the work of Elvis et al. (1994) by using high-quality data obtained with several space and ground-based telescopes, including NASA's Great Observatories. We present an atlas of SEDs of 85 optically bright, non-blazar quasars over the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to X-rays. The heterogeneous sample includes 27 radio-quiet and 58 radio-loud quasars. Most objects have quasi-simultaneous ultraviolet-optical spectroscopic data, supplemented with some far-ultraviolet spectra, and more than half also have Spitzer mid-infrared IRS spectra. The X-ray spectral parameters are collected from the literature where available. The radio, far-infrared, and near-infrared photometric data are also obtained from either the literature or new observations. We construct composite spectral energy distributions for radio-loud and radio-quiet objects and compare these to those of Elvis et al., finding that ours have similar...

  18. DISCOVERING BRIGHT QUASARS AT INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFTS BASED ON OPTICAL/NEAR-INFRARED COLORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification of quasars at intermediate redshifts (2.2 < z < 3.5) has been inefficient in most previous quasar surveys since the optical colors of quasars are similar to those of stars. The near-IR K-band excess technique has been suggested to overcome this difficulty. Our recent study also proposed to use optical/near-IR colors for selecting z < 4 quasars. To verify the effectiveness of this method, we selected a list of 105 unidentified bright targets with i ≤ 18.5 from the quasar candidates of SDSS DR6 with both SDSS ugriz optical and UKIDSS YJHK near-IR photometric data, which satisfy our proposed Y – K/g – z criterion and have photometric redshifts between 2.2 and 3.5 estimated from the nine-band SDSS-UKIDSS data. We observed 43 targets with the BFOSC instrument on the 2.16 m optical telescope at Xinglong station of the National Astronomical Observatory of China in the spring of 2012. We spectroscopically identified 36 targets as quasars with redshifts between 2.1 and 3.4. The high success rate of discovering these quasars in the SDSS spectroscopic surveyed area further demonstrates the robustness of both the Y – K/g – z selection criterion and the photometric redshift estimation technique. We also used the above criterion to investigate the possible stellar contamination rate among the quasar candidates of SDSS DR6, and found that the rate is much higher when selecting 3 < z < 3.5 quasar candidates than when selecting lower redshift candidates (z < 2.2). The significant improvement in the photometric redshift estimation when using the nine-band SDSS-UKIDSS data over the five-band SDSS data is demonstrated and a catalog of 7727 unidentified quasar candidates in SDSS DR6 selected with optical/near-IR colors and having photometric redshifts between 2.2 and 3.5 is provided. We also tested the Y – K/g – z selection criterion with the recently released SDSS-III/DR9 quasar catalog and found that 96.2% of 17,999 DR9 quasars with UKIDSS Y- and K

  19. QUASARS PROBING QUASARS. IV. JOINT CONSTRAINTS ON THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM FROM ABSORPTION AND EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier, E-mail: xavier@ucolick.org [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-03-20

    We have constructed a sample of 29 close projected quasar pairs where the background quasar spectrum reveals absorption from optically thick H I gas associated with the foreground quasar. These unique sightlines allow us to study the quasar circumgalactic medium (CGM) in absorption and emission simultaneously, because the background quasar pinpoints large concentrations of gas where Ly{alpha} emission, resulting from quasar-powered fluorescence, resonant Ly{alpha} scattering, and/or cooling radiation, is expected. A sensitive search (1{sigma} surface-brightness limits of SB{sub Ly{alpha}}{approx_equal}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} arcsec{sup -2}) for diffuse Ly{alpha} emission in the environments of the foreground (predominantly radio-quiet) quasars is conducted using Gemini/GMOS and Keck/LRIS slit spectroscopy. We fail to detect large-scale {approx}100 kpc Ly{alpha} emission, either at the location of the optically thick absorbers or in the foreground quasar halos, in all cases except a single system. We interpret these non-detections as evidence that the gas detected in absorption is shadowed from the quasar UV radiation due to obscuration effects, which are frequently invoked in unified models of active galactic nuclei. Small-scale R {approx}< 50 kpc extended Ly{alpha} nebulosities are detected in 34% of our sample, which are likely the high-redshift analogs of the extended emission-line regions (EELRs) commonly observed around low-redshift (z < 0.5) quasars. This may be fluorescent recombination radiation from a population of very dense clouds with a low covering fraction illuminated by the quasar. We also detect a compact high rest-frame equivalent width (W{sub Ly{alpha}} > 50 A) Ly{alpha}-emitter with luminosity L{sub Ly{alpha}} = 2.1 {+-} 0.32 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} at small impact parameter R = 134 kpc from one foreground quasar, and argue that it is more likely to result from quasar-powered fluorescence

  20. The X-Ray Properties of the Optically Brightest Mini-BAL Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jianfeng; Comins, M L; Gibson, Robert R; Shemmer, Ohad; Garmire, Gordon P; Schneider, Donald P

    2010-01-01

    We have compiled a sample of 14 of the optically brightest radio-quiet quasars ($m_{i}$~$\\le$~17.5 and $z$~$\\ge$~1.9) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 quasar catalog that have C IV mini-BALs present in their spectra. X-ray data for 12 of the objects were obtained via a Chandra snapshot survey using ACIS-S, while data for the other two quasars were obtained from archival XMM-Newton observations. Joint X-ray spectral analysis shows the mini-BAL quasars have a similar average power-law photon index ($\\Gamma\\approx1.9$) and level of intrinsic absorption ($N_H \\lesssim 8\\times 10^{21} \\ {\\rm cm}^{-2}$) as non-BMB (neither BAL nor mini-BAL) quasars. Mini-BAL quasars are more similar to non-BMB quasars than to BAL quasars in their distribution of relative X-ray brightness (assessed with $\\Delta\\alpha_{\\rm ox}$). Relative colors indicate mild dust reddening in the optical spectra of mini-BAL quasars. Significant correlations between $\\Delta\\alpha_{\\rm ox}$ and UV absorption properties are confirmed for ...

  1. Combined X-Ray and mm-Wave Observations of Radio Quiet Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, E.

    2016-06-01

    A connection between the X-ray and radio sources in radio quiet active galaxies (AGNs) will be demonstrated. High radio frequency, i.e., mm-wave observations are promising probes of the X-ray emitting inner regions of the accretion disks in radio quiet AGNs. An argument for simultaneous observations in X-rays and in mm waves will be made, in order to promote these as one of the future science goals of X-ray and AGN astronomy in the next decade. Preliminary results from an exploratory campaign with several space and ground based telescopes will be presented.

  2. QUART: Quasar hosts Unveiled by high Angular Resolution Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Andrey; Wright, Shelley; Murray, Norman W.; Armus, Lee; Larkin, James E.

    2016-06-01

    We present results from the new QUART survey that aims to resolve high-redshift (z = 1.5 - 2.5) radio-quiet and radio-loud quasi stellar object (QSO) host galaxies using the integral field spectrograph (IFS) OSIRIS, and the Keck Adaptive Optics (AO) system. The combination of AO and IFS provides the necessary contrast to disentangle the bright-unresolved QSO from the underlying faint host galaxy with unprecedented sensitivity. We study the ionized gas in these systems to sub-kiloparsec scales, yielding essential constraints on the resolved host galaxies dynamics, morphologies, star formation rates, metallicities, and nebular emission diagnostics. We combine OSIRIS and AO observations with multi-wavelength data sets from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, Hubble Space Telescope, and Very Large Array to better understand the multiple phases of the ISM and stellar population properties of the hosts. Radio-quiet QSOs have shown little-to-no star formation and no evidence of extended QSO narrow line emission. In contrast, our latest OSIRIS results of radio-loud z~1.5-2 quasars have revealed evidence for both concurrent star formation and extended quasar narrow line emission with strong outflows. These outflows are co-spatial with structure observed in the radio data, typically with the path of the quasar jet and/or lobe structure. These winds are highly extended (8-12 kpc) and show broad emission line profiles (extending up to 2,500 km/s), indicating strong evidence of quasar “feedback” in their host galaxies.

  3. A very bright (i = 16.44) quasar in the 'redshift desert' discovered by the Guoshoujing Telescope (LAMOST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redshift range from 2.2 to 3 is known as the 'redshift desert' of quasars because quasars with redshifts in this range have similar optical colors as normal stars and are thus difficult to find in optical sky surveys. A quasar candidate, SDSS J085543.40-001517.7, which was selected by a recently proposed criterion involving near-IR Y - K and optical g - z colors, was identified spectroscopically as a new quasar with a redshift of 2.427 by the Guoshoujing Telescope (LAMOST) commissioning observation in 2009 December and confirmed by the observation made with the NAOC/Xinglong 2.16 m telescope in 2010 March. This quasar was not identified in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. Comparing with other SDSS quasars, we found that this new quasar, with an i magnitude of 16.44, is apparently the brightest one in the redshift range from 2.3 to 2.7. From its spectral properties, we derived its central black hole mass to be (1.4 ∼ 3.9) x 1010 Mo-dot and its bolometric luminosity to be 3.7 x 1048 erg s-1, which indicates that this new quasar is intrinsically very bright and belongs to the class of the most luminous quasars in the universe. Our identification supports the notion that quasars in the redshift desert can be found by the quasar selection criterion involving the near-IR colors. More missing quasars are expected to be uncovered by future LAMOST spectroscopic surveys, which is important to the study of the cosmological evolution of quasars at redshifts higher than 2.2. (research papers)

  4. A survey of luminous high-redshift quasars with SDSS and WISE II. the bright end of the quasar luminosity function at z ~ 5

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jinyi; Wu, Xue-Bing; Fan, Xiaohui; McGreer, Ian D; Bian, Fuyan; Yi, Weimin; Yang, Qian; Ai, Yanli; Dong, Xiaoyi; Zuo, Wenwen; Green, Richard; Jiang, Linhua; Wang, Shu; Wang, Ran; Yue, Minghao

    2016-01-01

    This is the second paper in a series on a new luminous z ~ 5 quasar survey using optical and near-infrared colors. Here we present a new determination of the bright end of the quasar luminosity function (QLF) at z ~ 5. Combined our 45 new quasars with previously known quasars that satisfy our selections, we construct the largest uniform luminous z ~ 5 quasar sample to date, with 99 quasars in the range 4.7 <= z < 5.4 and -29 < M1450 <= -26.8, within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) footprint. We use a modified 1/Va method including flux limit correction to derive a binned QLF, and we model the parametric QLF using maximum likelihood estimation. With the faint-end slope of the QLF fixed as alpha = -2.03 from previous deeper samples, the best fit of our QLF gives a flatter bright end slope beta = -3.58+/-0.24 and a fainter break magnitude M*1450 = -26.98+/-0.23 than previous studies at similar redshift. Combined with previous work at lower and higher redshifts, our result is consistent with a lum...

  5. An Apparent Redshift Dependence of Quasar Continuum: Implication for Cosmic Dust Extinction?

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Xiaoyi; Shao, Zhengyi; Yin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the luminosity and redshift dependence of the quasar continuum by means of composite spectrum using a large non-BAL radio-quiet quasar sample drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Quasar continuum slopes in the UV-Opt band are measured at two different wavelength ranges, i.e., $\\alpha_{\

  6. Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Osmer, Patrick S.

    1999-01-01

    I review recent results for quasars and discuss how they are related to activity in galaxies. Topics included are studies of quasar host galaxies with HST; searches for quasars in the Hubble Deep Field; evolution of the quasar luminosity function; news highlights from astro-ph; and current observational problems and their relation to theoretical work.

  7. Reverberation in the UV-Optical Continuum Brightness Fluctuations of MACHO Quasar 13.5962.237

    CERN Document Server

    Schild, Rudolph E; Protopapas, Pavlos

    2009-01-01

    We examine the nature of brightness fluctuations in the UV-Optical spectral region of an ordinary quasar with 881 optical brightness measurements made during the epoch 1993 - 1999. We find evidence for systematic trends having the character of a pattern of reverberations following an initial disturbance. The initial pulses have brightness increases of order 20% and pulse widths of 50 days, and the reverberations have typical amplitudes of 12% with longer mean pulse widths of order 80 days and pulse separations of order 90 days. The repeat pattern occurs over the same time scales whether the initial disturbance is a brightening or fading. The lags of the pulse trains are comparable to the lags seen previously in reverberation of the broad blue-shifted emission lines following brightness disturbances in Seyfert galaxies, when allowance is made for the mass of the central object. In addition to the burst pulse trains, we find evidence for a semi-periodicity with a time scale of 2 years. These strong patterns of ...

  8. Quasars and active galactic nuclei in rich environments. II - The evolution of radio-loud quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown here that the environments of radio-loud quasars have a strong effect on the optical evolution of the quasars. Quasars in rich clusters of galaxies are found to fade at least four optical magnitudes between redshifts 0.65 and 0.3, corresponding to a statistical e-folding fading time of about 1.0 Gyr. This rapid decrease in quasar activity is about four times as fast as quasars in poor environments. Several physical mechanisms of this evolution are suggested, emphasizing dynamical evolution of the cluster core and evolution in the amount of gaseous fuel in the cluster environment. The environments of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars are shown to be significantly different. Radio-quiet quasars are much less frequently situated in galaxy clusters as rich as Abell class I. This result is consistent with scenarios linking radio-loud quasars with elliptical host galaxies and radio-quiet quasars with spiral host galaxies. 49 refs

  9. Subaru high-$z$ exploration of low-luminosity quasars (SHELLQs). I. Discovery of 15 quasars and bright galaxies at $5.7 < z < 6.9$

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Strauss, Michael A; Nagao, Tohru; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Niida, Mana; Toba, Yoshiki; Akiyama, Masayuki; Asami, Naoko; Bosch, James; Foucaud, Sébastien; Furusawa, Hisanori; Goto, Tomotsugu; Gunn, James E; Harikane, Yuichi; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Kikuta, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lupton, Robert H; Minezaki, Takeo; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Murayama, Hitoshi; Nishizawa, Atsushi J; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Price, Paul A; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Silverman, John D; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Tait, Philip J; Takada, Masahiro; Takata, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tang, Ji-Jia; Utsumi, Yousuke

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of 15 quasars and bright galaxies at $5.7 < z < 6.9$. This is the initial result from the Subaru High-$z$ Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars (SHELLQs) project, which exploits the exquisite multi-band imaging data produced by the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Strategic Program survey. The candidate selection is performed by combining several photometric approaches including a Bayesian probabilistic algorithm to reject stars and dwarfs. The spectroscopic identification was carried out with the Gran Telescopio Canarias and the Subaru Telescope for the first 80 deg$^2$ of the survey footprint. The success rate of our photometric selection is quite high, approaching 100 % at the brighter magnitudes ($z_{\\rm AB} < 23.5$ mag). Our selection also recovered all the known high-$z$ quasars on the HSC images. Among the 15 discovered objects, six are likely quasars, while the other six with interstellar absorption lines and in some cases narrow emission lines are likely bright Lyman-br...

  10. The XMM-Newton Bright Survey sample of absorbed quasars: X-ray and accretion properties

    CERN Document Server

    Ballo, L; Della Ceca, R; Caccianiga, A; Vignali, C; Carrera, F J; Corral, A; Mateos, S

    2014-01-01

    Although absorbed quasars are extremely important for our understanding of the energetics of the Universe, the main physical parameters of their central engines are still poorly known. In this work we present and study a complete sample of 14 quasars (QSOs) that are absorbed in the X-rays (column density NH>4x10^21 cm-2 and X-ray luminosity L(2-10 keV)>10^44 ergs/s; XQSO2) belonging to the XMM-Newton Bright Serendipitous Survey (XBS). From the analysis of their ultraviolet-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distribution we can separate the nuclear emission from the host galaxy contribution, obtaining a measurement of the fundamental nuclear parameters, like the mass of the central supermassive black hole and the value of Eddington ratio, lambda_Edd. Comparing the properties of XQSO2s with those previously obtained for the X-ray unabsorbed QSOs in the XBS, we do not find any evidence that the two samples are drawn from different populations. In particular, the two samples span the same range in Eddington ratios, ...

  11. Optical Variability of the Three Brightest Nearby Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Gaskell, C. Martin; Benker, Andrew J.; Campbell, Jeffrey S.; George, Thomas A.; Hedrick, Cecelia H.; Hiller, Mary E.; Klimek, Elizabeth S.; Leonard, Joseph P.; Masatoshi, Shoji; Peterson, Bradley W.; Peterson, Kelly C.; Sanders, Kelly M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the relative optical variability of the three brightest nearby quasars, 3C 273, PDS 456, and PHL 1811. All three have comparable absolute magnitudes, but PDS 456 and PHL 1811 are radio quiet. PDS 456 is a broad-line object, but PHL 1811 could be classified as a high-luminosity Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 (NLS1). Both of the radio-quiet quasars show significant variability on a timescale of a few days. The seasonal rms V-band variability amplitudes of 3C 273 and PDS 456 are indistinguis...

  12. AGN Watch Continuum Monitoring of Radio-quiet and Radio-loud AGN

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Paul T.; Leighly, Karen M.

    1997-01-01

    The International AGN Watch has monitored a number of radio-quiet and radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei - the most luminous objects in the universe. We present a review of the main observational results from the continuum monitoring campaigns, concentrating on those which aim to quantify the simultaneous ultraviolet to X-ray variability characteristics. These data provide strong constraints on the proposed continuum emission mechanisms. The AGN Watch campaigns have made extensive use of a wid...

  13. Intranight polarization variability in radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN

    OpenAIRE

    Villforth, C.; Nilsson, K.; Østensen, R.; Heidt, J.; Niemi, S-M; Pforr, J.

    2009-01-01

    Intranight polarization variability in active galactic nuclei (AGN) has not been studied extensively so far. Studying the variability in polarization makes it possible to distinguish between different emission mechanisms. Thus, it can help answering the question if intranight variability in radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN is of the same or of fundamentally different origin. In this paper, we investigate intranight polarization variability in AGN. Our sample consists of 28 AGN at low to moderat...

  14. Rapid infrared and optical variability in the bright quasar 3C273

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have observed variations by a factor of two in the infrared flux from the bright quasar 3C273 on a timescale as short as one day. In February 1988, the behaviour of the source changed from having a stable infrared flux and slow optical variations to a state characterized by recurrent infrared and optical flaring. The optical variations were of several per cent per day, changing from increase to decrease approximately every week. The amplitude of the repeated optical flares was 30-40%. The data are consistent with re-injection/acceleration of electrons followed by rapid cooling. The inferred magnetic field is 0.7 gauss and the data are marginally consistent with no relativistic beaming. (author)

  15. Rapid infrared and optical variability in the bright quasar 3C273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courvoisier, T.J.-L.; Robson, E.I.; Hughes, D.H.; Blecha, A.; Bouchet, P.; Schwarz, H.E.; Krisciunas, K.

    1988-09-22

    We have observed variations by a factor of two in the infrared flux from the bright quasar 3C273 on a timescale as short as one day. In February 1988, the behaviour of the source changed from having a stable infrared flux and slow optical variations to a state characterized by recurrent infrared and optical flaring. The optical variations were of several per cent per day, changing from increase to decrease approximately every week. The amplitude of the repeated optical flares was 30-40%. The data are consistent with re-injection/acceleration of electrons followed by rapid cooling. The inferred magnetic field is 0.7 gauss and the data are marginally consistent with no relativistic beaming.

  16. Sensitive Radio Survey of Obscured Quasar Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandroff, Rachael M; van Velzen, Sjoert; Greene, Jenny E; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    We study the radio properties of moderately obscured quasars over a range of redshifts to understand the role of radio activity in accretion using the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 6.0GHz and 1.4GHz. Our z~2.5 sample consists of optically-selected obscured quasar candidates, all of which are radio-quiet, with typical radio luminosities of $\

  17. The very first Pop III stars and their relation to bright z~6 quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Trenti, M

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the link between dark matter halos hosting the first PopIII stars formed at redshift z > 40 and the rare, massive, halos that are generally considered to host bright z~6 quasars. We show that within the typical volume occupied by one bright high-z QSO the remnants of the first several thousands PopIII stars formed do not end up in the most massive halos at z~6, but rather live in a large variety of environments. The black hole seeds planted by these very first PopIII stars can easily grow to M > 10^{9.5} Msun by z=6 assuming Eddington accretion with radiative efficiency epsilon~0.1. Therefore quenching of the accretion is crucial to avoid an overabundance of supermassive black holes. We implement a simple feedback model for the growth of the seeds planted by PopIII stars and obtain a z~6 BH mass function consistent with the observed QSO luminosity function.

  18. Distribution of the Very First Population III Stars and Their Relation to Bright z~6 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenti, M.; Stiavelli, M.

    2007-09-01

    We discuss the link between dark matter halos hosting the first Population III stars and the rare, massive halos that are generally considered to host bright quasars at high redshift (z~6). The main question that we intend to answer is whether the supermassive black holes powering these QSOs grew out from the seeds planted by the first intermediate-mass black holes created in the universe. This question involves a dynamical range of 1013 in mass, and we address it by combining N-body simulations of structure formation to identify the most massive halos at z~6 with a Monte Carlo method based on linear theory to obtain the location and formation times of the first-light halos within the whole simulation box. We show that the descendants of the first ~106 Msolar virialized halos do not, on average, end in the most massive halos at z~6, but rather live in a large variety of environments. The oldest Population III progenitors of the most massive halos at z~6 form instead from density peaks that are on average 1.5 σ more common than the first Population III star formed in the volume occupied by one bright high-z QSO. The intermediate-mass black hole seeds planted by the very first Population III stars at z>~40 can easily grow to masses mBH>109.5 Msolar by z=6 assuming Eddington accretion with radiative efficiency ɛ<~0.1. Quenching of the black hole accretion is therefore crucial to avoid an overabundance of supermassive black holes at lower redshift. This can be obtained if the mass accretion is limited to a fraction η~6×10-3 of the total baryon mass of the halo hosting the black hole. The resulting high-end slope of the black hole mass function at z=6 is α~-3.7, a value within the 1 σ error bar for the bright-end slope of the observed quasar luminosity function at z=6.

  19. THE X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE OPTICALLY BRIGHTEST MINI-BAL QUASARS FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have compiled a sample of 14 of the optically brightest radio-quiet quasars (mi ≤ 17.5 and z ≥ 1.9) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 quasar catalog that have C IV mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) present in their spectra. X-ray data for 12 of the objects were obtained via a Chandra snapshot survey using ACIS-S, while data for the other two quasars were obtained from archival XMM-Newton observations. Joint X-ray spectral analysis shows that the mini-BAL quasars have a similar average power-law photon index (Γ ∼ 1.9) and level of intrinsic absorption (NH ∼21 cm-2) as non-BMB (neither BAL nor mini-BAL) quasars. Mini-BAL quasars are more similar to non-BMB quasars than to BAL quasars in their distribution of relative X-ray brightness (assessed with Δαox). Relative colors indicate mild dust reddening in the optical spectra of mini-BAL quasars. Significant correlations between Δαox and UV absorption properties are confirmed for a sample of 56 sources combining mini-BAL and BAL quasars with high signal-to-noise ratio rest-frame UV spectra, which generally supports models in which X-ray absorption is important in enabling driving of the UV absorption-line wind. We also propose alternative parameterizations of the UV absorption properties of mini-BAL and BAL quasars, which may better describe the broad absorption troughs in some respects.

  20. The optical-UV emissivity of quasars: dependence on black hole mass and radio loudness

    CERN Document Server

    Shankar, Francesco; Knigge, Christian; Matthews, James; Buckland, Rachel; Hryniewicz, Krzysztof; Sivakoff, Gregory; Dai, Xinyu; Richardson, Kayleigh; Riley, Jack; Gray, James; La Franca, Fabio; Altamirano, Diego; Croston, Judith; Gandhi, Poshak; Hoenig, Sebastian F; McHardy, Ian; Middleton, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed a large sample of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasar spectra at redshift 1.0 < z < 1.2 to compare the inferred underlying quasar continuum slopes (after removal of the host galaxy contribution) with accretion disk models. The latter predict redder (decreasing) alpha_3000 continuum slopes (L_\

  1. Narrow CIV lambda 1549A Absorption Lines in Moderate-Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2001-01-01

    A large, high-quality spectral data base of well-selected, moderate-redshift radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars is used to characterize the incidence of narrow associated CIV lambda 1549 absorption, and how this may depend on some quasar properties, including radio-type. Preliminary results of this...

  2. Evidence for ultra-fast outflows in radio-quiet AGNs: III - location and energetics

    OpenAIRE

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2012-01-01

    Using the results of a previous X-ray photo-ionization modelling of blue-shifted Fe K absorption lines on a sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton, in this letter we estimate the location and energetics of the associated ultra-fast outflows (UFOs). Due to significant uncertainties, we are essentially able to place only lower/upper limits. On average, their location is in the interval ~0.0003-0.03pc (~10^2-10^4 r_s) from the central black hole, consistent with what is exp...

  3. Discovery of Millimeter-Wave Excess Emission in Radio-Quiet Active Galactic Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Behar, Ehud; Baldi, Ranieri D.; Laor, Ari; Horesh, Assaf; Stevens, Jamie; Tzioumis, Tasso

    2015-01-01

    The physical origin of radio emission in Radio Quiet Active Galactic Nuclei (RQ AGN) remains unclear, whether it is a downscaled version of the relativistic jets typical of Radio Loud (RL) AGN, or whether it originates from the accretion disk. The correlation between 5 GHz and X-ray luminosities of RQ AGN, which follows $L_R = 10^{-5}L_X$ observed also in stellar coronae, suggests an association of both X-ray and radio sources with the accretion disk corona. Observing RQ AGN at higher (mm-wav...

  4. Millimeter-band variability of the radio-quiet nucleus of NGC7469

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Ranieri D.; Behar, Ehud; Laor, Ari; Horesh, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    We report short-cadence monitoring of a radio-quiet Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), NGC7469, at 95 GHz (3 mm) over a period of 70 days with the CARMA telescope. The AGN varies significantly ($\\pm3\\sigma$ from the mean) by a factor of two within 4-5 days. The intrinsic 95 GHz variability amplitude in excess of the measurement noise (10%) and relative to the mean flux is comparable to that in the X-rays, and much higher than at 8.4 GHz. The mm-band variability and its similarity to the X-ray vari...

  5. IDENTIFYING BREAKS AND CURVATURE IN THE FERMI SPECTRA OF BRIGHT FLAT SPECTRUM RADIO QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowing the site of γ-ray emission in active galactic nucleus jets will do much for our understanding of the physics of the source. In particular, if the emission region is close to the black hole then absorption of γ-rays with photons from the broad-line region could become significant. Such absorption is predicted to produce two specific spectral breaks in the γ-ray spectra of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs). We test this hypothesis using three years of Fermi observations of nine bright FSRQs. A simple power-law fit to the spectrum of each source can be significantly improved by introducing a break, but the break energies are inconsistent with those predicted by the double-absorber model. In some cases the fit can be further improved by a log-parabola. In addition, by dividing the data from each source into two equal epochs we find that the best description of an object's spectrum often varies between a log-parabola and a broken power law.

  6. ALMA Science Verification Data: Millimeter Continuum Polarimetry of the Bright Radio Quasar 3C 286

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, H; Paladino, R; Hull, C L H; Cortes, P; Moellenbrock, G; Fomalont, E; Asada, K; Hada, K

    2016-01-01

    We present full-polarization observations of the compact, steep-spectrum radio quasar 3C~286 made with the ALMA at 1.3~mm. These are the first full-polarization ALMA observations, which were obtained in the framework of Science Verification. A bright core and a south-west component are detected in the total intensity image, similar to previous centimeter images. Polarized emission is also detected toward both components. The fractional polarization of the core is about 17\\%, this is higher than the fractional polarization at centimeter wavelengths, suggesting that the magnetic field is even more ordered in the millimeter radio core than it is further downstream in the jet. The observed polarization position angle (or EVPA) in the core is $\\sim$\\,$39^{\\circ}$, which confirms the trend that the EVPA slowly increases from centimeter to millimeter wavelengths. With the aid of multi-frequency VLBI observations, we argue that this EVPA change is associated with the frequency-dependent core position. We also report ...

  7. ALMA Science Verification Data: Millimeter Continuum Polarimetry of the Bright Radio Quasar 3C 286

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, H.; Nakanishi, K.; Paladino, R.; Hull, C. L. H.; Cortes, P.; Moellenbrock, G.; Fomalont, E.; Asada, K.; Hada, K.

    2016-06-01

    We present full-polarization observations of the compact, steep-spectrum radio quasar 3C 286 made with the Atacama Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 1.3 mm. These are the first full-polarization ALMA observations, which were obtained in the framework of Science Verification. A bright core and a south–west component are detected in the total intensity image, similar to previous centimeter images. Polarized emission is also detected toward both components. The fractional polarization of the core is about 17%; this is higher than the fractional polarization at centimeter wavelengths, suggesting that the magnetic field is even more ordered in the millimeter radio core than it is further downstream in the jet. The observed polarization position angle (or electric vector position angle (EVPA)) in the core is ˜39◦, which confirms the trend that the EVPA slowly increases from centimeter to millimeter wavelengths. With the aid of multi-frequency VLBI observations, we argue that this EVPA change is associated with the frequency-dependent core position. We also report a serendipitous detection of a sub-mJy source in the field of view, which is likely to be a submillimeter galaxy.

  8. Determination of the coronal properties of a very luminous quasar at z=1.77

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, E.; Risaliti, G.; Celotti, A.

    2016-06-01

    We present an analysis of the joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations of the extremely luminous (L_{X}>10^{46} {erg/s}) radio-quiet quasar QSO B2202-209, at redshift {z}=1.77. At this redshift, the shift of the high-energy cutoff in the observer frame compensates for the relative faintness of the source, allowing an estimate of the coronal temperature analogous to the ones done for local, low luminosity but very bright AGN. Assuming a Comptonisation model, we estimated the coronal temperature to be kT_{e}=130_{-7.4}^{+7.9} keV and kT_{e}=136_{-8.7}^{+8.4} keV for a spherical and a slab geometry, respectively. The coronal temperature is comparable to the ones derived for local AGN, despite a difference of more than two orders of magnitude in X-ray luminosity and black hole mass.

  9. On the completeness of a sample of bright quasars selected by colour excess in the direction of the North Galactic Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Medium Bright Quasar survey (MBQS) shows evidence for a dearth of bright quasars in a Palomar Schmidt field centred on Selected Area (SA) 57 near the North Galactic Pole, compared to similar fields centred on SA 28, 29, 55, and 94. The SA 57 field has been searched again for bright quasar candidates with the held of a second survey plate exposed according to a slightly modified Haro-Luyten three-colour (Tonantzintla) prescription. Candidates so selected have both a blue and ultraviolet excess (B-UVX). The main result of the paper is that there appear to be no B-UVX quasars in the SA 57 field that are brighter than B=17.25 mag. The significance of this apparent anomaly is briefly discussed. (author)

  10. The Hard X-ray Spectral Slope as an Accretion-Rate Indicator in Radio-Quiet Active Galactic Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Shemmer, Ohad; Brandt, W. N.; Netzer, Hagai; Maiolino, Roberto; Kaspi, Shai

    2006-01-01

    We present new XMM-Newton observations of two luminous and high accretion-rate radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z~2. Together with archival X-ray and rest-frame optical spectra of three sources with similar properties as well as 25 moderate-luminosity radio-quiet AGNs at z~2 keV) X-ray power-law photon index on the broad H_beta emission-line width and on the accretion rate across ~3 orders of magnitude in AGN luminosity. Provided the accretion rates of the five luminous sources ca...

  11. RadioAstron Observations of the Quasar 3C273: A Challenge to the Brightness Temperature Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kardashev, N. S.; Kellermann, K. I.; Lobanov, A. P.; Johnson, M. D.; Gurvits, L. I.; Voitsik, P. A.; Zensus, J. A.; Anderson, J. M.; Bach, U.; Jauncey, D. L.; Ghigo, F.; Ghosh, T.; Kraus, A.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Lisakov, M. M.; Petrov, L. Yu.; Romney, J. D.; Salter, C. J.; Sokolovsky, K. V.

    2016-03-01

    Inverse Compton cooling limits the brightness temperature of the radiating plasma to a maximum of 1011.5 K. Relativistic boosting can increase its observed value, but apparent brightness temperatures much in excess of 1013 K are inaccessible using ground-based very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) at any wavelength. We present observations of the quasar 3C 273, made with the space VLBI mission RadioAstron on baselines up to 171,000 km, which directly reveal the presence of angular structure as small as 26 μas (2.7 light months) and brightness temperature in excess of 1013 K. These measurements challenge our understanding of the non-thermal continuum emission in the vicinity of supermassive black holes and require a much higher Doppler factor than what is determined from jet apparent kinematics.

  12. RadioAstron Observations of the Quasar 3C273: a Challenge to the Brightness Temperature Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalev, Y Y; Kellermann, K I; Lobanov, A P; Johnson, M D; Gurvits, L I; Voitsik, P A; Zensus, J A; Anderson, J M; Bach, U; Jauncey, D L; Ghigo, F; Ghosh, T; Kraus, A; Kovalev, Yu A; Lisakov, M M; Petrov, L Yu; Romney, J D; Salter, C J; Sokolovsky, K V

    2016-01-01

    Inverse Compton cooling limits the brightness temperature of the radiating plasma to a maximum of $10^{11.5}$ K. Relativistic boosting can increase its observed value, but apparent brightness temperatures much in excess of $10^{13}$ K are inaccessible using ground-based very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) at any wavelength. We present observations of the quasar 3C273, made with the space VLBI mission RadioAstron on baselines up to 171,000 km, which directly reveal the presence of angular structure as small as 26 $\\mu$as (2.7 light months) and brightness temperature in excess of $10^{13}$ K. These measurements challenge our understanding of the non-thermal continuum emission in the vicinity of supermassive black holes and require much higher jet speeds than are observed.

  13. DETERMINING QUASAR BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTIONS FROM THEIR BROAD EMISSION LINES: APPLICATION TO THE BRIGHT QUASAR SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a Bayesian approach to estimating quasar black hole mass functions (BHMF) using the broad emission lines to estimate black hole mass. We show how using the broad-line mass estimates in combination with statistical techniques developed for luminosity function estimation (e.g., the 1/Va correction) leads to statistically biased results. We derive the likelihood function for the BHMF based on the broad-line mass estimates, and derive the posterior distribution for the BHMF, given the observed data. We develop our statistical approach for a flexible model where the BHMF is modeled as a mixture of Gaussian functions. Statistical inference is performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, and we describe a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to perform the MCMC. The MCMC simulates random draws from the probability distribution of the BHMF parameters, given the data, and we use a simulated data set to show how these random draws may be used to estimate the probability distribution for the BHMF. In addition, we show how the MCMC output may be used to estimate the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF, such as the peak in the space density of quasars. Our method has the advantage that it is able to constrain the BHMF even beyond the survey detection limits at the adopted confidence level, accounts for measurement errors and the intrinsic uncertainty in broad-line mass estimates, and provides a natural way of estimating the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF. We conclude by using our method to estimate the local active BHMF using the z BH ∼> 108 M sun. Our analysis implies that at a given M BH, z < 0.5 broad-line quasars have a typical Eddington ratio of ∼0.4 and a dispersion in Eddington ratio of ∼<0.5 dex.

  14. A very bright i=16.44 quasar in the `redshift desert' discovered by LAMOST

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Jia, Zhendong; Zuo, Wenwen; Zhao, Yongheng; Luo, Ali; Bai, Zhongrui; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Haotong; Yan, Hongliang; Ren, Juanjuan; Sun, Shiwei; Wu, Hong; Zhang, Yong; Li, Yeping; Lu, Qishuai; Wang, You; Ni, Jijun; Wang, Hai; Kong, Xu; Shen, Shiyin

    2010-01-01

    The redshift range from 2.2 to 3, is known as the 'redshift desert' of quasars because quasars with redshift in this range have similar optical colors as normal stars and are thus difficult to be found in optical sky surveys. A quasar candidate, SDSS J085543.40-001517.7, which was selected by a recently proposed criterion involving near-IR $Y-K$ and optical $g-z$ colors, was identified spectroscopically as a new quasar with redshift of 2.427 by the LAMOST commissioning observation in December 2009 and confirmed by the observation made with the NAOC/Xinglong 2.16m telescope in March 2010. This quasar was not targeted in the SDSS spectroscopic survey because it locates in the stellar locus of the optical color-color diagrams, while it is clearly separated from stars in the $Y-K$ vs. $g-z$ diagram. Comparing with other SDSS quasars we found this new quasar with $i$ magnitude of 16.44 is apparently the brightest one in the redshift range from 2.3 to 2.7. From the spectral properties we derived its central black h...

  15. GALEX far-UV color selection of UV-bright high-redshift quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Worseck, Gábor; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2010-01-01

    We study the small population of z>2.7 quasars detected by GALEX, whose far-UV emission is not extinguished by intervening HI Lyman limit systems. These quasars are of particular importance to detect intergalactic HeII absorption along their sightlines. We correlate verified z>2.7 quasars to the GALEX GR4 source catalog, yielding 304 S/N>3 sources. However, ~50% of these are only detected in the GALEX NUV band, signaling the truncation of the FUV flux by low-redshift Lyman limit systems. We e...

  16. Milimetre-band variability of the radio-quiet nucleus of NGC 7469

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Ranieri D.; Behar, Ehud; Laor, Ari; Horesh, Assaf

    2015-12-01

    We report short-cadence monitoring of a radio-quiet (RQ) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), NGC 7469, at 95 GHz (3 mm) over a period of 70 d with the CARMA telescope. The AGN varies significantly (±3σ from the mean) by a factor of 2 within 4-5 d. The intrinsic 95 GHz variability amplitude in excess of the measurement noise (10 per cent) and relative to the mean flux is comparable to that in the X-rays, and much higher than at 8.4 GHz. The mm-band variability and its similarity to the X-ray variability adds to the evidence that the mm and X-ray emission have the same physical origin, and are associated with the accretion disc corona.

  17. Millimeter-band variability of the radio-quiet nucleus of NGC7469

    CERN Document Server

    Baldi, Ranieri D; Laor, Ari; Horesh, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    We report short-cadence monitoring of a radio-quiet Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), NGC7469, at 95 GHz (3 mm) over a period of 70 days with the CARMA telescope. The AGN varies significantly ($\\pm3\\sigma$ from the mean) by a factor of two within 4-5 days. The intrinsic 95 GHz variability amplitude in excess of the measurement noise (10%) and relative to the mean flux is comparable to that in the X-rays, and much higher than at 8.4 GHz. The mm-band variability and its similarity to the X-ray variability adds to the evidence that the mm and X-ray emission have the same physical origin, and are associated with the accretion disk corona.

  18. Multiband Comparative Study of Optical Microvariability in RL vs. RQ Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, A.; de Diego, J. A.; González-Pérez, J. N.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of an optical multiband (BVR) photometric monitoring program of 22 core-dominated radio-loud quasars (CRLQs) and 22 radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). The aim was to compare the properties of microvariability in both types of quasars. We detected optical microvariability in five RQQs and four CRLQs. Our results confirm that microvariability in RQQs may be as frequent as in CRLQs. In addition, we compare microvariability duty cycles in different bands. Finally, the implications...

  19. GALEX FAR-ULTRAVIOLET COLOR SELECTION OF UV-BRIGHT HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the small population of high-redshift (zem>2.7) quasars detected by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer(GALEX), whose far-UV emission is not extinguished by intervening H I Lyman limit systems. These quasars are of particular importance to detect intergalactic He II absorption along their sight lines. We correlate almost all verified zem>2.7 quasars to the GALEX GR4 source catalog covering ∼ 25,000 deg2, yielding 304 sources detected at signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) >3. However, ∼50% of these are only detected in the GALEX NUV band, signaling the truncation of the FUV flux by low-redshift optically thick Lyman limit systems. We exploit the GALEX UV color mFUV - mNUV to cull the most promising targets for follow-up studies, with blue (red) GALEX colors indicating transparent (opaque) sight lines. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations indicate an He II detection rate of ∼60% for quasars with mFUV - mNUV ∼em ∼3 to be most promising for Hubble Space Telescope follow-up, with an additional 114 quasars if we consider S/N >2 detections in the FUV. Combining the statistical properties of H I absorbers with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar luminosity function, we predict a large all-sky population of ∼200 quasars with zem>2.7 and i ∼304 em ∼em ∼em ∼< 3.5 quasars have likely underestimated their space density by selecting intergalactic medium sight lines with an excess of strong H I absorbers.

  20. Correlations between Optical Variability and Physical Parameters of Quasars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wenwen Zuo; Xue-Bing Wu; Yi-Qing Liu; Cheng-Liang Jiao

    2014-09-01

    Optical variability is an important feature of quasars. Taking advantage of a larger sample of 7658 quasars from SDSS Stripe 82 and relatively more photometric data points for each quasar, we estimate their variability amplitudes and divide the sample into small bins of various parameters. An anticorrelation between variability amplitude and rest-frame wavelength is found. Variability increases as either luminosity or Eddington ratio decreases. The relationship between variability and black hole mass is uncertain. The intrinsic distribution of variability amplitudes for radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars are different. Both radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars exhibit a bluer-when-brighter chromatism. With the Shakura–Sunyaev disk model, we find that changes of accretion rate play an important role in producing the observed optical variability. However, the predicted positive correlation between variability and black hole mass seems to be inconsistent with the observed negative correlation between them in small bins of Eddington ratio, which suggests that other physical mechanisms may still need to be considered in modifying the simple accretion disk model. The different mechanisms in radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars are discussed.

  1. EXAMINING THE RADIO-LOUD/RADIO-QUIET DICHOTOMY WITH NEW CHANDRA AND VLA OBSERVATIONS OF 13 UGC GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results from new ∼15 ks Chandra-ACIS and 4.9 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) observations of 13 galaxies hosting low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This completes the multiwavelength study of a sample of 51 nearby early-type galaxies described in Capetti and Balmaverde and Balmaverde and Capetti. The aim of the three previous papers was to explore the connection between the host galaxies and AGN activity in a radio-selected sample. We detect nuclear X-ray emission in eight sources and radio emission in all but one (viz., UGC 6985). The new VLA observations improve the spatial resolution by a factor of 10: the presence of nuclear radio sources in 12 of the 13 galaxies confirms their AGN nature. As previously indicated, the behavior of the X-ray and radio emission in these sources depends strongly on the form of their optical surface brightness profiles derived from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, i.e., on their classification as 'core', 'power-law', or 'intermediate' galaxies. With more than twice the number of 'power-law' and 'intermediate' galaxies compared to previous work, we confirm with a much higher statistical significance that these galaxies lie well above the radio-X-ray correlation established in Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxies and the low-luminosity 'core' galaxies. This result highlights the fact that the 'radio-loud/radio-quiet' dichotomy is a function of the host galaxy's optical surface brightness profile. We present radio-optical-X-ray spectral indices for all 51 sample galaxies. Survival statistics point to significant differences in the radio-to-optical and radio-to-X-ray spectral indices between the 'core' and 'power-law galaxies (Gehan's Generalized Wilcoxon test probability p for the two classes being statistically similar is –5), but not in the optical-to-X-ray spectral indices (p = 0.25). Therefore, the primary difference between the 'core' and 'power-law' galaxies is in their ability to launch powerful radio

  2. New Insights on the QSO Radio-Loud/Radio-Quiet Dichotomy: SDSS Spectra in the Context of the 4D Eigenvector1 Parameter Space

    CERN Document Server

    Zamfir, Sebastian; Marziani, Paola

    2008-01-01

    We search fora dichotomy/bimodality between Radio Loud (RL) and Radio Quiet (RQ) Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We examine several samples of SDSS QSOs with high S/N optical spectra and matching FIRST/NVSS radio observations. We use the radio data to identify the weakest RL sources with FRII structure to define a RL/RQ boundary which corresponds to log L$_{1.4GHz}$=31.6 ergs s$^{-1}$ Hz$^{-1}$. We measure properties of broad line H$\\beta$ and FeII emission to define the optical plane of a 4DE1 spectroscopic diagnostic space. The RL quasars occupy a much more restricted domain in this optical plane compared to the RQ sources, which a 2D Kolmogorov-Smirnov test finds to be highly significant. This tells us that the range of BLR kinematics and structure for RL sources is more restricted than for the RQ QSOs, which supports the notion of dichotomy. FRII and CD RL sources also show significant 4DE1 domain differences that likely reflect differences in line of sight orientation (inclined vs. face-on respectiv...

  3. Weak hard X-ray emission from two broad absorption line quasars observed with NuSTAR: Compton-thick absorption or intrinsic X-ray weakness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.;

    2013-01-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus...

  4. Spectropolarimetry of Radio-Selected Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Brotherton, M. S.; Becker, R. H.; Tran, H. D.; Gregg, M. D.; White, R L; Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    We report spectropolarimetry of 30 radio-selected broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with the Keck Observatory, 25 from the sample of Becker et al. (2000). Both high and low-ionization BAL quasars are represented, with redshifts ranging from 0.5 to 2.5. The spectropolarimetric properties of radio-selected BAL quasars are very similar to those of radio-quiet BAL quasars: a sizeable fraction (20%) show large continuum polarization (2-10%) usually rising toward short wavelengths, emission lines...

  5. The Infrared Environment of Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, G.

    1996-12-01

    The IRAS survey has shown that the spectral energy distribution of quasars exhibits a relative maximum in the mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The infrared bump is present at about the same level in both radio quiet and radio loud quasars. The generally accepted explanation is that the infrared emission is dominated by thermal emission from dust grains within a few parsecs of a central non thermal source. The results of an observational test of this explanation in the near- and mid-infrared wavelengths will be described. In the near-infrared, the emission from quasars is sometimes significantly contaminated by galaxy light from the host galaxies surrounding the quasar. Infrared observations which emphasize these hosts will also be shown and the possible relationship between AGNs and the ultraluminous galaxies will be discussed.

  6. Occurrence and Global Properties of Narrow CIV lambda 1549 Absorption Lines in Moderate-Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    A statistical study is presented of (a) the frequency of narrow CIV lambda 1549 absorption lines in 1.5 ~50%) of narrow CIV absorbers is detected for the radio-quiet and radio-loud quasars, and a constant ~25% of all the quasars, irrespective of radio type display associated CIV absorbers stronger...... than a rest equivalent width of 0.5A. Both radio-quiet and radio-loud quasars with narrow absorption lines have systematically redder continua, especially strongly absorbed objects. There is evidence of inclination dependent dust reddening and absorption for the radio quasars. An additional key result...... is that the most strongly absorbed radio quasars have the largest radio source extent. This result is in stark contrast to a recent study of the low-frequency selected Molonglo survey in which a connection between the strength of the narrow absorbers and the (young) age of the radio source has been...

  7. One millimeter continuum observations of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-one extragalactic objects including radio quiet quasars, radio loud quasars, and blazars (BL Lac objects and OVV quasars) have been observed at a wavelength of one millimeter. The measured 1mm flux densities agree with direct extensions of the radio continua of blazars and radio loud quasars. Furthermore, for the blazars, the 1mm flux density is correlated with an extrapolation of the power law infrared continuum. This result is supportive of a model in which the radio through optical continuum of blazars is beamed synchrotron radiation from a relativistic jet. No radio quiet quasar was detected at a wavelength of 1mm to a limiting flux density of 1 Jy. The steep inverted radio continua characteristic of synchrotron self-absorption and free-free absorption models for radio quiet quasars are incompatible with the 1mm flux density upper limits. The quiet radio continuum from a relativistic jet oriented away from the observer's line of sight is consistent with the 1mm observations. A Comptonization model for quasar infrared emission, in which low frequency photons are upscattered by a thermal plasma, will be in accord with the 1mm and infrared data provided the frequencies of the soft photons are in the range 1012 to 1013Hz. Repeated measurements have established that the 1mm flux densities of 3C273, BL Lac, 3C84, OJ287, and 3C345 are variable on the time scale of a few months. Emission outbursts of blazars occur simultaneously and have similar amplitude at wavelengths of 1mm and 2cm. This result cannot be accounted for in the canonical expanding source model of radio variability, injection-type models, in which emission variability is governed by a change in the number of radiating electrons are preferred

  8. One millimeter continuum observations of quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennis, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Forty-one extragalactic objects including radio quiet quasars, radio loud quasars, and blazars (BL Lac objects and OVV quasars) have been observed at a wavelength of one millimeter. The measured 1mm flux densities agree with direct extensions of the radio continua of blazars and radio loud quasars. Furthermore, for the blazars, the 1mm flux density is correlated with an extrapolation of the power law infrared continuum. This result is supportive of a model in which the radio through optical continuum of blazars is beamed synchrotron radiation from a relativistic jet. No radio quiet quasar was detected at a wavelength of 1mm to a limiting flux density of 1 Jy. The steep inverted radio continua characteristic of synchrotron self-absorption and free-free absorption models for radio quiet quasars are incompatible with the 1mm flux density upper limits. The quiet radio continuum from a relativistic jet oriented away from the observer's line of sight is consistent with the 1mm observations. A Comptonization model for quasar infrared emission, in which low frequency photons are upscattered by a thermal plasma, will be in accord with the 1mm and infrared data provided the frequencies of the soft photons are in the range 10/sup 12/ to 10/sup 13/Hz. Repeated measurements have established that the 1mm flux densities of 3C273, BL Lac, 3C84, OJ287, and 3C345 are variable on the time scale of a few months. Emission outbursts of blazars occur simultaneously and have similar amplitude at wavelengths of 1mm and 2cm. This result cannot be accounted for in the canonical expanding source model of radio variability, injection-type models, in which emission variability is governed by a change in the number of radiating electrons are preferred.

  9. Satellite emission features in two Seyfert galaxies: New evidence that radio-quiet AGN possess subrelativistic winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocke, John T.; Shull, Michael; Granados, Arno F.; Sachs, Elise R.

    1994-01-01

    is a physical feature of many radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN).

  10. NASA gateways at L1 and L2 and the radio-quiet Moon Farside imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2005-07-01

    NASA is currently studying the possibility of establishing future space bases at either of the libration points (also called Lagrangian points) L1 and L2 of the Earth Moon system. Two more similar points L1 and L2 of the Sun Earth system are also under consideration. Such possible future space bases are called Gateways in the NASA jargon. Each Gateway has its own pros and cons in terms of gravitational pull, distance from the Earth, and targets attainable by future spacecraft departing from the Gateway. A preliminary, concise review of these alternative possibilities is presented in this paper. We claim, however, that an extra factor has to be included in the NASA scenario also. This is the Radio-Quiet Moon Farside Imperative, called simply the Farside Imperative hereafter. This imperative is the need to keep at least the central part of the Farside of the Moon free from Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) coming from the Earth and shielded by the Moon's spherical body. In fact, the Farside of the Moon, and the Quiet Cone that extends into space above it for a few thousands of kilometers, represent a unique outpost for humankind: they are the only place close to the Earth where all radio-garbage produced by modern human civilization cannot reach. Thus, an array of radio antennas located there would sense the rest of the universe to an unprecedented degree of radio cleanliness, and, hence, of radio details. Not only would astrophysics and radio astronomy in general greatly benefit from this radio-quiet environment, but we would possibly achieve there for the first time a neat radio contact with an extraterrestrial civilization harboring somewhere else in the Galaxy (SETI) that could be too noisy to be detected on Earth. It is thus felt that a fair balance has to be reached between the astronautical drive to enlarge the exploration of the solar system and the imperative to keep the Farside of the Moon radio-clean. This paper puts forward a set of constructing

  11. UBVRI photometry of bright GB/GB2 radio galaxies and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoelectric UBVRI observations of 25 radio galaxies brighter than V ∼ 17 mag, and 14 quasars and other stellar objects brighter than V ∼ 18 mag are presented and discussed. These objects coincide with the GB/GB2 radio sources, extensively observed with the VLA at 1465 MHz. Galaxy broad-band colours confirm that most of these galaxies are giant ellipticals. (author)

  12. Testing Disk-Wind Models with Quasar CIV 1549Å Associated Absorption Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Narrow associated C IV 1549Å absorption lines (NALs) with a rest equivalent width EW =3 Å detected in z ˜ 2 radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, (a) exhibit evidence of an origin in radiatively accelerated gas, and (b) may be closely related to broad absorption line (BAL) outflows. These NALs and...

  13. Evidence for ultrafast outflows in radio-quiet AGNs - III. Location and energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2012-05-01

    Using the results of a previous X-ray photoionization modelling of blueshifted Fe K absorption lines on a sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton, in this Letter we estimate the location and energetics of the associated ultrafast outflows (UFOs). Due to significant uncertainties, we are essentially able to place only lower/upper limits. On average, their location is in the interval ˜0.0003-0.03 pc (˜ 102-104rs) from the central black hole, consistent with what is expected for accretion disc winds/outflows. The mass outflow rates are constrained between ˜0.01 and 1 M⊙ yr-1, corresponding to >rsim5-10 per cent of the accretion rates. The average lower/upper limits on the mechanical power are log? 42.6-44.6 erg s-1. However, the minimum possible value of the ratio between the mechanical power and bolometric luminosity is constrained to be comparable or higher than the minimum required by simulations of feedback induced by winds/outflows. Therefore, this work demonstrates that UFOs are indeed capable to provide a significant contribution to the AGN cosmological feedback, in agreement with theoretical expectations and the recent observation of interactions between AGN outflows and the interstellar medium in several Seyfert galaxies.

  14. Evidence for Ultra-Fast Outflows in Radio-Quiet AGNs: III - Location and Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2012-01-01

    Using the results of a previous X-ray photo-ionization modelling of blue-shifted Fe K absorption lines on a sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton, in this letter we estimate the location and energetics of the associated ultrafast outflows (UFOs). Due to significant uncertainties, we are essentially able to place only lower/upper limits. On average, their location is in the interval approx.0.0003-0.03pc (approx.10(exp 2)-10(exp 4)tau(sub s) from the central black hole, consistent with what is expected for accretion disk winds/outflows. The mass outflow rates are constrained between approx.0.01- 1 Stellar Mass/y, corresponding to approx. or >5-10% of the accretion rates. The average lower-upper limits on the mechanical power are logE(sub K) approx. or = 42.6-44.6 erg/s. However, the minimum possible value of the ratio between the mechanical power and bolometric luminosity is constrained to be comparable or higher than the minimum required by simulations of feedback induced by winds/outflows. Therefore, this work demonstrates that UFOs are indeed capable to provide a significant contribution to the AGN r.osmological feedback, in agreement with theoretical expectations and the recent observation of interactions between AGN outflows and the interstellar medium in several Seyferts galaxies .

  15. Evidence for ultra-fast outflows in radio-quiet AGNs: III - location and energetics

    CERN Document Server

    Tombesi, F; Reeves, J N; Braito, V

    2012-01-01

    Using the results of a previous X-ray photo-ionization modelling of blue-shifted Fe K absorption lines on a sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton, in this letter we estimate the location and energetics of the associated ultra-fast outflows (UFOs). Due to significant uncertainties, we are essentially able to place only lower/upper limits. On average, their location is in the interval ~0.0003-0.03pc (~10^2-10^4 r_s) from the central black hole, consistent with what is expected for accretion disk winds/outflows. The mass outflow rates are constrained between ~0.01-1 M_{\\odot} yr^{-1}, corresponding to >5-10% of the accretion rates. The average lower-upper limits on the mechanical power are log\\dot{E}_K~42.6-44.6 erg s^{-1}. However, the minimum possible value of the ratio between the mechanical power and bolometric luminosity is constrained to be comparable or higher than the minimum required by simulations of feedback induced by winds/outflows. Therefore, this work demonstrates that UFOs ...

  16. White-light observations of radio-quiet and radio-loud interplanetary shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Interplanetary (IP) shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are generally indicative of energetic CMEs. These shocks are important source of energetic particles in the heliosphere either directly by particle detectors or by type II radio bursts. There are several in situ shock signatures at 1 AU such as storm sudden commencement, energetic storm particle events, and plasma and magnetic field signatures. However, existence of type II bursts has been the only primary signature near the Sun, apart from occasional white-light signatures. In this paper, we show that there is a significant difference between CMEs that are associated with radio-quiet and radio-loud from the point of view of the type II radio bursts. We interpret the difference in terms of the well-known spatial relationship between shock and the driving CME. For this purpose, we make use of the shocks detected during solar cycle 23 and the associated CMEs from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission.

  17. The average x-ray/$\\gamma$-ray spectrum of radio-quiet Seyfert 1s

    CERN Document Server

    Gondek-Rosinska, D; Johnson, W N; George, I M; McNaron-Brown, K; Magdziarz, P; Smith, D; Gruber, E

    1996-01-01

    We have obtained the average 1--500 keV spectrum of radio-quiet Seyfert 1s using data from EXOSAT, Ginga, HEAO, and GRO/OSSE. The spectral fit to the combined average EXOSAT and OSSE data is fully consistent with that for Ginga and OSSE, confirming results from an earlier Ginga/OSSE sample. The average spectrum is well-fitted by a power-law X-ray continuum with an energy spectral index of \\alpha \\simeq 0.9 moderately absorbed by an ionized medium and with a Compton reflection component. A high-energy cutoff (or a break) in the the power-law component at a few hundred keV or more is required by the data. We also show that the corresponding average spectrum from HEAO A1 and A4 is fully compatible with that obtained from EXOSAT, Ginga and OSSE. These results confirm that the apparent discrepancy between the results of Ginga (with \\alpha \\simeq 0.9) and the previous results of EXOSAT and HEAO (with \\alpha \\simeq 0.7) is indeed due to ionized absorption and Compton reflection first taken into account for Ginga but...

  18. Radio-quiet and radio-loud pulsars: similar in Gamma-rays but different in X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Marelli, M; De Luca, A; Parkinson, P M Saz; Salvetti, D; Hartog, P R Den; Wolff, M T

    2015-01-01

    We present new Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a sample of eight radio-quiet Gamma-ray pulsars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. For all eight pulsars we identify the X-ray counterpart, based on the X-ray source localization and the best position obtained from Gamma-ray pulsar timing. For PSR J2030+4415 we found evidence for an about 10 arcsec-long pulsar wind nebula. Our new results consolidate the work from Marelli et al. 2011 and confirm that, on average, the Gamma-ray--to--X-ray flux ratios (Fgamma/Fx) of radio-quiet pulsars are higher than for the radio-loud ones. Furthermore, while the Fgamma/Fx distribution features a single peak for the radio-quiet pulsars, the distribution is more dispersed for the radio-loud ones, possibly showing two peaks. We discuss possible implications of these different distributions based on current models for pulsar X-ray emission.

  19. An X-Shooter composite of bright 1 < z < 2 quasars from UV to infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selsing, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Christensen, L.; Krogager, J.-K.

    2016-01-01

    Quasi-stellar object (QSO) spectral templates are important both to QSO physics and for investigations that use QSOs as probes of intervening gas and dust. However, combinations of various QSO samples obtained at different times and with different instruments so as to expand a composite and to cover a wider rest frame wavelength region may create systematic effects, and the contribution from QSO hosts may contaminate the composite. We have constructed a composite spectrum from luminous blue QSOs at 1 github.com/jselsing/QuasarComposite

  20. A proposed space mission around the Moon to measure the Moon Radio-Quiet Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonietti, N.; Pagana, G.; Pluchino, S.; Maccone, C.

    In a series of papers published since 2000 mainly in Acta Astronautica the senior author Maccone dealt with the advantages of the Farside of the Moon for future utilization Clearly the Moon Farside is free from RFI Radio Frequency Interference produced in larger and larger amounts by the increasing human exploitation of radio technologies That author suggested that crater Daedalus located at the center of the Farside was the best possible location to build up in the future one or more radiotelescopes or phased arrays to achieve the maximum sensitivity in radioastronomical and SETI searches Also a radio-quiet region of space above the Farside of the Moon exists and is called the Quiet Cone The Quiet Cone actual size however is largely unknown since it depends on the orbits of radio-emitting satellites around the Earth that are themselves largely unknown due to the military involvements In addition diffraction of electromagnetic waves grazing the surface of the Moon causes further changes in the geometrical shape of the Quiet Cone This riddle can be solved only by direct measurements of the radio attenuation above the Farside of the Moon performed by satellites orbiting the Moon itself In this paper we propose to let one or more low cost radiometers be put into orbit around the Moon to measure the RFI attenuation at different frequencies and altitudes above the Moon The opportunity of adding more payload s such as an ion detector and or a temperature sensor is evaluated also In this regard we present in this paper the experience gained by

  1. Estimating the size of a radio quiet zone for the radio astronomy service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Han, Wenjun

    2009-12-01

    The size of a radio quiet zone (RQZ) is largely determined by transmission losses of interfering signals, which can be divided into free space loss and diffraction loss. The free space loss is dominant. The diffraction loss presented in this paper is described as unified smooth spherical and knife edge diffractions, which is a function of minimum path clearance. We present a complete method to calculate the minimum path clearance. The cumulative distribution of the lapse rate of refractivity ( g n ), between the earth surface and 1 km above, is studied by using Chinese radio climate data. Because the size of an RQZ is proportional to g n , the cumulative distribution of g n can be used as an approximation for the size of the RQZ. When interference originates from mobile communication or television transmissions at a frequency of 408 MHz, and overline {g_n } is 40 N/km, where the refractivity N=left( {n-1} right) × 10^6, the size of the RQZ would be 180 km for a mobile source or 210 km for a television source, with a probability in the range of 15-100% in different months and for different stations. When speaking of the size of an RQZ, the radius in the case of a circular zone is implied. It results that a size of an RQZ is mainly influenced by transmission loss rather than effective radiated power. In the case where the distance between an interfering source and a radio astronomical observatory is about 100 km, at a frequency of 408 MHz, the allowable effective radiated power of the interfering source should be less than -30 dBW with a probability of about 85% for overline {g_n } equals 40 N/km, or -42 dBW with a probability less than 1 % for overline {g_n } equals 80 N/km.

  2. Multiwavelength polarization observations of the γ-ray bright quasar PKS 0420-014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitskiy I.S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze total and polarized intensity images of the quasar PKS 0420-014 obtained monthly with the VLBA at 43 GHz during 2008–2012 along with γ-ray data provided by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and multi-color photometric and polarimetric measurements collected by different optical telescopes. During this period the quasar underwent a number of optical flares, which were accompanied by rapid rotation of polarization angle, an increase of activity in γ-rays, and the appearance of new superluminal knots in the parsec-scale jet. We investigate the fine structure of the flares at different wavelengths and in polarized light, and determine kinematic parameters of the knots. We compare the rapid evolution of the optical polarization with the polarization of the VLBI core and knots. We interpret the multi-wavelength behavior within a model that places the blazar “dissipation zone” at the millimeter-wave core of the parsec-scale jet.

  3. Black Hole Mass Estimates of Radio Selected Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Oshlack, Alicia; Webster, Rachel; Whiting, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    The black hole (BH) mass in the centre of AGN has been estimated for a sample of radio-selected flat-spectrum quasars to investigate the relationship between BH mass and radio properties of quasars. We have used the virial assumption with measurements of the H$\\beta$ FWHM and luminosity to estimate the central BH mass. In contrast to previous studies we find no correlation between BH mass and radio power in these AGN. We find a range in BH mass similar to that seen in radio-quiet quasars from...

  4. THE HALO OCCUPATION DISTRIBUTION OF X-RAY-BRIGHT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: A COMPARISON WITH LUMINOUS QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform halo occupation distribution (HOD) modeling of the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of high-redshift (z ∼ 1.2) X-ray-bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the XMM-COSMOS field measured by Allevato et al. The HOD parameterization is based on low-luminosity AGNs in cosmological simulations. At the median redshift of z ∼ 1.2, we derive a median mass of 1.02-0.23+0.21×1013 h-1 Msun for halos hosting central AGNs and an upper limit of ∼10% on the AGN satellite fraction. Our modeling results indicate (at the 2.5σ level) that X-ray AGNs reside in more massive halos compared to more bolometrically luminous, optically selected quasars at similar redshift. The modeling also yields constraints on the duty cycle of the X-ray AGN, and we find that at z ∼ 1.2 the average duration of the X-ray AGN phase is two orders of magnitude longer than that of the quasar phase. Our inferred mean occupation function of X-ray AGNs is similar to recent empirical measurements with a group catalog and suggests that AGN halo occupancy increases with increasing halo mass. We project the XMM-COSMOS 2PCF measurements to forecast the required survey parameters needed in future AGN clustering studies to enable higher precision HOD constraints and determinations of key physical parameters like the satellite fraction and duty cycle. We find that N 2/A ∼ 5 × 106 deg–2 (with N the number of AGNs in a survey area of A deg2) is sufficient to constrain the HOD parameters at the 10% level, which is easily achievable by upcoming and proposed X-ray surveys

  5. Discovery of low-redshift X-ray selected quasars - New clues to the QSO phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, J. E.; Forman, W. R.; Steiner, J. E.; Canizares, C. R.; Mcclintock, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The identification of six X-ray sources discovered by the Einstein Observatory with X-ray quasars is reported, and the properties of these X-ray selected quasars are discussed. The four high-latitude fields of 1 sq deg each in which the Einstein imaging proportional counter detected serendipitous X-ray sources at intermediate exposures of 10,000 sec were observed by 4-m and 1.5-m telescopes, and optical sources with uv excesses and emission line spectra typical of many low-redshift quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies were found within the 1-arcsec error boxes of the X-ray sources. All six quasars identified were found to be radio quiet, with low redshift and relatively faint optical magnitudes, and to be similar in space density, colors and magnitude versus redshift relation to an optically selected sample at the same mean magnitude. X-ray luminosity was found to be well correlated with both continuum and broad-line emission luminosities for the known radio-quiet quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies, and it was observed that the five objects with the lowest redshifts have very similar X-ray/optical luminosity ratios despite tenfold variations in X-ray luminosity. It is concluded that photoionization by a continuum extending to X-ray energies is the dominant excitation mechanism in radio-quiet quasars.

  6. A brief review of long-term X-ray and optical variability in radio-quiet AGN

    OpenAIRE

    Uttley, Philip; McHardy, Ian M.

    2004-01-01

    Long-time-scale X-ray and optical variability is a key characteristic of AGN. Here, we summarise our current understanding of the X-ray and optical continuum variability of radio-quiet AGN and the relation between the two bands. We demonstrate the strong connection between the X-ray variability properties of AGN and the variability of stellar-mass black hole candidates on much shorter time-scales, and discuss the implications of this result for the origins of the variability. The relationship...

  7. Growing the first bright quasars in cosmological simulations of structure formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijacki, Debora; Springel, Volker; Haehnelt, Martin G.

    2009-11-01

    We employ cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study the growth of massive black holes (BHs) at high redshifts subject to BH merger recoils from gravitational wave emission. As a promising host system of a powerful high-redshift quasar, we select the most massive dark matter halo at z = 6 from the Millennium simulation, and resimulate its formation at much higher resolution including gas physics and a model for BH seeding, growth and feedback. Assuming that the initial BH seeds are relatively massive, of the order of 105Msolar, and that seeding occurs around z ~ 15 in dark matter haloes of mass ~109-1010Msolar, we find that it is possible to build up supermassive BHs (SMBHs) by z = 6 that assemble most of their mass during extended Eddington-limited accretion periods. The properties of the simulated SMBHs are consistent with observations of z = 6 quasars in terms of the estimated BH masses and bolometric luminosities, the amount of star formation occurring within the host halo, and the presence of highly enriched gas in the innermost regions of the host galaxy. After a peak in the BH accretion rate at z = 6, the most massive BH has become sufficiently massive for the growth to enter into a much slower phase of feedback-regulated accretion. We extend our basic BH model by incorporating prescriptions for the BH recoils caused by gravitational wave emission during BH merger events, taking into account the newest numerical relativity simulations of merging BH binaries. In order to explore the full range of expected recoils and radiative efficiencies, we also consider models with spinning BHs. In the most `pessimistic' case where BH spins are initially high, we find that the growth of the SMBHs can be potentially hampered if they grow mostly in isolation and experience only a small number of mergers. On the other hand, whereas BH kicks can expel a substantial fraction of low-mass BHs, they do not significantly affect the build-up of the SMBHs. On the contrary, a

  8. The Large-Scale Structure view on the Galaxy-Quasar-AGN connection

    CERN Document Server

    Magliocchetti, M

    2006-01-01

    Combined investigations of the clustering properties of galaxies of different spectral type and high-redshift quasars strongly suggest local ellipticals to be the parent population of optically bright Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). However, the picture gets more blurred when one extends the analysis to that class of AGNs which show enhanced radio emission. Objects belonging to this class in fact are found to be associated with structures which are about an order of magnitude more massive than those that host radio-quiet AGNs. Also, masses for the black holes engines of radio-enhanced AGN emission turn out to be systematically higher than those which fuel 'normal' quasars. On the other hand, the level of radio-activity in radio-luminous objects does not seem to be connected with black hole/host galaxy mass, at variance with what found in the optical case. These results, together with evidences for different cosmological evolutions of different types of AGNs pose a serious challenge to all those models aiming at...

  9. Growing the first bright quasars in cosmological simulations of structure formation

    CERN Document Server

    Sijacki, Debora; Haehnelt, Martin G

    2009-01-01

    We employ cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study the growth of massive black holes (BHs) at high redshifts subject to BH merger recoils from gravitational wave emission. We select the most massive dark matter halo at z=6 from the Millennium simulation, and resimulate its formation at much higher resolution including gas physics and a model for BH seeding, growth and feedback. Assuming that the initial BH seeds are relatively massive, of the order of 10^5 Msun, and that seeding occurs around z~15 in dark matter haloes of mass 10^9-10^10 Msun, we find that it is possible to build up supermassive BHs (SMBHs) by z=6 that assemble most of their mass during extended Eddington-limited accretion periods. The properties of the simulated SMBHs are consistent with observations of z=6 quasars in terms of the estimated BH masses and bolometric luminosities, the amount of star formation occurring within the host halo, and the presence of highly enriched gas in the innermost regions of the host galaxy. After a pea...

  10. A unique UV flare in the optical light curve of the quasar J004457.9+412344

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzidimitriou D.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We found that the nova candidate J004457.9+412344 is a radio-quiet quasar at z ∼ 2. Its optical long-term light curve, covering more than half a century, shows quasar typical flux variations superimposed by a spectacular single flare lasting more than one year (observer frame. We could not find comparable light curves among the several thousand catalogued radio-quiet quasars in the stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The decreasing part of the flare light curve roughly follows a power law t−5/3. The quasar spectrum, the total energy of the flare, and the decline of the light curve are consistent with the tidal disruption of a ∼10 Mʘ giant star by a supermassive black hole of a few 108 Mʘ. We argue that the alternative explanation by gravitational microlensing is less likely, though it cannot be definitely excluded.

  11. Optical spectra and radio properties of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using high quality spectrophotometric scans obtained at the McDonald Observatory, and data from the literature the author shows that, for quasars, the relative strength of optical Fe II emission (the broad blended feature lambda4570) may be roughly inversely proportional to line widths (full width at half maximum, FWHM). A similar relation between the relative intensity of the UV Fe II blend between 2300 and 2600 A (the lambda2500 feature) and the widths of Mg II and Hβ is shown. She distinguishes between compact and extended radio sources and includes radio quiet quasars, Seyfert 1 galaxies and BLRG's. The quasars associated with extended radio sources have the broadest emission lines and the weakest Fe II, falling close to the region occupied by BLRG's which also have extended radio structure. Those quasars with strong Fe II and compact radio structure are most similar to the Seyfert 1 galaxies. (Auth.)

  12. Distribution of the very first PopIII stars and their relation to bright z~6 quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Trenti, M

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the link between dark matter halos hosting the first PopIII stars and the rare, massive, halos that are generally considered to host bright quasars at high redshift z~6. The main question that we intend to answer is whether the super-massive black holes powering these QSOs grew out from the seeds planted by the first intermediate massive black holes created in the universe. This question involves a dynamical range of 10^13 in mass and we address it by combining N-body simulations of structure formation to identify the most massive halos at z~6 with a Monte Carlo method based on linear theory to obtain the location and formation times of the first light halos within the whole simulation box. We show that the descendants of the first ~10^6 Msun virialized halos do not, on average, end up in the most massive halos at z~6, but rather live in a large variety of environments. The oldest PopIII progenitors of the most massive halos at z~6, form instead from density peaks that are on average one and a half...

  13. Fifty Years of Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.

    2013-01-01

    Although the extragalactic nature of quasars was discussed as early as 1960, it was dismissed largely because of preconceived ideas about what appeared to be an unrealistically high luminosity. Following the 1962 occultations of the strong radio source 3C 273 at Parkes, and the subsequent identification with an apparent stellar object, Maartin Schmidt recognized that the relatively simple hydrogen line Balmer series spectrum implied a redshift of 0.16 leading to the general acceptance of the quasars as being extragalactic origin and the most luminous objects in the Universe. Subsequent radio and optical measurements quickly led to the identification of other quasars with increasingly large redshifts. However, claims for a more local population continued for at least several decades confused perhaps by the recognition of the much larger class of radio quiet quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGN), and the uncertain connection with Seyfert galaxies and Zwicky’s compact galaxies. Curiously, 3C 273, which is one of the brightest extragalactic extragalactic sources in the sky, was first catalogued in 1959 and the mag 13 optical counterpart was known at least as early as 1887. Although, since 1960, much fainter optical counterparts were being routinely identified using accurate radio interferometer positions, 3C273 eluded identification until the series of lunar occultations by Cyril Hazard and others were used to determine the position and morphology of the radio source.

  14. The Global Implications of the Hard Excess II: Analysis of the Local population of Radio Quiet AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Tatum, M M; Miller, L; Reeves, J N; DiLiello, J; Gofford, J; Patrick, A; Clayton, M

    2015-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) show evidence for reprocessing gas, outflowing from the accreting black hole. The combined effects of absorption and scattering from the circumnuclear material likely explains the `hard excess' of X-ray emission above 20 keV, compared with extrapolation of spectra from lower X-ray energies. In a recent {\\it Suzaku} study, we established the ubiquitous hard excess in hard X-ray-selected, radio-quiet type\\,1 AGNs to be consistent with reprocessing of the X-ray continuum an ensemble of clouds, located tens to hundreds of gravitational radii from the nuclear black hole. Here we add hard X-ray-selected, type\\,2 AGN to extend our original study and show that the gross X-ray spectral properties of the entire local population of radio quiet AGN may be described by a simple unified scheme. We find a broad, continuous distribution of spectral hardness ratio and Fe\\,K$\\alpha$ equivalent width across all AGN types, which can be reproduced by varying the observer's sightline through a single, ...

  15. Super- and Sub-critical Regions in Shocks driven by Radio-Loud and Radio-Quiet CMEs

    CERN Document Server

    Bemporad, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    White-light coronagraphic images of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) observed by SOHO/LASCO C2 have been used to estimate the density jump along the whole front of two CME-driven shocks. The two events are different in that the first one was a "radio-loud" fast CME, while the second one was a "radio quiet" slow CME. From the compression ratios inferred along the shock fronts, we estimated the Alfv\\'en Mach numbers for the general case of an oblique shock. It turns out that the "radio-loud" CME shock is initially super-critical around the shock center, while later on the whole shock becomes sub-critical. On the contrary, the shock associated with the "radio-quiet" CME is sub-critical at all times. This suggests that CME-driven shocks could be efficient particle accelerators at the shock nose only at the initiation phases of the event, if and when the shock is super-critical, while at later times they lose their energy and the capability to accelerate high energetic particles.

  16. Evidence for ultra-fast outflows in radio-quiet AGNs: II - detailed photo-ionization modeling of Fe K-shell absorption lines

    OpenAIRE

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G.G.C.; Braito, V.; Dadina, M.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet AGNs. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000km/s and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blueshifted FeK absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. In the present paper we report a detailed curve of growth analysis and direct...

  17. Kes 73: A Young Supernova Remnant with an X-ray Bright, Radio-quiet Central Source

    OpenAIRE

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Vasisht, G.

    1997-01-01

    We clarify the nature of the small-diameter supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 73 and its central compact source, 1E 1841-045, using X-ray data acquired with the ASCA Observatory. We introduce a spatio-spectral decomposition technique necessary to disentangle the ASCA spectrum of the compact source from the barely resolved shell-type remnant. The source spectrum (1 - 8 keV) is characterized by an absorbed power-law with a photon index ~ 3.4 and N_H ~ 3.0E22 cm^-2, possibly non-thermal in nature. Thi...

  18. The ultraviolet spectrum and continuum energy distribution of the bright quasar H1821 + 643

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first UV observations of the bright QSO H1821 + 643 are reported. With V = 14.2 mag and z = 0.297, H1821 + 643 is the second brightest object in the sky at z above 0.1. The IUE data are combined with new optical spectroscopy, and existing IR and X-ray data, to reveal a strong optical/UV 'big bump', which continues past the Lyman limit in the rest frame of the QSO. A possible turnover at the high-frequency side of the UV continuum constrains fits of a thin accretion disk model to a large black hole mass and high accretion rate, but a small disk size. The shape of the UV continuum was found to be variable, with a hardening of the spectrum when the source was brighter. Because of its location, only 3 deg from the ecliptic pole, H1821 + 643 will be an important object for simultaneous UV and soft X-ray monitoring to test for a common origin of the UV bump and soft X-ray excess. 44 refs

  19. The ultraviolet spectrum and continuum energy distribution of the bright quasar H1821 + 643

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, Michiel; Halpern, Jules P.; Shrader, Chris R.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    1991-01-01

    The first UV observations of the bright QSO H1821 + 643 are reported. With V = 14.2 mag and z = 0.297, H1821 + 643 is the second brightest object in the sky at z above 0.1. The IUE data are combined with new optical spectroscopy, and existing IR and X-ray data, to reveal a strong optical/UV 'big bump', which continues past the Lyman limit in the rest frame of the QSO. A possible turnover at the high-frequency side of the UV continuum constrains fits of a thin accretion disk model to a large black hole mass and high accretion rate, but a small disk size. The shape of the UV continuum was found to be variable, with a hardening of the spectrum when the source was brighter. Because of its location, only 3 deg from the ecliptic pole, H1821 + 643 will be an important object for simultaneous UV and soft X-ray monitoring to test for a common origin of the UV bump and soft X-ray excess.

  20. Bright [CII] and dust emission in three z>6.6 quasar host galaxies observed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Venemans, B P; Zschaechner, L; Decarli, R; De Rosa, G; Findlay, J R; McMahon, R G; Sutherland, W J

    2015-01-01

    We present ALMA detections of the [CII] 158 micron emission line and the underlying far-infrared continuum of three quasars at 6.6~6 quasar hosts correlate with the quasar's bolometric luminosity. In one quasar, the [CII] line is significantly redshifted by ~1700 km/s with respect to the MgII broad emission line. Comparing to values in the literature, we find that, on average, the MgII is blueshifted by 480 km/s (with a standard deviation of 630 km/s) with respect to the host galaxy redshift, i.e. one of our quasars is an extreme outlier. Through modeling we can rule out a flat rotation curve for our brightest [CII] emitter. Finally, we find that the ratio of black hole mass to host galaxy (dynamical) mass is higher by a factor 3-4 (with significant scatter) than local relations.

  1. A cosmic web filament revealed in Lyman-α emission around a luminous high-redshift quasar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Arrigoni-Battaia, Fabrizio; Prochaska, J Xavier; Hennawi, Joseph F; Madau, Piero

    2014-02-01

    Simulations of structure formation in the Universe predict that galaxies are embedded in a 'cosmic web', where most baryons reside as rarefied and highly ionized gas. This material has been studied for decades in absorption against background sources, but the sparseness of these inherently one-dimensional probes preclude direct constraints on the three-dimensional morphology of the underlying web. Here we report observations of a cosmic web filament in Lyman-α emission, discovered during a survey for cosmic gas fluorescently illuminated by bright quasars at redshift z ≈ 2.3. With a linear projected size of approximately 460 physical kiloparsecs, the Lyman-α emission surrounding the radio-quiet quasar UM 287 extends well beyond the virial radius of any plausible associated dark-matter halo and therefore traces intergalactic gas. The estimated cold gas mass of the filament from the observed emission-about 10(12.0 ± 0.5)/C(1/2) solar masses, where C is the gas clumping factor-is more than ten times larger than what is typically found in cosmological simulations, suggesting that a population of intergalactic gas clumps with subkiloparsec sizes may be missing in current numerical models. PMID:24463517

  2. TEN MORE NEW SIGHTLINES FOR THE STUDY OF INTERGALACTIC HELIUM, AND HUNDREDS OF FAR-ULTRAVIOLET-BRIGHT QUASARS, FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY, GALAXY EVOLUTION EXPLORER, AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption along quasar sightlines remains among the most sensitive direct measures of He II reionization in much of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Until recently, fewer than a half-dozen unobscured quasar sightlines suitable for the He II Gunn-Peterson test were known; although these handful demonstrated great promise, the small sample size limited confidence in cosmological inferences. We have recently added nine more such clean He II quasars, exploiting Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar samples, broadband ultraviolet (UV) imaging from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), and high-yield UV spectroscopic confirmations from Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Here we markedly expand this approach by cross-correlating SDSS DR7 and GALEX GR4+5 to catalog 428 SDSS and 165 other quasars with z > 2.78 having likely (∼70%) GALEX detections, suggesting they are bright into the far-UV. Reconnaissance HST Cycle 16 Supplemental prism data for 29 of these new quasar-GALEX matches spectroscopically confirm 17 as indeed far-UV bright. At least 10 of these confirmations have clean sightlines all the way down to He II Lyα, substantially expanding the number of known clean He II quasars, and reaffirming the order of magnitude enhanced efficiency of our selection technique. Combined confirmations from this and our past programs yield more than 20 He II quasars, quintupling the sample. These provide substantial progress toward a sample of He II quasar sightlines large enough, and spanning a sufficient redshift range, to enable statistical IGM studies that may avoid individual object peculiarity and sightline variance. Our expanded catalog of hundreds of high-likelihood far-UV-bright QSOs additionally will be useful for understanding the extreme-UV properties of the quasars themselves.

  3. Search for differences between radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar populations with Fermi-LAT data

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolova, E V

    2016-01-01

    Observations by Fermi LAT enabled us to explore the population of non-recycled gamma-ray pulsars with the set of 89 objects. It was recently noted that there are apparent differences in properties of radio-quiet and radio-loud subsets. In particular, average observed radio-loud pulsar is younger than radio-quiet one and is located at smaller galactic latitude. Even so, the analysis based on the full list of pulsars may suffer from selection effects. Namely, most of radio-loud pulsars are first discovered in the radio-band, while radio-quiet ones are found using the gamma-ray data. In this work we perform a blind search for gamma-ray pulsars using the Fermi LAT data alone using all point sources from 3FGL catalog as the candidates. Unlike preceding blind search, the present catalog is constructed with novel semi-coherent method and covers the full range of characteristic ages down to 1 kyr. The search resulted in the catalog of 40 non-recycled pulsars, 26 of which are radio-quiet. There are no statistically si...

  4. The X-Ray Properties of the Optically Brightest Mini-BAL Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jianfeng; Brandt, W. N.; Comins, M. L.; Gibson, Robert R.; Shemmer, Ohad; Garmire, Gordon P.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2010-01-01

    We have compiled a sample of 14 of the optically brightest radio-quiet quasars ($m_{i}$~$\\le$~17.5 and $z$~$\\ge$~1.9) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 quasar catalog that have C IV mini-BALs present in their spectra. X-ray data for 12 of the objects were obtained via a Chandra snapshot survey using ACIS-S, while data for the other two quasars were obtained from archival XMM-Newton observations. Joint X-ray spectral analysis shows the mini-BAL quasars have a similar average power...

  5. Rest-frame optical properties of luminous, radio-selected, broad absorption line quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Runnoe, J. C.; R Ganguly; Brotherton, M. S.; DiPompeo, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    We have obtained IRTF/SpeX spectra of eight moderate-redshift (z=0.7-2.4), radio-selected (log R*~0.4-1.9) broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. The spectra cover the rest-frame optical band. We compare the optical properties of these quasars to those of canonically radio-quiet (log R*1) quasars. With our measurements of the optical properties, particularly the Balmer emission line widths and the continuum luminosity, we have used empirical scaling relations to estimate black hole masses and E...

  6. The Connection among Gamma-ray Burst Host-Galaxies, BL Lacs and Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Rej, A.

    1999-01-01

    A possible connection among host-galaxies of gamma-ray bursts, BL Lacs and quasars is analysed. It is believed that the gamma-ray bursts, which do not show radio or infrared emission, occur in faint blue dwarf galaxies, that are seen around radio-quiet quasars, which lie in clusters. The GRB counterparts, which show radio emission, may be associated with more evolved starbursting environments, and arise from red galaxies, that are observed around some radio-loud quasars lying in richer cluste...

  7. PROBING THE IGM/GALAXY CONNECTION. IV. THE LCO/WFCCD GALAXY SURVEY OF 20 FIELDS SURROUNDING UV-BRIGHT QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We publish the survey for galaxies in 20 fields containing ultraviolet bright quasars (with zem ∼ 0.1-0.5) that can be used to study the association between galaxies and absorption systems from the low-z intergalactic medium (IGM). The survey is magnitude limited (R ∼ 19.5 mag) and highly complete out to 10' from the quasar in each field. It was designed to detect dwarf galaxies (L ∼ 0.1L*) at an impact parameter ρ ∼ 1 Mpc (z = 0.1) from a quasar. The complete sample (all 20 fields) includes R-band photometry for 84,718 sources and confirmed redshifts for 2800 sources. This includes 1198 galaxies with 0.005 em - 0.01) at a median redshift of 0.18, which may associated with IGM absorption lines. All of the imaging was acquired with cameras on the Swope 40'' telescope and the spectra were obtained via slit mask observations using the WFCCD spectrograph on the Dupont 100'' telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. This paper describes the data reduction, imaging analysis, photometry, and spectral analysis of the survey. We tabulate the principal measurements for all sources in each field and provide the spectroscopic data set online.

  8. X-RAY EMISSION FROM OPTICALLY SELECTED RADIO-INTERMEDIATE AND RADIO-LOUD QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of an investigation into the X-ray properties of radio-intermediate and radio-loud quasars (RIQs and RLQs, respectively). We combine large, modern optical (e.g., SDSS) and radio (e.g., FIRST) surveys with archival X-ray data from Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT to generate an optically selected sample that includes 188 RIQs and 603 RLQs. This sample is constructed independently of X-ray properties but has a high X-ray detection rate (85%); it provides broad and dense coverage of the l-z plane, including at high redshifts (22% of objects have z = 2-5), and it extends to high radio-loudness values (33% of objects have R* = 3-5, using logarithmic units). We measure the 'excess' X-ray luminosity of RIQs and RLQs relative to radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) as a function of radio loudness and luminosity, and parameterize the X-ray luminosity of RIQs and RLQs both as a function of optical/UV luminosity and also as a joint function of optical/UV and radio luminosity. RIQs are only modestly X-ray bright relative to RQQs; it is only at high values of radio loudness (R* ∼> 3.5) and radio luminosity that RLQs become strongly X-ray bright. We find no evidence for evolution in the X-ray properties of RIQs and RLQs with redshift (implying jet-linked IC/CMB emission does not contribute substantially to the nuclear X-ray continuum). Finally, we consider a model in which the nuclear X-ray emission contains both disk/corona-linked and jet-linked components and demonstrate that the X-ray jet-linked emission is likely beamed but to a lesser degree than applies to the radio jet. This model is used to investigate the increasing dominance of jet-linked X-ray emission at low inclinations.

  9. VLBI observations of the nuclei of a mixed sample of bright galaxies and quasars at 327 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first VLBI observations using the Ooty telescope are presented. An array consisting of telescopes at Ooty (India), Crimea (USSR), Torun (Poland), Westerbork (Netherlands) and Jodrell Bank (United Kingdom) was operated in 1983 December at a frequency of 327 MHz. Nearby galaxies, compact quasars and SS433 were observed in this pilot experiment. Most of the galaxies were found to be well resolved. The structure of SS433 (visible only on the shortest baseline) is consistent with that obtained in previous high-frequency VLBI work. The visibilities of the compact quasars indicate that large-scale scattering may be taking place in the interplanetary medium. (author)

  10. Direct Microlensing-Reverberation Observations of the Intrinsic magnetic Structure of AGN in Different Spectral States: A Tale of Two Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Schild, Rudolph E.; Leiter, Darryl J.; Robertson, Stanley L.

    2007-01-01

    We show how direct microlensing-reverberation analysis performed on two well-known Quasars (Q2237 - The Einstein Cross and Q0957 - The Twin) can be used to observe the inner structure of two quasars which are in significantly different spectral states. These observations allow us to measure the detailed internal structure of quasar Q2237 in a radio quiet high-soft state, and compare it to quasar Q0957 in a radio loud low-hard state. We find that the observed differences in the spectral states...

  11. WEAK HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS OBSERVED WITH NuSTAR: COMPTON-THICK ABSORPTION OR INTRINSIC X-RAY WEAKNESS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain ≈400-600 hard X-ray (∼> 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed (NH ∼24 cm–2). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be NH ≈ 7 × 1024 cm–2 if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe Kα line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%

  12. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Two Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuStar: Compton-Thick Absorption or Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W..; Fabian, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Fiore, F.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R.; Madsen, K. K.; Matt, G.; Ogle, P.; Risaliti, G.; Saez, C.; Teng, S. H.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2013-01-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain approx. or equal to 400-600 hard X-ray (is greater than or equal to 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed N(sub H) is less than or equal to 10(exp24) cm(exp-2). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N(sub H) 7 × 10(exp 24) cm(exp-2) if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe Ka line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

  13. WEAK HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS OBSERVED WITH NuSTAR: COMPTON-THICK ABSORPTION OR INTRINSIC X-RAY WEAKNESS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Alexander, D. M.; Hickox, R. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Harrison, F. A.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fiore, F. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Matt, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Ogle, P. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2013-08-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain Almost-Equal-To 400-600 hard X-ray ({approx}> 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed (N{sub H} {approx}< 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe K{alpha} line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

  14. Evidence for ultra-fast outflows in radio-quiet AGNs: II - detailed photo-ionization modeling of Fe K-shell absorption lines

    CERN Document Server

    Tombesi, F; Reeves, J N; Palumbo, G G C; Braito, V; Dadina, M

    2011-01-01

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet AGNs. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000km/s and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blueshifted FeK absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. In the present paper we report a detailed curve of growth analysis and directly model the FeK absorbers with the Xstar photo-ionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35%. The outflow velocity distribution spans from \\sim10,000km/s (\\sim0.03c) up to \\sim100,000km/s (\\sim0.3c), with a peak and mean value of \\sim42,000km/s (\\sim0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log\\xi 3-6erg s^{-1} cm, with a mean value of log\\xi 4.2 erg s^{-1} cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N_H\\sim10^{22}-10^{24...

  15. Spectral Variability in Radio-Loud Quasars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Minfeng Gu

    2014-09-01

    The spectral variability of a sample of 44 Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) and 18 Steep-Spectrum Radio Quasars (SSRQs) in SDSS stripe 82 region is investigated. Twenty-five of 44 FSRQs show a bluer-when-brighter trend (BWB), while only one FSRQ shows a redder-when-brighter trend, which is in contrast to our previous results. Eight of 18 SSRQs display a BWB. We found an anticorrelation between the Eddington ratio and the variability amplitude in the band for SSRQs, which is similar to that in radio-quiet AGNs. This implies that the thermal emission from the accretion disk may be responsible for the variability in SSRQs. The spectral variability from SDSS multi-epoch spectroscopy also shows BWB for several SSRQs, which is consistent with that from photometry.

  16. TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 QUASARS IN THE MID-INFRARED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Ridgway

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 or \\obscured" AGN have long been identi ed at low AGN luminosities (e.g. Seyfert 2s or through their radio luminosities (e.g. radio galaxies. But radio-quiet quasars (RQQs are many times more common than radio-loud quasars, and it's therefore unsurprising that recent searches have revealed that radio-quiet quasar 2s also form a signi cant population. Finding the numbers, properties, and redshift distribution of quasar 2s will be very important to resolving questions about the formation and co-evolution of black holes and galaxies. We have selected a sample of Type 2 and Type 1 quasars matched in their mid-infrared luminosity from the Spitzer First Look Survey by selecting on their mid-infrared dust emission properties (as measured by Spitzer IRAC photometry. This emission provides a distinctive signature of AGN activity but should not be a cted by orientation or torus opening angle. We have obtained mid-infrared IRS spectroscopy of these samples to study star formation activity in the host galaxies and the dust environments of the AGN, using measurements of the PAH features, the shape of the mid-infrared SED, and the equivalent width of the silicate features at 10 microns. We nd that the quasar 2s have more diverse mid-IR spectral properties, and that obscuration of the AGN is linked to star formation activity in the host.

  17. THE CORRELATIONS BETWEEN OPTICAL VARIABILITY AND PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF QUASARS IN SDSS STRIPE 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the optical variability of 7658 quasars from SDSS Stripe 82. Taking advantage of a larger sample and relatively more data points for each quasar, we estimate variability amplitudes and divide the sample into small bins of redshift, rest-frame wavelength, black hole mass, Eddington ratio, and bolometric luminosity, respectively, to investigate the relationships between variability and these parameters. An anti-correlation between variability and rest-frame wavelength is found. The variability amplitude of radio-quiet quasars shows almost no cosmological evolution, but that of radio-loud ones may weakly anti-correlate with redshift. In addition, variability increases as either luminosity or Eddington ratio decreases. However, the relationship between variability and black hole mass is uncertain; it is negative when the influence of Eddington ratio is excluded, but positive when the influence of luminosity is excluded. The intrinsic distribution of variability amplitudes for radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars are different. Both radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars exhibit a bluer-when-brighter chromatism. Assuming that quasar variability is caused by variations of accretion rate, the Shakura-Sunyaev disk model can reproduce the tendencies of observed correlations between variability and rest-frame wavelength, luminosity as well as Eddington ratio, supporting that changes of accretion rate play an important role in producing the observed optical variability. However, the predicted positive correlation between variability and black hole mass seems to be inconsistent with the observed negative correlation between them in small bins of Eddington ratio, which suggests that other physical mechanisms may still need to be considered in modifying the simple accretion disk model.

  18. X-RAY INSIGHTS INTO THE PHYSICS OF MINI-BAL QUASAR OUTFLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the ultraviolet and X-ray properties of 256 radio-quiet Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars (QSOs) observed in X-rays with Chandra and/or XMM-Newton in order to study the relationship between QSOs with broad C IV absorption lines (BALs; width >2000 km s-1) and those with C IV mini-BALs (here defined to have widths of 1000-2000 km s-1). Our sample includes 42 BAL and 48 mini-BAL QSOs. The relative X-ray brightness and hard spectral slopes of the mini-BAL population are, on average, intermediate between those of BAL and non-BAL QSOs, as might be expected if narrower and broader absorption line outflows are physically related. However, a significant population of mini-BALs has outflow velocities higher than would be expected for BAL QSOs of the same relative X-ray brightness. Consistently strong X-ray absorption is apparently not required to accelerate at least some mini-BALs to high outflow velocities. Assuming the mini-BAL features are correctly attributed to intrinsic C IV absorption, we suggest that their observed properties may be explained if mini-BALs are 'seeds' that can be accelerated to form BALs when sufficient X-ray shielding is present. We also examine several QSOs with broad C IV absorption that have been recently reported to be unusually X-ray bright. Such cases are frequently mini-BAL QSOs, which, as a population, are generally brighter in X-rays than BAL QSOs. Pointed XMM-Newton observations also suggest that these sources (or unresolved neighbors) may have been previously observed in a high-flux state.

  19. Direct Microlensing-Reverberation Observations of the Intrinsic Magnetic Structure of Active Galactic Nuclei in Different Spectral States: A Tale of Two Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Rudolph E.; Leiter, Darryl J.; Robertson, Stanley L.

    2008-03-01

    We show how direct microlensing-reverberation analysis performed on two well-known quasars (Q2237, the Einstein Cross, and Q0957, the Twin) can be used to observe the inner structure of two quasars which are in significantly different spectral states. These observations allow us to measure the detailed internal structure of Q2237 in a radio-quiet high-soft state, and compare it to Q0957 in a radio-loud low-hard state. When taken together we find that the observed differences in the spectral states of these two quasars can be understood as being due to the location of the inner radii of their accretion disks relative to the co-rotation radii of the magnetospheric eternally collapsing objects (MECO) in the centers of these quasars. The radiating structures observed in these quasars are associated with standard accretion disks and outer outflow structures, where the latter are the major source of UV-optical continuum radiation. While the observed inner accretion disk structure of the radio-quiet quasar Q2237 is consistent with either a MECO or a black hole, the observed inner structure of the radio-loud quasar Q0957 can only be explained by the action of the intrinsic magnetic propeller of a MECO with its accretion disk. Hence a simple and unified answer to the long-standing question: "Why are some quasars radio loud?" is found if the central objects of quasars are MECO, with radio-loud and radio-quiet spectral states similar to the case of galactic black hole candidates.

  20. Bright [CII] 158$\\mu$m emission in a quasar host galaxy at $z=6.54$

    CERN Document Server

    Bañados, E; Walter, F; Venemans, B P; Farina, E P; Fan, X

    2015-01-01

    The [CII] 158$\\mu$m fine-structure line is known to trace regions of active star formation and is the main coolant of the cold, neutral atomic medium. In this \\textit{Letter}, we report a strong detection of the [CII] line in the host galaxy of the brightest quasar known at $z>6.5$, the Pan-STARRS1 selected quasar PSO J036.5078+03.0498 (hereafter P036+03), using the IRAM NOEMA millimeter interferometer. Its [CII] and total far-infrared luminosities are $(5.8 \\pm 0.7) \\times 10^9 \\,L_\\odot$ and $(7.6\\pm1.5) \\times 10^{12}\\,L_\\odot$, respectively. This results in a $L_{[CII]} /L_{TIR}$ ratio of $\\sim 0.8\\times 10^{-3}$, which is at the high end for those found for active galaxies, though it is lower than the average found in typical main sequence galaxies at $z\\sim 0$. We also report a tentative additional line which we identify as a blended emission from the $3_{22} - 3_{13}$ and $5_{23} - 4_{32}$ H$_2$O transitions. If confirmed, this would be the most distant detection of water emission to date. P036+03 riva...

  1. Multi-Epoch VLBA Observations of EGRET-Detected Quasars and BL Lac Objects Superluminal Motion of Gamma-Ray Bright Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Jorstad, S G; Mattox, J R; Wehrle, A E; Bloom, S D; Yurchenko, A V; Jorstad, Svetlana G; Marscher, Alan P; Mattox, John R; Wehrle, Ann E; Bloom, Steven D; Yurchenko, Alexei V

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of a program to monitor the structure of the radio emission in 42 $\\gamma$-ray bright blazars (31 quasars and 11 BL Lac objects) with the VLBA at 43, 22, and occasionally 15 and 8.4 GHz, over the period from November 1993 to July 1997. We determine proper motions in 33 sources and find that the apparent superluminal motions in $\\gamma$-ray sources are much faster than for the general population of bright compact radio sources. This follows the strong dependence of the $\\gamma$-ray flux on the level of relativistic beaming for both external-radiation Compton and synchrotron self-Compton emission. There is a positive correlation (correlation coefficient $r$=0.45) between the flux density of the VLBI core and the $\\gamma$-ray flux and a moderate correlation (partial correlation coefficient $r$=0.31) between $\\gamma$-ray apparent luminosity and superluminal velocities of jet components, as expected if the $\\gamma$-ray emission originates in a very compact region of the relativistic jet and ...

  2. Absorption lines and the radio structure of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High angular resolution radio observations at lambda6cm of 20 quasars are presented, all but two of which have been selected from a sample used by previous authors for a survey of absorption lines. The additional two, 1246-057 and 1333 + 286, are quasars with broad absorption lines and appear to be radio quiet. The radio structures for the entire sample of 66 sources of the previous authors are summarized and an investigation is made of whether the radio structure might provide clues on understanding the origin of the absorption lines in the range Zsub(em)-Zsub(ab) approx. 3000-18000 kms-1. The frequency of occurrence of absorption lines appears to be similar for both radio and optically selected quasars. (author)

  3. ISO Observations of the dusty quasar BR1202-0725

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, K J; Metcalfe, L

    2001-01-01

    We present mid- and far-IR photometry of the high-redshift (z=4.69) dusty quasar BR1202-0725. The quasar was detected in the near-IR, at a flux level (0.7+/-0.2 mJy) consistent with an average Radio-Quiet Quasar at it's redshift. Only upper limits for the emission were obtained in the far-IR. These upper limits, when combined with data from ground-based telescopes, are the first direct evidence for a turn-over in the far-IR emission and hence confirm that a black-body dominates the SED at FIR wavelengths. This black-body is most probably cool dust, constrained to have a temperature below 80K, for a beta of 1.5.

  4. The structure of host galaxies of radio-loud quasars and possible triggering mechanisms for quasar activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanishin, W.; Hintzen, P. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (USA); NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA))

    1989-06-01

    An image modeling program is used to analyze optical imaging data for a sample of radio-loud quasars with redshifts between 0.2 and 0.7. It is found that the host galaxies of these quasars tend to be more compact than normal ellipticals. The cooling flow cluster elliptical galaxies near these host galaxies are studied. It is suggested that these cooling flow galaxies are also compact due to star formation in their central regions. Two populations of quasars are identified. One, in which activity is triggered by galaxy mergers of interactions has predominately spiral galaxies and are radio quiet. The other, in which activity is triggered by star formation bursts induced by cooling flows, has predominately elliptical hosts and may be radio loud. 28 refs.

  5. The structure of host galaxies of radio-loud quasars and possible triggering mechanisms for quasar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An image modeling program is used to analyze optical imaging data for a sample of radio-loud quasars with redshifts between 0.2 and 0.7. It is found that the host galaxies of these quasars tend to be more compact than normal ellipticals. The cooling flow cluster elliptical galaxies near these host galaxies are studied. It is suggested that these cooling flow galaxies are also compact due to star formation in their central regions. Two populations of quasars are identified. One, in which activity is triggered by galaxy mergers of interactions has predominately spiral galaxies and are radio quiet. The other, in which activity is triggered by star formation bursts induced by cooling flows, has predominately elliptical hosts and may be radio loud. 28 refs

  6. The structure of host galaxies of radio-loud quasars and possible triggering mechanisms for quasar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanishin, W.; Hintzen, Paul

    1989-01-01

    An image modeling program is used to analyze optical imaging data for a sample of radio-loud quasars with redshifts between 0.2 and 0.7. It is found that the host galaxies of these quasars tend to be more compact than normal ellipticals. The cooling flow cluster elliptical galaxies near these host galaxies are studied. It is suggested that these cooling flow galaxies are also compact due to star formation in their central regions. Two populations of quasars are identified. One, in which activity is triggered by galaxy mergers of interactions has predominately spiral galaxies and are radio quiet. The other, in which activity is triggered by star formation bursts induced by cooling flows, has predominately elliptical hosts and may be radio loud.

  7. Galaxy Clustering Around Nearby Luminous Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Karl B.; Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the clustering of galaxies around a sample of 20 luminous low redshift (z approx. less than 0.30) quasars observed with the Wide Field Camera-2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST resolution makes possible galaxy identification brighter than V = 24.5 and as close as 1 min or 2 min to the quasar. We find a significant enhancement of galaxies within a projected separation of approx. less than 100 1/h kpc of the quasars. If we model the QSO/galaxy correlation function as a power law with a slope given by the galaxy/galaxy correlation function, we find that the ratio of the QSO/galaxy to galaxy/galaxy correlation functions is 3.8 +/- 0.8. The galaxy counts within r less than 15 1/h kpc of the quasars are too high for the density profile to have an appreciable core radius (approx. greater than 100 1/h kpc). Our results reinforce the idea that low redshift quasars are located preferentially in groups of 10-20 galaxies rather than in rich clusters. We see no significant difference in the clustering amplitudes derived from radio-loud and radio-quiet subsamples.

  8. Evidence for ultra-fast outflows in radio-quiet AGNs: I - detection and statistical incidence of Fe K-shell absorption lines

    OpenAIRE

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G.G.C.; Yaqoob, T.; Braito, V.; Dadina, M.

    2010-01-01

    We performed a blind search for narrow absorption features at energies greater than 6.4 keV in a sample of 42 radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. We detect 36 narrow absorption lines on a total of 101 XMM-Newton EPIC pn observations. The number of absorption lines at rest-frame energies E>7 keV is 22. Their global probability to be generated by random fluctuations is very low, less than 3x10^-8, and their detection have been independently confirmed by a spectral analysis of the MOS dat...

  9. Color Effects Associated with the 1999 Microlensing Brightness Peaks in Gravitationally Lensed Quasar Q2237+0305

    CERN Document Server

    Vakulik, V G; Dudinov, V N; Minakov, A A; Nuritdinov, S N; Tsvetkova, V S; Zheleznyak, A P; Konichek, V V; Sinelnikov, I Y; Burkhonov, O M; Artamonov, B P; Bruevich, V V

    2003-01-01

    Photometry of the Q2237+0305gravitational lens in VRI spectral bands with the 1.5-m telescope of the high-altitude Maidanak observatory in 1995-2000 is presented. Monitoring of Q2237+0305 in July-October 2000, made at nearly daily basis, did not reveal rapid (night-to-night and intranight) variations of brightness of the components during this time period. Rather slow changes of magnitudes of the components were observed, such as 0.08 mag fading of B and C components and 0.05 mag brightening of D in R band during July 23 - October 7, 2000. By good luck three nights in 1999 were almost at the time of the strong brightness peak of image C, and approximately in the middle of the ascending slope of the image A brightness peak. The C component was the most blue one in the system in 1998 and 1999, having changed its (V-I) color from 0.56 mag to 0.12 mag since August 1997, while its brightness increased almost 1.2 mag during this time period. The A component behaved similarly between August 1998 and August 2000, hav...

  10. FERO: Finding extreme relativistic objects - I. Statistics of relativistic Fe Kα lines in radio-quiet Type 1 AGN

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de La Calle, I.; Longinotti, A. L.; Guainazzi, M.; Bianchi, S.; Dovčiak, Michal; Cappi, M.; Matt, G.; Miniutti, G.; Petrucci, P. O.; Piconcelli, E.; Ponti, G.; Porquet, D.; Santos-Lleó, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 524, Dec (2010), A50/1-A50/22. ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : quasars * emission lines * active galaxies * X-ray Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.410, year: 2010

  11. The AGN content of deep radio surveys and radio emission in radio-quiet AGN. Why every astronomer should care about deep radio fields

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, P; Miller, N; Kellermann, K I; Mainieri, V; Rosati, P; Tozzi, P; Vattakunnel, S

    2014-01-01

    We present our very recent results on the sub-mJy radio source populations at 1.4 GHz based on the Extended Chandra Deep Field South VLA survey, which reaches ~ 30 {\\mu}Jy, with details on their number counts, evolution, and luminosity functions. The sub-mJy radio sky turns out to be a complex mix of star-forming galaxies and radio-quiet AGN evolving at a similar, strong rate and declining radio-loud AGN. While the well-known flattening of the radio number counts below 1 mJy is mostly due to star-forming galaxies, these sources and AGN make up an approximately equal fraction of the sub-mJy sky. Our results shed also light on a fifty-year-old issue, namely radio emission from radio-quiet AGN, and suggest that it is closely related to star formation, at least at z ~ 1.5 - 2. The implications of our findings for future, deeper radio surveys, including those with the Square Kilometre Array, are also discussed. One of the main messages, especially to non-radio astronomers, is that radio surveys are reaching such f...

  12. On the Radio and Optical Luminosity Evolution of Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron.; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.

    2011-05-20

    We calculate simultaneously the radio and optical luminosity evolutions of quasars, and the distribution in radio loudness R defined as the ratio of radio and optical luminosities, using a flux limited data set containing 636 quasars with radio and optical fluxes from White et al. We first note that when dealing with multivariate data it is imperative to first determine the true correlations among the variables, not those introduced by the observational selection effects, before obtaining the individual distributions of the variables. We use the methods developed by Efron and Petrosian which are designed to obtain unbiased correlations, distributions, and evolution with redshift from a data set truncated due to observational biases. It is found that as expected the population of quasars exhibits strong positive correlation between the radio and optical luminosities and that this correlation deviates from a simple linear relation in a way indicating that more luminous quasars are more radio loud. We also find that there is a strong luminosity evolution with redshift in both wavebands, with significantly higher radio than optical evolution. We conclude that the luminosity evolution obtained by arbitrarily separating the sources into radio loud (R > 10) and radio quiet (R < 10) populations introduces significant biases that skew the result considerably. We also construct the local radio and optical luminosity functions and the density evolution. Finally, we consider the distribution of the radio loudness parameter R obtained from careful treatment of the selection effects and luminosity evolutions with that obtained from the raw data without such considerations. We find a significant difference between the two distributions and no clear sign of bi-modality in the true distribution. Our results indicate therefore, somewhat surprisingly, that there is no critical switch in the efficiency of the production of disk outflows/jets between very radio quiet and very radio

  13. A Lyα HALO AROUND A QUASAR AT REDSHIFT z = 6.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present long-slit spectroscopic data that reveal extended Lyα emission around the z = 6.417 radio-quiet quasar CFHQS J2329–0301. The Lyα emission is extended over 15 kpc and has a luminosity of >8 × 1036 W, comparable to the most luminous Lyα halos known. The emission has complex kinematics, in part due to foreground absorption, which only partly covers the extended nebula. The velocity ranges from –500 km s–1 to +500 km s–1, with a peak remarkably close to the systemic velocity identified by broad Mg II emission of the quasar. There is no evidence for infall or outflow of the halo gas. We speculate that the Lyα emission mechanism is recombination after quasar photoionization of gas sitting within a high-mass dark matter halo. The immense Lyα luminosity indicates a higher covering factor of cold gas compared with typical radio-quiet quasars at lower redshift.

  14. Direct Microlensing-Reverberation Observations of the Intrinsic magnetic Structure of AGN in Different Spectral States: A Tale of Two Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Schild, Rudolph E; Robertson, Stanley L

    2007-01-01

    We show how direct microlensing-reverberation analysis performed on two well-known Quasars (Q2237 - The Einstein Cross and Q0957 - The Twin) can be used to observe the inner structure of two quasars which are in significantly different spectral states. These observations allow us to measure the detailed internal structure of quasar Q2237 in a radio quiet high-soft state, and compare it to quasar Q0957 in a radio loud low-hard state. We find that the observed differences in the spectral states of these two quasars can be understood as being due to the location of the inner radii of their accretion disks relative to the co-rotation radii of rotating intrinsically magnetic supermassive compact objects in the centers of these quasars.

  15. Radio and X-ray observations of the gamma-ray bright quasar PKS 0528+134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun Fei; Marscher, Alan P.; Aller, Hugh D.; Aller, Margo F.; Terasranta, Harri; Valtaoja, Esko

    1994-01-01

    We present a study of the z = 2.07 quasar PKS 0528+134, which has been detected as an extraordinarily luminous gamma-ray source. Its radio properties are highly variable in both total and polarized flux density. Milliarcsecond-scale maps from global very long base interferometry (VLBI) experiments, an X-ray spectrum from ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) observations, and light curves in total flux density and polarization are used to investigate the geometry, radiation mechanism, and physical environment of the emission region in the source. The VLBI images reveal a bent jet extending toward the northeast on parsec scales, with less intense knots of emission appearing on the opposite side of the brightest spot. The position of the core usually found in such sources is unclear. The polarization angle is stable despite strong variability in polarized flux density and indicates that the magnetic field is aligned with the jet axis as defined by our 8.4 GHz image. The ROSAT X-ray flux density of PKS 0528+134 in 1991 March is measured to be 1.6 micro Jy at 1 keV, with a very steep spectral (`energy') index sigma(sub x) approximately equal to 2.2. The X-ray observations reveal the presence of cold gas along the line of sight significantly in excess of that present in the Galaxy. A strong radio flare began within two months of the first observation of a high flux of gamma-rays from PKS 0528+134 by Hunter et al. Using the geometry and spectral chacateristics determined by our VLBI observations, a synchrotron self-Compton calculation indicates that relativistic bulk motion is required in PKS 0528+134, with an estimated Doppler beaming factor delta approximately greater than 4.3, similar to the value delta approximately greater than 7 required to explain the low optical depth of the gamma-rays to photon-photon pair production. We suggest that the core activity of PKS 0528+134 is sporadic in nature, with the nonthermal outburst starting in 1991 representing

  16. EVIDENCE FOR ULTRA-FAST OUTFLOWS IN RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. DETAILED PHOTOIONIZATION MODELING OF Fe K-SHELL ABSORPTION LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These have been detected essentially through blueshifted Fe XXV/XXVI K-shell transitions. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those highly ionized absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000 km s–1 and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blueshifted absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. The present paper is an extension of that work. First, we report a detailed curve of growth analysis of the main Fe XXV/XXVI transitions in photoionized plasmas. Then, we estimate an average spectral energy distribution for the sample sources and directly model the Fe K absorbers in the XMM-Newton spectra with the detailed Xstar photoionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35% and that the majority of the Fe K absorbers are indeed associated with UFOs. The outflow velocity distribution spans from ∼10,000 km s–1 (∼0.03c) up to ∼100,000 km s–1 (∼0.3c), with a peak and mean value of ∼42,000 km s–1 (∼0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log ξ ∼ 3-6 erg s–1 cm, with a mean value of log ξ ∼ 4.2 erg s–1 cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range NH ∼ 1022-1024 cm–2, with a mean value of NH ∼ 1023 cm–2. We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7 keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton-thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of AGNs. This also suggests that UFOs may potentially play a significant role in the expected cosmological feedback

  17. Evidence for Ultra-fast Outflows in Radio-quiet Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Detailed Photoionization Modeling of Fe K-shell Absorption Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.; Dadina, M.

    2011-11-01

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These have been detected essentially through blueshifted Fe XXV/XXVI K-shell transitions. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those highly ionized absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000 km s-1 and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blueshifted absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. The present paper is an extension of that work. First, we report a detailed curve of growth analysis of the main Fe XXV/XXVI transitions in photoionized plasmas. Then, we estimate an average spectral energy distribution for the sample sources and directly model the Fe K absorbers in the XMM-Newton spectra with the detailed Xstar photoionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35% and that the majority of the Fe K absorbers are indeed associated with UFOs. The outflow velocity distribution spans from ~10,000 km s-1 (~0.03c) up to ~100,000 km s-1 (~0.3c), with a peak and mean value of ~42,000 km s-1 (~0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log ξ ~ 3-6 erg s-1 cm, with a mean value of log ξ ~ 4.2 erg s-1 cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N H ~ 1022-1024 cm-2, with a mean value of N H ~ 1023 cm-2. We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7 keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton-thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of AGNs. This also suggests that UFOs may potentially play a significant role in the expected cosmological feedback from AGNs and their study can

  18. Evidence for Ultra-Fast Outflows in Radio-Quiet AGNs. 2; Detailed Photoionization Modeling of Fe K-Shell Absorption Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Francesco; Clapp, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.; Dadina, M.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet AGNs. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000km/s and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blue shifted FeK absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. In the present paper we report a detailed curve of growth analysis and directly model the FeK absorbers with the Xstar photo-ionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35%. The outflow velocity distribution spans from \\sim10,000km/s (\\sim0.03c) up to \\siml00,000kmis (\\sim0.3c), with a peak and mean value of\\sim42,000km/s (\\sim0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log\\xi 3-6 erg s/cm, with a mean value of log\\xi 4.2 erg s/cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N_H\\siml0(exp 22)-10(exp 24)/sq cm, with a mean value of N_H\\siml0(exp23)/sq cm. We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of AGNs. This also suggests that UFOs may potentially play a significant role in the expected cosmological feedback from AGNs and their study can provide important clues on the connection between accretion disks, winds and jets.

  19. Radio Structures of Compact Quasars with Broad Absorption Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Gawroński, Marcin P.

    2010-05-01

    Broad absorption lines (BALs), seen in a small fraction of both the radio-quiet and radio-loud quasar populations, are probably caused by the outflow of gas with high velocities and are part of the accretion process. The presence of BALs is due to a geometrical effect and/or it is connected with the quasar evolution. Using the final release of FIRST survey combined with a catalog of BAL QSOs from SDSS/DR3, we have constructed a new sample of compact radio-loud BAL QSOs, which constitutes the majority of radio-loud BAL QSOs. The main goal of this project is to study the origin of BALs by analysis of the BAL QSOs radio morphology, orientation, and jet evolution using the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.6 GHz and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 and 8.4 GHz.

  20. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTION OF BRIGHT γ-RAY OUTBURSTS FROM THE PECULIAR QUASAR 4C +21.35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report on the two-year-long Fermi-Large Area Telescope observation of the peculiar blazar 4C +21.35 (PKS 1222+216). This source was in a quiescent state from the start of the science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in 2008 August until 2009 September, and then became more active, with gradually increasing flux and some moderately bright flares. In 2010 April and June, 4C +21.35 underwent a very strong GeV outburst composed of several major flares characterized by rise and decay timescales of the order of a day. During the outburst, the GeV spectra of 4C +21.35 displayed a broken power-law form with spectral breaks observed near 1-3 GeV photon energies. We demonstrate that, at least during the major flares, the jet in 4C +21.35 carried a total kinetic luminosity comparable to the total accretion power available to feed the outflow. We also discuss the origin of the break observed in the flaring spectra of 4C +21.35. We show that, in principle, a model involving annihilation of the GeV photons on the He II Lyman recombination continuum and line emission of 'broad-line region' clouds may account for such. However, we also discuss the additional constraint provided by the detection of 4C +21.35 at 0.07-0.4 TeV energies by the MAGIC telescope, which coincided with one of the GeV flares of the source. We argue that there are reasons to believe that the ∼17 cm from the nucleus), but instead originates further away from the active center, namely, around the characteristic scale of the hot dusty torus surrounding the 4C +21.35 nucleus (∼1019 cm).

  1. Observed Quasar Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Rudolph E.

    2011-05-01

    With the introduction of microlensing (nano-lensing) and reverberation analysis, understanding of the luminous structure surrounding quasars has gone from theoretical speculation to an observer's sport. Micro-lensing with day timescale has demonstrated that quasars have structure on scales of 1 R_G which we attribute to the inner edge of the accretion disc, at central distance 70 R_G in lo-hard state (radio loud) Q0957 quasar, indicated by reverberation. Reverberation of the dominant optical continuum has been detected in all 55 hi-soft quasars with brightness data, originating in the dusty torus observed in UV-optical and IR reverberation. Microlensing simulation compared to brightness monitoring shows that 2/3 of the UV-optical continuum originates in the outer torus. The observed color effects observed in the microlensing support the existence of inner and outer luminous structure.

  2. Evidence for ultra-fast outflows in radio-quiet AGNs. I. Detection and statistical incidence of Fe K-shell absorption lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Yaqoob, T.; Braito, V.; Dadina, M.

    2010-10-01

    Context. Blue-shifted Fe K absorption lines have been detected in recent years between 7 and 10 keV in the X-ray spectra of several radio-quiet AGNs. The derived blue-shifted velocities of the lines can often reach mildly relativistic values, up to 0.2-0.4c. These findings are important because they suggest the presence of a previously unknown massive and highly ionized absorbing material outflowing from their nuclei, possibly connected with accretion disk winds/outflows. Aims: The scope of the present work is to statistically quantify the parameters and incidence of the blue-shifted Fe K absorption lines through a uniform analysis on a large sample of radio-quiet AGNs. This allows us to assess their global detection significance and to overcome any possible publication bias. Methods: We performed a blind search for narrow absorption features at energies greater than 6.4 keV in a sample of 42 radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. A simple uniform model composed by an absorbed power-law plus Gaussian emission and absorption lines provided a good fit for all the data sets. We derived the absorption lines parameters and calculated their detailed detection significance making use of the classical F-test and extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Results: We detect 36 narrow absorption lines on a total of 101 XMM-Newton EPIC pn observations. The number of absorption lines at rest-frame energies higher than 7 keV is 22. Their global probability to be generated by random fluctuations is very low, less than 3 × 10-8, and their detection have been independently confirmed by a spectral analysis of the MOS data, with associated random probability UFOs) those highly ionized absorbers with outflow velocities higher than 104 km s-1, then the majority of the lines are consistent with being associated to UFOs and the fraction of objects with detected UFOs in the whole sample is at least ~35%. This fraction is similar for type 1 and type 2 sources. The global covering fraction of

  3. Gravitational lensing of quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Eigenbrod, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The universe, in all its richness, diversity and complexity, is populated by a myriad of intriguing celestial objects. Among the most exotic of them are gravitationally lensed quasars. A quasar is an extremely bright nucleus of a galaxy, and when such an object is gravitationally lensed, multiple images of the quasar are produced – this phenomenon of cosmic mirage can provide invaluable insights on burning questions, such as the nature of dark matter and dark energy. After presenting the basics of modern cosmology, the book describes active galactic nuclei, the theory of gravitational lensing, and presents a particular numerical technique to improve the resolution of astronomical data. The book then enters the heart of the subject with the description of important applications of gravitational lensing of quasars, such as the measurement of the famous Hubble constant, the determination of the dark matter distribution in galaxies, and the observation of the mysterious inner parts of quasars with much higher r...

  4. ON THE RADIO AND OPTICAL LUMINOSITY EVOLUTION OF QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singal, J.; Petrosian, V. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Lawrence, A. [Institute for Astronomy, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Stawarz, L., E-mail: jsingal@stanford.edu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5510 (Japan)

    2011-12-20

    We calculate simultaneously the radio and optical luminosity evolutions of quasars, and the distribution in radio loudness R defined as the ratio of radio and optical luminosities, using a flux-limited data set containing 636 quasars with radio and optical fluxes from White et al. We first note that when dealing with multi-variate data it is imperative to first determine the true correlations among the variables, not those introduced by the observational selection effects, before obtaining the individual distributions of the variables. We use the methods developed by Efron and Petrosian which are designed to obtain unbiased correlations, distributions, and evolution with redshift from a data set truncated due to observational biases. It is found that the population of quasars exhibits strong positive correlation between the radio and optical luminosities. With this correlation, whether intrinsic or observationally induced accounted for, we find that there is a strong luminosity evolution with redshift in both wavebands, with significantly higher radio than optical evolution. We conclude that the luminosity evolution obtained by arbitrarily separating the sources into radio-loud (R > 10) and radio-quiet (R < 10) populations introduces significant biases that skew the result considerably. We also construct the local radio and optical luminosity functions and the density evolution. Finally, we consider the distribution of the radio-loudness parameter R obtained from careful treatment of the selection effects and luminosity evolutions with that obtained from the raw data without such considerations. We find a significant difference between the two distributions and no clear sign of bi-modality in the true distribution for the range of R values considered. Our results indicate therefore, somewhat surprisingly, that there is no critical switch in the efficiency of the production of disk outflows/jets between very radio-quiet and very radio-loud quasars, but rather a

  5. Host Galaxies of Luminous Quasars: Structural Properties and the Fundamental Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Marsha J.; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2008-10-01

    We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements in the host galaxies of ten luminous quasars (MV < -23) using the Ca H&K lines in off-nuclear spectra. We combine these data with effective radii and magnitudes from the literature to place the host galaxies on the fundamental plane (FP) where their properties are compared with other types of galaxies. We find that the radio-loud (RL) QSO hosts have similar properties to massive elliptical galaxies, while the radio-quiet (RQ) hosts are more similar to intermediate-mass galaxies. The RL hosts lie at the upper extreme of the FP due to their large velocity dispersions (langσ*rang = 321 km s-1), low surface brightness (langμ e (r)rang = 20.8 mag arcsec-2), and large effective radii (langRe rang = 11.4 kpc), and have langM *rang = 1.5 × 1012 M sun and langM/Lrang = 12.4. In contrast, properties of the RQ hosts are langσ*rang = 241 km s-1, langM *rang = 4.4 × 1011 M sun, and M/L ~ 5.3. The distinction between these galaxies occurs at σ*~ 300 km s-1, Re ~ 6 kpc, and corresponding M * ~ 5.9 ± 3.5 × 1011 M sun. Our data support previous results that Palomar-Green QSOs are related to gas-rich galaxy mergers that form intermediate-mass galaxies, while RL QSOs reside in massive early-type galaxies, most of which also show signs of recent mergers or interactions. Previous authors have drawn these conclusions by using estimates of the black hole mass and inferring host galaxy properties from that, while here we have relied purely on directly measured host galaxy properties.

  6. Size and Structure of the Narrow-Line Region of Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Bennert, N; Schulz, H; Wilson, A S; Wills, B J; Bennert, Nicola; Falcke, Heino; Schulz, Hartmut; Wilson, Andrew S.; Wills, Beverley J.

    2002-01-01

    We have observed the narrow-line regions (NLRs) of the seven brightest radio-quiet PG (or BQS) quasars (z < 0.5) with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Linear-ramp filters were used to image the [OIII] lambda 5007 line emission with 0.0455-0.1 arcsec pixel resolution. We find that the NLRs are very compact with typical extents of 2-4 arcsec. Two quasars show compact filamentary structures similar to Seyfert NLRs. They may be related to radio outflows. Most interestingly, when including a sample of Seyfert galaxies observed with HST, we tentatively find that the size of the NLR is proportional to the square root of the [OIII] luminosity. This is comparable to the scaling found for the size of the broad-line region with continuum luminosity, which has been interpreted in terms of a constant photoionization parameter. The relation determined here connects the NLR of radio-quiet quasars and Seyferts over three orders of magnitude in [OIII] luminosity.

  7. Evidence for ultra-fast outflows in radio-quiet AGNs: I - detection and statistical incidence of Fe K-shell absorption lines

    CERN Document Server

    Tombesi, F; Reeves, J N; Palumbo, G G C; Yaqoob, T; Braito, V; Dadina, M

    2010-01-01

    We performed a blind search for narrow absorption features at energies greater than 6.4 keV in a sample of 42 radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. We detect 36 narrow absorption lines on a total of 101 XMM-Newton EPIC pn observations. The number of absorption lines at rest-frame energies E>7 keV is 22. Their global probability to be generated by random fluctuations is very low, less than 3x10^-8, and their detection have been independently confirmed by a spectral analysis of the MOS data, with associated random probability <10^-7. We identify the lines as Fe XXV and Fe XXVI K-shell resonant absorption. They are systematically blue-shifted, with a velocity distribution ranging from zero up to 0.3c, with a peak and mean value at 0.1c. We detect variability of the lines on both EWs and blue-shifted velocities among different observations even on time-scales as short as a few days, possibly suggesting somewhat compact absorbers. Moreover, we find no significant correlation between the cosmological red-sh...

  8. On the puzzling high-energy pulsations of the energetic radio-quiet γ-ray pulsar J1813–1246

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marelli, M.; Pizzocaro, D.; De Luca, A.; Caraveo, P.; Salvetti, D. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Harding, A. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wood, K. S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Saz Parkinson, P. M. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Acero, F., E-mail: marelli@lambrate.inaf.it [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universit Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2014-11-10

    We have analyzed the new deep XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the energetic, radio-quiet pulsar J1813–1246. The X-ray spectrum is nonthermal, very hard, and absorbed. Based on spectral considerations, we propose that J1813 is located at a distance further than 2.5 kpc. J1813 is highly pulsed in the X-ray domain, with a light curve characterized by two sharp, asymmetrical peaks, separated by 0.5 in phase. We detected no significant X-ray spectral changes during the pulsar phase. We extended the available Fermi ephemeris to five years. We found two glitches. The γ-ray light curve is characterized by two peaks, separated by 0.5 in phase, with a bridge in between and no off-pulse emission. The spectrum shows clear evolution in phase, being softer at the peaks and hardening toward the bridge. Surprisingly, both X-ray peaks lag behind the γ-ray ones by a quarter of phase. We found a hint of detection in the 30-500 keV band with INTEGRAL, which is consistent with the extrapolation of both the soft X-ray and γ-ray emission of J1813. The unique X-ray and γ-ray phasing suggests a singular emission geometry. We discuss some possibilities within the current pulsar emission models. Finally, we develop an alternative geometrical model where the X-ray emission comes from polar cap pair cascades.

  9. On the puzzling high-energy pulsations of the energetic radio-quiet $\\gamma$-ray pulsar J1813$-$1246

    CERN Document Server

    Marelli, M; Pizzocaro, D; De Luca, A; Wood, K S; Caraveo, P; Salvetti, D; Parkinson, P M Saz; Acero, F

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed the new deep {\\it XMM-Newton} and {\\it Chandra} observations of the energetic radio-quiet pulsar J1813$-$1246. The X-ray spectrum is non-thermal, very hard and absorbed. Based on spectral considerations, we propose that J1813 is located at a distance further than 2.5 kpc. J1813 is highly pulsed in the X-ray domain, with a light curve characterized by two sharp, asymmetrical peaks, separated by 0.5 in phase. We detected no significant X-ray spectral changes during the pulsar phase. We extended the available {\\it Fermi} ephemeris to five years. We found two glitches. The $\\gamma$-ray lightcurve is characterized by two peaks, separated by 0.5 in phase, with a bridge in between and no off-pulse emission. The spectrum shows clear evolution in phase, being softer at the peaks and hardenning towards the bridge. The X-ray peaks lag the $\\gamma$-ray ones by 0.25 in phase. We found a hint of detection in the 30-500 keV band with {\\it INTEGRAL} IBIS/ISGRI, that is consistent with the extrapolation of bo...

  10. Evidence of the radio-quiet hard X-ray precursor of the 13 December 2006 solar flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report multi-wavelength investigation of the pre-impulsive phase of the 13 December 2006 X-class solar flare. We use hard X-ray data from the anticoincidence system of spectrometer onboard INTEGRAL (ACS) jointly with soft X-ray data from the GOES-12 and Hinode satellites. Radio data are from Nobeyama and Learmonth solar observatories and from the Culgoora Solar Radio Spectrograph. The main finding of our analysis is a spiky increase of the ACS count rate accompanied by surprisingly gradual and weak growth of microwave emission and without detectable radio emission at meter and decimeter wavelengths about 10 min prior to the impulsive phase of the solar flare. At the time of this pre-flare hard X-ray burst the onset of the GOES soft X-ray event has been reported, positive derivative of the GOES soft X-ray flux started to rise and a bright spot has appeared in the images of the Hinode X-ray telescope (XRT) between the flare ribbons near the magnetic inversion line close to the sources of thermal and non-thermal hard X-ray emission observed by Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) during the flare. These facts we consider as evidences of solar origin of the increased pre-flare ACS count rate. We briefly discuss a possible cause of the pre-flare emission peculiarities. (authors)

  11. Examining the Radio-Loud/Radio-Quiet dichotomy with new Chandra and VLA observations of 13 UGC galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kharb, Preeti; Axon, D J; Chiaberge, M; Grandi, P; Robinson, A; Giovannini, G; Balmaverde, B; Macchetto, D; Montez, R

    2012-01-01

    (Abridged) We present the results from new 15 ks Chandra-ACIS and 4.9 GHz Very Large Array observations of 13 galaxies hosting low luminosity AGN. This completes the multiwavelength study of a sample of 51 nearby early-type galaxies described in Capetti & Balmaverde (2005, 2006); Balmaverde & Capetti (2006). The aim of the three previous papers was to explore the connection between the host galaxies and AGN activity in a radio-selected sample. We detect nuclear X-ray emission in eight sources and radio emission in all but one (viz., UGC6985). The new VLA observations improve the spatial resolution by a factor of ten: the presence of nuclear radio sources in 12 of the 13 galaxies confirms their AGN nature. As previously indicated, the behavior of the X-ray and radio emission in these sources depends strongly on the form of their optical surface brightness profiles derived from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, i.e., on their classification as "core", "power-law" or "intermediate" galaxies. With more than...

  12. The Optical-UV Emissivity of Quasars: Dependence on Black Hole Mass and Radio Loudness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Francesco; Calderone, Giorgio; Knigge, Christian; Matthews, James; Buckland, Rachel; Hryniewicz, Krzysztof; Sivakoff, Gregory; Dai, Xinyu; Richardson, Kayleigh; Riley, Jack; Gray, James; La Franca, Fabio; Altamirano, Diego; Croston, Judith; Gandhi, Poshak; Hönig, Sebastian; McHardy, Ian; Middleton, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    We analyzed a large sample of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasar spectra at redshift 1.0 ≤ z ≤ 1.2 to compare the inferred underlying quasar continuum slopes (after removal of the host galaxy contribution) with accretion disk models. The latter predict redder (decreasing) α3000 continuum slopes ({L}ν \\propto {ν }α at 3000 Å) with increasing black hole mass, bluer α3000 with increasing luminosity at 3000 Å, and bluer α3000 with increasing spin of the black hole, when all other parameters are held fixed. We find no clear evidence for any of these predictions in the data. In particular, we find the following. (i) α3000 shows no significant dependence on black hole mass or luminosity. Dedicated Monte Carlo tests suggest that the substantial observational uncertainties in the black hole virial masses can effectively erase any intrinsic dependence of α3000 on black hole mass, in line with some previous studies. (ii) The mean slope α3000 of radio-loud sources, thought to be produced by rapidly spinning black holes, is comparable to, or even redder than, that of radio-quiet quasars. Indeed, although quasars appear to become more radio loud with decreasing luminosity, we still do not detect any significant dependence of α3000 on radio loudness. The predicted mean α3000 slopes tend to be bluer than in the data. Disk models with high inclinations and dust extinction tend to produce redder slopes closer to empirical estimates. Our mean α3000 values are close to the ones independently inferred at z < 0.5, suggesting weak evolution with redshift, at least for moderately luminous quasars.

  13. Orientation and quasar black hole mass estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Brotherton, Michael S; Runnoe, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed a sample of 386 radio-loud quasars with z < 0.75 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in order to investigate orientation effects on black hole mass estimates. Orientation is estimated using radio core dominance measurements based on FIRST survey maps. Black hole masses are estimated from virial-based scaling relationships using H-beta, and compared to the stellar velocity dispersion (sigma_*), predicted using the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of [O III] 5007, which tracks mass via the M-sigma_* relation. We find that the FWHM of Hbeta correlates significantly with radio core dominance and biases black hole mass determinations that use it, but that this is not the case for sigma_* based on [O III] 5007. The ratio of black hole masses predicted using orientation-biased and unbiased estimates, which can be determined for radio-quiet as well as radio-loud quasars, is significantly correlated with radio core dominance. Although there is significant scatter, this mass ratio calculated in th...

  14. Unification of Luminous Type 1 Quasars through CIV Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, Gordon T; Gallagher, S C; Hall, Patrick B; Hewett, Paul C; Leighly, Karen M; Deo, Rajesh P; Kratzer, Rachael M; Shen, Yue

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 30,000 quasars from SDSS-DR7, we explore the range of properties exhibited by high-ionization, broad emission lines, such as CIV 1549. Specifically we investigate the anti-correlation between L_UV and emission line EQW (the Baldwin Effect) and the "blueshifting" of high-ionization emission lines. The blueshift of the CIV emission line is nearly ubiquitous, with a mean shift of 810 km/s for radio-quiet (RQ) quasars and 360 km/s for radio-loud (RL) quasars, and the Baldwin Effect is present in both RQ and RL samples. Composite spectra are constructed as a function of CIV emission line properties in attempt to reveal empirical relationships between different line species and the SED. Within a two-component disk+wind model of the broad emission line region (BELR), where the wind filters the continuum seen by the disk component, we find that RL quasars are consistent with being dominated by the disk component, while BALQSOs are consistent with being dominated by the wind component. Some RQ object...

  15. The ISO View of Palomar-Green Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, M.; Klaas, U.; Mueller, S. A. H.; Bertoldi, F.; Camenzind, M.; Chini, R.; Krause, O.; Lemke, D.; Meisenheimer; Richards, P. J.

    2003-01-01

    Mining the ISO data archive we provide the complete ISO view of PG quasars containing 64 infrared spectral energy distributions between 5 and 200 mu m. About half of the sample was supplemented by MAMBO and SCUBA (sub-)millimeter data. Since the PG quasars were selected optically, the high infrared detection rate of more than 80% suggests that every quasar possesses luminous to hyper-luminous dust emission with dust masses comparable to Seyferts and ultra-luminous IR galaxies (ULIRGs). The gas to-dust mass ratio (of those sources where CO measurements are available in the literature) is consistent with the galactic value providing further evidence for the thermal nature of the IR emission of radio quiet quasars. The SEDs represent templates of unprecedented detail and sensitivity. We suggest that the diversity of the SEDs reflects largely the evolution of the dust distribution, and we propose a classification of the SED shapes as well as an evolutionary scheme in which this variety can be understood. During the evolution the surrounding dust redistributes, settling more and more into a torus/disk like configuration, while the SEDs show an initial FIR bump, then an increasing MIR emission and a steeper near- to mid-infrared slope, both of which finally also decrease. Regarding cosmic evolution, our hyper-luminous quasars in the "local" universe at z=l do not show the hyper-luminous (LFIR >? 10(exp 13) L(sub sun)) starburst activity inferred for z=4 quasars detected in several (sub-)millimeter surveys. In view of several caveats this difference should be established further, but it already suggests that in the early dense universe stronger merger events led to more powerful starbursts accompanying the quasar phenomenon, while at later cosmic epochs any coeval starbursts obviously do not reach that high power and are outshone by the AGN. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  16. X-ray studies of quasars with the Einstein observatory. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Einstein Observatory, we have carried out X-ray observations of 107 quasars and have detected 79. From the analysis of this sample of objects we find a correlation between optical emission and X-ray emission. Our data for radio-loud quasars also show a correlation between radio emission and X-ray emission. For a given optical luminosity, the average X-ray emission of radio-loud quasars is approx.3 times higher than that of ratio-quiet quasars. In addition, our data suggest that the radio of X-ray to optical luminosity is decreasing with increasing redshift and/or optical luminosity. Taking into account the differences in X-ray luminosity between radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, and between low-redshift and high-redshift quasars, we estimate that approx.30% of the observed X-ray background is contributed by quasars brighter than m/sub B/roughly-equal20, while much of the remainder can be contributed by still fainter quasars. Our data also imply that the optical log N--m/sub B/ relation for quasars cannot be extrapolated much beyond m/sub B/roughly-equal20 with the steep slope used to characterize optical source counts at brighter magnitudes. This situation supports the picture in which luminosity evolution, rather than pure density evolution, describes the quasar behavior as a function of redshift. We briefly discuss the observed correlation of X-ray luminosity with radio luminosity in the context of current quasar models

  17. An X-Ray Study of Lobe-Dominated Radio-Loud Quasars with XMM-Newton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We report on our results of X-ray spectral analysis for a sample of radio-loud quasars covering a wide range of the radio core-dominance parameter, R, from core-dominated to lobe-dominated objects, using data obtained mostly with the XMM-Newton Observatory. We find that the spectral shape of the underlying power-law continuum is flat even for the lobe-dominated objects (average photon index ~ 1.5), indistinguishable from that of core-dominated quasars. For lobe-dominated objects, contribution of X-rays from the jets is expected to be very small based on previous unification schemes, more than one order of magnitude lower than the observed X-ray luminosities. Assuming that radio-loud quasars follow the same X-ray-UV/optical luminosity relation for the disk-corona emission as found for radio-quiet quasars, we estimate the X-ray flux contributed by the disk-corona component from the optical/UV continuum. We find that neither the luminosity, nor the spectral shape, of the disk-corona X-ray emission can account for the bulk of the observed X-ray properties. Thus in lobe-dominated quasars, either the disk-corona X-ray emission is much enhanced in strength and flatter in spectral shape (photon index~1.5) compared to normal radio-quiet quasars, or their jet X-ray emission is much enhanced compared to their weak radio core-jet emission. If the latter is the case, our result may imply that the jet emission in X-rays is less Doppler beamed than that in the radio. As a demonstrating example, we test this hypothesis by using a specific model in which the X-ray jet has a larger opening angle than the radio jet.

  18. X-Ray Spectra of Quasars from the ROSAT Public Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin S.; West, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This has been a most productive proposal. We have: (1) Found many new X-ray absorbed quasars at z>2; (2) Determined that all of these are radio-loud, favoring an intrinsic origin for the absorption; (3) Found that the one radio-quiet exception lay close to a nearby galaxy, so initiating the X-ray study of the ISM of normal galaxies via X-ray spectroscopy; (4) Discovered a class of 'red quasars', probably the tip of a large obscured population; and (5) Discovered a class of 'blank field X-ray sources'. These are a heterogeneous collection but probably include several peculiar types of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Follow-up of the 'blanks' is being undertaken under a separate ADP program. Chandra and XMM-Newton observing time for these objects has been approved. This program has produced six refereed papers and six published conference proceedings.

  19. DISCLOSING THE RADIO LOUDNESS DISTRIBUTION DICHOTOMY IN QUASARS: AN UNBIASED MONTE CARLO APPROACH APPLIED TO THE SDSS-FIRST QUASAR SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the dichotomy in the radio loudness distribution of quasars by modeling their radio emission and various selection effects using a Monte Carlo approach. The existence of two physically distinct quasar populations, the radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, is controversial and over the last decade a bimodal distribution of radio loudness of quasars has been both affirmed and disputed. We model the quasar radio luminosity distribution with simple unimodal and bimodal distribution functions. The resulting simulated samples are compared to a fiducial sample of 8300 quasars drawn from the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog and combined with radio observations from the FIRST survey. Our results indicate that the SDSS-FIRST sample is best described by a radio loudness distribution which consists of two components, with (12 ± 1)% of sources in the radio-loud component. On the other hand, the evidence for a local minimum in the loudness distribution (bimodality) is not strong and we find that previous claims for its existence were probably affected by the incompleteness of the FIRST survey close to its faint limit. We also investigate the redshift and luminosity dependence of the radio loudness distribution and find tentative evidence that at high redshift radio-loud quasars were rarer, on average louder, and exhibited a smaller range in radio loudness. In agreement with other recent work, we conclude that the SDSS-FIRST sample strongly suggests that the radio loudness distribution of quasars is not a universal function, and that more complex models than presented here are needed to fully explain available observations.

  20. DISCLOSING THE RADIO LOUDNESS DISTRIBUTION DICHOTOMY IN QUASARS: AN UNBIASED MONTE CARLO APPROACH APPLIED TO THE SDSS-FIRST QUASAR SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balokovic, M. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smolcic, V. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ivezic, Z. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Zamorani, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Schinnerer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kelly, B. C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the dichotomy in the radio loudness distribution of quasars by modeling their radio emission and various selection effects using a Monte Carlo approach. The existence of two physically distinct quasar populations, the radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, is controversial and over the last decade a bimodal distribution of radio loudness of quasars has been both affirmed and disputed. We model the quasar radio luminosity distribution with simple unimodal and bimodal distribution functions. The resulting simulated samples are compared to a fiducial sample of 8300 quasars drawn from the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog and combined with radio observations from the FIRST survey. Our results indicate that the SDSS-FIRST sample is best described by a radio loudness distribution which consists of two components, with (12 {+-} 1)% of sources in the radio-loud component. On the other hand, the evidence for a local minimum in the loudness distribution (bimodality) is not strong and we find that previous claims for its existence were probably affected by the incompleteness of the FIRST survey close to its faint limit. We also investigate the redshift and luminosity dependence of the radio loudness distribution and find tentative evidence that at high redshift radio-loud quasars were rarer, on average louder, and exhibited a smaller range in radio loudness. In agreement with other recent work, we conclude that the SDSS-FIRST sample strongly suggests that the radio loudness distribution of quasars is not a universal function, and that more complex models than presented here are needed to fully explain available observations.

  1. The Overdue Discovery of Quasars and AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Ken I.

    2012-09-01

    The extragalactic nature of quasars as a major new component of the Universe was not recognized until 1963 when Maarten Schmidt somewhat accidentally measured the spectrum of 3C 273 and recognized that the relatively simple hydrogen line Balmer series spectrum implied a redshift of 0.16. Curiously, 3C 48 and other very compact radio sources had been previously identified with ``quasi-stellar'' objects several years earlier. Even though the redshift of 3C48 was measured as early as 1960 as 0.37, it was rejected due to apparent spectroscopic technicalities and preconceived ideas about what appeared to be an unrealistically high luminosity. The strong radio source known as 3C 273 was first catalogued in 1959 and the now recognized magnitude 13 optical counterpart was known at least as early as 1887. Although, since 1960, much fainter optical counterparts were being routinely identified using accurate radio interferometer positions, interestingly, 3C273 eluded identification until a series of lunar occultations by Hazard et al. in 1962 were used to determine the position and morphology of the radio source. Acceptance of the cosmological nature of quasars and the implied excessive radio and optical luminosity was not universal, and claims for a more local population continued for at least several decades, confused perhaps by the recognition of the much larger class of radio quiet quasi stellar objects and active galactic nuclei (AGN), the uncertain connection with previously known Seyfert and other compact galaxies, as well as attempts to classify quasars into numerous sub-categories based on their observed optical, radio, IR and high energy properties.

  2. A CHANDRA SURVEY OF THE X-RAY PROPERTIES OF BROAD ABSORPTION LINE RADIO-LOUD QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the results of a Chandra study of 21 broad absorption line (BAL) radio-loud quasars (RLQs). We conducted a Chandra snapshot survey of 12 bright BAL RLQs selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data/Faint Images of the Radio Sky data and possessing a wide range of radio and C IV absorption properties. Optical spectra were obtained nearly contemporaneously with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope; no strong flux or BAL variability was seen between epochs. In addition to the snapshot targets, we include in our sample nine additional BAL RLQs possessing archival Chandra coverage. We compare the properties of (predominantly high-ionization) BAL RLQs to those of non-BAL RLQs as well as to BAL radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) and non-BAL RQQs for context. All 12 snapshots and 8/9 archival BAL RLQs are detected, with observed X-ray luminosities less than those of non-BAL RLQs having comparable optical/UV luminosities by typical factors of 4.1-8.5. (BAL RLQs are also X-ray weak by typical factors of 2.0-4.5 relative to non-BAL RLQs having both comparable optical/UV and radio luminosities.) However, BAL RLQs are not as X-ray weak relative to non-BAL RLQs as are BAL RQQs relative to non-BAL RQQs. While some BAL RLQs have harder X-ray spectra than typical non-BAL RLQs, some have hardness ratios consistent with those of non-BAL RLQs, and there does not appear to be a correlation between X-ray weakness and spectral hardness, in contrast to the situation for BAL RQQs. RLQs are expected to have X-ray continuum contributions from both accretion-disk corona and small-scale jet emission. While the entire X-ray continuum in BAL RLQs cannot be obscured to the same degree as in BAL RQQs, we calculate that the jet is likely partially covered in many BAL RLQs. We comment briefly on implications for geometries and source ages in BAL RLQs.

  3. Optical selection effects that bias quasar evolution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a study of systematic biases that are redshift-dependent and could influence not only the optical discovery of quasars but also the evolution laws derived from counts of quasars in ''complete'' surveys. A numerical model of the optical biases suggests that the excess of quasars found at z roughly-equal 2.5 when compared to the local density is largely a result of photometric errors and the unrecognized contribution of strong UV emission lines to the blue magnitude of high-redshift quasars. An observational reexamination of the quasars brighter than M/sub B/ = -24 in the Palomar Bright Quasar Survey (BQS) shows that for the brightest quasars in the survey, the data are consistent with no evolution. A comparison of BQS quasars with the brightest quasars from the CTIO Schmidt Telescope Survey (Osmer and Smith 1980) shows that the brightest CTIO survey quasars have much stronger C IV lambda1548 lines than the brightest BQS quasars. If q0 is taken to be near zero, the density of bright quasars in comoving Friedmann cosmology coordinates is about 15 times higher for the CTIO survey quasars (mean z roughly-equal 2.8) than for the BQS quasars (mean z roughly-equal 1.8). In this case, spectral evolution is required, since the high-redshift CTIO quasars have greater C IV lambda1548 equivalent widths than the lower redshift BQS quasars of similar luminosity. Alternatively, if q3] is taken to be near unity, the brightest CTIO survey quasars would all be fainter than the brightest BQS objects. The strong emission lines seen in the CTIO survey quasars could be understood as a consequence of the general correlation between absolute quasar luminosity and C IV lambda1548 equivalent width

  4. X-RAY ABSORPTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eitan, Assaf; Behar, Ehud, E-mail: sassafe@tx.technion.ac.il, E-mail: behar@physics.technion.ac.il [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2013-09-01

    The soft X-ray photoelectric absorption of high-z quasars has been known for two decades, but has no unambiguous astrophysical context. We construct the largest sample to date of 58 high-redshift quasars (z > 0.45) selected from the XMM-Newton archive based on a high photon count criterion (>1800). We measure the optical depth {tau} at 0.5 keV and find that 43% of the quasars show significant absorption. We aim to find which physical parameters of the quasars, e.g., redshift, radio luminosity, radio loudness, or X-ray luminosity, drive their observed absorption. We compare the absorption behavior with redshift with the pattern expected if the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM) is responsible for the observed absorption. We also compare the absorption with a comparison sample of gamma-ray burst (GRB) X-ray afterglows. Although the z > 2 quasar opacity is consistent with diffuse IGM absorption, many intermediate-z (0.45 < z < 2) quasars are not sufficiently absorbed for this scenario, and are appreciably less absorbed than GRBs. Only 10/37 quasars at z < 2 are absorbed, and only 5/30 radio-quiet quasars are absorbed. We find a weak correlation between {tau} and z, and an even weaker correlation between {tau} and radio luminosity. These findings lead to the conclusion that although a diffuse IGM origin for the quasar absorption is unlikely, the optical depth does seem to increase with redshift, roughly as (1 + z){sup 2.2{+-}0.6}, tending to {tau} Almost-Equal-To 0.4 at high redshifts, similar to the high-z GRBs. This result can be explained by an ionized and clumpy IGM at z < 2, and a cold, diffuse IGM at higher redshift. If, conversely, the absorption occurs at the quasar, and owing to the steep L{sub x} {proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 7.1{+-}0.5} correlation in the present sample, the host column density scales as N{sub H}{proportional_to}L{sub x}{sup 0.7{+-}0.1}.

  5. Evidence for the Thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Associated with Quasar Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Devin T.; Gralla, Megan B.; Hall, Kirsten; Marriage, Tobias; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Atacama Cosmology Telescope Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Using a radio-quiet subsample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic quasar catalog, spanning redshifts 0.5–3.5, we derive the mean millimetre and far-infrared quasar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) via a stacking analysis of Atacama Cosmology Telescope and Herschel-SPIRE data. We constrain the form of the far-infrared emission and find 3–4σ evidence for the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, characteristic of a hot ionized gas component with thermal energy (6.2 ± 1.7) × 1060 erg. This amount of thermal energy is greater than expected assuming only hot gas in virial equilibrium with the dark matter haloes of (1 ‑ 5) × 1012h‑1M⊙ that these systems are expected to occupy. Modeling this signal as energy injection due to quasar feedback, our measurements are found to be consistent with a scenario in which quasars deposit up to (14.5±3.3) τ8‑1 per cent of their radiative energy into their circumgalactic environment if their typical period of quasar activity is τ8 × 108 years.

  6. A Quasar Catalog with Simultaneous UV, Optical and X-ray Observations by Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jian; Grupe, Dirk; Koch, Scott; Gelbord, Jonathan; Schneider, Donald P; Gronwall, Caryl; Wesolowski, Sarah; Porterfield, Blair L

    2012-01-01

    We have compiled a catalog of optically-selected quasars with simultaneous observations in UV/optical and X-ray bands by the Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer. Objects in this catalog are identified by matching the Swift pointings with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 quasar catalog. The final catalog contains 843 objects, among which 637 have both UVOT and XRT observations and 354 of which are detected by both instruments. The overall X-ray detection rate is ~60% which rises to ~85% among sources with at least 10 ks of XRT exposure time. We construct the time-averaged spectral energy distribution for each of the 354 quasars using UVOT photometric measurements and XRT spectra. From model fits to these SEDs, we find that the big blue bump contributes about 0.3 dex to the quasar luminosity. We re-visit the alpha_ox-L_uv relation by selecting a clean sample with only type 1 radio-quiet quasars; the dispersion of this relation is reduced by at least 15% compared to studies that use non-simultaneous UV/opt...

  7. An Apparent Redshift Dependence of Quasar Continuum: Implication for Cosmic Dust Extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoyi; Shen, Shiyin; Shao, Zhengyi; Yin, Jun

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the luminosity and redshift dependence of the quasar continuum by means of the composite spectrum using a large non-BAL radio-quiet quasar sample drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Quasar continuum slopes in the UV-Opt band are measured at two different wavelength ranges, i.e., αν12 (1000 ˜ 2000 Å) and αν24 (2000 ˜ 4000 Å) derived from a power-law fitting. Generally, the UV spectra slope becomes harder (higher αν) toward higher bolometric luminosity. On the other hand, when quasars are further grouped into luminosity bins, we find that both αν12 and αν24 show significant anti-correlations with redshift (i.e., the quasar continuum becomes redder toward higher redshift). We suggest that the cosmic dust extinction is very likely the cause of this observed αν - z relation. We build a simple cosmic dust extinction model to quantify the observed reddening tendency and find an effective dust density nσv ˜ 10-5h Mpc-1 at z effect have also been discussed.

  8. Quasar Host Environments: The view from Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Verdier, Loïc; Bartlett, James G; Magneville, Christophe; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    We measure the far-infrared emission of the general quasar (QSO) population using Planck observations of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey QSO sample. By applying multi-component matched multi-filters to the seven highest Planck frequencies, we extract the amplitudes of dust, synchrotron and thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signals for nearly 300,000 QSOs over the redshift range $0.1radio-quiet subsample does not show any synchrotron emission, but we detect th...

  9. Quasar host environments: The view from Planck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, Loïc; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Bartlett, James G.; Magneville, Christophe; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    We measure the far-infrared emission of the general quasar (QSO) population using Planck observations of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey QSO sample. By applying multi-component matched multi-filters to the seven highest Planck frequencies, we extract the amplitudes of dust, synchrotron, and thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signals for nearly 300 000 QSOs over the redshift range 0.1 radio-quiet subsample does not show any synchrotron emission, but we detect thermal SZ between z = 2.5 and 4; no significant SZ emission is seen at lower redshifts. Depending on the supposed mass for the halos hosting the QSOs, this may or may not leave room for heating of the halo gas by feedback from the QSO.

  10. VARIABILITY OF THE Hβ LINE PROFILES AS AN INDICATOR OF ORBITING BRIGHT SPOTS IN ACCRETION DISKS OF QUASARS: A CASE STUDY OF 3C 390.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we show that in the case when double-peaked emission lines originate from outer parts of the accretion disk, their variability could be caused by perturbations in the disk emissivity. In order to test this hypothesis, we introduced a model of the disk perturbing region in the form of a single bright spot (or flare) by a modification of the power-law disk emissivity in an appropriate way. The disk emission was then analyzed using numerical simulations based on the ray-tracing method in the Kerr metric and the corresponding simulated line profiles were obtained. We applied this model to the observed Hβ line profiles of 3C 390.3 (observed in the period 1995-1999) and estimated the parameters of both the accretion disk and the perturbing region. Our results show that two large amplitude outbursts of the Hβ line observed in 3C 390.3 could be explained by successive occurrences of two bright spots on the approaching side of the disk. These bright spots are either moving, originating in the inner regions of the disk and spiralling outward by crossing small distances during the period of several years, or stationary. In both cases, their widths increase with time, indicating that they most likely decay.

  11. Spectral Variability in Hard X-rays and the Evidence for a 13.5 Years Period in the Bright Quasar 3C273

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. K. Manchanda

    2002-09-01

    We report the observation of nearest quasar 3C273 made with LASE instrument on November 20th, 1998 as a part of our continuing programme of balloon borne hard X-ray observations in the 20–200 keV band using high sensitivity Large Area Scintillation counter Experiment. Our data clearly show a steep spectrum in the 20–200 keV with power law spectral index = 226 ± 0.07. This is in complete contrast to the reported data from OSSE and BeppoSAX which suggest the value of 1.3 to 1.6 for the power law index in the X-ray energy band, but is quite consistent with the value derived for the high energy gamma ray data. A single power law fit in the X-ray and gamma ray energy bands points to a common origin of these photons and the absence of spectral break around 1 MeV as suggested in literature. We have reanalyzed the available data to study the temporal variability of the spectrum in the hard X-ray band. Our analysis reveals that 50 keV flux from the source, shows a strong modulation with a period of about 13.5 years. The analysis of the optical light curve of the source also supports the 5000 day period.We discuss the emission mechanism and the possible sites for X-ray photons along with the implications of the long term periodicity with respect to source geometry.

  12. On the geometry of broad emission region in quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Decarli, R; Treves, A; Falomo, R

    2008-01-01

    We study the geometry of the Hbeta broad emission region by comparing the M_BH values derived from Hbeta through the virial relation with those obtained from the host galaxy luminosity in a sample of 36 low redshift (z around 0.3) quasars. This comparison lets us infer the geometrical factor f needed to de-project the line-of-sight velocity component of the emitting gas. The wide range of f values we found, together with the strong dependence of f on the observed line width, suggests that a disc-like model for the broad line region is preferable to an isotropic model, both for radio loud and radio quiet quasars. We examined similar observations of the CIV line and found no correlation in the width of the two lines. Our results indicate that an inflated disc broad line region, in which the Carbon line is emitted in a flat disc while Hbeta is produced in a geometrically thick region, can account for the observed differences in the width and shape of the two emission lines.

  13. Broadband nuclear emission in two radio-loud BAL quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M; Janiuk, A

    2014-01-01

    The X-ray weakness of broad absorption line (BAL) quasars in comparison to non-BAL objects is possibly caused by the absorption of X-ray emission by the shielding material near the equatorial plane. On the other hand, the radio-loud BALQSOs are more X-ray loud than the radio-quiet ones. This suggests that part of the X-ray emission may arise from the radio jet. To investigate this possibility, we modelled the nuclear spectra of two radio-loud BALQSOs. We focus on the emission from the very centres of these two objects. The source of emission was approximated by a single, homogeneous component that produces synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiation. The simplicity of the model allowed us to estimate the basic physical parameters of the emitting regions, using a universal analytic approach. Such methods have already been used in blazars. For the first time we propose this solution for quasars. In addition, we modelled the radiation spectra of the accretion disk and its corona to compare them with the jets'...

  14. Dusty Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Krawczyk, Coleman M; Gallagher, S C; Leighly, Karen M; Hewett, Paul C; Ross, Nicholas P; Hall, P B

    2014-01-01

    We explore the extinction/reddening of ~35,000 uniformly-selected quasars with 00.1 and 0.1% (1.3%) with E(B-V)>0.2. Simulations show both populations of quasars are intrinsically bluer than the mean composite, with a mean spectral index (${\\alpha}_{\\lambda}$) of -1.79 (-1.83). The emission and absorption-line properties of both samples reveal that quasars with intrinsically red continua have narrower Balmer lines and stronger ionizing spectral lines, the latter indicating a harder continuum in the extreme-UV and the former indicating either smaller BH mass or more face-on orientation.

  15. THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET DEFICIT AND MAGNETICALLY ARRESTED ACCRETION IN RADIO-LOUD QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hubble Space Telescope composite quasar spectra presented in Telfer et al. show a significant deficit of emission in the extreme ultraviolet for the radio-loud component of the quasar population (RLQs) compared to the radio-quiet component of the quasar population. The composite quasar continuum emission between 1100 Å and ∼580 Å is generally considered to be associated with the innermost regions of the accretion flow onto the central black hole. The deficit between 1100 Å and 580 Å in RLQs has a straightforward interpretation as a missing or a suppressed innermost region of local energy dissipation in the accretion flow. It is proposed that this can be the result of islands of large-scale magnetic flux in RLQs that are located close to the central black hole that remove energy from the accretion flow as Poynting flux (sometimes called magnetically arrested accretion). These magnetic islands are natural sites for launching relativistic jets. Based on the Telfer et al. data and the numerical simulations of accretion flows in Penna et al., the magnetic islands are concentrated between the event horizon and an outer boundary of <2.8 M (in geometrized units) for rapidly rotating black holes and <5.5 M for modestly rotating black holes

  16. THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET DEFICIT AND MAGNETICALLY ARRESTED ACCRETION IN RADIO-LOUD QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punsly, Brian, E-mail: brian.punsly1@verizon.net [1415 Granvia Altamira, Palos Verdes Estates, CA 90274 (United States); ICRANet, Piazza della Repubblica, I-65100 10 Pescara (Italy)

    2014-12-20

    The Hubble Space Telescope composite quasar spectra presented in Telfer et al. show a significant deficit of emission in the extreme ultraviolet for the radio-loud component of the quasar population (RLQs) compared to the radio-quiet component of the quasar population. The composite quasar continuum emission between 1100 Å and ∼580 Å is generally considered to be associated with the innermost regions of the accretion flow onto the central black hole. The deficit between 1100 Å and 580 Å in RLQs has a straightforward interpretation as a missing or a suppressed innermost region of local energy dissipation in the accretion flow. It is proposed that this can be the result of islands of large-scale magnetic flux in RLQs that are located close to the central black hole that remove energy from the accretion flow as Poynting flux (sometimes called magnetically arrested accretion). These magnetic islands are natural sites for launching relativistic jets. Based on the Telfer et al. data and the numerical simulations of accretion flows in Penna et al., the magnetic islands are concentrated between the event horizon and an outer boundary of <2.8 M (in geometrized units) for rapidly rotating black holes and <5.5 M for modestly rotating black holes.

  17. Evidence for the Thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Associated with Quasar Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Crichton, Devin; Hall, Kirsten; Marriage, Tobias A; Zakamska, Nadia L; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J Richard; Devlin, Mark J; Hill, J Colin; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Huffenberger, Kevin M; Hughes, John P; Kosowsky, Arthur; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D; Page, Lyman A; Partridge, Bruce; Sievers, Jonathan L; Sifon, Cristobal; Staggs, Suzanne T; Viero, Marco P; Wollack, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Using a radio-quiet subsample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic quasar catalog, spanning redshifts 0.5-3.5, we derive the mean millimetre and far-infrared quasar spectral energy densities via a stacking analysis of Atacama Cosmology Telescope and Herschel-SPIRE data. We constrain the form and evolution of the far-infrared emission finding 3-4$\\sigma$ evidence for the presence of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in the millimetre bands. We find this signal to be characteristic of a hot ionized gas component with thermal energy $(6.2 \\pm 1.7) \\times 10^{60}$erg. This amount of thermal energy is an order of magnitude greater than would be expected assuming only hot gas in virial equilibrium with the dark matter haloes of $(1-5)\\times 10^{12}h^{-1}$M$_\\odot$ that these systems are expected to occupy, though the highest quasar mass estimates found in the literature could explain a large fraction of this energy. We find that our measurements are consistent with a scenario in which quasars depo...

  18. SDSS J1254+0846: A Binary Quasar Caught in the Act of Merging

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Paul J; Barkhouse, Wayne A; Mulchaey, John S; Bennert, Vardha N; Cox, Thomas J; Aldcroft, Thomas L

    2010-01-01

    We present the first luminous, spatially resolved binary quasar that clearly inhabits an ongoing galaxy merger. SDSS J125455.09+084653.9 and SDSS J125454.87+084652.1 (SDSS J1254+0846 hereafter) are two luminous z=0.44 radio quiet quasars, with a radial velocity difference of just 215 km/s, separated on the sky by 21 kpc in a disturbed host galaxy merger showing obvious tidal tails. The pair was targeted as part of a complete sample of binary quasar candidates with small transverse separations drawn from SDSS DR6 photometry. We present follow-up optical imaging which shows broad, symmetrical tidal arm features spanning some 75 kpc at the quasars' redshift. Numerical modeling suggests that the system consists of two massive disk galaxies prograde to their mutual orbit, caught during the first passage of an active merger. This demonstrates rapid black hole growth during the early stages of a merger between galaxies with pre-existing bulges. Neither of the two luminous nuclei show significant instrinsic absorptio...

  19. UNIFICATION OF LUMINOUS TYPE 1 QUASARS THROUGH C IV EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a sample of ∼30,000 quasars from the 7th Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we explore the range of properties exhibited by high-ionization, broad emission lines, such as C IV λ1549. Specifically, we investigate the anti-correlation between continuum luminosity and emission-line equivalent width (the Baldwin Effect (BEff)) and the 'blueshifting' of the high-ionization emission lines with respect to low-ionization emission lines. Employing improved redshift determinations from Hewett and Wild, the blueshift of the C IV emission line is found to be nearly ubiquitous, with a mean shift of ∼810 km s-1 for radio-quiet (RQ) quasars and ∼360 km s-1 for radio-loud (RL) quasars. The BEff is present in both RQ and RL samples. We consider these phenomena within the context of an accretion disk-wind model that is modulated by the nonlinear correlation between ultraviolet and X-ray continuum luminosity. Composite spectra are constructed as a function of C IV emission-line properties in an attempt to reveal empirical relationships between different line species and the continuum. Within a two-component disk+wind model of the broad emission-line region (BELR), where the wind filters the continuum seen by the disk component, we find that RL quasars are consistent with being dominated by the disk component, while broad absorption line quasars are consistent with being dominated by the wind component. Some RQ objects have emission-line features similar to RL quasars; they may simply have insufficient black hole (BH) spin to form radio jets. Our results suggest that there could be significant systematic errors in the determination of Lbol and BH mass that make it difficult to place these findings in a more physical context. However, it is possible to classify quasars in a paradigm where the diversity of BELR parameters is due to differences in an accretion disk wind between quasars (and over time); these differences are underlain primarily by the spectral

  20. X-RAYS FROM A RADIO-LOUD COMPACT BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASAR 1045+352 AND THE NATURE OF OUTFLOWS IN RADIO-LOUD BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new results on X-ray properties of radio-loud broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and focus on broadband spectral properties of a high-ionization BAL (HiBAL) compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio-loud quasar 1045+352. This HiBAL quasar has a very complex radio morphology indicating either strong interactions between a radio jet and the surrounding interstellar medium or a possible re-start of the jet activity. We detected 1045+352 quasar in a short 5 ksec Chandra ACIS-S observation. We applied theoretical models to explain spectral energy distribution of 1045+352 and argue that non-thermal, inverse-Compton (IC) emission from the innermost parts of the radio jet can account for a large fraction of the observed X-ray emission. In our analysis, we also consider a scenario in which the observed X-ray emission from radio-loud BAL quasars can be a sum of IC jet X-ray emission and optically thin corona X-ray emission. We compiled a sample of radio-loud BAL quasars that were observed in X-rays to date and report no correlation between their X-ray and radio luminosity. However, the radio-loud BAL quasars show a large range of X-ray luminosities and absorption columns. This is consistent with the results obtained earlier for radio-quiet BAL quasars and may indicate an orientation effect in BAL quasars or more complex dependence between X-ray emission, radio emission, and an orientation based on the radio morphology.

  1. FERMI/LAT OBSERVATIONS OF SWIFT/BAT SEYFERT GALAXIES: ON THE CONTRIBUTION OF RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI TO THE EXTRAGALACTIC γ-RAY BACKGROUND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the analysis of 2.1 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data on 491 Seyfert galaxies detected by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey. Only the two nearest objects, NGC 1068 and NGC 4945, which were identified in the Fermi first year catalog, are detected. Using Swift/BAT and radio 20 cm fluxes, we define a new radio-loudness parameter RX,BAT where radio-loud objects have log RX,BAT > –4.7. Based on this parameter, only radio-loud sources are detected by Fermi/LAT. An upper limit to the flux of the undetected sources is derived to be ∼2 × 10–11 photons cm–2 s–1, approximately seven times lower than the observed flux of NGC 1068. Assuming a median redshift of 0.031, this implies an upper limit to the γ-ray (1-100 GeV) luminosity of ∼41 erg s–1. In addition, we identified 120 new Fermi/LAT sources near the Swift/BAT Seyfert galaxies with significant Fermi/LAT detections. A majority of these objects do not have Swift/BAT counterparts, but their possible optical counterparts include blazars, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and quasars.

  2. FERMI/LAT OBSERVATIONS OF SWIFT/BAT SEYFERT GALAXIES: ON THE CONTRIBUTION OF RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI TO THE EXTRAGALACTIC {gamma}-RAY BACKGROUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Sambruna, Rita M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Davis, David S., E-mail: stacyt@astro.umd.edu [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    We present the analysis of 2.1 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data on 491 Seyfert galaxies detected by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey. Only the two nearest objects, NGC 1068 and NGC 4945, which were identified in the Fermi first year catalog, are detected. Using Swift/BAT and radio 20 cm fluxes, we define a new radio-loudness parameter R{sub X,BAT} where radio-loud objects have log R{sub X,BAT} > -4.7. Based on this parameter, only radio-loud sources are detected by Fermi/LAT. An upper limit to the flux of the undetected sources is derived to be {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, approximately seven times lower than the observed flux of NGC 1068. Assuming a median redshift of 0.031, this implies an upper limit to the {gamma}-ray (1-100 GeV) luminosity of {approx}< 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}. In addition, we identified 120 new Fermi/LAT sources near the Swift/BAT Seyfert galaxies with significant Fermi/LAT detections. A majority of these objects do not have Swift/BAT counterparts, but their possible optical counterparts include blazars, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and quasars.

  3. Fermi/LAT Observations of Swift/BAT Seyfert Galaxies: On the Contribution of Radio-Quiet Active Galactic Nuclei to the Extragalactic gamma-Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Sambruna, Rita M.; Davis, David S.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of 2.1 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data on 491 Seyfert galaxies detected by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey. Only the two nearest objects, NGC 1068 and NGC 4945, which were identified in the Fermi first year catalog, are detected. Using Swift/BAT and radio 20 cm fluxes, we define a new radio-loudness parameter R(sub X,BAT) where radio-loud objects have logR(sub X,BAT) > -4.7. Based on this parameter, only radio-loud sources are detected by Fermi/LAT. An upper limit to the flux of the undetected sources is derived to be approx.2x10(exp -11) photons/sq cm/s, approximately seven times lower than the observed flux of NGC 1068. Assuming a median redshift of 0.031, this implies an upper limit to the gamma-ray (1-100 GeV) luminosity of BAT Seyfert galaxies with significant Fermi/LAT detections. A majority of these objects do not have Swift/BAT counterparts, but their possible optical counterparts include blazars, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and quasars.

  4. Close companions to two high-redshift quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the serendipitous discoveries of companion galaxies to two high-redshift quasars. SDSS J025617.7+001904 is a z = 4.79 quasar included in our recent survey of faint quasars in the SDSS Stripe 82 region. The initial MMT slit spectroscopy shows excess Lyα emission extending well beyond the quasar's light profile. Further imaging and spectroscopy with LBT/MODS1 confirms the presence of a bright galaxy (i AB = 23.6) located 2'' (12 kpc projected) from the quasar with strong Lyα emission (EW0 ≈ 100 Å) at the redshift of the quasar, as well as faint continuum. The second quasar, CFHQS J005006.6+344522 (z = 6.25), is included in our recent HST SNAP survey of z ∼ 6 quasars searching for evidence of gravitational lensing. Deep imaging with ACS and WFC3 confirms an optical dropout ∼4.5 mag fainter than the quasar (Y AB = 25) at a separation of 0.''9. The red i 775 – Y 105 color of the galaxy and its proximity to the quasar (5 kpc projected if at the quasar redshift) strongly favor an association with the quasar. Although it is much fainter than the quasar, it is remarkably bright when compared to field galaxies at this redshift, while showing no evidence for lensing. Both systems may represent late-stage mergers of two massive galaxies, with the observed light for one dominated by powerful ongoing star formation and for the other by rapid black hole growth. Observations of close companions are rare; if major mergers are primarily responsible for high-redshift quasar fueling then the phase when progenitor galaxies can be observed as bright companions is relatively short.

  5. Close companions to two high-redshift quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Bian, Fuyan [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Strauss, Michael A. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Haiman, Zoltàn [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Jiang, Linhua [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: imcgreer@as.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and the Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We report the serendipitous discoveries of companion galaxies to two high-redshift quasars. SDSS J025617.7+001904 is a z = 4.79 quasar included in our recent survey of faint quasars in the SDSS Stripe 82 region. The initial MMT slit spectroscopy shows excess Lyα emission extending well beyond the quasar's light profile. Further imaging and spectroscopy with LBT/MODS1 confirms the presence of a bright galaxy (i {sub AB} = 23.6) located 2'' (12 kpc projected) from the quasar with strong Lyα emission (EW{sub 0} ≈ 100 Å) at the redshift of the quasar, as well as faint continuum. The second quasar, CFHQS J005006.6+344522 (z = 6.25), is included in our recent HST SNAP survey of z ∼ 6 quasars searching for evidence of gravitational lensing. Deep imaging with ACS and WFC3 confirms an optical dropout ∼4.5 mag fainter than the quasar (Y {sub AB} = 25) at a separation of 0.''9. The red i {sub 775} – Y {sub 105} color of the galaxy and its proximity to the quasar (5 kpc projected if at the quasar redshift) strongly favor an association with the quasar. Although it is much fainter than the quasar, it is remarkably bright when compared to field galaxies at this redshift, while showing no evidence for lensing. Both systems may represent late-stage mergers of two massive galaxies, with the observed light for one dominated by powerful ongoing star formation and for the other by rapid black hole growth. Observations of close companions are rare; if major mergers are primarily responsible for high-redshift quasar fueling then the phase when progenitor galaxies can be observed as bright companions is relatively short.

  6. New Quasars Detected via Variability in the QUEST1 Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Rengstorf, A W; Abad, C; Adams, B; Andrews, P; Bailyn, C D; Baltay, C; Bongiovanni, A; Briceño, C; Bruzual, G; Coppi, P S; Prugna, F D; Emmet, W; Ferrin, I; Fuenmayor, F; Gebhard, M; Hernández, J; Honeycutt, R K; Magris, G; Musser, J; Naranjo, O; Oemler, A; Rosenzweig, P; Sabbey, C N; Sánchez, G; Schenner, H; Sinnott, J; Snyder, J A; Sofia, S; Stock, J; Van Altena, W; Vivas, A K; Sanchez, Ge.; Sanchez, Gu.

    2004-01-01

    By observing the high galactic latitude equatorial sky in drift scan mode with the QUEST (QUasar Equatorial Survey Team) Phase 1 camera, multi-bandpass photometry on a large strip of sky, resolved over a large range of time scales (from hourly to biennially) has been collected. A robust method of ensemble photometry revealed those objects within the scan region that fluctuate in brightness at a statistically significant level. Subsequent spectroscopic observations of a subset of those varying objects easily discriminated the quasars from stars. For a 13-month time scale, 38% of the previously known quasars within the scan region were seen to vary in brightness and subsequent spectroscopic observation revealed that approximately 7% of all variable objects in the scan region are quasars. Increasing the time baseline to 26 months increased the percentage of previously known quasars which vary to 61% and confirmed via spectroscopy that 7% of the variable objects in the region are quasars. This reinforces previous...

  7. The Race Between Stars and Quasars in Reionizing Cosmic Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Loeb, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    The cosmological background of ionizing radiation has been dominated by quasars once the Universe aged by ~2 billion years. At earlier times (redshifts z>3), the observed abundance of bright quasars declined sharply, implying that cosmic hydrogen was reionized by stars instead. Here, we explain the physical origin of the transition between the dominance of stars and quasars as a generic feature of structure formation in the concordance LCDM cosmology. At early times, the fraction of baryons i...

  8. False periodicities in quasar time-domain surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, S.; Uttley, P.; Markowitz, A. G.; Huppenkothen, D.; Middleton, M. J.; Alston, W.N.; Scargle, J. D.; Farr, W. M.

    2016-01-01

    There have recently been several reports of apparently periodic variations in the light curves of quasars, e.g. PG 1302-102 by Graham et al. (2015a). Any quasar showing periodic oscillations in brightness would be a strong candidate to be a close binary supermassive black hole and, in turn, a candidate for gravitational wave studies. However, normal quasars -- powered by accretion onto a single, supermassive black hole -- usually show stochastic variability over a wide range of timescales. It...

  9. A QUASAR CATALOG WITH SIMULTANEOUS UV, OPTICAL, AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS BY SWIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have compiled a catalog of optically selected quasars with simultaneous observations in UV/optical and X-ray bands by the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer. Objects in this catalog are identified by matching the Swift pointings with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 quasar catalog. The final catalog contains 843 objects, among which 637 have both Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) observations and 354 of which are detected by both instruments. The overall X-ray detection rate is ∼60% which rises to ∼85% among sources with at least 10 ks of XRT exposure time. We construct the time-averaged spectral energy distribution (SED) for each of the 354 quasars using UVOT photometric measurements and XRT spectra. From model fits to these SEDs, we find that the big blue bump contributes about ∼0.3 dex to the quasar luminosity. We re-visit the αox-L2500Å relation by selecting a clean sample with only Type 1 radio-quiet quasars; the dispersion of this relation is reduced by at least 15% compared with studies that use non-simultaneous UV/optical and X-ray data. We only found a weak correlation between Lbol/LEdd and αUV. We do not find significant correlations between αx and αox, αox and αUV, and αx and log L(0.3-10 keV). The correlations between αUV and αx, αox and αx, αox and αUV, Lbol/LEdd and αx, and Lbol/LEdd and αox are stronger among low-redshift quasars, indicating that these correlations are likely driven by the changes of SED shape with accretion state.

  10. Evidence for the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect associated with quasar feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan B.; Hall, Kirsten; Marriage, Tobias A.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard; Devlin, Mark J.; Hill, J. Colin; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D.; Huffenberger, Kevin M.; Hughes, John P.; Kosowsky, Arthur; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D.; Page, Lyman A.; Partridge, Bruce; Sievers, Jonathan L.; Sifón, Cristóbal; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Viero, Marco P.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-05-01

    Using a radio-quiet subsample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic quasar catalogue, spanning redshifts 0.5-3.5, we derive the mean millimetre and far-infrared quasar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) via a stacking analysis of Atacama Cosmology Telescope and Herschel-Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver data. We constrain the form of the far-infrared emission and find 3σ-4σ evidence for the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, characteristic of a hot ionized gas component with thermal energy (6.2 ± 1.7) × 1060 erg. This amount of thermal energy is greater than expected assuming only hot gas in virial equilibrium with the dark matter haloes of (1-5) × 1012 h-1 M⊙ that these systems are expected to occupy, though the highest quasar mass estimates found in the literature could explain a large fraction of this energy. Our measurements are consistent with quasars depositing up to (14.5 ± 3.3)τ_8^{-1} per cent of their radiative energy into their circumgalactic environment if their typical period of quasar activity is τ8 × 108 yr. For high quasar host masses, ˜1013 h-1 M⊙, this percentage will be reduced. Furthermore, the uncertainty on this percentage is only statistical and additional systematic uncertainties enter at the 40 per cent level. The SEDs are dust dominated in all bands and we consider various models for dust emission. While sufficiently complex dust models can obviate the SZ effect, the SZ interpretation remains favoured at the 3σ-4σ level for most models.

  11. Evidence for the Thermal Sunyaev Zeldovich Effect Associated with Quasar Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan B.; Hall, Kirsten; Marriage, Tobias A.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard; Devlin, Mark J.; Hill, J. Colin; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D.; Huffenberger, Kevin M.; Hughes, John P.; Kosowsky, Arthur; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D.; Page, Lyman A.; Partridge, Bruce; Sievers, Jonathan L.; Sifon, Cristobal; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Viero, Marco P.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Using a radio-quiet subsample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic quasar catalogue, spanning redshifts 0.5-3.5, we derive the mean millimetre and far-infrared quasar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) via a stacking analysis of Atacama Cosmology Telescope and Herschel-Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver data. We constrain the form of the far-infrared emission and find 3 sigma-4 sigma evidence for the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, characteristic of a hot ionized gas component with thermal energy (6.2 plus or minus 1.7) × 10 (exp 60) erg. This amount of thermal energy is greater than expected assuming only hot gas in virial equilibrium with the dark matter haloes of (1-5) × 10(exp 12) h(exp -1) solar mass that these systems are expected to occupy, though the highest quasar mass estimates found in the literature could explain a large fraction of this energy. Our measurements are consistent with quasars depositing up to (14.5 +/- 3.3)tau (sub 8)(exp -1) per cent of their radiative energy into their circumgalactic environment if their typical period of quasar activity is tau(sub 8) x 108 yr. For high quasar host masses, approximately 10(exp 13) h(exp -1) solar mass, this percentage will be reduced. Furthermore, the uncertainty on this percentage is only statistical and additional systematic uncertainties enter at the 40 per cent level. The SEDs are dust dominated in all bands and we consider various models for dust emission. While sufficiently complex dust models can obviate the SZ effect, the SZ interpretation remains favoured at the 3 sigma-4 sigma level for most models.

  12. THE SUBARU HIGH-z QUASAR SURVEY: DISCOVERY OF FAINT z ∼ 6 QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the discovery of one or two extremely faint z ∼ 6 quasars in 6.5 deg2 utilizing a unique capability of the wide-field imaging of the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The quasar selection was made in (i'-zB ) and (zB -zR ) colors, where zB and zR are bandpasses with central wavelengths of 8842 Å and 9841 Å, respectively. The color selection can effectively isolate quasars at z ∼ 6 from M/L/T dwarfs without the J-band photometry down to zR < 24.0, which is 3.5 mag deeper than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We have selected 17 promising quasar candidates. The follow-up spectroscopy for seven targets identified one apparent quasar at z = 6.156 with M 1450 = –23.10. We also identified one possible quasar at z = 6.041 with a faint continuum of M 1450 = –22.58 and a narrow Lyα emission with HWHM =427 km s–1, which cannot be distinguished from Lyman α emitters. We derive the quasar luminosity function at z ∼ 6 by combining our faint quasar sample with the bright quasar samples by SDSS and CFHQS. Including our data points invokes a higher number density in the faintest bin of the quasar luminosity function than the previous estimate employed. This suggests a steeper faint-end slope than lower z, though it is yet uncertain based on a small number of spectroscopically identified faint quasars, and several quasar candidates still remain to be diagnosed. The steepening of the quasar luminosity function at the faint end does increase the expected emission rate of the ionizing photon; however, it only changes by a factor of approximately two to six. This was found to still be insufficient for the required photon budget of reionization at z ∼ 6

  13. The Environments of Obscured Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristen M.; Lacy, Mark; Nielsen, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH) feedback is prescribed for driving the high-end shape of the galaxy luminosity function, clearing the circumnuclear environment during the end stages of mergers, and eventually turning off its own accretion. Yet the dominant processes and characteristics of active galactic nuclei are indistinct. Chief among this confusion is how significant the role of dust is in each galaxy. Orientation of the dusty torus is attributed to causing the differences between Sy1 and Sy2, but whether obscured quasars are found in particularly dusty host galaxies, if they exist at a different stage in the merger process (early on, before the dust is blown out), or if they are merely oriented differently than optical quasars is not yet so well distinguished. With obscured quasars now observed to make up 50% or greater of the population of quasars, the question of what causes obscuration becomes vital to address. With this in mind, I study matched samples of obscured and unobscured quasars to characterize their environments, with the intent of addressing what contribution environment has to obscuration levels. I investigate the megaparsec-scale environments of SIRTF Wide-field Infra-Red Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE) quasars at z ˜ 1-3 by cross-correlating the sample with 3.8 million galaxies from the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS). Optically obscured quasars are compared to a control sample of optically-bright quasars via selection in the mid-infrared. Environments were observed at 3.6 and 4.5 μm to a depth of ≈ 2 μJy (AB = 23.1). Recent work has found diverse results in such studies, with dependence of environmental richness on both redshift and level of obscuration. I find that, within reasonable error, on average there is no distinct difference between the level of clustering for obscured and normal quasars, and that there is no dependence on redshift of this result within the range of 1.3 < z < 2.5. I compare our results

  14. THE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION OF INTERVENING WEAK Mg II QUASAR ABSORBERS AND A CURIOUS DEPENDENCE ON QUASAR LUMINOSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have identified 469 Mg II λλ2796, 2803 doublet systems having Wr ≥ 0.02 Å in 252 Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer and UVES/Very Large Telescope quasar spectra over the redshift range 0.1 r 6-109 Mpc–3 for spherical geometries and 102-105 Mpc–3 for more sheetlike geometries. We also find that dN/dz toward intrinsically faint versus bright quasars differs significantly for weak and strong (Wr ≥ 1.0 Å) absorbers. For weak absorption, dN/dz toward bright quasars is ∼25% higher than toward faint quasars (10σ at low redshift, 0.4 ≤ z ≤ 1.4, and 4σ at high redshift, 1.4 < z ≤ 2.34). For strong absorption the trend reverses, with dN/dz toward faint quasars being ∼20% higher than toward bright quasars (also 10σ at low redshift and 4σ at high redshift). We explore scenarios in which beam size is proportional to quasar luminosity and varies with absorber and quasar redshifts. These do not explain dN/dz's dependence on quasar luminosity.

  15. Ubiquitous giant Lyman $\\alpha$ nebulae around the brightest quasars at $z\\sim3.5$ revealed with MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Borisova, Elena; Lilly, Simon J; Marino, Raffaella A; Gallego, Sofia G; Bacon, Roland; Blaizot, Jeremy; Bouché, Nicolas; Brinchmann, Jarle; Carollo, C Marcella; Caruana, Joseph; Finley, Hayley; Herenz, Edmund C; Richard, Johan; Schaye, Joop; Straka, Lorrie A; Turner, Monica L; Urrutia, Tanya; Verhamme, Anne; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Direct Lyman a imaging of fluorescent emission from intergalactic gas at z~2 has recently revealed giant cosmological structures around luminous quasars with unexpected physical properties, e.g. the Slug Nebula (Cantalupo et al. 2014). Despite their high luminosity, the detection rate of such systems in narrow-band and spectroscopic surveys is very low, i.e. less than 10%. If intrinsic and not due to observational limitations, such a low detection frequency would encode crucial information on the distribution and properties of cold gas around quasars, their emission opening angle and duty cycle. In this study, we exploit the unique capabilities of the MUSE ESO/VLT to perform a blind survey for giant Ly $\\alpha$ nebulae around 17 of the brightest radio-quiet quasars at 3quasar is asso...

  16. The Subaru high-z quasar survey: discovery of faint z~6 quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Kashikawa, Nobunari; Willott, Chris J; Onoue, Masafusa; Im, Myungshin; Furusawa, Hisanori; Toshikawa, Jun; Ishikawa, Shogo; Niino, Yuu; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ouchi, Masami; Hibon, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    We present the discovery of one or two extremely faint z~6 quasars in 6.5 deg^2 utilizing a unique capability of the wide-field imaging of the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The quasar selection was made in (i'-z_B) and (z_B-z_R) colors, where z_B and z_R are bandpasses with central wavelengths of 8842A and 9841A, respectively. The color selection can effectively isolate quasars at z~6 from M/L/T dwarfs without the J-band photometry down to z_R<24.0, which is 3.5 mag. deeper than SDSS. We have selected 17 promising quasar candidates. The follow-up spectroscopy for seven targets identified one apparent quasar at z=6.156 with M_1450=-23.10. We also identified one possible quasar at z=6.041 with a faint continuum of M_1450=-22.58 and a narrow Lyman-alpha emission with HWHM=427 km/s, which cannot be distinguished from Lyman-alpha emitters. We derive the quasar luminosity function at z~6 by combining our faint quasar sample with the bright quasar samples by SDSS and CFHQS. Including our data points invokes a higher number...

  17. Properties of Radio-Selected Broad Absorption-Line Quasars from the FIRST Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, R. H.; White, R L; Gregg, M. D.; Brotherton, M. S.; Laurent-Meuleisen, S. A.; Arav, N.

    2000-01-01

    In a spectroscopic follow-up to the VLA FIRST survey, the FIRST Bright Quasar Survey (FBQS) has found 29 radio-selected broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. This sample provides the first opportunity to study the properties of radio-selected BAL quasars. Contrary to most previous studies, we establish that a significant population of radio-loud BAL quasars exists. Radio-selected BAL quasars display compact radio morphologies and possess both steep and flat radio spectra. Quasars with low-ioni...

  18. Weak Hard X-ray Emission from Two Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuSTAR: Compton-thick Absorption or Intrinsic X-ray Weakness?

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, B; Alexander, D M; Harrison, F A; Stern, D; Bauer, F E; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Comastri, A; Craig, W W; Fabian, A C; Farrah, D; Fiore, F; Fuerst, F; Grefenstette, B W; Hailey, C J; Hickox, R; Madsen, K K; Matt, G; Ogle, P; Risaliti, G; Saez, C; Teng, S H; Walton, D J; Zhang, W W

    2013-01-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain ~400-600 hard X-ray (>10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed (NH<1E24 cm^{-2}). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be NH~7E24 cm^{-2} if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We d...

  19. Close companions to two high-redshift quasars

    CERN Document Server

    McGreer, Ian D; Strauss, Michael A; Haiman, Zoltan; Richards, Gordon T; Jiang, Linhua; Bian, Fuyan; Schneider, Donald P

    2014-01-01

    We report the serendipitous discoveries of companion galaxies to two high-redshift quasars. SDSS J025617.7+001904 is a z=4.79 quasar included in our recent survey of faint quasars in the SDSS Stripe 82 region. The initial MMT slit spectroscopy shows excess Lyman alpha emission extending well beyond the quasar's light profile. Further imaging and spectroscopy with LBT/MODS1 confirms the presence of a bright galaxy (i_AB = 23.6) located 2arcsec (11 kpc projected) from the quasar with strong Lyman alpha emission (EW_0 ~ 100Ang) at the redshift of the quasar, as well as faint continuum. The second quasar, CFHQS J005006.6+344522 (z=6.25), is included in our recent HST SNAP survey of z~6 quasars searching for evidence of gravitational lensing. Deep imaging with ACS and WFC3 confirms an optical dropout ~4.5 mag fainter than the quasar (Y_AB=25) at a separation of 0.9 arcsec. The red i_775-Y_105 color of the galaxy and its proximity to the quasar (7 kpc projected if at the quasar redshift) strongly favor an associati...

  20. Investigating the radio-loud phase of BAL quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Bruni, G; Pedani, M; Benn, C R; Mack, K -H; Holt, J; Montenegro-Montes, F M; Jiménez-Luján, F

    2014-01-01

    Broad Absorption Lines (BALs) are present in the spectra of ~20% of quasars (QSOs), indicating the presence of fast outflows (up to 0.2c) intercepting the observer's line of sight. Radio-Loud (RL) BAL QSOs are even more rare, being four times less common than Radio-Quiet (RQ) BAL QSOs. The reason for that is still not clear, leaving open questions about the nature of the BAL-producing outflows and their connection with the radio jet. We explored the spectroscopic characteristics of RL and RQ BAL QSOs, aiming at finding a possible explanation for the rarity of the former. We identified two samples of genuine BAL QSOs from SDSS optical spectra, one RL and one RQ, in a suitable redshift interval (2.5< z <3.5) that allowed us to observe the Mg II and H$\\beta$ emission lines in the adjacent Near-Infrared (NIR) band. We collected NIR spectra of the two samples using the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG, Canary Islands). Using relations known in the literature, we could estimate black hole mass, broad line re...

  1. Infrared observations of the X-ray quasars 0241+622 and MR2251-178

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Matthews, K.

    1979-01-01

    Infrared observations of the recently discovered X-ray quasars 0241+622 and MR2251-178 are reported. Broadband photometry of both quasars was conducted in the 1.25 to 20 micron range and spectrophotometry of 0241+622 was carried out from 1.5 to 2.5 microns. The IR energy distributions of 0241+622, MR2251-178 and the X-ray quasar 3C273 are presented, noting that for wavelengths less than 10 microns, the energy distributions of all three quasars are similar and cannot be distinguished from those of other low redshift quasars. The observed IR, visual and X-ray luminosities of the three quasars are compared and are found not to be strongly correlated. It is remarked, however, that the three X-ray quasars are the brightest known quasars at IR and visual wavelengths, which supports the suggestion that all quasars are bright X-ray emitters.

  2. Mean and extreme radio properties of quasars and the origin of radio emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the evolution of both the radio-loud fraction (RLF) and (using stacking analysis) the mean radio loudness of quasars. We consider how these properties evolve as a function of redshift and luminosity, black hole (BH) mass and accretion rate, and parameters related to the dominance of a wind in the broad emission-line region. We match the FIRST source catalog to samples of luminous quasars (both spectroscopic and photometric), primarily from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. After accounting for catastrophic errors in BH mass estimates at high redshift, we find that both the RLF and the mean radio luminosity increase for increasing BH mass and decreasing accretion rate. Similarly, both the RLF and mean radio loudness increase for quasars that are argued to have weaker radiation line driven wind components of the broad emission-line region. In agreement with past work, we find that the RLF increases with increasing optical/UV luminosity and decreasing redshift, while the mean radio loudness evolves in the exact opposite manner. This difference in behavior between the mean radio loudness and the RLF in L−z may indicate selection effects that bias our understanding of the evolution of the RLF; deeper surveys in the optical and radio are needed to resolve this discrepancy. Finally, we argue that radio-loud (RL) and radio-quiet (RQ) quasars may be parallel sequences, but where only RQ quasars at one extreme of the distribution are likely to become RL, possibly through slight differences in spin and/or merger history.

  3. Mean and extreme radio properties of quasars and the origin of radio emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzer, Rachael M.; Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the evolution of both the radio-loud fraction (RLF) and (using stacking analysis) the mean radio loudness of quasars. We consider how these properties evolve as a function of redshift and luminosity, black hole (BH) mass and accretion rate, and parameters related to the dominance of a wind in the broad emission-line region. We match the FIRST source catalog to samples of luminous quasars (both spectroscopic and photometric), primarily from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. After accounting for catastrophic errors in BH mass estimates at high redshift, we find that both the RLF and the mean radio luminosity increase for increasing BH mass and decreasing accretion rate. Similarly, both the RLF and mean radio loudness increase for quasars that are argued to have weaker radiation line driven wind components of the broad emission-line region. In agreement with past work, we find that the RLF increases with increasing optical/UV luminosity and decreasing redshift, while the mean radio loudness evolves in the exact opposite manner. This difference in behavior between the mean radio loudness and the RLF in L−z may indicate selection effects that bias our understanding of the evolution of the RLF; deeper surveys in the optical and radio are needed to resolve this discrepancy. Finally, we argue that radio-loud (RL) and radio-quiet (RQ) quasars may be parallel sequences, but where only RQ quasars at one extreme of the distribution are likely to become RL, possibly through slight differences in spin and/or merger history.

  4. Accretion States of the Galactic Micro Quasar GRS 1758-258

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Roberto; Mehdipour, Missagh; Broderick, Jess W.; Hao, JingFang; Hannikainen, Diana C.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a radio and X-ray study of the Galactic micro quasar GRS 1758-258, using unpublished archival data and new observations. We focus in particular on the 2000-2002 state transitions, and on its more quiet behaviour in 2008-2009. Our spectral and timing analysis of the XMM-Newton data shows that the source was in the canonical intermediate, soft and hard states in 2000 September 19,2001 March 22 and 2002 September 28, respectively. We estimate the disk size, luminosity and temperature, which are consistent with a black hole mass approx.10 Solar Mass, There is much overlap between the range of total X-ray luminosities (on average approx. 0.02L(sub Edd)) in the hard and soft states, and probably between the corresponding mass accretion rates; in fact, the hard state is often more luminous. The extended radio lobes seen in 1992 and 1997 are still present in 2008-2009. The 5-GHz radio core flux density has shown variability between approx. 0.1-0.5 mJy over the last two decades. This firmly places GRS 1758-258 in the radio-quiet sequence of Galactic black holes, in the radio/X-ray plane. We note that this dichotomy is similar to the dichotomy between the radio/X-ray sequences of Seyfert and radio galaxies. We propose that the different radio efficiency of the two sequences is due to relativistic electron/positron jets in radio-loud black holes, and sub-relativistic, thermally dominated outflows in radio-quiet sources.

  5. Space distribution of quasars based on optically selected samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large-scale search for bright quasars was started in 1972. This survey for ultraviolet-excess stellar objects covers some 10,700 sq. deg. and is aimed to be complete, on the average, to B = 16.2. The authors undertook spectroscopic observations of all objects and produced a sample of over 100 quasars with redshifts and magnitudes that constitute the Palomar Bright Quasar Survey. They have used the results of this Survey, together with the Braccesi sample, two objective-prism quasar surveys discussed by Osmer and Smith (1980) and Osmer (1980), and a small, deep sample in SA 57 (Kron and Chiu 1981) to study the space distribution and optical luminosity function of quasars. Some of the main results are summarised. (Auth.)

  6. Narrow UV Absorption Line Outflows from Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, Fred; Hidalgo, Paola Rodriguez; Capellupo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Narrow absorption line (NAL) outflows are an important yet poorly understood part of the quasar outflow phenomenon. We discuss one particular NAL outflow that has high speeds, time variability, and moderate ionizations like typical BAL flows, at an estimated location just ~5 pc from the quasar. It also has a total column density and line widths (internal velocity dispersions) ~100 times smaller than BALs, with no substantial X-ray absorption. We argue that radiative shielding (in the form of an X-ray/warm absorber) is not critical for the outflow acceleration and that the moderate ionizations occur in dense substructures that have an overall small volume filling factor in the flow. We also present new estimates of the overall incidence of quasar outflow lines; e.g., ~43% of bright quasars have a C IV NAL outflow while ~68% have a C IV outflow line of any variety (NAL, BAL, or mini-BAL).

  7. FR-II Broad Absorption Line Quasars and the Life Cycle of Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, M D; Becker, R H; de Vries, W

    2006-01-05

    By combining the Sloan Digitized Sky Survey Third Data Release quasar list with the VLA FIRST survey, we have identified five objects having both broad absorption lines in their optical spectra and FR-II radio morphologies. We identify an additional example of this class from the FIRST Bright Quasar Survey, J1408+3054. Including the original FR-II-BAL object, J1016+5209, brings the number of such objects to eight. These quasars are relatively rare; finding this small handful has required the 45,000-large quasar sample of SDSS. The FR-II-BAL quasars exhibit a significant anti-correlation between radio-loudness and the strength of the BAL features. This is easily accounted for by the evolutionary picture in which quasars emerge from cocoons of BAL-producing material which stifle the development of radio jets and lobes. There is no such simple explanation for the observed properties of FR-II-BALs in the unification-by-orientation model of quasars. The rarity of the FR-II-BAL class implies that the two phases do not coexist for very long in a single quasar, perhaps less than 10{sup 5} years, with the combined FR-II, high ionization broad absorption phase being even shorter by another factor of 10 or more.

  8. Towards a comprehensive picture of powerful quasars, their host galaxies and quasar winds at z ˜ 0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Liu, Guilin; Obied, Georges

    2016-03-01

    Luminous type-2 quasars in which the glow from the central black hole is obscured by dust are ideal targets for studying their host galaxies and the quasars' effect on galaxy evolution. Such feedback appears ubiquitous in luminous obscured quasars where high-velocity-ionized nebulae have been found. We present rest-frame yellow-band (˜5000 Å) observations using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for a sample of 20 luminous quasar host galaxies at 0.2 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. For the first time, we combine host galaxy observations with geometric measurements of quasar illumination using blue-band HST observations and [O III] integral field unit observations probing the quasar winds. The HST images reveal bright merger signatures in about half the galaxies; a significantly higher fraction than in comparison inactive ellipticals. We show that the host galaxies are primarily bulge-dominated, with masses close to M*, but belong to host galaxies' high star formation rates and bright merger signatures, we suggest that this low-redshift outbreak of luminous quasar activity is triggered by recent minor mergers. Combining these novel observations, we present new quasar unification tests, which are in agreement with expectations of the orientation-based unification model for quasars.

  9. THE z = 5 QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM SDSS STRIPE 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Jiang Linhua [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Strauss, Michael A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ross, Nicholas P.; White, Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 92420 (United States); Shen Yue [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schneider, Donald P.; Brandt, W. Niel [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); DeGraf, Colin [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Glikman, Eilat [Department of Physics and Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520-8121 (United States); Ge Jian [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Streblyanska, Alina, E-mail: imcgreer@as.arizona.edu [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2013-05-10

    We present a measurement of the Type I quasar luminosity function at z = 5 using a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed quasars selected from optical imaging data. We measure the bright end (M{sub 1450} < -26) with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data covering {approx}6000 deg{sup 2}, then extend to lower luminosities (M{sub 1450} < -24) with newly discovered, faint z {approx} 5 quasars selected from 235 deg{sup 2} of deep, coadded imaging in the SDSS Stripe 82 region (the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap). The faint sample includes 14 quasars with spectra obtained as ancillary science targets in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, and 59 quasars observed at the MMT and Magellan telescopes. We construct a well-defined sample of 4.7 < z < 5.1 quasars that is highly complete, with 73 spectroscopic identifications out of 92 candidates. Our color selection method is also highly efficient: of the 73 spectra obtained, 71 are high-redshift quasars. These observations reach below the break in the luminosity function (M{sub 1450}{sup *}{approx}-27). The bright-end slope is steep ({beta} {approx}< -4), with a constraint of {beta} < -3.1 at 95% confidence. The break luminosity appears to evolve strongly at high redshift, providing an explanation for the flattening of the bright-end slope reported previously. We find a factor of {approx}2 greater decrease in the number density of luminous quasars (M{sub 1450} < -26) from z = 5 to z = 6 than from z = 4 to z = 5, suggesting a more rapid decline in quasar activity at high redshift than found in previous surveys. Our model for the quasar luminosity function predicts that quasars generate {approx}30% of the ionizing photons required to keep hydrogen in the universe ionized at z = 5.

  10. Jets in Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Sikora, M.

    2001-01-01

    In my review of jet phenomena in quasars, I focus on the following questions: How powerful are jets in radio-loud quasars? What is their composition? How are they launched? And why, in most quasars, are they so weak? I demonstrate the exceptional role that blazar studies can play in exploring the physics and structure of the innermost parts of quasar jets.

  11. Accretion Disc Structure and Orientation in the Lensed and Microlensed Q0957+561 Quasar

    CERN Document Server

    Schild, R E

    2005-01-01

    Because quasars are unresolved in optical imaging, their structures must presently be inferred. Gravitational microlensing offers the possibility to produce information about the luminous structure provided the Einstein ring diameter of the microlensing particle is comparable to or smaller than the radiating quasar components. The long brightness history measured for the Q0957 quasar has been analyzed previously for information about the microlensing particles, and evidence for the existence of a cosmologically significant population of planetary mass particles has been reported. The microlensing results have also directly determined the sizes of the ultraviolet light emitting surfaces in the quasar Autocorrelation analysis of the same brightness record has produced evidence for complex structure in the quasar; if the quasar suddenly brightens today, it is probable that it will brighten again after 129, 190, 540, and 620 days. We interpret these lags as the result of luminous structure around the quasar, and ...

  12. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE NEAR-INFRARED SNAPSHOT SURVEY OF 3CR RADIO SOURCE COUNTERPARTS. III. RADIO GALAXIES AND QUASARS IN CONTEXT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compare the near-infrared (NIR) H-band photometric and morphological properties of low-z (z *) elliptical galaxies. The vast majority of FR II's (∼80%) occupy the most massive ellipticals and form a homogeneous population that is comparable to the population of radio-loud quasar (RLQ) host galaxies in the literature. However, a significant minority (∼20%) of the 3CR FR II's appears under-luminous with respect to quasar host galaxies. All FR II objects in this faint tail are either unusually red, or appear to be the brightest objects within a group. We discuss the apparent differences between the radio galaxy and RLQ host galaxy populations. RLQs appear to require ∼>1011 Msun host galaxies (and ∼109 Msun black holes), whereas radio galaxies and radio-quiet quasars can exist in galaxies down to ∼3 x 1010 Msun. This may be due to biases in the measured quasar host galaxy luminosities or populations studied, or due to a genuine difference in host galaxy. If due to a genuine difference, it would support the idea that radio and optical active galactic nuclei are two separate populations with a significant overlap.

  13. The ISO view of Palomar-Green quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, M.; Klaas, U.; Müller, S. A. H.; Bertoldi, F.; Camenzind, M.; Chini, R.; Krause, O.; Lemke, D.; Meisenheimer, K.; Richards, P. J.; Wilkes, B. J.

    2003-04-01

    Mining the ISO data archive we provide the complete ISO view of PG quasars containing 64 infrared spectral energy distributions between 5 and 200 mu m. About half of the sample was supplemented by MAMBO and SCUBA (sub-)millimetre data. Since the PG quasars were selected optically, the high infrared detection rate of more than 80% suggests that every quasar possesses luminous to hyperluminous dust emission with dust masses comparable to Seyferts and ultraluminous IR galaxies (ULIRGs). The gas-to-dust mass ratio (of those sources where CO measurements are available in the literature) is consistent with the galactic value providing further evidence for the thermal nature of the IR emission of radio quiet quasars. The SEDs represent templates of unprecedented detail and sensitivity. The power-law like near- to mid-IR SEDs (Fnu ~ nu alpha) are smooth up to far-infrared wavelengths, favouring dust heating by the central AGN, and we conclude that, in particular for our hyperluminous quasars at z=1, starbursts play only a minor role for powering the dust emission, even in the FIR. The IR spectral slopes alpha1-10 μm range from -0.9 to -2.2 with a mean of -1.3 +/- 0.3. They neither correlate with the optical spectral slope alpha0.3-1 μm, nor with the IR luminosity, nor with the FIR/MIR luminosity ratio, nor with inclination-dependent extinction effects in the picture of a dusty torus. We suggest that the diversity of the SEDs reflects largely the evolution of the dust distribution, and we propose a classification of the SED shapes as well as an evolutionary scheme in which this variety can be understood. During the evolution the surrounding dust redistributes, settling more and more into a torus/disk like configuration, while the SEDs show an initial FIR bump, then an increasing MIR emission and a steeper near- to mid-infrared slope, both of which finally also decrease. Strikingly, based on the sensitive ISO data now we do not only see the coarse IR differences between

  14. A Constraint on Quasar Clustering at z = 5 from a Binary Quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Myers, Adam D.; Fan, Xiaohui

    2016-03-01

    We report the discovery of a quasar pair at z = 5 separated by 21″. Both objects were identified as quasar candidates using simple color selection techniques applied to photometric catalogs from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). Spectra obtained with the MMT present no discernible offset in redshift between the two objects; on the other hand, there are clear differences in the emission line profiles and in the multiwavelength spectral energy distributions that strongly disfavor the hypothesis that they are gravitationally lensed images of a single quasar. Both quasars are surprisingly bright given their proximity (a projected separation of ˜135 kpc), with i = 19.4 and i = 21.4. Previous measurements of the luminosity function demonstrate that luminous quasars are extremely rare at z = 5 the existence of this pair suggests that quasars have strong small-scale clustering at high redshift. Assuming a real-space correlation function of the form ξ(r) ∝ (r/r0)-2, this discovery implies a correlation length of r0 ≳ 20h-1 Mpc, consistent with a rapid strengthening of quasar clustering at high redshift as seen in previous observations and predicted by theoretical models where feedback effects are inefficient at shutting down black hole growth at high redshift. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.

  15. MERLIN and VLA observations of the quasar 1150 + 497

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new high-resolution MERLIN and VLA maps of the quasar 1150+497 which has a bright jet with compact knots and sharp bends, but no prominent hotspot. The source shows very little variation of Faraday rotation or depolarization. We discuss whether this is a disrupting jet which is intrinsically bright or whether it simply appears bright due to Doppler beaming. (author)

  16. ISO Observations of Quasars and Quasar Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkes, Belinda J.

    1997-01-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), launched in November 1995, allows us to measure the far-infrared (far-IR) emission of quasars in greater detail and over a wider energy range than previously possible. In this paper, preliminary results in a study of the 5--200 $\\mu m$ continuum of quasars and active galaxies are presented. Comparison of the spectral energy distributions show that, if the far-IR emission from quasars is thermal emission from galaxian dust, the host galaxies of quasars mus...

  17. Are there Radio-quiet Solar Flares?

    OpenAIRE

    Benz, Arnold O.; Brajsa, Roman; Magdalenic, Jasmina

    2007-01-01

    Some 15% of solar flares having a soft X-ray flux above GOES class C5 are reported to lack coherent radio emission in the 100 - 4000 MHz range (type I - V and decimetric emissions). A detailed study of 29 such events reveals that 22 (76%) of them occurred at a radial distance of more than 800'' from the disk center, indicating that radio waves from the limb may be completely absorbed in some flares. The remaining seven events have statistically significant trends to be weak in GOES class and ...

  18. The race between stars and quasars in reionizing cosmic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cosmological background of ionizing radiation has been dominated by quasars once the Universe aged by ∼ 2 billion years. At earlier times (redshifts z ∼> 3), the observed abundance of bright quasars declines sharply, implying that cosmic hydrogen was reionized by stars instead. Here, we explain the physical origin of the transition between the dominance of stars and quasars as a generic feature of structure formation in the concordance ΛCDM cosmology. At early times, the fraction of baryons in galaxies grows faster than the maximum (Eddington-limited) growth rate possible for quasars. As a result, quasars were not able to catch up with the rapid early growth of stellar mass in their host galaxies

  19. THE SUBARU HIGH-z QUASAR SURVEY: DISCOVERY OF FAINT z ∼ 6 QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashikawa, Nobunari; Furusawa, Hisanori; Niino, Yuu [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ishizaki, Yoshifumi; Onoue, Masafusa; Toshikawa, Jun; Ishikawa, Shogo [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Willott, Chris J. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Im, Myungshin [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-rho, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Shimasaku, Kazuhiro [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ouchi, Masami [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Hibon, Pascale, E-mail: n.kashikawa@nao.ac.jp [Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile)

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of one or two extremely faint z ∼ 6 quasars in 6.5 deg{sup 2} utilizing a unique capability of the wide-field imaging of the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The quasar selection was made in (i'-z{sub B} ) and (z{sub B} -z{sub R} ) colors, where z{sub B} and z{sub R} are bandpasses with central wavelengths of 8842 Å and 9841 Å, respectively. The color selection can effectively isolate quasars at z ∼ 6 from M/L/T dwarfs without the J-band photometry down to z{sub R} < 24.0, which is 3.5 mag deeper than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We have selected 17 promising quasar candidates. The follow-up spectroscopy for seven targets identified one apparent quasar at z = 6.156 with M {sub 1450} = –23.10. We also identified one possible quasar at z = 6.041 with a faint continuum of M {sub 1450} = –22.58 and a narrow Lyα emission with HWHM =427 km s{sup –1}, which cannot be distinguished from Lyman α emitters. We derive the quasar luminosity function at z ∼ 6 by combining our faint quasar sample with the bright quasar samples by SDSS and CFHQS. Including our data points invokes a higher number density in the faintest bin of the quasar luminosity function than the previous estimate employed. This suggests a steeper faint-end slope than lower z, though it is yet uncertain based on a small number of spectroscopically identified faint quasars, and several quasar candidates still remain to be diagnosed. The steepening of the quasar luminosity function at the faint end does increase the expected emission rate of the ionizing photon; however, it only changes by a factor of approximately two to six. This was found to still be insufficient for the required photon budget of reionization at z ∼ 6.

  20. Quasar microlensing and dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Hans-Walter; Hogan, Craig J.

    1988-01-01

    The amplification of quasar brightness due to gravitational lensing by foreground objects is discussed. It is shown that a recently published sample of X-ray-selected quasars behind foreground galaxies shows a statistically significant brightening compared to a control sample. Correlations with galaxy redshift and impact parameter predicted by microlensing are also demonstrated. A technique is described to measure the mean density of the lenses from a small number of identified cases of microlensing. It is shown that, in this sample, amplification bias is important in determining the mean intensity enhancement and must be included in the density estimate. Assuming that at least two of the four intrinsically brightest quasars behind galaxies are indeed microlensed, the present data yield a formal lower limit on the mean density parameter of lenses Omega(l) greater than 0.25 at 95 percent confidence. These data also imply that a considerable quantity of dark matter exists in macroscopic objects outside the visible parts of galaxies but is still highly correlated with them.

  1. Data Mining for Gravitationally Lensed Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Agnello, Adriano; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Gravitationally lensed (GL) quasars are brighter than their unlensed counterparts and produce images with distinctive morphological signatures. Past searches and target selection algorithms, in particular the Sloan Quasar Lens Search (SQLS), have relied on basic morphological criteria, which were applied to samples of bright, spectroscopically confirmed quasars. The SQLS techniques are not sufficient for searching into new surveys (e.g. DES, PS1, LSST), because spectroscopic information is not readily available and the large data volume requires higher purity in target/candidate selection. We carry out a systematic exploration of machine learning techniques and demonstrate that a two step strategy can be highly effective. In the first step we use catalog-level information ($griz$+WISE magnitudes, second moments) to preselect targets, using artificial neural networks. The accepted targets are then inspected with pixel-by-pixel pattern recognition algorithms (Gradient-Boosted Trees), to form a final set of cand...

  2. Microlensing variability in time-delay quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Paraficz, D; Burud, I; Jakobsson, P; Eliasdottir, A

    2006-01-01

    We have searched for microlensing variability in the light curves of five gravitationally lensed quasars with well-determined time delays: SBS 1520+530, FBQ 0951+2635, RX J0911+0551, B1600+434 and HE 2149-2745. By comparing the light curve of the leading image with a suitably time offset light curve of a trailing image we find that two (SBS 1520+530 and FBQ 0951+2635) out of the five quasars have significant long-term (years) and short-term (100 days) brightness variations that may be attributed to microlensing.The short-term variations may be due to nanolenses, relativistic hot or cold spots in the quasar accretion disks, or coherent microlensing at large optical depth.

  3. Polar Outflows in Six Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Tinggui; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Junxian; Yuan, Weimin; Lu, Yu

    2005-01-01

    Using the radio observations by FIRST and NVSS, we build a sample of 151 radio variable quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3 (SDSS DR3). Six (probably another two) among them are classified as broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, with radio flux variations of a few 10 percent within 1.5-5 years. Such large amplitudes of the variations imply brightness temperatures much higher than the inverse Compton limits (10$^{12}$ K) in all the BAL quasars, suggesting the pres...

  4. THE z = 5 QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM SDSS STRIPE 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a measurement of the Type I quasar luminosity function at z = 5 using a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed quasars selected from optical imaging data. We measure the bright end (M1450 2, then extend to lower luminosities (M1450 2 of deep, coadded imaging in the SDSS Stripe 82 region (the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap). The faint sample includes 14 quasars with spectra obtained as ancillary science targets in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, and 59 quasars observed at the MMT and Magellan telescopes. We construct a well-defined sample of 4.7 1450*∼-27). The bright-end slope is steep (β ∼1450 < –26) from z = 5 to z = 6 than from z = 4 to z = 5, suggesting a more rapid decline in quasar activity at high redshift than found in previous surveys. Our model for the quasar luminosity function predicts that quasars generate ∼30% of the ionizing photons required to keep hydrogen in the universe ionized at z = 5.

  5. Quasar-Cluster Associations and Gravitational Lensing by Large-Scale Matter Clumps

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiang-Ping; Fang, Li-Zhi

    1996-01-01

    Motivated by the significant overdensity of background bright quasars recently detected behind the foreground clusters of galaxies on scale of $10$ arcminutes, we have investigated the possibility of attributing the quasar-cluster associations to gravitational lensing by large-scale matter inhomogeneities. Based on the conventional lensing models, we have shown that the reported quasar overdensity is unlikely to be generated by cluster matter alone. The situation does not change even if all t...

  6. An I-Band-Selected Sample of Radio-Emitting Quasars: Evidence for a Large Population of Red Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    White, Richard L.; Helfand, David J.; Becker, Robert H.; Gregg, Michael D.; Postman, Marc; Lauer, Tod R.; Oegerle, William

    2003-01-01

    We present a new sample of 35 quasars selected from the FIRST radio survey and the Deeprange I-band survey (Postman et al. 1998, 2002). A comparison with the FIRST Bright Quasar survey samples reveals that this I-band selected sample is redder by 0.25-0.5 mag in B-R, and that the color difference is not explained by the higher mean redshift of this sample but must be intrinsic. Our small sample contains five quasars with unusually red colors, including three that appear very heavily reddened....

  7. BROAD ABSORPTION LINE DISAPPEARANCE ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present 21 examples of C IV broad absorption line (BAL) trough disappearance in 19 quasars selected from systematic multi-epoch observations of 582 bright BAL quasars (1.9 –1. We discuss possible origins of this connection including disk-wind rotation and changes in shielding gas.

  8. Weak bump quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, B. J.; McDowell, J.

    1994-01-01

    Research into the optical, ultraviolet and infrared continuum emission from quasars and their host galaxies was carried out. The main results were the discovery of quasars with unusually weak infrared emission and the construction of a quantitative estimate of the dispersion in quasar continuum properties. One of the major uncertainties in the measurement of quasar continuum strength is the contribution to the continuum of the quasar host galaxy as a function of wavelength. Continuum templates were constructed for different types of host galaxy and individual estimates made of the decomposed quasar and host continua based on existing observations of the target quasars. The results are that host galaxy contamination is worse than previously suspected, and some apparent weak bump quasars are really normal quasars with strong host galaxies. However, the existence of true weak bump quasars such as PHL 909 was confirmed. The study of the link between the bump strength and other wavebands was continued by comparing with IRAS data. There is evidence that excess far infrared radiation is correlated with weaker ultraviolet bumps. This argues against an orientation effect and implies a probable link with the host galaxy environment, for instance the presence of a luminous starburst. However, the evidence still favors the idea that reddening is not important in those objects with ultraviolet weak bumps. The same work has led to the discovery of a class of infrared weak quasars. Pushing another part of the envelope of quasar continuum parameter space, the IR-weak quasars have implications for understanding the effects of reddening internal to the quasars, the reality of ultraviolet turnovers, and may allow further tests of the Phinney dust model for the IR continuum. They will also be important objects for studying the claimed IR to x-ray continuum correlation.

  9. Models of the quasar population. I. A new luminosity function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new functional form for the quasar luminosity function is tested using recent observational results for both bright and faint quasar count and redshift distributions. The form is of a fairly general type based on three free parameters and allows for quasars to undergo a combination of luminosity evolution and luminosity-dependent density evolution; an advantage to this approach is that it does not constrain quasars to follow a single type of evolution. Models of pure luminosity evolution or luminosity-dependent density evolution can be constructed, but the apparent magnitude distribution of observed quasars is best fitted by a combination model. The combination model also gives the correct redshift distribution for quasars with redshifts less than three and predicts that quasars brighter than B = 22 provide a 2-10 keV X-ray flux that is equal to 32 percent of the observed X-ray background. However, the model is flawed in that it predicts more high-redshift quasars than are observed. 45 references

  10. A QUASAR CATALOG WITH SIMULTANEOUS UV, OPTICAL, AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS BY SWIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jian; Grupe, Dirk; Koch, Scott; Gelbord, Jonathan; Schneider, Donald P.; Gronwall, Caryl; Porterfield, Blair L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Vanden Berk, Daniel; Wesolowski, Sarah, E-mail: jwu@astro.psu.edu [Department of Physics, Saint Vincent College, 300 Fraser Purchase Road, Latrobe, PA 15650 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    We have compiled a catalog of optically selected quasars with simultaneous observations in UV/optical and X-ray bands by the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer. Objects in this catalog are identified by matching the Swift pointings with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 quasar catalog. The final catalog contains 843 objects, among which 637 have both Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) observations and 354 of which are detected by both instruments. The overall X-ray detection rate is {approx}60% which rises to {approx}85% among sources with at least 10 ks of XRT exposure time. We construct the time-averaged spectral energy distribution (SED) for each of the 354 quasars using UVOT photometric measurements and XRT spectra. From model fits to these SEDs, we find that the big blue bump contributes about {approx}0.3 dex to the quasar luminosity. We re-visit the {alpha}{sub ox}-L{sub 2500A} relation by selecting a clean sample with only Type 1 radio-quiet quasars; the dispersion of this relation is reduced by at least 15% compared with studies that use non-simultaneous UV/optical and X-ray data. We only found a weak correlation between L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} and {alpha}{sub UV}. We do not find significant correlations between {alpha}{sub x} and {alpha}{sub ox}, {alpha}{sub ox} and {alpha}{sub UV}, and {alpha}{sub x} and log L(0.3-10 keV). The correlations between {alpha}{sub UV} and {alpha}{sub x}, {alpha}{sub ox} and {alpha}{sub x}, {alpha}{sub ox} and {alpha}{sub UV}, L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} and {alpha}{sub x}, and L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} and {alpha}{sub ox} are stronger among low-redshift quasars, indicating that these correlations are likely driven by the changes of SED shape with accretion state.

  11. MERLIN radio observations of the quasar 3C 273

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MERLIN observations of the radio jet of the quasar 3C 273 at 408 and 1666 Mhz are presented. Most of the important features previously seen at 408 MHz are confirmed. The jet extends from 12 to 23 arcsec from the quasar, and has a single bright head at 408 MHz. At the higher resolution of the 1666-MHz map the head is seen to consist of at least three subcomponents, the brightest of which is set back from the outermost point of the jet. The ridgeline of emission shows oscillations from side to side ('wiggles'), the wavelength of which decreases markedly as the bright head is approached. (author)

  12. THE TWO-POINT CORRELATION OF 2QZ QUASARS AND 2SLAQ LRGS: FROM A QUASAR FUELING PERSPECTIVE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public data from the 2dF quasar survey and 2dF/Sloan Digital Sky Survey LRG and QSO, with their vast reservoirs of spectroscopically located and identified sources, afford us the chance to more accurately study their real-space correlations in the hopes of identifying the physical processes that trigger quasar activity. We have used these two public databases to measure the projected cross-correlation, ω p, between quasars and luminous red galaxies. We find the projected two-point correlation to have a fitted clustering radius of r 0 = 5.3 ± 0.6 and a slope γ = 1.83 ± 0.42 on scales from 0.7 to 27 h -1 Mpc. We attempt to understand this strong correlation by separating the LRG sample into two populations of blue and red galaxies. We measure at the cross-correlation with each population. We find that these quasars have a stronger correlation amplitude with the bluer, more recently star-forming population in our sample than the redder passively evolving population, which has a correlation that is much more noisy and seems to flatten on scales -1 Mpc. We compare this result to published work on hierarchical models. The stronger correlation of bright quasars with LRGs that have undergone a recent burst of star formation suggests that the physical mechanisms that produce both activities are related and that minor mergers or tidal effects may be important triggers of bright quasar activity and/or that bright quasars are less highly biased than faint quasars.

  13. Quasars and their host galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Lacy, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This review attempts to describe developments in the fields of quasar and quasar host galaxies in the past five. In this time period, the Sloan and 2dF quasar surveys have added several tens of thousands of quasars, with Sloan quasars being found to z>6. Obscured, or partially obscured quasars have begun to be found in significant numbers. Black hole mass estimates for quasars, and our confidence in them, have improved significantly, allowing a start on relating quasar properties such as radi...

  14. Dust Reddening in SDSS Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, P F; Hall, P B; Richards, G T; Cooper, A S; Schneider, D P; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Jester, S; Brinkmann, J; Szokoly, G P; Hopkins, Philip F.; Strauss, Michael A.; Hall, Patrick B.; Richards, Gordon T.; Cooper, Ariana S.; Schneider, Donald P.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Jester, Sebastian; Szokoly, Gyula P.

    2004-01-01

    We explore the form of extragalactic reddening toward quasars using a sample of 9566 quasars with redshifts 0 0.1; less than 1% have E_{B-V} > 0.2, where the extinction is relative to quasars with modal colors. Reddening is uncorrelated with the presence of intervening narrow-line absorption systems, but reddened quasars are much more likely to show narrow absorption at the redshift of the quasar than are unreddened quasars. Thus the reddening towards quasars is dominated by SMC-like dust at the quasar redshift.

  15. Finding the Most Distant Quasars Using Bayesian Selection Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mortlock, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Quasars, the brightly glowing disks of material that can form around the super-massive black holes at the centres of large galaxies, are amongst the most luminous astronomical objects known and so can be seen at great distances. The most distant known quasars are seen as they were when the Universe was less than a billion years old (i.e., $\\sim\\!7%$ of its current age). Such distant quasars are, however, very rare, and so are difficult to distinguish from the billions of other comparably-bright sources in the night sky. In searching for the most distant quasars in a recent astronomical sky survey (the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, UKIDSS), there were $\\sim\\!10^3$ apparently plausible candidates for each expected quasar, far too many to reobserve with other telescopes. The solution to this problem was to apply Bayesian model comparison, making models of the quasar population and the dominant contaminating population (Galactic stars) to utilise the information content in the survey measurements. The result wa...

  16. A high-redshift IRAS galaxy with huge luminosity - hidden quasar or protogalaxy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a survey intended to measure redshifts for 1,400 galaxies identified with faint sources detected by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite, we found an emission-line galaxy at a redshift of 2.286, and with the enormous far-infrared luminosity of 3 x 1014 times that of the sun (Lsun) The spectrum is very unusual, showing lines of high excitation but with very weak Lyman-α emission. A self-absorbed synchrotron model for the infrared energy distribution cannot be ruled out, but a thermal origin seems more plausible. A radio-quiet quasar embedded in a very dusty galaxy could account for the infrared emission, as might a starburst embedded in 1-10 x 109 Msun of dust. The latter case demands so much dust that the object would probably be a massive galaxy in the process of formation. In either case, this is a remarkable object, and the presence of a large amount of dust in an object of such high redshift implies the generation of heavy elements at an early cosmological epoch. (author)

  17. Quasars Probing Quasars II: The Anisotropic Clustering of Optically Thick Absorbers around Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, Jason X.

    2006-01-01

    With close pairs of quasars at different redshifts, a background quasar sightline can be used to study a foreground quasar's environment in absorption. We used a sample of 17 Lyman limit systems with column density N_HI > 10^19 cm^-2 selected from 149 projected quasar pair sightlines, to investigate the clustering pattern of optically thick absorbers around luminous quasars at z ~ 2.5. Specifically, we measured the quasar-absorber correlation function in the transverse direction, and found a ...

  18. Environment of the quasar PG 1613 + 65 (Mkn 876) - a close interacting pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectroscopic and two-color imaging of the environment of the bright, low-redshift quasar PG 1613 + 65 = Mkn 876 is presented. The quasar is situated in a poor cluster of galaxies of Abell richness class 0. The quasar's morphology includes a 25 arcsec long tidal tail emanating from the east side, 180 deg from the position angle of a secondary nucleus 1.9 arcsec from the main nucleus. The nebulous component of the quasar is analyzed and found to be more than twice as bright as a first-rank cluster galaxy. The average colors of the tidal tail and the main body are consistent with those of late-type spiral galaxies. The possibility that the quasar host is interacting with a very close neighbor is assessed, and the star-forming effects of such an interaction on the host galaxy are considered. 43 references

  19. False periodicities in quasar time-domain surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Vaughan, S; Markowitz, A G; Huppenkothen, D; Middleton, M J; Alston, W N; Scargle, J D; Farr, W M

    2016-01-01

    There have recently been several reports of apparently periodic variations in the light curves of quasars, e.g. PG 1302-102 by Graham et al. (2015a). Any quasar showing periodic oscillations in brightness would be a strong candidate to be a close binary supermassive black hole and, in turn, a candidate for gravitational wave studies. However, normal quasars -- powered by accretion onto a single, supermassive black hole -- usually show stochastic variability over a wide range of timescales. It is therefore important to carefully assess the methods for identifying periodic candidates from among a population dominated by stochastic variability. Using a Bayesian analysis of the light curve of PG 1302-102, we find that a simple stochastic process is preferred over a sinusoidal variations. We then discuss some of the problems one encounters when searching for rare, strictly periodic signals among a large number of irregularly sampled, stochastic time series, and use simulations of quasar light curves to illustrate ...

  20. The density structure around quasars inferred from optical depth statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rollinde, E; Theuns, T; Petitjean, P; Chand, H

    2005-01-01

    We present a method for studying the proximity effect and use it to investigate the density structure around QSOs. It is based on the pixel optical depth probability distribution and its redshift evolution. We validate the method using mock spectra obtained from hydrodynamical simulations, and then apply it to a sample of 12 bright quasars at redshifts 2-3 observed with UVES at the VLT-UT2 Kueyen ESO telescope. These quasars do not show signatures of associated absorption and have a mean monochromatic luminosity of 5.4 10^31 ergs/s/Hz/h^2 at the Lyman limit. The distribution of optical depths changes considerably when the proper distance to the QSO is less than 10 Mpc/h. The size of this proximity region is small given that these QSOs are very bright, which suggests that the quasars are located in regions that are overdense by factors 2-10 on scales <= 10 Mpc/h.

  1. Multiple images of the quasar 0957 + 561

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gravitationally imaged double quasar 0957 + 561 has been observed at an angular resolution of 0''.3 using the full VLA at 6 cm wavelength. The radio source G (2.3 mJy) was clearly resolved (deconvolved size 0''.33 x 0''.14 at P.A. = 1660); its centroid lies slightly north of both the nucleus of the primary lens galaxy G1 and the third VLBI component G'. Thus most of the flux in G is probably intrinsic to G1; its radio properties are quite similar to those of M87. Although the flux and position of G are consistent with the hypothesis that G' is the third quasar image B2, models fitted to the VLA structure of G do not include the anticipated point component. Limits on the flux of B2 as a function of its separation from the nucleus of the lens galaxy G1 are presented. Comparison of the maps with models of the imaging process suggests that the third quasar image lies within 0''.2 of the nucleus of the primary lens galaxy G1 and contains less than 1% of the flux of the bright B image. The possibility that 0957 + 561 is quintuple, and that the sum of the three missing images is the G radio source, is considered and found to be compatible with the optical and radio data if the three additional optical images suffer 1.6 mag of extinction in passing through the nucleus of the lens galaxy G1. A weak new radio source '' BN,'' with flux 0.34 mJy, was discovered 0''.35 north of the bright B quasar image. Detailed models of the image formation, compatible with previous radio and optical observations, predicted that the VLA radio jet, whose first image extends northeast of quasar image A, should have a second image of 0.4 mJy lying between the bright B quasar image and the nucleus of G1

  2. COLD FLOWS AND THE FIRST QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of the most distant bright quasars imply that billion solar mass supermassive black holes (SMBHs) have to be assembled within the first 800 million years. Under our standard galaxy formation scenario such fast growth implies large gas densities providing sustained accretion at critical or supercritical rates onto an initial black hole seed. It has been a long standing question whether and how such high black hole accretion rates can be achieved and sustained at the centers of early galaxies. Here we use our new MassiveBlack cosmological hydrodynamic simulation covering a volume (0.75 Gpc)3 appropriate for studying the rare first quasars to show that steady high density cold gas flows responsible for assembling the first galaxies produce the high gas densities that lead to sustained critical accretion rates and hence rapid growth commensurate with the existence of ∼109 M☉ black holes as early as z ∼ 7. We find that under these conditions quasar feedback is not effective at stopping the cold gas from penetrating the central regions and hence cannot quench the accretion until the host galaxy reaches Mhalo > or approx. 1012M☉. This cold-flow-driven scenario for the formation of quasars implies that they should be ubiquitous in galaxies in the early universe and that major (proto)galaxy mergers are not a requirement for efficient fuel supply and growth, particularly for the earliest SMBHs.

  3. COLD FLOWS AND THE FIRST QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Matteo, T.; Khandai, N.; DeGraf, C.; Feng, Y.; Croft, R. A. C. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Lopez, J. [Computer Science Department, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Springel, V. [Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, 68118 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Observations of the most distant bright quasars imply that billion solar mass supermassive black holes (SMBHs) have to be assembled within the first 800 million years. Under our standard galaxy formation scenario such fast growth implies large gas densities providing sustained accretion at critical or supercritical rates onto an initial black hole seed. It has been a long standing question whether and how such high black hole accretion rates can be achieved and sustained at the centers of early galaxies. Here we use our new MassiveBlack cosmological hydrodynamic simulation covering a volume (0.75 Gpc){sup 3} appropriate for studying the rare first quasars to show that steady high density cold gas flows responsible for assembling the first galaxies produce the high gas densities that lead to sustained critical accretion rates and hence rapid growth commensurate with the existence of {approx}10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} black holes as early as z {approx} 7. We find that under these conditions quasar feedback is not effective at stopping the cold gas from penetrating the central regions and hence cannot quench the accretion until the host galaxy reaches M{sub halo} > or approx. 10{sup 1}2{sup M}{sub Sun }. This cold-flow-driven scenario for the formation of quasars implies that they should be ubiquitous in galaxies in the early universe and that major (proto)galaxy mergers are not a requirement for efficient fuel supply and growth, particularly for the earliest SMBHs.

  4. Astrometric and Photometric Variability in Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, A. H.; Bouquillon, S.; Penna, J. L.; Taris, F.; Anton, S.; Souchay, J.; Camargo, J. I. B.; da Silva Neto, D. N.; Vieira Martins, R.; Assafin, M.; Pinto, S. dos Reis Carvalho

    2010-05-01

    Quasars are the choicest objects to define a quasi-inertial reference frame. At the same time, they are active galactic nuclei powered by a massive black hole. As the astrometric precision of ground-based optical observations approaches the limit set by the forthcoming GAIA mission, astrometric stability can be investigated. Though the optical emission from the core region usually exceeds the other components by a factor of a hundred, the variability of those components must surely imply some measure of variability of the astrometric baricenter. Whether this is confirmed or not, it puts important constraints on the relationship of the quasar's central engine to the surrounding distribution of matter. To investigate the correlation between long-term optical variability and what is dubbed as the “random walk” of the astrometric center, a program is being pursued at the WFI/ESO 2.2m. The sample was selected from quasars known to undergo large-amplitude and long-term optical variations (Smith et al. 1993; Teerikorpi 2000). The observations are typically made every two months. The treatment is differential, comparing the quasar position and brightness against a sample of selected stars for which the average relative distances and magnitudes remain constant. The provisional results for four objects bring strong support to the hypothesis of a relationship between astrometric and photometric variability. A full account is provided by Andrei et al. (2009).

  5. Radio structure in quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, observational attention is given to the extended extragalactic radio sources associated with quasars. The isolated compact radio sources, often identified with quasars, are only included in the discussions. Three aspects of the radio structure in quasars and their cosmic evolution are considered: a study of the parsec scale morphology in quasar cores, in relation to the extended morphologies; an investigation of possible epoch dependent hotspot properties as well as a more detailed investigation of this fine scale structure; a VLA project was carried out to obtain morphological information on scales of 0.5 arcsec on high redshift quasars and to investigate possible epoch dependent morphological properties. MERLIN observations at 0.1 arcsec resolution to supplement the VLA data were initiated. (Auth.)

  6. High-redshift obscured quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Sansigre, Alejo; Rawlings, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Using mid-infrared and radio criteria, we select a sample of candidate z~2 obscured quasars. Optical spectroscopy confirms about half of these as type-2 quasars, and modelling the population suggests 50-80% of the quasars are obscured. We find some flat radio spectrum type-2 quasars, and tentative evidence for obscuration unrelated to the torus. Using a similar sample, we also find evidence for a significant fraction of Compton-thick quasars.

  7. Extragalactic Extinction Laws and Quasar Structure from Color differences Between Images of Lensed Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Evencio

    2011-11-01

    The action of the mean gravitational field of an intervening galaxy sufficiently aligned with a distant quasar can form several images of this object (multiple imaged quasar). Random fluctuations of the gravitational field induced by the highly inhomogeneous granulation of stars or in dark matter clumps of the lens galaxy mass distribution can subdivide the images in scales of microarcsecs (microlensing by stars) or miliarcsecs (mililensing by dark matter clumps). Anomalies induced by microlensing in the flux brightness of the images can be very strong for small sources or be averaged out by sufficiently large sources. Thus, microlensing magnification of the flux of a radially stratified source can be wavelength dependent (chromaticity). On the other hand, in their path through the lens galaxy the photons of the quasar images are also affected by the patchily distributed interstellar medium (dust extinction). Thus, the wavelength dependence of extinction can be obtained from the flux ratios between two images. In this work we review the use of quasar spectra to disentangle microlensing and dust extinction (based in the comparison between the continuum and emission line flux ratios for different images of the quasar) discussing the impact of the intrinsic source variability in this procedure. We will also review some results derived using this technique like the low fraction of mass in MACHOS in the dark halos of lens galaxies, the unexpected large sizes of the accretion disks present in the central region of lensed quasars or the derivation of extinction curves in the extragalactic domain that reveals a variability in dust properties similar to the one found in the Local Group of galaxies.

  8. Magnification of light from many distant quasars by gravitational lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyithe, J Stuart B; Loeb, Abraham

    2002-06-27

    Exceptionally bright quasars with redshifts up to z = 6.28 have recently been discovered. Quasars are thought to be powered by the accretion of gas onto supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. Their maximum (Eddington) luminosity depends on the mass of the black hole, and the brighter quasars are inferred to have black holes with masses of more than a few billion solar masses. The existence of such massive black holes poses a challenge to models for the formation of structures in the early Universe, as it requires their formation within one billion years of the Big Bang. Here we show that up to one-third of known quasars with z approximately equal to 6 will have had their observed flux magnified by a factor of ten or more, as a consequence of gravitational lensing by galaxies along the line of sight. The inferred abundance of quasar host galaxies, as well as the luminosity density provided by the quasars, has therefore been substantially overestimated. PMID:12087397

  9. Quasars: A Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedman, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    Reports on some of the discoveries over the last quarter century regarding quasars including spectra and energy sources, formation and evolution, and cosmological probes. Describes some of the fundamental mysteries that remain. (CW)

  10. Finding Quasars with SNAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondel, B. J.; Mufson, S. L.

    2005-12-01

    The Supernova / Acceleration Probe (SNAP) is a planned satellite observatory that will investigate the dark energy by producing imaging data over a large (several square-degree) field of sky that will rival or exceed the Hubble Ultra Deep Field in photometric quality and depth. As such, SNAP is ideally suited for deep surveys as auxiliary science. We discuss application of quasar science techniques to SNAP photometry. Based on a simple photometric quasar / Lyman forest model, we simulate the population of quasars that SNAP will observe and compare the resulting photometry with a population of model stellar photometry. We examine the effectiveness of identifying quasars based only on photometric data by a variety of techniques, most of which were first developed for use with Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Exclusion of the stellar locus in the style of Newberg & Yanni, statistical mapping, and machine learning with neural networks are among the techniques we explore. A photometric redshift calculus is also presented.

  11. Photometric classification of quasars from RCS-2 using Random Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, D.; Barrientos, L. F.; Pichara, K.; Anguita, T.; Murphy, D. N. A.; Gilbank, D. G.; Gladders, M. D.; Yee, H. K. C.; Hsieh, B. C.; López, S.

    2015-12-01

    The classification and identification of quasars is fundamental to many astronomical research areas. Given the large volume of photometric survey data available in the near future, automated methods for doing so are required. In this article, we present a new quasar candidate catalog from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey 2 (RCS-2), identified solely from photometric information using an automated algorithm suitable for large surveys. The algorithm performance is tested using a well-defined SDSS spectroscopic sample of quasars and stars. The Random Forest algorithm constructs the catalog from RCS-2 point sources using SDSS spectroscopically-confirmed stars and quasars. The algorithm identifies putative quasars from broadband magnitudes (g, r, i, z) and colors. Exploiting NUV GALEX measurements for a subset of the objects, we refine the classifier by adding new information. An additional subset of the data with WISE W1 and W2 bands is also studied. Upon analyzing 542 897 RCS-2 point sources, the algorithm identified 21 501 quasar candidates with a training-set-derived precision (the fraction of true positives within the group assigned quasar status) of 89.5% and recall (the fraction of true positives relative to all sources that actually are quasars) of 88.4%. These performance metrics improve for the GALEX subset: 6529 quasar candidates are identified from 16 898 sources, with a precision and recall of 97.0% and 97.5%, respectively. Algorithm performance is further improved when WISE data are included, with precision and recall increasing to 99.3% and 99.1%, respectively, for 21 834 quasar candidates from 242 902 sources. We compiled our final catalog (38 257) by merging these samples and removing duplicates. An observational follow up of 17 bright (r < 19) candidates with long-slit spectroscopy at DuPont telescope (LCO) yields 14 confirmed quasars. The results signal encouraging progress in the classification of point sources with Random Forest algorithms to search

  12. Towards a comprehensive picture of powerful quasars, their host galaxies and quasar winds at z ~ 0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Liu, Guilin; Obied, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Luminous type-2 quasars in which the glow from the central black hole is obscured by dust are ideal targets for studying their host galaxies and the quasars' effect on galaxy evolution. Such feedback appears ubiquitous in luminous obscured quasars where high velocity ionized nebulae have been found. We present rest-frame yellow-band (~5000 Angstroms) observations using the Hubble Space Telescope for a sample of 20 luminous quasar host galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.6 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. For the first time, we combine host galaxy observations with geometric measurements of quasar illumination using blue-band HST observations and [OIII] integral field unit observations probing the quasar winds. The HST images reveal bright merger signatures in about half the galaxies; a significantly higher fraction than in comparison inactive ellipticals. We show that the host galaxies are primarily bulge-dominated, with masses close to M*, but belong to < 30% of elliptical galaxies that are highly st...

  13. ROSAT PSPC observations of the infrared quasar IRAS 13349+2438 evidence for a warm absorber with internal dust

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, W N; Pounds, K A

    1995-01-01

    We present spatial, temporal and spectral analyses of ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) observations of the infrared loud quasar IRAS 13349+2438. IRAS 13349+2438 is the archetypal highly-polarized radio-quiet QSO and has an optical/infrared luminosity of about 2E46 erg/s. We detect variability in the ROSAT count rate by a factor of 4.1 in about one year, and there is also evidence for about 25 per cent variability within one week. We find no evidence for large intrinsic cold absorption of soft X-rays. These two facts have important consequences for the scattering-plus-transmission model of this object which was developed to explain its high wavelength-dependent polarization and other properties. The soft X-ray variability makes electron scattering of most of the soft X-rays difficult without a very peculiar scattering mirror. The lack of significant intrinsic cold X-ray absorption together with the large observed E(B-V) suggests either a very peculiar system geometry or, more probably, abso...

  14. Discovery of eight z ∼ 6 quasars from Pan-STARRS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-redshift quasars are currently the only probes of the growth of supermassive black holes and potential tracers of structure evolution at early cosmic time. Here we present our candidate selection criteria from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 and follow-up strategy to discover quasars in the redshift range 5.7 ≲ z ≲ 6.2. With this strategy we discovered eight new 5.7 ≤ z ≤ 6.0 quasars, increasing the number of known quasars at z > 5.7 by more than 10%. We additionally recovered 18 previously known quasars. The eight quasars presented here span a large range of luminosities (–27.3 ≤ M 1450 ≤ –25.4; 19.6 ≤ z P1 ≤ 21.2) and are remarkably heterogeneous in their spectral features: half of them show bright emission lines whereas the other half show a weak or no Lyα emission line (25% with rest-frame equivalent width of the Lyα +N V line lower than 15 Å). We find a larger fraction of weak-line emission quasars than in lower redshift studies. This may imply that the weak-line quasar population at the highest redshifts could be more abundant than previously thought. However, larger samples of quasars are needed to increase the statistical significance of this finding.

  15. The SDSS Quasar Survey: Quasar Luminosity Function from Data Release Three

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, G T; Barentine, J C; Brewington, H J; Brinkmann, J; Brunner, R J; Fukugita, M; Gray, J; Gunn, J E; Hall, P B; Harvanek, M; Ivezic, Z; Jester, S; Kent, S M; Kirkland, M E; Kleinman, S J; Knapp, G R; Krzesínski, J; Long, D C; Loveday, J; Lupton, R H; Meiksin, A; Nash, T; Neilsen, E H; Nitta, A; Pope, A; Schlegel, D J; Schneider, D P; Snedden, S A; Stoughton, C; Strauss, M A; Szalay, A S; Thakar, A R; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Xiaohui F; Yanny, B; York, Do G; Anderson, Scott F.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Brunner, Robert J.; Fan, Xiaohui; Gray, Jim; Gunn, James E.; Hall, Patrick B.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jester, Sebastian; Kirkland, Margaret E.; Loveday, Jon; Meiksin, Avery; Pope, Adrian; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Stoughton, Chris; Strauss, Michael A.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thakar, Anirudda R.; Yanny, Brian; York, Donald G.

    2006-01-01

    We determine the number counts and z=0-5 luminosity function for a well-defined, homogeneous sample of quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We conservatively define the most uniform statistical sample possible, consisting of 15,343 quasars within an effective area of 1622 deg^2 that was derived from a parent sample of 46,420 spectroscopically confirmed broad-line quasars in the 5282 deg^2 of imaging data from SDSS Data Release Three. The sample extends from i=15 to i=19.1 at z3. The number counts and luminosity function agree well with the results of the 2dF QSO Survey, but the SDSS data probe to much higher redshifts than does the 2dF sample. The number density of luminous quasars peaks between redshifts 2 and 3, although uncertainties in the selection function in this range do not allow us to determine the peak redshift more precisely. Our best fit model has a flatter bright end slope at high redshift than at low redshift. For z5-sigma level, must be accounted for in models of the evolution of ...

  16. Hubble Space Telescope Images of Nearby Luminous Quasars. 2; Results for Eight Quasars and Tests of the Detection Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1995-01-01

    Observations with the Wide-Field Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented for eight intrinsically luminous quasars with redshifts between 0.16 and 0.29. These observations, when combined with a similar HST study of the quasar PKS 2349-014, show that luminous nearby quasars exist in a variety of environments. Seven companion galaxies brighter than M(V) = 16.5 (H(sub 0) = 100 km s(sup -1) Mpc(sup -1), Omega(sub 0) = 1.0) lie within a projected distance of 25 kpc of the quasars; three of the companions are located closer than 3'' (6 kpc projected distance) from the quasars, well within the volume that would be enclosed by a typical L* host galaxy. The observed association of quasars and companion galaxies is statistically significant and may he an important element in the luminous-quasar phenomenon. Apparent host galaxies are detected for three of the quasars: PG 1116+215, 3C 273, and PG 1444+407; the hosts have an average absolute magnitude of about 0.6 mag brighter than L*. The agreement between the previously published major-axis directions in ground-based images and in the present HST images of 3C 273 and PG 1444+407 constitutes important evidence supporting the reality of these candidate host galaxies. Upper limits are placed on the visual-band brightnesses of representative galactic hosts for all the quasars. These limits are established by placing galaxy images obtained with HST underneath the quasars and measuring at what faintness level the known galaxies are detected. On average, the HST spirals would have been detected if they were as faint as 1 mag below L*, and the early-type galaxies could have been detected down to a brightness level of about L*, where L* is the Schechter characteristic luminosity of field galaxies. Smooth, featureless galaxy models (exponential disks or de Vaucouleurs profiles) are fitted to the residual light after a best-fitting point source is subtracted from the quasar images. The results show that smooth spiral

  17. Hubble Space Telescope Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Fourteen Low-Redshift Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Ganguly, R; Arav, N; Heap, S R; Wisotzki, L; Aldcroft, T L; Alloin, D; Behar, E; Canalizo, G; Crenshaw, D M; De Kool, M; Chambers, K; Cecil, G; Chatzichristou, E T; Everett, J; Gabel, J; Gaskell, C M; Galliano, E; Green, R F; Hall, P B; Hines, D C; Junkkarinen, V T; Kaastra, J S; Kaiser, M E; Kazanas, D; Konigl, A; Korista, K T; Kriss, G A; Laor, A; Leighly, K M; Mathur, S; Ogle, P; Proga, D; Sabra, B; Sivron, R; Snedden, S A; Telfer, R; Vestergaard, M; Ganguly, Rajib; Brotherton, Michael S.; Arav, Nahum; Heap, Sara R.; Wisotzki, Lutz; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Alloin, Danielle; Behar, Ehud; Canalizo, Gabriela; Kool, Martijn de; Chambers, Kenneth; Cecil, Gerald; Chatzichristou, Eleni; Everett, John; Gabel, Jack; Galliano, Emmanuel; Green, Richard F.; Hall, Patrick B.; Hines, Dean C.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Kaastra, Jelle S.; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Konigl, Arieh; Korista, Kirk T.; Kriss, Gerard A.; Laor, Ari; Leighly, Karen M.; Mathur, Smita; Ogle, Patrick; Proga, Daniel; Sabra, Bassem; Sivron, Ran; Snedden, Stephanie; Telfer, Randal; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    We present low-resolution ultraviolet spectra of 14 low redshift (z1.4 Large Bright Quasar samples. By design, our objects sample luminosities in between these two surveys, and our four absorbed objects are consistent with the v ~ L^0.62 relation derived by Laor & Brandt (2002). Another quasar, HE0441-2826, contains extremely weak emission lines and our spectrum is consistent with a simple power-law continuum. The quasar is radio-loud, but has a steep spectral index and a lobe-dominated morphology, which argues against it being a blazar. The unusual spectrum of this quasar resembles the spectra of the quasars PG1407+265, SDSSJ1136+0242, and PKS1004+13 for which several possible explanations have been entertained.

  18. Quasar Absorption Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  19. Exploratory Chandra observation of the ultraluminous quasar SDSS J010013.02+280225.8 at redshift 6.30

    CERN Document Server

    Ai, Yanli; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Bian, Fuyan

    2016-01-01

    We report exploratory \\chandra\\ observation of the ultraluminous quasar SDSS J010013.02+280225.8 at redshift 6.30. The quasar is clearly detected by \\chandra\\ with a possible component of extended emission. The rest-frame 2-10 keV luminosity is 9.0$^{+9.1}_{-4.5}$ $\\times$ 10$^{45}$ erg s$^{-1}$ with inferred photon index of $\\Gamma$ = 3.03$^{+0.78}_{-0.70}$. This quasar is X-ray bright, with inferred X-ray-to-optical flux ratio \\aox\\ $=-1.22^{+0.07}_{-0.05}$, higher than the values found in other quasars of comparable ultraviolet luminosity. The properties inferred from this exploratory observation indicate that this ultraluminous quasar might be growing with super-Eddington accretion and probably viewed with small inclination angle. Deep X-ray observation will help to probe the plausible extended emission and better constraint the spectral features for this ultraluminous quasar.

  20. Polarization structure of 12 gamma-ray quasars at 5 and 15 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetukhnovskaya, Yu. N.; Gabuzda, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    The results of dual-frequency polarization observations of 12 gamma-ray quasars are presented (as a continuation of a study of six blazars carried out earlier). The observations were obtained with the American Very Long Baseline Array. The distributions of intensity and polarization were obtained at 5 and 15 GHz. The degrees of polarization in the cores and jets of the 18 gamma-ray quasars do not stand out from those of other quasars. The brightness temperatures of the core components do not strongly exceed 1012 K.

  1. Resolving the Structure at the Heart of BAL Quasars Through Microlensing Induced Polarisation Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Hales, C A; Hales, Christopher A.; Lewis, Geraint F.

    2007-01-01

    While amongst the most luminous objects in the universe, many details regarding the inner structure of quasars remain unknown. One such area is the mechanism promoting increased polarisation in the broad absorption line troughs of certain quasars. This study shows how microlensing can be used to differentiate between two popular models that explain such polarisation through a realistic computational analysis. By examining a statistical ensemble of correlation data between two observables (namely image brightness and polarisation of the flux coming from the quasar), it was found that through spectropolarimetric monitoring it would be possible to discern between a model with an external scattering region and a model without one.

  2. Optical Microlensing and Accretion Disk Structure in the Lensed Quasar SDSS 1520+530

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Vigneshwar; Grinaski, Ian; MacLeod, Chelsea; Morgan, Christopher W.; Harris, Hugh C.; Kennington, James

    2015-01-01

    We analyze uncorrelated variability in seven seasons of SDSS r-band monitoring data from the doubly-imaged gravitationally lensed quasar SBS 1520+530 to yield a measurement of the size of the near-UV continuum emission region in this quasar. Photometry in the SBS 1520+530 system is complicated significantly by the proximity of a very bright star whose diffraction spike blends with the the lens, so we employed a mirror-flip subtraction technique to correct for this contamination. We conclude by testing our accretion disk measurement against the Quasar Accretion Disk Size - Black Hole Mass Relation.

  3. The Discovery of Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Kellermann, K I

    2013-01-01

    Although the extragalactic nature of quasars was discussed as early as 1960, it was rejected largely because of preconceived ideas about what appeared to be an unrealistically high radio and optical luminosity. Following the 1962 occultations of the strong radio source 3C 273 at Parkes, and the subsequent identification with an apparent stellar object, Maarten Schmidt recognized that the relatively simple hydrogen line Balmer series spectrum implied a redshift of 0.16 Successive radio and optical measurements quickly led to the identification of other quasars with increasingly large redshifts and the general, although for some decades not universal, acceptance of quasars as being by far the most distant and the most luminous objects in the Universe. Curiously, 3C 273, which is one of the strongest extragalactic sources in the sky, was first catalogued in 1959 and the magnitude 13 optical counterpart was observed at least as early as 1887. Since 1960, much fainter optical counterparts were being routinely iden...

  4. Astrometric Redshifts for Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Kaczmarczik, Michael C; Mehta, Sajjan S; Schlegel, David J

    2009-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of atmospheric refraction causes differential chromatic refraction (DCR), whereby objects imaged at different optical/UV wavelengths are observed at slightly different positions in the plane of the detector. Strong spectral features induce changes in the effective wavelengths of broad-band filters that are capable of producing significant positional offsets with respect to standard DCR corrections. We examine such offsets for broad-emission-line (type 1) quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spanning 0quasar spectrum with the SDSS bandpasses as a function of redshift and airmass. This astrometric information can be used to break degeneracies in photometric redshifts of quasars (or other emission-line sources) and, for extreme cases, may be suitable for determining "astrometric redshifts". On the SDSS's southern equatorial stripe, where it is pos...

  5. The intrinsic quasar luminosity function: Accounting for accretion disk anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasar luminosity functions are a fundamental probe of the growth and evolution of supermassive black holes. Measuring the intrinsic luminosity function is difficult in practice, due to a multitude of observational and systematic effects. As sample sizes increase and measurement errors drop, characterizing the systematic effects is becoming more important. It is well known that the continuum emission from the accretion disk of quasars is anisotropic—in part due to its disk-like structure—but current luminosity function calculations effectively assume isotropy over the range of unobscured lines of sight. Here, we provide the first steps in characterizing the effect of random quasar orientations and simple models of anisotropy on observed luminosity functions. We find that the effect of orientation is not insignificant and exceeds other potential corrections such as those from gravitational lensing of foreground structures. We argue that current observational constraints may overestimate the intrinsic luminosity function by as much as a factor of ∼2 on the bright end. This has implications for models of quasars and their role in the universe, such as quasars' contribution to cosmological backgrounds.

  6. The Hamburg Quasar Monitoring Program (HQM) at Calar Alto. I. Low amplitude variability in quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Borgeest, U.; Schramm, K. -J.

    1994-01-01

    HQM is an optical broad-band photometric monitoring program carried out since Sept.~1988. Our main intention is to search for indications of microlensing in a sample of $\\sim$\\,100 selected quasars; however, we also want to study the intrinsic variability. We use a CCD camera equipped to the MPIA 1.2$\\,$m telescope. Fully automatic photometric reduction relative to stars in the frame is done within a few minutes after each exposure, thus interesting brightness changes can be followed in detai...

  7. Metallicity and Quasar Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Huiyuan; Yuan, Weimin; Wang, Tinggui

    2012-01-01

    Correlations are investigated of the outflow strength of quasars, as measured by the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) of the CIV line (Wang et al. 2011), with intensities and ratios of broad emission lines, based on composite quasar spectra built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that most of the line ratios of other ions to CIV prominently increases with BAI. These behaviors can be well understood in the context of increasing metallicity with BAI. The strength of dominant coolant, CIV line, decreases and weak collisionally excited lines increase with gas metallicity as a result of the competition between different line coolants. Using SiIV+OIV]/CIV as an indicator of gas metallicity, we present, for the first time, a strong correlation between the metallicitiy and the outflow strength of quasars over a wide range of 1.7 to 6.9 times solar abundance. Our result implies that the metallicity plays an important role in the formation of quasar outflows, likely via affecting outflow acceleration. This ...

  8. Cross-Correlation of SDSS DR7 Quasars and DR10 BOSS Galaxies: The Weak Luminosity Dependence of Quasar Clustering at z~0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yue; White, Martin; Zheng, Zheng; Myers, Adam D; Guo, Hong; Kirkpatrick, Jessica A; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Parejko, John K; Ross, Nicholas P; Schlegel, David J; Schneider, Donald P; Streblyanska, Alina; Swanson, Molly E C; Zehavi, Idit; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Ebelke, Garrett; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    We present the measurement of the two-point cross-correlation function (CCF) of 8,198 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) quasars and 349,608 DR10 CMASS galaxies from the Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) at redshift ~0.5 (0.3=0.53 from the CCF measurements. This linear bias corresponds to a characteristic host halo mass of ~4x10^12 M_sun/h, compared to ~10^13 M_sun/h characteristic host halo mass for CMASS galaxies. We divide the quasar sample in luminosity and constrain the luminosity dependence of quasar bias to be db_Q/dlogL=0.20+-0.34 or 0.11+-0.32 (depending on different luminosity divisions) for quasar luminosities -23.5>M_i(z=2)>-25.5, implying a weak luminosity dependence of quasar clustering for the bright end of the quasar population at ~0.5. We compare our measurements with theoretical predictions, Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) models and mock catalogs. These comparisons suggest quasars reside in a broad range of host halos, and the host halo mass distributions...

  9. Feeding quasars with stellar winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasars may be fueled by stellar mass loss from OB stars and red giants: either normal winds and mass loss or X-ray induced stellar winds in luminous quasars with well developed cusps in the stellar density distribution. The X-ray induced mass loss may furnish part of the broad emission-line gas, as well as an accretion supply for a central black hole during transient bursts of quasar luminosity. The importance of a stellar density cusp may couple stellar dynamical processes with gas-radiative processes in the quasar nucleus, accounting for quasar variability. The coupling of X-ray luminosity with mass supply and stellar population may imply evolution of optical-to-X-ray luminosity ratios with redshift. Most importantly, the evolution of the stellar population away from the initial mass function may explain the scarcity of quasars at low redshift

  10. AzTEC 1.1 mm images of 16 radio galaxies at 0.5quasar at z=6.3

    CERN Document Server

    Humphrey, A; Aretxaga, I; Hughes, D H; Yun, M S; Cybulski, R; Wilson, Grant W; Austermann, J; Ezawa, H; Kawabe, R; Kohno, K; Perera, T; Scott, K; Sánchez-Arguelles, D; Gutermuth, R

    2011-01-01

    We present 1.1 mm observations for a sample of 16 powerful radio galaxies at 0.5radio quiet quasar at z=6.3, obtained using the AzTEC bolometer array mounted on the ASTE or the JCMT. This paper more than doubles the number of high-z radio galaxies imaged at millimetre/sub-millimetre wavelengths. We detect probable millimetre-wave counterparts for 11 of the active galaxies. The 6 active galaxies which do not have a probable millimetre counterpart in our images nevertheless have one or more likely associated millimetric source. Thus, we conclude that powerful (radio-loud) active galaxies at high-z are beacons for finding luminous millimetre/sub-millimetre galaxies at high-z. The flux densities of our AzTEC counterparts imply star formation rates ranging from <200 to ~1300 M./yr. In addition, we find that for the radio galaxoes the 1.1 mm flux density is anticorrelated with the largest angular size of the radio source. We also present new Spitzer imaging observations of several active galax...

  11. Paired quasars near NGC 2639: Evidence for quasars in superclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arp found 10 quasars near a low-redshift galaxy 27' SSE of NGC 2639. Six of the quasars can be grouped into three redshift pairs which align across the anonymous galaxy. The large number of quasars and pairings could show an association with the low-redshift galaxy, or alternatively, might be due to superclusters seen along the line of sight. We tested the latter hypothesis by using deep, red-sensitive Lick 3 m prime focus plates to search for a supercluster associated with the z = 0.3 quasar pair. The plates show extended nebulosity associated with the quasar U10 (thetaapprox.7'', or 20 kpc at z = 0.3) and a richness class 1, Bautz-Morgan type III cluster 4' NW of U10. A spectrum of one the cluster's brightest galaxies gives z = 0.34, suggesting that the cluster and quasar are unassociated. We obtained spectra of eight of the quasars and find that (i) two of the quasars have very strong absorption shortward of Lyα, and (ii) two of Arp's redshifts (including one which Arp considered uncertain) are incorrect. Our redshifts break two of the redshift pairs, including the pair at z = 0.3. We use the redshift distribution of optically selected quasars to argue that the third pair has no statistical significance, and conclude that there is no basis for associating the quasars with the low-redshift anonymous galaxy. The disappearance of the redshift pairs vitiates the possibility of testing the paired-quasars-in-superclusters hypothesis in the NGC 2639 field

  12. Quasars and young galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaxies still pose unanswered questions, even at the most rudimentary level. It is still not known what physical processes determine their characteristic masses and radii, nor are the differences between the various types of galaxies satisfactorily explained. The high-energy non-stellar activity in some galactic nuclei seems even more mysterious. But glimmerings of a consensus seem to be emerging, particularly on the relations between quasars and galaxies. An attempt is made to try to summarize these, and also indicate some areas where there seems a genuine hope of progress in the next few years. The timescales of galactic evolution are so long, and the distances of quasars so great, that the subject inevitably involves cosmology. (author)

  13. The complex evolutionary paths of local infrared bright galaxies: a high angular resolution mid-infrared view

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Herrero, A; Roche, P F; Hernan-Caballero, A; Aretxaga, I; Martinez-Paredes, M; Almeida, C Ramos; Pereira-Santaella, M; Diaz-Santos, T; Levenson, N A; Packham, C; Colina, L; Esquej, P; Gonzalez-Martin, O; Ichikawa, K; Imanishi, M; Espinosa, J M Rodriguez; Telesco, C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the evolutionary connection between local IR-bright galaxies ($\\log L_{\\rm IR}\\ge 11.4\\,L_\\odot$) and quasars. We use high angular resolution ($\\sim$ 0.3-0.4 arcsec $\\sim$ few hundred parsecs) $8-13\\,\\mu$m ground-based spectroscopy to disentangle the AGN mid-IR properties from those of star formation. The comparison between the nuclear $11.3\\,\\mu$m PAH feature emission and that measured with Spitzer/IRS indicates that the star formation is extended over a few kpc in the IR-bright galaxies. The AGN contribution to the total IR luminosity of IR-bright galaxies is lower than in quasars. Although the dust distribution is predicted to change as IR-bright galaxies evolve to IR-bright quasars and then to optical quasars, we show that the AGN mid-IR emission of all the quasars in our sample is not significantly different. In contrast, the nuclear emission of IR-bright galaxies with low AGN contributions appears more heavily embedded in dust although there is no clear trend with the interaction stage or...

  14. Quasars and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of colorimetric data a composite spectrum of quasars is established from the visible to the Lyman's limit. Its agreement with the spectrum of the quasar 3C273, obtained directly, confirms the homogeneity of these objects. The compatibility of the following hypotheses: negligible evolution of quasars, Friedmann type model of the universe with cosmological constant, is studied by means of two tests: a non-correlation test adopted to the observation conditions and the construction of diagrams (absolute magnitude, volume) using the K-correction deduced from the composite spectrum. This procedure happens to give relatively well-defined values of the parameters; the central values of the density parameter, the reduced curvature and the reduced cosmological constant are: Ω0=0.053, k0=0.245, lambda-zero=1.19, which correspond to a big bang model, eternally expanding, spatially finite, in which Hubble's parameter H is presently increasing. This model responds well to different cosmological tests: density of matter, diameter of radio sources, age of the universe. Its characteristics suggest various cosmogonic mechanisms, espacially mass formation by growth of empty spherical bubbles

  15. A Companion Galaxy to the Poststarburst Quasar UN J1025-0040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UN J1025-0040 is a quasar at z=0.6344 that shows an extremely bright post starburst population of age ∼400 Myr (Brotherton et al.). Images of UN J1025-0040 show a nearly stellar object 4(arc-seconds sign)2 south-southwest of the quasar. We present imaging and spectroscopy that confirm that this object is a companion galaxy at redshift z=0.6341. We estimate an age of ∼800 Myr for the dominant stellar population in the companion. The companion appears to be interacting with the quasar host galaxy, and this interaction may have triggered both the starburst and the quasar activity in UN J1025-0040. (c) (c) 2000. The American Astronomical Society

  16. The Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Variability Selection and Quasar Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Yèche, Ch; Pâris, I; Petitjean, P; Burtin, E; Dawson, K; McGreer, I; Myers, A D; Rossi, G; Schlegel, D; Schneider, D; Streblyanska, A; Tinker, J

    2015-01-01

    The SDSS-IV/eBOSS has an extensive quasar program that combines several selection methods. Among these, the photometric variability technique provides highly uniform samples, unaffected by the redshift bias of traditional optical-color selections, when $z= 2.7 - 3.5$ quasars cross the stellar locus or when host galaxy light affects quasar colors at $z 2.2$. Both models are constrained to be continuous at $z=2.2$. They present a flattening of the bright-end slope at large redshift. The LEDE model indicates a reduction of the break density with increasing redshift, but the evolution of the break magnitude depends on the parameterization. The models are in excellent accord, predicting quasar counts that agree within 0.3\\% (resp., 1.1\\%) to $g<22.5$ (resp., $g<23$). The models are also in good agreement over the entire redshift range with models from previous studies.

  17. THE MAGELLANIC QUASARS SURVEY. III. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF 758 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI BEHIND THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Magellanic Quasars Survey (MQS) has now increased the number of quasars known behind the Magellanic Clouds by almost an order of magnitude. All survey fields in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and 70% of those in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) have been observed. The targets were selected from the third phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-III) based on their optical variability, mid-IR, and/or X-ray properties. We spectroscopically confirmed 758 quasars (565 in the LMC and 193 in the SMC) behind the clouds, of which 94% (527 in the LMC and 186 in the SMC) are newly identified. The MQS quasars have long-term (12 yr and growing for OGLE), high-cadence light curves, enabling unprecedented variability studies of quasars. The MQS quasars also provide a dense reference grid for measuring both the internal and bulk proper motions of the clouds, and 50 quasars are bright enough (I ∼< 18 mag) for absorption studies of the interstellar/intergalactic medium of the clouds

  18. Data mining for gravitationally lensed quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, Adriano; Kelly, Brandon C.; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.

    2015-04-01

    Gravitationally lensed quasars are brighter than their unlensed counterparts and produce images with distinctive morphological signatures. Past searches and target-selection algorithms, in particular the Sloan Quasar Lens Search (SQLS), have relied on basic morphological criteria, which were applied to samples of bright, spectroscopically confirmed quasars. The SQLS techniques are not sufficient for searching into new surveys (e.g. DES, PS1, LSST), because spectroscopic information is not readily available and the large data volume requires higher purity in target/candidate selection. We carry out a systematic exploration of machine-learning techniques and demonstrate that a two-step strategy can be highly effective. In the first step, we use catalogue-level information (griz+WISE magnitudes, second moments) to pre-select targets, using artificial neural networks. The accepted targets are then inspected with pixel-by-pixel pattern recognition algorithms (gradient-boosted trees), to form a final set of candidates. The results from this procedure can be used to further refine the simpler SQLS algorithms, with a twofold (or threefold) gain in purity and the same (or 80 per cent) completeness at target-selection stage, or a purity of 70 per cent and a completeness of 60 per cent after the candidate-selection step. Simpler photometric searches in griz+WISE based on colour cuts would provide samples with 7 per cent purity or less. Our technique is extremely fast, as a list of candidates can be obtained from a Stage III experiment (e.g. DES catalogue/data base) in a few CPU hours. The techniques are easily extendable to Stage IV experiments like LSST with the addition of time domain information.

  19. Microlensing as a possible probe of event-horizon structure in quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Tomozeiu, Mihai; Rabold, Manuel; Saha, Prasenjit; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    In quasars which are lensed by galaxies, the point-like images sometimes show sharp and uncorrelated brightness variations (microlensing). These brightness changes are associated with the innermost region of the quasar passing through a complicated pattern of caustics produced by the stars in the lensing galaxy. In this paper, we study whether the universal properties of optical caustics could enable extraction of shape information about the central engine of quasars. We present a toy model with a crescent-shaped source crossing a fold caustic. The silhouette of a black hole over an accretion disk tends to produce roughly crescent sources. When a crescent-shaped source crosses a fold caustic, the resulting light curve is noticeably different from the case of a circular luminosity profile or Gaussian source. With good enough monitoring data, the crescent parameters, apart from one degeneracy, can be recovered.

  20. Spectroscopy of quasar candidates from the case low-dispersion survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-slit CCD spectra of 19 stellar objects selected from the Case Low-Dispersion Northern Sky Survey are presented. Thirteen of them are quasars, ranging in redshift from 0.0786 to 2.67, with a median redshift of 2. CSO 203 is a broad absorption-line quasar, and CSO 38 may have substantial associated absorption in the cores of emission lines. Several other objects show some intervening absorption, and all of them are bright enough to make the follow-up studies practical. CSO 251 is a bright (about 15 magnitudes), previously uncataloged quasar. The remaining objects are Galactic stars, five subdwarfs, and one hot white dwarf (CSO 160). 11 refs

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Fourteen Low-Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganguly, Rajib; Brotherton, Michael S.; Arav, Nahum; Heap, Sara R.; Wisotzki, Lutz; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Alloin, Danielle; Behar, Ehud; Canalizo, Gabriela; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Kool, Martijn de; Chambers, Kenneth; Cecil, Gerald; Chatzichristou, Eleni; Everett, John; Gabel, Jack; Gaskell, C. Martin; Galliano, Emmanuel; Green, Richard F.; Hall, Patrick B.; Hines, Dean C.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Kaastra, Jelle S.; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Konigl, Arieh; Korista, Kirk T.; Kriss, Gerard A.; Laor, Ari; Leighly, Karen M.; Mathur, Smita; Ogle, Patrick; Proga, Daniel; Sabra, Bassem; Sivron, Ran; Snedden, Stephanie; Telfer, Randal; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    We present low-resolution ultraviolet spectra of 14 low redshift (z zz 1.4 Large Bright Quasar samples. By design, our objects sample luminosities in between these two surveys, and our four absorbed objects are consistent with the v ~ L^0.62 relation derived by Laor & Brandt (2002). Another quasa...

  2. Investigation of the angular structure of the quasar 3C196 radio emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular dimensions and spectral characteristics are determined for the components of the preferrable brightness distribution model of the quasar 3C196 at decameter and shorter wavelengths. The physical processes are discussed that might be responsible for the extended region of radio emission that has been detected in 3C196 at decameter wavelengths

  3. Simultaneous observations of the quasar 3C 273 with INTEGRAL, XMM-Newton and RXTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Beckmann, V.; Bourban, G.; Chenevez, Jérôme; Chernyakova, M.; Deluit, S.; Favre, P.; Grindlay, J.E.; Lund, Niels; O'Brien, P.; Page, K.; Produit, N.; Turler, M.; Turner, M.J.L.; Staubert, R.; Stuhlinger, M.; Walter, Rasmus; Zdziarski, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    INTEGRAL has observed the bright quasar 3C 273 on 3 epochs in January 2003 as one of the first observations of the open programme. The observation on January 5 was simultaneous with RXTE and XMM-Newton observations. We present here a first analysis of the continuum emission as observed by these 3...

  4. Outshining the quasars at reionization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, D.; Reeves, J.N.; Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Jakobsson, P.; Pedersen, K.; Sollerman, Jesper Olof; Castro Cerón, J. M.; McBreen, S.; Foley, S.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma Rays: Bursts, Galaxies: Intergalactic Medium, Galaxies: Quasars: Absorption Lines, X-Rays: Galaxies, X-Rays: General Udgivelsesdato: 19 January......Gamma Rays: Bursts, Galaxies: Intergalactic Medium, Galaxies: Quasars: Absorption Lines, X-Rays: Galaxies, X-Rays: General Udgivelsesdato: 19 January...

  5. The Extremes of Quasar Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Variability is one of the key observational properties of quasars, and it can be used as a probe of their fueling, physics, and evolution. A new generation of synoptic sky surveys, in combination with the novel data analytics tools, offers unprecedented data sets for the studies of quasars in the time domain. I will illustrate this with examples from the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS), which has an open and growing archive of 500 million light curves, including 350,000 spectroscopically confirmed quasars, with the time baselines ranging from 10 minutes to 10 years. I will discuss a new approach to discover quasars using a combination of variability and mid-IR colors from WISE, which results in a catalog of over a million quasar candidates. I will then discuss quasars with extreme, anomolous light curves, including quasars that have gone through extreme brightening events over the past decade with concordant large changes in their spectroscopic properties. I will also discuss a small subset of quasars with periodic light curves which we interpret as a signature of close (milliparsec scale) supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries.

  6. False periodicities in quasar time-domain surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, S.; Uttley, P.; Markowitz, A. G.; Huppenkothen, D.; Middleton, M. J.; Alston, W. N.; Scargle, J. D.; Farr, W. M.

    2016-09-01

    There have recently been several reports of apparently periodic variations in the light curves of quasars, e.g. PG 1302-102 by Graham et al. Any quasar showing periodic oscillations in brightness would be a strong candidate to be a close binary supermassive black hole and, in turn, a candidate for gravitational wave studies. However, normal quasars - powered by accretion on to a single, supermassive black hole - usually show stochastic variability over a wide range of time-scales. It is therefore important to carefully assess the methods for identifying periodic candidates from among a population dominated by stochastic variability. Using a Bayesian analysis of the light curve of PG 1302-102, we find that a simple stochastic process is preferred over a sinusoidal variation. We then discuss some of the problems one encounters when searching for rare, strictly periodic signals among a large number of irregularly sampled, stochastic time series, and use simulations of quasar light curves to illustrate these points. From a few thousand simulations of steep spectrum (`red noise') stochastic processes, we find many simulations that display few-cycle periodicity like that seen in PG 1302-102. We emphasize the importance of calibrating the false positive rate when the number of targets in a search is very large.

  7. Optical spectral properties of active galactic nuclei and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four separate investigations dealing with the properties of optical continuum and emission-lines of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars are presented. Multichannel scans of 3CR radio galaxies are decomposed by using a two-component model-an elliptical galaxy and a power-law nonthermal component. It is found that there is a strong correlation between the luminosity of the power-law component and the strength of the Balmer emission-lines. In most cases, by extrapolating to the Lyman continuum, the power-law models derived provide enough ionizing radiation to account for the Balmer line strengths. Extending the study of radio galaxies to include Seyfert galaxies and quasars, it is found that there is a strong continuity between broad-line AGN's and quasars in terms of similarities in the correlations between line luminosities and nonthermal continuum luminosity. Next, a study of the variability of absolute optical energy distribution and emission-lines of the N-galaxies 3C382 and 3C390.3 is made. Lastly, a preliminary study of surface photometry of Markarian Seyfert galaxies are presented. It is found that the properties of the underlying galaxies such as scale-length and surface brightness of the disk, color, and total brightness, do not depart systematically from those of luminous normal spiral galaxies

  8. Quasars Probing Quasars VI. Excess HI Absorption Within One Proper Mpc of z~2 Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Prochaska, J Xavier; Lee, Khee-Gan; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Bovy, Jo; Djorgovski, S G; Ellison, Sara L; Lau, Marie Wingyee; Martin, Crystal L; Myers, Adam; Rubin, Kate H R; Simcoe, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    With close pairs of quasars at different redshifts, a background quasar sightline can be used to study a foreground quasar's environment in absorption. We use a sample of 650 projected quasar pairs to study the HI Lya absorption transverse to luminous, z~2 quasars at proper separations of 30kpc 17.3) at separations R<200kpc, which decreases to ~20% at R~1Mpc, but still represents a significant excess over the cosmic average. This excess of optically thick absorption can be described by a quasar-absorber cross-correlation function xi_QA(r) = (r/r_0)^gamma with a large correlation length r_0 = 12.5+2.7-1.4 Mpc/h (comoving) and gamma = 1.68+0.14-0.30. The HI absorption measured around quasars exceeds that of any previously studied population, consistent with quasars being hosted by massive dark matter halos Mhalo~10^12.5 Msun at z~2.5. The environments of these massive halos are highly biased towards producing optically thick gas, and may even dominate the cosmic abundance of Lyman limit systems and hence th...

  9. Oscillations of Quasars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVittie, G C

    1964-10-01

    Rotation in addition to free gravitational motion can produce oscillations in a large spherical mass of gas. The theory may provide an explanation of the variations of brightness in such objects as 3C273. PMID:17743709

  10. An Accretion Model for the Growth of the Central Black Holes Associated with Ionization Instability in Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Cheng, K. S.; Zhang, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    A possible accretion model associated with the ionization instability of quasar disks is proposed to address the growth of the central black hole (BH) harbored in the host galaxy. The evolution of quasars in cosmic time is assumed to change from a highly active state to a quiescent state triggered by the S-shaped ionization instability of the quasar accretion disk. For a given external mass transfer rate supplied by the quasar host galaxy, ionization instability can modify the accretion rate in the disk and separate the accretion flows of the disk into three different phases, like an S-shape. We suggest that the bright quasars observed today are those quasars with disks in the upper branch of the S-shaped instability, and the faint or 'dormant' quasars are simply these systems in the lower branch. The middle branch is the transition state, which is unstable. We assume the quasar disk evolves according to the advection-dominated inflow-outflow solution (ADIOS) configuration in the stable lower branch of the S-shaped instability, and the Eddington accretion rate is used to constrain the accretion rate in the highly active phase. The mass ratio between a BH and its host galactic bulge is a natural consequence of an ADIOS. Our model also demonstrates that a seed BH approx. 2 x 10(exp 6) solar masses similar to those found in spiral galaxies today is needed to produce a BH with a final mass of approx. 2 x 10(exp 8) solar masses.

  11. Dusty Quasars at High Redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Weedman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A population of quasars at z ~ 2 is determined based on dust luminosities vLv(7.8 um) that includes unobscured, partially obscured, and obscured quasars. Quasars are classified by the ratio vLv(0.25 um)/vLv(7.8 um) = UV/IR, assumed to measure obscuration of UV luminosity by the dust which produces IR luminosity. Quasar counts at rest frame 7.8 um are determined for quasars in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey using 24 um sources with optical redshifts from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES) or infrared redshifts from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. Spectral energy distributions are extended to far infrared wavelengths using observations from the Herschel Space Observatory Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE), and new SPIRE photometry is presented for 77 high redshift quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. It is found that unobscured and obscured quasars have similar space densities at rest frame 7.8 um, but the ratio Lv(100 um)/Lv(7.8 um) is about three times high...

  12. THE FAINT END OF THE QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT z ∼ 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the quasar luminosity function (QLF) is one of the basic cosmological measures providing insight into structure formation and mass assembly in the universe. We have conducted a spectroscopic survey to find faint quasars (-26.0 1450 2. Thirty candidates have R ≤ 23 mag. We conducted spectroscopic follow-up for 28 of our candidates and found 23 QSOs, 21 of which are reported here for the first time, in the 3.74 β) gives a faint-end slope β = -1.6 ± 0.2. If we consider our larger, but highly incomplete sample going 1 mag fainter, we measure a steeper faint-end slope -2 < β < -2.5. In all cases, we consistently find faint-end slopes that are steeper than expected based on measurements at z ∼ 3. We combine our sample with bright quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to derive parameters for a double-power-law LF. Our best fit finds a bright-end slope, α = -2.4 ± 0.2, and faint-end slope, β = -2.3 ± 0.2, without a well-constrained break luminosity. This is effectively a single power law, with β = -2.7 ± 0.1. We use these results to place limits on the amount of ultraviolet radiation produced by quasars and find that quasars are able to ionize the intergalactic medium at these redshifts.

  13. VLA and VLBI observations of core-dominated quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High dynamic range VLA observations of the total intensity and linear polarization of 24 powerful, core dominated quasars have been made at 5 GHz, as well as the first millisecond linear polarization observations of 3C 273. For ten quasars the resolution of the VLA was sufficient to reveal details of the compact extended emission surrounding the bright cores. The former all exhibit one sided jets, and most show evidence of diffuse halos. The luminosity of the extended emission is sufficient for those to be Fanaroff-Riley Class II radio sources. This interpretation is confirmed by the linear polarization structure of the jets and terminal hotspots. If these quasars are similar to powerful lobe dominated sources but are oriented with jet axes close to the line of sight, the large degrees of polarization observed in the hotspots suggest that they are travelling at speeds υ > 0.5c. The superluminal quasar 3C 345 has been imaged with a variety of resolutions. In spite of the bending on the millisecond scale, the author finds that the jet of 3C 345 is very straight for the first 2 and then has two knots which show an abrupt shift in azimuth. The inferred magnetic field in the jet is offset ∼30 degree from a perpendicular orientation with respect to the jet axis. This quasar also appears to have a faint counter jet, with the jet/counter jet luminosity ratio suggesting jet speeds υ > 0.56c. There is also an asymmetric diffuse halo. Milliarsecond polarization observations of 3C 273 show that the core (component D) is very weakly polarized. Appreciable polarized flux was detected from five of the superluminal components in the jet, with the fractional polarization increasing with distance from D

  14. 'Round the Clock Observations of the Q0957+561 A,B Gravitationally Lensed Quasar

    CERN Document Server

    Colley, W N; Abajas, C; Alcalde, D; Aslan, Z; Barrena, R; Dudinov, V; Khamitov, I; Kjernsmo, K; Lee, H J; Lee, J; Lee, M G; Licandro, J; Maoz, D; Mediavilla, E; Motta, V; Muñoz, J; Oscoz, A; Serra-Ricart, M; Sinelnikov, I; Stabell, R; Teuber, J; Zheleznyak, A T; Colley, Wesley N.; Schild, Rudolph E.; Abajas, Cristina; Alcalde, David; Aslan, Zeki; Barrena, Rafael; Dudinov, Vladimir; Khamitov, Irek; Kjernsmo, Kjetil; Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Jonghwan; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Licandro, Javier; Maoz, Dan; Mediavilla, Evencio; Motta, Veronica; Munoz, Jose; Oscoz, Alex; Serra-Ricart, Miquel; Sinelnikov, Igor; Stabell, Rolf; Teuber, Jan; Zheleznyak, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    An observing campaign with 10 participating observatories has undertaken to monitor the optical brightness of the Q0957 gravitationally lensed quasar for 10 consecutive nights in January 2000. The resulting A image brightness curve has significant brightness fluctuations and makes a photometric prediction for the B image light curve for a second campaign planned for 12-21 March 2001. The ultimate purpose is to determine the gravitational lens time delay to a fraction of an hour, and to seek evidence for rapid microlensing.

  15. Quasars Probing Quasars. VI. Excess H I Absorption within One Proper Mpc of z ~ 2 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, J. Xavier; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Lee, Khee-Gan; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Bovy, Jo; Djorgovski, S. G.; Ellison, Sara L.; Lau, Marie Wingyee; Martin, Crystal L.; Myers, Adam; Rubin, Kate H. R.; Simcoe, Robert A.

    2013-10-01

    With close pairs of quasars at different redshifts, a background quasar sightline can be used to study a foreground quasar's environment in absorption. We use a sample of 650 projected quasar pairs to study the H I Lyα absorption transverse to luminous, z ~ 2 quasars at proper separations of 30 kpc line-of-sight, regions transverse to quasars exhibit enhanced H I Lyα absorption and a larger variance than the ambient intergalactic medium, with increasing absorption and variance toward smaller scales. Analysis of composite spectra reveals excess absorption characterized by a Lyα equivalent width profile W = 2.3 Å (R /100 kpc)-0.46. We also observe a high (sime 60%) covering factor of strong, optically thick H I absorbers (H I column N_{H\\,\\scriptsize{I}}>10^{17.3}\\, cm^{-2}) at separations R dark matter halos M halo ≈ 1012.5 M ⊙ at z ~ 2.5. The environments of these massive halos are highly biased toward producing optically thick gas, and may even dominate the cosmic abundance of Lyman limit systems and hence the intergalactic opacity to ionizing photons at z ~ 2.5. The anisotropic absorption around quasars implies the transverse direction is much less likely to be illuminated by ionizing radiation than the line-of-sight.

  16. On the nature of the "radio quiet" black hole binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Soleri, Paolo; Fender, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The coupling between accretion processes and ejection mechanisms in accreting black holes in binary systems can be investigated by empirical relations between the X-ray/radio and X-ray/optical-infrared luminosities. These correlations are valid over several orders of magnitude and were initially thought to be universal. However, recently, many black hole binaries have been found to produce jets that, given certain accretion-powered luminosities, are fainter than expected from the earlier corr...

  17. Radio quiet, please! - protecting radio astronomy from interference

    CERN Document Server

    Van Driel, W

    2009-01-01

    The radio spectrum is a finite and increasingly precious resource for astronomical research, as well as for other spectrum users. Keeping the frequency bands used for radio astronomy as free as possible of unwanted Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is crucial. The aim of spectrum management, one of the tools used towards achieving this goal, includes setting regulatory limits on RFI levels emitted by other spectrum users into the radio astronomy frequency bands. This involves discussions with regulatory bodies and other spectrum users at several levels - national, regional and worldwide. The global framework for spectrum management is set by the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union, which has defined that interference is detrimental to radio astronomy if it increases the uncertainty of a measurement by 10%. The Radio Regulations are revised every three to four years, a process in which four organisations representing the interests of the radio astronomical community in matters of sp...

  18. Cygnus X-2 in a radio quiet state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, A.; Bach, U.; Spencer, R.; Kadler, M.; Church, M.; Balucinska-Church, M.; Wilms, J.; Hanke, M.; Zola, S.; Schulz, N.

    2009-05-01

    The neutron star X-ray binary Cygnus X-2 was observed using the e- EVN (European VLBI Network) on May 12/13th 2009 between 23:00-13:00 UT at 5 GHz. The radio telescopes participating with the e-EVN at 5 GHz were Effelsberg, Medicina, Onsala 25m, Torun, Sheshan, Yebes, Jodrell Bank MKII, Cambridge and Knockin. A maximum data rate of 1024 Mbps were achieved from four telescopes (Effelsberg, Onsala, Torun and Jodrell Bank MKII).

  19. An Accretion Model for the Growth of Black Hole in Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ye; Cheng, K. S.; Zhang, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    A possible accretion model associated with the ionization instability of quasar disks is proposed to address the growth of the central black hole harbored in the host galaxy. The evolution of quasars in cosmic time is assumed to change from a highly active state to a quiescent state triggered by the S-shaped ionization instability of the quasar accretion disk. For a given external mass transfer rate ionization instability can modify accretion rate in the disk and separates the accretion flows of the disk into three different phases like a S-shape. We suggest that the bright quasars observed today are those quasars with disks in the upper branch of S-shaped instability and the dormant quasars are the system in the lower branch. The disk is assumed to evolve as ADIOS configuration in the lower branch. The mass ratio between black hole and its host galactic bulge is a nature consequence of ADIOS. Our model also demonstrates that a seed black hole 2 x 10(exp 6) solar masses similar to those found in spiral galaxies today is needed to produce a black hole with a final mass 2 x 10(exp 8) solar masses.

  20. Discovery of eight z ~ 6 quasars from Pan-STARRS1

    CERN Document Server

    Bañados, E; Morganson, E; Decarli, R; Walter, F; Chambers, K C; Rix, H-W; Farina, E P; Fan, X; Jiang, L; McGreer, I; De Rosa, G; Simcoe, R; Weiß, A; Price, P A; Morgan, J S; Burgett, W S; Greiner, J; Kaiser, N; Kudritzki, R -P; Magnier, E A; Metcalfe, N; Stubbs, C W; Sweeney, W; Tonry, J L; Wainscoat, R J; Waters, C

    2014-01-01

    High-redshift quasars are currently the only probes of the growth of supermassive black holes and potential tracers of structure evolution at early cosmic time. Here we present our candidate selection criteria from the Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System 1 and follow-up strategy to discover quasars in the redshift range 5.75.7 by more than 10%. We additionally recovered 18 previously known quasars. The eight quasars presented here span a large range of luminosities (-27.3 < M_{1450} < -25.4; 19.6 < z_ps1 < 21.2) and are remarkably heterogeneous in their spectral features: half of them show bright emission lines whereas the other half show a weak or no Ly$\\alpha$ emission line (25% with rest-frame equivalent width of the Ly$\\alpha$ + Nv line lower than 15{\\AA}). We find a larger fraction of weak-line emission quasars than in lower redshift studies. This may imply that the weak-line quasar population at the highest redshifts could be more abundant than previously thought. However,...

  1. Cosmic gamma rays from quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffuse gamma radiation consists of the galactic and extragalactic components. The latter component is of special interest on account of its cosmological significance. Following the method recently proposed to estimate the gamma ray flux from galaxy clusters, and the detection of gamma rays from the quasars 3C273, the data base of the SAS II satellite was used to estimate the contribution from quasars to the extragalactic gamma ray flux. It is shown that quasars as a whole are significant gamma ray contributors, the average gamma ray flux per quasar in the energy range 35 MeV to 100 Mev being (1.3 + or - 0.9) x .00001 cm(-2)s(-1)sr(-1)

  2. Cosmic gamma rays from quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, M. M.; Young, E. C. M.

    1985-01-01

    The diffuse gamma radiation consists of the galactic and extragalactic components. The latter component is of special interest on account of its cosmological significance. Following the method recently proposed to estimate the gamma ray flux from galaxy clusters, and the detection of gamma rays from the quasars 3C273, the data base of the SAS II satellite was used to estimate the contribution from quasars to the extragalactic gamma ray flux. It is shown that quasars as a whole are significant gamma ray contributors, the average gamma ray flux per quasar in the energy range 35 MeV to 100 Mev being (1.3 + or - 0.9) x .00001 cm(-2)s(-1)sr(-1).

  3. HOW TO IDENTIFY AND SEPARATE BRIGHT GALAXY CLUSTERS FROM THE LOW-FREQUENCY RADIO SKY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we simulate the 50-200 MHz radio sky that is constrained in the field of view (50 radius) of the 21 Centimeter Array (21CMA), a low-frequency radio interferometric array constructed in the remote area of Xinjiang, China, by carrying out Monte Carlo simulations to model the strong contaminating foreground of the redshifted cosmological reionization signals, including emissions from our Galaxy, galaxy clusters, and extragalactic discrete sources (i.e., star-forming galaxies, radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and radio-loud AGNs). As an improvement over previous works, we consider in detail not only random variations of morphological and spectroscopic parameters within the ranges allowed by multi-band observations, but also the evolution of radio halos in galaxy clusters, assuming that relativistic electrons are re-accelerated in the intracluster medium (ICM) in merger events and lose energy via both synchrotron emission and inverse Compton scattering with cosmic microwave background photons. By introducing a new approach designed on the basis of independent component analysis and wavelet detection algorithm, we prove that, with a cumulative observation of one month with the 21CMA array, about 80% of galaxy clusters (37 out of 48 clusters assuming a mean magnetic field of B = 2 μG in the ICM, or 15 out of 18 clusters assuming B = 0.2 μG) with central brightness temperatures of >10 K at 65 MHz can be safely identified and separated from the overwhelmingly bright foreground. By examining the brightness temperature images and spectra extracted from these identified clusters, we find that the morphological and spectroscopic distortions are extremely small compared to the input simulated clusters, and the reduced χ2 of brightness temperature profiles and spectra are controlled to be ∼<0.5 and ∼<1.3, respectively. These results robustly indicate that in the near future a sample of dozens of bright galaxy clusters will be disentangled from the

  4. Structure of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275 and the quasar 3C 345 nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveenko, L.I.; Paulini-Tos, I.K.; Kostenko, V.I.; Romni, Dzh.D.; Bot, L.B.

    1985-06-01

    Structure of the quasar 3C 345 and the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275 has been studied with a global radio interference network at 18 cm wavelength. The quasar has a nucleus and a compact feature, both sizing to approximately 0.3 mas, and a fine jet, the brightness of which decreases with the distance from the nucleus, its position angle changing too. The central compact feature of NGC 1275, which has been observed at shorter wavelengths, is absent at 18 cm. This is likely due to reabsorption and absorption of synchrotron emission by the ionized gas surrounding the nucleus.

  5. Structure of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275 and the quasar 3C 345 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure of the quasar 3C 345 and the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275 has been studied with a global radio interference network at 18 cm wavelength. Quasar has a nucleus and a compact feature, both sizing to approximately 0.3 mas, and a fine jet, the brightness of which decreases with the distance from the nucleus, its position angle changing too. The central compact feature of NGC 1275, which has been observed at shorter wavelengths, is absent at 18 cm. This is likely due to reabsorption and absorption of synchrotron emission by the ionized gas surrounding the nucleus

  6. A Structure for Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Elvis, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple, empirically derived, unifying structure for the inner regions of quasars. This structure is constructed to explain the broad absorption line (BAL) regions, the narrow `associated' ultraviolet and X-ray warm absorbers (NALs); and is also found to explain the broad emission line regions (BELR), and several scattering features, including a substantial fraction of the broad X-ray Iron-K emission line, and the bi-conical extended narrow emission line region (ENLR) structures seen on large kiloparsec scales in Seyfert images. Small extensions of the model to allow luminosity dependent changes in the structure may explain the UV and X-ray Baldwin effects and the greater prevalence of obscuration in low luminosity AGN.

  7. The radio jet of the quasar 3C273

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present here new MERLIN observations of the brightness and polarization of the radio jet of the quasar 3C273 at a resolution of 0.35 arc s. One of the most marked features of the map, the high polarization found within the head of the source, is hard to explain. If the motion is indeed fast, then relativistic aberration should be taken into account; it is suggested that this leads to a natural explanation of the high observed polarization. (author)

  8. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  9. Quasar ionization of Lyman-alpha clouds - the proximity effect, a probe of the ultraviolet background at high redshift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of lines in the Ly-alpha forests in quasar spectra is examined using spectral data from 19 quasars with emission lines redshifts z sub Q ranging from 1.7 to 3.8. The number density of Ly-alpha lines generally increases with resdhift z, but there exists a countervailing trend of diminishing number density within individual quasar spectra as z tends to z sub Q. Evidence is presented that this countervailing trend is due to enhanced ionization of Ly-alpha clouds by the bright nearby quasars in whose spectra they are observed. It is suggested that this proximity effect should be used as a powerful tool to measure locally the ionizing flux emitted by high-redshift objects. 44 references

  10. How the BAL quasars are quiet

    OpenAIRE

    Moret-Bailly, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    All properties of the quasars known by the author (quietness of the BAL quasars, Lyman forest, iron in the high-z quasars...) are explained supposing that the kernel of the quasar is surrounded by a halo containing an accretion disk and magnetic satellites (no dark matter or fast jet, no variation of the fine structure constant, no strange source of iron...). The key is taking into account the coherent light-matter interactions.

  11. A SIMPLE MODEL FOR QUASAR DEMOGRAPHICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple model for the relationship between quasars, galaxies, and dark matter halos from 0.5 BH-M gal relation and the quasar duty cycle; these parameters are fit to the observed quasar luminosity function (LF) over the interval 0.5 < z < 6. This simple model provides an excellent fit to the LF at all epochs and also successfully predicts the observed projected two-point correlation of quasars from 0.5 < z < 2.5. It is significant that a single quasar duty cycle at each redshift is capable of reproducing the extant observations. The data are therefore consistent with a scenario wherein quasars are equally likely to exist in galaxies, and therefore dark matter halos, over a wide range in masses. The knee in the quasar LF is a reflection of the knee in the stellar-mass-halo-mass relation. Future constraints on the quasar LF and quasar clustering at high redshift will provide strong constraints on the model. In the model, the autocorrelation function of quasars becomes a strong function of luminosity only at the very highest luminosities and will be difficult to observe because such quasars are so rare. Cross-correlation techniques may provide useful constraints on the bias of such rare objects. The simplicity of the model allows for rapid generation of quasar mock catalogs from N-body simulations that match the observed LF and clustering to high redshift.

  12. Cosmic evolution of Quasar radio structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, J. B.; Neff, S. G.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the results of a survey of Quasar radio structures over redshifts from 0.6 to 3.7. There are clear evolutionary trends in size and luminosity, which suggest that the duty cycle of individual Quasars has increased over cosmic time. This affects source count statistics and gives clues on the evolution of Quasar environments.

  13. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... size: A A Contrast En Español Donate BrightFocus Foundation Alzheimer’s Disease Research Macular Degeneration Research National Glaucoma ... Bovenkamp, Ph.D., Scientific Program Officer for BrightFocus Foundation, about the basic science and therapeutic research the ...

  14. Radio structures of a complete sample of quasars from the 4C catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio observations are reported for 57 quasars. Included are all of the quasars of Schmidt's 1974 complete sample from the 4C catalog. The observations were made with the Green Bank interferometer at 2.7 and 8.1 GHz, with baselines ranging from 300 m to 35 km. Model brightness distributions are presented, consisting of one to four elliptical Gaussian components. Angular sizes range from <0.2 to 77 arcsec. Of 38 well-resolved sources 21 contain a compact central component coincident with the optical object. The quasar 4C32. 69=2349+328 appears to exhibit a jetlike structure connecting the central component to one of the outer lobes

  15. The time-delay of the gravitationally lensed double quasar UM 673

    CERN Document Server

    Akhunov, T A; Burkhonov, O; Gaynullina, E R; Gottlöber, S; Mirtadjieva, K; Nuritdinov, S N; Tadjibaev, I; Wambsganss, J; Wisotzki, L; Bruevich, V V; Gusev, A S; Sergeyev, A; Smirnov, G

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of a monitoring campaign of the gravitational double quasar UM 673 at Maydanak observatory from August 2001 to December 2006. We obtained light curves in the V-filter (101 nights) and the R-filter (208 nights), split up into five observing seasons. We find brightness variations and V-R colour variations of the quasar on time scales of several years. The observing conditions at the telescope limited individual observing seasons to less than 150 days, which makes the estimation of the time-delay between the two lensed images by light curve correlation difficult. To overcome this problem we introduce a novel technique to measure the time-delay from the variation of the V-R colour of the quasar, and use this to obtain a time-delay Delta t=(106.8 days\\pm 17.0) days at 68 per cent confidence (image A leading).

  16. Vanishing Absorption and Blueshifted Emission in FeLoBAL Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Rafiee, Alireza; Hall, Patrick B; Galati, Natalee; Rogerson, Jesse; Ameri, Abtin

    2016-01-01

    We study the dramatic decrease in iron absorption strength in the iron low-ionization broad absorption line quasar SDSS J084133.15+200525.8. We report on the continued weakening of absorption in the prototype of this class of variable broad absorption line quasar, FBQS J140806.2+305448. We also report a third example of this class, SDSS J123103.70+392903.6; unlike the other two examples, it has undergone an increase in observed continuum brightness (at 3000~\\AA\\ rest-frame) as well as a decrease in iron absorption strength. These changes could be caused by absorber transverse motion or by ionization variability. We note that the \\mgii\\ and UV \\feii\\ lines in several FeLoBAL quasars are blueshifted by thousands of \\kms\\ relative to the \\Hb\\ emission line peak. We suggest that such emission arises in the outflowing winds normally seen only in absorption.

  17. The exponential law for superluminal expansion of quasar 3C273

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioastronomical technique of VLBI achieves an angular resolution better than 1 marcs, equivalent to a physical resolution of the order of light-years. In even the most distant galaxies such objects can be easily detected. In four extreme cases, three quasars (3C273, 3C279 and 3C345) and one seyfert galaxy (3C120) have been seen to expand with an apparent speed more than twice the speed of light. The evidence for such 'superluminal' expansion has been based on rather limited data, and the interpretation has been uncertain; but the recent development of the VLBI technique of hybrid mapping allows us to map the radio brightness distribution to show the expansion directly and unambiguously. This article uses the data of the quasar 3C273 presented earlier and presents a formula for the observation of superluminal expansion velocity of quasar 3C273. (Auth.)

  18. A Population of Short-Period Variable Quasars from PTF as Supermassive Black Hole Binary Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Charisi, M; Haiman, Z; Price-Whelan, A M; Graham, M J; Bellm, E C; Laher, R R; Marka, S

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) at sub-parsec separations should be common in galactic nuclei, as a result of frequent galaxy mergers. Hydrodynamical simulations of circumbinary discs predict strong periodic modulation of the mass accretion rate on time-scales comparable to the orbital period of the binary. As a result, SMBHBs may be recognized by the periodic modulation of their brightness. We conducted a statistical search for periodic variability in a sample of 35,383 spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the photometric database of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We analysed Lomb-Scargle periodograms and assessed the significance of our findings by modeling each individual quasar's variability as a damped random walk (DRW). We identified 50 quasars with significant periodicity beyond the DRW model, typically with short periods of a few hundred days. We find 33 of these to remain significant after a re-analysis of their periodograms including additional optical data from the intermediate-PT...

  19. The relative growth of Optical and Radio Quasars in SDSS

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar, Francesco; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Dai, Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    We cross-correlate the SDSS DR3 quasar sample with FIRST and the Vestergaard et al. black hole (BH) mass sample to compare the mean accretion histories of optical and radio quasars. We find significant statistical evidence that radio quasars have a higher mean Eddington ratio Lambda at z > 2 with respect to optical quasars, while the situation is clearly reverse at z 2 radio quasars happen to be less massive than optical quasars; however, as redshift decreases radio quasars appear...

  20. Searches for Quasars at z > 5

    OpenAIRE

    Osmer, Patrick S.

    2000-01-01

    Quasars continue to be the most luminous objects known in the universe but are now rivaled by galaxies for having the largest redshifts. I review current techniques for finding quasars at z > 5 and the status of current optical surveys. I compare the spectra of known quasars with z \\approx 5 with the spectra of some recently discovered galaxies with z > 5 to see what we may expect in the future from surveys for high redshift quasars and galaxies. The prominent emission lines of quasars should...

  1. The Small-Scale Environment of Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Serber, Will; Bahcall, Neta; Menard, Brice; Richards, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Where do quasars reside? Are quasars located in environments similar to those of typical L* galaxies, and, if not, how do they differ? An answer to this question will help shed light on the triggering process of quasar activity. We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to study the environment of quasars and compare it directly with the environment of galaxies. We find that quasars (M_i < -22, z < 0.4) are located in higher local overdensity regions than are typical L* galaxies. The enhanced envir...

  2. Superconducting cosmic string evolution of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quasars may have been undergoing two evolutionary processes after they formed. As a result of the string loops shrinking at the first stage, the luminosities of the quasars increased gradually up to their maximum value at the redshift z ∼ 2, after then the second evolutionary stage began and the luminosity reduced. This result can be fitted by luminosity counting of quasars. Observable limit of quasars can be obtained naturally. Many phenomena, such as radiomorphology, density distribution between fuzz structure and broad line region and rotational curve may also originate from the first evolutionary stage of quasars as cosmic string. (author). 10 refs

  3. Sunspot Bright Points

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhary, Debi Prasad

    2010-01-01

    We used the flux calibrated images through the Broad Band Filter Imager and Stokes Polarimeter data obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope onboard the Hinode spacecraft to study the properties of bright points in and around the sunspots. The well isolated bright points were selected and classified as umbral dot, peripheral umbral dot, penumbral grains and G-band bright point depending on their location. Most of the bright points are smaller than about 150 km. The larger points are mostly associated with the penumbral features. The bright points are not uniformly distributed over the umbra but preferentially located around the penumbral boundary and in the fast decaying parts of umbra. The color temperature of the bright points, derived using the continuum irradiance, are in the range of 4600 K to 6600 K with cooler ones located in the umbra. The temperature increases as a function of distance from the center to outside. The G-band, CN-band and CaII H flux of the bright points as a function of their blue ba...

  4. Quasar Structure and Cosmological Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Elvis, M

    2006-01-01

    Feedback from quasars and AGNs is being invoked frequently in several cosmological settings. Currently, order of magnitude, or more, uncertainties in the structure of both the wind and the 'obscuring torus' make predictions highly uncertain. To make testable models of this 'cosmological feedback' it is essential to understand the detailed structure of AGNs sufficiently well to predict their properties for the whole quasar population, at all redshifts. Progress in both areas is rapid, and I describe the near-term prospects for reducing these uncertainties for 'slow' (non-relativistic) AGN winds and the obscuring torus.

  5. Direct determination of quasar redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    De Bruijne, J H J; Perryman, M; Peacock, A; Favata, F; Rando, N; Martin, D; Verhoeve, P; Christlieb, N; Bruijne, Jos de; Reynolds, Alastair P; Perryman, Michael; Peacock, Anthony; Favata, Fabio; Rando, Nicola; Martin, Didier; Verhoeve, Peter; Christlieb, Norbert

    2001-01-01

    We present observations of 11 quasars, selected in the range z = 2.2-4.1, obtained with ESA's Superconducting Tunnel Junction (STJ) camera on the WHT. Using a single template quasar spectrum, we show that we can determine the redshifts of these objects to about 1%. A follow-up spectroscopic observation of one QSO for which our best-fit redshift (z = 2.976) differs significantly from the tentative literature value (z ~ 2.30) confirms that the latter was incorrect.

  6. On the Cosmological Evolution of the Luminosity Function and the Accretion Rate of Quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a class of models for the redshift evolution (between 0(less-or-similar sign)z(less-or-similar sign)4) of the observed optical and X-ray quasar luminosity functions (LFs), with the following assumptions: (1) the mass function of dark matter halos follows the Press-Schechter theory, (2) the black hole (BH) mass scales linearly with the halo mass, (3) quasars have a constant universal lifetime, and (4) a thin accretion disk provides the optical luminosity of quasars, while the X-ray/optical flux ratio is calibrated from a sample of observed quasars. The mass accretion rate, M, onto quasar BHs is a free parameter of the models, which we constrain using the observed LFs. The accretion rate M inferred from either the optical or X-ray data under these assumptions generally decreases as a function of cosmic time from z≅4 to z≅0. We find that a comparable accretion rate is inferred from the X-ray and optical LF only if the X-ray/optical flux ratio decreases with BH mass. Near z≅0, M drops to substantially sub-Eddington values at which advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) exist. Such a decline of M, possibly followed by a transition to radiatively inefficient ADAFs, could explain both the absence of bright quasars in the local universe and the faintness of accreting BHs at the centers of nearby galaxies. We argue that a decline of the accretion rate of the quasar population is indeed expected in cosmological structure formation models. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society

  7. Stars, Galaxies and Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Das Gupta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief introduction to the basics of stars, galaxies and Quasi-stellar objects (QSOs. In stars, the central pressure and temperature must be high in order to halt the stellar gravitational collapse. High temperature leads to thermonuclear fusion in the stellar core, releasing thereby enormous amount of nuclear energy, making the star shine brilliantly. On the other hand, the QSOs are very bright nuclei lying in the centres of some galaxies. Many of these active galactic nuclei, which appear star-like when observed through a telescope and  whose power output are more than 1011 times that of the Sun, exhibit rapid time variability in their X-ray emissions.  Rapid variability along with the existence of a maximum speed limit, c, provide a strong argument in favour of a compact central engine model for QSOs in which a thick disc of hot gas going around a supermassive blackhole is what makes a QSO appear like a bright point source. Hence, unlike stars, QSOs are powered by gravitational potential energy.

  8. The LAMOST Survey of Background Quasars in the Vicinity of the Andromeda and Triangulum Galaxies -- II. Results from the Commissioning Observations and the Pilot Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Huo, Zhi-Ying; Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Huang, Yang; Zhang, Hui-Hua; Yan, Lin; Bai, Zhong-Rui; Chen, Jian-Jun; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Chu, Jia-Ru; Chu, Yao-Quan; Cui, Xiang-Qun; Du, Bing; Hou, Yong-Hui; Hu, Hong-Zhuan; Hu, Zhong-Wen; Jia, Lei; Jiang, Fang-Hua; Lei, Ya-Juan; Li, Ai-Hua; Li, Guang-Wei; Li, Guo-Ping; Li, Jian; Li, Xin-Nan; Li, Yan; Li, Ye-Ping; Liu, Gen-Rong; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Lu, Qi-Shuai; Luo, A-Li; Luo, Yu; Men, Li; Ni, Ji-Jun; Qi, Yong-Jun; Qi, Zhao-Xiang; Shi, Jian-Rong; Shi, Huo-Ming; Sun, Shi-Wei; Tang, Zheng-Hong; Tian, Yuan; Tu, Liang-Ping; Wang, Dan; Wang, Feng-Fei; Wang, Gang; Wang, Jia-Ning; Wang, Lei; Wang, Shu-Qing; Wang, You; Wang, Yue-Fei; Wei, Ming-Zhi; Wu, Yue; Xue, Xiang-Xiang; Yao, Zheng-Qiu; Yu, Yong; Yuan, Hui; Zhai, Chao; Zhang, En-Peng; Zhang, Hao-Tong; Zhang, Jian-Nan; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Zhen-Chao; Zhao, Gang; Zhao, Ming; Zhao, Yong-Heng; Zhou, Fang; Zhou, Xin-Lin; Zhu, Yong-Tian; Zou, Si-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    We present new quasars discovered in the vicinity of the Andromeda and Triangulum galaxies with the LAMOST during the 2010 and 2011 observational seasons. Quasar candidates are selected based on the available SDSS, KPNO 4 m telescope, XSTPS optical, and WISE near infrared photometric data. We present 509 new quasars discovered in a stripe of ~135 sq. deg from M31 to M33 along the Giant Stellar Stream in the 2011 pilot survey datasets, and also 17 new quasars discovered in an area of ~100 sq. deg that covers the central region and the southeastern halo of M31 in the 2010 commissioning datasets. These 526 new quasars have i magnitudes ranging from 15.5 to 20.0, redshifts from 0.1 to 3.2. They represent a significant increase of the number of identified quasars in the vicinity of M31 and M33. There are now 26, 62 and 139 known quasars in this region of the sky with i magnitudes brighter than 17.0, 17.5 and 18.0 respectively, of which 5, 20 and 75 are newly-discovered. These bright quasars provide an invaluable c...

  9. FAR-INFRARED AND MOLECULAR CO EMISSION FROM THE HOST GALAXIES OF FAINT QUASARS AT z ∼ 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new millimeter and radio observations of nine z ∼ 6 quasars discovered in deep optical and near-infrared surveys. We observed the 250 GHz continuum in eight of the nine objects and detected three of them. New 1.4 GHz radio continuum data have been obtained for four sources, and one has been detected. We searched for molecular CO (6-5) line emission in the three 250 GHz detections and detected two of them. Combined with previous millimeter and radio observations, we study the far-infrared (FIR) and radio emission and quasar-host galaxy evolution with a sample of 18 z ∼ 6 quasars that are faint at UV and optical wavelengths (rest-frame 1450 A magnitudes of m1450 ≥ 20.2). The average FIR-to-active galactic nucleus (AGN) UV luminosity ratio of this faint quasar sample is about two times higher than that of the bright quasars at z ∼ 6 (m1450 FIR ∼ Lbol0.62. Five of the 18 faint z ∼ 6 quasars have been detected at 250 GHz. These 250 GHz detections, as well as most of the millimeter-detected optically bright z ∼ 6 quasars, follow a shallower trend of LFIR ∼ Lbol0.45 defined by the starburst-AGN systems in local and high-z universe. The millimeter continuum detections in the five objects and molecular CO detections in three of them reveal a few x 108 Msun of FIR-emitting warm dust and 1010 Msun of molecular gas in the quasar host galaxies. All these results argue for massive star formation in the quasar host galaxies, with estimated star formation rates of a few hundred Msun yr-1. Additionally, the higher FIR-to-AGN luminosity ratio found in these 250 GHz detected faint quasars also suggests a higher ratio between star formation rate and supermassive black hole accretion rate than the UV/optically most luminous quasars at z ∼ 6.

  10. BLOWIN' IN THE WIND: BOTH ''NEGATIVE'' AND ''POSITIVE'' FEEDBACK IN AN OBSCURED HIGH-z QUASAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresci, G.; Mannucci, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisco di Arcetri, largo E. Fermi 5, I-50127, Firenze (Italy); Mainieri, V. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Brusa, M.; Perna, M.; Lanzuisi, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Marconi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Firenze (Italy); Piconcelli, E.; Feruglio, C.; Fiore, F.; Bongiorno, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Maiolino, R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Merloni, A [Max Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Schramm, M.; Silverman, J. D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Civano, F., E-mail: gcresci@arcetri.astro.it [Department of Physics and Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, PO Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520-8121 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    Quasar feedback in the form of powerful outflows is invoked as a key mechanism to quench star formation in galaxies, preventing massive galaxies to overgrow and producing the red colors of ellipticals. On the other hand, some models are also requiring ''positive'' active galactic nucleus feedback, inducing star formation in the host galaxy through enhanced gas pressure in the interstellar medium. However, finding observational evidence of the effects of both types of feedback is still one of the main challenges of extragalactic astronomy, as few observations of energetic and extended radiatively driven winds are available. Here we present SINFONI near infrared integral field spectroscopy of XID2028, an obscured, radio-quiet z = 1.59 QSO detected in the XMM-COSMOS survey, in which we clearly resolve a fast (1500 km s{sup –1}) and extended (up to 13 kpc from the black hole) outflow in the [O III] lines emitting gas, whose large velocity and outflow rate are not sustainable by star formation only. The narrow component of Hα emission and the rest frame U-band flux from Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging enable to map the current star formation in the host galaxy: both tracers independently show that the outflow position lies in the center of an empty cavity surrounded by star forming regions on its edge. The outflow is therefore removing the gas from the host galaxy (''negative feedback''), but also triggering star formation by outflow induced pressure at the edges (''positive feedback''). XID2028 represents the first example of a host galaxy showing both types of feedback simultaneously at work.

  11. BLOWIN' IN THE WIND: BOTH ''NEGATIVE'' AND ''POSITIVE'' FEEDBACK IN AN OBSCURED HIGH-z QUASAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasar feedback in the form of powerful outflows is invoked as a key mechanism to quench star formation in galaxies, preventing massive galaxies to overgrow and producing the red colors of ellipticals. On the other hand, some models are also requiring ''positive'' active galactic nucleus feedback, inducing star formation in the host galaxy through enhanced gas pressure in the interstellar medium. However, finding observational evidence of the effects of both types of feedback is still one of the main challenges of extragalactic astronomy, as few observations of energetic and extended radiatively driven winds are available. Here we present SINFONI near infrared integral field spectroscopy of XID2028, an obscured, radio-quiet z = 1.59 QSO detected in the XMM-COSMOS survey, in which we clearly resolve a fast (1500 km s–1) and extended (up to 13 kpc from the black hole) outflow in the [O III] lines emitting gas, whose large velocity and outflow rate are not sustainable by star formation only. The narrow component of Hα emission and the rest frame U-band flux from Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging enable to map the current star formation in the host galaxy: both tracers independently show that the outflow position lies in the center of an empty cavity surrounded by star forming regions on its edge. The outflow is therefore removing the gas from the host galaxy (''negative feedback''), but also triggering star formation by outflow induced pressure at the edges (''positive feedback''). XID2028 represents the first example of a host galaxy showing both types of feedback simultaneously at work

  12. High Velocity Outflows in Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Hidalgo, P R; Nestor, D; Shields, J; Hidalgo, Paola Rodriguez; Hamann, Fred; Nestor, Daniel; Shields, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    High velocity (HV) outflows are an important but poorly understood aspect of quasar/SMBH evolution. Outflows during the luminous accretion phase might play a critical role in "unveiling" young dusty AGN and regulating star formation in the host galaxies. Most quasar studies have focussed on the broad absorption lines (BALs). We are involved in a program to study a nearly unexplored realm of quasar outflow parameter space: HV winds with v>10,000 km/s up to v~0.2c but small velocity dispersions (narrow absorption lines), such that (Delta v)/v << 1. Narrow-line HV flows merit specific attention because they complement the BAL work and pose unique challenges for models of the wind acceleration, mass loss rates, launch radii, geometry, etc. We have selected the brightest quasars at 1.8

  13. The double quasar 0957 + 561 AB as a probe of quasar structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the individual components of the double quasar exhibit uncorrelated time-variations, it will become possible to estimate the size and number of clouds in the region of the quasar in which the emission lines are formed. (author)

  14. Constraining the lifetime and opening angle of quasars using fluorescent Ly a emission: the case of Q0420-388

    CERN Document Server

    Borisova, Elena; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Prochaska, J Xavier; Rakic, Olivera; Worseck, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    A toy model is developed to understand how the spatial distribution of fluorescent emitters in the vicinity of bright quasars could be affected by the geometry of the quasar bi-conical radiation field and by the quasar lifetime. We then compare the predictions of this model to a sample of high equivalent width Ly a emitters (EW0 > 100 A) that were identified in a deep narrow-band 36x36 arcmin2 image centered on the luminous quasar Q0420-388. These are identified to the edge of the field and show some evidence of an azimuthal asymmetry on the sky of the type expected if the quasar is radiating in a bipolar cone. If these sources are being fluorescently illuminated by the quasar, then the two most distant sources require a lifetime of at least 15 Myr for an opening angle of 60 degrees or more, increasing to more than 40 Myr if the opening angle is reduced to a minimum 30 degrees. The overall distribution of all of the sources across the field gives best fit lifetimes in the range 20 < t < 50 Myr for openi...

  15. The Stacked Lyman-Alpha Emission Profile from the Circum-Galactic Medium of z~2 Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Battaia, Fabrizio Arrigoni; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the FLASHLIGHT survey, we obtained deep narrow band images of 15 $z\\sim2$ quasars with GMOS on Gemini-South in an effort to measure Ly$\\alpha$ emission from circum- and inter-galactic gas on scales of hundreds of kpc from the central quasar. We do not detect bright giant Ly$\\alpha$ nebulae (SB~10$^{-17}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ arcsec$^{-2}$ at distances >50 kpc) around any of our sources, although we routinely ($\\simeq47$%) detect smaller scale <50 kpc Ly$\\alpha$ emission at this SB level emerging from either the extended narrow emission line regions powered by the quasars or by star-formation in their host galaxies. We stack our 15 deep images to study the average extended Ly$\\alpha$ surface brightness profile around $z\\sim2$ quasars, carefully PSF-subtracting the unresolved emission component and paying close attention to sources of systematic error. Our analysis, which achieves an unprecedented depth, reveals a surface brightness of SB$_{\\rm Ly\\alpha}\\sim10^{-19}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}...

  16. Decoding quasars: gravitationally redshifted spectral lines !

    CERN Document Server

    Kantharia, Nimisha G

    2016-01-01

    Further investigation of data on quasars, especially in the ultraviolet band, yields an amazingly coherent narrative which we present in this paper. Quasars are characterised by strong continuum emission and redshifted emission and absorption lines which includes the famous Lyman $\\alpha$ forest. We present irrefutable evidence in support of (1) the entire line spectrum arising in matter located inside the quasar system, (2) the range of redshifts shown by the lines being due to the variable contribution of the gravitational redshift in the observed line velocity, (3) existence of rotating black holes and of matter inside its ergosphere, (4) quasars located within cosmological redshifts $\\sim 3$, (5) $\\gamma$ ray bursts being explosive events in a quasar. These results are significant and a game-changer when we realise that the absorbing gas has been postulated to exist along the line-of-sight to the quasar and observations have accordingly been interpreted. In light of these definitive results which uniquely...

  17. Various Approaches for Targeting Quasar Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-09-01

    With the establishment and development of space-based and ground-based observational facilities, the improvement of scientific output of high-cost facilities is still a hot issue for astronomers. The discovery of new and rare quasars attracts much attention. Different methods to select quasar candidates are in bloom. Among them, some are based on color cuts, some are from multiwavelength data, some rely on variability of quasars, some are based on data mining, and some depend on ensemble methods.

  18. High Brightness Test Stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Brightness Test Stand is a 2 MeV, less than or equal to 10 kA electron accelerator module. This accelerator module, designed as an upgrade prototype for the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA), combines solid state nonlinear magnetic drives with state-of-the-art induction linac technology. The facility serves a dual role, as it not only provides a test bed for this new technology, but is used to develop high brightness electron optics. We will both further describe the accelerator, as well as present some of the preliminary electron optics measurements

  19. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE NARROWBAND SEARCH FOR EXTENDED Lyα EMISSION AROUND TWO z > 6 QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We search for extended Lyα emission around two z > 6 quasars, SDSS J1030+0524 (z = 6.309) and SDSS J1148+5251 (z = 6.419) using Wide Field Camera 3 narrowband filters on board the Hubble Space Telescope. For each quasar, we collected two deep, narrowband images, one sampling the Lyα line+continuum at the quasar redshifts and one of the continuum emission redward of the line. After carefully modeling the point-spread function, we find no evidence for extended Lyα emission. These observations set 2σ limits of L(Lyα, extended) 44 erg s–1 for J1030+0524 and L(Lyα, extended) 44 erg s–1 for J1148+5251. Given the star formation rates typically inferred from (rest-frame) far-infrared measurements of z ∼ 6 quasars, these limits are well below the intrinsic bright Lyα emission expected from the recombination of gas photoionized by the quasars or by the star formation in the host galaxies, and point toward significant Lyα suppression or dust attenuation. However, small extinction values have been observed along the line of sight to the nuclei, thus reddening has to be coupled with other mechanisms for Lyα suppression (e.g., resonance scattering). No Lyα emitting companions are found, down to a 5σ sensitivity of ∼1 × 10–17 erg s–1 cm–2 arcsec–2 (surface brightness) and ∼5 × 10–17 erg s–1 cm–2 (assuming point sources).

  20. The pattern of extreme star formation events in SDSS quasar hosts in Herschel fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Lura Katherine; Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Feltre, Anna; Clarke, Charlotte; Farrah, Duncan; Harris, Kathryn Amy; Hurley, Peter; Oliver, Sebastian; Page, Mat; Wang, Lingyu

    2016-01-01

    Using a sample of ~500 quasars up to redshifts of ~4 detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) instrument of Herschel, we describe the behavior of intense starbursts in luminous quasars and how it correlates with the properties of the active galactic nuclei (AGN). We select our objects in the Herschel Stripe 82 Survey (HerS) and in the largest fields of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES), including the HerMES Large Mode Survey (HeLMS).The far-infrared (FIR) emission of our objects is quantified using a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting technique. As our sources are individually detected in the SPIRE bands, they are bright in the FIR, exhibiting typical star formation rates (SFRs) of order of 1000 M⊙yr-1. We find the SFR to increase by a factor of nearly ten from z~0.5 to z~3, in line with the increasing comoving SFR density over a similar redshift range. The SFR, however, is shown to remain constant with increasing quasar luminosity for quasars with IR luminosities above 1012L⊙, indicating a self-regulating star formation process rather than a suppression effect due to the presence of powerful AGN. We find no further proof of a causal relation between star formation and accretion onto the central black hole, as the SFR and the Eddington ratio, λEdd, are found to be uncorrelated.We then compare the broad absorption line (BAL) quasars to the rest of the quasar population, as they are candidates for outflows in action from which shorter-term feedback effects could be sought. We find the accretion luminosities and λEdd values of BAL quasars to be drawn from the same population as those of the non-BAL quasars; further, the host SFRs are statistically similar among the two populations, all of which argue against feedback effects. These similarities also oppose an evolutionary scenario, as a different evolutionary stage would imply differences in either the accretion state

  1. High-Redshift, Radio-Loud Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    I discuss two programs to study radio-loud quasars at high (z>4) redshift. Quasars are the most luminous, non-transient objects known and are observed to the earliest cosmic epochs. At lower redshifts, radio-loud quasars are associated with host galaxies having deVaucoleurs profiles. By association, identifying and studying a sample of high-redshift, radio-loud quasars provides important clues to the early Universe and potentially probes early-type galaxy formation. The first aspect of this p...

  2. Quasars and Active Galaxies: A Reading List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    Contains the annotated bibliographies of introductory books and sections of books, recent introductory articles, more advanced articles, and more advanced books dealing with quasars and active galaxies. (CW)

  3. A Possible Bias Model for Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Li-Zhi; Jing, Y. P.

    1998-01-01

    We propose that the majority of quasars at redshift $z\\sim 1 - 5$ formed in the environment of new born collapsed halos with 1-D velocity dispersion $\\sigma_v^{1d} \\sim 400 \\kms$. The harboring coefficient $f$ of quasars per halo and the lifetime of quasars depend only on local process, not modulated by the density inhomogeneities on scales larger than the size of the halos. Thus, the bias of quasars on scale larger than the size of these halos is mainly determined by the parameter $\\sigma_v$...

  4. Four quasars above redshift 6 discovered by the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Willott, Chris J.; Delorme, Philippe; Omont, Alain; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Albert, Loic; Reyle, Celine; Hill, Gary J.; Gully-Santiago, Michael; Vinten, Phillip; Crampton, David; Hutchings, John B.; Schade, David; Simard, Luc

    2007-01-01

    The Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS) is an optical survey designed to locate quasars during the epoch of reionization. In this paper we present the discovery of the first four CFHQS quasars at redshift greater than 6, including the most distant known quasar, CFHQS J2329-0301 at z=6.43. We describe the observational method used to identify the quasars and present optical, infrared, and millimeter photometry and optical and near-infrared spectroscopy. We investigate the dust propertie...

  5. Broad absorption line quasars have the same cool dust emission as quasars without BALs

    OpenAIRE

    Willott, Chris J.; Rawlings, Steve; Grimes, Jennifer A.

    2003-01-01

    The results of a sub-millimeter survey of SDSS broad CIV absorption line quasars is discussed. It is found that the sub-millimeter flux distribution of BAL quasars is similar to that of non-BAL quasars. This is consistent with the idea that all quasars contain broad absorption line regions, but only a fraction of them are visible along our line-of-sight. The observations are inconsistent with BAL quasars being observed at a special evolutionary epoch co-inciding with a high star-formation rat...

  6. Comparing Simple Quasar Demographics Models

    CERN Document Server

    Veale, Melanie; Conroy, Charlie

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores several simple model variations for the connections among quasars, galaxies, and dark matter halos for redshifts 1 < z < 6. A key component of these models is that we enforce a self-consistent black hole (BH) history by tracking both BH mass and BH growth rate at all redshifts. We connect objects across redshift with a simple constant-number-density procedure, and choose a fiducial model with a relationship between BH and galaxy growth rates that is linear and evolves in a simple way with redshift. Within this fiducial model, we find the quasar luminosity function (QLF) by calculating an "intrinsic" luminosity based on either the BH mass or BH growth rate, and then choosing a model of quasar variability with either a lognormal or truncated power-law distribution of instantaneous luminosities. This gives four model variations, which we fit to the observed QLF at each redshift. With the best-fit models in hand, we undertake a detailed comparison of the four fiducial models, and explore...

  7. Functional Regression for Quasar Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ciollaro, Mattia; Freeman, Peter; Genovese, Christopher; Lei, Jing; O'Connell, Ross; Wasserman, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The Lyman-alpha forest is a portion of the observed light spectrum of distant galactic nuclei which allows us to probe remote regions of the Universe that are otherwise inaccessible. The observed Lyman-alpha forest of a quasar light spectrum can be modeled as a noisy realization of a smooth curve that is affected by a `damping effect' which occurs whenever the light emitted by the quasar travels through regions of the Universe with higher matter concentration. To decode the information conveyed by the Lyman-alpha forest about the matter distribution, we must be able to separate the smooth `continuum' from the noise and the contribution of the damping effect in the quasar light spectra. To predict the continuum in the Lyman-alpha forest, we use a nonparametric functional regression model in which both the response and the predictor variable (the smooth part of the damping-free portion of the spectrum) are function-valued random variables. We demonstrate that the proposed method accurately predicts the unobserv...

  8. QUASARS PROBING QUASARS. VI. EXCESS H I ABSORPTION WITHIN ONE PROPER Mpc OF z ∼ 2 QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With close pairs of quasars at different redshifts, a background quasar sightline can be used to study a foreground quasar's environment in absorption. We use a sample of 650 projected quasar pairs to study the H I Lyα absorption transverse to luminous, z ∼ 2 quasars at proper separations of 30 kpc –0.46. We also observe a high (≅ 60%) covering factor of strong, optically thick H I absorbers (H I column NHI>1017.3 cm-2) at separations R QA(r) = (r/r0)γ with a large correlation length r0 = 12.5+2.7-1.4 h-1 Mpc (comoving) and γ=1.68+0.14-0.30. The H I absorption measured around quasars exceeds that of any previously studied population, consistent with quasars being hosted by massive dark matter halos Mhalo ≈ 1012.5 M☉ at z ∼ 2.5. The environments of these massive halos are highly biased toward producing optically thick gas, and may even dominate the cosmic abundance of Lyman limit systems and hence the intergalactic opacity to ionizing photons at z ∼ 2.5. The anisotropic absorption around quasars implies the transverse direction is much less likely to be illuminated by ionizing radiation than the line-of-sight

  9. Quasar Evolution Driven by Galaxy Encounters in Hierarchical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Menci, N; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Poli, F; Vittorini, V

    2003-01-01

    We link the evolution of the galaxies in the hierarchical clustering scenario with the changing accretion rates of cold gas onto the central massive black holes that power the quasars. We base on galaxy interactions as main triggers of accretion; the related scaling laws are taken up from Cavaliere & Vittorini (2000), and grafted to a semi-analytic code for galaxy formation. As a result, at high $z$ the protogalaxies grow rapidly by hierarchical merging; meanwhile, much fresh gas is imported and also destabilized, so the holes are fueled at their full Eddington rates. At lower $z$ the galactic dynamical events are mostly encounters in hierarchically growing groups; now the refueling peters out, as the residual gas is exhausted while the destabilizing encounters dwindle. So, with no parameter tuning other than needed for stellar observables, our model uniquely produces at $z>3$ a rise, and at $z\\lesssim 2.5 $ a decline of the bright quasar population as steep as observed. In addition, our results closely f...

  10. Discovery of a Luminous Quasar in the Nearby Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, C A O; Coziol, R; Jablonski, F J; De la Reza, R; Lépine, J R D; Gregorio-Hetem, J; Torres, Carlos A. O.; Quast, Germano R.; Coziol, Roger; Jablonski, Francisco; Reza, Ramiro de la; Lepine, Jacques R. D.; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane

    1997-01-01

    In the course of the Pico dos Dias survey (PDS), we identified the stellar like object PDS456 at coordinates alpha = 17h 28m 19.796s, delta = -14deg 15' 55.87'' (epoch 2000), with a relatively nearby (z = 0.184) and bright (B = 14.69) quasar. Its position at Galactic coordinates l_II = 10.4deg, b_II = +11.2deg, near the bulge of the Galaxy, may explain why it was not detected before. The optical spectrum of PDS456 is typical of a luminous quasar, showing a broad (FWHM ~ 4000 km/s) H_\\beta line, very intense FeII lines and a weak [OIII]\\lambda5007 line. PDS456 is associated to the infrared source IRAS 17254-1413 with a 60 \\mum infrared luminosity L_{60} = 3.8 x 10^{45} erg/s. The relatively flat slopes in the infrared (\\alpha(25,60) = -0.33 and \\alpha(12,25) = -0.78) and a flat power index in the optical (F_{\

  11. Far-Infrared Line Emission from High Redshift Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, D. J.; Cox, P.; Hunter, T. R.; Malhotra, S.; Phillips, T. G.; Yun, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    Recent millimeter and submillimeter detections of line emission in high redshift objects have yielded new information and constraints on star formation at early epochs. Only CO transitions and atomic carbon transitions have been detected from these objects, yet bright far-infrared lines such as C+ at 158 microns and N+ at 205 microns should be fairly readily detectable when redshifted into a submillimeter atmospheric window. We have obtained upper limits for C+ emission &om two high redshift quasars, BR1202-0725 at z=4.69 and BRI1335-0415 at z=4.41. These limits show that the ratio of the C+ line luminosity to the total far-infrared luminosity is less than 0.0l%, ten times smaller than has been observed locally. Additionally, we have searched for emission in the N+ 205 micron line from the Cloverleaf quasar, H1413+117, and detected emission in CO J=7-6. The N+ emission is found to be below the amount predicted based on comparison to the only previous detection of this line, in the starburst galaxy M82.

  12. The brightness of colour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The perception of brightness depends on spatial context: the same stimulus can appear light or dark depending on what surrounds it. A less well-known but equally important contextual phenomenon is that the colour of a stimulus can also alter its brightness. Specifically, stimuli that are more saturated (i.e. purer in colour appear brighter than stimuli that are less saturated at the same luminance. Similarly, stimuli that are red or blue appear brighter than equiluminant yellow and green stimuli. This non-linear relationship between stimulus intensity and brightness, called the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (HK effect, was first described in the nineteenth century but has never been explained. Here, we take advantage of the relative simplicity of this 'illusion' to explain it and contextual effects more generally, by using a simple Bayesian ideal observer model of the human visual ecology. We also use fMRI brain scans to identify the neural correlates of brightness without changing the spatial context of the stimulus, which has complicated the interpretation of related fMRI studies. RESULTS: Rather than modelling human vision directly, we use a Bayesian ideal observer to model human visual ecology. We show that the HK effect is a result of encoding the non-linear statistical relationship between retinal images and natural scenes that would have been experienced by the human visual system in the past. We further show that the complexity of this relationship is due to the response functions of the cone photoreceptors, which themselves are thought to represent an efficient solution to encoding the statistics of images. Finally, we show that the locus of the response to the relationship between images and scenes lies in the primary visual cortex (V1, if not earlier in the visual system, since the brightness of colours (as opposed to their luminance accords with activity in V1 as measured with fMRI. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that perceptions

  13. Chandra Observations of 12 Luminous Red Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrutia, T; Lacy, M; Gregg, M D; Becker, R H

    2005-03-11

    The authors present results of a study of 12 dust-reddened quasars with 0.4 < z < 2.65 and reddenings in the range 0.15 < E(B-V) < 1.7. They obtained ACIS-S X-ray spectra of these quasars, estimated the column densities towards them, and hence obtained the gas:dust ratios in the material obscuring the quasar. They detect all but one of the red quasars in the X-rays. Even though there is no obvious correlation between the X-ray determined column densities of the sources and their optical color or reddening, all of the sources show absorbed X-ray spectra. When they correct the luminosity for absorption, they can be placed among luminous quasars; therefore their objects belong to the group of high luminosity analogues of the sources contributing to the X-ray background seen in deep X-ray observations. Such sources are also found in serendipitous shallow X-ray surveys. There is a hint that the mean spectral slope of the red quasar is higher than that of normal, unobscured quasars, which could be an indication for higher accretion rates and/or an evolutionary effect. They investigate the number density of these sources compared to type 2 AGN based on the X-ray background and estimate how many moderate luminosity red quasars may be found in deep X-ray fields.

  14. The Host Galaxies of High-Luminosity Obscured Quasars at 2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Nicholas; Strauss, M. A.; Greene, J. E.; Zakamska, N. L.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexandroff, R.; Liu, G.; Smith, P. S.; The SDSS-III BOSS Quasar Working Group

    2014-01-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei play a key role in the evolution of galaxies. However, very little is known about the host galaxies of the most luminous quasars at redshift 2.5, the epoch when massive black hole growth peaked. The brightness of the quasar itself, which can easily outshine a galaxy by a large factor, makes it very difficult to study emission from extended gas or stars in the host galaxy. However, we have imaged the extended emission from the host galaxies of a unique sample of six optically extinguished (Type II) luminous quasars with 2.5, with the Hubble Space Telescope (Cycle 20, GO 13014) using ACS/F814W to access the rest-frame near-ultraviolet, and WFC3/F160W for the rest-frame optical longward of 4000A. These objects are selected from the spectroscopic database of the SDSS/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey to have strong, narrow emission lines and weak continua. With these images, we have quantified the luminosity, morphology, and dynamical state of the host galaxies, and searched for extended scattered light from the obscured central engine. These observations are the first comprehensive study of both host galaxy light and scattered light in high-luminosity quasars at the epoch of maximum black hole growth, and give insights into the relationship between host galaxies and black holes during this important, and yet largely unexplored period.

  15. Spectral Variability of Quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I: Wavelength Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Wilhite, B C; Kron, R G; Schneider, D P; Pereyra, N; Brunner, R J; Richards, G T; Brinkmann, J; Wilhite, Brian C.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Kron, Richard G.; Schneider, Donald P.; Pereyra, Nicholas; Brunner, Robert J.; Richards, Gordon T.; Brinkmann, Jonathan V.

    2005-01-01

    Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) repeat spectroscopic observations have resulted in multiple-epoch spectroscopy for roughly 2500 quasars observed more than 50 days apart. From this sample, we identify 315 quasars that have varied significantly between observations. We create an ensemble difference spectrum (bright phase minus faint phase) covering rest-frame wavelengths from 1000 to 6000 Angstroms. This average difference spectrum is bluer than the average single-epoch quasar spectrum; a power-law fit to the difference spectrum yields a spectral index alpha_lambda = -2.00, compared to an index of alpha_lambda = -1.35 for the single-epoch spectrum. The strongest emission lines vary only 30% as much as the continuum. Due to the lack of variability of the lines, measured photometric color is not always bluer in brighter phases, but depends on redshift and the filters used. Lastly, the difference spectrum is bluer than the ensemble quasar spectrum only for lambda_rest < 2500 Angstroms, indicating that the varia...

  16. THE CHANDRA VIEW OF THE LARGEST QUASAR LENS SDSS J1029+2623

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from Chandra observations of the cluster lens SDSS J1029+2623 at zl = 0.58, which is a gravitationally lensed quasar with the largest known image separation. We clearly detect X-ray emission both from the lensing cluster and the three lensed quasar images. The cluster has an X-ray temperature of kT = 8.1+2.0–1.2 keV and bolometric luminosity of LX = 9.6 × 1044 erg s–1. Its surface brightness is centered near one of the brightest cluster galaxies, and it is elongated east-west. We identify a subpeak northwest of the main peak, which is suggestive of an ongoing merger. Even so, the X-ray mass inferred from the hydrostatic equilibrium assumption appears to be consistent with the lensing mass from the Einstein radius of the system. We find significant absorption in the soft X-ray spectrum of the faintest quasar image, which can be caused by an intervening material at either the lens or source redshift. The X-ray flux ratios between the quasar images (after correcting for absorption) are in reasonable agreement with those at optical and radio wavelengths, and all the flux ratios are inconsistent with those predicted by simple mass models. This implies that microlensing effect is not significant for this system and dark matter substructure is mainly responsible for the anomalous flux ratios.

  17. The Chandra view of the Largest Quasar Lens SDSS J1029+2623

    CERN Document Server

    Ota, Naomi; Dai, Xinyu; Kochanek, Christopher S; Richards, Gordon T; Ofek, Eran O; Blandford, Roger D; Schrabback, Tim; Inada, Naohisa

    2012-01-01

    We present results from Chandra observations of the z_l=0.58 cluster lens SDSS J1029+2623, which is presently the largest separation gravitationally lensed quasar. We clearly detect X-ray emission both from the lensing cluster and the three lensed quasar images. The cluster has an X-ray temperature of kT = 8.1 (+2.0, -1.2) keV and luminosity L_X = 9.6e44 erg s^-1. Its surface brightness is centered near galaxy G2 and it is elongated East-West. We identify a subpeak North-West of the main peak, which is suggestive of an ongoing merger. Even so, the X-ray mass inferred from the hydrostatic equilibrium assumption appears to be consistent with the Einstein radius of the system. We find significant absorption in the soft X-ray spectrum of quasar image C, which can be caused by an intervening material at either the lens or source redshift. The X-ray flux ratios between the quasar images after correcting for absorption are in reasonable agreement with those at optical and radio wavelengths. This implies that microle...

  18. The Impact of Dust in Host Galaxies on Quasar Luminosity Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Shirakata, H; Enoki, M; Nagashima, M; Kobayashi, M A R; Ishiyama, T; Makiya, R

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated effects of dust attenuation on quasar luminosity functions using a semi-analytic galaxy formation model combined with a large cosmological N-body simulation. We estimate the dust attenuation of quasars self-consistently with that of galaxies by considering the dust in their host bulges.We find that the luminosity of the bright quasars is strongly dimmed by the dust attenuation, about 2 mag in the B-band, and that the faint end slope of the luminosity function is steepened. We also study for the first time the case in which gas fueling to a central black hole starts some time after the beginning of the starburst induced by a major merger. In this case, nuclei are less attenuated by the dust since the cold gas in the bulges is consumed by the starbursts and expelled by the stellar feedback. In order to make the dust attenuation of the quasars negligible, the accretion has to be delayed at least five times the dynamical timescale of their host bulges.

  19. The extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Variability selection and quasar luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Magneville, Ch.; Yèche, Ch.; Pâris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Burtin, E.; Dawson, K.; McGreer, I.; Myers, A. D.; Rossi, G.; Schlegel, D.; Schneider, D.; Streblyanska, A.; Tinker, J.

    2016-03-01

    The extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV/eBOSS) has an extensive quasar program that combines several selection methods. Among these, the photometric variability technique provides highly uniform samples, which are unaffected by the redshift bias of traditional optical-color selections, when z = 2.7-3.5 quasars cross the stellar locus or when host galaxy light affects quasar colors at z 2.2. Both models are constrained to be continuous at z = 2.2. They present a flattening of the bright-end slope at high redshift. The LEDE model indicates a reduction of the break density with increasing redshift, but the evolution of the break magnitude depends on the parameterization. The models are in excellent accord, predicting quasar counts that agree within 0.3% (resp., 1.1%) to g< 22.5 (resp., g< 23). The models are also in good agreement over the entire redshift range with models from previous studies.

  20. New lensed quasars from the MUSCLES survey

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Neal; Ofek, Eran O; Shin, Min-Su

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational lens systems containing lensed quasars are important as cosmological probes, as diagnostics of structural properties of the lensing galaxies and as tools to study the quasars themselves. The largest lensed quasar sample is the SDSS Quasar Lens Search, drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We are attempting to extend this survey using observations of lens candidates selected from a combination of the quasar sample from the SDSS and the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). This adds somewhat higher image quality together with a wider range of wavelength for the selection process. In previous pilot surveys we observed 5 objects, finding 2 lenses; here we present further observations of 20 objects in which we find 4 lenses, of which 2 are independently discovered in SQLS (in preparation). Following earlier work on the combination of these two surveys, we have refined our method and find that use of a colour-separation diagnostic, where we select for separations between components which...

  1. The Mass Budget of Merging Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Menou, K

    2004-01-01

    Two spectacular results emerging from recent studies of nearby dead quasars and distant active quasars are (i) the existence of tight relations between the masses of black holes (BHs) and the properties of their host galaxies (spheroid luminosity or velocity dispersion, galaxy mass), and (ii) a consistency between the local mass density in BHs and that expected by summing up the light received from distant active quasars. These results are partly shaped by successive galactic mergers and BH coalescences, since mergers redistribute the population of BHs in galaxies and BH binary coalescences reduce the mass density in BHs through losses to gravitational waves. Here, we isolate and quantify these effects by following the cosmological merger history of a population of massive BHs representing the quasar population between z = 3 and z =0. Our results suggest that the relation between BH mass and host galaxy properties, and inferences on the global efficiency of BH accretion during active quasar phases, could be i...

  2. Bright Economic Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Minqiu

    2004-01-01

    @@ India is expected to register an 8.2% growth rate for the 2003-04 fiscal year. The overall economic situation this year has been satisfactory despite the scaled down 6-6.5% growth rate for the new fiscal year due to oil price hikes, reduced monsoon volume and some 7% inflation. Judging from the following factors, bright prospects are in store for the country down the road.

  3. Evidence for the alignment of quasar radio polarizations with large quasar group axes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelgrims, V.; Hutsemékers, D.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, evidence has been presented for the polarization vectors from quasars to preferentially align with the axes of the large quasar groups (LQG) to which they belong. This report was based on observations made at optical wavelengths for two LQGs at redshift ~1.3. The correlation suggests that the spin axes of quasars preferentially align with their surrounding large-scale structure that is assumed to be traced by the LQGs. Here, we consider a large sample of LQGs built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 quasar catalogue in the redshift range 1.0-1.8. For quasars embedded in this sample, we collected radio polarization measurements with the goal to study possible correlations between quasar polarization vectors and the major axis of their host LQGs. Assuming the radio polarization vector is perpendicular to the quasar spin axis, we found that the quasar spin axis is preferentially parallel to the LQG major axis inside LQGs that have at least 20 members. This result independently supports the observations at optical wavelengths. We additionally found that when the richness of an LQG decreases, the quasar spin axis becomes preferentially perpendicular to the LQG major axis and that no correlation is detected for quasar groups with fewer than 10 members.

  4. Tracing dark energy with quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Średzińska, J; Bilicki, M; Hryniewicz, K; Krupa, M; Kurcz, A; Marziani, P; Pollo, A; Pych, W; Udalski, A

    2016-01-01

    The nature of dark energy, driving the accelerated expansion of the Universe, is one of the most important issues in modern astrophysics. In order to understand this phenomenon, we need precise astrophysical probes of the universal expansion spanning wide redshift ranges. Quasars have recently emerged as such a probe, thanks to their high intrinsic luminosities and, most importantly, our ability to measure their luminosity distances independently of redshifts. Here we report our ongoing work on observational reverberation mapping using the time delay of the Mg II line, performed with the South African Large Telescope (SALT).

  5. THE HALO OCCUPATION DISTRIBUTION OF SDSS QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an estimate of the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) over the full range of one- and two-halo scales, 0.02 h–1 Mpc p –1 Mpc. This was achieved by combining data from SDSS DR7 on large scales and Hennawi et al. (with appropriate statistical corrections) on small scales. Our combined clustering sample is the largest spectroscopic quasar clustering sample to date, containing ∼48, 000 quasars in the redshift range 0.4 ∼sat = (7.4 ± 1.4) × 10–4, be satellites in dark matter halos. At z ∼ 1.4, the median masses of the host halos of central and satellite quasars are constrained to be Mcen = 4.1+0.3–0.4 × 1012 h–1 M☉ and Msat = 3.6+0.8–1.0 × 1014 h–1 M☉, respectively. To investigate the redshift evolution of the quasar-halo relationship, we also perform HOD modeling of the projected 2PCF measured by Shen et al. for SDSS quasars with median redshift 3.2. We find tentative evidence for an increase in the mass scale of quasar host halos—the inferred median mass of halos hosting central quasars at z ∼ 3.2 is Mcen = 14.1+5.8–6.9 × 1012 h–1 M☉. The cutoff profiles of the mean occupation functions of central quasars reveal that quasar luminosity is more tightly correlated with halo mass at higher redshifts. The average quasar duty cycle around the median host halo mass is inferred to be fq = 7.3+0.6–1.5 × 10–4 at z ∼ 1.4 and fq = 8.6+20.4–7.2 × 10–2 at z ∼ 3.2. We discuss the implications of our results for quasar evolution and quasar-galaxy co-evolution.

  6. SDSS J2222+2745: A GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED SEXTUPLE QUASAR WITH A MAXIMUM IMAGE SEPARATION OF 15.''1 DISCOVERED IN THE SLOAN GIANT ARCS SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of a unique gravitational lens system, SDSS J2222+2745, producing five spectroscopically confirmed images of a zs = 2.82 quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy cluster at zl = 0.49. We also present photometric and spectroscopic evidence for a sixth lensed image of the same quasar. The maximum separation between the quasar images is 15.''1. Both the large image separations and the high image multiplicity are in themselves rare among known lensed quasars, and observing the combination of these two factors is an exceptionally unlikely occurrence in present data sets. This is only the third known case of a quasar lensed by a cluster, and the only one with six images. The lens system was discovered in the course of the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey, in which we identify candidate lenses in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and target these for follow-up and verification with the 2.56 m Nordic Optical Telescope. Multi-band photometry obtained over multiple epochs from 2011 September to 2012 September reveals significant variability at the ∼10%-30% level in some of the quasar images, indicating that measurements of the relative time delay between quasar images will be feasible. In this lens system, we also identify a bright (g = 21.5) giant arc corresponding to a strongly lensed background galaxy at zs = 2.30. We fit parametric models of the lens system, constrained by the redshift and positions of the quasar images and the redshift and position of the giant arc. The predicted time delays between different pairs of quasar images range from ∼100 days to ∼6 yr

  7. Analyses of quasar 3C 273 using XMM-Newton and RXTE

    OpenAIRE

    Stuhlinger, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Due to their tremendous luminosity over up to thirteen orders of magnitudes in frequency, active galactic nuclei (AGN) belong to the most distant discrete objects that can be observed in the universe. Except the differentiation into radio quiet AGNs and radio loud AGNs, dependent on the presence or absence of a jet, the unification model explains the different phenomenonal appearances of AGNs by a different viewing angle on the same physical kind of objects. As the brightest and nearest ...

  8. Features of thin spatial structure of the quasar 3C216 at decameter lengths of waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megn, A. V.; Rashkovskiy, S. L.; Shepelev, V. A.; Inytin, G. A.; Vashchishin, R. V.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Koshoviy, V. V.; Lozinskiy, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    The results of interferometric researches of the quasar 3C216 have been presented. The model of brightness distribution of the quasar at frequencies of 20 and 25 MHz and spectra of its details at frequencies below 1 GHz have been refined. It was found out, that at decameter lengths the radio image of 3C216 has three components. It consists of a compact component having the size limited by scattering, an extended component with the size of 4.5'' and a halo with the size about 23''. The northeast hot spot (instead of the core, as it was supposed earlier) is the dominating compact component at decameter waves. The self-absorption effect in the northeast hot spot has been detected.

  9. Mass Models and Environment of the New Quadruply Lensed Quasar SDSS J1330+1810

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguri, Masamune; Inada, Naohisa; Blackburne, Jeffrey A.; Shin, Min-Su; Kayo, Issha; Strauss, Michael A.; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G.

    2008-09-09

    We present the discovery of a new quadruply lensed quasar. The lens system, SDSS J1330+1810 at z{sub s} = 1.393, was identified as a lens candidate from the spectroscopic sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Optical and near-infrared images clearly show four quasar images with a maximum image separation of 1.76 inch, as well as a bright lensing galaxy. We measure a redshift of the lensing galaxy of z{sub 1} = 0.373 from absorption features in the spectrum. We find a foreground group of galaxies at z = 0.31 centred {approx} 120 inch southwest of the lens system. Simple mass models fit the data quite well, including the flux ratios between images, although the lens galaxy appears to be {approx} 1 mag brighter than expected by the Faber-Jackson relation. Our mass modeling suggests that shear from nearby structure is affecting the lens potential.

  10. Testing Models of Quasar Hosts With Strong Gravitational Lensing by Quasar Hosts

    CERN Document Server

    Cen, Renyue

    2016-01-01

    We perform a statistical analysis of strong gravitational lensing by quasar hosts of background galaxies, in the two competing models of dark matter halos of quasars, HOD and CS models. Utilizing the BolshoiP Simulation we demonstrate that strong gravitational lensing provides a potentially very powerful test of models of quasar hosting halos. For quasars at $z=0.5$, the lensing probability by quasars of background galaxies in the HOD model is higher than that of the CS model by two orders of magnitude or more for lensing image separations in the range of $\\theta\\sim 1.2-12~$arcsec. To observationally test this, we show that, as an example, at the depth of the CANDELS wide field survey and with a quasar sample of $1000$ at $z=0.5$, the two models can be differentiated at $3-4\\sigma$ confidence level.

  11. Halo Occupation Distribution of Infrared Selected Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Kaustav

    2016-01-01

    We perform a Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) modeling of the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of quasars that are observed in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) telescope with counter-parts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release (DR)-8 quasar catalog at a median redshift of $z\\sim 1.04 (\\pm 0.58)$. Using a four parameter HOD model we derive the host mass scales of WISE selected quasars. Our results show that the median halo masses of central and satellite quasars lie in the range $M_{\\mathrm{cen}} = (5 \\pm 1.0) \\times 10^{12} M_{\\odot}$ and $M_{\\mathrm{sat}} = 8 (^{+7.8} _{-4.8}) \\times 10^{13} M_{\\odot}$, respectively. The derived satellite fraction is $f_{\\mathrm{sat}}= 5.5 (^{+35} _{-5.0})\\times 10^{-3}$. Previously Richardson et al.\\ used the SDSS DR7 quasar clustering data to obtain the halo mass distributions of $z\\sim 1.4$ quasars. Our results on the HOD of central quasars are in excellent agreement with Richardson et al.\\ but the host mass scale of satellite ...

  12. The FIRST-2MASS Red Quasar Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glikman, E; Helfand, D J; White, R L; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Lacy, M

    2007-06-28

    Combining radio observations with optical and infrared color selection--demonstrated in our pilot study to be an efficient selection algorithm for finding red quasars--we have obtained optical and infrared spectroscopy for 120 objects in a complete sample of 156 candidates from a sky area of 2716 square degrees. Consistent with our initial results, we find our selection criteria--J-K > 1.7,R-K > 4.0--yield a {approx} 50% success rate for discovering quasars substantially redder than those found in optical surveys. Comparison with UVX- and optical color-selected samples shows that {approx}> 10% of the quasars are missed in a magnitude-limited survey. Simultaneous two-frequency radio observations for part of the sample indicate that a synchrotron continuum component is ruled out as a significant contributor to reddening the quasars spectra. We go on to estimate extinctions for our objects assuming their red colors are caused by dust. Continuum fits and Balmer decrements suggest E(B-V) values ranging from near zero to 2.5 magnitudes. Correcting the K-band magnitudes for these extinctions, we find that for K {le} 14.0, red quasars make up between 25% and 60% of the underlying quasar population; owing to the incompleteness of the 2MASS survey at fainter K-band magnitudes, we can only set a lower limit to the radio-detected red quasar population of > 20-30%.

  13. High velocity outflows in quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodríguez Hidalgo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN are believed to be powered by accretion onto a Super- Massive Black Hole (SMBH. In order to have material falling into the SMBH, angular momentum conservation requires a counter- part for this accretion that is fueling the SMBH in the AGN. Outows might play an essential role in active galactic nuclei. They show common occurance, both in quasars (30%-40% in optically selected quasars and Seyfert galaxies (approx. 60%, but might be ubiquitous if they subtend a small angular distance in the sky. Moreover, they bring information from the AGN inner regions, which is not accesible through other ways. Although for more than a decade models have included material outowing from an accretion disk around a SMBH, surprisingly there is no consensus in our understanding of basic properties like the acceleration mechanism(s, launch radii, mass loss rates, terminal velocities, etc. We are involved in a program to derive basic dynamical char- acteristics for some well-studied individual ows, and, in particular, we are interested in High Velocity (HV outows since they will present unique challenges for the above mentioned theoretical models.

  14. The odd couple: quasars and black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Tremaine, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Quasars emit more energy than any other objects in the universe, yet are not much bigger than the solar system. We are almost certain that quasars are powered by giant black holes of up to $10^{10}$ times the mass of the Sun, and that black holes of between $10^6$ and $10^{10}$ solar masses---dead quasars---are present at the centers of most galaxies. Our own galaxy contains a black hole of $4.3\\times10^6$ solar masses. The mass of the central black hole appears to be closely related to other...

  15. The quasar mass-luminosity plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Charles Louis

    2010-11-01

    This thesis investigates the quasar mass-luminosity plane, as a new tool to explore the relationship between black hole mass and quasar luminosity over time. Previous techniques used quasar luminosity function and mass functions, which are one-dimensional projections of the mass-luminosity plane. The M --- L plane contains information that cannot be seen in these projections. We use 62,185 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR5 sample to develop several new constraints on quasar accretion. Black hole masses, based on the widths of their Hbeta, Mg II, and C IV lines and adjacent continuum luminosities, were used assuming using standard virial mass estimate scaling laws. In each redshift interval over the range 0.2 4.0, low-mass quasars reach at their Eddington luminosity, but high-mass quasars fall short, even by a factor of ten or more at 0.2 < z < 0.6. We examine several potential sources of measurement uncertainty or bias and show that none of them can account for this effect. We also show the statistical uncertainty in virial mass estimation to have an upper bound of ˜ 0.2 dex, smaller than the 0.4 dex previously reported. The maximum mass of quasars at each redshift is sharp and evolving. High-mass black holes turn off their luminous accretion at higher redshift than lower-mass black holes. Further, turnoff for quasars at any given mass is synchronized to within 0.7--3 Gyr, tighter than would be expected given the dynamics of their host galaxies. We find potential signatures of the quasar turnoff mechanism, including a dearth of high-mass quasars at low Eddington ratio, low CIV/MgII emission line ratio, and a red spectral tilt. Finally, we use these new constraints to analyze models for the evolution of individual quasars over time. We find a restricted family of tracks that lie within the M --- L plane at all redshifts, suggesting that a single, constant feedback mechanism between all supermassive black holes and their host galaxies might apply at all

  16. Evidence for the alignment of quasar radio polarizations with large quasar group axes

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrims, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Recently, evidence has been presented for the polarization vectors from quasars to preferentially align with the axes of the large quasar groups (LQG) to which they belong. This report was based on observations made at optical wavelengths for two large quasar groups at redshift $\\sim 1.3$. The correlation suggests that the spin axes of quasars preferentially align with their surrounding large-scale structure that is assumed to be traced by the LQGs. Here, we consider a large sample of LQGs built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 quasar catalogue in the redshift range $1.0-1.8$. For quasars embedded in this sample, we collected radio polarization measurements with the goal to study possible correlations between quasar polarization vectors and the major axis of their host LQGs. Assuming the radio polarization vector is perpendicular to the quasar spin axis, we found that the quasar spin axis is preferentially parallel to the LQG major axis inside LQGs that have at least $20$ members. This result independent...

  17. EVN+MERLIN Observations of Radio-Intermediate Quasars: Evidence for Boosted Radio-Weak Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Falcke, Heino; Patnaik, Alok; Sherwood, William

    1996-01-01

    We present VLBI (EVN+MERLIN) observations of a sample of three low-redshift radio-intermediate PG quasars (RIQ) with flat and variable radio spectrum (III Zw 2, PG 1309+355, PG 2209+184). Their radio-to-optical flux ratio (R) is slightly lower than the average R for steep-spectrum quasars, but their radio spectral properties are those of core-dominated quasars. It was proposed previously that these sources might be relativistically boosted jets in radio-weak quasars. Our VLBI observations now...

  18. Quasars Probing Quasars IV: Joint Constraints on the Circumgalactic Medium from Absorption and Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Hennawi, Joseph F

    2013-01-01

    We have constructed a sample of 29 close projected quasar pairs where the background quasar spectrum reveals absorption from optically thick HI gas associated with the foreground quasar. These unique sightlines allow us to study the quasar circumgalactic medium (CGM) in absorption and emission simultaneously, because the background quasar pinpoints large concentrations of gas where Ly-a emission, resulting from quasar-powered fluorescence, resonant Ly-a scattering, and/or cooling radiation, is expected. A sensitive slit-spectroscopic search (1-sigma limits of SB_Lya ~= 3e-18 erg/s/cm^2/arcsec^2) for diffuse Ly-a emission in the environments of the foreground quasars is conducted. We fail to detect large-scale ~ 100 kpc Ly-a emission, either at the location of the optically thick absorbers or in the foreground quasar halos, in all cases except a single system. We interpret these non-detections as evidence that the gas detected in absorption is shadowed from the quasar UV radiation due to obscuration effects, w...

  19. Gaia reference frame amid quasar variability and proper motion patterns in the data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachchan, R. K.; Hobbs, D.; Lindegren, L.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Gaia's very accurate astrometric measurements will allow the optical realisation of the International Celestial Reference System to be improved by a few orders of magnitude. Several sets of quasars are used to define a kinematically stable non-rotating reference frame with the barycentre of the solar system as its origin. Gaia will also observe a large number of galaxies. Although they are not point-like, it may be possible to determine accurate positions and proper motions for some of their compact bright features. Aims: The optical stability of the quasars is critical, and we investigate how accurately the reference frame can be recovered. Various proper motion patterns are also present in the data, the best known is caused by the acceleration of the solar system barycentre, presumably, towards the Galactic centre. We review some other less well-known effects that are not part of standard astrometric models. Methods: We modelled quasars and galaxies using realistic sky distributions, magnitudes, and redshifts. Position variability was introduced using a Markov chain model. The reference frame was determined using the algorithm developed for the Gaia mission, which also determines the acceleration of the solar system. We also tested a method for measuring the velocity of the solar system barycentre in a cosmological frame. Results: We simulated the recovery of the reference frame and the acceleration of the solar system and conclude that they are not significantly disturbed by quasar variability, which is statistically averaged. However, the effect of a non-uniform sky distribution of the quasars can result in a correlation between the parameters describing the spin components of the reference frame and the acceleration components, which degrades the solution. Our results suggest that an attempt should be made to astrometrically determine the redshift-dependent apparent drift of galaxies that is due to our velocity relative to the cosmic microwave

  20. Polarimetry and photometry of active quasars at visual and near-infrared wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical and near-infrared continua of highly luminous BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects and optically violent variable (OVV) quasars are studied through simultaneous broad-band photometry and linear polarimetry. Nineteen BL Lacs and OVVs were monitored during a ∼1 1/2-year period, with the major aim of characterizing the wavelength-dependent polarization exhibited by these objects. Optical (UBVRI) observations were conducted at the UCSD/U. Minn. 1.5-m telescope on Mt. Lemmon, Arizona. Simultaneous (within 1 hr.) near-infrared (JHK) measurements were made using the KPNO 2.1-m telescope. Most of the BL Lac objects exhibit large variations in polarization and brightness on time scale of less than a week. The degree of fractional linear polarization (P) is not observed to be related to brightness or optical spectral index. Most BL Lacs did not show a preferred polarization position angle (theta). Wavelength-dependent P and theta are observed in almost all BL Lacs, but not always simultaneously. The OVV quasar 1156 + 295 shows behavior very similar to the BL Lac objects. 3C 345 Exhibited polarization properties that are quite different from those of the BL Lacs. This object showed a clear correlation between brightness and P

  1. The Physical Nature of Polar Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghost, Kajal; Punsly, Brian

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown based on radio variability arguments that some BALQSOs (broad absorption line quasars) are viewed along the polar axis (o rthogonal to accretion disk) in the recent article of Zhou et a. Thes e arguments are based on the brightness temperature, T(sub b) exceedi ng 10(exp 12) K which leads to the well-known inverse Compton catastr ophe unless the radio jet is relativistic and is viewed along its axi s. In this letter, we expand the Zhou et al sample of polar BALQSOs u sing their techniques applied to SDSS DR5. In the process, we clarify a mistake in their calculation of brightness temperature. The expanded sample of high T(sub b) BALQSOS, has an inordinately large fraction of LoBALQSOs (low ionization BALQSOs). We consider this an important clue to understanding the nature of the polar BALQSOs. This is expec ted in the polar BALQSO analytical/numerical models of Punsly that pr edicted that LoBALQSOs occur when the line of sight is very close to the polar axis, where the outflow density is the highest.

  2. Quasars, Galaxies and Pseudo-Vacuum Droplets

    OpenAIRE

    Veltman, M.J.G.; Klinkhamer, F.

    1991-01-01

    It is suggested that quasars and active galatic nuclei are small regions (droplets) of pseudo-vacuum, possibly containing matter, that decay into real vacuum and ordinary matter. In addition, the droplets may play a role in galaxy formation.

  3. Quasars as tracers of cosmic flows

    CERN Document Server

    Modzelewska, J; Bilicki, M; Hryniewicz, K; Krupa, M; Petrogalli, F; Pych, W; Kurcz, A; Udalski, A

    2014-01-01

    Quasars, as the most luminous persistent sources in the Universe, have broad applications for cosmological studies. In particular, they can be employed to directly measure the expansion history of the Universe, similarly to SNe Ia. The advantage of quasars is that they are numerous, cover a broad range of redshifts, up to $z = 7$, and do not show significant evolution of metallicity with redshift. The idea is based on the relation between the time delay of an emission line and the continuum, and the absolute monochromatic luminosity of a quasar. For intermediate redshift quasars, the suitable line is Mg II. Between December 2012 and March 2014, we performed five spectroscopic observations of the QSO CTS C30.10 ($z = 0.900$) using the South African Large Telesope (SALT), supplemented with photometric monitoring, with the aim of determining the variability of the line shape, changes in the total line intensity and in the continuum. We show that the method is very promising.

  4. Quasars as probes of cosmological reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Mortlock, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Quasars are the most luminous non-transient sources in the epoch of cosmological reionization (i.e., which ended a billion years after the Big Bang, corresponding to a redshift of z ~ 5), and are powerful probes of the inter-galactic medium at that time. This review covers current efforts to identify high-redshift quasars and how they have been used to constrain the reionization history. This includes a full description of the various processes by which neutral hydrogen atoms can absorb/scatter ultraviolet photons, and which lead to the Gunn-Peterson effect, dark gap and dark pixel analyses, quasar near zones and damping wing absorption. Finally, the future prospects for using quasars as probes of reionization are described.

  5. High brightness electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy physics accelerators and free electron lasers put increased demands on the electron beam sources. This paper describes the present research on attaining intense bright electron beams using photoinjectors. Recent results from the experimental programs will be given. The performance advantages and difficulties presently faced by researchers will be discussed, and the following topics will be covered. Progress has been made in photocathode materials, both in lifetime and quantum efficiency. Cesium telluride has demonstrated significantly longer lifetimes than cesium antimonide at 10-8 torr. However, the laser system is more difficult because cesium telluride requires quadrupled YLF instead of the doubled YLF required for cesium antimonide. The difficulty in using photoinjectors is primarily the drive laser, in particular the amplitude stability. Finally, emittance measurements of photoinjector systems can be complicated by the non-thermal nature of the electron beam. An example of the difficulty in measuring beam emittance is given

  6. Extreme Brightness Temperatures and Refractive Substructure in 3C273 with RadioAstron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D.; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Gwinn, Carl R.; Gurvits, Leonid I.; Narayan, Ramesh; Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Jauncey, David L.; Voitsik, Peter A.; Anderson, James M.; Sokolovsky, Kirill V.; Lisakov, Mikhail M.

    2016-03-01

    Earth-space interferometry with RadioAstron provides the highest direct angular resolution ever achieved in astronomy at any wavelength. RadioAstron detections of the classic quasar 3C 273 on interferometric baselines up to 171,000 km suggest brightness temperatures exceeding expected limits from the “inverse-Compton catastrophe” by two orders of magnitude. We show that at 18 cm, these estimates most likely arise from refractive substructure introduced by scattering in the interstellar medium. We use the scattering properties to estimate an intrinsic brightness temperature of 7× {10}12 {{K}}, which is consistent with expected theoretical limits, but which is ˜15 times lower than estimates that neglect substructure. At 6.2 cm, the substructure influences the measured values appreciably but gives an estimated brightness temperature that is comparable to models that do not account for the substructure. At 1.35 {{cm}}, the substructure does not affect the extremely high inferred brightness temperatures, in excess of {10}13 {{K}}. We also demonstrate that for a source having a Gaussian surface brightness profile, a single long-baseline estimate of refractive substructure determines an absolute minimum brightness temperature, if the scattering properties along a given line of sight are known, and that this minimum accurately approximates the apparent brightness temperature over a wide range of total flux densities.

  7. Dust in the Quasar Wind (Artist Concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Dusty grains -- including tiny specks of the minerals found in the gemstones peridot, sapphires and rubies -- can be seen blowing in the winds of a quasar, or active black hole, in this artist's concept. The quasar is at the center of a distant galaxy. Astronomers using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence that such quasar winds might have forged these dusty particles in the very early universe. The findings are another clue in an ongoing cosmic mystery: where did all the dust in our young universe come from? Dust is crucial for efficient star formation as it allows the giant clouds where stars are born to cool quickly and collapse into new stars. Once a star has formed, dust is also needed to make planets and living creatures. Dust has been seen as far back as when the universe was less than a tenth of its current age, but how did it get there? Most dust in our current epoch forms in the winds of evolved stars that did not exist when the universe was young. Theorists had predicted that winds from quasars growing in the centers of distant galaxies might be a source of this dust. While the environment close to a quasar is too hot for large molecules like dust grains to survive, dust has been found in the cooler, outer regions. Astronomers now have evidence that dust is created in these outer winds. Using Spitzer's infrared spectrograph instrument, scientists found a wealth of dust grains in a quasar called PG2112+059 located at the center of a galaxy 8 billion light-years away. The grains - including corundum (sapphires and rubies); forsterite (peridot); and periclase (naturally occurring in marble) - are not typically found in galaxies without quasars, suggesting they might have been freshly formed in the quasar's winds.

  8. Quasar clustering in a galaxy and quasar formation model based on ultra high-resolution N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oogi, Taira; Enoki, Motohiro; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Makiya, Ryu; Nagashima, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    We investigate clustering properties of quasars using a new version of our semi-analytic model of galaxy and quasar formation with state-of-the-art cosmological N-body simulations. In this study, we assume that a major merger of galaxies triggers cold gas accretion on to a supermassive black hole and quasar activity. Our model can reproduce the downsizing trend of the evolution of quasars. We find that the median mass of quasar host dark matter haloes increases with cosmic time by an order of magnitude from z = 4 (a few 1011 M⊙) to z = 1 (a few 1012 M⊙), and depends only weakly on the quasar luminosity. Deriving the quasar bias through the quasar-galaxy cross-correlation function in the model, we find that the quasar bias does not depend on the quasar luminosity, similar to observed trends. This result reflects the fact that quasars with a fixed luminosity have various Eddington ratios and thus have various host halo masses that primarily determine the quasar bias. We also show that the quasar bias increases with redshift, which is in qualitative agreement with observations. Our bias value is lower than the observed values at high redshifts, implying that we need some mechanisms that make quasars inactive in low-mass haloes and/or that make them more active in high-mass haloes.

  9. Balmer line shifts in quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Sulentic, J W; Del Olmo, A; Zamfir, S

    2015-01-01

    We offer a broad review of Balmer line phenomenology in type 1 active galactic nuclei, briefly sum- marising luminosity and radio loudness effects, and discussing interpretation in terms of nebular physics along the 4D eigenvector 1 sequence of quasars. We stress that relatively rare, peculiar Balmer line profiles (i.e., with large shifts with respect to the rest frame or double and multiple peaked) that start attracted attentions since the 1970s are still passable of multiple dynamical interpretation. More mainstream objects are still not fully understood as well, since competing dynamical models and geometries are possible. Further progress may come from inter-line comparison across the 4D Eigenvector 1 sequence.

  10. The Gaia Initial Quasar Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, H.; Antón, S.; Taris, F.; Bourda, G.; Souchay, J.; Bouquillon, J.; Barache, C.; Pereira Osorio, J. J.; Charlot, P.; Vieira Martins, R.; Lambert, S.; Camargo, J. I.; da Silva Neto, D. N.; Assan, M.; le Campion, J.-F.

    2014-12-01

    We present the latest, updated, and fully corrected version of the Gaia Initial QSO Catalog (GIQC), produced by the CU3 GWP-S-335-13000. It contains 1 248 372 objects, of which 191 802 are considered and marked as Defining ones, because of their observational history and existence of spectroscopic redshift. Also objects with strong, calibrator-like radio emission are included in this category. The Defining objects represent a clean sample of quasars. The remaining objects aim to bring completeness to the GIQC at the time of its compilation. For the whole GIQC the average density is 30.3 sources per sq.deg., practically all sources have an indication of magnitude and of morphological indexes, and 90% of the sources have an indication of redshift and of variability indexes.

  11. A Simple Model for Quasar Demographics

    CERN Document Server

    Conroy, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple model for the relationship between quasars, galaxies, and dark matter halos from 0quasars is adopted, wherein BHs shine at a fixed fraction of the Eddington luminosity during accretion episodes, and Eddington ratios are drawn from a lognormal distribution that is redshift-independent. This model has two free, physically meaningful parameters at each redshift, the normalization of the M_BH-M_gal relation and the quasar duty cycle; these parameters are fit to the observed quasar luminosity function (LF) over the interval 0.5quasars from 0.5quasar duty cycle at each redshift is c...

  12. QUASARS PROBING QUASARS. VI. EXCESS H I ABSORPTION WITHIN ONE PROPER Mpc OF z ∼ 2 QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochaska, J. Xavier; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Lau, Marie Wingyee [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hennawi, Joseph F.; Lee, Khee-Gan; Myers, Adam; Rubin, Kate H. R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69115 Heidelberg (Germany); Bovy, Jo [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Djorgovski, S. G. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ellison, Sara L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Finnerty Road, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 1A1 (Canada); Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Simcoe, Robert A. [MIT-Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    With close pairs of quasars at different redshifts, a background quasar sightline can be used to study a foreground quasar's environment in absorption. We use a sample of 650 projected quasar pairs to study the H I Lyα absorption transverse to luminous, z ∼ 2 quasars at proper separations of 30 kpc < R < 1 Mpc. In contrast to measurements along the line-of-sight, regions transverse to quasars exhibit enhanced H I Lyα absorption and a larger variance than the ambient intergalactic medium, with increasing absorption and variance toward smaller scales. Analysis of composite spectra reveals excess absorption characterized by a Lyα equivalent width profile W = 2.3 Å (R /100 kpc){sup –0.46}. We also observe a high (≅ 60%) covering factor of strong, optically thick H I absorbers (H I column N{sub H{sub I}}>10{sup 17.3} cm{sup -2}) at separations R < 200 kpc, which decreases to ∼20% at R ≅ 1 Mpc, but still represents a significant excess over the cosmic average. This excess of optically thick absorption can be described by a quasar-absorber cross-correlation function ξ{sub QA}(r) = (r/r{sub 0}){sup γ} with a large correlation length r{sub 0} = 12.5{sup +2.7}{sub -1.4} h{sup -1} Mpc (comoving) and γ=1.68{sup +0.14}{sub -0.30}. The H I absorption measured around quasars exceeds that of any previously studied population, consistent with quasars being hosted by massive dark matter halos M{sub halo} ≈ 10{sup 12.5} M{sub ☉} at z ∼ 2.5. The environments of these massive halos are highly biased toward producing optically thick gas, and may even dominate the cosmic abundance of Lyman limit systems and hence the intergalactic opacity to ionizing photons at z ∼ 2.5. The anisotropic absorption around quasars implies the transverse direction is much less likely to be illuminated by ionizing radiation than the line-of-sight.

  13. Flickering Quasar Helps Chandra Measure the Expansion Rate of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    intervening galaxy can act as a lens," said Bautz. "Now imagine that the distant lensed quasar suddenly became brighter. The mirage images of the quasar will brighten up at different times depending on the difference in the light travel delay." Unlike ordinary galaxies, quasars do vary greatly in their intensity, especially in the X-ray waveband, said Gordon Garmire, Evan Pugh Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics at Penn State. This is caused by the violent and erratic flow of gas into the black hole that is powering the quasar. In quasar RX J0911.4+0551, the astronomers saw a sudden brightening of X-ray intensity that lasted for about 2,000 seconds. This was observed in one of the four mirage images. Measuring the time-delay of the 2,000-second flare--or any flare-- from mirage to mirage can provide the absolute distance to the deflector (intervening galaxy) and can thus be used to estimate the expansion rate of the universe. Sjur Refsdal first proposed this promising method in 1964. The method avoids many uncertainties associated with the classic distance-ladder technique used to measure objects and the Hubble constant. The main difficulty in measuring time-delays is that the brightness of each image has to be carefully monitored over several periods of the time-delay. Also, the quasar has to show sufficient variability over time scales smaller than the time-delay. Most attempts to measure time-delays until now have been made in the optical and radio bands. The modest variability of quasars in these wavebands, however, has made it extremely difficult to place accurate constraints on time-delays. X-ray observations of gravitationally lensed quasars, on the other hand, show strong variability over time scales of hours to days. For example, it has taken almost 20 years of optical and radio monitoring to obtain a universal accepted time-delay for the lensed quasar Q0957+561 to an accuracy of 3percent. Chandra has the potential, the team has found, to determine the time

  14. The Optical Variability of SDSS Quasars from Multi-epoch Spectroscopy. III. A Sudden UV Cutoff in Quasar SDSS J2317+0005

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Hengxiao; Gu, Minfeng; Li, Linlin; Prochaska, J Xavier; Ma, Jingzhe; You, Bei; Zafar, Tayyaba; Liao, Mai

    2016-01-01

    We have collected near-infrared to X-ray data of 20 multi-epoch heavily reddened SDSS quasars to investigate the physical mechanism of reddening. Of these, J2317+0005 is found to be a UV cutoff quasar. Its continuum, which usually appears normal, decreases by a factor 3.5 at 3000{\\AA}, compared to its more typical bright state during an interval of 23 days. During this sudden continuum cut-off, the broad emission line fluxes do not change, perhaps due to the large size of the Broad Line Region (BLR), r > 23 / (1+z) days. The UV continuum may have suffered a dramatic drop out. However, there are some difficulties with this explanation. Another possibility is that the intrinsic continuum did not change, but was temporarily blocked out, at least towards our line of sight. As indicated by X-ray observations, the continuum rapidly recovers after 42 days. A comparison of the bright state and dim states would imply an eclipse by a dusty cloud with a reddening curve having a remarkably sharp rise shortward of 3500{\\A...

  15. NuSTAR unveils a compton-thick 2 quasar in MrK 34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandhi, P.; Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.;

    2014-01-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) 3-40 keV observations of the optically selected Type 2 quasar (QSO2) SDSS J1034+6001 or Mrk 34. The high-quality hard X-ray spectrum and archival XMM-Newton data can be fitted self-consistently with a reflection-dominated continuum and a s...... potentially power the total infrared luminosity. X-ray spectral fitting also shows that thermal emission related to star formation is unlikely to drive the observed bright soft component below similar to 3 keV, favoring photoionization instead....

  16. Simultaneous observations of the quasar 3C 273 with INTEGRAL, XMM-Newton and RXTE

    OpenAIRE

    Courvoisier, T. J. -L.; Beckmann, V.; Bourban, G.; Chenevez, J.; Chernyakova, M.; Deluit, S.; Favre, P; Grindlay, J. E.; Lund, N.; O'Brien, P; Page, K; Produit, N.; M. Türler; Turner, M. J. L.; Staubert, R.

    2003-01-01

    INTEGRAL has observed the bright quasar 3C 273 on 3 epochs in January 2003 as one of the first observations of the open programme. The observation on January 5 was simultaneous with RXTE and XMM-Newton observations. We present here a first analysis of the continuum emission as observed by these 3 satellites in the band from 3 keV to 500 keV. The continuum spectral energy distribution of 3C 273 was observed to be weak and steep in the high energies during this campaign. We present the actual s...

  17. Radio jet of the quasar 3C273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flatters, C.; Conway, R.G.

    1985-04-04

    Although 3C273 was one of the first quasars to be identified, the extended feature 3C273A, which can be detected at radio, optical and X-ray wavelengths, remains an enigma. The source is an extreme example of a one-sided radio source (3C273A has no detectable counter component) and this fact, coupled with the presence of the optical emission, makes it unlikely that 3C273A is a normal (slow-moving) radio lobe. Superluminal transverse motion at milliarc second scales shows that relativistic velocities occur within the quasar itself, 3C273B; it is an open question whether these velocities persist out to 3C273A. It has been widely suggested that Doppler beaming causes the one-sidedness of this and similar sources by suppressing the receding half of the source, but there are no spectral lines by which the Doppler shift of 3C273A could be directly measured. Thus, any (indirect) indication of the velocity is of interest. Here new MERLIN observations of the brightness and polarization of the radio jet of 3C273 at a resolution of 0.35 arc s are presented. One of the most marked features of the new map, the high polarization found within the head of the source, is hard to explain. If the motion is indeed fast, then relativistic aberration should be taken into account; it suggests that this leads to a natural explanation of the high observed polarization. 18 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  18. Quasar clustering in a galaxy and quasar formation model based on ultra high-resolution N-body simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Oogi, Taira; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu A R; Makiya, Ryu; Nagashima, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    We investigate clustering properties of quasars using a new version of our semi-analytic model of galaxy and quasar formation with state-of-the-art cosmological N-body simulations. In this study, we assume that a major merger of galaxies triggers cold gas accretion on to a supermassive black hole and quasar activity. Our model can reproduce the downsizing trend of the evolution of quasars. We find that the median mass of quasar host dark matter haloes increases with cosmic time by an order of magnitude from z=4 (a few 1e+11 Msun) to z=1 (a few 1e+12 Msun), and depends only weakly on the quasar luminosity. Deriving the quasar bias through the quasar--galaxy cross-correlation function in the model, we find that the quasar bias does not depend on the quasar luminosity, similar to observed trends. This result reflects the fact that quasars with a fixed luminosity have various Eddington ratios and thus have various host halo masses that primarily determine the quasar bias. We also show that the quasar bias increas...

  19. Beacons in Time: Maarten Schmidt and the Discovery of Quasars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Tells the story of Maarten Schmidt and the discovery of quasars. Discusses the decomposition of light, crucial observations and solving astronomical mysteries. Describes spectroscopic analysis used in astronomy and its application to quasars. (CW)

  20. Alignment of quasar polarizations with large-scale structures

    CERN Document Server

    Hutsemékers, Damien; Pelgrims, Vincent; Sluse, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the optical linear polarization of quasars belonging to Gpc-scale quasar groups at redshift z ~ 1.3. Out of 93 quasars observed, 19 are significantly polarized. We found that quasar polarization vectors are either parallel or perpendicular to the directions of the large-scale structures to which they belong. Statistical tests indicate that the probability that this effect can be attributed to randomly oriented polarization vectors is of the order of 1%. We also found that quasars with polarization perpendicular to the host structure preferentially have large emission line widths while objects with polarization parallel to the host structure preferentially have small emission line widths. Considering that quasar polarization is usually either parallel or perpendicular to the accretion disk axis depending on the inclination with respect to the line of sight, and that broader emission lines originate from quasars seen at higher inclinations, we conclude that quasar spin axes are likely parallel ...

  1. Radio-Selected Quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Helfand, David J.; White, Richard L.

    2009-12-01

    We have conducted a pilot survey for z > 3.5 quasars by combining the FIRST radio survey with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). While SDSS already targets FIRST sources for spectroscopy as quasar candidates, our survey includes fainter quasars and greatly improves the discovery rate by using strict astrometric criteria for matching the radio and optical positions. Our method allows for selection of high-redshift quasars with less color bias than with optical selection, as using radio selection essentially eliminates stellar contamination. We report the results of spectroscopy for 45 candidates, including 29 quasars in the range 0.37 3.5. We compare quasars selected using radio and optical criteria, and find that radio-selected quasars have a much higher fraction of moderately reddened objects. We derive a radio-loud quasar luminosity function at 3.5 4.0, and find that it is in good agreement with expectations from prior SDSS results.

  2. Using quasars as standard clocks for measuring cosmological redshift

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, De-Chang; Starkman, Glenn D.; Stojkovic, Branislav; Stojkovic, Dejan; Weltman, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    We report hitherto unnoticed patterns in quasar light curves. We characterize segments of quasars' light curves with the slopes of the straight lines fit through them. These slopes appear to be directly related to the quasars' redshifts. Alternatively, using only global shifts in time and flux, we are able to find significant overlaps between the light curves of different pairs of quasars by fitting the ratio of their redshifts. We are then able to reliably determine the redshift of one quasa...

  3. A Simple Method To Find All Lensed Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Kochanek, C. S.; Mochejska, B.; Morgan, N. D.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that gravitationally lensed quasars are easily recognized using image subtraction methods as time variable sources that are spatially extended. For Galactic latitudes |b|>20 deg, lensed quasars dominate the population of spatially extended variable sources, although there is some contamination from variable star pairs, variable star-quasar pairs and binary quasars that can be easily controlled using other information in the survey such as the object light curves and colors. Thi...

  4. Quasar ionization front Lyα emission in an inhomogeneous intergalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Frederick B.; Furlanetto, Steven R.; McQuinn, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    The conditions within the ionization front of a quasar during reionization (T ˜ 30 000 K, neutral hydrogen fraction x_H I˜ 0.5) are ideal for producing Lyα emission via collisional excitation of hydrogen atoms. Observations of this emission, which could subtend ≳ 10 arcmin2 on the sky, would definitively demonstrate the presence of a neutral intergalactic medium at the observed epoch, placing valuable constraints on the progress of reionization. We find that the expected Lyα surface brightness is significantly weaker than previously determined and may be impossible to observe with current and near-future instruments. Past work calculated the Lyα emission from a quasar ionization front in a homogeneous medium with a clumping factor approximation to account for inhomogeneities. We find using 1D radiative transfer calculations that this approximation overestimates the emission by a factor of ≳ 3. Our calculations model the propagation of ionizing photons and compute the Lyα emission from quasar ionization fronts on sightlines from a hydrodynamic cosmological simulation at z = 7.1. To better understand the physical properties of the emission, we also develop an analytic model that accurately describes the results of the full radiative transfer calculation.

  5. The compact structure of radio-loud broad absorption line quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Jiang, D. R.; Wang, T. G.; Xie, F. G.

    2008-11-01

    We present the results of EVN+MERLIN very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) polarization observations of eight broad absorption line (BAL) quasars at 1.6 GHz, including four low-ionization BAL quasars (LoBALs) and four high-ionization BAL quasars (HiBALs) with either steep or flat spectra on Very Large Array (VLA) scales. Only one steep-spectrum source, J1122+3124, shows two-sided structure on the scale of 2 kpc. The other four steep-spectrum sources and three flat-spectrum sources display either an unresolved image or a core-jet structure on scales of less than 300 pc. In all cases, the marginally resolved core is the dominant radio component. Linear polarization in the cores has been detected in the range of a few to 10 per cent. Polarization, together with high brightness temperatures (from 2 × 109 to 5 × 1010K), suggests a synchrotron origin for the radio emission. There is no apparent difference in the radio morphologies or polarization between low-ionization and high-ionization BAL quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) or between flat- and steep-spectrum sources. We discuss the orientation of BAL QSOs with both flat and steep spectra, and consider a possible evolutionary scenario for BAL QSOs. In this scenario, BAL QSOs are probably a young population of radio sources that are compact steep spectrum or GHz peaked radio source analogues at the low end of radio power.

  6. The Gamma-ray Activity of the high-z Quasar 0836+71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorstad Svetlana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Fermi LAT detected an increase in γ-ray activity of the quasar 0836+710 (z=2.17 in Spring 2011 that culminated in a sharp γ-ray flare at the end of 2011 when the source reached a flux of 2.9×10−6 phot s−1cm−2 at 0.1-200 GeV. We monitor the quasar at optical wavelengths in photometric and polarimetric modes, at millimeter and centimeter wavelengths, and with the VLBA at 43 GHz. The optical brightness of the quasar increased by ~0.5 mag in R band and the degree of polarization oscillated between ~1% and ~6% during the highest γ-ray state, while the position angle of polarization rotated by ~300°. We have identified in the VLBA images a strong, highly polarized component that moves with an apparent speed of ~20 c. The component emerged from the core in the beginning of the γ-ray event and reached a flux maximum at the peak of the γ-ray outburst. We present the results of a correlative analysis of variations at different wavelengths along with the kinematic parameters of the parsec scale jet. We discuss the location of the high γ-ray emission in the relativistic jet, as well as the emission mechanisms responsible for γ-ray production.

  7. VLBI observations of a flared optical quasar CGRaBS J0809+5341

    CERN Document Server

    An, Tao; Paragi, Zsolt; Frey, Sandor; Gurvits, Leonid I; Gabanyi, Krisztina E

    2016-01-01

    A bright optical flare was detected in the high-redshift ($z=2.133$) quasar CGRaBS J0809+5341 on 2014 April 13. The absolute magnitude of the object reached $-30.0$ during the flare, making it the brightest one (in flaring stage) among all known quasars so far. The 15 GHz flux density of CGRaBS J0809+5341 monitored in the period from 2008 to 2016 also reached its peak at the same time. To reveal any structural change possibly associated with the flare in the innermost radio structure of the quasar, we conducted a pilot very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observation of CGRaBS J0809+5341 using the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 5 GHz on 2014 November 18, about seven months after the prominent optical flare. Three epochs of follow-up KaVA (Korean VLBI Network and VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry Array) observations were carried out at 22 and 43 GHz frequencies from 2015 February 25 to June 4, with the intention of exploring a possibly emerging new radio jet component associated with the optical flare. ...

  8. Detection of CO(1 to 0) emission from infrared quasars and luminous Seyfert galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N. Z.; Zensus, A.; Soifer, B. T.; Wilson, T. L.

    1989-01-01

    CO(1 to 0) emission has been detected from the infrared quasar IRAS 07598+6508 and the luminous Seyfert galaxies IRAS 08572+3915 and Markarian 463 with the IRAM 30-m telescope. These objects were selected from a complete list of warm ultraluminous IRAS sources. The maximum redshift observed was 0.149 (cz = 44.621 km/s , IRAS 07598+6508). Assuming the same empirical relationship between CO brightness and H2 surface mass density as has been found for giant molecular clouds in the Milky Way, the mass of H2 gas in these objects is in the range 0.7 - 6 x 10 to the 10th solar masses, more than 2 - 20 times the H2 content of the Galaxy. The infrared and molecular gas properties of these galaxies are similar to other 'warm' ultraluminous infrared galaxies such as Mrk 231, and the UV-excess quasar Mrk 1014. It is suggested that objects such as these represent an important link in the evolution of ultraluminous infrared galaxies into UV-excess quasars.

  9. Time delay and lens redshift for the doubly imaged BAL quasar SBS1520+530

    CERN Document Server

    Burud, I; Courbin, F; Cohen, J G; Magain, P; Jaunsen, A O; Kaas, A A; Faure, C; Letawe, G

    2002-01-01

    We present optical R-band light curves of the gravitationally lensed quasar SBS1520+530 derived from data obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope. A time delay of 130+/-3 days (1 sigma) is determined from the light curves. In addition, spectra of SBS1520+530 obtained at the Keck Observatory are spatially deconvolved in order to extract the spectrum of the faint lensing galaxy, free of any contamination by the light from the bright quasar images. This spectrum indicates a lens redshift z=0.717, in agreement with one of the absorption systems found in the quasar spectra. The best mass model of the system includes a second nearby galaxy and a cluster of galaxies in addition to the main lensing galaxy. Adopting this model and an Omega=0.3, Lambda=0.7 cosmology, our time-delay measurement yields a Hubble constant of H_0=51+/- 9, km/s/Mpc (1 sigma error).

  10. The LAMOST survey of background quasars in the vicinity of the Andromeda and Triangulum galaxies. II. Results from the commissioning observations and the pilot surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new quasars discovered in the vicinity of the Andromeda and Triangulum galaxies with the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope, also named the Guoshoujing Telescope, during the 2010 and 2011 observational seasons. Quasar candidates are selected based on the available Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Kitt Peak National Observatory 4 m telescope, Xuyi Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey optical, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer near-infrared photometric data. We present 509 new quasars discovered in a stripe of ∼135 deg2 from M31 to M33 along the Giant Stellar Stream in the 2011 pilot survey data sets, and also 17 new quasars discovered in an area of ∼100 deg2 that covers the central region and the southeastern halo of M31 in the 2010 commissioning data sets. These 526 new quasars have i magnitudes ranging from 15.5 to 20.0, redshifts from 0.1 to 3.2. They represent a significant increase of the number of identified quasars in the vicinity of M31 and M33. There are now 26, 62, and 139 known quasars in this region of the sky with i magnitudes brighter than 17.0, 17.5, and 18.0, respectively, of which 5, 20, and 75 are newly discovered. These bright quasars provide an invaluable collection with which to probe the kinematics and chemistry of the interstellar/intergalactic medium in the Local Group of galaxies. A total of 93 quasars are now known with locations within 2.°5 of M31, of which 73 are newly discovered. Tens of quasars are now known to be located behind the Giant Stellar Stream, and hundreds are behind the extended halo and its associated substructures of M31. The much enlarged sample of known quasars in the vicinity of M31 and M33 can potentially be utilized to construct a perfect astrometric reference frame to measure the minute proper motions (PMs) of M31 and M33, along with the PMs of substructures associated with the Local Group of galaxies. Those PMs are some of the most fundamental properties of the Local Group.

  11. Obscuration by Gas and Dust in Luminous Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Usman, Shawn M.; Murray, Stephen S.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Brodwin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We explore the connection between absorption by neutral gas and extinction by dust in mid-infrared (IR) selected luminous quasars. We use a sample of 33 quasars at redshifts 0.7 150 counts) in Chandra observations. We divide the quasars into dust-obscured and unobscured samples based on their optical to...

  12. Is the 3C273 quasar mach nearer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of ''superlight'' expansion of some quasars resulting from cosmologic interpretation of red shift is considered. Possibility of determining distance to 3C273 quasar, taking account of its expansion angular velocity in frames of Doppler interpretation of quasar red shift value, is discussed

  13. Dual-frequency VSOP Imaging of a High-redshift Radio Quasar PKS 1402+044

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, J; Lobanov, A; Frey, S; Hong, X Y; Yang, Jun; Gurvits, Leonid; Lobanov, Andrei; Frey, Sandor; Hong, Xiao-Yu

    2006-01-01

    Based on the VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) observations at 1.6 and 5 GHz, we find that the luminous high-redshift (z=3.215) quasar PKS 1402+044 (J1405+0415) has a pronounced 'core--jet' structure. The jet shows a steeper spectral index and lower brightness temperature with the increase of the distance from the core. The variation of brightness temperature is basically consistent with the shock-in-jet model. Assuming that the jet is collimated by the ambient magnetic field, we estimate the mass of the central object as ~10^9 M_sun. The upper limit of the jet proper motion of PKS 1402+044 is 0.03 mas/yr (~3c) in the east-west direction.

  14. Relativistic redshifts in quasar broad lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The broad emission lines commonly seen in quasar spectra have velocity widths of a few percent of the speed of light, so special- and general-relativistic effects have a significant influence on the line profile. We have determined the redshift of the broad Hβ line in the quasar rest frame (determined from the core component of the [O III] line) for over 20,000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 quasar catalog. The mean redshift as a function of line width is approximately consistent with the relativistic redshift that is expected if the line originates in a randomly oriented Keplerian disk that is obscured when the inclination of the disk to the line of sight exceeds ∼30°-45°, consistent with simple active galactic nucleus unification schemes. This result also implies that the net line-of-sight inflow/outflow velocities in the broad-line region are much less than the Keplerian velocity when averaged over a large sample of quasars with a given line width.

  15. Evolution of Quasar Spectral Energy Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Amanda; Kennefick, J.; Mahmood, A.

    2012-05-01

    A common practice when formulating quasar luminosity functions (QLF) has been to adopt an average spectral index, $\\alpha$, for the sample even though it is well known that quasars exhibit a broad range of spectral energy distributions (SED.) We have investigated the possible evolution of $\\alpha$ as a function of redshift, as any evolution in this parameter would introduce or mask evolution in the QLF. We imaged 103 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars in the optical and near-infrared bands, near in time to mitigate the effects of variability, in three redshift bins centered at $z\\approx 1.9$, $2.7$, and $4.0$, corresponding to look-back times of 10-12 billion years. We present restframe UV-optical SED’s and spectral indices and discuss possible evolution in our sample. We also use single epoch spectra of the quasars to estimate the mass of the central black hole and discuss possible correlations of quasar properties such as mass, luminosity, and spectral shape.

  16. The UV Properties of SDSS Selected Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Trammell, G B; Schneider, D P; Richards, G T; Hall, P B; Anderson, S F; Brinkmann, J; Trammell, George B.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Schneider, Donald P.; Richards, Gordon T.; Hall, Patrick B.; Anderson, Scott F.

    2006-01-01

    We present an analysis of the broadband UV/optical properties of z<3.4 quasars matched in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) General Data Release 1 (GR1) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3 (SDSS DR3). Of the 6371 DR3 quasars covered by 204 GR1 tiles, 5380 have near-UV detections, while 3034 have both near-UV and far-UV detections using a matching radius of 7". Most of the DR3 sample quasars are detected in the near-UV until z~1.7, with the near-UV detection fraction dropping to ~50% by z~2. Statistical tests performed on the distributions of non-detections indicate that the optically-selected quasars missed in the UV tend to be optically faint or at high redshift. The GALEX positions are shown to be consistent with the SDSS astrometry to within an rms scatter of 0.6-0.7" in each coordinate, and empirically determined photometric errors from multi-epoch GALEX observations significantly exceed the Poissonian errors quoted in the GR1 object catalogs. The UV-detected quasars are well separated ...

  17. Relativistic redshifts in quasar broad lines

    CERN Document Server

    Tremaine, Scott; Liu, Xin; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The broad emission lines commonly seen in quasar spectra have velocity widths of a few per cent of the speed of light, so special- and general-relativistic effects have a significant influence on the line profile. We have determined the redshift of the broad H-beta line in the quasar rest frame (determined from the core component of the [OIII] line) for over 20,000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 quasar catalog. The mean redshift as a function of line width is approximately consistent with the relativistic redshift that is expected if the line originates in a randomly oriented Keplerian disk that is obscured when the inclination of the disk to the line of sight exceeds ~30-45 degrees, consistent with simple AGN unification schemes. This result also implies that the net line-of-sight inflow/outflow velocities in the broad-line region are much less than the Keplerian velocity when averaged over a large sample of quasars with a given line width.

  18. On the Search for Quasar Light Echoes

    CERN Document Server

    Visbal, Eli

    2007-01-01

    The UV radiation from a quasar leaves a characteristic pattern in the distribution of ionized hydrogen throughout the surrounding space. This pattern or light echo propagates through the intergalactic medium at the speed of light, and can be observed by its imprint on the Ly-alpha forest spectra of background sources. As the echo persists after the quasar has switched off, it offers the possibility of searching for dead quasars, and constraining their luminosities and lifetimes. We outline a technique to search for and characterize these light echoes. To test the method, we create artificial Ly-alpha forest spectra from cosmological simulations at z=3, apply light echoes and search for them. We show how the simulations can also be used to quantify the significance level of any detection. We find that light echoes from the brightest quasars could be found in observational data. With absorption line spectra of 100 redshift z~3-3.5 quasars or galaxies in a 1 square degree area, we expect that ~10 echoes from qua...

  19. Quasar Classification Using Color and Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Christina M; Myers, Adam D; Strauss, Michael A; Schmidt, Kasper B; Ivezić, Željko; Ross, Nicholas P; MacLeod, Chelsea L; Riegel, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    We conduct a pilot investigation to determine the optimal combination of color and variability information to identify quasars in current and future multi-epoch optical surveys. We use a Bayesian quasar selection algorithm (Richards et al. 2004) to identify 35,820 type 1 quasar candidates in a 239 square degree field of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, using a combination of optical photometry and variability. Color analysis is performed on 5-band single- and multi-epoch SDSS optical photometry to a depth of r ~22.4. From these data, variability parameters are calculated by fitting the structure function of each object in each band with a power law model using 10 to >100 observations over timescales from ~1 day to ~8 years. Selection was based on a training sample of 13,221 spectroscopically-confirmed type-1 quasars, largely from the SDSS. Using variability alone, colors alone, and combining variability and colors we achieve 91%, 93%, and 97% quasar completeness and 98%, 98%, and 97% efficiency ...

  20. Evolution of a Powerful Radio Loud Quasar 3C186 and its Impact on the Cluster Environment at z=1

    CERN Document Server

    Siemiginowska, Aneta; Burke, Doug; Bechtold, Jill; Cheung, C C; LaMassa, Stephanie; Worrall, Diana M

    2007-01-01

    X-ray cluster emission has been observed mainly in clusters with "inactive" cD galaxies (L_bol ~1E40-1E43erg/sec), which do not show signs of accretion onto a SMBH. Our recent Chandra discovery of ~100kpc scale diffuse X-ray emission revealed the presence of an X-ray cluster associated with the radio loud quasar 3C186 at redshift z=1.1 and suggests interactions between the quasar and the cluster. In contrast to the majority of X-ray clusters the 3C186 cluster contains a quasar in the center whose radiative power alone exceeds that which would be needed to quench the cluster cooling. We present the Chandra X-ray data and new deep radio and optical images of this cluster. The 3C186 quasar is a powerful Compact Steep Spectrum radio source expanding into the cluster medium. The 2arcsec radio jet is unresolved in the Chandra observation, but its direction is orthogonal to the elliptical surface brightness of the cluster. The radio data show the possible presence of old radio lobes on 10 arcsec scale in the directi...