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Sample records for bright ns lmxbs

  1. Spectral evolution of bright NS LMXBs with INTEGRAL: an application of the thermal plus bulk Comptonization model

    CERN Document Server

    Mainardi, L I; Farinelli, R; Kuulkers, E; Rodriguez, J; Hannikainen, D; Savolainen, P; Piraino, S; Bazzano, A; Santangelo, A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate in a physical and quantitative way the spectral evolution of bright Neutron Star Low-Mass X-ray Binaries (NS LMXBs), with special regard to the transient hard X-ray tails. We analyzed INTEGRAL data for five sources (GX 5-1, GX 349+2, GX 13+1, GX 3+1, GX 9+1) and built broad-band X-ray spectra from JEM-X1 and IBIS/ISGRI data. For each source, X-ray spectra from different states were fitted with the recently proposed model compTB. The spectra have been fit with a two-compTB model. In all cases the first compTB describes the dominant part of the spectrum that we interpret as thermal Comptonization of soft seed photons ( 1 keV), likely from the neutron star and the innermost part of the system, the Transition Layer, are Comptonized by matter in a converging flow. The presence and nature of this second compTB component (be it a pure blackbody or Comptonized) are related to the inner local accretion rate which can influence the transient behaviour of the hard tail: high values...

  2. Average hard X-ray emission from NS LMXBs: Observational evidence of different spectral states in NS LMXBs

    CERN Document Server

    Paizis, A; Titarchuk, L; Courvoisier, T J L; Bazzano, A; Beckmann, V; Frontera, F; Goldoni, P; Kuulkers, E; Mereghetti, S; Rodríguez, J; Vilhu, O

    2006-01-01

    We studied and compared the long term average hard X-ray (>20 keV) spectra of a sample of twelve bright low-mass X-ray binaries hosting a neutron star (NS). Our sample comprises the six well studied Galactic Z sources and six Atoll sources, four of which are bright ("GX") bulge sources while two are weaker ones in the 2-10 keV range (H 1750-440 and H 1608-55). For all the sources of our sample, we analysed available public data and extracted average spectra from the IBIS/ISGRI detector on board INTEGRAL. The two low-dim Atoll spectra are dominated by photons upscattered presumably due to dynamical and thermal Comptonization in an optically thin, hot plasma. For the first time, we extend the detection of H 1750-440 up to 150 keV. The Z and bright "GX" Atoll source spectra are very similar and are dominated by Comptonized blackbody radiation of seed photons presumably coming from the accretion disc and NS surface. The seed photons radiation is Comptonized in the optically thick cloud with plasma temperature in ...

  3. Boundary layer emission in luminous LMXBs

    CERN Document Server

    Gilfanov, M

    2005-01-01

    We show that aperiodic and quasiperiodic variability of bright LMXBs - atoll and Z- sources, on ~sec - msec time scales is caused primarily by variations of the boundary layer luminosity. The accretion disk emission is less variable on these time scales and its power density follows 1/f law, contributing to observed flux variation at low frequencies and low energies only. The kHz QPOs have the same origin as variability at lower frequencies - independent of the nature of the "clock", the actual luminosity modulation takes place on the NS surface. The boundary layer spectrum remains nearly constant during luminosity variations and can be represented by the Fourier frequency resolved spectrum. In the range of Mdot~(0.1-1)*Mdot_Edd it depends weakly on the global mass accretion rate and in the limit Mdot~Mdot_Edd is close to Wien spectrum with kT~2.4 keV. Its independence on the Mdot lends support to the suggestion by Inogamov & Sunyaev (1999) that the boundary layer is radiation pressure supported. Based on...

  4. X-ray variability with spectral state transitions in NS-LMXBs observed with MAXI/GSC and Swift/BAT

    CERN Document Server

    Asai, Kazumi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Sugizaki, Mutsumi

    2015-01-01

    X-ray variabilities with spectral state transitions in bright low mass X-ray binaries containing a neutron star are investigated by using the one-day bin light curves of MAXI/GSC (Gas Slit Camera) and Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope). Four sources (4U 1636$-$536, 4U 1705$-$44, 4U 1608$-$52, and GS 1826$-$238) exhibited small-amplitude X-ray variabilities with spectral state transitions. Such "mini-outbursts" were characterized by smaller amplitudes (several times) and shorter duration (less than several tens of days) than those of "normal outbursts." Theoretical model of disk instability by Mineshige and Osaki (PASJ, 37, 1, 1985) predicts both large-amplitude outbursts and small-amplitude variabilities. We interpret the normal outbursts as the former prediction of this model, and the mini-outbursts as the latter. Here, we can also call the mini-outburst as "purr-type outburst" referring to theoretical work. We suggest that similar variabilities lasting for several tens of days without spectral state transiti...

  5. Monitoring LMXBs with the Faulkes Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, F; Fender, R P; Roche, P; Lewis, Fraser; Russell, David M.; Fender, Rob P.; Roche, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The Faulkes Telescope Project is the educational arm of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT). It currently has two 2-metre robotic telescopes, located at Haleakala on Maui (FT North) and Siding Spring in Australia (FT South). It is planned to increase this to six 2-metre telescopes in the future, complemented by a network of 30-40 smaller (0.4-1 metre) telescopes providing 24 hour coverage of both northern and southern hemispheres. We are undertaking a study of 10 low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) using FT North to study the optical continuum behaviour of X-ray transients in quiescence. The introduction of FT South in September 2006 allows us to extend this monitoring to include 17 southern hemisphere LMXBs. With new instrumentation, we also intend to expand this monitoring to include both infrared wavelengths and spectroscopy.

  6. A New Evolutionary Picture for CVs and LMXBs

    CERN Document Server

    King, A R; King, Andrew R.; Schenker, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    We consider an alternative to the standard picture of CV and LMXB evolution, namely the idea that most CVs (and by extension LMXBs) may not yet have had time to evolve to their theoretical minimum orbital periods. We call this the Binary Age Postulate (BAP). The observed short-period cutoff in the CV histogram emerges naturally as the shortest period yet reached in the age of the Galaxy, while the post-minimum-period space density problem is removed. The idea has similar desirable consequences for LMXBs. In both cases systems with nuclear-evolved secondary stars form a prominent part of the short-period distributions. Properties such as the existence and nature of ultrashort-period systems, and the spread in mass transfer rates at a given orbital period, are naturally reproduced.

  7. Continued Monitoring of LMXBs with the Faulkes Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Fraser; Fender, Rob P; Roche, Paul; Clark, J Simon

    2008-01-01

    The Faulkes Telescope Project is an educational and research arm of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGTN). It has two 2-metre robotic telescopes, located at Haleakala on Maui (FT North) and Siding Spring in Australia (FT South). It is planned for these telescopes to be complemented by a research network of eighteen 1-metre telescopes, along with an educational network of twenty-eight 0.4-metre telescopes, providing 24 hour coverage of both northern and southern hemispheres. We have been conducting a monitoring project of 13 low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) using FT North since early 2006. The introduction of FT South has allowed us to extend this to monitor a total of 30 LMXBs. New instrumentation will allow us to expand this project to include both infrared wavelengths (z and y band) and spectroscopy. Brighter targets (~ 16 - 18 mag.) are imaged weekly in V, R and i' band (SNR ~ 50), while fainter ones (> 18 mag.) are observed only in i' band (SNR ~ 20). We alter this cadence in respon...

  8. XMM-Newton Observation of Diffuse Gas and LMXBs in the Elliptical Galaxy NGC 4649 (M60)

    CERN Document Server

    Randall, S W; Irwin, J A; Randall, Scott W.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2005-01-01

    (Abridged) We present an XMM-Newton X-ray observation of the X-ray bright E2 elliptical galaxy NGC 4649. In addition to bright diffuse emission, we resolve 158 discrete sources, ~50 of which are likely to be low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) associated with NGC 4649. We find evidence for variability in three sources between this observation and a previous Chandra observation. Additionally, we detect five sources that were not detected with Chandra despite its better detection limit, suggesting that these sources have since brightened. The total X-ray spectrum of the resolved sources is well-fit by a hard power-law, while the diffuse spectrum requires a hard and a soft component, presumably due to the relatively soft diffuse gas and the harder unresolved sources. A deprojection of the diffuse emission revealed a radial temperature gradient that is hot in the center, drops to a minimum at about 20-50" (1.6-4.1 kpc), and rises again in the outer regions. The diffuse emission appears to require a two-temperature mo...

  9. NS19504

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nausch, Bernhard; Rode, Frederik; Jørgensen, Susanne;

    2014-01-01

    19504 activated BK channels in native smooth muscle cells from guinea pig urinary bladder. In guinea pig urinary bladder strips, NS19504 (1 µM) reduced spontaneous phasic contractions, an effect that was significantly inhibited by the specific BK channel blocker iberiotoxin. In contrast, NS19504 (1 µ...... channel activators and identified a small-molecule positive modulator, NS19504 (5-[(4-bromophenyl)methyl]-1,3-thiazol-2-amine), which activated the BK channel with an EC50 value of 11.0 ± 1.4 µM. Hit validation was performed using high-throughput electrophysiology (QPatch), and further characterization......M) only modestly inhibited nerve-evoked contractions and had no effect on contractions induced by a high K(+) concentration consistent with a K(+) channel-mediated action. Collectively, these results show that NS19504 is a positive modulator of BK channels and provide support for the role of BK channels...

  10. Soft X-ray Absorption Edges in LMXBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The XMM observation of LMC X-2 is part of our program to study X-ray absorption in the interstellar medium (ISM). This program includes a variety of bright X-ray binaries in the Galaxy as well as the Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC). LMC X-2 is located near the heart of the LMC. Its very soft X-ray spectrum is used to determine abundance and ionization fractions of neutral and lowly ionized oxygen of the ISM in the LMC. The RGS spectrum so far allowed us to determine the O-edge value to be for atomic O, the EW of O-I in the ls-2p resonance absorption line, and the same for O-II. The current study is still ongoing in conjunction with other low absorption sources like Sco X-1 and the recently observed X-ray binary 4U 1957+11.

  11. Doppler Tomography of XTE J2123-058 and Other Neutron Star LMXBs

    CERN Document Server

    Hynes, R I; Haswell, C A; Casares, J; Zurita, C

    2000-01-01

    We describe Doppler tomography obtained in the 1998 outburst of the neutron star low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) XTE J2123-058. This analysis, and other aspects of phase-resolved spectroscopy, indicate similarities to SW Sex systems, except that anomalous emission kinematics are seen in HeII, whilst phase 0.5 absorption is confined to H alpha. This separation of these effects may provide tighter constraints on models in the LMXB case than is possible for SW Sex systems. We will compare results for other LMXBs which appear to show similar kinematics and discuss how models for the SW Sex phenomenon can be adapted to these systems. Finally we will summarise the limited Doppler tomography performed on the class of neutron star LMXBs as a whole, and discuss whether any common patterns can yet be identified.

  12. The Megasecond Chandra X-Ray Visionary Project Observation of NGC 3115 (III): luminosity functions of LMXBs and dependence on stellar environments

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Dacheng; Wong, Ka-wah; Jennings, Zachary G; Homan, Jeroen; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Remillard, Ronald A

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115, using the Megasecond Chandra X-Ray Visionary Project Observation. With a total exposure time of ~1.1 Ms, we constructed the XLF down to a limiting luminosity of ~10^36 erg/s, much deeper than typically reached for other early-type galaxies. We found significant flattening of the overall LMXB XLF from dN/dL \\propto L^{-2.2\\pm0.4} above 5.5x10^37 erg/s to dN/dL \\propto L^{-1.0\\pm0.1} below it, though we could not rule out a fit with a higher break at ~1.6x10^38 erg/s. We also found evidence that the XLF of LMXBs in globular clusters (GCs) is overall flatter than that of field LMXBs. Thus our results for this galaxy do not support the idea that all LMXBs are formed in GCs. The XLF of field LMXBs seems to show spatial variation, with the XLF in the inner region of the galaxy being flatter than that in the outer region, probably due to contamination of LMXBs from undetected and/or disrup...

  13. 50 ns Backup Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Bartosik, H; Goddard, B; Höfle, W; Iadarola, G; Meddahi, M; Pieloni, T; Rumolo, G; Salvant, B; Wenninger, J

    2014-01-01

    The baseline bunch spacing for LHC high luminosity proton-proton operation after LS3 is 25 ns to maximize the integrated luminosity while keeping the pile-up low. The success of this mode of operation is not guaranteed. Electron cloud, UFOs, long-range beambeam, heating and other effects might make 25 ns operation in the LHC and/or the injectors difficult. This talk will review possible showstoppers in the LHC and injectors for 25 ns operation and discuss possible remedies. An alternative would be re-considering 50 ns operation. An estimate of the 50 ns performance will be given. The question of whether a different upgrade path would have to be chosen in case of 50 ns operation will also be addressed.

  14. NS simulator for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Altman, Eitan

    2012-01-01

    NS-2 is an open-source discrete event network simulator which is widely used by both the research community as well as by the people involved in the standardization protocols of IETF. The goal of this book is twofold: on one hand to learn how to use the NS-2 simulator, and on the other hand, to become acquainted with and to understand the operation of some of the simulated objects using NS-2 simulations. The book is intended to help students, engineers or researchers who need not have much background in programming or who want to learn through simple examples how to analyse some simulated obje

  15. THE STUDY ON TCF BLEACHING OF NS REED PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meihong Niu; Shulan Shi; Jinghui Zhou; Yunzhan Zhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we have researched TCF bleaching on reed pulp including oxygen delignification, oxygen delignification with H2O2 intensification and H2O2 bleaching. The results show that Op-P bleaching process on NS reed pulp is suitable and the brightness of bleached pulp is up to 82% ISO.

  16. THE STUDY ON TCF BLEACHING OF NS REED PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MeihongNiu; ShulanShi; JinghuiZhou; YunzhanZhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we have researched TCF bleaching on reed pulp including oxygen delignification, oxygen delignification with H202 intensification and H2O2 bleaching. The results show that Op-P bleaching process on NS reed pulp is suitable and the brightness of bleached pulp is up to 82%ISO.

  17. Anisotropic Four-Dimensional NS-NS String Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C M; Mak, M K; Chen, Chiang-Mei

    2001-01-01

    An anisotropic (Bianchi type I) cosmology is considered in the four-dimensional NS-NS sector of low-energy effective string theory coupled to a dilaton and an axion-like $H$-field within a de Sitter-Einstein frame background. The time evolution of this Universe is discussed in both the Einstein and string frames.

  18. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  19. Sunspot Bright Points

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhary, Debi Prasad

    2010-01-01

    We used the flux calibrated images through the Broad Band Filter Imager and Stokes Polarimeter data obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope onboard the Hinode spacecraft to study the properties of bright points in and around the sunspots. The well isolated bright points were selected and classified as umbral dot, peripheral umbral dot, penumbral grains and G-band bright point depending on their location. Most of the bright points are smaller than about 150 km. The larger points are mostly associated with the penumbral features. The bright points are not uniformly distributed over the umbra but preferentially located around the penumbral boundary and in the fast decaying parts of umbra. The color temperature of the bright points, derived using the continuum irradiance, are in the range of 4600 K to 6600 K with cooler ones located in the umbra. The temperature increases as a function of distance from the center to outside. The G-band, CN-band and CaII H flux of the bright points as a function of their blue ba...

  20. NS&T Management Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotto, David [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The INL Management Observation Program (MOP) is designed to improve managers and supervisors understanding of work being performed by employees and the barriers impacting their success. The MOP also increases workers understanding of managements’ expectations as they relate to safety, security, quality, and work performance. Management observations (observations) are designed to improve the relationship and trust between employees and managers through increased engagement and interactions between managers and researchers in the field. As part of continuous improvement, NS&T management took initiative to focus on the participation and quality of observations in FY 14. This quarterly report is intended to (a) summarize the participation and quality of management’s observations, (b) assess observations for commonalities or trends related to facility or process barriers impacting research, and (c) provide feedback and make recommendations for improvements NS&T’s MOP.

  1. NS&T MANAGEMENT OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotto, David

    2014-06-01

    The INL Management Observation Program (MOP) is designed to improve managers and supervisors understanding of work being performed by employees and the barriers impacting their success. The MOP also increases workers understanding of managements’ expectations as they relate to safety, security, quality, and work performance. Management observations (observations) are designed to improve the relationship and trust between employees and managers through increased engagement and interactions between managers and researchers in the field. As part of continuous improvement, NS&T management took initiative to focus on the participation and quality of observations in FY 14. This quarterly report is intended to (a) summarize the participation and quality of management’s observations, (b) assess observations for commonalities or trends related to facility or process barriers impacting research, and (c) provide feedback and make recommendations for improvements NS&T’s MOP.

  2. Introduction to Network Simulator NS2

    CERN Document Server

    Issariyakul, Teerawat

    2012-01-01

    "Introduction to Network Simulator NS2" is a primer providing materials for NS2 beginners, whether students, professors, or researchers for understanding the architecture of Network Simulator 2 (NS2) and for incorporating simulation modules into NS2. The authors discuss the simulation architecture and the key components of NS2 including simulation-related objects, network objects, packet-related objects, and helper objects. The NS2 modules included within are nodes, links, SimpleLink objects, packets, agents, and applications. Further, the book covers three helper modules: timers, ra

  3. A Monte Carlo estimate for the fraction of thermal Comptonized photons that impinge back on the soft source in neutron star LMXBs

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Nagendra

    2016-01-01

    In earlier works, it was shown that the energy dependent soft time lags observed in kHz QPOs of neutron star low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) can be explained as being due to Comptonization lags provided a significant fraction ($\\eta \\sim 0.2$ - $0.8$) of the Comptonized photons impinge back into the soft photon source. Here we use a Monte Carlo scheme to verify if such a fraction is viable or not. In particular we consider three different Comptonizing medium geometries: (i) a spherical shell, (ii) a boundary layer like torus and (iii) a corona on top of an accretion disk. Two set of spectral parameters corresponding to the 'hot' and 'cold' seed photon models were explored. The general result of the study is that for a wide range of sizes, the fraction lies within $\\eta \\sim 0.3$ - $0.7$, and hence compatible with the range required to explain the soft time lags. Since there is a large uncertainty in the range, we cannot concretely rule out any of the geometries or spectral models, but the analysis suggests th...

  4. The brightness of colour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The perception of brightness depends on spatial context: the same stimulus can appear light or dark depending on what surrounds it. A less well-known but equally important contextual phenomenon is that the colour of a stimulus can also alter its brightness. Specifically, stimuli that are more saturated (i.e. purer in colour appear brighter than stimuli that are less saturated at the same luminance. Similarly, stimuli that are red or blue appear brighter than equiluminant yellow and green stimuli. This non-linear relationship between stimulus intensity and brightness, called the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (HK effect, was first described in the nineteenth century but has never been explained. Here, we take advantage of the relative simplicity of this 'illusion' to explain it and contextual effects more generally, by using a simple Bayesian ideal observer model of the human visual ecology. We also use fMRI brain scans to identify the neural correlates of brightness without changing the spatial context of the stimulus, which has complicated the interpretation of related fMRI studies. RESULTS: Rather than modelling human vision directly, we use a Bayesian ideal observer to model human visual ecology. We show that the HK effect is a result of encoding the non-linear statistical relationship between retinal images and natural scenes that would have been experienced by the human visual system in the past. We further show that the complexity of this relationship is due to the response functions of the cone photoreceptors, which themselves are thought to represent an efficient solution to encoding the statistics of images. Finally, we show that the locus of the response to the relationship between images and scenes lies in the primary visual cortex (V1, if not earlier in the visual system, since the brightness of colours (as opposed to their luminance accords with activity in V1 as measured with fMRI. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that perceptions

  5. CA BrightStor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    CA推出的BrightStor系列存储管理解决方案已经成为企业电子商务体系架构管理战略中举足轻重的组成部分。BrightStor是一整套企业级的智能化存储管理解决方案,定位在存储硬件设备和上层应用之间,通过各种集成化的产品和工具为驻留在企业任何位置的数据提供全方位的、有效的存储管理和保护。

  6. Bright Economic Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Minqiu

    2004-01-01

    @@ India is expected to register an 8.2% growth rate for the 2003-04 fiscal year. The overall economic situation this year has been satisfactory despite the scaled down 6-6.5% growth rate for the new fiscal year due to oil price hikes, reduced monsoon volume and some 7% inflation. Judging from the following factors, bright prospects are in store for the country down the road.

  7. Low surface brightness galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhulst, J. M.; Deblok, W. J. G.; Mcgaugh, S. S.; Bothun, G. D.

    1993-01-01

    A program to investigate the properties of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies involving surface photometry in U, B, V, R, I, and H-alpha, HI imaging with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and the very large array (VLA) and spectrophotometry of H2 regions in LSB galaxies is underway. The goal is to verify the idea that LSB galaxies have low star formation rates because the local gas density falls below the critical density for star formation, and to study the stellar population and abundances in LSB galaxies. Such information should help understanding the evolutionary history of LSB galaxies. Some preliminary results are reported.

  8. Introduction to Network Simulator NS2

    CERN Document Server

    Issariyakul, Teerawat

    2008-01-01

    A beginners' guide for network simulator NS2, an open-source discrete event simulator designed mainly for networking research. It presents two fundamental NS2 concepts: how objects are assembled to create a network and how a packet flows from one object to another

  9. Allosteric inhibition of the NS2B-NS3 protease from dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Muslum; Ghosh, Sumana; Bell, Jeffrey A; Sherman, Woody; Hardy, Jeanne A

    2013-12-20

    Dengue virus is the flavivirus that causes dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic disease, and dengue shock syndrome, which are currently increasing in incidence worldwide. Dengue virus protease (NS2B-NS3pro) is essential for dengue virus infection and is thus a target of therapeutic interest. To date, attention has focused on developing active-site inhibitors of NS2B-NS3pro. The flat and charged nature of the NS2B-NS3pro active site may contribute to difficulties in developing inhibitors and suggests that a strategy of identifying allosteric sites may be useful. We report an approach that allowed us to scan the NS2B-NS3pro surface by cysteine mutagenesis and use cysteine reactive probes to identify regions of the protein that are susceptible to allosteric inhibition. This method identified a new allosteric site utilizing a circumscribed panel of just eight cysteine variants and only five cysteine reactive probes. The allosterically sensitive site is centered at Ala125, between the 120s loop and the 150s loop. The crystal structures of WT and modified NS2B-NS3pro demonstrate that the 120s loop is flexible. Our work suggests that binding at this site prevents a conformational rearrangement of the NS2B region of the protein, which is required for activation. Preventing this movement locks the protein into the open, inactive conformation, suggesting that this site may be useful in the future development of therapeutic allosteric inhibitors. PMID:24164286

  10. Point mutations in E2, NS3 and NS5A of hepatitis G virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Dong Liu; Toshikazu Hada; Ji Dong Cheng; Kazuya Higashino

    2000-01-01

    AIM To compare the point mutation deviations of HGV among E2, NS3 and NSSA.METHODS Seven patients with hepatic diseases from Japan and China were selected for this study. RNAwas extracted and amplified by semi-nested RT-PCR; and the PCR products were sequenced directly.RESULTS The point mutation deviations of HGV ia E2, NS3 and NS5A were 10% - 17%, 11% -23%,and 0% - 5%, in nuclcotide sequences and 4% - 12%, 0%, and 0% - 6% in amino acid sequencesrespectively.CONCLUSION The frequency of variation at the nucleotide level was in the order NS3>E2>NS5A, whileat the amino acid level the order was E2 >NS5A>NS3. The detected sequences from the N-terminus of E2may be the poorly conserved region of HGV.

  11. Rationalizing meat consumption. The 4Ns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Jared; Ruby, Matthew B; Loughnan, Steve; Luong, Mischel; Kulik, Juliana; Watkins, Hanne M; Seigerman, Mirra

    2015-08-01

    Recent theorizing suggests that the 4Ns - that is, the belief that eating meat is natural, normal, necessary, and nice - are common rationalizations people use to defend their choice of eating meat. However, such theorizing has yet to be subjected to empirical testing. Six studies were conducted on the 4Ns. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrated that the 4N classification captures the vast majority (83%-91%) of justifications people naturally offer in defense of eating meat. In Study 2, individuals who endorsed the 4Ns tended also to objectify (dementalize) animals and included fewer animals in their circle of moral concern, and this was true independent of social dominance orientation. Subsequent studies (Studies 3-5) showed that individuals who endorsed the 4Ns tend not to be motivated by ethical concerns when making food choices, are less involved in animal-welfare advocacy, less driven to restrict animal products from their diet, less proud of their animal-product decisions, tend to endorse Speciesist attitudes, tend to consume meat and animal products more frequently, and are highly committed to eating meat. Furthermore, omnivores who strongly endorsed the 4Ns tended to experience less guilt about their animal-product decisions, highlighting the guilt-alleviating function of the 4Ns. PMID:25865663

  12. Data Mining of NS-2 Trace File

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Jawad Kadhim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is important process to extract the use ful information and pattern from huge amount of dat a. NS-2 is an efficient tool to build the environment of network. The results from simulate these environ ment in NS-2 is trace file that contains several columns and lines represent the network events. This trace file can be used to analyse the network according to per formance metrics but it has redundant columns and rows. So, this paper is to perform the data mining in order to find only the necessary information in analysis operation to reduce the execution time and the storage size of the trace file.

  13. Evolution of laser-produced Sn extreme ultraviolet source diameter for high-brightness source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the effect of irradiation of solid Sn targets with laser pulses of sub-ns duration and sub-mJ energy on the diameter of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emitting region and source conversion efficiency. It was found that an in-band EUV source diameter as low as 18 μm was produced due to the short scale length of a plasma produced by a sub-ns laser. Most of the EUV emission occurs in a narrow region with a plasma density close to the critical density value. Such EUV sources are suitable for high brightness and high repetition rate metrology applications.

  14. Non-structural protein NS3/NS3a is required for propagation of bluetongue virus in Culicoides sonorensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Femke; Drolet, B.S.; Boonstra, Jan; Rijn, Van P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes non-contagious haemorrhagic disease in ruminants and is transmitted by Culicoides spp. biting midges. BTV encodes four non-structural proteins of which NS3/NS3a is functional in virus release. NS3/NS3a is not essential for in vitro virus replication. Howe

  15. Non-structural protein NS3/NS3a is required for propagation of bluetongue virus in Culicoides sonorensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes non-contagious haemorrhagic disease in ruminants and is transmitted by Culicoides spp. biting midges. BTV encodes four non-structural proteins of which NS3/NS3a is functional in virus release. NS3/NS3a is not essential for in vitro virus replication. However...

  16. Teradiode's high brightness semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Lochman, Bryan; Zhou, Wang; Cruz, Mike; Cook, Rob; Dugmore, Dan; Shattuck, Jeff; Tayebati, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    TeraDiode is manufacturing multi-kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers for industrial applications. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 4,680 W from a 100 μm core diameter, lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 3.5 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP multi-kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 4-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers. We have also demonstrated novel high peak power lasers and high brightness Mid-Infrared Lasers.

  17. Integrated performance of the LHC at 25 ns without and with Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, J

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the LHC above 6.5 TeV will depend on many factors. The available beams and their brightness defines together with achievable beta* the potential peak luminosity. For some cases the peak luminosity and the associated event pile-up may degrade the quality of the data recorded by the experiments. Such cases will require luminosity leveling for which a number of options are available. The peak performance may also be limited by cooling capacities and other equipment related issues, including machine protection as well as UFOs. The 25 ns beams require in addition substantial periods of scrubbing. The performance of the LHC in terms of integrated luminosity will be evaluated for various scenarios involving 25 ns beams, taking into account potential limitations from the various sources.

  18. The EUVE bright source list

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroozas, B.; Mcdonald, K.; Antia, B.; Mcdonald, J.; Wiercigroch, A.

    1993-01-01

    Initial results for bright extreme ultraviolet sources discovered during the EUVE all-sky and deep ecliptic surveys have been published as a Bright Source List (BSL) and released to the astronomical community with a recent NASA research announcement (NRA 93-OSS-02, Appendix F). This paper describes the data processing software, the EUVE survey data set, and the production of the BSL at the Center for EUV Astrophysics. The contents, format, and selection criteria for sources, the data processing strategy, some problems encountered, and a summary of the BSL results are presented.

  19. All things bright and beautiful

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Chloe

    2012-01-01

    'All Things Bright and Beautiful' was exhibited in 20/21 Visual Arts Centre, Scunthorpe, which is sited in a 'redundant' church. The fundamental question that the exhibition explored concerned the role of 'the animal' within contemporary art and within secular society, which in turn hoped to prompt reflections on our understanding of the place of 'the human' in the world and in nature. If there is no divine order, as posited by the hymn 'All Things Bright and Beautiful', where does this leave...

  20. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    Six bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  1. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J M [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); McDonald, G S [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Chamorro-Posada, P [Departmento de TeorIa de la Senal y Comunicaciones e IngenierIa Telematica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Campus Miguel Delibes s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2007-02-16

    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts.

  2. GPM Intercalibrated Radiometer Brightness Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Chou, Joyce

    2013-04-01

    One of the keys to consistent precipitation retrieval from passive microwave radiometer measurements (whether imagers or sounders) is accurate, long-term consistent brightness temperature retrievals. This becomes doubly important when there measurements are taken from radiometers on multiple platforms, from multiple agencies, with many different purposes. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission addresses this issue directly with the production of intercalibrated brightness temperatures from all the partner satellites contributing to the GPM mission. These intercalibrated brightness temperatures are given the product designation: 1C within GPM. This paper will describe the GPM approach to intercalibration 1C products. The intercalibration and creation of the products uses a 5-step methodology: comparison of the partner standard products (either Tb or Ta) with the GPM reference standard; determination of adjustments that should be made to each product to create consistent brightness temperatures; re-orbitization of all orbits (in non-realtime) to be in the standard GPM south-south orbit; application of the adjustments to the partner provide 1B(or 1A) products; production of 1C products in HDF5 using a "standard" logical format for any radiometer regardless of its 1B format. This paper describes each of these steps and provides the background for them. It discusses in some detail the current 1C logical format and why this format facilitates use by downstream product algorithms and end-users. Most importantly it provides the analysis approach established by the GPM inter-calibration working group in establishing the adjustments to be made at the 1C level. Finally, using DMSP F16-18, it provides examples of the 1C products and discusses the adjustments that are made.

  3. Bright solitons from defocusing nonlinearities

    OpenAIRE

    Borovkova, Olga V.; Kartashov, Yaroslav; Torner Sabata, Lluís; Malomed, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    We report that defocusing cubic media with spatially inhomogeneous nonlinearity, whose strength increases rapidly enough toward the periphery, can support stable bright localized modes. Such nonlinearity landscapes give rise to a variety of stable solitons in all three dimensions, including one-dimensional fundamental and multihump states, two-dimensional vortex solitons with arbitrarily high topological charges, and fundamental solitons in three dimensions. Solitons maintain their coherence ...

  4. High brightness semiconductor lasers with reduced filamentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter.; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.;

    1999-01-01

    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in spectroscopy, fiber lasers, manufacturing and materials processing, medicine and free space communication or energy transfer. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that, because of COD, high power requires a large aperture...

  5. NS-417, a novel compound with neurotrophic-like effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagø, Lone; Peters, Dan; Meyer, Morten;

    2002-01-01

    NS-417 (5-(4-Chlorophenyl)-8-methyl-6-7-8-9-tetrahydro-1-H-pyrrolo[3.2-h]isoquinoline-2,3-dione-3-oxim hydrochloric acid salt) belongs to a new chemical series of compounds. NS-417 rescued differentiated PC12 cells from death induced by withdrawal of serum and nerve growth factor. Furthermore, NS...

  6. High-brightness rf linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The issue of high brightness and its ramifications in linacs driven by radio-frequency fields is discussed. A history of the RF linacs is reviewed briefly. Some current applications are then examined that are driving progress in RF linacs. The physics affecting the brightness of RF linacs is then discussed, followed by the economic feasibility of higher brightness machines. (LEW)

  7. Purification and crystallization of dengue and West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystals of dengue serotype 2 and West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 protease complexes have been obtained and the crystals of both diffract to useful resolution. Sample homogeneity was essential for obtaining X-ray-quality crystals of the dengue protease. Controlled proteolysis produced a crystallizable fragment of the apo West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 and crystals were also obtained in the presence of a peptidic inhibitor. Both dengue and West Nile virus infections are an increasing risk to humans, not only in tropical and subtropical areas, but also in North America and parts of Europe. These viral infections are generally transmitted by mosquitoes, but may also be tick-borne. Infection usually results in mild flu-like symptoms, but can also cause encephalitis and fatalities. Approximately 2799 severe West Nile virus cases were reported this year in the United States, resulting in 102 fatalities. With this alarming increase in the number of West Nile virus infections in western countries and the fact that dengue virus already affects millions of people per year in tropical and subtropical climates, there is a real need for effective medicines. A possible therapeutic target to combat these viruses is the protease, which is essential for virus replication. In order to provide structural information to help to guide a lead identification and optimization program, crystallizations of the NS2B–NS3 protease complexes from both dengue and West Nile viruses have been initiated. Crystals that diffract to high resolution, suitable for three-dimensional structure determinations, have been obtained

  8. Purification and crystallization of dengue and West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Arcy, Allan, E-mail: allan.darcy@novartis.com; Chaillet, Maxime; Schiering, Nikolaus; Villard, Frederic [Novartis Institutes of Biomedical Research, Protease Platform, Klybeckstrasse 144, CH 4002 Basel (Switzerland); Lim, Siew Pheng [Novartis Institutes of Tropical Diseases (Singapore); Lefeuvre, Peggy [Novartis Institutes of Biomedical Research, Protease Platform, Klybeckstrasse 144, CH 4002 Basel (Switzerland); Erbel, Paul [Novartis Institutes of Biomedical Research, Protease Platform, Klybeckstrasse 144, CH 4002 Basel (Switzerland); Novartis Institutes of Tropical Diseases (Singapore)

    2006-02-01

    Crystals of dengue serotype 2 and West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 protease complexes have been obtained and the crystals of both diffract to useful resolution. Sample homogeneity was essential for obtaining X-ray-quality crystals of the dengue protease. Controlled proteolysis produced a crystallizable fragment of the apo West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 and crystals were also obtained in the presence of a peptidic inhibitor. Both dengue and West Nile virus infections are an increasing risk to humans, not only in tropical and subtropical areas, but also in North America and parts of Europe. These viral infections are generally transmitted by mosquitoes, but may also be tick-borne. Infection usually results in mild flu-like symptoms, but can also cause encephalitis and fatalities. Approximately 2799 severe West Nile virus cases were reported this year in the United States, resulting in 102 fatalities. With this alarming increase in the number of West Nile virus infections in western countries and the fact that dengue virus already affects millions of people per year in tropical and subtropical climates, there is a real need for effective medicines. A possible therapeutic target to combat these viruses is the protease, which is essential for virus replication. In order to provide structural information to help to guide a lead identification and optimization program, crystallizations of the NS2B–NS3 protease complexes from both dengue and West Nile viruses have been initiated. Crystals that diffract to high resolution, suitable for three-dimensional structure determinations, have been obtained.

  9. A Macrocyclic Fluorophore Dimer with Flexible Linkers: Bright Excimer Emission with a Long Fluorescence Lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Hiroshi; Chou, Chih-Ming; Taki, Masayasu; Welke, Kai; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Irle, Stephan; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Saito, Shohei; Fukazawa, Aiko; Yamaguchi, Shigehiro

    2016-06-13

    Bright fluorescent molecules with long fluorescence lifetimes are important for the development of lifetime-based fluorescence imaging techniques. Herein, a molecular design is described for simultaneously attaining long fluorescence lifetime (τ) and high brightness (ΦF ×ɛ) in a system that features macrocyclic dimerization of fluorescent π-conjugated skeletons with flexible linkers. An alkylene-linked macrocyclic dimer of bis(thienylethynyl)anthracene was found to show excimer emission with a long fluorescence lifetime (τ≈19 ns) in solution, while maintaining high brightness. A comparison with various relevant derivatives revealed that the macrocyclic structure and the length of the alkylene chains play crucial roles in attaining these properties. In vitro time-gated imaging experiments were conducted as a proof-of-principle for the superiority of this macrocyclic fluorophore relative to the commercial fluorescent dye Alexa Fluor 488. PMID:27121201

  10. BRIGHT 'MERGER-NOVA' FROM THE REMNANT OF A NEUTRON STAR BINARY MERGER: A SIGNATURE OF A NEWLY BORN, MASSIVE, MILLISECOND MAGNETAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yun-Wei [Institute of Astrophysics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zhang, Bing; Gao, He, E-mail: yuyw@mail.ccnu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    A massive millisecond magnetar may survive the merger of a neutron star (NS) binary, which would continuously power the merger ejecta. We develop a generic dynamic model for the merger ejecta with energy injection from the central magnetar. The ejecta emission (the {sup m}erger-nova{sup )} powered by the magnetar peaks in the UV band and the peak of the light curve, progressively shifts to an earlier epoch with increasing frequency. A magnetar-powered merger-nova could have an optical peak brightness comparable to a supernova, which is a few tens or hundreds times brighter than the radioactive-powered merger-novae (the so-called macro-nova or kilo-nova). On the other hand, such a merger-nova would peak earlier and have a significantly shorter duration than that of a supernova. An early collapse of the magnetar could suppress the brightness of the optical emission and shorten its duration. Such millisecond-magnetar-powered merger-novae may be detected from NS-NS merger events without an observed short gamma-ray burst, and could be a bright electromagnetic counterpart for gravitational wave bursts due to NS-NS mergers. If detected, it suggests that the merger leaves behind a massive NS, which has important implications for the equation-of-state of nuclear matter.

  11. High-brightness electron injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators and synchrotron light sources require pulse trains of high peak brightness and, in some applications, high-average power. Recent developments in the technology of photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for electron-linac injector applications offer promising advances over conventional electron injectors. Reduced emittance growth in high peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by using high field strengths and by linearizing the radial component of the cavity electric field at the expense of lower shunt impedance

  12. High brightness beams and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the present research on attaining intense bright electron beams. Thermionic systems are briefly covered. Recent and past results from the photoinjector programs are given. The performance advantages and difficulties presently faced by researchers using photoinjectors is discussed. The progress that has been made in photocathode materials, both in lifetime and quantum efficiency, is covered. Finally, a discussion of emittance measurements of photoinjector systems and how the measurement is complicated by the non-thermal nature of the electron beam is presented

  13. Bright Flares in Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients

    CERN Document Server

    Shakura, N; Sidoli, L; Paizis, A

    2014-01-01

    At steady low-luminosity states, Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) can be at the stage of quasi-spherical settling accretion onto slowly rotating magnetized NS from the OB-companion winds. At this stage, a hot quasi-static shell is formed above the magnetosphere, the plasma entry rate into magnetosphere is controlled by (inefficient) radiative plasma cooling, and the accretion rate onto the NS is suppressed by a factor of \\sim 30 relative to the Bondi-Hoyle-Littleton value. Changes in the local wind velocity and density can only slightly increase the mass accretion rate (a factor of \\sim 10) bringing the system into the Compton cooling dominated regime and led to the production of moderately bright flares (L_x\\lesssim 10^{36} erg/s). To interpret the brightest flares (L_x>10^{36}~erg/s) displayed by the SFXTs, we propose that a larger increase in the mass accretion rate can be produced by sporadic capture of magnetized stellar wind plasma. At sufficiently low accretion rates, magnetic reconnection can ...

  14. The Bright New Financial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Associate Professor Adela Coman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available By the end of 2008, Mr. Paul Volcker gave financiers a devastating critique. “For all its talented participants, for all its rich rewards” he said, the “bright new financial system” has “failed the test of the marketplace”.In light of the events of recent weeks, it is hard to disagree. A financial system that ends up with the government taking over some of its biggest institutions in serial weekend rescues and which requires the promise of 700 billion dollars in public money to stave off catastrophe is not a trustworthy system. The disappearance of all five big American investment banks – either by bankruptcy or rebirth as commercial banks – is powerful evidence that Wall Street failed “the test of the marketplace”. Something went wrong.But what exactly and why? A more serious analysis needs to distinguish between three separate questions: what is Mr. Volcker’s “bright new financial system”? Second, how far was today’s mess created by instabilities that are inseparable from modern finance and how far was it fuelled by other errors and distortions? Third, to the extent that modern finance does bear the blame, what is the balance between its costs and its benefits and how can it be improved?

  15. How Bright Can Supernovae Get?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Supernovae enormous explosions associated with the end of a stars life come in a variety of types with different origins. A new study has examined how the brightest supernovae in the Universe are produced, and what limits might be set on their brightness.Ultra-Luminous ObservationsRecent observations have revealed many ultra-luminous supernovae, which haveenergies that challenge our abilities to explain them usingcurrent supernova models. An especially extreme example is the 2015 discovery of the supernova ASASSN-15lh, which shone with a peak luminosity of ~2*1045 erg/s, nearly a trillion times brighter than the Sun. ASASSN-15lh radiated a whopping ~2*1052 erg in the first four months after its detection.How could a supernova that bright be produced? To explore the answer to that question, Tuguldur Sukhbold and Stan Woosley at University of California, Santa Cruz, have examined the different sources that could produce supernovae and calculated upper limits on the potential luminosities ofeach of these supernova varieties.Explosive ModelsSukhbold and Woosley explore multiple different models for core-collapse supernova explosions, including:Prompt explosionA stars core collapses and immediately explodes.Pair instabilityElectron/positron pair production at a massive stars center leads to core collapse. For high masses, radioactivity can contribute to delayed energy output.Colliding shellsPreviously expelled shells of material around a star collide after the initial explosion, providing additional energy release.MagnetarThe collapsing star forms a magnetar a rapidly rotating neutron star with an incredibly strong magnetic field at its core, which then dumps energy into the supernova ejecta, further brightening the explosion.They then apply these models to different types of stars.Setting the LimitThe authors show that the light curve of ASASSN-15lh (plotted in orange) can be described by a model (black curve) in which a magnetar with an initial spin period of 0.7 ms

  16. [Bright light therapy for elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Masako

    2015-06-01

    Bright light therapy (BLT) holds considerable promise for sleep problems in the elderly. BLT for community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease showed significant improvement in sleep parameters. In the institutional setting, BLT was effective in reducing daytime nap duration. Morning BLT was found to advance the peak circadian rhythm and increase activity level in daytime and melatonin level at night. Light therapy could be used in combination with other nonpharmacological methods such as social activities, outside walking, physical exercises, which showed greater effects than independent BLT on sleep and cognitive function. BLT treatment strategy was proposed in the present paper. We should pay more attentions to BLT in community setting for mental and physical well-being. PMID:26065132

  17. Strong pollinator-mediated selection for increased flower brightness and contrast in a deceptive orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletvold, Nina; Trunschke, Judith; Smit, Mart; Verbeek, Jeffrey; Ågren, Jon

    2016-03-01

    Contrasting flower color patterns that putatively attract or direct pollinators toward a reward are common among angiosperms. In the deceptive orchid Anacamptis morio, the lower petal, which makes up most of the floral display, has a light central patch with dark markings. Within populations, there is pronounced variation in petal brightness, patch size, amount of dark markings, and contrast between patch and petal margin. We tested whether pollinators mediate selection on these color traits and on morphology (plant height, number of flowers, corolla size, spur length), and whether selection is consistent with facilitated or negative frequency-dependent pollination. Pollinators mediated strong selection for increased petal brightness (Δβpoll = 0.42) and contrast (Δβpoll = 0.51). Pollinators also tended to mediate stabilizing selection on brightness (Δγpoll = -0.27, n.s.) favoring the most common phenotype in the population. Selection for reduced petal brightness among hand-pollinated plants indicated a fitness cost associated with brightness. The results demonstrate that flower color traits influence pollination success and seed production in A. morio, indicating that they affect attractiveness to pollinators, efficiency of pollen transfer, or both. The documented selection is consistent with facilitated pollination and selection for color convergence toward cooccurring rewarding species. PMID:26878831

  18. Higher Derivative Corrections to O-plane Actions: NS-NS Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We classify all possible two- and four-derivative couplings of bulk NS-NS sector fields to a single Op-plane which are compatible with diffeomorphism invariance and B-field gauge invariance. This is applicable to type IIA or IIB superstrings or to the bosonic string. We then consider this general action in various classes of backgrounds that admit a U(1) isometry and determine the constraints on the couplings from consistency with T-duality. We show that this consistency requires the two-derivative action to vanish, and the entire non-linear four-derivative action is fixed up to one overall constant which can be determined by comparison with a two-point scattering amplitude. The resulting action is consistent with all previously computed couplings.

  19. Ns-Modbus: Integration of Modbus with ns-3 network simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Sahraei, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Modbus, a de facto industry standard communication protocol, was first introduced by Modicon for serial communication networks. Modbus TCP emerged when Ethernet gained popularity in the industry. Modbus is simple, robust, and widely used in industrial applications. It has been simulated and emulated in a number of stand-alone applications. The goal of this project is to integrate Modbus TCP and UDP with the ns-3.13 network simulator.

  20. Quantum communication with macroscopically bright nonclassical states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, Vladyslav C; Ruppert, Laszlo; Filip, Radim

    2015-11-30

    We analyze homodyne detection of macroscopically bright multimode nonclassical states of light and propose their application in quantum communication. We observe that the homodyne detection is sensitive to a mode-matching of the bright light to the highly intense local oscillator. Unmatched bright modes of light result in additional noise which technically limits detection of Gaussian entanglement at macroscopic level. When the mode-matching is sufficient, we show that multimode quantum key distribution with bright beams is feasible. It finally merges the quantum communication with classical optical technology of visible beams of light. PMID:26698776

  1. Balance of RNA sequence requirement and NS3/NS3a expression of segment 10 of orbiviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Femke; van Gennip, René G P; Schreuder, Myrte; van Rijn, Piet A

    2016-02-01

    Orbiviruses are insect-transmitted, non-enveloped viruses with a ten-segmented dsRNA genome of which the bluetongue virus (BTV) is the prototype. Viral non-structural protein NS3/NS3a is encoded by genome segment 10 (Seg-10), and is involved in different virus release mechanisms. This protein induces specific release via membrane disruptions and budding in both insect and mammalian cells, but also the cytopathogenic release that is only seen in mammalian cells. NS3/NS3a is not essential for virus replication in vitro with BTV Seg-10 containing RNA elements essential for virus replication, even if protein is not expressed. Recently, new BTV serotypes with distinct NS3/NS3a sequence and cell tropism have been identified. Multiple studies have hinted at the importance of Seg-10 in orbivirus replication, but the exact prerequisites are still unknown. Here, more insight is obtained with regard to the needs for orbivirus Seg-10 and the balance between protein expression and RNA elements. Multiple silent mutations in the BTV NS3a ORF destabilized Seg-10, resulting in deletions and sequences originating from other viral segments being inserted, indicating strong selection at the level of RNA during replication in mammalian cells in vitro. The NS3a ORFs of other orbiviruses were successfully exchanged in BTV1 Seg-10, resulting in viable chimeric viruses. NS3/NS3a proteins in these chimeric viruses were generally functional in mammalian cells, but not in insect cells. NS3/NS3a of the novel BTV serotypes 25 and 26 affected virus release from Culicoides cells, which might be one of the reasons for their distinct cell tropism. PMID:26644214

  2. Brazilian Flavivirus phylogeny based on NS5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleotti, Flúvia Graciela; Moreli, Marcos Lázaro; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2003-04-01

    In this work, a comprehensive phylogenetic study based on 600 base pair nucleotide and on putative 200 amino acid sequences of NS5 was carried out in order to establish genetic relationships among 15 strains of 10 Brazilian flaviviruses: Bussuquara, Cacipacore, dengue type 1, 2 and 4, Iguape, Ilheus, Rocio, Saint Louis encephalitis (SLE), and yellow fever. Phylogenetic trees were created by neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. These trees showed Brazilian flaviviruses grouped into three main branches: yellow fever branch, dengue branch subdivided in types 1, 2 and 4 branches, and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) complex branch including SLE virus strains, Cacipacore, Iguape, Rocio, Ilheus and Bussuquara. Viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, such as dengue and urban yellow fever, that are also the only Flavivirus causing hemorrhagic fevers in Brazil, were grouped in the same cluster. Encephalitis associated viruses, transmitted by Culex mosquitoes such as JEV complex branch including SLE virus strains, Cacipacore, Iguape, Rocio, Ilheus and Bussuquara were also grouped in the same clade.

  3. Characterisation of divergent flavivirus NS3 and NS5 protein sequences detected in Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Maruyama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Transcripts similar to those that encode the nonstructural (NS proteins NS3 and NS5 from flaviviruses were found in a salivary gland (SG complementary DNA (cDNA library from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Tick extracts were cultured with cells to enable the isolation of viruses capable of replicating in cultured invertebrate and vertebrate cells. Deep sequencing of the viral RNA isolated from culture supernatants provided the complete coding sequences for the NS3 and NS5 proteins and their molecular characterisation confirmed similarity with the NS3 and NS5 sequences from other flaviviruses. Despite this similarity, phylogenetic analyses revealed that this potentially novel virus may be a highly divergent member of the genus Flavivirus. Interestingly, we detected the divergent NS3 and NS5 sequences in ticks collected from several dairy farms widely distributed throughout three regions of Brazil. This is the first report of flavivirus-like transcripts in R. microplus ticks. This novel virus is a potential arbovirus because it replicated in arthropod and mammalian cells; furthermore, it was detected in a cDNA library from tick SGs and therefore may be present in tick saliva. It is important to determine whether and by what means this potential virus is transmissible and to monitor the virus as a potential emerging tick-borne zoonotic pathogen.

  4. Soliton fay identities: II. Bright soliton case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a set of bilinear matrix identities that generalize the ones that have been used to construct the bright soliton solutions for various models. As an example of an application of these identities, we present a simple derivation of the N-bright soliton solutions for the Ablowitz–Ladik hierarchy. (paper)

  5. Spatial Brightness Perception of Trichromatic Stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.; Houser, Kevin W.

    2012-11-16

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of tuning optical radiation on brightness perception for younger (18-25 years of age) and older (50 years of age or older) observers. Participants made forced-choice evaluations of the brightness of a full factorial of stimulus pairs selected from two groups of four metameric stimuli. The large-field stimuli were created by systematically varying either the red or the blue primary of an RGB LED mixture. The results indicate that light stimuli of equal illuminance and chromaticity do not appear equally bright to either younger or older subjects. The rank-order of brightness is not predicted by any current model of human vision or theory of brightness perception including Scotopic to Photopic or Cirtopic to Photopic ratio theory, prime color theory, correlated color temperature, V(λ)-based photometry, color quality metrics, linear brightness models, or color appearance models. Age may affect brightness perception when short-wavelength primaries are used, especially those with a peak wavelength shorter than 450 nm. The results suggest further development of metrics to predict brightness perception is warranted, and that including age as a variable in predictive models may be valuable.

  6. SURFACE PHOTOMETRY OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBLOK, WJG; VANDERHULST, JM; BOTHUN, GD

    1995-01-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are galaxies dominated by an exponential disc whose central surface brightness is much fainter than the value of mu(B)(0) = 21.65 +/- 0.30 mag arcsec(-2) found by Freeman. In this paper we present broadband photometry of a sample of 21 late-type LSB galaxies. Th

  7. Brightness and darkness as perceptual dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, T.; Lucassen, M.P.; Cornelissen, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    A common-sense assumption concerning visual perception states that brightness and darkness cannot coexist at a given spatial location. One corollary of this assumption is that achromatic colors, or perceived grey shades, are contained in a one-dimensional (1-D) space varying from bright to dark. The

  8. Incoherently coupled dark-bright photorefractive solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhigang; Segev, Mordechai; Coskun, Tamer H.; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Afanasjev, Vsevolod V.

    1996-11-01

    We report the observation of incoherently coupled dark-bright spatial soliton pairs in a biased bulk photorefractive crystal. When such a pair is decoupled, the dark component evolves into a triplet structure, whereas the bright one decays into a self-defocusing beam.

  9. Brightness Alteration with Interweaving Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roncato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromatic induction is observed whenever the perceived colour of a target surface shifts towards the hue of a neighbouring surface. Some vivid manifestations may be seen in a white background where thin coloured lines have been drawn (assimilation or when lines of different colours are collinear (neon effect or adjacent (watercolour to each other. This study examines a particular colour induction that manifests in concomitance with an opposite effect of colour saturation (or anti-spread. The two phenomena can be observed when a repetitive pattern is drawn in which outline thin contours intercept wider contours or surfaces, colour spreading appear to fill the surface occupied by surfaces or thick lines whereas the background traversed by thin lines is seen as brighter or filled of a saturated white. These phenomena were first observed by Bozzi (1975 and Kanizsa (1979 in figural conditions that did not allow them to document their conjunction. Here we illustrate various manifestations of this twofold phenomenon and compare its effects with the known effects of brightness and colour induction. Some conjectures on the nature of these effects are discussed.

  10. Evidence that flavivirus NS1-NS2A cleavage is mediated by a membrane-bound host protease in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    OpenAIRE

    Falgout, B; Markoff, L

    1995-01-01

    Previous deletion mutagenesis studies have shown that the flavivirus NS1-NS2A clevage requires the eight C-terminal residues of NS1, constituting the cleavage recognition sequence, and sequences in NS2A far downstream of the cleavage site. We now demonstrate that replacement of all of NS1 upstream of the cleavage recognition sequence with prM sequences still allows cleavage in vivo. Thus, other than the eight C-terminal residues, NS1 is dispensable for NS1-NS2A cleavage. However, deletion of ...

  11. Bright Sparks of Our Future!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Naoimh

    2016-04-01

    My name is Naoimh Riordan and I am the Vice Principal of Rockboro Primary School in Cork City, South of Ireland. I am a full time class primary teacher and I teach 4th class, my students are aged between 9-10 years. My passion for education has developed over the years and grown towards STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects. I believe these subjects are the way forward for our future. My passion and beliefs are driven by the unique after school programme that I have developed. It is titled "Sparks" coming from the term Bright Sparks. "Sparks" is an after school programme with a difference where the STEM subjects are concentrated on through lessons such as Science, Veterinary Science Computer Animation /Coding, Eco engineering, Robotics, Magical Maths, Chess and Creative Writing. All these subjects are taught through activity based learning and are one-hour long each week for a ten-week term. "Sparks" is fully inclusive and non-selective which gives all students of any level of ability an opportunity to engage into these subjects. "Sparks" is open to all primary students in County Cork. The "Sparks" after school programme is taught by tutors from the different Universities and Colleges in Cork City. It works very well because the tutor brings their knowledge, skills and specialised equipment from their respective universities and in turn the tutor gains invaluable teaching practise, can trial a pilot programme in a chosen STEM subject and gain an insight into what works in the physical classroom.

  12. Designers predict a bright future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As power plant designers and builders, there is a bright future for the industry. The demand for electricity will continue to grow, and the need for new plants will increase accordingly. But companies that develop and supply these plants must adapt to new ways of doing business if they expect to see the dawn of this new age. Several factors will have a profound effect on the generation and use of electricity in future years. Instant communications now reach all corners of the globe, making people everywhere aspire to a higher standard of living. The economic surge needed to satisfy these appetites will, in turn, be fed by a network of suppliers who are themselves restructuring to serve global markets, unimpeded by past nationalistic barriers to trade. The strong correlation between economic progress and the growing demand for electricity is well recognized. A ready supply of affordable electricity is a necessary underpinning for any economic expansion. As economies advance and jobs increase, electric demand grows geometrically, fueled by an ever-improving quality of life. Coupled with increasing demand is the worldwide trend toward privatization of the generation industry. The reasons may vary in different parts of the world, but the effect is the same--companies are battling intensely for the right to build or purchase generating facilities. Those companies, like the industry they serve, are themselves in a period of transition. Once a closed, monopolistic group of owners in a predominantly services-based market, they are, thanks to competitive forces, being driven steadily toward a product-based structure

  13. Selection of high-brightness, laser-driven cathodes for electron accelerators and FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very intense, low emittance pulsed beams of electrons can be generated from laser-driven cathodes either by thermionic- or photo-emission. Several hundreds of amperes of electrons per square centimeter were observed for pulse lengths up to 50 ns. A normalized beam brightness of 107 A/cm2/rad2 has been measured. These beams can be emission-gated at the cathode surface by modulating the laser-beam. Such beam bunching will generate picosecond-to-microsecond-long pulses at the source. A variety of cathodes are described, and a method of selection for specific applications is presented

  14. Flavivirus NS3 and NS5 proteins interaction network: a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canard Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Flavivirus encompasses more than 50 distinct species of arthropod-borne viruses, including several major human pathogens, such as West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and the four serotypes of dengue viruses (DENV type 1-4. Each year, flaviviruses cause more than 100 million infections worldwide, some of which lead to life-threatening conditions such as encephalitis or haemorrhagic fever. Among the viral proteins, NS3 and NS5 proteins constitute the major enzymatic components of the viral replication complex and are essential to the flavivirus life cycle. Results We report here the results of a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screen to identify the interactions between human host proteins and the flavivirus NS3 and NS5 proteins. Using our screen results and literature curation, we performed a global analysis of the NS3 and NS5 cellular targets based on functional annotation with the Gene Ontology features. We finally created the first flavivirus NS3 and NS5 proteins interaction network and analysed the topological features of this network. Our proteome mapping screen identified 108 human proteins interacting with NS3 or NS5 proteins or both. The global analysis of the cellular targets revealed the enrichment of host proteins involved in RNA binding, transcription regulation, vesicular transport or innate immune response regulation. Conclusions We proposed that the selective disruption of these newly identified host/virus interactions could represent a novel and attractive therapeutic strategy in treating flavivirus infections. Our virus-host interaction map provides a basis to unravel fundamental processes about flavivirus subversion of the host replication machinery and/or immune defence strategy.

  15. Monoclonal antibodies against NS1 protein of Goose parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zheng; Tian, Wei; Yu, Tianfei; Li, Li; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against NS1 protein of Goose parvovirus (GPV) were generated. The secreted MAbs were obtained by fusing mouse myeloma cells and spleen cells of BALB/c mice, which were immunized with the plasmid pcDNA3.1-GPV-NS1 and recombinant protein of GPV-NS1. With indirect ELISA, six hybridoma cell lines against GPV-NS1 were screened. The subtypes of the two MAbs were IgG2a; the others were IgM. The light chain was κ. Western blot analysis showed that six MAbs reacted with recombinant protein GPV-NS1. GPV-NS1 was dissected into 15 overlapping epitopes, which were used to react with MAbs in Western blot. Results showed that six MAbs recognized NS1 protein linear B-cell epitopes located at the C-terminus 453-514 aa, 485-542 aa, and 533-598 aa.

  16. NS-branes in 5d brane world models

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Eun Kyung

    2010-01-01

    We study codimension-1 brane solutions of the 5d brane world models compactified on $S_1 / \\mathbb{Z}_2$. In string theoretical setup they suggest that the background branes located at orbifold fixed points should be NS-branes (in the five dimensional sense), rather than D-branes. Indeed, the existence of the background NS-branes is indispensable to obtain flat geometry $M_4 \\times S_1 / \\mathbb{Z}_2$ where $M_4$ represents the 4d Minkowski spacetime, and without these branes the 5d metric becomes singular everywhere. This result is very reminiscent of the $(p+3)$d effective string theory \\cite{1} where the NS-NS type $p$-brane is indispensable to obtain a flat geometry $R_2$ or $R_2 /\\mathbb{Z}_n$ on the transverse dimensions. Without this NS-NS type $p$-brane the 2d transverse space becomes a pin-shaped singular space. The correspondence between these two theories leads us to a conjecture that the whole flat backgrounds of the string theory inherently invovle the NS-branes implicitly in their ansatz, and he...

  17. Bright boys the making of information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Everything has a beginning. None was more profound-and quite as unexpected-than Information Technology. Here for the first time is the untold story of how our new age came to be and the bright boys who made it happen. What began on the bare floor of an old laundry building eventually grew to rival in size the Manhattan Project. The unexpected consequence of that journey was huge---what we now know as Information Technology. For sixty years the bright boys have been totally anonymous while their achievements have become a way of life for all of us. "Bright Boys" brings them home. By 1950 they'd

  18. The structure of bright zinc coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIODRAG STOJANOVIC

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The structures of bright zinc coatings obtained from acid sulfate solutions in the presence of dextrin/salicyl aldehyde mixture were examined. It was shown by the STM technique that the surfaces of bright zinc coatings are covered by hexagonal zinc crystals, the tops of planes of which are flat and mutually parallel and which exhibit smoothness on the atomic level. X-Ray diffraction (XRD analysis of the bright zinc coatings showed that the zinc crystallites are oriented in the (110 plane only.

  19. Differential Rotation via Tracking of Coronal Bright Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAteer, James; Boucheron, Laura E.; Osorno, Marcy

    2016-05-01

    The accurate computation of solar differential rotation is important both as a constraint for, and evidence towards, support of models of the solar dynamo. As such, the use of Xray and Extreme Ultraviolet bright points to elucidate differential rotation has been studied in recent years. In this work, we propose the automated detection and tracking of coronal bright points (CBPs) in a large set of SDO data for re-evaluation of solar differential rotation and comparison to other results. The big data aspects, and high cadence, of SDO data mitigate a few issues common to detection and tracking of objects in image sequences and allow us to focus on the use of CBPs to determine differential rotation. The high cadence of the data allows to disambiguate individual CBPs between subsequent images by allowing for significant spatial overlap, i.e., by the fact that the CBPs will rotate a short distance relative to their size. The significant spatial overlap minimizes the effects of incorrectly detected CBPs by reducing the occurrence of outlier values of differential rotation. The big data aspects of the data allows to be more conservative in our detection of CBPs (i.e., to err on the side of missing CBPs rather than detecting extraneous CBPs) while still maintaining statistically larger populations over which to study characteristics. The ability to compute solar differential rotation through the automated detection and tracking of a large population of CBPs will allow for further analyses such as the N-S asymmetry of differential rotation, variation of differential rotation over the solar cycle, and a detailed study of the magnetic flux underlying the CBPs.

  20. Widespread suppression of intragenic transcription initiation by H-NS

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Shivani S.; Singh, Navjot; Bonocora, Richard P.; Fitzgerald, Devon M.; Wade, Joseph T.; Grainger, David C.

    2014-01-01

    H-NS is a bacterial folding factor that has been implicated in the silencing of horizontally acquired genes. These genes are thought to be toxic by virtue of their A/T content. Here, Singh et al. show that a major, long-overlooked function of H-NS is to prevent widespread initiation of noncoding transcripts within foreign genes. This study provides a molecular rationalization for the toxicity of horizontally acquired DNA and explains how this is counteracted by H-NS.

  1. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2014-01-01

    According to literature, while calculating the brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers, one needs to account for the so called `depth-of-field' effects. In fact, the particle beam cross section varies along the wiggler. It is usually stated that the effective photon source size increases accordingly, while the brightness is reduced. Here we claim that this is a misconception originating from an analysis of the wiggler source based on geometrical arguments, regarded as almost self-evident. According to electrodynamics, depth-of-field effects do not exist: we demonstrate this statement both theoretically and numerically, using a well-known first-principle computer code. This fact shows that under the usually accepted approximations, the description of the wiggler brightness turns out to be inconsistent even qualitatively. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined procedure for computing the brightness from a wiggler source. We accomplish this task based on the use of a Wigner function formalism. I...

  2. The solar brightness temperature at millimeter wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuseski, R. A.; Swanson, P. N.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of the brightness temperature of the sun near 36 GHz and 93 GHz were made using the new moon as a calibration source. Provided the brightness temperature of the moon is known and all measurements are reduced to the same zenith angle, a simple expression can be used for the sun-to-new moon ratio which is independent of antenna gain, atmospheric absorption and reemission, and radiometer calibration constants. This ratio was measured near 36 GHz and at two frequencies near 93 GHz with a Dicke switched superheterodyne radiometer system and a 2.4 m Cassegrain antenna. The slopes of the solar brightness temperature spectrum based on these ratios were measured. The absolute solar brightness spectrum derived from all current available measurements supplemented by the present ones is also plotted and discussed.

  3. A spectroscopic atlas of bright stars

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for amateur astronomers interested in practical spectroscopy or spectrography, this reference book identifies more than 70 (northern hemisphere) bright stars that are suitable observational targets. It provides finder charts for locating these sometimes-familiar stars.

  4. Development of a high brightness ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brightness and emittance of an ion beam can depend on the ion temperature, aberrations and scattering, as well as other factors. However, it is the ion temperature which determines the irreducible minimum value of the emittance and hence brightness, as the other components can be eliminated by careful design. An ion source design is presented which has attained this minimum value for the emittance; the dependence of the ion temperature on the plasma source parameters is discussed

  5. Observations and diagnostics in high brightness beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianchi, A.; Anania, M. P.; Bisesto, F.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.

    2016-09-01

    The brightness is a figure of merit largely used in the light sources, like FEL (Free Electron Lasers), but it is also fundamental in several other applications, as for instance Compton backscattering sources, beam driven plasma accelerators and THz sources. Advanced diagnostics are essential tools in the development of high brightness beams. 6D electron beam diagnostics will be reviewed with emphasis on emittance measurement.

  6. Biplot analysis of diallel crosses of NS maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boćanski Jan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic markers, from morphological to molecular, in function with early Heterosis is a prerequisite for the successful commercial maize production. It does not appear in any cross of two inbred lines, and therefore, the determination of combining abilities of parental lines is essential. The most commonly used method for determining combining abilities is diallel analysis. Besides conventional methods for diallel analysis, a new biplot approach has been sugested. In this paper, we studied the combining ability for grain yield in a set of genotypes obtained by diallel crossing system of six inbred lines. Both, the Griffing’s conventional method and the biplot approach have been used for diallel analysis. Comparing the GCA values from biplot analysis and Griffing’s method, similar results can be observed, with the exception of NS L 1051 and NS L 1000 whose ranks are interchanged. Biplot analysis enables the SCA estimation of parent inbred, and the highest SCA has inbred B73D. Biplot analysis also allows the estimation of the best crosses. Inbred B73D shows the best results when crossed with testers Mo17Ht, NS L 1051 and N152, inbred N152 combines best with testers NS L 1001 and NS L 1000, whereas the cross of inbred NS L 1051 with tester B73D results with the highest grain yield per plant in comparison with other testers.

  7. Flavivirus NS1: a multifaceted enigmatic viral protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Meghana; Sharma, Nikhil; Singh, Sunit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Flaviviruses are emerging arthropod-borne viruses representing an immense global health problem. The prominent viruses of this group include dengue virus, yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus tick borne encephalitis virus and Zika Virus. These are endemic in many parts of the world. They are responsible for the illness ranging from mild flu like symptoms to severe hemorrhagic, neurologic and cognitive manifestations leading to death. NS1 is a highly conserved non-structural protein among flaviviruses, which exist in diverse forms. The intracellular dimer form of NS1 plays role in genome replication, whereas, the secreted hexamer plays role in immune evasion. The secreted NS1 has been identified as a potential diagnostic marker for early detection of the infections caused by flaviviruses. In addition to the diagnostic marker, the importance of NS1 has been reported in the development of therapeutics. NS1 based subunit vaccines are at various stages of development. The structural details and diverse functions of NS1 have been discussed in detail in this review. PMID:27473856

  8. Energy-exchange collisions of dark-bright-bright vector solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, R; Manikandan, N; Aravinthan, K

    2015-12-01

    We find a dark component guiding the practically interesting bright-bright vector one-soliton to two different parametric domains giving rise to different physical situations by constructing a more general form of three-component dark-bright-bright mixed vector one-soliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with nine free real parameters. Moreover our main investigation of the collision dynamics of such mixed vector solitons by constructing the multisoliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with the help of Hirota technique reveals that the dark-bright-bright vector two-soliton supports energy-exchange collision dynamics. In particular the dark component preserves its initial form and the energy-exchange collision property of the bright-bright vector two-soliton solution of the Manakov model during collision. In addition the interactions between bound state dark-bright-bright vector solitons reveal oscillations in their amplitudes. A similar kind of breathing effect was also experimentally observed in the Bose-Einstein condensates. Some possible ways are theoretically suggested not only to control this breathing effect but also to manage the beating, bouncing, jumping, and attraction effects in the collision dynamics of dark-bright-bright vector solitons. The role of multiple free parameters in our solution is examined to define polarization vector, envelope speed, envelope width, envelope amplitude, grayness, and complex modulation of our solution. It is interesting to note that the polarization vector of our mixed vector one-soliton evolves in sphere or hyperboloid depending upon the initial parametric choices. PMID:26764780

  9. Energy-exchange collisions of dark-bright-bright vector solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, R.; Manikandan, N.; Aravinthan, K.

    2015-12-01

    We find a dark component guiding the practically interesting bright-bright vector one-soliton to two different parametric domains giving rise to different physical situations by constructing a more general form of three-component dark-bright-bright mixed vector one-soliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with nine free real parameters. Moreover our main investigation of the collision dynamics of such mixed vector solitons by constructing the multisoliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with the help of Hirota technique reveals that the dark-bright-bright vector two-soliton supports energy-exchange collision dynamics. In particular the dark component preserves its initial form and the energy-exchange collision property of the bright-bright vector two-soliton solution of the Manakov model during collision. In addition the interactions between bound state dark-bright-bright vector solitons reveal oscillations in their amplitudes. A similar kind of breathing effect was also experimentally observed in the Bose-Einstein condensates. Some possible ways are theoretically suggested not only to control this breathing effect but also to manage the beating, bouncing, jumping, and attraction effects in the collision dynamics of dark-bright-bright vector solitons. The role of multiple free parameters in our solution is examined to define polarization vector, envelope speed, envelope width, envelope amplitude, grayness, and complex modulation of our solution. It is interesting to note that the polarization vector of our mixed vector one-soliton evolves in sphere or hyperboloid depending upon the initial parametric choices.

  10. Bright Transients from Black Hole - Neutron Star Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orazio, Daniel J; Murray, Norman W; Price, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Direct detection of black hole-neutron star (BHNS) pairs is anticipated with the advent of aLIGO. Electromagnetic counterparts may be crucial for a confident gravitational-wave detection as well as for extraction of astronomical information. Yet BHNS star pairs are notoriously dark and so inaccessible to telescopes. Contrary to this expectation, a bright electromagnetic transient can occur in the final moments before merger as long as the neutron star is highly magnetized. The orbital motion of the neutron star magnet creates a Faraday flux and corresponding power available for luminosity. A spectrum of curvature radiation ramps up until the rapid injection of energy ignites a fireball, which would appear as an energetic blackbody peaking in the X-ray to gamma-rays for neutron star field strengths ranging from $10^{12}$G to $10^{16}$G respectively and a $10M_{\\odot}$ black hole. The fireball event may last from a few milliseconds to a few seconds depending on the NS magnetic field strength, and may be observa...

  11. Protegrin-1 Inhibits Dengue NS2B-NS3 Serine Protease and Viral Replication in MK2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin A. Rothan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue diseases have an economic as well as social burden worldwide. In this study, the antiviral activity of protegrin-1 (PG-1, RGGRLCYCRRRFCVCVGR peptide towards dengue NS2B-NS3pro and viral replication in Rhesus monkey kidney (MK2 cells was investigated. The peptide PG-1 was synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis, and disulphide bonds formation followed by peptide purification was confirmed by LC-MS and RPHPLC. Dengue NS2B-NS3pro was produced as a single-chain recombinant protein in E. coli. The NS2B-NS3pro assay was carried out by measuring the florescence emission of catalyzed substrate. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate the inhibition potential of PG-1 towards dengue serotype-2 (DENV-2 replication in MK2 cells. The results showed that PG-1 inhibited dengue NS2B-NS3pro at IC50 of 11.7 μM. The graded concentrations of PG-1 at nontoxic range were able to reduce viral replication significantly (P<0.001 at 24, 48, and 72 hrs after viral infection. However, the percentage of inhibition was significantly (P<0.01 higher at 24 hrs compared to 48 and 72 hrs. These data show promising therapeutic potential of PG-1 against dengue infection, hence it warrants further analysis and improvement of the peptide features as a prospective starting point for consideration in designing attractive dengue virus inhibitors.

  12. Structural and Functional Analysis of NS1 and NS2 Proteins of H1N1 Subtype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parveen Salahuddin; Asad U.Khan

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A virus(H1N1),a genetic reassortment of endemic strains of human,avian and swine flu,has crossed species barrier to human and apparently acquired the capability of human to human transmission.Some strains of H5N1 subtype are highly virulent because NS1 protein inhibits antiviral interferon α/β production.Another protein NS2 mediates export of viral ribonucleoprotein from nucleus to the cytoplasm through export signal.In this paper,we have studied structure-function relationships of these proteins of H1N1 subtype and have determined the cause of their pathogenicity.Our results showed that non-conservative mutations slightly stabilized or destabilized structural domains of NS1 or NS1-dsRNA complex,hence slightly increased or decreased the function of NS1 protein and consequently enhanced or reduced the pathogenicity of the H1N1 virus.NS2 protein of different strains carried non-conservative mutations in different domains,resulting in slight loss of function.These mutations slightly decreased the pathogenicity of the virus.Thus,the results confirm the structure-function relation-ships of these viral proteins.

  13. The interactomes of influenza virus NS1 and NS2 proteins identify new host factors and provide insights for ADAR1 playing a supportive role in virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît de Chassey

    Full Text Available Influenza A NS1 and NS2 proteins are encoded by the RNA segment 8 of the viral genome. NS1 is a multifunctional protein and a virulence factor while NS2 is involved in nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes. A yeast two-hybrid screening strategy was used to identify host factors supporting NS1 and NS2 functions. More than 560 interactions between 79 cellular proteins and NS1 and NS2 proteins from 9 different influenza virus strains have been identified. These interacting proteins are potentially involved in each step of the infectious process and their contribution to viral replication was tested by RNA interference. Validation of the relevance of these host cell proteins for the viral replication cycle revealed that 7 of the 79 NS1 and/or NS2-interacting proteins positively or negatively controlled virus replication. One of the main factors targeted by NS1 of all virus strains was double-stranded RNA binding domain protein family. In particular, adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1 appeared as a pro-viral host factor whose expression is necessary for optimal viral protein synthesis and replication. Surprisingly, ADAR1 also appeared as a pro-viral host factor for dengue virus replication and directly interacted with the viral NS3 protein. ADAR1 editing activity was enhanced by both viruses through dengue virus NS3 and influenza virus NS1 proteins, suggesting a similar virus-host co-evolution.

  14. Spectroscopic Surface Brightness Fluctuations: Amplifying Bright Stars in Unresolved Stellar Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzkus, M.; Dreizler, S.; Roth, M. M.

    2015-08-01

    We report on our early-stage efforts to resolve the Surface Brightness Fluctuations (SBFs) in the spectral dimension. Combining the diagnostic power of SBFs with the physical information content of spectra seems a tempting possibility to gain new insights into the bright stars in unresolved stellar populations. The new VLT integral field spectrograph MUSE is the first instrument that enables spectroscopic SBFs observationally.

  15. Evaluation of new NS maize hybrids using biplot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojaković Milisav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed two-year results of a testing of 20 new maize hybrids from FAO MG 600 as compared to a standard. Data on the hybrids NS6683, NS6686, NS281633, and NS396432 are discussed in the paper in greater detail. In order to study grain yield, grain moisture, root and stalk lodging, and resistance to pests and diseases, field trials using a RCB design with four replicates were conducted in six locations in 2009 and five locations in 2010. The results were presented in the form of GGE biplots in order to rank hybrids relative to the standard while taking into account the genotype x environment interaction and to identify the highest-yielding genotypes in different environments. It was determined that the new NS hybrids had higher grain yield than the standard by 0.883 to 1.720 tha-1, lower grain moisture by 0.85 to 2.54%, better tolerance to root and stalk lodging, and pest and disease resistance on a par to the standard. The study identified so-called ideal locations for particular hybrids, which may be of use when determining which areas the hybrids are best suited for.

  16. Thermodynamics of the near-extremal NS5-brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the thermodynamics of the near-extremal NS5-brane in type IIA string theory. The central tool we use is to map phases of six-dimensional Kaluza-Klein black holes to phases of near-extremal M5-branes with a transverse circle in eleven-dimensional supergravity. By S-duality these phases correspond to phases of the near-extremal type IIA NS5-brane. One of our main results is that in the canonical ensemble the usual near-extremal NS5-brane background, dual to a uniformly smeared near-extremal M5-brane, is subdominant to a new background of near-extremal M5-branes localized on the transverse circle. This new stable phase has a limiting temperature, which lies above the Hagedorn temperature of the usual NS5-brane phase. We discuss the limiting temperature and compare the different behavior of the NS5-brane in the canonical and microcanonical ensembles. We also briefly comment on the thermodynamics of near-extremal Dp-branes on a transverse circle

  17. Observing Faint Companions Close to Bright Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serabyn, Eugene

    2012-04-01

    Progress in a number of technical areas is enabling imaging and interferometric observations at both smaller angular separations from bright stars and at deeper relative contrast levels. Here we discuss recent progress in several ongoing projects at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. First, extreme adaptive optics wavefront correction has recently enabled the use of very short (i.e., blue) wavelengths to resolve close binaries. Second, phase-based coronagraphy has recently allowed observations of faint companions to within nearly one diffraction beam width of bright stars. Finally, rotating interferometers that can observe inside the diffraction beam of single aperture telescopes are being developed to detect close-in companions and bright exozodiacal dust. This paper presents a very brief summary of the techniques involved, along with some illustrative results.

  18. Increasing the brightness of light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ling

    2006-11-16

    In this work the principle of light recycling is applied to artificial light sources in order to achieve brightness enhancement. Firstly, the feasibilities of increasing the brightness of light sources via light recycling are examined theoretically, based on the fundamental laws of thermodynamics including Kirchhoff's law on radiation, Planck's law, Lambert-Beer's law, the etendue conservation and the brightness theorem. From an experimental viewpoint, the radiation properties of three different kinds of light sources including short-arc lamps, incandescent lamps and LEDs characterized by their light-generating mechanisms are investigated. These three types of sources are used in light recycling experiments, for the purpose of 1. validating the intrinsic light recycling effect in light sources, e. g. the intrinsic light recycling effect in incandescent lamps stemming from the coiled filament structure. 2. acquiring the required parameters for establishing physical models, e.g. the emissivity/absorptivity of the short-arc lamps, the intrinsic reflectivity and the external quantum efficiency of LEDs. 3. laying the foundations for designing optics aimed at brightness enhancement according to the characteristics of the sources and applications. Based on the fundamental laws and experiments, two physical models for simulating the radiance distribution of light sources are established, one for thermal filament lamps, the other for luminescent sources, LEDs. As validation of the theoretical and experimental investigation of the light recycling effect, an optical device, the Carambola, is designed for achieving deterministic and multiple light recycling. The Carambola has the function of a concentrator. In order to achieve the maximum possible brightness enhancement with the Carambola, several combinations of sources and Carambolas are modelled in ray-tracing simulations. Sources with different light-emitting mechanisms and different radiation properties

  19. The environment of Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, S. D.; Bomans, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    Using the Early Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) we investigated the clustering properties of Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies in comparison to normal, High Surface Brightness (HSB) galaxies. We selected LSB galaxies and HSB galaxies with well measured redshifts from the SDSS data base and performed three-dimensional neighbour counting analysis within spheres of radii between 0.8 Mpc and 8.0 Mpc. As a second analysis method we used an N-th neighbour analysis with N var...

  20. The historical investigation of cometary brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David W.

    1998-12-01

    The interpretation of the way in which the brightness of a comet varied as a function of both its heliocentric and geocentric distance was essentially started by Isaac Newton in his book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687. Astronomers have argued about the form of this variability ever since, and for many years it was regarded as an important clue as to the physical nature of the cometary nucleus and its decay process. This paper reviews our understanding of the causes of cometary brightness variability between about 1680 and the 1950s.

  1. Electron Cloud Observations during LHC Operation with 25 ns Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kevin; Iadarola, Giovanni; Mether, Lotta; Romano, Annalisa; Rumolo, Giovanni; Schenk, Michael

    2016-01-01

    While during the Run 1 (2010-2012) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) most of the integrated luminosity was produced with 50 ns bunch spacing, for the Run 2 start-up (2015) it was decided to move to the nominal bunch spacing of 25 ns. As expected, with this beam configuration strong electron cloud effects were observed in the machine, which had to be mitigated with dedicated 'scrubbing' periods at injection energy. This enabled to start the operation with 25 ns beams at 6.5 TeV, but e-cloud effects continued to pose challenges while gradually increasing the number of circulating bunch trains. This contribution will review the encountered limitations and the mitigation measures that where put in place and will discuss possible strategies for further performance gain.

  2. Electron paramagnetic resonance of the ns1 centers in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the EPR studies concerning the paramagnetic centers with ns1 (N=n>2) outer electronic configuration contained in crystals are reviewed. Such centers, with 2S1/2 ground state, are produced by electron trapping at impurities of the IB and IIB group or by hole trapping at impurities of the IIIB and IV group of elements. The production and structural properties of such centers consisting of ns1 ions (atoms) at various sites in the crystal lattice with different configurations of neighbouring defects are discussed in connection with their EPR characteristics. Tables containing the spin Hamiltonian parameters of all ns1 centers reported in the literature until the end of year 1992 are given. (author). 146 refs, 14 tabs

  3. NS1-binding protein abrogates the elevation of cell viability by the influenza A virus NS1 protein in association with CRKL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •NS1 induced excessive phosphorylation of ERK and elevated cell viability. •NS1-BP expression and CRKL knockdown abolished survival effect of NS1. •NS1-BP and NS1 formed the complex through the interaction with CRKL-SH3(N). -- Abstract: The influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional virulence factor consisting of an RNA binding domain and several Src-homology (SH) 2 and SH3 binding motifs, which promotes virus replication in the host cell and helps to evade antiviral immunity. NS1 modulates general host cell physiology in association with various cellular molecules including NS1-binding protein (NS1-BP) and signaling adapter protein CRK-like (CRKL), while the physiological role of NS1-BP during influenza A virus infection especially in association with NS1 remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the intracellular association of NS1-BP, NS1 and CRKL to elucidate the physiological roles of these molecules in the host cell. In HEK293T cells, enforced expression of NS1 of A/Beijing (H1N1) and A/Indonesia (H5N1) significantly induced excessive phosphorylation of ERK and elevated cell viability, while the over-expression of NS1-BP and the abrogation of CRKL using siRNA abolished such survival effect of NS1. The pull-down assay using GST-fusion CRKL revealed the formation of intracellular complexes of NS1-BP, NS1 and CRKL. In addition, we identified that the N-terminus SH3 domain of CRKL was essential for binding to NS1-BP using GST-fusion CRKL-truncate mutants. This is the first report to elucidate the novel function of NS1-BP collaborating with viral protein NS1 in modulation of host cell physiology. In addition, an alternative role of adaptor protein CRKL in association with NS1 and NS1-BP during influenza A virus infection is demonstrated

  4. NS1-binding protein abrogates the elevation of cell viability by the influenza A virus NS1 protein in association with CRKL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Masaya [Department of Cancer Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Nishihara, Hiroshi, E-mail: hnishihara@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Translational Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Hasegawa, Hideki [Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Tashiro, Masato [Influenza Virus Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Wang, Lei [Department of Translational Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Kimura, Taichi; Tanino, Mishie; Tsuda, Masumi [Department of Cancer Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Tanaka, Shinya [Department of Cancer Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Department of Translational Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •NS1 induced excessive phosphorylation of ERK and elevated cell viability. •NS1-BP expression and CRKL knockdown abolished survival effect of NS1. •NS1-BP and NS1 formed the complex through the interaction with CRKL-SH3(N). -- Abstract: The influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional virulence factor consisting of an RNA binding domain and several Src-homology (SH) 2 and SH3 binding motifs, which promotes virus replication in the host cell and helps to evade antiviral immunity. NS1 modulates general host cell physiology in association with various cellular molecules including NS1-binding protein (NS1-BP) and signaling adapter protein CRK-like (CRKL), while the physiological role of NS1-BP during influenza A virus infection especially in association with NS1 remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the intracellular association of NS1-BP, NS1 and CRKL to elucidate the physiological roles of these molecules in the host cell. In HEK293T cells, enforced expression of NS1 of A/Beijing (H1N1) and A/Indonesia (H5N1) significantly induced excessive phosphorylation of ERK and elevated cell viability, while the over-expression of NS1-BP and the abrogation of CRKL using siRNA abolished such survival effect of NS1. The pull-down assay using GST-fusion CRKL revealed the formation of intracellular complexes of NS1-BP, NS1 and CRKL. In addition, we identified that the N-terminus SH3 domain of CRKL was essential for binding to NS1-BP using GST-fusion CRKL-truncate mutants. This is the first report to elucidate the novel function of NS1-BP collaborating with viral protein NS1 in modulation of host cell physiology. In addition, an alternative role of adaptor protein CRKL in association with NS1 and NS1-BP during influenza A virus infection is demonstrated.

  5. Effect of NS-398 on colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qing Jia; Ning Zhong; Li-Hui Han; Jing-Hua Wang; Ming Yan; Fan-Li Meng; Shang-Zhong Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of NS-398, a selective cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) inhibitor, on invasion of colon cancer cell line HT-29 in vitro and to explore its mechanisms.METHODS: Invasive behaviors of the malignant colon cancer cell line HT-29 were investigated in this study.Expressions of COX-2 and CD44v6 in HT-29 cells were detected by flow cytometry. Cellular survival rate was determined by MTT assay. The invasive capacity was quantified by a modified Boyden chamber model. Alterations of cytoskeleton component F-actin were observed by confocal laser scanning microscope.RESULTS: Flow cytometry analysis showed that COX-2was highly expressed in HT-29 cells. The invasive capability of HT-29 cells could be greatly inhibited by NS-398 at the experimental concentrations of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 μmol/L with an inhibitory rate of 22.74%, 42.35% and 58.61% (P<0.01),respectively. MTT assay showed that NS-398 at the experimental concentrations had no significant influence on cellular viability, indicating that such anti-invasive effects had no relationship with cytotoxicity. F-actin was mainly distributed around nuclei forming annular structure in HT-29cells. After exposure to NS-398 of 10 μmol/L, the annular structure around nuclei disappeared and the fluorescence intensity of F-actin decreased obviously. Treatment with NS-398 could down-regulate the expression of CD44v6 as well.CONCLUSION: NS-398 has anti-invasive effects on colon cancer HT-29 cells in vitro, which may be mediated by a novel mechanism of disruption of cytoskeleton. Downregulation of CD44v6 expression may be related to alterations of cytoskeleton.

  6. Structures of NS5 Methyltransferase from Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Javier; Jain, Rinku; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Aggarwal, Aneel K

    2016-09-20

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) poses a major public health emergency. To aid in the development of antivirals, we present two high-resolution crystal structures of the ZIKV NS5 methyltransferase: one bound to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and the other bound to SAM and 7-methyl guanosine diphosphate (7-MeGpp). We identify features of ZIKV NS5 methyltransferase that lend to structure-based antiviral drug discovery. Specifically, SAM analogs with functionalities on the Cβ atom of the methionine portion of the molecules that occupy the RNA binding tunnel may provide better specificity relative to human RNA methyltransferases.

  7. Structures of NS5 Methyltransferase from Zika Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Coloma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus (ZIKV poses a major public health emergency. To aid in the development of antivirals, we present two high-resolution crystal structures of the ZIKV NS5 methyltransferase: one bound to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM and the other bound to SAM and 7-methyl guanosine diphosphate (7-MeGpp. We identify features of ZIKV NS5 methyltransferase that lend to structure-based antiviral drug discovery. Specifically, SAM analogs with functionalities on the Cβ atom of the methionine portion of the molecules that occupy the RNA binding tunnel may provide better specificity relative to human RNA methyltransferases.

  8. Structures of NS5 Methyltransferase from Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Javier; Jain, Rinku; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Aggarwal, Aneel K

    2016-09-20

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) poses a major public health emergency. To aid in the development of antivirals, we present two high-resolution crystal structures of the ZIKV NS5 methyltransferase: one bound to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and the other bound to SAM and 7-methyl guanosine diphosphate (7-MeGpp). We identify features of ZIKV NS5 methyltransferase that lend to structure-based antiviral drug discovery. Specifically, SAM analogs with functionalities on the Cβ atom of the methionine portion of the molecules that occupy the RNA binding tunnel may provide better specificity relative to human RNA methyltransferases. PMID:27633330

  9. Getting Kodo: Network Coding for the ns-3 simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Nestor; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Vingelmann, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    Network Coding (NC) has been shown to improve current and upcoming communication systems in terms of throughput, energy consumption and delay reduction. However, today's evaluations on network coding solutions rely on homegrown simulators that might not accurately model realistic systems. In this...... work, we present for the first time the steps to use Kodo, a C++11 network coding library into the ns-3 simulator and show its potential with basic examples. Our purpose is to allow ns-3 users to use a flexible and reliable set of network coding functionalities together with the technologies simulated...

  10. Hepatitis C virus expressing reporter tagged NS5A protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C reporter viruses containing Core through NS2 of prototype isolates of all major HCV genotypes and the remaining genes of isolate JFH1, by insertion of reporter genes in domain III of HCV NS5A were developed. A deletion upstream of the inserted reporter gene sequence conferred favorabl......77) or of genotype 3a (strain S52)) were also developed. The present inventors additionally developed J6/JFH1 recombinants with the 5'UTR of genotypes 1-6. These recombinants with different 5'UTRs are a useful to study the function of the 5'UTR in a genotype specific manner...

  11. hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza A viral protein NS1 and inhibits virus replication potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nuclear export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yimeng; Zhou, Jianhong; Du, Yuchun, E-mail: ydu@uark.edu

    2014-01-20

    The NS1 protein of influenza viruses is a major virulence factor and exerts its function through interacting with viral/cellular RNAs and proteins. In this study, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1) as an interacting partner of NS1 proteins by a proteomic method. Knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in higher levels of NS vRNA, NS1 mRNA, and NS1 protein in the virus-infected cells. In addition, we demonstrated that hnRNP A2/B1 proteins are associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs and that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 promotes transport of NS1 mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the infected cells. Lastly, we showed that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 leads to enhanced virus replication. Our results suggest that hnRNP A2/B1 plays an inhibitory role in the replication of influenza A virus in host cells potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nucleocytoplasmic translocation. - Highlights: • Cellular protein hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza viral protein NS1. • hnRNP A2/B1 suppresses the levels of NS1 protein, vRNA and mRNA in infected cells. • hnRNP A2/B1 protein is associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits the nuclear export of NS1 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits influenza virus replication.

  12. hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza A viral protein NS1 and inhibits virus replication potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nuclear export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NS1 protein of influenza viruses is a major virulence factor and exerts its function through interacting with viral/cellular RNAs and proteins. In this study, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1) as an interacting partner of NS1 proteins by a proteomic method. Knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in higher levels of NS vRNA, NS1 mRNA, and NS1 protein in the virus-infected cells. In addition, we demonstrated that hnRNP A2/B1 proteins are associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs and that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 promotes transport of NS1 mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the infected cells. Lastly, we showed that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 leads to enhanced virus replication. Our results suggest that hnRNP A2/B1 plays an inhibitory role in the replication of influenza A virus in host cells potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nucleocytoplasmic translocation. - Highlights: • Cellular protein hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza viral protein NS1. • hnRNP A2/B1 suppresses the levels of NS1 protein, vRNA and mRNA in infected cells. • hnRNP A2/B1 protein is associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits the nuclear export of NS1 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits influenza virus replication

  13. Induction of intrahepatic HCV NS4B, NS5A and NS5B-specific cellular immune responses following peripheral immunization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystle A Lang Kuhs

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have suggested that an effective Hepatitis C Virus (HCV vaccine must induce strong cytotoxic and IFN-γ+ T cell responses targeting the non-structural region of the virus. Most importantly, these responses must be able to migrate into and remain functional within the liver, an organ known to cause T cell tolerance. Using three novel HCV DNA vaccines encoding non-structural proteins NS4B, NS5A and NS5B, we assessed the ability of peripheral immunization to induce functional intrahepatic immunity both in the presence and absence of cognate HCV antigen expression within the liver. We have shown that these constructs induced potent HCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in the spleen of C57BL/6 mice and that these responses were detected within the liver following peripheral immunization. Additionally, using a transfection method to express HCV antigen within the liver, we showed that intrahepatic HCV-specific T cells remained highly functional within the liver and retained the ability to become highly activated as evidenced by upregulation of IFN-γ and clearance of HCV protein expressing hepatocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that peripheral immunization can induce potent HCV-specific T cell responses able to traffic to and function within the tolerant environment of the liver.

  14. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-01-01

    According to the literature, while calculating the brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers, one needs to account for the so-called 'depth-of-field' effects. In fact, the particle beam cross-section varies along the wiggler. It is usually stated that the effective photon source size increases accordingly, while the brightness is reduced. Here we claim that this is a misconception originating from an analysis of the wiggler source based on geometrical arguments, regarded as almost self-evident. According to electrodynamics, depth-of-field effects do not exist: we demonstrate this statement both theoretically and numerically, using a well-known first-principle computer code. This fact shows that under the usually accepted approximations, the description of the wiggler brightness turns out to be inconsistent even qualitatively. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined procedure for computing the brightness from a wiggler source. We accomplish this task based on the use of a Wigner function formalism. We exemplify this formalism in simple limiting cases. We consider the problem of the calculation of the wiggler source size by means of numerical simulations alone, which play the same role of an experiment. We report a significant numerical disagreement between exact calculations and approximations currently used in the literature.

  15. Dark Matter in Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, W. J. G. de; McGaugh, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract: Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies form a large population of disc galaxies that extend the Hubble sequence towards extreme late-types. They are only slowly evolving, and still in an early evolutionary state. The Tully-Fisher relation and rotation curves of LSB galaxies both show that L

  16. Dark matter in low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blok, WJG; McGaugh, SS; Persic, M; Salucci, P

    1997-01-01

    Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies form a large population of disc galaxies that extend the Hubble sequence towards extreme late-types. They are only slowly evolving, and still in an early evolutionary state. The Tully-Fisher relation and rotation curves of LSB galaxies both show that LSB galaxie

  17. Probable Bright Supernova discovered by PSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-09-01

    A bright transient, which is a probable supernova, has been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  18. Brightness and darkness as perceptual dimensions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Vladusich

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A common-sense assumption concerning visual perception states that brightness and darkness cannot coexist at a given spatial location. One corollary of this assumption is that achromatic colors, or perceived grey shades, are contained in a one-dimensional (1-D space varying from bright to dark. The results of many previous psychophysical studies suggest, by contrast, that achromatic colors are represented as points in a color space composed of two or more perceptual dimensions. The nature of these perceptual dimensions, however, presently remains unclear. Here we provide direct evidence that brightness and darkness form the dimensions of a two-dimensional (2-D achromatic color space. This color space may play a role in the representation of object surfaces viewed against natural backgrounds, which simultaneously induce both brightness and darkness signals. Our 2-D model generalizes to the chromatic dimensions of color perception, indicating that redness and greenness (blueness and yellowness also form perceptual dimensions. Collectively, these findings suggest that human color space is composed of six dimensions, rather than the conventional three.

  19. A photometric investigation of a bright Geminid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degewij, J.; Diggelen, Johannes van

    1968-01-01

    Photographic observations of meteors in the Netherlands started with a bright Geminid of photographic magnitude −8 observed on December 11, 1955, 21h39m55s by M. Alberts. From the assumed radiant and velocity we have constructed the trajectory of the bolide. The luminosity of the trail has been dete

  20. Alberta Associations for Bright Children Members' Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Association for Bright Children, Edmonton.

    This handbook is designed to provide information to parents of gifted children in Alberta, Canada. The handbook outlines the mission and objectives of the Alberta Associations for Bright Children and describes the structure of the non-profit organization. The booklet then addresses: (1) the characteristics of gifted children; (2) the rights of…

  1. Supersymmetric extended string field theory in NS^n sector and NS^{n-1}-R sector

    CERN Document Server

    Asano, Masako

    2016-01-01

    We construct a class of quadratic gauge invariant actions for extended string fields defined on the tensor product of open superstring state space for multiple open string Neveu-Schwarz (NS) sectors with or without one Ramond (R) sector. The basic idea is the same as for the bosonic extended string field theory developed by the authors [arXiv:1309.3850]. The theory for NS^n sector and NS^{n-1}-R sector contains general n-th rank tensor fields and (n-1)-th rank spinor-tensor fields in the massless spectrum respectively. In principle, consistent gauge invariant actions for any generic type of 10-dimensional massive or massless tensor or spinor-tensor fields can be extracted from the theory. We discuss some simple examples of bosonic and fermionic massless actions.

  2. Crystal structure of Zika virus NS2B-NS3 protease in complex with a boronate inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jian; Hansen, Guido; Nitsche, Christoph; Klein, Christian D; Zhang, Linlin; Hilgenfeld, Rolf

    2016-07-29

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak is linked to severe neurological disorders. ZIKV relies on its NS2B/NS3 protease for polyprotein processing; hence, this enzyme is an attractive drug target. The 2.7 angstrom; crystal structure of ZIKV protease in complex with a peptidomimetic boronic acid inhibitor reveals a cyclic diester between the boronic acid and glycerol. The P2 4-aminomethylphenylalanine moiety of the inhibitor forms a salt-bridge with the nonconserved Asp(83) of NS2B; ion-pairing between Asp(83) and the P2 residue of the substrate likely accounts for the enzyme's high catalytic efficiency. The unusual dimer of the ZIKV protease:inhibitor complex seen in the crystal may provide a model for assemblies formed at high local concentrations of protease at the endoplasmatic reticulum membrane, the site of polyprotein processing. PMID:27386922

  3. Further theoretical insight into the reaction mechanism of the hepatitis C NS3/NS4A serine protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, José Ángel; Rodríguez, Alex; Puyuelo, María Pilar; González, Miguel; Martínez, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    The main reactions of the hepatitis C virus NS3/NS4A serine protease are studied using the second-order Møller-Plesset ab initio method and rather large basis sets to correct the previously reported AM1/CHARMM22 potential energy surfaces. The reaction efficiencies measured for the different substrates are explained in terms of the tetrahedral intermediate formation step (the rate-limiting process). The energies of the barrier and the corresponding intermediate are so close that the possibility of a concerted mechanism is open (especially for the NS5A/5B substrate). This is in contrast to the suggested general reaction mechanism of serine proteases, where a two-step mechanism is postulated.

  4. Circadian Phase-Shifting Effects of Bright Light, Exercise, and Bright Light + Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Kline, Christopher E.; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Zielinski, Mark; Devlin, Tina M.; Moore, Teresa A.

    2016-01-01

    Limited research has compared the circadian phase-shifting effects of bright light and exercise and additive effects of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the phase-delaying effects of late night bright light, late night exercise, and late evening bright light followed by early morning exercise. In a within-subjects, counterbalanced design, 6 young adults completed each of three 2.5-day protocols. Participants followed a 3-h ultra-short sleep-wake cycle, involving wakefulness...

  5. Recombinant HCV variants with NS5A from genotypes 1-7 have different sensitivities to an NS5A inhibitor but not interferon-a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels K H; Gottwein, Judith M; Mikkelsen, Lotte S;

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein NS5A influences its sensitivity to interferon-based therapy. Furthermore, NS5A is an important target for development of HCV-specific inhibitors. We aimed to develop recombinant infectious cell culture systems that express NS5A from isolates...... of the 7 major HCV genotypes, and determining their sensitivity to a specific NS5A inhibitor and to interferon-a....

  6. Synthesis of AMPA Receptor Antagonist NS1209%AMPA受体拮抗剂NS1209的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海超; 葛敏

    2011-01-01

    A AMPA receptor antagonist, NS1209, was synthesized from 5-bromo-isoquinoline by a nine-step reaction in overall yield of 37.3%. The structure was confirmed by 1H NMR and MS.%以5-溴异喹啉为起始原料,经过9步反应合成了AMPA受体拮抗剂——NS1209,总产率37.3%,其结构经1H NMR和MS确证.

  7. Flavonoid from Carica papaya inhibits NS2B-NS3 protease and prevents Dengue 2 viral assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilvel, Padmanaban; Lavanya, Pandian; Kumar, Kalavathi Murugan; Swetha, Rayapadi; Anitha, Parimelzaghan; Bag, Susmita; Sarveswari, Sundaramoorthy; Vijayakumar, Vijayaparthasarathi; Ramaiah, Sudha; Anbarasu, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus belongs to the virus family Flaviviridae. Dengue hemorrhagic disease caused by dengue virus is a public health problem worldwide. The viral non structural 2B and 3 (NS2B-NS3) protease complex is crucial for virus replication and hence, it is considered to be a good anti-viral target. Leaf extracts from Carica papaya is generally prescribed for patients with dengue fever, but there are no scientific evidences for its anti-dengue activity; hence we intended to investigate the anti-...

  8. Biplot analysis of diallel crosses of NS maize inbred lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocanski, J.; Nastasic, A.; Stanisavljevic, D.; Sreckov, Z.; Mitrovic, B.; Treskic, S.; Vukosavljev, M.

    2011-01-01

    Bocanski J., A. Nastasic, D. Stanisavljevic, Z. Sreckov, B. Mitrovic, S. Treskic and M. Vukosavljev (2011): Biplot analysis of diallel crosses of NS maize inbred lines- Genetika, Vol 43, No. 2, 277 - 284. Genetic markers, from morphological to molecular, in function with early Heterosis is a prerequ

  9. On NS5-brane instantons and volume stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looyestijn, H.T.; Vandoren, S.

    2008-01-01

    We study general aspects of NS5-brane instantons in relation to the stabilization of the volume modulus in Calabi-Yau compactifications of type II strings with fluxes, and their orientifold versions. These instantons correct the Kahler potential and generically yield significant contributions to the

  10. NMR analysis of the dynamic exchange of the NS2B cofactor between open and closed conformations of the West Nile virus NS2B-NS3 protease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun-Cheng Su

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two-component NS2B-NS3 proteases of West Nile and dengue viruses are essential for viral replication and established targets for drug development. In all crystal structures of the proteases to date, the NS2B cofactor is located far from the substrate binding site (open conformation in the absence of inhibitor and lining the substrate binding site (closed conformation in the presence of an inhibitor. METHODS: In this work, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy of isotope and spin-labeled samples of the West Nile virus protease was used to investigate the occurrence of equilibria between open and closed conformations in solution. FINDINGS: In solution, the closed form of the West Nile virus protease is the predominant conformation irrespective of the presence or absence of inhibitors. Nonetheless, dissociation of the C-terminal part of the NS2B cofactor from the NS3 protease (open conformation occurs in both the presence and the absence of inhibitors. Low-molecular-weight inhibitors can shift the conformational exchange equilibria so that over 90% of the West Nile virus protease molecules assume the closed conformation. The West Nile virus protease differs from the dengue virus protease, where the open conformation is the predominant form in the absence of inhibitors. CONCLUSION: Partial dissociation of NS2B from NS3 has implications for the way in which the NS3 protease can be positioned with respect to the host cell membrane when NS2B is membrane associated via N- and C-terminal segments present in the polyprotein. In the case of the West Nile virus protease, discovery of low-molecular-weight inhibitors that act by breaking the association of the NS2B cofactor with the NS3 protease is impeded by the natural affinity of the cofactor to the NS3 protease. The same strategy can be more successful in the case of the dengue virus NS2B-NS3 protease.

  11. Mutagenesis of D80-82 and G83 Residues in West Nile Virus NS2B: Effects on NS2B-NS3 Activity and Viral Replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Jia; Jingjing Fan; Bo Zhang; Zhiming Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Flaviviral NS2B is a required cofactor for NS3 serine protease activity and plays an important role in promoting functional NS2B-NS3 protease configuration and maintaining critical interactions with protease catalysis substrates.The residues D80DDG in West Nile virus (WNV) NS2B are important for protease activity.To investigate the effects of D80DDG in NS2B on protease activity and viral replication,the negatively charged region D80DD and the conserved residue G83 of NS2B were mutated (D80DD/E80EE,D80DD/K80KK,D80DD/A80AA,G83F,G83S,G83D,G83K,and G83A),and NS3 D75A was designated as the negative control.The effects of the mutations on NS2B-NS3 activity,viral translation,and viral RNA replication were analyzed using kinetic analysis of site-directed enzymes and a transient replicon assay.All substitutions resulted in significantly decreased enzyme activity and blocked RNA replication.The negative charge of D80DD is not important for maintaining NS2B function,but side chain changes in G83 have dramatic effects on protease activity and RNA replication.These results demonstrate that NS2B is important for viral replication and that D80DD and G83 substitutions prevent replication; they will be useful for understanding the relationship between NS2B and NS3.

  12. Resistance Analyses of HCV NS3/4A Protease and NS5B Polymerase from Clinical Studies of Deleobuvir and Faldaprevir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Kristi L.; Sarrazin, Christoph; Nelson, David R.; Scherer, Joseph; Sha, Nanshi; Marquis, Martin; Côté-Martin, Alexandra; Vinisko, Richard; Stern, Jerry O.; Mensa, Federico J.; Kukolj, George

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aim The resistance profile of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) agents used in combination is important to guide optimal treatment regimens. We evaluated baseline and treatment-emergent NS3/4A and NS5B amino-acid variants among HCV genotype (GT)-1a and -1b-infected patients treated with faldaprevir (HCV protease inhibitor), deleobuvir (HCV polymerase non-nucleoside inhibitor), and ribavirin in multiple clinical studies. Methods HCV NS3/4A and NS5B population sequencing (Sanger method) was performed on all baseline plasma samples (n = 1425 NS3; n = 1556 NS5B) and on post-baseline plasma samples from patients with virologic failure (n = 113 GT-1a; n = 221 GT-1b). Persistence and time to loss of resistance-associated variants (RAVs) was estimated using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results Faldaprevir RAVs (NS3 R155 and D168) and deleobuvir RAVs (NS5B 495 and 496) were rare (90%). Virologic relapse was associated with RAVs in both NS3 and NS5B (53% GT-1b; 52% GT-1b); some virologic relapses had NS3 RAVs only (47% GT-1a; 17% GT-1b). Median time to loss of GT-1b NS5B P495 RAVs post-treatment (5 months) was less than that of GT-1b NS3 D168 (8.5 months) and GT-1a R155 RAVs (11.5 months). Conclusion Faldaprevir and deleobuvir RAVs are more prevalent among virologic failures than at baseline. Treatment response was not compromised by common NS3 polymorphisms; however, alanine at NS5B amino acid 499 at baseline (wild-type in GT-1a, polymorphism in GT-1b) may reduce response to this deleobuvir-based regimen. PMID:27494410

  13. On solvable models of type IIB superstring in NS-NS and R-R plane wave backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider type-IIB string in the two plane-wave backgrounds which may be interpreted as special limits of the AdS3xS3 supported by the NS-NS or R-R 3-form backgrounds. The NS-NS plane-wave string model is equivalent to a direct generalization of the Nappi-Witten model, with its spectrum being similar to that of strings in constant magnetic field. The R-R model can be solved in the light-cone gauge, where the Green-Schwarz world-sheet theory reduces to a system of free fields: 4 massive and 4 massless copies of bosons and fermions. We describe the string spectra of the two models and study the associated asymptotic density of states. We also discuss a more general class of exactly solvable plane-wave models with reduced or completely broken supersymmetry which are obtained by adding twists in two spatial 2-planes. (author)

  14. The bright optical flash from GRB 060117

    CERN Document Server

    Jel'inek, M; Kubánek, P; Hudec, R; Nekola, M; Grygar, J; Castro-Tirado, A J; Gorosabel, J; Hrabovsk'y, M; Mandat, D; Nosek, D; Palatka, M; Pandey, S B; Pech, M; Schovanek, P; De Postigo, A U; Vítek, S; Jel\\'inek, Martin; Prouza, Michael; Kub\\'anek, Petr; Hudec, Ren\\'e; Nekola, Martin; R}\\'idk\\'y, Jan {; Grygar, Ji{r}\\'i; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Gorosabel, Javier; Hrabovsk\\'y, Miroslav; Mand\\'at, Du{s}an; Nosek, Dalibor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pandey, Shashi B.; Pech, Miroslav; Schov\\'anek, Petr; S}m\\'ida, Radom\\'ir {; Postigo, Antonio de Ugarte; V\\'itek, Stanislav

    2006-01-01

    We present a discovery and observation of an extraordinarily bright prompt optical emission of the GRB 060117 obtained by a wide-field camera atop the robotic telescope FRAM of the Pierre Auger Observatory from 2 to 10 minutes after the GRB. We found rapid average temporal flux decay of alpha = -1.7 +- 0.1 and a peak brightness R = 10.1 mag. Later observations by other instruments set a strong limit on the optical and radio transient fluxes, unveiling an unexpectedly rapid further decay. We present an interpretation featuring a relatively steep electron-distribution parameter p ~ 3.0 and providing a straightforward solution for the overall fast decay of this optical transient as a transition between reverse and forward shock.

  15. Quantum Bright Soliton in a Disorder Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, K.; Delande, D.; Zakrzewski, J.

    2009-11-01

    At very low temperature, a quasi-one-dimensional ensemble of atoms with attractive interactions tend to form a bright soliton. When exposed to a sufficiently weak external potential, the shape of the soliton is not modified, but its external motion is affected. We develop in detail the Bogoliubov approach for the problem, treating, in a non-perturbative way, the motion of the center of mass of the soliton. Quantization of this motion allows us to discuss its long time properties. In particular, in the presence of a disordered potential, the quantum motion of the center of mass of a bright soliton may exhibit Anderson localization, on a localization length which may be much larger than the soliton size and could be observed experimentally.

  16. In Vitro Evaluation of Novel Inhibitors against the NS2B-NS3 Protease of Dengue Fever Virus Type 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of potent therapeutic compounds against dengue virus is urgently needed. The NS2B-NS3 protease (NS2B-NS3pro of dengue fever virus carries out all enzymatic activities needed for polyprotein processing and is considered to be amenable to antiviral inhibition by analogy. Virtual screening of 300,000 compounds using Autodock 3 on the GVSS platform was conducted to identify novel inhibitors against the NS2B-NS3pro. Thirty-six compounds were selected for in vitro assay against NS2B-NS3pro expressed in Pichia pastoris. Seven novel compounds were identified as inhibitors with IC50 values of 3.9 ± 0.6–86.7 ± 3.6 μM. Three strong NS2B-NS3pro inhibitors were further confirmed as competitive inhibitors with Ki values of 4.0 ± 0.4, 4.9 ± 0.3, and 3.4 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions between amino acid residues in the NS3pro active site with inhibition compounds were also identified.

  17. NF90 is a novel influenza A virus NS1-interacting protein that antagonizes the inhibitory role of NS1 on PKR phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Li, Xi; Zhu, WenFei; Wang, HuiYu; Mei, Lin; Wu, ShaoQiang; Lin, XiangMei; Han, XueQing

    2016-08-01

    NF90 is a novel host antiviral factor that regulates PKR activation and stress granule formation in influenza A virus (IAV)-infected cells, but the precise mechanisms by which it operates remain unclear. We identified NF90 as a novel interacting protein of IAV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1). The interaction was dependent on the RNA-binding properties of NS1. NS1 associated with NF90 and PKR simultaneously; however, the interaction between NF90 and PKR was restricted by NS1. Knockdown of NF90 promoted inhibition of PKR phosphorylation induced by NS1, while coexpression of NF90 impeded reduction of PKR phosphorylation and stress granule formation triggered by NS1. In summary, NF90 exerts its antiviral activity by antagonizing the inhibitory role of NS1 on PKR phosphorylation. PMID:27423063

  18. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Butterfield, Karla [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    With funding from the Building America Program, part of the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with BrightBuilt Home (BBH) to evaluate and optimize building systems. CARB’s work focused on a home built by Black Bros. Builders in Lincolnville, Maine (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zone 6). As with most BBH projects to date, modular boxes were built by Keiser Homes in Oxford, Maine.

  19. Surface Brightness Fluctuations as Stellar Population Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Blakeslee, John P

    2009-01-01

    Surface Brightness Fluctuations (SBF) can provide useful information about the unresolved stellar content of early-type galaxies and spiral bulges. The absolute SBF magnitude Mbar in a given passband depends on the properties of the stellar population and can be predicted by population synthesis models. SBF measurements in different bandpasses are sensitive to different evolutionary stages within the galaxy stellar population. Near-IR SBF magnitudes are sensitive to the evolution of stars wit...

  20. Bright Solitary Waves in Malignant Gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-García, Víctor M.; Calvo, Gabriel F.; Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Diego, D.; Pérez-Romasanta, Luis

    2011-01-01

    We put forward a nonlinear wave model describing the fundamental physio-pathologic features of an aggressive type of brain tumors: glioblastomas. Our model accounts for the invasion of normal tissue by a proliferating and propagating rim of active glioma cancer cells in the tumor boundary and the subsequent formation of a necrotic core. By resorting to numerical simulations, phase space analysis and exact solutions, we prove that bright solitary tumor waves develop in such systems.

  1. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Bright Source List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Roger F.; Marshall, Herman L.; Antia, Behram; Christian, Carol A.; Dobson, Carl A.; Finley, David S.; Fruscione, Antonella; Girouard, Forrest R.; Hawkins, Isabel; Jelinsky, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Initial results from the analysis of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky survey (58-740 A) and deep survey (67-364 A) are presented through the EUVE Bright Source List (BSL). The BSL contains 356 confirmed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) point sources with supporting information, including positions, observed EUV count rates, and the identification of possible optical counterparts. One-hundred twenty-six sources have been detected longward of 200 A.

  2. On the origin of facular brightness

    CERN Document Server

    Kostik, R

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the dependence of the CaIIH line core brightness on the strength and inclination of photospheric magnetic field, and on the parameters of convective and wave motions in a facular region at the solar disc center. We use three simultaneous datasets obtained at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife): (1) spectra of BaII 4554 A line registered with the instrument TESOS to measure the variations of intensity and velocity through the photosphere up to the temperature minimum; (2) spectropolarimetric data in FeI 1.56 $\\mu$m lines (registered with the instrument TIP II) to measure photospheric magnetic fields; (3) filtergrams in CaIIH that give information about brightness fluctuations in the chromosphere. The results show that the CaIIH brightness in the facula strongly depends on the power of waves with periods in the 5-min range, that propagate upwards, and also on the phase shift between velocity oscillations at the bottom photosphere and around the temperature min...

  3. The Bright SHARC Survey The Cluster Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Romer, A K; Holden, B P; Ulmer, M P; Pildis, R A; Merrelli, A J; Adami, C; Burke, D J; Collins, C A; Metevier, A J; Kron, Richard G; Commons, K

    1999-01-01

    We present the Bright SHARC (Serendipitous High-Redshift Archival ROSAT Cluster) Survey, which is an objective search for serendipitously detected extended X-ray sources in 460 deep ROSAT PSPC pointings. The Bright SHARC Survey covers an area of 178.6 sq.deg and has yielded 374 extended sources. We discuss the X-ray data reduction, the candidate selection and present results from our on-going optical follow-up campaign. The optical follow-up concentrates on the brightest 94 of the 374 extended sources and is now 97% complete. We have identified thirty-seven clusters of galaxies, for which we present redshifts and luminosities. The clusters span a redshift range of 0.0696Bright SHARC clusters have not been listed in any previously ...

  4. Search for bright stars with infrared excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright stars, stars with visual magnitude smaller than 6.5, can be studied using small telescope. In general, if stars are assumed as black body radiator, then the color in infrared (IR) region is usually equal to zero. Infrared data from IRAS observations at 12 and 25μm (micron) with good flux quality are used to search for bright stars (from Bright Stars Catalogues) with infrared excess. In magnitude scale, stars with IR excess is defined as stars with IR color m12−m25>0; where m12−m25 = −2.5log(F12/F25)+1.56, where F12 and F25 are flux density in Jansky at 12 and 25μm, respectively. Stars with similar spectral type are expected to have similar color. The existence of infrared excess in the same spectral type indicates the existence of circum-stellar dust, the origin of which is probably due to the remnant of pre main-sequence evolution during star formation or post AGB evolution or due to physical process such as the rotation of those stars

  5. LA Palma Night-Sky Brightness

    CERN Document Server

    Benn, C R; Benn, Chris R.; Ellison, Sara L.

    1998-01-01

    The brightness of the moonless night sky above La Palma was measured on 427 CCD images taken with the Isaac Newton and Jacobus Kapteyn Telescopes on 63 nights during 1987 - 1996. The median sky brightness at high elevation, high galactic latitude and high ecliptic latitude, at sunspot minimum, is B = 22.7, V = 21.9, R = 21.0, similar to that at other dark sites. The main contributions to sky brightness are airglow and zodiacal light. The sky is brighter at low ecliptic latitude (by 0.4 mag); at solar maximum (by 0.4 mag); and at high airmass (0.25 mag brighter at airmass 1.5). Light pollution (line + continuum) contributes < 0.03 mag in U, approximately 0.02 mag in B, approximately 0.10 mag in V, approximately and 0.10 mag in R at the zenith. This paper is a summary of results which are presented in full elsewhere (Benn & Ellison 1998, La Palma Technical Note 115).

  6. Structure of a murine norovirus NS6 protease-product complex revealed by adventitious crystallisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin N Leen

    Full Text Available Murine noroviruses have emerged as a valuable tool for investigating the molecular basis of infection and pathogenesis of the closely related human noroviruses, which are the major cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis. The replication of noroviruses relies on the proteolytic processing of a large polyprotein precursor into six non-structural proteins (NS1-2, NS3, NS4, NS5, NS6(pro, NS7(pol by the virally-encoded NS6 protease. We report here the crystal structure of MNV NS6(pro, which has been determined to a resolution of 1.6 Å. Adventitiously, the crystal contacts are mediated in part by the binding of the C-terminus of NS6(pro within the peptide-binding cleft of a neighbouring molecule. This insertion occurs for both molecules in the asymmetric unit of the crystal in a manner that is consistent with physiologically-relevant binding, thereby providing two independent views of a protease-peptide complex. Since the NS6(pro C-terminus is formed in vivo by NS6(pro processing, these crystal contacts replicate the protease-product complex that is formed immediately following cleavage of the peptide bond at the NS6-NS7 junction. The observed mode of binding of the C-terminal product peptide yields new insights into the structural basis of NS6(pro specificity.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of the NS5 gene of Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiga, Rama

    2016-10-01

    ZIKV infection has become a global threat spreading across 31 countries in Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. However, little information is available about the molecular epidemiology of ZIKV. Shared mutation of a threonine residue to alanine at the same position in the C terminal of NS5 sequences was observed in sequences from Colombia, Mexico, Panama, and Martinique. The sequences in the phylogenetic tree fell within the same cluster. Based on shared mutation the presence of a Latin American genotype was proposed. Comparison of African and Asian lineages yielded R29N, N273S, H383Q, and P391S mutation. The study highlights that mutation of amino acids at NS5 may contribute to neutropism of ZIKV. J. Med. Virol. 88:1821-1826, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27335310

  8. Heterotic NS5-branes from closed string tachyon condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Iñaki; Montero, Miguel; Uranga, Angel

    2014-12-01

    We show how to construct the familiar heterotic NS5 brane as a topological soliton in a supercritical version of heterotic string theory. Closed string tachyon condensation removes the extra dimensions, leaving the NS5 in ten dimensions, in a process highly reminiscent of the K-theoretical description of type II D-branes, but linking nontrivial gauge bundles and geometry. This establishes a new kind of equivalence between gravitational and gauge configurations, reminiscent of the gauge/geometry correspondence. We also use the K-theory description to build other heterotic branes as solitons of closed string tachyons. The construction requires a modification of the anomalous Bianchi identity for H3 in supercritical heterotic string theory. We give various proofs for the existence of this modification.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of the NS5 gene of Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiga, Rama

    2016-10-01

    ZIKV infection has become a global threat spreading across 31 countries in Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. However, little information is available about the molecular epidemiology of ZIKV. Shared mutation of a threonine residue to alanine at the same position in the C terminal of NS5 sequences was observed in sequences from Colombia, Mexico, Panama, and Martinique. The sequences in the phylogenetic tree fell within the same cluster. Based on shared mutation the presence of a Latin American genotype was proposed. Comparison of African and Asian lineages yielded R29N, N273S, H383Q, and P391S mutation. The study highlights that mutation of amino acids at NS5 may contribute to neutropism of ZIKV. J. Med. Virol. 88:1821-1826, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. NS&T Management Observations - 3rd Quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gianotto

    2014-07-01

    The INL Management Observation Program (MOP) is designed to improve managers and supervisors understanding of work being performed by employees and the barriers impacting their success. The MOP also increases workers understanding of managements’ expectations as they relate to safety, security, quality, and work performance. Management observations are designed to improve the relationship and trust between employees and managers through increased engagement and interactions between managers and researchers in the field. As part of continuous improvement, NS&T management took initiative to focus on the participation and quality of observations in FY 14. This quarterly report is intended to (a) summarize the participation and quality of management’s observations, (b) assess observations for commonalities or trends related to facility or process barriers impacting research, and (c) provide feedback and make recommendations for improvements NS&T’s MOP.

  11. NS&T Managment Observations - 1st Quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gianotto

    2014-06-01

    The INL Management Observation Program (MOP) is designed to improve managers and supervisors understanding of work being performed by employees and the barriers impacting their success. The MOP also increases workers understanding of managements’ expectations as they relate to safety, security, quality, and work performance. Management observations (observations) are designed to improve the relationship and trust between employees and managers through increased engagement and interactions between managers and researchers in the field. As part of continuous improvement, NS&T management took initiative to focus on the participation and quality of observations in FY 14. This quarterly report is intended to (a) summarize the participation and quality of management’s observations, (b) assess observations for commonalities or trends related to facility or process barriers impacting research, and (c) provide feedback and make recommendations for improvements NS&T’s MOP.

  12. Discovery of an irreversible HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qingbei; Nair, Anilkumar G; Rosenblum, Stuart B; Huang, Hsueh-Cheng; Lesburg, Charles A; Jiang, Yueheng; Selyutin, Oleg; Chan, Tin-Yau; Bennett, Frank; Chen, Kevin X; Venkatraman, Srikanth; Sannigrahi, Mousumi; Velazquez, Francisco; Duca, Jose S; Gavalas, Stephen; Huang, Yuhua; Pu, Haiyan; Wang, Li; Pinto, Patrick; Vibulbhan, Bancha; Agrawal, Sony; Ferrari, Eric; Jiang, Chuan-kui; Li, Cheng; Hesk, David; Gesell, Jennifer; Sorota, Steve; Shih, Neng-Yang; Njoroge, F George; Kozlowski, Joseph A

    2013-12-15

    The discovery of lead compound 2e was described. Its covalent binding to HCV NS5B polymerase enzyme was investigated by X-ray analysis. The results of distribution, metabolism and pharmacokinetics were reported. Compound 2e was demonstrated to be potent (replicon GT-1b EC50 = 0.003 μM), highly selective, and safe in in vitro and in vivo assays.

  13. MD 754: Instability Threshold for Train with 25ns Spacing

    CERN Document Server

    Carver, Lee Robert; Biancacci, Nicolo; Iadarola, Giovanni; Levens, Tom; Metral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit; Wang, Na; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    Measurements made since the beginning of run II at 6.5 TeV have shown that there is a large discrepancy in the instability thresholds between single bunches and trains of 72 bunches with 25ns spacing, whereas the same result is expect for pure impedance-induced instabilities. One possible explanation is that the presence of electron cloud is affecting the beam stability. This MD will attempt to determine if electron cloud is the dominant mechanism affecting beam stability.

  14. G-Structures and Wrapped NS5-Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Gauntlett, J P; Pakis, S; Waldram, D; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Martelli, Dario; Pakis, Stathis; Waldram, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the geometrical structure of supersymmetric solutions of type II supergravity of the form R^{1,9-n} x M_n with non-trivial NS flux and dilaton. Solutions of this type arise naturally as the near-horizon limits of wrapped NS fivebrane geometries. We concentrate on the case n=7, preserving two or four supersymmetries, corresponding to branes wrapped on associative or SLAG three-cycles. Given the existence of Killing spinors, we show that M_7 admits a G_2-structure or an SU(3)-structure, respectively, of specific type. We also prove the converse result. We use the existence of these geometric structures as a new technique to derive some known and new explicit solutions, as well as a simple theorem implying that we have vanishing NS three-form and constant dilaton whenever M_7 is compact with no boundary. The analysis extends simply to other type II examples and also to type I supergravity.

  15. NTT: Network Topology Tool for Enhancing NS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Naser Khraibet AL-Behadili

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Network Simulator-2(NS-2 is one of the most popular simulation systems that is widely used in the network community. C++ and the object-oriented Tool Command Language (TCL are both used to write this simulator. C++ works as a background for this simulator, whereas TCL is responsible for scheduling discrete events and network configuration objects. The TCL language is used to write the code of the simulation scenario. NS-2 does not present enough graphical interfaces that could help a researcher reduce the time spent on writing long TCL scripts. Therefore, network researchers spend a great deal of time focusing on how to write the TCL simulation script, which consequently makes the simulation process more difficult. This study presents a novel tool that enhances simulation by using graphical interfaces. The graphical interface is used to create the network topology and convert it into a TCL script. Thus, the process is visualized easily, efficiently, and quickly. This work describes the Network Topology Tool(NTT,which is intended to help researchers who work under the network simulation environment of NS-2. In such a scenario, researchers can create the network topology through an interactive graphical user interface and also they can retrieve and edit it which considered a very important and unique service from the other previous works. This tool will allow professional users to focus on the development of new algorithms or architectures rather than spend time writing scripts for data processing.

  16. Membrane interacting regions of Dengue virus NS2A protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemésio, Henrique; Villalaín, José

    2014-08-28

    The Dengue virus (DENV) NS2A protein, essential for viral replication, is a poorly characterized membrane protein. NS2A displays both protein/protein and membrane/protein interactions, yet neither its functions in the viral cycle nor its active regions are known with certainty. To highlight the different membrane-active regions of NS2A, we characterized the effects of peptides derived from a peptide library encompassing this protein's full length on different membranes by measuring their membrane leakage induction and modulation of lipid phase behavior. Following this initial screening, one region, peptide dens25, had interesting effects on membranes; therefore, we sought to thoroughly characterize this region's interaction with membranes. This peptide presents an interfacial/hydrophobic pattern characteristic of a membrane-proximal segment. We show that dens25 strongly interacts with membranes that contain a large proportion of lipid molecules with a formal negative charge, and that this effect has a major electrostatic contribution. Considering its membrane modulating capabilities, this region might be involved in membrane rearrangements and thus be important for the viral cycle.

  17. VP2-serotyped live-attenuated bluetongue virus without NS3/NS3a expression provides serotype-specific protection and enables DIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Femke; Maris-Veldhuis, Mieke; Daus, Franz J; Tacken, Mirriam G J; Moormann, Rob J M; van Gennip, René G P; van Rijn, Piet A

    2014-12-12

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes Bluetongue in ruminants and is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Vaccination is the most effective measure to control vector borne diseases; however, there are 26 known BTV serotypes showing little cross protection. The BTV serotype is mainly determined by genome segment 2 encoding the VP2 protein. Currently, inactivated and live-attenuated Bluetongue vaccines are available for a limited number of serotypes, but each of these have their specific disadvantages, including the inability to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). BTV non-structural proteins NS3 and NS3a are not essential for virus replication in vitro, but are important for cytopathogenic effect in mammalian cells and for virus release from insect cells in vitro. Recently, we have shown that virulent BTV8 without NS3/NS3a is non-virulent and viremia in sheep is strongly reduced, whereas local in vivo replication leads to seroconversion. Live-attenuated BTV6 without NS3/NS3a expression protected sheep against BTV challenge. Altogether, NS3/NS3a knockout BTV6 is a promising vaccine candidate and has been named Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA) vaccine. Here, we show serotype-specific protection in sheep by DISA vaccine in which only genome segment 2 of serotype 8 was exchanged. Similarly, DISA vaccines against other serotypes could be developed, by exchange of only segment 2, and could therefore safely be combined in multi-serotype cocktail vaccines with respect to reassortment between vaccine viruses. Additionally, NS3 antibody responses are raised after natural BTV infection and NS3-based ELISAs are therefore appropriate tools for DIVA testing accompanying the DISA vaccine. To enable DIVA, we developed an experimental NS3 ELISA. Indeed, vaccinated sheep remained negative for NS3 antibodies, whereas seroconversion for NS3 antibodies was associated with viremia after heterologous BTV challenge. PMID:25454873

  18. Oncolytic effects of a novel influenza A virus expressing interleukin-15 from the NS reading frame.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke van Rikxoort

    Full Text Available Oncolytic influenza A viruses with deleted NS1 gene (delNS1 replicate selectively in tumour cells with defective interferon response and/or activated Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signalling pathway. To develop a delNS1 virus with specific immunostimulatory properties, we used an optimised technology to insert the interleukin-15 (IL-15 coding sequence into the viral NS gene segment (delNS1-IL-15. DelNS1 and delNS1-IL-15 exerted similar oncolytic effects. Both viruses replicated and caused caspase-dependent apoptosis in interferon-defective melanoma cells. Virus replication was required for their oncolytic activity. Cisplatin enhanced the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses. The cytotoxic drug increased delNS1 replication and delNS1-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interference with MEK/ERK signalling by RNAi-mediated depletion or the MEK inhibitor U0126 did not affect the oncolytic effects of the delNS1 viruses. In oncolysis sensitive melanoma cells, delNS1-IL-15 (but not delNS1 infection resulted in the production of IL-15 levels ranging from 70 to 1140 pg/mL in the cell culture supernatants. The supernatants of delNS1-IL-15-infected (but not of delNS1-infected melanoma cells induced primary human natural killer cell-mediated lysis of non-infected tumour cells. In conclusion, we constructed a novel oncolytic influenza virus that combines the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses with immunostimulatory properties through production of functional IL-15. Moreover, we showed that the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses can be enhanced in combination with cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs.

  19. Detection of dengue NS1 and NS3 proteins in placenta and umbilical cord in fetal and maternal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Priscila Conrado Guerra; Paes, Marciano Viana; de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto Basilio; Soares, Ana Carla Gomes; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; Lima, Monique da Rocha Queiroz; de Barcelos Alves, Ada Maria; da Silva, Juliana Fernandes Amorim; de Oliveira Coelho, Janice Mery Chicarino; de Carvalho Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Flávia Barreto

    2016-08-01

    In Brazil, dengue is a public health problem with the occurrence of explosive epidemics. This study reports maternal and fetal deaths due to dengue and which tissues of placenta and umbilical cord were analyzed by molecular methods and immunohistochemistry. The dengue NS3 and NS1 detection revealed the viral presence in different cells from placenta and umbilical cord. In the latter, DENV-2 was detected at a viral titer of 1,02 × 10(4) amounts of viral RNA. It was shown that the DENV markers analyzed here may be an alternative approach for dengue fatal cases investigation, especially involving maternal and fetal death. J. Med. Virol. 88:1448-1452, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26792253

  20. Evolution of bulgeless low surface brightness galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, X.; Hammer, F.; Yang, Y. B.; Liang, Y. C.

    Based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR 7, we investigate the environment, morphology, and stellar population of bulgeless low surface-brightness (LSB) galaxies in a volume-limited sample with redshift ranging from 0.024 to 0.04 and M r LSB galaxies have more young stars and are more metal-poor than regular LSB galaxies. These results suggest that the evolution of LSB galaxies may be driven by their dynamics, including mergers rather than by their large-scale environment.

  1. Raman beam combining for laser brightness enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Jay W.; Allen, Graham S.; Pax, Paul H.; Heebner, John E.; Sridharan, Arun K.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Barty, Chrisopher B. J.

    2015-10-27

    An optical source capable of enhanced scaling of pulse energy and brightness utilizes an ensemble of single-aperture fiber lasers as pump sources, with each such fiber laser operating at acceptable pulse energy levels. Beam combining involves stimulated Raman scattering using a Stokes' shifted seed beam, the latter of which is optimized in terms of its temporal and spectral properties. Beams from fiber lasers can thus be combined to attain pulses with peak energies in excess of the fiber laser self-focusing limit of 4 MW while retaining the advantages of a fiber laser system of high average power with good beam quality.

  2. The radio properties of bright Seyfert galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuricin, G.; Mardirossian, F.; Mezzetti, M.; Bertotti, G. (Centro Interuniversitario Regionale per l' Astrofisica e la Cosmologia (Italy) Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics (Italy))

    1990-03-01

    The radio properties of a sample of 69 bright spectroscopically selected Seyfert galaxies, which suffers from little bias toward Markarian galaxies with strong UV excess. At variance with most of the earlier results, generally based on galaxy samples which are strongly biased toward the inclusion of Markarian objects, there is no clear evidence of a significant difference in the major radio properties (radio power, radio-to-optical luminosity ratio, radio spectral index and radio size) of type 1 and type 2 Seyferts. The resulting observational scenario appears now to be more consistent than before with the idea that Seyfert 2 galaxies are simply Seyfert 1 obscured objects. 70 refs.

  3. Monitoring of bright blazars with MAGIC telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, C. C.; Satalecka, K.; Thom, M; Backes, M.; Bernardini, E.; Bonnoli, G.; Galante, N.; Goebel, F; Lindfors, E.; Majumdar, P.; Stamerra, A.; Wagner, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Blazars, a class of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) characterized by a close orientation of their relativistic outflows (jets) towards the line of sight, are a well established extragalactic TeV $\\gamma$-ray emitters. Since 2006, three nearby and TeV bright blazars, Markarian (Mrk) 421, Mrk 501 and 1ES 1959+650, are regularly observed by the MAGIC telescope with single exposures of 30 to 60 minutes. The sensitivity of MAGIC allows to establish a flux level of 30% of the Crab flux for each such o...

  4. Quantum bright soliton in a disorder potential

    OpenAIRE

    Sacha, K.; Delande, D; Zakrzewski, J.

    2009-01-01

    At very low temperature, a quasi-one-dimensional ensemble of atoms with attractive interactions tend to form a bright soliton. When exposed to a sufficiently weak external potential, the shape of the soliton is not modified, but its external motion is affected. We develop in detail the Bogoliubov approach for the problem, treating, in a non-perturbative way, the motion of the center of mass of the soliton. Quantization of this motion allows us to discuss its long time properties. In particula...

  5. Bright, water-soluble CeF3 photo-, cathodo-, and X-ray luminescent nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, water-soluble CeF3 nanoparticles with small size and narrow size distribution have been synthesized using a simple co-precipitation method without any ligands. Size control of nanoparticles from 13 ± 2 to 9 ± 2 nm was achieved by varying the reaction time. Colloidal properties have been found to vary with pH and, independently, with dilution. The photoluminescence of the as-synthesized nanoparticles shows a highly photostable UV/Visible fluorescence band due to allowed 5d–4f transitions, also observed in the X-ray luminescence spectrum. This band is suitable for X-ray excitation of a range of photosensitizers. The photoluminescence quantum yield of nanoparticles was also determined to be 31 %. Using the measured fluorescence decay time of 25 ns, the radiative lifetime of Ce in CeF3 was found to be 80.6 ns. Both photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence emission are affected by the reaction time and measurement temperature. Electron-beam-induced defect annealing is also observed

  6. The role of the Fraunhofer lines in solar brightness variability

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, A I; Krivova, N A; Tagirov, R V; Schmutz, W K

    2015-01-01

    The solar brightness varies on timescales from minutes to decades. A clear identification of the physical processes behind such variations is needed for developing and improving physics-based models of solar brightness variability and reconstructing solar brightness in the past. This is, in turn, important for better understanding the solar-terrestrial and solar-stellar connections. We estimate the relative contributions of the continuum, molecular, and atomic lines to the solar brightness variations on different timescales. Our approach is based on the assumption that variability of the solar brightness on timescales greater than a day is driven by the evolution of the solar surface magnetic field. We calculated the solar brightness variations employing the solar disc area coverage of magnetic features deduced from the MDI/SOHO observations. The brightness contrasts of magnetic features relative to the quiet Sun were calculated with a non-LTE radiative transfer code as functions of disc position and waveleng...

  7. Cloning and sequencing of NS1、prM-E、E-NS1-NS2A genes of pig Japanese encephalitis virus(WHe)%猪乙脑病毒WHe株的PrM-E、NS1、E-NS2A基因的克隆及序列测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔宪凤; 熊东海; 郑新民; 徐涤平; 赵浩斌; 魏庆信

    2003-01-01

    本文通过RT-PCR扩增了猪乙型脑炎病毒WHe株主要抗原基因NS1(约1.14 kb)、prM-E(约2.1 kb)、E-NS1-NS2A (约3.0 kb),并将NS1、E-NS1-NS2A、PrM-E基因克隆、测序.与Genbank发表的JEV基因序列进行序列分析,发现WHe株与其他12种典型的JEV强毒株的同源性在88.3 %~99.4 %之间.WHe株与K94P05株的同源性最低(88.3 %),与P3株的同源性最高(99.4 %),可认为WHe株是由P3株衍生而来的.在JEV基因组5'端389~3910的长3522 nt的决定JEV抗原性的C-prM-E-NS1-NS2A区中,WHe株与P3株仅有21个碱基不同,其中的14个单碱基突变为同义突变,另外7个为错义突变,导致相应的氨基酸序列(1173个)中的6个氨基酸发生了变异,其中的5个氨基酸变异出现在含有各关键的抗体中和决定簇的E蛋白内,另一个位于NS1蛋白内.

  8. Construction and analysis of a plant non-specific lipid transfer protein database (nsLTPDB)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Nai-Jyuan; Lee Chi-Ching; Cheng Chao-Sheng; Lo Wei-Cheng; Yang Ya-Fen; Chen Ming-Nan; Lyu Ping-Chiang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small and basic proteins. Recently, nsLTPs have been reported involved in many physiological functions such as mediating phospholipid transfer, participating in plant defence activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens, and enhancing cell wall extension in tobacco. However, the lipid transfer mechanism of nsLTPs is still unclear, and comprehensive information of nsLTPs is difficult to obtain. Methods In this study...

  9. Human Bocavirus NS1 and NS1-70 Proteins Inhibit TNF-α-Mediated Activation of NF-κB by targeting p65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingshi; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Zheng, Zhenhua; Zheng, Caishang; Liu, Yan; Hu, Qinxue; Ke, Xianliang; Wang, Hanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV), a parvovirus, is a single-stranded DNA etiologic agent causing lower respiratory tract infections in young children worldwide. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factors play crucial roles in clearance of invading viruses through activation of many physiological processes. Previous investigation showed that HBoV infection could significantly upregulate the level of TNF-α which is a strong NF-κB stimulator. Here we investigated whether HBoV proteins modulate TNF-α-mediated activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. We showed that HBoV NS1 and NS1-70 proteins blocked NF-κB activation in response to TNF-α. Overexpression of TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2)-, IκB kinase alpha (IKKα)-, IκB kinase beta (IKKβ)-, constitutively active mutant of IKKβ (IKKβ SS/EE)-, or p65-induced NF-κB activation was inhibited by NS1 and NS1-70. Furthermore, NS1 and NS1-70 didn't interfere with TNF-α-mediated IκBα phosphorylation and degradation, nor p65 nuclear translocation. Coimmunoprecipitation assays confirmed the interaction of both NS1 and NS1-70 with p65. Of note, NS1 but not NS1-70 inhibited TNF-α-mediated p65 phosphorylation at ser536. Our findings together indicate that HBoV NS1 and NS1-70 inhibit NF-κB activation. This is the first time that HBoV has been shown to inhibit NF-κB activation, revealing a potential immune-evasion mechanism that is likely important for HBoV pathogenesis. PMID:27329558

  10. Short (~ ns) single pulse FIR (70-500 µm) multi-kW Raman conversion, of a short pulse (~ 25ns) broadband CO2 Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, S; Bartalini, S.; Simili, R.; Martinelli, M

    1994-01-01

    In this work a summary of many pulse compressed (< 10ns), FIR, high power, Raman emissions produced by a short pulse (25 ns) broadband (2GHz) CO2 laser is shown. Generally it has been always possible to obtain a single pulse (≈ ns) conversion from a pulse train of a self -mode locked CO2, also if it is not really reproducible. These emissions are interesting in pulsed high field EPR experiments.

  11. Coronal bright points associated with minifilament eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Bi, Yi; Li, Haidong [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Yang, Bo; Yang, Dan, E-mail: hjcsolar@ynao.ac.cn [Also at Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. (China)

    2014-12-01

    Coronal bright points (CBPs) are small-scale, long-lived coronal brightenings that always correspond to photospheric network magnetic features of opposite polarity. In this paper, we subjectively adopt 30 CBPs in a coronal hole to study their eruptive behavior using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. About one-quarter to one-third of the CBPs in the coronal hole go through one or more minifilament eruption(s) (MFE(s)) throughout their lifetimes. The MFEs occur in temporal association with the brightness maxima of CBPs and possibly result from the convergence and cancellation of underlying magnetic dipoles. Two examples of CBPs with MFEs are analyzed in detail, where minifilaments appear as dark features of a cool channel that divide the CBPs along the neutral lines of the dipoles beneath. The MFEs show the typical rising movements of filaments and mass ejections with brightenings at CBPs, similar to large-scale filament eruptions. Via differential emission measure analysis, it is found that CBPs are heated dramatically by their MFEs and the ejected plasmas in the MFEs have average temperatures close to the pre-eruption BP plasmas and electron densities typically near 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}. These new observational results indicate that CBPs are more complex in dynamical evolution and magnetic structure than previously thought.

  12. Sublimation in bright spots on (1) Ceres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathues, A; Hoffmann, M; Schaefer, M; Le Corre, L; Reddy, V; Platz, T; Cloutis, E A; Christensen, U; Kneissl, T; Li, J-Y; Mengel, K; Schmedemann, N; Schaefer, T; Russell, C T; Applin, D M; Buczkowski, D L; Izawa, M R M; Keller, H U; O'Brien, D P; Pieters, C M; Raymond, C A; Ripken, J; Schenk, P M; Schmidt, B E; Sierks, H; Sykes, M V; Thangjam, G S; Vincent, J-B

    2015-12-10

    The dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt with a mean diameter of about 950 kilometres, is located at a mean distance from the Sun of about 2.8 astronomical units (one astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance). Thermal evolution models suggest that it is a differentiated body with potential geological activity. Unlike on the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, where tidal forces are responsible for spewing briny water into space, no tidal forces are acting on Ceres. In the absence of such forces, most objects in the main asteroid belt are expected to be geologically inert. The recent discovery of water vapour absorption near Ceres and previous detection of bound water and OH near and on Ceres (refs 5-7) have raised interest in the possible presence of surface ice. Here we report the presence of localized bright areas on Ceres from an orbiting imager. These unusual areas are consistent with hydrated magnesium sulfates mixed with dark background material, although other compositions are possible. Of particular interest is a bright pit on the floor of crater Occator that exhibits probable sublimation of water ice, producing haze clouds inside the crater that appear and disappear with a diurnal rhythm. Slow-moving condensed-ice or dust particles may explain this haze. We conclude that Ceres must have accreted material from beyond the 'snow line', which is the distance from the Sun at which water molecules condense. PMID:26659183

  13. At Bright Band Inside Victoria Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A layer of light-toned rock exposed inside Victoria Crater in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars appears to mark where the surface was at the time, many millions of years ago, when an impact excavated the crater. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drove to this bright band as the science team's first destination for the rover during investigations inside the crater. Opportunity's left front hazard-identification camera took this image just after the rover finished a drive of 2.25 meters (7 feet, 5 inches) during the rover's 1,305th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 25, 2007). The rocks beneath the rover and its extended robotic arm are part of the bright band. Victoria Crater has a scalloped shape of alternating alcoves and promontories around the crater's circumference. Opportunity descended into the crater two weeks earlier, within an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' Counterclockwise around the rim, just to the right of the arm in this image, is a promontory called 'Cabo Frio.'

  14. Globe at Night - Sky Brightness Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Sze Leung; Pun, Jason Chun Shing; SO, Chu-wing; Shibata, Yukiko; Walker, Constance Elaine; Agata, Hidehiko

    2015-08-01

    The Global at Night - Sky Brightness Monitoring Network (GaN-MN) is an international project for long-term monitoring of night sky conditions around the world. The GaN-MN consists of fixed monitoring stations each equipped with a Sky Quality Meter - Lensed Ethernet (SQM-LE), which is a specialized light sensor for night sky brightness (NSB) measurement. NSB data are continuously collected at high sampling frequency throughout the night, and these data will be instantly made available to the general public to provide a real-time snapshot of the global light pollution condition. A single data collection methodology, including data sampling frequency, data selection criteria, device design and calibration, and schemes for data quality control, was adopted to ensure uniformity in the data collected. This is essential for a systematic and global study of the level of light pollution. The data collected will also provide the scientific backbone in our efforts to contribute to dark sky conservation through education to the general public and policy makers. The GaN-MN project is endorsed by the IAU IYL Executive Committee Working Group as a major Cosmic Light program in the International Year of Light.

  15. Mechanical electrodeposition of bright nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU ZengWei; ZHU Di; QU NingSong

    2008-01-01

    A new mechanical electrodeposition technology was proposed,and nanocrystal-line nickel deposit with bright and smooth surface was prepared in the bath without any additive agents.Unlike traditional methods,the novel technology employed dynamical hard particles to continuously polish the cathode surface and disturb the nearby solution during electrodepositing.Experimental results showed that the polishing effect of hard particles can effectively prevent the hydrogen bubbles and impurities from adhering on the deposit surface and avoid the production of pits,pinholes and nodules.Furthermore,comparing with the deposit prepared by tradi-tional methods,the one prepared by the novel technology was substantially refined with grain size ranging from 30 to 80 nm.Every diffraction peak's intensity of the deposit was reduced,the preferential orientation degree of (200) decreased and those of (111) and (220) increased.The microhardness notably increased.The magnetic properties were also changed with decreased saturation magnetization and increased coercive force.It was also found that variation of current density and cathode rotational speed could affect the structure and properties of the nickel deposits prepared by this technology.Key.words:electrodeposition,electroforming,hard particle,nanocrystalline,bright nickel deposits prepared by this technology.

  16. Coronal bright points associated with minifilament eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronal bright points (CBPs) are small-scale, long-lived coronal brightenings that always correspond to photospheric network magnetic features of opposite polarity. In this paper, we subjectively adopt 30 CBPs in a coronal hole to study their eruptive behavior using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. About one-quarter to one-third of the CBPs in the coronal hole go through one or more minifilament eruption(s) (MFE(s)) throughout their lifetimes. The MFEs occur in temporal association with the brightness maxima of CBPs and possibly result from the convergence and cancellation of underlying magnetic dipoles. Two examples of CBPs with MFEs are analyzed in detail, where minifilaments appear as dark features of a cool channel that divide the CBPs along the neutral lines of the dipoles beneath. The MFEs show the typical rising movements of filaments and mass ejections with brightenings at CBPs, similar to large-scale filament eruptions. Via differential emission measure analysis, it is found that CBPs are heated dramatically by their MFEs and the ejected plasmas in the MFEs have average temperatures close to the pre-eruption BP plasmas and electron densities typically near 109 cm–3. These new observational results indicate that CBPs are more complex in dynamical evolution and magnetic structure than previously thought.

  17. The 150 ns detector project: Prototype preamplifier results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, W. K.; Russell, S. R.; Kleinfelder, Stuart A.

    1994-08-01

    The long-term goal of the 150 ns detector project is to develop a pixel area detector capable of 6 MHz frame rates (150 ns/frame). Our milestones toward this goal are: a single pixel, 1×256 1D and 8×8 2D detectors, 256×256 2D detectors and, finally, 1024 × 1024 2D detectors. The design strategy is to supply a complete electronics chain (resetting preamp, selectable gain amplifier, analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and memory) for each pixel. In the final detectors these will all be custom integrated circuits. The front-end preamplifiers are integrated first, since their design and performance are the most unusual and also critical to the project's success. Similarly, our early work is concentrated on devising and perfecting detector structures. In this paper we demonstrate the performance of prototypes of our integrated preamplifiers. While the final design will have 64 preamps to a chip, including a switchable gain stage, the prototypes were integrated 8 channels to a "Tiny Chip" and tested in 4 configurations (feedback capacitor Cf equal 2.5 or 4.0 pF, output directly or through a source follower). These devices have been tested thoroughly for reset settling times, gain, linearity, and electronic noise. They generally work as designed, being fast enough to easily integrate detector charge, settle, and reset in 150 ns. Gain and linearity appear to be acceptable. Current values of electronic noise, in double-sampling mode, are about twice the design goal of {2}/{3} of a single photon at 6 keV. We expect this figure to improve with the addition of the onboard amplifier stage and improved packaging. Our next test chip will include these improvements and allow testing with our first detector samples, which will be 1×256 (50 μm wide pixels) and 8×8 (1 mm 2 pixels) element detector on 1 mm thick silicon.

  18. INVESTIGATION ON THE CAUSES OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP BRIGHTNESS REVERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia M. M. Eiras

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Some high brightness eucalyptus Kraft pulps have shown poor brightness stability. In most cases, the causes have notbeen identified and permanent solutions have not been found. This work focused on evaluating the brightness stability profile of pulpsbleached by in sequences such as O(DC(PODD, O(DC(PODP, OD(PODD, OD(PODP, ODHT(PODD, ODHT(PODP, OA/D(PODD, OA/D(PODP, OAD(PODD and O(ZeD(PO. Brightness stability tests induced by according to Tappi UM200 procedureon samples bleached to 90±0.5% ISO. Brightness stability was measured after each bleaching stage of the various sequences andexpressed as brightness loss in % ISO. The results indicate that pulps bleached with sequences ending with a peroxide stage havehigher brightness stability compared to those ending with a chlorine dioxide stage. Pulps bleached with a standard sequence, initiatingwith a (DC stage, show brightness stability similar to that of pulp bleached by an ECF (Elementary chlorine free sequence initiatingwith a regular D0 stage. ECF sequences, initiated with hot stages produce pulps with higher brightness stability than sequencesinitiating with a regular D0 stage. The profile across the bleaching sequences shows a tendency of increased brightness stability inalkaline stages containing peroxide and decreased stability in those stages containing chlorine and/or chlorine dioxide, parallelingpulp carbonyl group content.

  19. In vitro Splicing of Influenza Viral NS1 mRNA and NS1-β -globin Chimeras: Possible Mechanisms for the Control of Viral mRNA Splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotch, Stephen J.; Krug, Robert M.

    1986-08-01

    In influenza virus-infected cells, the splicing of the viral NS1 mRNA catalyzed by host nuclear enzymes is controlled so that the steady-state amount of the spliced NS2 mRNA is only 5-10% of that of the unspliced NS1 mRNA. Here we examine the splicing of NS1 mRNA in vitro, using nuclear extracts from HeLa cells. We show that in addition to its consensus 5' and 3' splice sites, NS1 mRNA has an intron branch-point adenosine residue that was functional in lariat formation. Nonetheless, this RNA was not detectably spliced in vitro under conditions in which a human β -globin precursor was efficiently spliced. Using chimeric RNA precursors containing both NS1 and β -globin sequences, we show that the NS1 5' splice site was effectively utilized by the β -globin branch-point sequence and 3' splice site to form a spliced RNA, whereas the NS1 3' splice site did not function in detectable splicing in vitro, even in the presence of the β -globin branch-point sequence or in the presence of both the branch-point sequence and 5' exon and splice site from β -globin With the chimeric precursors that were not detectably spliced, as with NS1 mRNA itself, a low level of a lariat structure containing only intron and not 3' exon sequences was formed. The inability of the consensus 3' splice site of NS1 mRNA to function effectively in in vitro splicing suggests that this site is structurally inaccessible to components of the splicing machinery. Based on these results, we propose two mechanisms whereby NS1 mRNA splicing in infected cells is controlled via the accessibility of its 3' splice site.

  20. PGBR Protocol for Cloud Routing Implementation in NS-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Tushar Kailas Mendhe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current internet infrastructure is fronting a number of boundaries that is not suitable to meet the growing number of services and users. In particular, one aspect that requires enhancement is routing, where original routing concepts were designed for static traffic patterns with minimal variations and supporting mainly low through put traffic (e.g. Data. As the number of users as well as services supporting the user grows, the current routing mechanisms will not be feasible. In this paper we present a gradient based distributed routing technique that is based on discovering routes through a gradient field created in the topology. The gradient calculation is based on weighted sum of a number of components, which modifies the gradient field as the network load changes. An improved version of a fully distributed routing protocol that is applicable for cloud computing infrastructure, also an implementation of the PGBR routing protocol within the ns-3 simulator. Broadband convergence networks can offer a solution for multiple service classes through integrated heterogeneous networks. However, to prepare this for the future variability in traffic demand, a dynamic routing protocol that boosts scalability, QoS awareness, and easy roadmap to deployment if necessary. The implementation using ns-3 simulator can ensure this capability.

  1. Modelling Solar and Stellar Brightness Variabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, K. L.; Shapiro, A. I.; Krivova, N. A.; Solanki, S. K.

    2016-04-01

    Total and spectral solar irradiance, TSI and SSI, have been measured from space since 1978. This is accompanied by the development of models aimed at replicating the observed variability by relating it to solar surface magnetism. Despite significant progress, there remains persisting controversy over the secular change and the wavelength-dependence of the variation with impact on our understanding of the Sun's influence on the Earth's climate. We highlight the recent progress in TSI and SSI modelling with SATIRE. Brightness variations have also been observed for Sun-like stars. Their analysis can profit from knowledge of the solar case and provide additional constraints for solar modelling. We discuss the recent effort to extend SATIRE to Sun-like stars.

  2. Hybrid quantum repeater using bright coherent light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loock, P; Ladd, T D; Sanaka, K; Yamaguchi, F; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, W J; Yamamoto, Y

    2006-06-23

    We describe a quantum repeater protocol for long-distance quantum communication. In this scheme, entanglement is created between qubits at intermediate stations of the channel by using a weak dispersive light-matter interaction and distributing the outgoing bright coherent-light pulses among the stations. Noisy entangled pairs of electronic spin are then prepared with high success probability via homodyne detection and postselection. The local gates for entanglement purification and swapping are deterministic and measurement-free, based upon the same coherent-light resources and weak interactions as for the initial entanglement distribution. Finally, the entanglement is stored in a nuclear-spin-based quantum memory. With our system, qubit-communication rates approaching 100 Hz over 1280 km with fidelities near 99% are possible for reasonable local gate errors.

  3. High brightness angled cavity quantum cascade lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari, D.; Bai, Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M., E-mail: razeghi@eecs.northwestern.edu [Center for Quantum Devices, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    A quantum cascade laser (QCL) with an output power of 203 W is demonstrated in pulsed mode at 283 K with an angled cavity. The device has a ridge width of 300 μm, a cavity length of 5.8 mm, and a tilt angle of 12°. The back facet is high reflection coated, and the front facet is anti-reflection coated. The emitting wavelength is around 4.8 μm. In distinct contrast to a straight cavity broad area QCL, the lateral far field is single lobed with a divergence angle of only 3°. An ultrahigh brightness value of 156 MW cm{sup −2 }sr{sup −1} is obtained, which marks the brightest QCL to date.

  4. Brightness temperature for 166 radio sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Hui Fan; Yong Huang; Yu-Hai Yuan; Jiang-He Yang; Yi Liu; Jun Tao; Ying Gao; Tong-Xu Hua; Rui-Guang Lin; Jiang-Shui Zhang; Jing-Yi Zhang; Yi-Ping Qin

    2009-01-01

    Using the database of the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO) at three radio frequencies (4.8, 8 and 14.5 GHz), we determined the short-term variability timescales for 166 radio sources. The timescales are 0.15d (2007+777) to 176.17d (0528-250) with an average timescale of △tobs=17.1±16.5d for the whole sample. The timescales are used to calculate the brightness temperatures, TB. The value of log TB is in the range of log TB = 10.47 to 19.06 K. In addition, we also estimated the boosting factor for the sources. The correlation between the polarization and the Doppler factor is also discussed.

  5. Tunneling Dynamics Between Atomic Bright Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Li-Chen; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Yang, Wen-Li

    2016-01-01

    We investigate tunneling behavior between two bright solitons in a Bose-Einstein condensate with attractive contact interactions between atoms. The explicit tunneling properties including tunneling particles and oscillation period are described analytically, which indicates that the periodic tunneling form is a nonlinear Josephson type oscillation. The results suggest that the breathing behavior of solitons comes from the tunneling mechanism in an effective double-well potential, which is quite different from the modulational instability mechanism for Akhmediev breather and K-M breather. Furthermore, we obtain a phase diagram for two soliton interaction which admits tunneling property, particle-like property, interference property, and a resonant interaction case. The explicit conditions for them are clarified based on the defined critical distance $d_c$ and spatial interference period $D$.

  6. Considerations for high-brightness electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle accelerators are now used in many areas of physics research and in industrial and medical applications. New uses are being studied to address major societal needs in energy production, materials research, generation of intense beams of radiation at optical and suboptical wavelengths, treatment of various kinds of waste, and so on. Many of these modern applications require a high intensity beam at the desired energy, along with a very good beam quality in terms of the beam confinement, aiming, or focusing. Considerations for ion and electron accelerators are often different, but there are also many commonalties, and in fact, techniques derived for one should perhaps more often be considered for the other as well. We discuss some aspects of high-brightness electron sources here from that point of view. 6 refs

  7. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Lauren E.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Borish, H. Jacob; Burkhardt, Andrew; Firebaugh, Ariel; Hancock, Danielle; Rochford Hayes, Christian; Linden, Sean; Liss, Sandra; Matthews, Allison; Prager, Brian; Pryal, Matthew; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Troup, Nicholas William; Wenger, Trey

    2016-01-01

    We present updates from our seventh year of operation including new club content, continued assessments, and our fifth annual Star Party. Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in Central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts. Our primary focus is hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools. Each week, DSBK volunteers take the role of coaches to introduce astronomy-related concepts ranging from the Solar System to galaxies to astrobiology, and to lead students in interactive learning activities. Another hallmark of DSBK is hosting our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows.

  8. The 2NS Translocation from Aegilops ventricosa Confers Resistance to the Triticum Pathotype of Magnaporthe oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, C.D.; Peterson, G.L.; Bockus, W.W.; Kankanala, P.; Dubcovsky, J.; Jordan, K.W.; Akhunov, E.; Chumley, F.; Baldelomar, F.D.; Valent, B.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat blast is a serious disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (Triticum pathotype) (MoT). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the 2NS translocation from Aegilops ventricosa (Zhuk.) Chennav on wheat head and leaf blast resistance. Disease phenotyping experiments were conducted in growth chamber, greenhouse, and field environments. Among 418 cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), those with 2NS had 50.4 to 72.3% less head blast than those without 2NS when inoculated with an older MoT isolate under growth chamber conditions. When inoculated with recently collected isolates, cultivars with 2NS had 64.0 to 80.5% less head blast. Under greenhouse conditions when lines were inoculated with an older MoT isolate, those with 2NS had a significant head blast reduction. With newer isolates, not all lines with 2NS showed a significant reduction in head blast, suggesting that the genetic background and/or environment may influence the expression of any resistance conferred by 2NS. However, when near-isogenic lines (NILs) with and without 2NS were planted in the field, there was strong evidence that 2NS conferred resistance to head blast. Results from foliar inoculations suggest that the resistance to head infection that is imparted by the 2NS translocation does not confer resistance to foliar disease. In conclusion, the 2NS translocation was associated with significant reductions in head blast in both spring and winter wheat.

  9. Moon night sky brightness simulation for the Xinglong station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a sky brightness monitor at the Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, we collected data from 22 dark clear nights and 90 moon nights. We first measured the sky brightness variation with time for dark nights and found a clear correlation between sky brightness and human activity. Then with a modified sky brightness model of moon nights and data from these nights, we derived the typical value for several important parameters in the model. With these results, we calculated the sky brightness distribution under a given moon condition for the Xinglong station. Furthermore, we simulated the sky brightness distribution of a moon night for a telescope with a 5° field of view (such as LAMOST). These simulations will be helpful for determining the limiting magnitude and exposure time, as well as planning the survey for LAMOST during moon nights

  10. In silico evaluation of inhibitory potential of triterpenoids from Azadirachta indica against therapeutic target of dengue virus, NS2B-NS3 protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Dhar Dwivedi

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: The findings attained through this study on the molecular interaction mode of three neem triterpenoids and DENV NS2B-NS3 pro can be considered for further in vitro and in vivo validation for designing new potential drugs for DENV infection.

  11. A conserved predicted pseudoknot in the NS2A-encoding sequence of West Nile and Japanese encephalitis flaviviruses suggests NS1' may derive from ribosomal frameshifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkins John F

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses form a tight subgroup within the larger Flavivirus genus. These viruses utilize a single-polyprotein expression strategy, resulting in ~10 mature proteins. Plotting the conservation at synonymous sites along the polyprotein coding sequence reveals strong conservation peaks at the very 5' end of the coding sequence, and also at the 5' end of the sequence encoding the NS2A protein. Such peaks are generally indicative of functionally important non-coding sequence elements. The second peak corresponds to a predicted stable pseudoknot structure whose biological importance is supported by compensatory mutations that preserve the structure. The pseudoknot is preceded by a conserved slippery heptanucleotide (Y CCU UUU, thus forming a classical stimulatory motif for -1 ribosomal frameshifting. We hypothesize, therefore, that the functional importance of the pseudoknot is to stimulate a portion of ribosomes to shift -1 nt into a short (45 codon, conserved, overlapping open reading frame, termed foo. Since cleavage at the NS1-NS2A boundary is known to require synthesis of NS2A in cis, the resulting transframe fusion protein is predicted to be NS1-NS2AN-term-FOO. We hypothesize that this may explain the origin of the previously identified NS1 'extension' protein in JEV-group flaviviruses, known as NS1'.

  12. Annular bright and dark field imaging of soft materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here polyethylene, as an example of an important soft material, was studied by STEM annular bright and dark field. The contrast as function of the probe size/shape and the detector collection angle are discussed. The results are compared to conventional bright field transmission electron microscopy, electron energy filtered imaging and energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping. Annular bright and dark field gave a higher contrast than conventional transmission and analytical mapping techniques

  13. Variability, Brightness Temperature, Superluminal Motion, Doppler Boosting, and Related Issues

    CERN Document Server

    Kellermann, K I

    2003-01-01

    We review the observations of rapid flux density variations in compact radio sources, and discuss the inverse Compton limit to the maximum brightness temperature of incoherent synchrotron sources in comparison with recent VLBA observations. The apparent agreement of the theoretical brightness temperature limit due to inverse Compton cooling and the brightness temperatures observed by early VLBI observations appears to have been fortuitous. VLBA observations have greatly improved the quality of the data, but many of the early issues remain unresolved.

  14. Research on Brightness Measurement of Intense Electron Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Huang; Yang, GuoJun; Li, YiDing; Li, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The mostly research fasten on high emission density of injector to study electron beam's brightness in LIA. Using the injector(2MeV) was built to research brightness of multi-pulsed high current(KA) electron beam, and researchs three measurement method (the pepper-pot method, beam collimator without magnetic field, beam collimator with magnetic field method) to detect beam's brightness with time-resolved measurement system.

  15. Cutaneous papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma therapy utilizing nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yin

    Full Text Available Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF induce apoptotic pathways in human cancer cells. The potential therapeutic effective of nsPEF has been reported in cell lines and in xenograft animal tumor model. The present study investigated the ability of nsPEF to cause cancer cell death in vivo using carcinogen-induced animal tumor model, and the pulse duration of nsPEF was only 7 and 14 nano second (ns. An nsPEF generator as a prototype medical device was used in our studies, which is capable of delivering 7-30 nanosecond pulses at various programmable amplitudes and frequencies. Seven cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and five other types of cancer cell lines were used to detect the effect of nsPEF in vitro. Rate of cell death in these 12 different cancer cell lines was dependent on nsPEF voltage and pulse number. To examine the effect of nsPEF in vivo, carcinogen-induced cutaneous papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas in mice were exposed to nsPEF with three pulse numbers (50, 200, and 400 pulses, two nominal electric fields (40 KV/cm and 31 KV/cm, and two pulse durations (7 ns and 14 ns. Carcinogen-induced cutaneous papillomas and squamous carcinomas were eliminated efficiently using one treatment of nsPEF with 14 ns duration pulses (33/39 = 85%, and all remaining lesions were eliminated after a 2nd treatment (6/39 = 15%. 13.5% of carcinogen-induced tumors (5 of 37 were eliminated using 7 ns duration pulses after one treatment of nsPEF. Associated with tumor lysis, expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xl and Bcl-2 were markedly reduced and apoptosis increased (TUNEL assay after nsPEF treatment. nsPEF efficiently causes cell death in vitro and removes papillomas and squamous cell carcinoma in vivo from skin of mice. nsPEF has the therapeutic potential to remove human squamous carcinoma.

  16. Development of novel antibodies against non-structural proteins nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4 of chikungunya virus: potential use in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Kumar, Abhishek; Basantray, Itishree; Bramha, Umarani; Dixit, Anshuman; Maiti, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Sujay; Suryawanshi, Amol Ratnakar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Soma

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has reemerged recently as an important pathogen, causing several large epidemics worldwide. This necessitates the development of better reagents to understand its biology and to establish effective and safe control measures. The present study describes the development and characterization of polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against synthetic peptides of CHIKV non-structural proteins (nsPs; nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4). The reactivity of these pAbs was demonstrated by ELISA and Western blot. Additionally, in vitro infection studies in a mammalian system confirmed that these pAbs are highly sensitive and specific for CHIKV nsPs, as these proteins were detected very early during viral replication. Homology analysis of the selected epitope sequences revealed that they are conserved among all of the CHIKV strains of different genotypes, while comparison with other alphavirus sequences showed that none of them are 100% identical to the epitope sequences (except Onyong-nyong and Igbo Ora viruses, which show 100% identity to the nsP4 epitope). Interestingly, two different forms of CHIKV nsP1 and three different forms of nsP3 were detected in Western blot analysis during infection; however, further experimental investigations are required to confirm their identity. Also, the use of these antibodies demonstrated faster and enhanced expression profiles of all CHIKV nsPs in 2006 Indian outbreak strains when compared to the CHIKV prototype strain, suggesting the epidemic potential of the 2006 isolate. Accordingly, it can be suggested that the pAbs reported in this study can be used as sensitive and specific tools for experimental investigations of CHIKV replication and infection.

  17. Development of novel antibodies against non-structural proteins nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4 of chikungunya virus: potential use in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Kumar, Abhishek; Basantray, Itishree; Bramha, Umarani; Dixit, Anshuman; Maiti, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Sujay; Suryawanshi, Amol Ratnakar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Soma

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has reemerged recently as an important pathogen, causing several large epidemics worldwide. This necessitates the development of better reagents to understand its biology and to establish effective and safe control measures. The present study describes the development and characterization of polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against synthetic peptides of CHIKV non-structural proteins (nsPs; nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4). The reactivity of these pAbs was demonstrated by ELISA and Western blot. Additionally, in vitro infection studies in a mammalian system confirmed that these pAbs are highly sensitive and specific for CHIKV nsPs, as these proteins were detected very early during viral replication. Homology analysis of the selected epitope sequences revealed that they are conserved among all of the CHIKV strains of different genotypes, while comparison with other alphavirus sequences showed that none of them are 100% identical to the epitope sequences (except Onyong-nyong and Igbo Ora viruses, which show 100% identity to the nsP4 epitope). Interestingly, two different forms of CHIKV nsP1 and three different forms of nsP3 were detected in Western blot analysis during infection; however, further experimental investigations are required to confirm their identity. Also, the use of these antibodies demonstrated faster and enhanced expression profiles of all CHIKV nsPs in 2006 Indian outbreak strains when compared to the CHIKV prototype strain, suggesting the epidemic potential of the 2006 isolate. Accordingly, it can be suggested that the pAbs reported in this study can be used as sensitive and specific tools for experimental investigations of CHIKV replication and infection. PMID:26280524

  18. INVESTIGATION ON THE CAUSES OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP BRIGHTNESS REVERSION

    OpenAIRE

    Kátia M. M. Eiras; Jorge Luiz Colodette; Ana Márcia M. L. Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    Some high brightness eucalyptus Kraft pulps have shown poor brightness stability. In most cases, the causes have notbeen identified and permanent solutions have not been found. This work focused on evaluating the brightness stability profile of pulpsbleached by in sequences such as O(DC)(PO)DD, O(DC)(PO)DP, OD(PO)DD, OD(PO)DP, ODHT(PO)DD, ODHT(PO)DP, OA/D(PO)DD, OA/D(PO)DP, OAD(PO)DD and O(Ze)D(PO). Brightness stability tests induced by according to Tappi UM200 procedureon samples bleached to...

  19. In Silico Screening, Alanine Mutation, and DFT Approaches for Identification of NS2B/NS3 Protease Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balajee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the ligand that binds to a target protein with high affinity is a nontrivial task in computer-assisted approaches. Antiviral drugs have been identified for NS2B/NS3 protease enzyme on the mechanism to cleave the viral protein using the computational tools. The consequence of the molecular docking, free energy calculations, and simulation protocols explores the better ligand. It provides in-depth structural insights with the catalytic triad of His51, Asp75, Ser135, and Gly133. The MD simulation was employed here to predict the stability of the complex. The alanine mutation has been performed and its stability was monitored by using the molecular dynamics simulation. The minimal RMSD value suggests that the derived complexes are close to equilibrium. The DFT outcome reveals that the HOMO-LUMO gap of Ligand19 is 2.86 kcal/mol. Among the considered ligands, Ligand19 shows the lowest gap and it is suggested that the HOMO of Ligand19 may transfer the electrons to the LUMO in the active regions. The calculated binding energy of Ligand19 using the DFT method is in good agreement with the docking studies. The pharmacological activity of ligand was performed and satisfies Lipinski rule of 5. Moreover, the computational results are compared with the available IC50 values of experimental results.

  20. Larger Planet Radii Inferred from Stellar "Flicker" Brightness Variations of Bright Planet Host Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bastien, Fabienne A; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, logg. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ("flicker") of stars can be used to measure logg to a high accuracy of ~0.1-0.2 dex (Bastien et al. 2013). Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag<13) candidate planet-hosting stars with Teff=4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, an astrophysical bias exists that contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50%...

  1. High Brightness Neutron Source for Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, J. T.; Piestrup, Melvin, A.; Gary, Charles, K.; Harris, Jack, L. Williams, David, J.; Jones, Glenn, E.; Vainionpaa, J. , H.; Fuller, Michael, J.; Rothbart, George, H.; Kwan, J., W.; Ludewigt, B., A.; Gough, R.., A..; Reijonen, Jani; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-12-08

    This research and development program was designed to improve nondestructive evaluation of large mechanical objects by providing both fast and thermal neutron sources for radiography. Neutron radiography permits inspection inside objects that x-rays cannot penetrate and permits imaging of corrosion and cracks in low-density materials. Discovering of fatigue cracks and corrosion in piping without the necessity of insulation removal is possible. Neutron radiography sources can provide for the nondestructive testing interests of commercial and military aircraft, public utilities and petrochemical organizations. Three neutron prototype neutron generators were designed and fabricated based on original research done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The research and development of these generators was successfully continued by LBNL and Adelphi Technology Inc. under this STTR. The original design goals of high neutron yield and generator robustness have been achieved, using new technology developed under this grant. In one prototype generator, the fast neutron yield and brightness was roughly 10 times larger than previously marketed neutron generators using the same deuterium-deuterium reaction. In another generator, we integrate a moderator with a fast neutron source, resulting in a high brightness thermal neutron generator. The moderator acts as both conventional moderator and mechanical and electrical support structure for the generator and effectively mimics a nuclear reactor. In addition to the new prototype generators, an entirely new plasma ion source for neutron production was developed. First developed by LBNL, this source uses a spiral antenna to more efficiently couple the RF radiation into the plasma, reducing the required gas pressure so that the generator head can be completely sealed, permitting the possible use of tritium gas. This also permits the generator to use the deuterium-tritium reaction to produce 14-MeV neutrons with increases

  2. Data center network performance evaluation in ns3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrus, Bogdan-Mihai; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    In the following paper we present the analysis of highly interconnected topologies like hypercube and torus and how they can be implemented in data centers in order to cope with the rapid increase and demands for performance of the internal traffic. By replicating the topologies in NS3...... and subjecting them to uniformly distributed traffic routed by shortest path algorithms we are able to extract statistics related to average throughput, latency and loss rate that show the decrease in the average throughput per connection is only about 5% for the hypercube compared to 16% for the 3D torus when...... we scale the network from 16 to 512 switches. The performance measurements are supported by abstract metrics that that also give a cost and complexity indication in choosing the right topology for the required application....

  3. Ultra-bright alkylated graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lan; Tang, Xing-Yan; Zhong, Yun-Xin; Liu, Yue-Wen; Song, Xue-Huan; Deng, Shun-Liu; Xie, Su-Yuan; Yan, Jia-Wei; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2014-10-01

    Highly efficient and stable photoluminescence (PL) are urgently desired for graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to facilitate their prospective applications as optical materials. Here, we report the facile and straightforward synthesis of alkylated graphene quantum dots (AGQDs) via the solvothermal reaction of propagatively alkylated graphene sheets (PAGenes). In contrast to most GQDs reported so far, the synthesized AGQDs process pH-independent and ultra-bright PL with a relative quantum yield of up to 65%. Structural and chemical composition characterization demonstrated that the synthesized AGQDs are nearly oxygen-defect-free with alkyl groups decorated on edges and basal plane, which may contribute to their greatly improved pH tolerance and high quantum efficiency. The photocatalytic performance of AGQDs-P25 nanocomposites was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light. The photocatalytic rate is ca. 5.9 times higher than that of pure P25, indicating that AGQDs could harness the visible spectrum of sunlight for energy conversion or environmental therapy.Highly efficient and stable photoluminescence (PL) are urgently desired for graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to facilitate their prospective applications as optical materials. Here, we report the facile and straightforward synthesis of alkylated graphene quantum dots (AGQDs) via the solvothermal reaction of propagatively alkylated graphene sheets (PAGenes). In contrast to most GQDs reported so far, the synthesized AGQDs process pH-independent and ultra-bright PL with a relative quantum yield of up to 65%. Structural and chemical composition characterization demonstrated that the synthesized AGQDs are nearly oxygen-defect-free with alkyl groups decorated on edges and basal plane, which may contribute to their greatly improved pH tolerance and high quantum efficiency. The photocatalytic performance of AGQDs-P25 nanocomposites was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light. The

  4. In Revered Memory of Prof. N.S. Vahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available I have to record with deep sorrow and grief the demise in June 2007 of one of the doyens of clinical psychiatry in India, Prof. N.S. Vahia.Sharply arched eyebrows, deep-set eyes, soft spoken and gentle demeanour, excellent clinical skills, abiding interest in all branches of psychiatry, and a keen benevolent temperament. This is how most who knew, and met, Prof. N.S. Vahia will remember him.He came on the Indian psychiatric scene and headed the Psychiatry Department at Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital when psychiatry was in its infancy here. A keen clinician and researcher, he helped establish a sound clinical and research base along with his junior colleagues at this institution. His works have been published in major international journals (Vahia, 1959, 1963; Vahia et al., 1966, 1972, 1973, 1975. His strong commitment was to bring psychiatry into the mainstream of medicine, and to interact actively with colleagues from various other departments to remove their misconceptions and prejudices about the branch. This was carried forward by many of his illustrious successors in the department, notably Prof. V.N. Bagadia and Prof. D.N. Doongaji.The major work for which he will be remembered in research was to understand and popularise Patanjali Yoga as a means of treatment in psychiatric disorders (Vahia et al., 1966, 1972, 1973, 1975. It is but fitting that a theme monograph like this, which includes well-being as one of its thrust areas, should be dedicated to someone who has done much to incorporate Patanjali Yoga into medical practice.[No abstract available. These are first few paragraphs. For full article, click URL.

  5. The 150 ns detector project: Progress with small detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, W. K.; Russell, S. R.; Kleinfelder, Stuart A.; Segal, Julie

    1994-09-01

    This project's long term goal is to develop a pixel area detector capable of 6 MHz frame rates (150 ns/frame). Our milestones toward this goal are: a single pixel, 1 × 256 1D and 8 × 8 2D detectors, 256 × 256 2D detectors and, finally, 1024 × 1024 2D detectors. The design strategy is to supply a complete electronics chain (resetting preamp, selectable gain amplifier, analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and memory) for each pixel. In the final detectors these will all be custom integrated circuits. The front end preamplifiers are being integrated first, since their design and performance are both the most unusual and also critical to the project's success. Similarly, our early work is also concentrating on devising and perfecting detector structures which are thick enough (1 mm) to absorb over 99% of the incident X-rays in the energy range of interest. In this paper we discuss our progress toward the 1 × 256 1D and 8 × 8 2D detectors. We have fabricated sample detectors at Stanford's Center for Integrated Systems and are preparing both to test them individually and to wirebond them to the preamplifier samples to produce our first working small 1D and 2D detectors. We will describe our solutions to the design problems associated with collecting charge in less than 30 ns from 1 mm thick pixels in high resistivity silicon. We have constructed and tested the front end of our preamplifier design using a commercial 1.2 μm CMOS technology and are moving on to produce a few channels of the complete preamplifier, including a switchable gain stage and output stage. We will discuss both the preamplifier design and our initial test results.

  6. 25 ns software correlator for photon and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magatti, Davide; Ferri, Fabio

    2003-02-01

    A 25 ns time resolution, multi-tau software correlator developed in LABVIEW based on the use of a standard photon counting unit, a fast timer/counter board (6602-PCI National Instrument) and a personal computer (PC) (1.5 GHz Pentium 4) is presented and quantitatively discussed. The correlator works by processing the stream of incoming data in parallel according to two different algorithms: For large lag times (τ⩾100 μs), a classical time-mode (TM) scheme, based on the measure of the number of pulses per time interval, is used; differently, for τ⩽100 μs a photon-mode (PM) scheme is adopted and the time sequence of the arrival times of the photon pulses is measured. By combining the two methods, we developed a system capable of working out correlation functions on line, in full real time for the TM correlator and partially in batch processing for the PM correlator. For the latter one, the duty cycle depends on the count rate of the incoming pulses, being ˜100% for count rates ⩽3×104 Hz, ˜15% at 105 Hz, and ˜1% at 106 Hz. For limitations imposed by the fairly small first-in, first-out (FIFO) buffer available on the counter board, the maximum count rate permissible for a proper functioning of the PM correlator is limited to ˜105 Hz. However, this limit can be removed by using a board with a deeper FIFO. Similarly, the 25 ns time resolution is only limited by maximum clock frequency available on the 6602-PCI and can be easily improved by using a faster clock. When tested on dilute solutions of calibrated latex spheres, the overall performances of the correlator appear to be comparable with those of commercial hardware correlators, but with several nontrivial advantages related to its flexibility, low cost, and easy adaptability to future developments of PC and data acquisition technology.

  7. Effect of Influenza Virus NS1 Protein on Host Cell%禽流感病毒NS1蛋白对细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵莉霞; 张莹莹; 杨志新; 许龙; 杨予涛; 于孟斌; 王荣; 周晓巍; 黄培堂

    2008-01-01

    NS1蛋白为流感病毒非结构蛋白,只在病毒侵入宿主细胞后产生.目前NS1蛋白对细胞整体水平上的作用仍不清楚,为了解NS1蛋白在病毒感染细胞中的作用,构建了重组质粒pCMV-myc-NS1并将其转染A549细胞,利用双向电泳技术检测了受NS1蛋白调控的宿主蛋白,以期从蛋白质组水平上研究禽流感病毒与宿主细胞间的相互作用.同时,还检测了转染NS1对细胞增殖和细胞周期的影响.结果显示,NS1在细胞中的表达,能够明显引起宿主细胞代谢的变化,并通过阻滞细胞周期的正常进行而减缓细胞的增殖.

  8. Dark and bright vortex solitons in electromagnetically induced transparent media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that dark and bright vortex solitons can exist in three-state electromagnetically induced transparent media under some appropriate conditions. We also analyse the stability of the dark and bright vortex solitons. This work may provide other research opportunities in nonlinear optical experiments and may result in a substantial impact on technology

  9. Low dimensional neutron moderators for enhanced source brightness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mezei, Ferenc; Zanini, Luca; Takibayev, Alan;

    2014-01-01

    for cold neutrons. This model leads to the conclusions that the optimal shape for high brightness para-hydrogen neutron moderators is the quasi 1-dimensional tube and these low dimensional moderators can also deliver much enhanced cold neutron brightness in fission reactor neutron sources, compared...

  10. Surface photometry of bulge dominated low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, M; de Blok, WJG; van der Hulst, JM

    1999-01-01

    We present results of broad band BVRI observations of a sample of galaxies with a low surface brightness (LSB) disk and a bulge. These galaxies are well described as exponential disks and exponential bulges with no preferred value for either scale length or central surface brightness. The median B b

  11. Analysis of Bright Harvest Remote Analysis for Residential Solar Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nangle, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simon, Joseph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-06-17

    Bright Harvest provides remote shading analysis and design products for residential PV system installers. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) through the NREL Commercialization Assistance Program, completed comparative assessments between on-site measurements and remotely calculated values to validate the accuracy of Bright Harvest’s remote shading and power generation.

  12. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.; Butterfield, Karla [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.

    2016-03-01

    Kaplan Thompson Architects (KTA) has specialized in sustainable, energy-efficient buildings, and they have designed several custom, zero-energy homes in New England. These zero-energy projects have generally been high-end, custom homes with budgets that could accommodate advanced energy systems. In an attempt to make zero energy homes more affordable and accessible to a larger demographic, KTA explored modular construction as way to provide high-quality homes at lower costs. In the mid-2013, KTA formalized this concept when they launched BrightBuilt Home (BBH). The BBH mission is to offer a line of architect-designed, high-performance homes that are priced to offer substantial savings off the lifetime cost of a typical home and can be delivered in less time. For the past two years, CARB has worked with BBH and Keiser Homes (the primary modular manufacturer for BBH) to discuss challenges related to wall systems, HVAC, and quality control. In Spring of 2014, CARB and BBH began looking in detail on a home to be built in Lincolnville, ME by Black Bros. Builders. This report details the solution package specified for this modular plan and the challenges that arose during the project.

  13. Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Brightness Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, Kurt D.; Gladstone, G.; Stern, S.; Egan, A. F.; Miles, P. F.; Parker, J. W.; Greathouse, T. K.; Davis, M. W.; Slater, D. C.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Versteeg, M. H.; Feldman, P. D.; Hurley, D. M.; Pryor, W. R.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2010-10-01

    The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) is an ultraviolet (UV) spectrograph on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that is designed to map the lunar albedo at far-UV wavelengths. LAMP primarily measures interplanetary Hydrogen Lyman-alpha sky-glow and far-UV starlight reflected from the night-side lunar surface, including permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) near the poles. Dayside observations are also obtained. Brightness maps sorted by wavelength (including the Lyman-alpha wavelength of 121.6 nm) are reported for the polar regions, with a few regions of interest reported in more detail. LAMP's spectral range of 58 nm to 196 nm includes a water ice spectral feature near 160 nm, which provides a diagnostic tool for detecting water on the lunar surface that is complementary to recent discoveries using infrared and radio frequency techniques. Progress towards producing far-UV albedo maps and searching for water ice signatures will be reported. We'll discuss how LAMP data may address questions regarding how water is formed on the moon, transported through the lunar atmosphere, and deposited in the PSRs.

  14. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Sandra; Troup, Nicholas William; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Barcos-Munoz, Loreto D.; Beaton, Rachael; Bittle, Lauren; Borish, Henry J.; Burkhardt, Andrew; Corby, Joanna; Dean, Janice; Hancock, Danielle; King, Jennie; Prager, Brian; Romero, Charles; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Wenger, Trey; Zucker, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Now entering our sixth year of operation, Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts beyond Virginia's Standards of Learning. Our primary focus is hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools. Each week, DSBK volunteers take the role of coaches to introduce astronomy-related concepts ranging from the Solar System to galaxies to astrobiology, and to lead students in interactive learning activities. Another hallmark of DSBK is hosting our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows.DSBK has amassed over 15,000 contact hours since 2009 and we continue to broaden our impact. One important step we have taken in the past year is to establish a graduate student led assessment program to identify and implement directed learning goals for DSBK outreach. The collection of student workbooks, observations, and volunteer surveys indicates broad scale success for the program both in terms of student learning and their perception of science. The data also reveal opportunities to improve our organizational and educational practices to maximize student achievement and overall volunteer satisfaction for DSBK's future clubs and outreach endeavors.

  15. Mechanical electrodeposition of bright nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new mechanical electrodeposition technology was proposed, and nanocrystalline nickel deposit with bright and smooth surface was prepared in the bath without any additive agents. Unlike traditional methods, the novel technology employed dynamical hard particles to continuously polish the cathode surface and disturb the nearby solution during electrodepositing. Experimental results showed that the polishing effect of hard particles can effectively prevent the hydrogen bubbles and impurities from adhering on the deposit surface and avoid the production of pits, pinholes and nodules. Furthermore, comparing with the deposit prepared by traditional methods, the one prepared by the novel technology was substantially refined with grain size ranging from 30 to 80 nm. Every diffraction peak’s intensity of the deposit was reduced, the preferential orientation degree of (200) decreased and those of (111) and (220) increased. The microhardness notably increased. The magnetic properties were also changed with decreased saturation magnetization and increased coercive force. It was also found that variation of current density and cathode rotational speed could affect the structure and properties of the nickel deposits prepared by this technology.

  16. Antilensing: the bright side of voids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy; Bacon, David; Meures, Nikolai; Beynon, Emma

    2013-01-11

    More than half of the volume of our Universe is occupied by cosmic voids. The lensing magnification effect from those underdense regions is generally thought to give a small dimming contribution: objects on the far side of a void are supposed to be observed as slightly smaller than if the void were not there, which together with conservation of surface brightness implies net reduction in photons received. This is predicted by the usual weak lensing integral of the density contrast along the line of sight. We show that this standard effect is swamped at low redshifts by a relativistic Doppler term that is typically neglected. Contrary to the usual expectation, objects on the far side of a void are brighter than they would be otherwise. Thus the local dynamics of matter in and near the void is crucial and is only captured by the full relativistic lensing convergence. There are also significant nonlinear corrections to the relativistic linear theory, which we show actually underpredicts the effect. We use exact solutions to estimate that these can be more than 20% for deep voids. This remains an important source of systematic errors for weak lensing density reconstruction in galaxy surveys and for supernovae observations, and may be the cause of the reported extra scatter of field supernovae located on the edge of voids compared to those in clusters. PMID:23383886

  17. Chromatic variations suppress suprathreshold brightness variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdom, Frederick A A; Bell, Jason; Gheorghiu, Elena; Malkoc, Gokhan

    2010-01-01

    Most objects in natural scenes are suprathreshold in both color (chromatic) and luminance contrast. How salient is each dimension? We have developed a novel method employing a stimulus similar to that used by B. C. Regan and J. D. Mollon (1997) who studied the relative saliencies of the two chromatic cardinal directions. Our stimuli consist of left- and right-oblique modulations of color and/or luminance defined within a lattice of circles. In the "separated" condition, the two modulations were presented separately as forced-choice pairs, and the task was to indicate which was more salient. In the "combined" condition, the two orthogonal-in-orientation modulations were added, and the task was to indicate the more salient orientation. The ratio of color to luminance contrast at the PSE was calculated for both conditions. Across color directions, 48% more luminance contrast relative to color contrast was required to achieve a PSE in the "combined" compared to the "separated" condition. A second experiment showed that the PSE difference was due to the luminance being masked by the color, rather than due to superior color grouping. We conclude that suprathreshold brightness variations are masked by suprathreshold color variations. PMID:20884478

  18. Intercomparisons of Nine Sky Brightness Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Spoelstra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nine Sky Quality Meters (SQMs have been intercompared during a night time measurement campaign held in the Netherlands in April 2011. Since then the nine SQMs have been distributed across the Netherlands and form the Dutch network for monitoring night sky brightness. The goal of the intercomparison was to infer mutual calibration factors and obtain insight into the variability of the SQMs under different meteorological situations. An ensemble average is built from the individual measurements and used as a reference to infer the mutual calibration factors. Data required additional synchronization prior to the calibration determination, because the effect of moving clouds combined with small misalignments emerges as time jitter in the measurements. Initial scatter of the individual instruments lies between ±14%. Individual night time sums range from −16% to +20%. Intercalibration reduces this to 0.5%, and −7% to +9%, respectively. During the campaign the smallest luminance measured was 0.657 ± 0.003 mcd/m2 on 12 April, and the largest value was 5.94 ± 0.03 mcd/m2 on 2 April. During both occurrences interfering circumstances like snow cover or moonlight were absent.

  19. The Los Alamos high-brightness photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    For a number of years Los Alamos National Laboratory has been developing photocathode RF guns for high-brightness electron beam applications such as free-electron lasers (FELs). Previously thermionic high-voltage guns have been the source of choice for the electron accelerators used to drive FELs. The performance of such FELs is severely limited by the emittance growth produced by the subharmonic bunching process and also by the low peak current of the source. In a photoinjector, a laser driven photocathode is placed directly in a high-gradient RF accelerating cavity. A photocathode allows unsurpassed control over the current, and the spatial and temporal profile of the beam. In addition the electrodeless emission'' avoids many of the difficulties associated with multi-electrode guns, i.e. the electrons are accelerated very rapidly to relativistic energies, and there are no electrodes to distort the accelerating fields. For the past two years we have been integrating a photocathode into our existing FEL facility by replacing our thermionic gun and subharmonic bunchers with a high-gradient 1.3 GHz photoinjector. The photoinjector, which is approximately 0.6 m in length, produces 6 MeV, 300 A, 15 ps linac, and accelerated to a final energy of 40 MeV. We have recently begun lasing at wavelengths near 3 {mu}m. 16 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Interpreting Central Surface Brightness and Color Profiles in Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, David R.; Wise, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope imagery has revealed dust features in the central regions of many (50%--80%) nearby bright elliptical galaxies. If these features are an indication of an underlying smooth diffuse dust distribution, then the interpretation of central surface brightness and color profiles in elliptical galaxies becomes significantly more difficult. In this Letter, diagnostics for constraining the presence of such an underlying central dust distribution are presented. We show that easily detectable central color gradients and flattened central surface brightness profiles can be induced by even small amounts of smoothly distributed dust (~100 M⊙). Conversely, combinations of flat surface brightness profiles and flat color gradients or steep surface brightness profiles and steep color gradients are unlikely to be caused by dust. Taken as a whole, these results provide a simple observational tautology for constraining the existence of smooth diffuse dust distributions in the central regions of elliptical galaxies.

  1. Structure of NS1A effector domain from the influenza A/Udorn/72 virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Shuangluo; Monzingo, Arthur F.; Robertus, Jon D., E-mail: jrobertus@mail.utexas.edu [Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, 1 University Station A5300, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The structure of the effector domain of the influenza protein NS1, a validated antiviral drug target, has been solved in two space groups. The nonstructural protein NS1A from influenza virus is a multifunctional virulence factor and a potent inhibitor of host immunity. It has two functional domains: an N-terminal 73-amino-acid RNA-binding domain and a C-terminal effector domain. Here, the crystallographic structure of the NS1A effector domain of influenza A/Udorn/72 virus is presented. Structure comparison with the NS1 effector domain from mouse-adapted influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus strain reveals a similar monomer conformation but a different dimer interface. Further analysis and evaluation shows that the dimer interface observed in the structure of the PR8 NS1 effector domain is likely to be a crystallographic packing effect. A hypothetical model of the intact NS1 dimer is presented.

  2. Molecular Cloning and Prokaryotic Expression of Non-Structural Protein NS1 Gene of Porcine Parvovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Dan; TONG Guang-zhi; QIU Hua-ji; XUE Qiang; ZHOU Yan-jun; LI Jing-peng

    2003-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is one of the major agents causing swine reproductive failure. NS1protein is a non-structural protein of PPV and can be used as a reagent for differentiation of vaccinated ani-mals and infected ones. In present study, a recombinant plasmid pET28a/NS1 was constructed by cloning thecoding sequence for NS1 of PPV into pET28a, a bacterial expression vector. The NS1 protein was expressed inE. coli BL21 (DE3) after induced by IPTG and the recombinant fusion protein was purified with affinity chro-matography. Expression amount of NS1 protein was improved by optimizing the inducing parameters. The re-combinant NS1 protein is reactive to PPV positive sera in Western blot and ELISA test and therefore can beapplicable in differential diagnosis of PPV infections.

  3. Structure of NS1A effector domain from the influenza A/Udorn/72 virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of the effector domain of the influenza protein NS1, a validated antiviral drug target, has been solved in two space groups. The nonstructural protein NS1A from influenza virus is a multifunctional virulence factor and a potent inhibitor of host immunity. It has two functional domains: an N-terminal 73-amino-acid RNA-binding domain and a C-terminal effector domain. Here, the crystallographic structure of the NS1A effector domain of influenza A/Udorn/72 virus is presented. Structure comparison with the NS1 effector domain from mouse-adapted influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus strain reveals a similar monomer conformation but a different dimer interface. Further analysis and evaluation shows that the dimer interface observed in the structure of the PR8 NS1 effector domain is likely to be a crystallographic packing effect. A hypothetical model of the intact NS1 dimer is presented

  4. 基于NS-2的LEACH协议改进%Improvement of LEACH Protocol Based on NS-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭艾; 黄岚; 王忠义; 王成

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of limited energy of Wireless Sensor Networks(WSN), this paper proposes an approach of energy-saving improving for LEACH protocol in aspect of stability. Using a simulation software NS-2 simulation, this paper compares performances of the improved version of LEACH protocol with the original one and discussed the influence of the energy dissipation of sensing module on the protocol improvement. Simulation results show that the modified protocol improves 45.87% longer lifetime and 35.16% more data than the original one as well as the value of CV. But it is found that when the energy dissipation of sensing module is more than 60% of the total energy, the improvement of the protocol is invalid.%针对无线传感器网络能量有限的问题,从稳定性的角度出发,提出LEACH协议的低功耗改进方案.借助NS-2仿真对比改进前后协议的运行结果,讨论传感器能耗对协议低功耗改进的影响.仿真结果表明,协议改进后网络生存期和传输数据量分别增加了45.87%和35.16%,变异系数(CV值)得到改善,但当传感器耗能占节点总能景的60%时,协议的改进没有效果.

  5. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of commercial NS1-based diagnostic tests for early dengue infection

    OpenAIRE

    Villar Luis A; Bonelo Anilza; Ramirez Meleny; Osorio Lyda; Parra Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background We compared the diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility of commercially available NS1-based dengue tests and explored factors influencing their sensitivities. Methods Paired analysis of 310 samples previously characterized as positive (n = 218) and negative (n = 92) for viral isolation and/or RT-PCR and/or IgM seroconversion. Masked samples were tested by two observers with Platelia™ Dengue NS1 Ag, second generation Pan-E™ Dengue Early ELISA, SD Dengue NS1 Ag ELISA, Dengue...

  6. Multifunctional adaptive NS1 mutations are selected upon human influenza virus evolution in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E Forbes

    Full Text Available The role of the NS1 protein in modulating influenza A virulence and host range was assessed by adapting A/Hong Kong/1/1968 (H3N2 (HK-wt to increased virulence in the mouse. Sequencing the NS genome segment of mouse-adapted variants revealed 11 mutations in the NS1 gene and 4 in the overlapping NEP gene. Using the HK-wt virus and reverse genetics to incorporate mutant NS gene segments, we demonstrated that all NS1 mutations were adaptive and enhanced virus replication (up to 100 fold in mouse cells and/or lungs. All but one NS1 mutant was associated with increased virulence measured by survival and weight loss in the mouse. Ten of twelve NS1 mutants significantly enhanced IFN-β antagonism to reduce the level of IFN β production relative to HK-wt in infected mouse lungs at 1 day post infection, where 9 mutants induced viral yields in the lung that were equivalent to or significantly greater than HK-wt (up to 16 fold increase. Eight of 12 NS1 mutants had reduced or lost the ability to bind the 30 kDa cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF30 thus demonstrating a lack of correlation with reduced IFN β production. Mutant NS1 genes resulted in increased viral mRNA transcription (10 of 12 mutants, and protein production (6 of 12 mutants in mouse cells. Increased transcription activity was demonstrated in the influenza mini-genome assay for 7 of 11 NS1 mutants. Although we have shown gain-of-function properties for all mutant NS genes, the contribution of the NEP mutations to phenotypic changes remains to be assessed. This study demonstrates that NS1 is a multifunctional virulence factor subject to adaptive evolution.

  7. Baculovirus expression of parvovirus B19 (B19V) NS1: utility in confirming recent infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mahon, Bernard P.; Doyle, Sean; Kavanagh, Kevin; Corcoran, Amanda; Ennis, O.

    2001-01-01

    Background :The presence of anti-parvovirus B19 (B19V) IgM against viral capsid proteins (VP1 and VP2) has long been used to detect recent infection. The utility of antibodies directed against B19V NS1 protein has received less attention as a serological indicator of recent infection, although anti-B19V NS1 IgG has been associated with persistent infection. Objecties : To elucidate the role of anti-B19V NS1 antibody detection in recent infection, full-length B19V NS1 was expressed and p...

  8. Dengue NS1 antigen contributes to disease severity by inducing interleukin (IL)-10 by monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikari, T N; Gomes, L; Wickramasinghe, N; Salimi, M; Wijesiriwardana, N; Kamaladasa, A; Shyamali, N L A; Ogg, G S; Malavige, G N

    2016-04-01

    Both dengue NS1 antigen and serum interleukin (IL)-10 levels have been shown to associate with severe clinical disease in acute dengue infection, and IL-10 has also been shown to suppress dengue-specific T cell responses. Therefore, we proceeded to investigate the mechanisms by which dengue NS1 contributes to disease pathogenesis and if it is associated with altered IL-10 production. Serum IL-10 and dengue NS1 antigen levels were assessed serially in 36 adult Sri Lankan individuals with acute dengue infection. We found that the serum IL-10 levels correlated positively with dengue NS1 antigen levels (Spearman's r = 0·47, P dengue (Spearman's r = 0·63, P = 0·001). However, NS1 levels did not associate with the functionality of T cell responses or with expression of co-stimulatory molecules. Therefore, we further assessed the effect of dengue NS1 on monocytes and T cells by co-culturing primary monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), with varying concentrations of NS1 for up to 96 h. Monocytes co-cultured with NS1 produced high levels of IL-10, with the highest levels seen at 24 h, and then declined gradually. Therefore, our data show that dengue NS1 appears to contribute to pathogenesis of dengue infection by inducing IL-10 production by monocytes.

  9. Nucleolar localization of influenza A NS1: striking differences between mammalian and avian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazel-Sanchez Beryl

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In mammalian cells, nucleolar localization of influenza A NS1 requires the presence of a C-terminal nucleolar localization signal. This nucleolar localization signal is present only in certain strains of influenza A viruses. Therefore, only certain NS1 accumulate in the nucleolus of mammalian cells. In contrast, we show that all NS1 tested in this study accumulated in the nucleolus of avian cells even in the absence of the above described C-terminal nucleolar localization signal. Thus, nucleolar localization of NS1 in avian cells appears to rely on a different nucleolar localization signal that is more conserved among influenza virus strains.

  10. The possible existence of Pop III NS-BH binary and its detectability

    CERN Document Server

    Kinugawa, Tomoya; Nakano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In the population synthesis simulations of Pop III stars, many BH (Black Hole)-BH binaries with merger time less than the age of the Universe $(\\tau_{\\rm H})$ are formed, while NS (Neutron Star)-BH binaries are not. The reason is that Pop III stars have no metal so that no mass loss is expected. Then, in the final supernova explosion to NS, much mass is lost so that the semi major axis becomes too large for Pop III NS-BH binaries to merge within $\\tau_{\\rm H}$. However it is almost established that the kick velocity of the order of $200-500{\\rm~ km~s^{-1}}$ exists for NS from the observation of the proper motion of the pulsar. Therefore, the semi major axis of the half of NS-BH binaries can be smaller than that of the previous argument for Pop III NS-BH binaries to decrease the merging time. We perform population synthesis Monte Carlo simulations of Pop III NS-BH binaries including the kick of NS and find that the event rate of Pop III NS-BH merger rate is $\\sim 1 {\\rm Gpc^{-3} yr^{-1}}$. This suggests that t...

  11. H-NS mediates the silencing of laterally acquired genes in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Lucchini

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS is a modular protein that is associated with the bacterial nucleoid. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation to determine the binding sites of H-NS and RNA polymerase on the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium chromosome. We found that H-NS does not bind to actively transcribed genes and does not co-localize with RNA polymerase. This shows that H-NS principally silences gene expression by restricting the access of RNA polymerase to the DNA. H-NS had previously been shown to preferentially bind to curved DNA in vitro. In fact, at the genomic level we discovered that the level of H-NS binding correlates better with the AT-content of DNA. This is likely to have evolutionary consequences because we show that H-NS binds to many Salmonella genes acquired by lateral gene transfer, and functions as a gene silencer. The removal of H-NS from the cell causes un-controlled expression of several Salmonella pathogenicity islands, and we demonstrate that this has deleterious consequences for bacterial fitness. Our discovery of this novel role for H-NS may have implications for the acquisition of foreign genes by enteric bacteria.

  12. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Brian; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R.; Bittle, L.; Borish, H.; Burkhardt, A.; Corby, J.; Damke, G.; Dean, J.; Dorsey, G.; Graninger, D.; Lauck, T.; Liss, S.; Oza, A.; Peacock, S.; Romero, C.; Sokal, K. R.; Stierwalt, S.; Walker, L.; Wenger, T.; Zucker, C.

    2014-01-01

    Our public outreach group Dark Skies, Bright Kids! (DSBK) fosters science literacy in Virginia by bringing a hands-on approach to astronomy that engages children's natural excitement and curiosity. We are an entirely volunteer-run group based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia and we enthusiastically utilize astronomy as a 'gateway science.' We create long-term relationships with students during an 8 to 10 week long, after-school astronomy club at under served elementary schools in neighboring counties, and we visited 3 different schools in 2013. Additionally, we organize and participate in science events throughout the community. The fifth year of DSBK was marked by surpassing 10,000 contact hours in Spring 2013 Semester and by ringing in the fall semester with our biggest, most successful star party to date. We hosted the Third Annual Central Virginia Star Party, free and open to the community to encourage families to enjoy astronomy together. Nearly four hundred people of all ages attended, double the number from previous years. Joining with local astronomical societies, we offered an enlightening and exciting night with resources rarely accessible to the public, such as an IR camera and a portable planetarium. With numerous telescopes pointed at the sky, and a beautifully clear night with views of the Milky Way, the International Space Station, and numerous meteors, the star party was a fantastic opportunity to introduce many of our guests to the natural wonders of our night sky and enjoy some of the darkest skies on the eastern seaboard.

  13. MAGNETIC FLUX SUPPLEMENT TO CORONAL BRIGHT POINTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, Chaozhou; Huang, Zhenghua; Xia, Lidong; Li, Bo; Fu, Hui; Jiao, Fangran; Hou, Zhenyong [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, 264209 Shandong (China); Madjarska, Maria S., E-mail: z.huang@sdu.edu.cn [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-10

    Coronal bright points (BPs) are associated with magnetic bipolar features (MBFs) and magnetic cancellation. Here we investigate how BP-associated MBFs form and how the consequent magnetic cancellation occurs. We analyze longitudinal magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager to investigate the photospheric magnetic flux evolution of 70 BPs. From images taken in the 193 Å passband of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) we dermine that the BPs’ lifetimes vary from 2.7 to 58.8 hr. The formation of the BP MBFs is found to involve three processes, namely, emergence, convergence, and local coalescence of the magnetic fluxes. The formation of an MBF can involve more than one of these processes. Out of the 70 cases, flux emergence is the main process of an MBF buildup of 52 BPs, mainly convergence is seen in 28, and 14 cases are associated with local coalescence. For MBFs formed by bipolar emergence, the time difference between the flux emergence and the BP appearance in the AIA 193 Å passband varies from 0.1 to 3.2 hr with an average of 1.3 hr. While magnetic cancellation is found in all 70 BPs, it can occur in three different ways: (I) between an MBF and small weak magnetic features (in 33 BPs); (II) within an MBF with the two polarities moving toward each other from a large distance (34 BPs); (III) within an MBF whose two main polarities emerge in the same place simultaneously (3 BPs). While an MBF builds up the skeleton of a BP, we find that the magnetic activities responsible for the BP heating may involve small weak fields.

  14. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, David G.; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R. L.; Borish, J.; Corby, J. F.; Dorsey, G.; Gugliucci, N. E.; Prager, B. J.; Ries, P. A.; Romero, C. E.; Sokal, K. R.; Tang, X.; Walker, L. M.; Yang, A. J.; Zasowski, G.

    2012-01-01

    Dark Skies, Bright Kids! (DSBK) is a program that brings astronomy education to elementary schools throughout central Virginia. In a relaxed, out-of-classroom atmosphere, we are able to foster the innate curiosity that young students have about science and the world around them. We target schools that are under-served due to their rural locale or special needs students, demonstrating that science is a fun and creative process to a segment of the population that might not otherwise be exposed to astronomy. Families are included in the learning experience during semi-annual `star parties'. Since last January, we have expanded the breadth and depth of our educational capabilities. We have developed new programs for use in our digital planetarium. We held the first Central Virginia Star Party, providing an atmosphere where local children from multiple schools were able to share their love for astronomy. Local government and University officials were also invited so that they could experience our focused science outreach. Most recently, we have become part of Ivy Creek School's Club Day activities, bringing our program to a new segment of the elementary school system in Albemarle County: those that have `low-incidence' disabilities, requiring special attention. We continue to develop a curriculum for after-school programs that functions as either a series of one-time activities or several months of focused outreach at one school. Many of these activities are provided on our website, http://www.astro.virginia.edu/dsbk/, for the wider astronomical community, including the new planetarium work. We have extended our book project to include two bilingual astronomy books called `Snapshots of the Universe,' one in Spanish and English, the other in French and English. These books introduce young people to some of the many wonders of the Universe through art and captions developed by DSBK volunteers.

  15. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Kimberly R.; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R.; Borish, J.; Crawford, S. B.; Corby, J.; Damke, G.; Dean, J.; Dorsey, G.; Jackson, L.; Liss, S.; Oza, A.; Peacock, S.; Prager, B.; Romero, C.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Walker, L.; Whelan, D. G.; Zucker, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to engage young children's natural excitement and curiosity, the outreach group Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) brings a hands-on approach to astronomy to elementary schools in Virginia. We hope to enhance children's view and understanding of science while exploring the Universe using fun activities. DSBK focuses on rural and underserved schools in Albemarle County and offers a semester-long astronomy club for third through fifth grade students. We believe regular interactions foster personal relationships between students and volunteers that encourage a life-long interest in science. In our fourth year of hosting clubs, we returned to Ivy Creek Elementary School, where we saw wonderful responses from a special group of students with `low-incidence' disabilities. DSBK has grown to realize a broader reach beyond local astronomy clubs; we hope to ignite a spark of interest in astronomy and science more widely- in more children, their families, and their teachers. We also hosted the Second Annual Central Virginia Star Party with an open invitation to the community to encourage families to enjoy astronomy together. Throughout the year, DSBK now holds 'one-off' programs (akin to astronomy field days) for elementary schools and children's groups throughout Virginia. Furthermore, we are in the final stages of a project to create two bilingual astronomy books called "Snapshots of the Universe", in Spanish and French with English translations. This art book will be made available online and we are working to get a copy in every elementary school in the state. DSBK has begun to reach out to elementary school teachers in order to provide them with useful and engaging classroom material. We have adapted our volunteer-created activities into useful and ready-to-use lessons, available online. After improvements based on research through interactions and feedback from teachers, we have explicitly identified the learning goals in terms of Virginia's Standards of Learning

  16. The research of ad hoc networks simulation based on NS2%基于NS2的Ad hoc网络仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康春年

    2008-01-01

    Ad hoc网络是一种不需要任何通信基础设施的典型的自组织网络,运用ns2对Ad hoc网络尤其是对其路由协议的研究成了广大网络研究者的一种重要手段.本文首先介绍了Ad hoc网络和ns2.然后给出了在ns2下进行Ad hoc网络仿真的步骤和方法.最后给出了AODV路由协议的仿真实例,结果说明了运用ns2研究Ad hoc网络的可行性和有效性.

  17. Note: A rectangular pulse generator for 50 kV voltage, 0.8 ns rise time, and 10 ns pulse width based on polymer-film switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hanyu; Zhang, Xinjun; Sun, Tieping; Zeng, Zhengzhong; Cong, Peitian; Zhang, Shaoguo

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we describe a rectangular pulse generator, consisting of a polymer-film switch, a tri-plate transmission line, and parallel post-shaped ceramic resistor load, for 50-kV voltage, 0.8-ns rise time, and 10-ns width. The switch and resistors are arranged in atmospheric air and the transmission line can work in atmospheric air or in transformer oil to change the pulse width from 6.7 ns to 10 ns. The fast switching and low-inductance characteristics of the polymer-film switch ensure the fast rising wavefront of generator can be applied in the calibration of nanosecond voltage dividers and used for electromagnetic pulse tests as a fast-rising current injection source.

  18. The Putative Metal Coordination Motif in the Endonuclease Domain of Human Parvovirus B19 NS1 Is Critical for NS1 Induced S Phase Arrest and DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Kivovich, Leona Gilbert, Matti Vuento, Stanley J. Naides

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-structural proteins (NS of the parvovirus family are highly conserved multi-functional molecules that have been extensively characterized and shown to be integral to viral replication. Along with NTP-dependent helicase activity, these proteins carry within their sequences domains that allow them to bind DNA and act as nucleases in order to resolve the concatameric intermediates developed during viral replication. The parvovirus B19 NS1 protein contains sequence domains highly similar to those previously implicated in the above-described functions of NS proteins from adeno-associated virus (AAV, minute virus of mice (MVM and other non-human parvoviruses. Previous studies have shown that transient transfection of B19 NS1 into human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells initiates the intrinsic apoptotic cascade, ultimately resulting in cell death. In an effort to elucidate the mechanism of mammalian cell demise in the presence of B19 NS1, we undertook a mutagenesis analysis of the protein's endonuclease domain. Our studies have shown that, unlike wild-type NS1, which induces an accumulation of DNA damage, S phase arrest and apoptosis in HepG2 cells, disruptions in the metal coordination motif of the B19 NS1 protein reduce its ability to induce DNA damage and to trigger S phase arrest and subsequent apoptosis. These studies support our hypothesis that, in the absence of replicating B19 genomes, NS1-induced host cell DNA damage is responsible for apoptotic cell death observed in parvoviral infection of non-permissive mammalian cells.

  19. Quantitative Brightness Analysis of Fluorescence Intensity Fluctuations in E. Coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho Hur

    Full Text Available The brightness measured by fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy specifies the average stoichiometry of a labeled protein in a sample. Here we extended brightness analysis, which has been mainly applied in eukaryotic cells, to prokaryotic cells with E. coli serving as a model system. The small size of the E. coli cell introduces unique challenges for applying brightness analysis that are addressed in this work. Photobleaching leads to a depletion of fluorophores and a reduction of the brightness of protein complexes. In addition, the E. coli cell and the point spread function of the instrument only partially overlap, which influences intensity fluctuations. To address these challenges we developed MSQ analysis, which is based on the mean Q-value of segmented photon count data, and combined it with the analysis of axial scans through the E. coli cell. The MSQ method recovers brightness, concentration, and diffusion time of soluble proteins in E. coli. We applied MSQ to measure the brightness of EGFP in E. coli and compared it to solution measurements. We further used MSQ analysis to determine the oligomeric state of nuclear transport factor 2 labeled with EGFP expressed in E. coli cells. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of quantifying the stoichiometry of proteins by brightness analysis in a prokaryotic cell.

  20. The lowest spatial frequency channel determines brightness perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, A; Morrone, M C

    2007-05-01

    This study investigates the role played by individual spatial scales in determining the apparent brightness of greyscale patterns. We measured the perceived difference in brightness across an edge in the presence of notch filtering and high-pass filtering for two stimulus configurations, one that elicits the perception of transparency and one that appears opaque. For both stimulus configurations, the apparent brightness of the surfaces delimited by the border decreased monotonically with progressive (ideal) high-pass filtering, with a critical cut-off at 1 c/deg. Using two octave ideal notch filtering, the maximum detrimental effect on apparent brightness was observed at about 1c/deg. Critical frequencies for apparent brightness did not vary with contrast, viewing distance, or surface size, suggesting that apparent brightness is determined by the channel tuned at 1 c/deg. Modelling the data with the local energy model [Morrone, M. C., & Burr, D. C. (1988). Feature detection in human vision: a phase dependent energy model. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London), B235, 221-245] at 1c/deg confirmed the suggestion that this channel mediates apparent brightness for both opaque and transparent borders, with no need for pooling or integration across spatial channels. PMID:17395237

  1. Development and clinical evaluation of a highly accurate dengue NS1 rapid test: from the preparation of a soluble NS1 antigen to the construction of an RDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihoo; Kim, Hak-Yong; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Song, Hyun-Ok

    2015-06-01

    Early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV) is important. There are numerous products on the market claiming to detect DENV NS1, but these are not always reliable. In this study, a highly sensitive and accurate rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was developed using anti-dengue NS1 monoclonal antibodies. A recombinant NS1 protein was produced with high antigenicity and purity. Monoclonal antibodies were raised against this purified NS1 antigen. The RDT was constructed using a capturing (4A6A10, Kd=7.512±0.419×10(-9)) and a conjugating antibody (3E12E6, Kd=7.032±0.322×10(-9)). The diagnostic performance was evaluated with NS1-positive clinical samples collected from various dengue endemic countries and compared to SD BioLine Dengue NS1 Ag kit. The constructed RDT exhibited higher sensitivity (92.9%) with more obvious diagnostic performance than the commercial kit (83.3%). The specificity of constructed RDT was 100%. The constructed RDT could offer a reliable point-of-care testing tool for the early detection of dengue infections in remote areas and contribute to the control of dengue-related diseases.

  2. Inhibition on IFN-βExpression by hCV ns3 and ns5A in HepG2 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of HCV protein, NS3 and NS5A on IFN-βin HepG2 cells and its regulation mechanism. Methods Human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2 were transfected with recombinant eukaryotic plasmid pcDNA3.1/myc-His-core, NS3 or NS5A to overexpress these proteins, and the expression of IFN-βwere detected by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and ELISA. Luc2P reporter plasmids pGL4.10-IFNβ-P were constructed and transfected into HepG2 cells, and the activity of IFN-βpromoter were determined through luciferase assay for regulation mechanism study. Results Both mRNA level and protein expression of IFN-β were significantly decreased (P Conclusions HCV protein NS3 and NS5A could inhibit innate IFN-β expression and thus escape immune selection and hinder the host immune responses.

  3. Degradation of Dye Wastewater by ns-Pulse DBD Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jin; Gu, Pingdao; Yuan, Li; Zhong, Fangchuan

    2013-09-01

    Two plasma reactors have been developed and used to degrade dye wastewater agents. The configuration of one plasma reactor is a comb-like extendable unit module consisting of 5 electrodes covered with a quartz tube and the other one is an array reactor which is extended from the unit module. The decomposition of wastewater by ns pulse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma have been carried out by atomizing the dyeing solutions into the reactors. During experiments, the indigo carmine has been treated as the waste agent. The measurements of UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) are carried out to demonstrate the decomposition effect on the wastewater. It shows that the decoloration rate of 99% and the COD degradation rate of 65% are achieved with 15 min treatment in the unit reactor. The effect of electrical parameters on degradation has been studied in detail. Results from the array reactor indicate that it has a better degradation effect than the unit one. It can not only totally remove the chromogenic bond of the indigo carmine solution, but also effectively degrade unsaturated bonds. The decoloration rate reaches 99% after 10 min treatment, the decomposition rate of the unsaturated bond reaches 83% after 60 min treatment, and the COD degradation rate is nearly 74%.

  4. NS2A序列对日本脑炎病毒NS1基因在原核系统中的体外表达的影响%Effect of NS2A on the Expression of Japanese Encephalitis Virus NS1 Gene in E.coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇华吉; 金吉东; 田志军; 周艳君; 王云峰; 童光志

    2004-01-01

    用RT-PCR扩增并克隆了日本脑炎病毒弱毒株SA14-14-2的NS1、NS1′、NS1-2A的cDNA片段,分别将其亚克隆到原核表达载体pET-30b(+),构建了重组原核表达质粒pET30b-NS1、pET30b-NS1′、pET30b-NS1-2A,转化大肠杆菌BL-21(DE3),用IPTG诱导培养.结果表明,仅有pET30b-NS1质粒转化的菌株获得表达,而另外2种重组质粒转化的菌株均无表达.表达的融合蛋白分子量约为46 kD,约占菌体总蛋白的30.8%,Western blotting分析表明表达产物具有抗原活性.动物试验证实,重组NS1免疫小鼠蛋白可以抵抗强毒的攻击.笔者研究证实NS2A或部分NS2A的存在对于NS1的表达具有不利影响.

  5. Sky Brightness Measurements at Haleakala, 1955-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBonte, Barry

    2003-11-01

    Measurements of the brightness of the clear daytime sky at Haleakala, Maui are presented for the interval 1955 through 2002. The observations are made near the direction of the Sun, where forward scattering off aerosols dominates the sky brightness. The Haleakala summit at 3054 m is normally above the inversion layer. The Haleakala sky is dark; the observed brightness per airmass has a median of 10 millionths of the solar disk and a mode of 5 millionths, with Rayleigh scattering contributing 1 millionth. There is no demonstrable long-term trend in the data.

  6. Differential RNA silencing suppression activity of NS1 proteins from different influenza A virus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. de Vries; J. Haasnoot; R. Fouchier; P. de Haan; B. Berkhout

    2009-01-01

    The NS1 gene of influenza A virus encodes a multi-functional protein that plays an important role in counteracting cellular antiviral mechanisms such as the interferon (IFN), protein kinase R and retinoic acid-inducible gene product I pathways. In addition, NS1 has recently been shown to have RNA in

  7. [11C]NS8880, a promising PET radiotracer targeting the norepinephrine transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vase, Karina Højrup; Peters, Dan; Nielsen, Elsebeth Ø;

    2014-01-01

    ]methanolate in a Boc-protected precursor. The isolated [11C]NS8880 was evaluated pre-clinically both in a pig model (PET scanning) and in a rat model (μPET scanning) and compared to (S,S)-[11C]-O-methylreboxetine ([11C]MeNER). RESULTS: The radiolabeling technique yielded [11C]NS8880 in low (

  8. Differential regulation of horizontally acquired and core genome genes by the bacterial modulator H-NS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa C Baños

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal acquisition of DNA by bacteria dramatically increases genetic diversity and hence successful bacterial colonization of several niches, including the human host. A relevant issue is how this newly acquired DNA interacts and integrates in the regulatory networks of the bacterial cell. The global modulator H-NS targets both core genome and HGT genes and silences gene expression in response to external stimuli such as osmolarity and temperature. Here we provide evidence that H-NS discriminates and differentially modulates core and HGT DNA. As an example of this, plasmid R27-encoded H-NS protein has evolved to selectively silence HGT genes and does not interfere with core genome regulation. In turn, differential regulation of both gene lineages by resident chromosomal H-NS requires a helper protein: the Hha protein. Tight silencing of HGT DNA is accomplished by H-NS-Hha complexes. In contrast, core genes are modulated by H-NS homoligomers. Remarkably, the presence of Hha-like proteins is restricted to the Enterobacteriaceae. In addition, conjugative plasmids encoding H-NS variants have hitherto been isolated only from members of the family. Thus, the H-NS system in enteric bacteria presents unique evolutionary features. The capacity to selectively discriminate between core and HGT DNA may help to maintain horizontally transmitted DNA in silent form and may give these bacteria a competitive advantage in adapting to new environments, including host colonization.

  9. Acquisition of high-level mupirocin resistance in CoNS following nasal decolonization with mupirocin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetem, David J; Vogely, H Charles; Severs, Tim T; Troelstra, Annet; Kusters, Johannes G; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The association between mupirocin use and plasmid-based high-level resistance development mediated through mupA in CoNS has not been quantified. We determined acquisition of mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and CoNS in surgery patients treated peri-operatively with mupirocin

  10. Phosphoproteomics Identified an NS5A Phosphorylation Site Involved in Hepatitis C Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Weng Man; Hsu, Shih-Chin; Kao, Wei-Ting; Lo, Chieh-Wen; Lee, Kuan-Ying; Shao, Jheng-Syuan; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chang, Justin; Chen, Steve S-L; Yu, Ming-Jiun

    2016-02-19

    The non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) is a hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein indispensable for the viral life cycle. Many prior papers have pinpointed several serine residues in the low complexity sequence I region of NS5A responsible for NS5A phosphorylation; however, the functions of specific phosphorylation sites remained obscure. Using phosphoproteomics, we identified three phosphorylation sites (serines 222, 235, and 238) in the NS5A low complexity sequence I region. Reporter virus and replicon assays using phosphorylation-ablated alanine mutants of these sites showed that Ser-235 dominated over Ser-222 and Ser-238 in HCV replication. Immunoblotting using an Ser-235 phosphorylation-specific antibody showed a time-dependent increase in Ser-235 phosphorylation that correlated with the viral replication activity. Ser-235 phosphorylated NS5A co-localized with double-stranded RNA, consistent with its role in HCV replication. Mechanistically, Ser-235 phosphorylation probably promotes the replication complex formation via increasing NS5A interaction with the human homologue of the 33-kDa vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein. Casein kinase Iα (CKIα) directly phosphorylated Ser-235 in vitro. Inhibition of CKIα reduced Ser-235 phosphorylation and the HCV RNA levels in the infected cells. We concluded that NS5A Ser-235 phosphorylated by CKIα probably promotes HCV replication via increasing NS5A interaction with the 33-kDa vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein. PMID:26702051

  11. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of commercial NS1-based diagnostic tests for early dengue infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar Luis A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared the diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility of commercially available NS1-based dengue tests and explored factors influencing their sensitivities. Methods Paired analysis of 310 samples previously characterized as positive (n = 218 and negative (n = 92 for viral isolation and/or RT-PCR and/or IgM seroconversion. Masked samples were tested by two observers with Platelia™ Dengue NS1 Ag, second generation Pan-E™ Dengue Early ELISA, SD Dengue NS1 Ag ELISA, Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP™, and SD BIOLINE™ Dengue Duo (NS1/IgM/IgG. Results SD BIOLINE™ NS1/IgM/IgG had the highest sensitivity (80.7% 95%CI 75-85.7 with likelihood ratios of 7.4 (95%CI 4.1-13.8 and 0.21 (95%CI 0.16-0.28. The ELISA-format tests showed comparable sensitivities; all below 75%. STRIP™ and SD NS1 had even lower sensitivities ( Conclusions The simultaneous detection of NS1/IgM/IgG would be potentially useful for dengue diagnosis in both endemic and non endemic areas. A negative result does not rule out dengue. Further studies are required to assess the performance and impact of early laboratory diagnosis of dengue in the routine clinical setting.

  12. Mutations in classical swine fever virus NS4B affect virulence in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    NS4B is one of the non-structural proteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), a virus causing a severe disease in swine. Protein domain analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of NS4B in highly pathogenic CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) identified a Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor like domain (TIR...

  13. Identification of an NTPase motif in classical swine fever virus NS4B protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and often fatal disease of swine caused by CSF virus (CSFV), a positive sense single-stranded RNA virus in the genus Pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family. Here, we have identified, within CSFV non-structural (NS) protein NS4B, conserved sequence el...

  14. Mutations in the classical swine fever virus NS4B protein affects virulence in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    NS4B is one of the non-structural proteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), the etiological agent of a severe, highly lethal disease of swine. Protein domain analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of the NS4B protein of highly pathogenic CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) identified a Toll/Inte...

  15. Visible Color and Photometry of Bright Materials on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, S. E.; Li, J. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Keller, H. U.

    2012-01-01

    The Dawn Framing Camera (FC) collected images of the surface of Vesta at a pixel scale of 70 m in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) phase through its clear and seven color filters spanning from 430 nm to 980 nm. The surface of Vesta displays a large diversity in its brightness and colors, evidently related to the diverse geology [1] and mineralogy [2]. Here we report a detailed investigation of the visible colors and photometric properties of the apparently bright materials on Vesta in order to study their origin. The global distribution and the spectroscopy of bright materials are discussed in companion papers [3, 4], and the synthesis results about the origin of Vestan bright materials are reported in [5].

  16. Bright Prospect for the Polyester Industrial Filament Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Some large companies from Americaand Europe have constructed plantsin China or established long-termstable cooperation relationship withChinese enterprises. A bright devel-opment prospect has therefore beenbrought to the polyester industrial fila-ment sector in China.

  17. Are solar brightness variations faculae- or spot-dominated?

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, A I; Krivova, N A; Yeo, K L; Schmutz, W K

    2016-01-01

    Regular spaceborne measurements have revealed that solar brightness varies on multiple timescales, variations on timescales greater than a day being attributed to surface magnetic field. Independently, ground-based and spaceborne measurements suggest that Sun-like stars show a similar, but significantly broader pattern of photometric variability. To understand whether the broader pattern of stellar variations is consistent with the solar paradigm we assess relative contributions of faculae and spots to solar magnetically-driven brightness variability. We investigate how the solar brightness variability as well as its facular and spot contributions depend on the wavelength, timescale of variability, and position of the observer relative to the ecliptic plane. We perform calculations with the SATIRE model, which returns solar brightness with daily cadence from solar disc area coverages of various magnetic features. Moving the observer away from the ecliptic plane increases the amplitude of 11-year variability a...

  18. Hubble ultra deep field object surface brightness variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of adjacent pixel brightness variation in log scale was applied to ultra deep field objects captured by the Hubble telescope. The local surface brightness fluctuation has a Gaussian-like distribution implying a random accretion of material, with collisions, as a random-walk motion. The larger fluctuation of log brightness in the mid to outer regions of some galaxies is consistent with the presence of dark matter. The absence of such fluctuation enhancement in two i-drop candidates at z ∼ 3 may mean that some dark matter is the result of nucleosynthesis in the evolution process. Large fluctuation in the B+V bands in contrast to the i+z band near the center in an i-drop candidate at z ∼ 3 was interpreted to be an AGN center. The distribution average shifts towards zero for more spiral galaxies, signifying the use of local surface brightness fluctuation distribution as a morphology parameter

  19. SMEX03 SSM/I Brightness Temperature Data, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides brightness temperature data acquired during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 (SMEX03) by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). The...

  20. SMEX03 SSM/I Brightness Temperature Data, Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides brightness temperature data acquired during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 (SMEX03) by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). The...

  1. Ultra High Brightness/Low Cost Fiber Coupled Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The focus of the proposed effort is maximizing the brightness of fiber coupled laser diode pump sources at a minimum cost. The specific innovation proposed is to...

  2. Phosphorylation of influenza A virus NS1 protein at threonine 49 suppresses its interferon antagonistic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathum, Omer Abid; Schräder, Tobias; Anhlan, Darisuren; Nordhoff, Carolin; Liedmann, Swantje; Pande, Amit; Mellmann, Alexander; Ehrhardt, Christina; Wixler, Viktor; Ludwig, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation acts as a fundamental molecular switch that alters protein function and thereby regulates many cellular processes. The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus is an important factor regulating virulence by counteracting cellular immune responses against viral infection. NS1 was shown to be phosphorylated at several sites; however, so far, no function has been conclusively assigned to these post-translational events yet. Here, we show that the newly identified phospho-site threonine 49 of NS1 is differentially phosphorylated in the viral replication cycle. Phosphorylation impairs binding of NS1 to double-stranded RNA and TRIM25 as well as complex formation with RIG-I, thereby switching off its interferon antagonistic activity. Because phosphorylation was shown to occur at later stages of infection, we hypothesize that at this stage other functions of the multifunctional NS1 beyond its interferon-antagonistic activity are needed. PMID:26687707

  3. Structure and Function of Flavivirus NS5 Methyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou,Y.; Ray, D.; Zhao, Y.; Dong, H.; Ren, S.; Li, Z.; Guo, Y.; Bernard, K.; Shi, P.; Li, H.

    2007-01-01

    The plus-strand RNA genome of flavivirus contains a 5' terminal cap 1 structure (m{sup 7}GpppAmG). The flaviviruses encode one methyltransferase, located at the N-terminal portion of the NS5 protein, to catalyze both guanine N-7 and ribose 2'-OH methylations during viral cap formation. Representative flavivirus methyltransferases from dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile virus (WNV) sequentially generate GpppA {yields} m{sup 7}GpppA {yields} m{sup 7}GpppAm. The 2'-O methylation can be uncoupled from the N-7 methylation, since m{sup 7}GpppA-RNA can be readily methylated to m{sup 7}GpppAm-RNA. Despite exhibiting two distinct methylation activities, the crystal structure of WNV methyltransferase at 2.8 {angstrom} resolution showed a single binding site for S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), the methyl donor. Therefore, substrate GpppA-RNA should be repositioned to accept the N-7 and 2'-O methyl groups from SAM during the sequential reactions. Electrostatic analysis of the WNV methyltransferase structure showed that, adjacent to the SAM-binding pocket, is a highly positively charged surface that could serve as an RNA binding site during cap methylations. Biochemical and mutagenesis analyses show that the N-7 and 2'-O cap methylations require distinct buffer conditions and different side chains within the K{sub 61}-D{sub 146}-K{sub 182}-E{sub 218} motif, suggesting that the two reactions use different mechanisms. In the context of complete virus, defects in both methylations are lethal to WNV; however, viruses defective solely in 2'-O methylation are attenuated and can protect mice from later wild-type WNV challenge. The results demonstrate that the N-7 methylation activity is essential for the WNV life cycle and, thus, methyltransferase represents a novel target for flavivirus therapy.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of the rice and arabidopsis non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLtp) gene families and identification of wheat nsLtp genes by EST data mining

    OpenAIRE

    Boutrot, Freddy; Chantret, Nathalie; Gautier, Marie Francoise

    2008-01-01

    Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are encoded by multigene families and possess physiological functions that remain unclear. Our objective was to characterize the complete nsLtp gene family in rice and arabidopsis and to perform wheat EST database mining for nsLtp gene discovery.b ResultsIn this study, we carried out a genome-wide analysis of nsLtp gene families in Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana and identified 52 rice nsLtp genes and 49 arabidopsis nsLtp genes. Here w...

  5. Analytically derived conversion of spectral band radiance to brightness temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, Alexander [Spectral Sciences, Inc., 44th Avenue, Burlington, MA 01803 (United States)], E-mail: lex@spectral.com

    2008-05-15

    Simple analytic expressions for brightness temperature have been derived in terms of band response function spectral moments. Accuracy measures are also derived. Application of these formulas to GOES-12 Sounder thermal infrared bands produces brightness temperature residuals between -5.0 and 2.5 mK for a 150-400 K temperature range. The magnitude of residuals for the five ASTER Radiometer thermal infrared bands over the same temperature range is less than 0.22 mK.

  6. Night Sky Brightness and Light Pollution in Comunidad de Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    Zamorano Calvo, Jaime; Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Gómez Castaño, José; Ocaña González, Francisco; Gallego Maestro, Jesús; Pila Díez, Berenice; Nievas Rosillo, Miguel; Tapia Ayuga, Carlos; Fernández Domínguez, Alberto; Pascual Ramírez, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary results of a study of the night sky background brightness around the city of Madrid using Sky Quality Meter (SQM) photometers are presented. Data-retrieval methodology includes an automatic procedure to measure from a moving vehicle which allows to speed up the data gathering. The night sky brightness, an astronomical quality parameter that accounts for luminous flux from the sky, is closely related with the light pollution. The map with the spatial distribution of the night s...

  7. Supercontinuum generation with bright and dark solitons in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Milián, Carles; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Skryabin, Dmitry V

    2016-01-01

    We study numerically and experimentally supercontinuum generation in optical fibers with dark and bright solitons simultaneously contributing into the spectral broadening and dispersive wave generation. We report a novel type of weak trapped radiation arising due to interaction of bright solitons with the dark soliton background. This radiation expresses itself as two pulses with the continuously shifting spectra constituting the short and long wavelength limits of the continuum. Our theoretical and experimental results are in good agreement.

  8. Facial Expression Recognition using Entropy and Brightness Features

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Rizwan Ahmed; Meyer, Alexandre; Konik, Hubert; Bouakaz, Saïda

    2011-01-01

    International audience This paper proposes a novel framework for universal facial expression recognition. The framework is based on two sets of features extracted from the face image: entropy and brightness. First, saliency maps are obtained by state-of-the-art saliency detection algorithm i.e. "frequencytuned salient region detection". Then only localized salient facial regions from saliency maps are processed to extract entropy and brightness features. To validate the performance of sali...

  9. Millimeter-wave brightness temperatures of military vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemarich, Joseph; Cassidy, Thomas W.; Shiner, R.; Agravante, Hiroshi H.; Dixon, David; Moffa, Philip; Quon, Bill H.; Yujiri, Larry; Dahlstrom, R.

    1999-07-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) radiometers operating at 97 and 140 GHz were used to obtain passive MMW images and brightness temperatures of military vehicles at various altitudes and depression angles. The line-scanning radiometer system used for the measurements is described, and several passive MMW images are presented. The upper-bound MMW brightness temperatures of a number of different types of vehicles in an open area were determined and shown to have similar values at various depression angles.

  10. New Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Galaxies Detected Around Nearby Spirals

    OpenAIRE

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Riepe, P.; Zilch, T.; Blauensteiner, M.; Elvov, M.; Hochleitner, P.; Hubl, B.; Kerschhuber, G.; Küppers, S.; Neyer, F.; Pölzl, R.; Remmel, P.; Schneider, O.; Sparenberg, R.; Trulson, U.

    2015-01-01

    We conduct a survey of low surface brightness (LSB) satellite galaxies around the Local Volume massive spirals using long exposures with small amateur telescopes. We identified 27 low and very low surface brightness objects around the galaxies NGC,672, 891, 1156, 2683, 3344, 4258, 4618, 4631, and 5457 situated within 10 Mpc from us, and found nothing new around NGC,2903, 3239, 4214, and 5585. Assuming that the dwarf candidates are the satellites of the neighboring luminous galaxies, their abs...

  11. Hepatitis C virus NS4B carboxy terminal domain is a membrane binding domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaan Willy JM

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV induces membrane rearrangements during replication. All HCV proteins are associated to membranes, pointing out the importance of membranes for HCV. Non structural protein 4B (NS4B has been reported to induce cellular membrane alterations like the membranous web. Four transmembrane segments in the middle of the protein anchor NS4B to membranes. An amphipatic helix at the amino-terminus attaches to membranes as well. The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD of NS4B is highly conserved in Hepaciviruses, though its function remains unknown. Results A cytosolic localization is predicted for the NS4B-CTD. However, using membrane floatation assays and immunofluorescence, we now show targeting of the NS4B-CTD to membranes. Furthermore, a profile-profile search, with an HCV NS4B-CTD multiple sequence alignment, indicates sequence similarity to the membrane binding domain of prokaryotic D-lactate dehydrogenase (d-LDH. The crystal structure of E. coli d-LDH suggests that the region similar to NS4B-CTD is located in the membrane binding domain (MBD of d-LDH, implying analogy in membrane association. Targeting of d-LDH to membranes occurs via electrostatic interactions of positive residues on the outside of the protein with negative head groups of lipids. To verify that anchorage of d-LDH MBD and NS4B-CTD is analogous, NS4B-CTD mutants were designed to disrupt these electrostatic interactions. Membrane association was confirmed by swopping the membrane contacting helix of d-LDH with the corresponding domain of the 4B-CTD. Furthermore, the functionality of these residues was tested in the HCV replicon system. Conclusion Together these data show that NS4B-CTD is associated to membranes, similar to the prokaryotic d-LDH MBD, and is important for replication.

  12. Raman spectroscopy based discrimination of NS1 positive and negative dengue virus infected serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, M.; Saleem, M.; Bilal, Maria; Khurram, M.; Khan, Saranjam; Ullah, Rahat; Ali, Hina; Ahmed, M.

    2016-09-01

    This study is intended to develop a multivariate statistical model for the prediction of nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) in dengue virus (DENV) infected blood serum in humans. The model has been developed on the basis of partial least squares regression using the Raman spectra of NS1 positive and NS1 negative samples. Human blood sera of 218 subjects is included in this study, of which 95 were NS1 positive and 123 were NS1 negative, which was confirmed with the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. For model development, 80 NS1 positive and 98 NS1 negative samples were used, while 40 DENV suspected samples were used for double blind testing of the model. This selection of samples was performed by the code in an automatic manner to avoid biasing. A laser at 785 nm was used as the excitation source to acquire Raman spectra of samples with an integration time of 15 s. The multivariate model yields coefficients of regression at corresponding Raman shifts. These coefficients represent changes in the molecular structures associated with NS1 positive and negative samples. The analysis of the regression coefficients which differentiate NS1 positive and NS1 negative groups shows an increasing trend for phosphatidylinositol, ceramide, and amide-III, and a decreasing trend for thiocyanate in the DENV infected serum. The R-squared value of the model was found to be 0.91, which is clinically acceptable. The blind testing of 40 suspected samples yields an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of about 100% each.

  13. Dengue Virus NS1 Disrupts the Endothelial Glycocalyx, Leading to Hyperpermeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerta-Guardo, Henry; Glasner, Dustin R; Harris, Eva

    2016-07-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease in humans and a major public health problem worldwide. Systemic plasma leakage, leading to hypovolemic shock and potentially fatal complications, is a critical determinant of dengue severity. Recently, we and others described a novel pathogenic effect of secreted dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in triggering hyperpermeability of human endothelial cells in vitro and systemic vascular leakage in vivo. NS1 was shown to activate toll-like receptor 4 signaling in primary human myeloid cells, leading to secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and vascular leakage. However, distinct endothelial cell-intrinsic mechanisms of NS1-induced hyperpermeability remained to be defined. The endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) is a network of membrane-bound proteoglycans and glycoproteins lining the vascular endothelium that plays a key role in regulating endothelial barrier function. Here, we demonstrate that DENV NS1 disrupts the EGL on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, inducing degradation of sialic acid and shedding of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. This effect is mediated by NS1-induced expression of sialidases and heparanase, respectively. NS1 also activates cathepsin L, a lysosomal cysteine proteinase, in endothelial cells, which activates heparanase via enzymatic cleavage. Specific inhibitors of sialidases, heparanase, and cathepsin L prevent DENV NS1-induced EGL disruption and endothelial hyperpermeability. All of these effects are specific to NS1 from DENV1-4 and are not induced by NS1 from West Nile virus, a related flavivirus. Together, our data suggest an important role for EGL disruption in DENV NS1-mediated endothelial dysfunction during severe dengue disease. PMID:27416066

  14. Synthesizing SMOS Zero-Baselines with Aquarius Brightness Temperature Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, A.; Dinnat, E.; Le Vine, D.; Kainulainen, J.

    2012-01-01

    SMOS [1] and Aquarius [2] are ESA and NASA missions, respectively, to make L-band measurements from the Low Earth Orbit. SMOS makes passive measurements whereas Aquarius measures both passive and active. SMOS was launched in November 2009 and Aquarius in June 2011.The scientific objectives of the missions are overlapping: both missions aim at mapping the global Sea Surface Salinity (SSS). Additionally, SMOS mission produces soil moisture product (however, Aquarius data will eventually be used for retrieving soil moisture too). The consistency of the brightness temperature observations made by the two instruments is essential for long-term studies of SSS and soil moisture. For resolving the consistency, the calibration of the instruments is the key. The basis of the SMOS brightness temperature level is the measurements performed with the so-called zero-baselines [3]; SMOS employs an interferometric measurement technique which forms a brightness temperature image from several baselines constructed by combination of multiple receivers in an array; zero-length baseline defines the overall brightness temperature level. The basis of the Aquarius brightness temperature level is resolved from the brightness temperature simulator combined with ancillary data such as antenna patterns and environmental models [4]. Consistency between the SMOS zero-baseline measurements and the simulator output would provide a robust basis for establishing the overall comparability of the missions.

  15. Evolution of Bright Screening-photovoltaic Spatial Optical Solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jinsong

    2001-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the dynamical evolution of bright screening-photovoltaic (SP) spatial solitons in biased photovoltaic-photorefractive materials in the case of neglecting the material loss and the diffusion is presented. When an incident optical beam is a bright SP soliton, the beam propagates along a linear path with its shape kept unchanged. When the incident optical beam is slightly different from a bright SP soliton, the beam reshapes itself and tries to evolve into a bright SP soliton after a short distance. However, when the incident optical beam is significantly different from a SP bright soliton, the beam cannot evolve into a stable bright SP soliton, and tends to experience periodic compression and expansion. For a low-intensity input beam, the wave experiences a periodic process of compression first and then expansion during the initial part of the cycle. For a high-intensity input beam, however, the wave will initially diffract and then experiences compression during the cycle.

  16. Image Contrast Enhancement for Brightness Preservation Based on Dynamic Stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Histogram equalization is an efficient process often employed in consumer electronic systems for image contrast enhancement. In addition to an increase in contrast, it is also required to preserve the mean brightness of an image in order to convey the true scene information to the viewer. A conventional approach is to separate the image into sub-images and then process independently by histogram equalization towards a modified profile. However, due to the variations in image contents, the histogram separation threshold greatly influences the level of shift in mean brightness with respect to the uniform histogram in the equalization process. Therefore, the choice of a proper threshold, to separate the input image into sub-images, is very critical in order to preserve the mean brightness of the output image. In this research work, a dynamic range stretching approach is adopted to reduce the shift in output image mean brightness. Moreover, the computationally efficient golden section search algorithm is applied to obtain a proper separation into sub-images to preserve the mean brightness. Experiments were carried out on a large number of color images of natural scenes. Results, as compared to current available approaches, showed that the proposed method performed satisfactorily in terms of mean brightness preservation and enhancement in image contrast.

  17. NS5ATP9 Contributes to Inhibition of Cell Proliferation by Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Nonstructural Protein 5A (NS5A via MEK/Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK Pathway

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    Xuesong Gao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A is a remarkable protein as it clearly plays multiple roles in mediating viral replication, host-cell interactions and viral pathogenesis. However, on the impact of cell growth, there have been different study results. NS5ATP9, also known as KIAA0101, p15PAF, L5, and OEACT-1, was first identified as a proliferating cell nuclear antigen-binding protein. Earlier studies have shown that NS5ATP9 might play an important role in HCV infection. The aim of this study is to investigate the function of NS5ATP9 on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines proliferation under HCV NS5A expression. The results showed that overexpression of NS5ATP9 inhibited the proliferation of Bel7402 cells, whereas knockdown of NS5ATP9 by interfering RNA promoted the growth of HepG2 cells. Under HCV NS5A expression, RNA interference (RNAi targeting of NS5ATP9 could reverse the inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation, suggesting that NS5ATP9 might be an anti-proliferation gene that plays an important role in the suppression of cell growth mediated by HCV NS5A via MEK/ERK signaling pathway. These findings might provide new insights into HCV NS5A and NS5ATP9.

  18. Epitope mapping and functional analysis of sigma A and sigma NS proteins of avian reovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously shown that avian reovirus (ARV) σA and σNS proteins possess dsRNA and ssRNA binding activity and suggested that there are two epitopes on σA (I and II) and three epitopes (A, B, and C) on σNS. To further define the location of epitopes on σA and σNS proteins and to further elucidate the biological functions of these epitopes by using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 62, 1F9, H1E1, and 4A123 against the ARV S1133 strain, the full-length and deletion fragments of S2 and S4 genes of ARV generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were cloned into pET32 expression vectors and the fusion proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 strain. Epitope mapping using MAbs and E. coli-expressed deletion fragments of σA and σNS of the ARV S1133 strain, synthetic peptides, and the cross reactivity of MAbs to heterologous ARV strains demonstrated that epitope II on σA was located at amino acid residues 340QWVMAGLVSAA350 and epitope B on σNS at amino acid residues 180MLDMVDGRP188. The MAbs (62, 1F9, and H1E1) directed against epitopes II and B did not require the native conformation of σA and σNS, suggesting that their binding activities were conformation-independent. On the other hand, MAb 4A123 only reacted with complete σNS but not with truncated σNS fusion proteins in Western blot, suggesting that the binding activity of MAb to epitope A on σNS was conformation-dependent. Amino acid sequence analysis and the binding assays of MAb 62 to heterologous ARV strains suggested that epitope II on σA was highly conserved among ARV strains and that this epitope is suitable as a serological marker for the detection of ARV antibodies following natural infection in chickens. On the contrary, an amino acid substitution at position 183 (M to V) in epitope B of ARV could hinder the reactivity of the σNS with MAb 1F9. The σNS of ARV with ssRNA-binding activity could be blocked by monoclonal antibody 1F9. The epitope B on σNS is required for ss

  19. The N-Terminal of Aquareovirus NS80 Is Required for Interacting with Viral Proteins and Viral Replication.

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    Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available Reovirus replication and assembly occurs within viral inclusion bodies that formed in specific intracellular compartments of cytoplasm in infected cells. Previous study indicated that aquareovirus NS80 is able to form inclusion bodies, and also can retain viral proteins within its inclusions. To better understand how NS80 performed in viral replication and assembly, the functional regions of NS80 associated with other viral proteins in aquareovirus replication were investigated in this study. Deletion mutational analysis and rotavirus NSP5-based protein association platform were used to detect association regions. Immunofluorescence images indicated that different N-terminal regions of NS80 could associate with viral proteins VP1, VP4, VP6 and NS38. Further co-immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the interaction between VP1, VP4, VP6 or NS38 with different regions covering the N-terminal amino acid (aa, 1-471 of NS80, respectively. Moreover, removal of NS80 N-terminal sequences required for interaction with proteins VP1, VP4, VP6 or NS38 not only prevented the capacity of NS80 to support viral replication in NS80 shRNA-based replication complementation assays, but also inhibited the expression of aquareovirus proteins, suggesting that N-terminal regions of NS80 are necessary for viral replication. These results provided a foundational basis for further understanding the role of NS80 in viral replication and assembly during aquareovirus infection.

  20. The Dengue Virus NS5 Protein Intrudes in the Cellular Spliceosome and Modulates Splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Priya; Pozzi, Berta; Gebhard, Leopoldo G.; Mammi, Pablo; Yanovsky, Marcelo J.; Andino, Raul; Krogan, Nevan; Srebrow, Anabella; Gamarnik, Andrea V.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus NS5 protein plays multiple functions in the cytoplasm of infected cells, enabling viral RNA replication and counteracting host antiviral responses. Here, we demonstrate a novel function of NS5 in the nucleus where it interferes with cellular splicing. Using global proteomic analysis of infected cells together with functional studies, we found that NS5 binds spliceosome complexes and modulates endogenous splicing as well as minigene-derived alternative splicing patterns. In particular, we show that NS5 alone, or in the context of viral infection, interacts with core components of the U5 snRNP particle, CD2BP2 and DDX23, alters the inclusion/exclusion ratio of alternative splicing events, and changes mRNA isoform abundance of known antiviral factors. Interestingly, a genome wide transcriptome analysis, using recently developed bioinformatics tools, revealed an increase of intron retention upon dengue virus infection, and viral replication was improved by silencing specific U5 components. Different mechanistic studies indicate that binding of NS5 to the spliceosome reduces the efficiency of pre-mRNA processing, independently of NS5 enzymatic activities. We propose that NS5 binding to U5 snRNP proteins hijacks the splicing machinery resulting in a less restrictive environment for viral replication. PMID:27575636

  1. Prediction and experimental characterization of nsSNPs altering human PDZ-binding motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gfeller

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are a major contributor to genetic and phenotypic variation within populations. Non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs modify the sequence of proteins and can affect their folding or binding properties. Experimental analysis of all nsSNPs is currently unfeasible and therefore computational predictions of the molecular effect of nsSNPs are helpful to guide experimental investigations. While some nsSNPs can be accurately characterized, for instance if they fall into strongly conserved or well annotated regions, the molecular consequences of many others are more challenging to predict. In particular, nsSNPs affecting less structured, and often less conserved regions, are difficult to characterize. Binding sites that mediate protein-protein or other protein interactions are an important class of functional sites on proteins and can be used to help interpret nsSNPs. Binding sites targeted by the PDZ modular peptide recognition domain have recently been characterized. Here we use this data to show that it is possible to computationally identify nsSNPs in PDZ binding motifs that modify or prevent binding to the proteins containing the motifs. We confirm these predictions by experimentally validating a selected subset with ELISA. Our work also highlights the importance of better characterizing linear motifs in proteins as many of these can be affected by genetic variations.

  2. Interaction of influenza virus NS1 protein with growth arrest-specific protein 8

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    Yu Mengbin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract NS1 protein is the only non-structural protein encoded by the influenza A virus, and it contributes significantly to disease pathogenesis by modulating many virus and host cell processes. A two-hybrid screen for proteins that interact with NS1 from influenza A yielded growth arrest-specific protein 8. Gas8 associated with NS1 in vitro and in vivo. Deletion analysis revealed that the N-terminal 260 amino acids of Gas8 were able to interact with NS1, and neither the RNA-binding domain nor the effector domain of NS1 was sufficient for the NS1 interaction. We also found that actin, myosin, and drebrin interact with Gas8. NS1 and β-actin proteins could be co-immunoprecipitated from extracts of transfected cells. Furthermore, actin and Gas8 co-localized at the plasma membrane. These results are discussed in relation to the possible functions of Gas8 protein and their relevance in influenza virus release.

  3. The Future of HCV Therapy: NS4B as an Antiviral Target

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    Hadas Dvory-Sobol

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major worldwide cause of liver disease, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is estimated that more than 170 million individuals are infected with HCV, with three to four million new cases each year. The current standard of care, combination treatment with interferon and ribavirin, eradicates the virus in only about 50% of chronically infected patients. Notably, neither of these drugs directly target HCV. Many new antiviral therapies that specifically target hepatitis C (e.g. NS3 protease or NS5B polymerase inhibitors are therefore in development, with a significant number having advanced into clinical trials. The nonstructural 4B (NS4B protein, is among the least characterized of the HCV structural and nonstructural proteins and has been subjected to few pharmacological studies. NS4B is an integral membrane protein with at least four predicted transmembrane (TM domains. A variety of functions have been postulated for NS4B, such as the ability to induce the membranous web replication platform, RNA binding and NTPase activity. This review summarizes potential targets within the nonstructural protein NS4B, with a focus on novel classes of NS4B inhibitors.

  4. The Dengue Virus NS5 Protein Intrudes in the Cellular Spliceosome and Modulates Splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maio, Federico A; Risso, Guillermo; Iglesias, Nestor G; Shah, Priya; Pozzi, Berta; Gebhard, Leopoldo G; Mammi, Pablo; Mancini, Estefania; Yanovsky, Marcelo J; Andino, Raul; Krogan, Nevan; Srebrow, Anabella; Gamarnik, Andrea V

    2016-08-01

    Dengue virus NS5 protein plays multiple functions in the cytoplasm of infected cells, enabling viral RNA replication and counteracting host antiviral responses. Here, we demonstrate a novel function of NS5 in the nucleus where it interferes with cellular splicing. Using global proteomic analysis of infected cells together with functional studies, we found that NS5 binds spliceosome complexes and modulates endogenous splicing as well as minigene-derived alternative splicing patterns. In particular, we show that NS5 alone, or in the context of viral infection, interacts with core components of the U5 snRNP particle, CD2BP2 and DDX23, alters the inclusion/exclusion ratio of alternative splicing events, and changes mRNA isoform abundance of known antiviral factors. Interestingly, a genome wide transcriptome analysis, using recently developed bioinformatics tools, revealed an increase of intron retention upon dengue virus infection, and viral replication was improved by silencing specific U5 components. Different mechanistic studies indicate that binding of NS5 to the spliceosome reduces the efficiency of pre-mRNA processing, independently of NS5 enzymatic activities. We propose that NS5 binding to U5 snRNP proteins hijacks the splicing machinery resulting in a less restrictive environment for viral replication. PMID:27575636

  5. Molecular modeling and docking study to elucidate novel chikungunya virus nsP2 protease inhibitors

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    T Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya is one of the tropical viral infections that severely affect the Asian and African countries. Absence of any suitable drugs or vaccines against Chikungunya virus till date makes it essential to identify and develop novel leads for the same. Recently, nsP2 cysteine protease has been classified as a crucial drug target to combat infections caused by Alphaviruses including Chikungunya virus due to its involvement viral replication. Here in, we investigated the structural aspects of the nsP2 protease through homology modeling based on nsP2 protease from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Further, the ligands were virtually screened based on various pharmacological, ADME/Tox filters and subjected to docking with the modeled Chikungunya nsP2 protease using AutoDock4.2. The interaction profiling of ligand with the protein was carried out using LigPlot+. The results demonstrated that the ligand with PubChem Id (CID_5808891 possessed highest binding affinity towards Chikungunya nsP2 protease with a good interaction profile with the active site residues. We hereby propose that these compounds could inhibit the nsP2 protease by binding to its active site. Moreover, they may provide structural scaffold for the design of novel leads with better efficacy and specificity for the nsP2 protease.

  6. Identification of Hydroxyanthraquinones as Novel Inhibitors of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Helicase

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    Atsushi Furuta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is an important etiological agent of severe liver diseases, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The HCV genome encodes nonstructural protein 3 (NS3 helicase, which is a potential anti-HCV drug target because its enzymatic activity is essential for viral replication. Some anthracyclines are known to be NS3 helicase inhibitors and have a hydroxyanthraquinone moiety in their structures; mitoxantrone, a hydroxyanthraquinone analogue, is also known to inhibit NS3 helicase. Therefore, we hypothesized that the hydroxyanthraquinone moiety alone could also inhibit NS3 helicase. Here, we performed a structure–activity relationship study on a series of hydroxyanthraquinones by using a fluorescence-based helicase assay. Hydroxyanthraquinones inhibited NS3 helicase with IC50 values in the micromolar range. The inhibitory activity varied depending on the number and position of the phenolic hydroxyl groups, and among different hydroxyanthraquinones examined, 1,4,5,8-tetrahydroxyanthraquinone strongly inhibited NS3 helicase with an IC50 value of 6 µM. Furthermore, hypericin and sennidin A, which both have two hydroxyanthraquinone-like moieties, were found to exert even stronger inhibition with IC50 values of 3 and 0.8 µM, respectively. These results indicate that the hydroxyanthraquinone moiety can inhibit NS3 helicase and suggest that several key chemical structures are important for the inhibition.

  7. Raising the avermectins production in Streptomyces avermitilis by utilizing nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinsong; Ma, Ruonan; Su, Bo; Li, Yinglong; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Avermectins, a group of anthelmintic and insecticidal agents produced from Streptomyces avermitilis, are widely used in agricultural, veterinary, and medical fields. This study presents the first report on the potential of using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) to improve avermectin production in S. avermitilis. The results of colony forming units showed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 10 kV/cm and 20 kV/cm had a significant effect on proliferation, while 100 pulses of nsPEFs at 30 kV/cm exhibited an obvious effect on inhibition of agents. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry assay revealed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 15 kV/cm increased avermectin production by 42% and reduced the time for reaching a plateau in fermentation process from 7 days to 5 days. In addition, the decreased oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and increased temperature of nsPEFs-treated liquid were evidenced to be closely associated with the improved cell growth and fermentation efficiency of avermectins in S. avermitilis. More importantly, the real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that nsPEFs could remarkably enhance the expression of aveR and malE in S. avermitilis during fermentation, which are positive regulator for avermectin biosynthesis. Therefore, the nsPEFs technology presents an alternative strategy to be developed to increase avermectin output in fermentation industry. PMID:27181521

  8. Raising the avermectins production in Streptomyces avermitilis by utilizing nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinsong; Ma, Ruonan; Su, Bo; Li, Yinglong; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Avermectins, a group of anthelmintic and insecticidal agents produced from Streptomyces avermitilis, are widely used in agricultural, veterinary, and medical fields. This study presents the first report on the potential of using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) to improve avermectin production in S. avermitilis. The results of colony forming units showed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 10 kV/cm and 20 kV/cm had a significant effect on proliferation, while 100 pulses of nsPEFs at 30 kV/cm exhibited an obvious effect on inhibition of agents. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry assay revealed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 15 kV/cm increased avermectin production by 42% and reduced the time for reaching a plateau in fermentation process from 7 days to 5 days. In addition, the decreased oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and increased temperature of nsPEFs-treated liquid were evidenced to be closely associated with the improved cell growth and fermentation efficiency of avermectins in S. avermitilis. More importantly, the real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that nsPEFs could remarkably enhance the expression of aveR and malE in S. avermitilis during fermentation, which are positive regulator for avermectin biosynthesis. Therefore, the nsPEFs technology presents an alternative strategy to be developed to increase avermectin output in fermentation industry.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the rice and arabidopsis non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLtp gene families and identification of wheat nsLtp genes by EST data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantret Nathalie

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs are encoded by multigene families and possess physiological functions that remain unclear. Our objective was to characterize the complete nsLtp gene family in rice and arabidopsis and to perform wheat EST database mining for nsLtp gene discovery. Results In this study, we carried out a genome-wide analysis of nsLtp gene families in Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana and identified 52 rice nsLtp genes and 49 arabidopsis nsLtp genes. Here we present a complete overview of the genes and deduced protein features. Tandem duplication repeats, which represent 26 out of the 52 rice nsLtp genes and 18 out of the 49 arabidopsis nsLtp genes identified, support the complexity of the nsLtp gene families in these species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that rice and arabidopsis nsLTPs are clustered in nine different clades. In addition, we performed comparative analysis of rice nsLtp genes and wheat (Triticum aestivum EST sequences indexed in the UniGene database. We identified 156 putative wheat nsLtp genes, among which 91 were found in the 'Chinese Spring' cultivar. The 122 wheat non-redundant nsLTPs were organized in eight types and 33 subfamilies. Based on the observation that seven of these clades were present in arabidopsis, rice and wheat, we conclude that the major functional diversification within the nsLTP family predated the monocot/dicot divergence. In contrast, there is no type VII nsLTPs in arabidopsis and type IX nsLTPs were only identified in arabidopsis. The reason for the larger number of nsLtp genes in wheat may simply be due to the hexaploid state of wheat but may also reflect extensive duplication of gene clusters as observed on rice chromosomes 11 and 12 and arabidopsis chromosome 5. Conclusion Our current study provides fundamental information on the organization of the rice, arabidopsis and wheat nsLtp gene families. The multiplicity of nsLTP types provide new

  10. Phylogeny for NS1 proteins of influenza B virus%乙型流感病毒NS1基因的进化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绍彬; 李小曼; 张菁; 谢伟岸

    2009-01-01

    NS1蛋白是由流感病毒第8个RNA片段(丙型流感病毒NS1由第7个片段)编码的RNA结合蛋白。研究表明,NS1蛋白与流感病毒宿主存在复杂的相互作用,是流感病毒主要的毒力因子。乙型流感病毒是导致流感暴发的主要病原之一,目前为止只发现一个亚型,宿主特异性较强。

  11. Approaches to hepatitis C treatment and cure using NS5A inhibitors

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    Kohler JJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available James J Kohler,1,2 James H Nettles,1,2 Franck Amblard,1,2 Selwyn J Hurwitz,1,2 Leda Bassit,1,2 Richard A Stanton,1 Maryam Ehteshami,1 Raymond F Schinazi1,2 1Center for AIDS Research and Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur, GA, USA Abstract: Recent progress in the understanding of hepatitis C virus (HCV biology and the availability of in vitro models to study its replication have facilitated the development of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs that target specific steps in the viral replication cycle. Currently, there are three major classes of DAA in clinical development: NS3/4A protease inhibitors, NS5B polymerase inhibitors, and NS5A directed inhibitors. Several compounds thought to bind directly with NS5A are now in various clinical trial phases, including the most advanced, daclatasvir (BMS-790052, ledipasvir (GS-5885, and ABT-267. While many NS5A-targeted compounds demonstrate picomolar potency, the exact mechanism(s of their action is still unclear. In the clinic, NS5A HCV inhibitors show promise as important components in DAA regimens and have multifunctionality. In addition to inhibiting viral replication, they may synergize with other DAAs, possibly by modulating different viral proteins, to help suppress the emergence of resistant viruses. Structure-based models have identified target interaction domains and spatial interactions that explain drug resistance for mutations at specific positions (eg, residues 93 and 31 within NS5A and potential binding partners. This review provides, insights into the unique complexity of NS5A as a central platform for multiple viral/host protein interactions, and possible mechanism(s for the NS5A inhibitors currently undergoing clinical trials that target this nonstructural viral protein. Keywords: HCV replication complex, direct acting antivirals (DAAs, clinical trials

  12. Comprehensive Mapping Antigenic Epitopes of NS1 Protein of Japanese Encephalitis Virus with Monoclonal Antibodies.

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    Rong-Hong Hua

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 contributes to virus replication and elicits protective immune responses during infection. JEV NS1-specific antibody responses could be a target in the differential diagnosis of different flavivirus infections. However, the epitopes on JEV NS1 are poorly characterized. The present study describes the full mapping of linear B-cell epitopes in JEV NS1. We generated eleven NS1-specific monoclonal antibodies from mice immunized with recombinant NS1. For epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies, a set of 51 partially-overlapping peptides covering the entire NS1 protein were expressed with a GST-tag and then screened using monoclonal antibodies. Through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, five linear epitope-containing peptides were identified. By sequentially removing amino acid residues from the carboxy and amino terminal of peptides, the minimal units of the five linear epitopes were identified and confirmed using monoclonal antibodies. Five linear epitopes are located in amino acids residues (5AIDITRK(11, (72RDELNVL(78, (251KSKHNRREGY(260, (269DENGIVLD(276, and (341DETTLVRS(348. Furthermore, it was found that the epitopes are highly conserved among JEV strains through sequence alignment. Notably, none of the homologous regions on NS1 proteins from other flaviviruses reacted with the MAbs when they were tested for cross-reactivity, and all five epitope peptides were not recognized by sera against West Nile virus or Dengue virus. These novel virus-specific linear B-cell epitopes of JEV NS1 would benefit the development of new vaccines and diagnostic assays.

  13. HCV NS5A abrogates p53 protein function by interfering with p53-DNA binding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Zhong Gong; Yong-Fang Jiang; Yan He; Li-Ying Lai; Ying-Hua Zhu; Xian-Shi Su

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the inhibition effect of HCV NS5A on p53 transactivation on p21 promoter and explore its possible mechanism for influencing p53 function.METHODS: p53 function of transactivation on p21 promoter was studied with a luciferase reporter system in which the luciferase gene is driven by p21 promoter, and the p53-DNA binding ability was observed with the use of electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA). Lipofectin mediated p53 or HCV NS5A expression vectors were used to transfect hepatoma cell lines to observe whether HCV NS5A could abrogate the binding ability of p53 to its specific DNA sequence and p53 transactivation on p21 promoter.Western blot experiment was used for detection of HCV NS5A and p53 proteins expression.RESULTS: Relative luciferase activity driven by p21 promoter increased significantly in the presence of endogenous p53 protein. Compared to the control group, exogenous p53 protein also stimulated p21 promoter driven luciferase gene expression in a dose-dependent way. HCV NS5A protein gradually inhibited both endogenous and exogenous p53 transactivation on p21 promoter with increase of the dose of HCV NS5A expression plasmid. By the experiment of EMSA, we could find p53 binding to its specific DNA sequence and, when co-transfected with increased dose of HCV NS5A expression vector, the p53 binding affinity to its DNA gradually decreased and finally disappeared. Between the Huh 7 cells transfected with p53 expression vector alone or co-transfected with HCV NS5A expression vector, there was no difference in the p53 protein expression.CONCLUSION: HCV NS5A inhibits p53 transactivation on p21 promoter through abrogating p53 binding affinity to its specific DNA sequence. It does not affect p53 protein expression.

  14. Induction of Cell Death Mechanisms and Apoptosis by Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields (nsPEFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nova M. Sain

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulse power technology using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs offers a new stimulus to modulate cell functions or induce cell death for cancer cell ablation. New data and a literature review demonstrate fundamental and basic cellular mechanisms when nsPEFs interact with cellular targets. NsPEFs supra-electroporate cells creating large numbers of nanopores in all cell membranes. While nsPEFs have multiple cellular targets, these studies show that nsPEF-induced dissipation of ΔΨm closely parallels deterioration in cell viability. Increases in intracellular Ca2+ alone were not sufficient for cell death; however, cell death depended of the presence of Ca2+. When both events occur, cell death ensues. Further, direct evidence supports the hypothesis that pulse rise-fall times or high frequency components of nsPEFs are important for decreasing ΔΨm and cell viability. Evidence indicates in Jurkat cells that cytochrome c release from mitochondria is caspase-independent indicating an absence of extrinsic apoptosis and that cell death can be caspase-dependent and –independent. The Ca2+ dependence of nsPEF-induced dissipation of ΔΨm suggests that nanoporation of inner mitochondria membranes is less likely and effects on a Ca2+-dependent protein(s or the membrane in which it is embedded are more likely a target for nsPEF-induced cell death. The mitochondria permeability transition pore (mPTP complex is a likely candidate. Data demonstrate that nsPEFs can bypass cancer mutations that evade apoptosis through mechanisms at either the DISC or the apoptosome.

  15. Detection of Virus Infected Poultry on the Basis of Antibody to NS1 of Influenza Virus by NS1-ELISA%非结构蛋白NS1-ELISA检测禽流感野毒感染抗体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽霖; 李建丽; 陈少渠; 刘守川

    2006-01-01

    利用RT-PCR技术扩增获得了H5N2亚型禽流感病毒的NS1基因,ORF长度为678 bp.成功构建了重组表达载体pET-NS1,将其转化BL21(DE3),用终浓度1 mmol/I的IPTG诱导表达5 h,经15%的SDS-PAGE分析表明,诱导表达出了分子量大约为28 KD的NS1融合蛋白,且以包涵体的形式存在.NS1融合蛋白经His trap Hp Kit柱子纯化或用尿素变性复性,获得纯度较高的NS1蛋白,并以此为抗原,建立了检测抗NS1蛋白抗体的ELISA(NS1-ELISA)方法.最佳包被浓度为2.5 μ g/ml,血清的最佳稀释倍数为1:200,酶标二抗的最佳工作稀释度为1:5000.重组NS1蛋白只与AIV感染的血清反应,而不与ND、IB、IBD、EDS76的阳性血清反应.分别检测H9N2、H5N2和H5N1亚型灭活疫苗和H9N2纯化病毒免疫的血清,各5份,其平均OD490值分别为0.225、0.210、0.205和0.184,均为阴性;而对HgN2和H5N2亚型活毒感染10~15 d的血清进行检测,各5份,其平均OD490值分别为0.610和0.619,均为阳性.因此,NS1蛋白能特异地区分野毒感染和灭活疫苗免疫鸡群,可作为一种鉴别诊断标记,但不能区分亚型,具有A型特异性.NS1-ELISA方法的初步应用,不仅为生产提供了一种快速、特异、敏感的鉴别诊断方法,为进一步组装成试剂盒奠定了基础,也为禽流感的早期诊断、适时监控和净化提供了行之有效的方法.

  16. Comparison of Structural Architecture of HCV NS3 Genotype 1 versus Pakistani Genotype 3a

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneez Fatima; Esam Azhar; Shilu Mathew; Ghazi Damanhouri; Ishtiaq Qadri

    2014-01-01

    This study described the structural characterization of Pakistani HCV NS3 GT3a in parallel with genotypes 1a and 1b NS3. We investigated the role of amino acids and their interaction patterns in different HCV genotypes by crystallographic modeling. Different softwares were used to study the interaction pattern, for example, CLCBIO sequence viewer, MODELLER, NMRCLUST, ERRAT score, and MODELLER. Sixty models were produced and clustered into groups and the best model of PK-NCVI/Pk3a NS3 was sele...

  17. H-NS is a repressor of major virulence gene loci in Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng eZhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a leading cause of seafood-associated diarrhea and gastroenteritis, harbors three major virulence gene loci T3SS1, Vp-PAI (T3SS1+tdh2 and T6SS2. As showing is this study, the nucleoid-associated DNA-binding regulator H-NS binds to multiple promoter-proximal regions in each of the above three loci to repress their transcription, and moreover H-NS inhibits the cytotoxicitiy, enterotoxicity, hemolytic activity, and mouse lethality of V. parahaemolyticus. H-NS appears to act as a major repressor of the virulence of this pathogen.

  18. Behavior of thin metallic films upon melting with a ns-laser pulse

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, Jörg; Reinmuth, Martin; Boneberg, Johannes; Herminghaus, Stephan; Palberg, Thomas; Leiderer, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Thin metal films (Cu, An, Ni) and thin Si films with different thiknesses on fused silica were irradiated with a ns-pulse from a Nd:YAG-laser (y=532 om, FWHM 7 ns). In this paper we want to focus on the optical properties of an undercooled metallic liquid and the observed dewetting of the thin films. The ongoing processes were monitored in situ with ns-time-resolved reflectivity measurements. We determined the thresholds for partial and complete melting of these films. Due to the high cooling...

  19. Structure and Function of the NS1 Protein of Influenza A Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongzi LIN; Jingfang LAN; Zhizhen ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    The avian influenza A virus currently prevailing in Asia causes fatal pneumonia and multiple organ failure in birds and humans.Despite intensive research,understanding of the characteristics of influenza A virus that determine its virulence is incomplete.NS1A protein,a non-structural protein of influenza A virus,was reported to contribute to its pathogenicity and virulence.NS1A protein is a multifunctional protein that plays a significant role in resisting the host antiviral response during the influenza infection.This review briefly outlines the current knowledge on the structure and function of the NS1A protein.

  20. Bright artificial light subsensitizes a central muscarinic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilsaver, S C; Majchrzak, M J

    1987-12-14

    Supersensitivity of a muscarinic mechanism is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Bright artificial light is efficacious in the treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). We studied the effect of constant bright light (11,500 lux) on the sensitivity of adult, male rats to oxotremorine, 1.5 mg/kg ip, using a repeated measures design. Oxotremorine challenges were proceeded by the injection of methylscopolamine, 1 mg/kg ip, by 30 minutes. Temperature was telemetrically measured every 10 minutes for 120 minutes starting 10 minutes after the injection of oxotremorine. Prior to and after 7 continuous days of exposure to bright light, the sample exhibited a hypothermic response of 2.50 +/- 0.48 degrees C (mean +/- SEM) and 0.29 +/- 0.31 degrees C (mean +/- SEM), respectively (p less than 0.0014). All 7 animals exhibited blunting to the thermic response to oxotremorine. Bright light also blocked the capacity of amitriptyline to supersensitize a central muscarinic mechanism. Exposure to light at an intensity of 300 lux for 7 days had no effect on the thermic response to oxotremorine. These data are consistent with the hypotheses that the biology of depression involves supersensitivity of central muscarinic mechanisms and that the effects of bright artificial light are not the consequence of shifting circadian rhythms. PMID:3695799

  1. The night sky brightness at Potsdam-Babelsberg

    CERN Document Server

    Puschnig, Johannes; Posch, Thomas; Schwarz, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the results of a 2 years (2011--2012) time series of night sky photometry performed at the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics in Potsdam (AIP). This observatory is located on top of a hill ("Babelsberg"), 22\\,km to the southwest of the center of Berlin. The measurements have been performed with a Unihedron Sky Quality Meter. We find night sky brightness values ranging from 16.5 to 20.3 mag$_{\\rm SQM}$ arcsec$^{-2}$; the latter (best) value corresponds to 4.7 times the natural zenithal night sky brightness. We discuss the influence of clouds, of the Moon and other factors on the night sky brightness. With respect to the influence of the Moon, it turns out that Potsdam-Babelsberg, despite its proximity to Berlin, still shows a circalunar periodicity of the night sky brightness, although it is much weaker than naturally. The light-pollution-enhancing effect of clouds dominates the night sky brightness by far. Overcast nights with light pollution (up to 16.5 mag$_{\\rm SQM}$ arcsec$^{-2}$) are brighter ...

  2. PROFFIT: Analysis of X-ray surface-brightness profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Dominique

    2016-08-01

    PROFFIT analyzes X-ray surface-brightness profiles for data from any X-ray instrument. It can extract surface-brightness profiles in circular or elliptical annuli, using constant or logarithmic bin size, from the image centroid, the surface-brightness peak, or any user-given center, and provides surface-brightness profiles in any circular or elliptical sectors. It offers background map support to extract background profiles, can excise areas using SAO DS9-compatible (ascl:0003.002) region files to exclude point sources, provides fitting with a number of built-in models, including the popular beta model, double beta, cusp beta, power law, and projected broken power law, uses chi-squared or C statistic, and can fit on the surface-brightness or counts data. It has a command-line interface similar to HEASOFT’s XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) package, provides interactive help with a description of all the commands, and results can be saved in FITS, ROOT or TXT format.

  3. Night sky brightness at San Pedro Martir Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Plauchu-Frayn, I; Colorado, E; Herrera, J; Cordova, A; Cesena, U; Avila, F

    2016-01-01

    We present optical UBVRI zenith night sky brightness measurements collected on eighteen nights during 2013--2016 and SQM measurements obtained daily over twenty months during 2014--2016 at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM) in Mexico. The UBVRI data is based upon CCD images obtained with the 0.84m and 2.12m telescopes, while the SQM data is obtained with a high-sensitivity, low-cost photometer. The typical moonless night sky brightness at zenith averaged over the whole period is U = 22.68, B = 23.10, V = 21.84, R = 21.04, I = 19.36, and SQM = 21.88 mag/square arcsec, once corrected for zodiacal light. We find no seasonal variation of the night sky brightness measured with the SQM. The typical night sky brightness values found at OAN-SPM are similar to those reported for other astronomical dark sites at a similar phase of the solar cycle. We find a trend of decreasing night sky brightness with decreasing solar activity during period of the observations. This trend im...

  4. Bright and Not-So-Bright Prospects for Women in Physics in China-Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling-An; Yang, Zhongqin; Ma, Wanyun

    2009-04-01

    Science in China-Beijing is enjoying a healthy increase in funding year by year, so the prospects for physicists are also bright. However, employment discrimination against women, formerly unthinkable, is becoming more and more explicit as the country evolves toward a market economy. Some recruitment notices bluntly state that only men will be considered, or impose restrictions upon potential female candidates. Female associate professors in many institutions are forced to retire at age 55, compared with 60 for men. This double-pinching discrimination against both younger and older women threatens to lead to a "pincer" effect, more serious than the "scissors" effect. Indeed, the ratio of senior-level women physicists in general has dropped significantly in recent years in China. Ironically, the number of female students applying for graduate studies is on the rise, as it is becoming increasingly difficult for them to compete with men in the job market with just an undergraduate degree. The Chinese Physical Society has made certain efforts to promote the image of women physicists, but it will take time and effort to reverse the trend.

  5. MDCK cell line with inducible allele B NS1 expression propagates deINS1 inflenza virus to high titres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielink, van R.; Harmsen, M.M.; Martens, D.E.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Wijffels, R.H.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A viruses lacking the gene encoding the non-structural NS1 protein (delNS1) have potential use as live attenuated vaccines. However, due to the lack of NS1, virus replication in cell culture is considerably reduced, prohibiting commercial vaccine production. We therefore established two st

  6. High-brightness ultra-cold metastable neon-beam

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Fujio

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents detailed characteristics of an ultra-cold bright metastable neon atomic beam which we have been using for atom-interferometric applications. The basis of the device is an atomic beam released from a magneto-optical trap (MOT) which is operated with a high intensity trapping laser, high magnetic quadrupole field, and large laser detuining. Mainly due to the complex structure of three dimensional magnetic field and laser beams, a bright small spot of atoms is formed near the center of the quadrupole magnetic field under an appropriate operating condition. We obtained the minimum trap diameter of 50 micron meter, the atomic density nearly 10^{13}cm^{-3}, and the atomic temperature slightly less than the Doppler limited temperature of 200 micro-K. By releasing trapped atoms we obtained an bright cold atomic beam which is not far from the collision limited atomic density.

  7. The Spectroscopic Properties of Bright Extragalactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, M G

    2006-01-01

    The properties of bright extragalactic planetary nebulae are reviewed based upon the results of low and high resolution spectroscopy. It is argued that bright extragalactic planetary nebulae from galaxies (or subsystems) with and without star formation have different distributions of central star temperature and ionization structure. As regards the chemical compositions, oxygen and neon are generally found to be unchanged as a result of the evolution of the stellar progenitors. Nitrogen enrichment may occur as a result of the evolution of the progenitors of bright planetary nebulae in all stellar populations, though this enrichment may be (more) random in old stellar populations. Helium abundances appear to be influenced by the chemical evolution of the host galaxy, with planetary nebulae in dwarf spheroidals having systematically elevated abundances. Neither the age nor the metallicity of the progenitor stellar population has a strong effect upon the kinematics observed for nebular shells. Both the range of ...

  8. The ASAS-SN Bright Supernova Catalog $-$ II. 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Holoien, T W -S; Stanek, K Z; Kochanek, C S; Shappee, B J; Prieto, J L; Dong, Subo; Brimacombe, J; Bishop, D W; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Chen, Ping; Danilet, A B; Falco, E; Godoy-Rivera, D; Goss, N; Pojmanski, G; Simonian, G V; Skowron, D M; Thompson, Todd A; Woźniak, P R; Avíla, C G; Bock, G; Carballo, J -L G; Conseil, E; Contreras, C; Cruz, I; andújar, J M F; Guo, Zhen; Hsiao, E Y; Kiyota, S; Koff, R A; Krannich, G; Madore, B F; Marples, P; Masi, G; Morrell, N; Monard, L A G; Munoz-Mateos, J C; Nicholls, B; Nicolas, J; Wagner, R M; Wiethoff, W S

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript presents information for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) during 2015, its second full year of operations. The same information is presented for bright ($m_V\\leq17$), spectroscopically confirmed supernovae discovered by other sources in 2015. As with the first ASAS-SN bright supernova catalog, we also present redshifts and near-UV through IR magnitudes for all supernova host galaxies in both samples. Combined with our previous catalog, this work comprises a complete catalog of 455 supernovae from multiple professional and amateur sources, allowing for population studies that were previously impossible. This is the second of a series of yearly papers on bright supernovae and their hosts from the ASAS-SN team.

  9. New Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Galaxies Detected Around Nearby Spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Karachentsev, I D; Zilch, T; Blauensteiner, M; Elvov, M; Hochleitner, P; Hubl, B; Kerschhuber, G; Küppers, S; Neyer, F; Pölzl, R; Remmel, P; Schneider, O; Sparenberg, R; Trulson, U; Willems, G; Ziegler, H

    2015-01-01

    We conduct a survey of low surface brightness (LSB) satellite galaxies around the Local Volume massive spirals using long exposures with small amateur telescopes. We identified 27 low and very low surface brightness objects around the galaxies NGC,672, 891, 1156, 2683, 3344, 4258, 4618, 4631, and 5457 situated within 10 Mpc from us, and found nothing new around NGC,2903, 3239, 4214, and 5585. Assuming that the dwarf candidates are the satellites of the neighboring luminous galaxies, their absolute magnitudes are in the range of -8.6 > M_B > -13.3, their effective diameters are 0.4-4.7 kpc, and the average surface brightness is 26.1 mag/sq arcsec. The mean linear projected separation of the satellite candidates from the host galaxies is 73 kpc. Our spectroscopic observations of two LSB dwarfs with the Russian 6-meter telescope confirm their physical connection to the host galaxies NGC,891 and NGC,2683.

  10. New low surface brightness dwarf galaxies detected around nearby spirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Riepe, P.; Zilch, T.; Blauensteiner, M.; Elvov, M.; Hochleitner, P.; Hubl, B.; Kerschhuber, G.; Küppers, S.; Neyer, F.; Pölzl, R.; Remmel, P.; Schneider, O.; Sparenberg, R.; Trulson, U.; Willems, G.; Ziegler, H.

    2015-10-01

    We conduct a survey of low surface brightness (LSB) satellite galaxies around the Local Volume massive spirals using long exposures with small amateur telescopes. We identified 27 low and very low surface brightness objects around the galaxies NGC672, 891, 1156, 2683, 3344, 4258, 4618, 4631, and 5457 situated within 10 Mpc from us, and found nothing new around NGC2903, 3239, 4214, and 5585. Assuming that the dwarf candidates are the satellites of the neighboring luminous galaxies, their absolute magnitudes are in the range of -8.6 > M B > -13.3, their effective diameters are 0.4-4.7 kpc, and the average surface brightness is 26ṃ1/□″. The mean linear projected separation of the satellite candidates from the host galaxies is 73 kpc. Our spectroscopic observations of two LSB dwarfs with the Russian 6-meter telescope confirm their physical connection to the host galaxies NGC891 and NGC2683.

  11. Automated Detection and Tracking of Solar Magnetic Bright Points

    CERN Document Server

    Crockett, P J; Mathioudakis, M; Keenan, F P

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic Bright Points (MBPs) in the internetwork are among the smallest objects in the solar photosphere and appear bright against the ambient environment. An algorithm is presented that can be used for the automated detection of the MBPs in the spatial and temporal domains. The algorithm works by mapping the lanes through intensity thresholding. A compass search, combined with a study of the intensity gradient across the detected objects, allows the disentanglement of MBPs from bright pixels within the granules. Object growing is implemented to account for any pixels that might have been removed when mapping the lanes. The images are stabilized by locating long-lived objects that may have been missed due to variable light levels and seeing quality. Tests of the algorithm employing data taken with the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST), reveal that ~90% of MBPs within a 75"x 75" field of view are detected.

  12. RF Manipulations for Higher Brightness LHC-Type Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H; Gilardoni, S; Hancock, S

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the transverse brightness of beams for the LHC, ever more complicated RF manipulations have been proposed in the PS machine to reduce the intensity demands per PS batch on the upstream PS Booster. Several schemes based on cascades of batch compression, bunch merging, as well as the more routine bunch splitting have been successfully commissioned and higher brightness beams have been delivered to the downstream accelerators for measurement. Despite all this complexity, longitudinal and transverse beam quality are well preserved. In addition, to profit fully from the brightness of all four PS Booster rings, the injection of twice 4 bunches into harmonic 9 buckets in the PS has been made operational as an alternative to the usual double-batch transfer of 4 + 2 bunches into harmonic 7. This paper summarizes the new beam production schemes, their implementation in the PS low-level RF system and the experimental results..

  13. Dark-bright ring solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockhofe, J; Schmelcher, P [Zentrum fuer Optische Quantentechnologien, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Kevrekidis, P G [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst MA 01003-4515 (United States); Frantzeskakis, D J, E-mail: jstockho@physnet.uni-hamburg.de, E-mail: kevrekid@math.umass.edu [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 157 84 (Greece)

    2011-10-14

    We study dark-bright (DB) ring solitons in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. In the limit of large densities of the dark component, we describe the soliton dynamics by means of an equation of motion for the ring radius. The presence of the bright, 'filling' species is demonstrated to have a stabilizing effect on the ring dark soliton. Near the linear limit, we discuss the symmetry-breaking bifurcations of DB soliton stripes and vortex-bright soliton clusters from the DB ring and relate the stabilizing effect of filling to changes in the bifurcation diagram. Finally, we show that the stabilization by means of a second component is not limited to the radially symmetric structures, but can also be observed in a cross-like DB soliton configuration. (fast track communication)

  14. Bright Stuff on Ceres = Sulfates and Carbonates on CI Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Fries, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of the DAWN spacecraft's observations of the surface of Ceres indicate that there are bright areas, which can be explained by large amounts of the Mg sulfate hexahydrate (MgSO4•6(H2O)), although the identification appears tenuous. There are preliminary indications that water is being evolved from these bright areas, and some have inferred that these might be sites of contemporary hydro-volcanism. A heat source for such modern activity is not obvious, given the small size of Ceres, lack of any tidal forces from nearby giant planets, probable age and presumed bulk composition. We contend that observations of chondritic materials in the lab shed light on the nature of the bright spots on Ceres

  15. Exploring the Multi-Wavelength, Low Surface Brightness Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, R J; Gal, R R; Mahabal, A A; Odewahn, S C

    2000-01-01

    Our current understanding of the low surface brightness universe is quite incomplete, not only in the optical, but also in other wavelength regimes. As a demonstration of the type of science which is facilitated by a virtual observatory, we have undertaken a project utilizing both images and catalogs to explore the multi-wavelength, low surface brightness universe. Here, we present some initial results of this project. Our techniques are complimentary to normal data reduction pipeline techniques in that we focus on the diffuse emission that is ignored or removed by more traditional algorithms. This requires a spatial filtering which must account for objects of interest, in addition to observational artifacts (e.g., bright stellar halos). With this work we are exploring the intersection of the catalog and image domains in order to maximize the scientific information we can extract from the federation of large survey data.

  16. The Influenza NS1 Protein: What Do We Know in Equine Influenza Virus Pathogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Barba

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus remains a serious health and potential economic problem throughout most parts of the world, despite intensive vaccination programs in some horse populations. The influenza non-structural protein 1 (NS1 has multiple functions involved in the regulation of several cellular and viral processes during influenza infection. We review the strategies that NS1 uses to facilitate virus replication and inhibit antiviral responses in the host, including sequestering of double-stranded RNA, direct modulation of protein kinase R activity and inhibition of transcription and translation of host antiviral response genes such as type I interferon. Details are provided regarding what it is known about NS1 in equine influenza, especially concerning C-terminal truncation. Further research is needed to determine the role of NS1 in equine influenza infection, which will help to understand the pathophysiology of complicated cases related to cytokine imbalance and secondary bacterial infection, and to investigate new therapeutic and vaccination strategies.

  17. Performance of TCP-Throughput on NS2 by Using Different Simulation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Neeraj Bhargava , Dr. Ritu Bhargava, Anchal Kumawat , Bharat Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ns2 is a discrete event simulator for networkingresearch, which works at the packet level. Here, wewill be using ns2 to simulate traffic congestion ofTCP and UDP packets inside a network. ns2 ispopularly used in the simulation of routing andmulticast protocols and is heavily used in ad-hocnetworking research. ns2 supports networkprotocols (TCP, UDP, HTTP, Routing algorithms,MAC etc. for offering simulation results for wiredand wireless networks. When using TCP to transferdata the two most important factors are the TCPwindow size and the round trip latency. This paperdeals the effect that the size of the flow controlwindow has on the throughput of a TCP connectionby using simulation parameters like-packet delay(sec, bandwidth, file-size (bytes and to implementnetwork fed with TCP traffic and backgroundtraffic. The objective of this paper is to observe theperformance of TCP

  18. Differential effects of the transient outward K(+) current activator NS5806 in the canine left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calloe, Kirstine; Soltysinska, Ewa; Jespersen, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    -clamp techniques. NS5806 activation of K(v)4.3 current was also studied in CHO-K1 cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes. In CHO-K1 cells co-transfected with K(v)4.3 and KChIP2, NS5806 (10 microM) caused a 35% increase in current amplitude and a marked slowing of current decay with tau increasing from 7.0+/-0.4 to 10...... in Epi and Mid cells. The KChIP2 gradient was confirmed at the protein level by Western blot. Our results suggest that NS5806 augments I(to) by increasing current density and slowing decay and that both depend on the presence of KChIP2. I(to) and its augmentation by NS5806 are greatest in Epi and Mid...

  19. Detection of dengue NS1 antigen using long-range surface plasmon waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wei Ru; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd; Berini, Pierre

    2016-04-15

    The non-structural 1 (NS1) protein of the dengue virus circulates in infected patients' blood samples and can be used for early diagnosis of dengue infection. In this paper, we present the detection of naturally-occurring dengue NS1 antigen in infected patient blood plasma using straight long-range surface plasmon waveguides. Three commercially-available anti-NS1 monoclonal antibodies were used for recognition and their performance was compared and discussed. A similar figure of merit to the one used in conventional dengue NS1 capture using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to our results. In general, the positive patient samples can be clearly differentiated from the negative ones and the results agree with those obtained using ELISA. The largest signal-to-noise ratio observed during the experiments was 356 and the best detection limit observed is estimated as 5.73 pg/mm(2).

  20. The NS3 protein of rice hoja blanca virus suppresses RNA silencing in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Esther; Hemmes, Hans; Goldbach, Rob; Prins, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    The NS3 protein of the tenuivirus rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV) has previously been shown to represent the viral RNA interference (RNAi) suppressor and is active in both plant and insect cells by binding short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in vitro. Using a firefly luciferase-based silencing assay it is described here that NS3 is also active in mammalian cells. This activity is independent of the inducer molecule used. Using either synthetic siRNAs or a short hairpin RNA construct, NS3 was able to significantly suppress the RNAi-mediated silencing of luciferase expression in both monkey (Vero) and human (HEK293) cells. These results support the proposed mode of action of NS3 to act by sequestering siRNAs, the key molecules of the RNAi pathway conserved in all eukaryotes. The possible applications of this protein in modulating RNAi and investigating the proposed antiviral RNAi response in mammalian cell systems are discussed. PMID:18089758

  1. Detection of dengue NS1 antigen using long-range surface plasmon waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wei Ru; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd; Berini, Pierre

    2016-04-15

    The non-structural 1 (NS1) protein of the dengue virus circulates in infected patients' blood samples and can be used for early diagnosis of dengue infection. In this paper, we present the detection of naturally-occurring dengue NS1 antigen in infected patient blood plasma using straight long-range surface plasmon waveguides. Three commercially-available anti-NS1 monoclonal antibodies were used for recognition and their performance was compared and discussed. A similar figure of merit to the one used in conventional dengue NS1 capture using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to our results. In general, the positive patient samples can be clearly differentiated from the negative ones and the results agree with those obtained using ELISA. The largest signal-to-noise ratio observed during the experiments was 356 and the best detection limit observed is estimated as 5.73 pg/mm(2). PMID:26599483

  2. The Influenza NS1 Protein: What Do We Know in Equine Influenza Virus Pathogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Marta; Daly, Janet M

    2016-01-01

    Equine influenza virus remains a serious health and potential economic problem throughout most parts of the world, despite intensive vaccination programs in some horse populations. The influenza non-structural protein 1 (NS1) has multiple functions involved in the regulation of several cellular and viral processes during influenza infection. We review the strategies that NS1 uses to facilitate virus replication and inhibit antiviral responses in the host, including sequestering of double-stranded RNA, direct modulation of protein kinase R activity and inhibition of transcription and translation of host antiviral response genes such as type I interferon. Details are provided regarding what it is known about NS1 in equine influenza, especially concerning C-terminal truncation. Further research is needed to determine the role of NS1 in equine influenza infection, which will help to understand the pathophysiology of complicated cases related to cytokine imbalance and secondary bacterial infection, and to investigate new therapeutic and vaccination strategies. PMID:27589809

  3. [Characterization of a panel of monoclonal antibodies to hepatitis C NS3 recombinant protein ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmedzhidova, A G; Masalova, O V; Atanadze, S N; Ulanova, T I; Burkov, A N; Khudiakov, Iu E; Fields, H; Kushch, A A

    2002-01-01

    Recombinant protein rNS3 imitating helicase region (1356-1459 amino acid residues) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was expressed in E. coli cells and used for BALB/c mice immunization. Seven hybrydoma clones producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to rHS3 were obtained. All MAbs reacted in ELISA with NS3 protein from Murex anti-HCV Version III and in immunoblotting from RIBA 3. These MAbs detect 5 individual epitopes, 4 of which were conformational and 1 discontinuous. All MAbs could compete for rNS3 binding with serum antibodies from patients with chronic hepatitis C, which suggests that these MAbs can recognize the natural HCV NS3 protein.

  4. BK channel activation by NS11021 decreases excitability and contractility of urinary bladder smooth muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Layne, Jeffrey J; Nausch, Bernhard; Olesen, Søren-Peter;

    2009-01-01

    activation of BK channels has the converse effect of reducing UBSM excitability and contractility. Here, we have sought to investigate this possibility by using the novel BK channel opener NS11021. NS11021 (3 microM) caused an approximately threefold increase in both single BK channel open probability (P......Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels play an important role in regulating the function and activity of urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM), and the loss of BK channel function has been shown to increase UBSM excitability and contractility. However, it is not known whether......(o)) and whole cell BK channel currents. The frequency of spontaneous action potentials in UBSM strips was reduced by NS11021 from a control value of 20.9 + or - 5.9 to 10.9 + or - 3.7 per minute. NS11021 also reduced the force of UBSM spontaneous phasic contractions by approximately 50%, and this force...

  5. Researchers develop CCD image sensor with 20ns per row parallel readout time

    CERN Multimedia

    Bush, S

    2004-01-01

    "Scientists at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in Oxfordshire have developed what they claim is the fastest CCD (charge-coupled device) image sensor, with a readout time which is 20ns per row" (1/2 page)

  6. Aircraft Scanners = NASA Digital Aerial Scanners (TMS, TIMS, NS001): Pre 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Aircraft Scanners data set contains digital imagery acquired from several multispectral scanners including NS-001 Mutispectral scanner, Daedalus thematic mapper...

  7. The possible origin of facular brightness in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostik, R.; Khomenko, E.

    2016-05-01

    This paper studies the dependence of the Ca ii H line core brightness on the strength and inclination of the photospheric magnetic field, and on the parameters of convective and wave motions in a facular region at the center of the solar disc. We use three simultaneous data sets that were obtained at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife): (1) spectra of Ba ii 4554 Å line, registered with the instrument TESOS to measure the variations of intensity and velocity through the photosphere up to the temperature minimum; (2) spectropolarimetric data in Fe i 1.56 μm lines (registered with the instrument TIP II) to measure photospheric magnetic fields; (3) filtergrams in Ca ii H that give information about brightness fluctuations in the chromosphere. The results show that the Ca ii H brightness in the facula strongly depends on the power of waves with periods in the 5-min range, which propagate upwards, and also on the phase shift between velocity oscillations at the bottom photosphere and around the temperature minimum height that is measured from Ba ii line. The Ca ii H brightness is maximum at locations where the phase shift between temperature and velocity oscillations lies within 0°-100°. There is an indirect influence of convective motions on the Ca ii H brightness. The higher the amplitude of convective velocities is and the greater the height is where they change their direction of motion, the brighter the facula. In summary, our results lead to conclusions that facular regions appear bright not only because of the Wilson depression in magnetic structures, but also owing to real heating.

  8. Bright and dark excitons in semiconductor carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretiak, Sergei [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We report electronic structure calculations of finite-length semiconducting carbon nanotubes using the time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and the time dependent Hartree Fock (TD-HF) approach coupled with semiempirical AM1 and ZINDO Hamiltonians. We specifically focus on the energy splitting, relative ordering, and localization properties of the optically active (bright) and optically forbidden (dark) states from the lowest excitonic band of the nanotubes. These excitonic states are very important in competing radiative and non-radiative processes in these systems. Our analysis of excitonic transition density matrices demonstrates that pure DFT functionals overdelocalize excitons making an electron-hole pair unbound; consequently, excitonic features are not presented in this method. In contrast, the pure HF and A111 calculations overbind excitons inaccurately predicting the lowest energy state as a bright exciton. Changing AM1 with ZINDO Hamiltonian in TD-HF calculations, predicts the bright exciton as the second state after the dark one. However, in contrast to AM1 calculations, the diameter dependence of the excitation energies obtained by ZINDO does not follow the experimental trends. Finally, the TD-DFT approach incorporating hybrid functions with a moderate portion of the long-range HF exchange, such as B3LYP, has the most generality and predictive capacity providing a sufficiently accurate description of excitonic structure in finite-size nanotubes. These methods characterize four important lower exciton bands. The lowest state is dark, the upper band is bright, and the two other dark and nearly degenerate excitons lie in-between. Although the calculated energy splittings between the lowest dark and the bright excitons are relatively large ({approx}0.1 eV), the dense excitonic manifold below the bright exciton allows for fast non-radiative relaxation leasing to the fast population of the lowest dark exciton. This rationalizes the low

  9. Effects of Bright Light Treatment on Psychomotor Speed in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Paavo Tulppo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A recent study suggests that transcranial brain targeted light treatment via ear canals may have physiological effects on brain function studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI techniques in humans. We tested the hypothesis that bright light treatment could improve psychomotor speed in professional ice hockey players. Methods: Psychomotor speed tests with audio and visual warning signals were administered to a Finnish National Ice Hockey League team before and after 24 days of transcranial bright light or sham treatment. The treatments were given during seasonal darkness in the Oulu region (latitude 65 degrees north when the strain on the players was also very high (10 matches during 24 days. A daily 12-min dose of bright light or sham (n = 11 for both treatment was given every morning between 8–12 am at home with a transcranial bright light device. Mean reaction time and motor time were analyzed separately for both psychomotor tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adjusted for age was performed. Results: Time x group interaction for motor time with a visual warning signal was p = 0.024 after adjustment for age. In Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, motor time with a visual warning signal decreased in the bright light treatment group from 127 ± 43 to 94 ± 26 ms (p = 0.024 but did not change significantly in the sham group 121 ± 23 vs. 110 ± 32 ms (p = 0.308. Reaction time with a visual signal did not change in either group. Reaction or motor time with an audio warning signal did not change in either the treatment or sham group. Conclusion: Psychomotor speed, particularly motor time with a visual warning signal, improves after transcranial bright light treatment in professional ice-hockey players during the competition season in the dark time of the year.

  10. NS1-based tests with diagnostic utility for confirming dengue infection: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Zhang; Wei Li; Junjie Wang; Hongjuan Peng; Xiaoyan Che; Xiaoguang Chen; Yuanping Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Non-structural protein 1 (NS1)-based tests may offer a larger window of opportunity for dengue diagnosis and could constitute a very useful diagnostic tool. The aim of this study was to establish the overall accuracy of NS1-based tests for diagnosing dengue infection. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted including 18 studies published up to October 1, 2012 identified using PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) dat...

  11. Cumulative Noise and 5.9 GHz DSRC Extensions for ns-2.28

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt-Eisenlohr, Felix; Torrent-Moreno, Marc; Tielert, Tessa; Mittag, Jens; Hartenstein, Hannes

    2006-01-01

    The network simulator ns-2 is a widely used tool in the field of wired and wireless communications research. Although the ns-2 implementation is in constant evolution, it fails, for obvious reasons, to reflect all aspects related to the newest communication technologies. One example of such technology is 5.9GHz Direct Short Range Communications (DSRC) for vehicular environments, which is currently attracting attention due to its promises to reduce the amount of road fa...

  12. New binding site conformations of the dengue virus NS3 protease accessed by molecular dynamics simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo de Almeida

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is caused by four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (DENV1-4, and is estimated to affect over 500 million people every year. Presently, there are no vaccines or antiviral treatments for this disease. Among the possible targets to fight dengue fever is the viral NS3 protease (NS3PRO, which is in part responsible for viral processing and replication. It is now widely recognized that virtual screening campaigns should consider the flexibility of target protein by using multiple active conformational states. The flexibility of the DENV NS3PRO could explain the relatively low success of previous virtual screening studies. In this first work, we explore the DENV NS3PRO conformational states obtained from molecular dynamics (MD simulations to take into account protease flexibility during the virtual screening/docking process. To do so, we built a full NS3PRO model by multiple template homology modeling. The model comprised the NS2B cofactor (essential to the NS3PRO activation, a glycine flexible link and the proteolytic domain. MD simulations had the purpose to sample, as closely as possible, the ligand binding site conformational landscape prior to inhibitor binding. The obtained conformational MD sample was clustered into four families that, together with principal component analysis of the trajectory, demonstrated protein flexibility. These results allowed the description of multiple binding modes for the Bz-Nle-Lys-Arg-Arg-H inhibitor, as verified by binding plots and pair interaction analysis. This study allowed us to tackle protein flexibility in our virtual screening campaign against the dengue virus NS3 protease.

  13. Conclusions and future directions for the REiNS International Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Widemann, Brigitte C.; Blakeley, Jaishri O.; Dombi, Eva; Fisher, Michael J.; Hanemann, Clemens O.; Walsh, Karin S.; Wolters, Pamela L.; Plotkin, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    The Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis (REiNS) International Collaboration was established with the goal to develop consensus recommendations for the use of endpoints in neurofibromatosis (NF) clinical trials. This supplement includes the first series of REiNS recommendations for the use of patient-reported, functional, and visual outcomes, and for the evaluation of imaging response in NF clinical trials. Recommendations for neurocognitive outcome measures, the use o...

  14. Dengue NS1 antigen detection: A useful tool in early diagnosis of dengue virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datta S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of NS1 antigen (Ag assay as an early marker for dengue virus (DV infection. Materials and Methods: Group I evaluated the performance of NS1 antigen (Ag assay in comparison to MAC-ELISA and their detection rate when performed together in a single sample. Six hundred acute/early convalescent sera were screened by both the assays. Group II evaluated the efficacy of a single assay in 30 acute phase sera of paediatric OPD patients screened only by NS1 Ag assay. Group III evaluated the specificity of NS1 assay in comparison to MAC-ELISA on 40 samples included as controls. Results: In Group I, 140 (23.3% and 235 (39.1% samples were positive by NS1 assay and MAC-ELISA respectively. The detection rate increased to 320 (53.3% when both the assays were used together on a single sample. NS1 Ag positivity varied from 71.42% to 28.4% in acute and early convalescent sera, conversely IgM detection rate was 93.61% and 6.38% in early convalescent and acute phase sera respectively (P < 0.0001. In Group II, 66.66% (20 samples were positive by NS1 assay. All the samples in Group III were negative showing 100% specificity of both the assays. Conclusion: NS1 Ag assay holds promise in early diagnosis of dengue infection. When used in combination with MAC-ELISA on a single sample it significantly improves the diagnostic algorithm without the requirement of paired sera.

  15. Extended surface for membrane association in Zika virus NS1 structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W Clay; Akey, David L; Konwerski, Jamie R; Tarrasch, Jeffrey T; Skiniotis, Georgios; Kuhn, Richard J; Smith, Janet L

    2016-09-01

    The Zika virus, which has been implicated in an increase in neonatal microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome, has spread rapidly through tropical regions of the world. The virulence protein NS1 functions in genome replication and host immune-system modulation. Here, we report the crystal structure of full-length Zika virus NS1, revealing an elongated hydrophobic surface for membrane association and a polar surface that varies substantially among flaviviruses. PMID:27455458

  16. Site-specific phosphorylation regulates the transcriptive activity of vesicular stomatitis virus NS protein.

    OpenAIRE

    C. H. Hsu; Morgan, E M; Kingsbury, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    In vitro transcription by vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsids is inhibited by enzymatic dephosphorylation of the NS protein. We provide evidence that specific, partial dephosphorylation of NS molecules is the only detectable change in nucleocapsids treated with bacterial alkaline phosphatase under conditions that prevent the action of adventitious protease. Dephosphorylation appeared to affect only the rate of transcription; there were no changes in sedimentation rates of transcripts. To...

  17. Genome-wide analysis of the rice and arabidopsis non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLtp) gene families and identification of wheat nsLtp genes by EST data mining

    OpenAIRE

    Chantret Nathalie; Boutrot Freddy; Gautier Marie-Françoise

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are encoded by multigene families and possess physiological functions that remain unclear. Our objective was to characterize the complete nsLtp gene family in rice and arabidopsis and to perform wheat EST database mining for nsLtp gene discovery. Results In this study, we carried out a genome-wide analysis of nsLtp gene families in Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana and identified 52 rice nsLtp genes and 49 arabidopsis...

  18. Do low surface brightness galaxies have dense disks?

    CERN Document Server

    Saburova, A S

    2010-01-01

    The disk masses of four low surface brightness galaxies (LSB) were estimated using marginal gravitational stability criterion and the stellar velocity dispersion data which were taken from Pizzella et al., 2008 [1]. The constructed mass models appear to be close to the models of maximal disk. The results show that the disks of LSB galaxies may be significantly more massive than it is usually accepted from their brightnesses. In this case their surface densities and masses appear to be rather typical for normal spirals. Otherwise, unlike the disks of many spiral galaxies, the LSB disks are dynamically overheated.

  19. Absolute brightness temperature measurements at 2.1-mm wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulich, B. L.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute measurements of the brightness temperatures of the Sun, new Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, and of the flux density of DR21 at 2.1-mm wavelength are reported. Relative measurements at 3.5-mm wavelength are also preented which resolve the absolute calibration discrepancy between The University of Texas 16-ft radio telescope and the Aerospace Corporation 15-ft antenna. The use of the bright planets and DR21 as absolute calibration sources at millimeter wavelengths is discussed in the light of recent observations.

  20. The brightness variations of Comet Halley at large heliocentric distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, K. R.; Jackson, B.; Houpis, H. L. F.; Mendis, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The reasons for the intrinsic brightness variations of up to 500 percent on time scales as short as a few hours detected by Sekanina (1984) in Comet Halley between October 1982 and February 1984 are discussed. It is shown that solar wind-modulated electrostatic dust blowoff from the night side of the comet is consistent with the observed brightness variations. The variations coincide with the encounter of high-speed streams with the comet. The stream's propagation time to the comet and the sun's rotation during this transit were used to locate the stream origin on the coronal surface, and the results are shown.

  1. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. However we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. In 2014, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  2. High-brightness displays in integrated weapon sight systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tim; Hogan, Tim

    2014-06-01

    In the past several years Kopin has demonstrated the ability to provide ultra-high brightness, low power display solutions in VGA, SVGA, SXGA and 2k x 2k display formats. This paper will review various approaches for integrating high brightness overlay displays with existing direct view rifle sights and augmenting their precision aiming and targeting capability. Examples of overlay display systems solutions will be presented and discussed. This paper will review significant capability enhancements that are possible when augmenting the real-world as seen through a rifle sight with other soldier system equipment including laser range finders, ballistic computers and sensor systems.

  3. Differential sensitivity of 5'UTR-NS5A recombinants of hepatitis C virus genotypes 1-6 to protease and NS5A inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Humes, Daryl;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy will benefit from the preclinical evaluation of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents in infectious culture systems that test the effects on different virus genotypes. We developed HCV recombinants comprising the 5' untranslated region-NS5A (5-5A)...

  4. A型流感病毒NS1蛋白结构研究进展%Progresses in structure studies of influenza A virus NS1 protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莹莹; 王靖飞

    2010-01-01

    近年来A型流感严重威胁着人类和畜禽的健康,随着研究的深入,人们已经发现A型流感病毒的NS1蛋白对病毒毒力有重要影响,是一个多功能毒力因子、宿主细胞抗病毒免疫抑制子.根据其功能的不同分为效应区和RNA结合域.目前NS1蛋白结构已经解析,使人们可以直观的认识其各个功能位点的作用机制.该文综述了NS1蛋白的结构特征、已知的功能位点及其功能,为在结构水平上研究NS1蛋白的功能提供参考.

  5. Study progress of NS1 protein of influenza A virus%A型流感病毒NS1蛋白研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建丽; 张万坡; 毕丁仁

    2007-01-01

    NS1蛋白是A型流感病毒的唯一的非结构蛋白,是一种RNA结合蛋白,具有重要的调节活性.NS1蛋白仅存在于病毒感染的细胞内,且在感染的早期,大量存在于细胞核中,而在感染的晚期,也可出现于细胞浆中.NS1蛋白具有RNA结合区和效应区,在抑制宿主细胞蛋白质的合成、诱导细胞凋亡和拮抗干扰素α/β的产生等方面具有重要的作用.另外,NS1蛋白在野毒感染的鉴别诊断、外源基因的载体及抗病毒药物的设计等方面,均显示了良好的应用价值.

  6. An updated evolutionary study of Flaviviridae NS3 helicase and NS5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase reveals novel invariable motifs as potential pharmacological targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Louis; Loukatou, Styliani; Sofia, Kossida; Maroulis, Dimitrios; Vlachakis, Dimitrios

    2016-06-21

    The rate of Flaviviridae family virus infections worldwide has increased dramatically in the last few years. In addition, infections caused by arthropod vector viruses including Hepatitis C, West Nile, Dengue fever, Yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis are emerging throughout the world. Based on a recent taxon update, the Flaviviridae family comprises four main genera; Flavivirus, Hepacivirus, Pestivirus and a recent genus Pegivirus. Although the new scientific classification plays a key role in providing useful information about the relationships between viruses, many new documented viruses remain unclassified. Furthermore, based on the different results of several studies the classification is unclear. In an effort to provide more insights into the classification of viruses, a holistic evolutionary study of the two viral enzymes NS3 helicase and NS5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) has been conducted in this study. These two viral enzymes are very crucial for the inhibition of viruses due to the fact that they are involved in the survival, proliferation and transmission of viruses. The main goal of this study is the presentation of two novel updated phylogenetic trees of the enzymes NS3 helicase and NS5 RdRp as a reliable phylogeny "map" to correlate the information of the closely related viruses and identify new possible targets for the Flaviviridae family virus inhibition. Despite the earliest trials for drugs against Flaviviridae related viruses, no antiviral drug vaccine has been available to date. Therefore there is an urgent need for research towards the development of efficient antiviral agents. PMID:26864387

  7. LHC experience with different bunch spacings in 2011 (25 , 50 & 75 ns)

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G; Domìnguez, O; Arduini, G; Bartosik, H; Claudet, S; Esteban-Müller, J; Roncarolo, F; Shaposhnikova, E; Tavian, L

    2012-01-01

    LHC operation in 2011 had a smooth start in March with 75ns beams and only one month later moved to 50ns beam, after a successful dedicated scrubbing run. Several observables, such as pressure rise, heat load in the arcs, beam instability, emittance growth and synchronous phase shift, clearly pointed to the presence of an electron cloud inside the machine during the first days of operation with 50ns beams. The gradual reduction of all these effects, and their eventual disappearance, over the days of the scrubbing run, indicated electron cloud mitigation and allowed physics production to shift to 50ns beams. Up to the end of the run the quality of the 50ns beams was increased by regular stages (first lower transverse emittances, then higher intensities) and they could provide steadily improving peak luminosities. Furthermore, five MD sessions with 25ns beams took place in the period June-October, but the quality of these beams was always deteriorated by severe electron cloud effects. However, a clear improveme...

  8. Influenza C virus NS1 protein counteracts RIG-I-mediated IFN signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasak Reinhard

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The nonstructural proteins 1 (NS1 from influenza A and B viruses are known as the main viral factors antagonising the cellular interferon (IFN response, inter alia by inhibiting the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I signalling. The cytosolic pattern-recognition receptor RIG-I senses double-stranded RNA and 5'-triphosphate RNA produced during RNA virus infections. Binding to these ligands activates RIG-I and in turn the IFN signalling. We now report that the influenza C virus NS1 protein also inhibits the RIG-I-mediated IFN signalling. Employing luciferase-reporter assays, we show that expression of NS1-C proteins of virus strains C/JJ/50 and C/JHB/1/66 considerably reduced the IFN-β promoter activity. Mapping of the regions from NS1-C of both strains involved in IFN-β promoter inhibition showed that the N-terminal 49 amino acids are dispensable, while the C-terminus is required for proper modulation of the IFN response. When a mutant RIG-I, which is constitutively active without ligand binding, was employed, NS1-C still inhibited the downstream signalling, indicating that IFN inhibitory properties of NS1-C are not necessarily linked to an RNA binding mechanism.

  9. Interleukin-12 as a Genetic Adjuvant Enhances Hepatitis C Virus NS3 DNA Vaccine Immunogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malihe Naderi; Atefeh Saeedi; Abdolvahab Moradi; Mishar Kleshadi; Mohammad Reza Zolfaghari; Ali Gorji; Amir Ghaemi

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection is a worldwide health problem,and numerous efforts have been invested to develop novel vaccines.An efficient vaccine requires broad immune response induction against viral proteins.To achieve this goal,we constructed a DNA vaccine expressing nonstructural 3 (NS3) gene (pcDNA3.1-HCV-NS3) and assessed the immune response in C57BL/6 mice.In this study,the NS3 gene was amplified with a nested-reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method using sera of HCV-infected patients with genotype 1 a.The resulting NS3 gene was subcloned into a pcDNA3.1 eukaryotic expression vector,and gene expression was detected by western blot.The resultant DNA vaccine was co-administered with interleukin-12 (IL-12) as an adjuvant to female C57BL/6 mice.After the final immunizations,lymphocyte proliferation,cytotoxicity,and cytokine levels were assessed to measure immune responses.Our data suggest that co-administration of HCV NS3 DNA vaccine with IL-12 induces production of significant levels of both IL-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ (p<0.05).Cytotoxicity and lymphocyte proliferation responses of vaccinated mice were significantly increased compared to control (p<0.05).Collectively,our results demonstrated that co-administration of HCV NS3 and IL-12 displayed strong immunogenicity in a murine model.

  10. NS3 Protease from Hepatitis C Virus: Biophysical Studies on an Intrinsically Disordered Protein Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Velazquez-Campoy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The nonstructural protein 3 (NS3 from the hepatitis C virus (HCV is responsible for processing the non-structural region of the viral precursor polyprotein in infected hepatic cells. NS3 protease activity, located at the N-terminal domain, is a zinc-dependent serine protease. A zinc ion, required for the hydrolytic activity, has been considered as a structural metal ion essential for the structural integrity of the protein. In addition, NS3 interacts with another cofactor, NS4A, an accessory viral protein that induces a conformational change enhancing the hydrolytic activity. Biophysical studies on the isolated protease domain, whose behavior is similar to that of the full-length protein (e.g., catalytic activity, allosteric mechanism and susceptibility to inhibitors, suggest that a considerable global conformational change in the protein is coupled to zinc binding. Zinc binding to NS3 protease can be considered as a folding event, an extreme case of induced-fit binding. Therefore, NS3 protease is an intrinsically (partially disordered protein with a complex conformational landscape due to its inherent plasticity and to the interaction with its different effectors. Here we summarize the results from a detailed biophysical characterization of this enzyme and present new experimental data.

  11. Nonstructural protein 1 characteristic peak from NS1-saliva mixture with Surface-Enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzol, A R M; Lee, Khuan Y; Mansor, W

    2013-01-01

    Surface Enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an enhanced technique of Raman spectroscopy, which amplifies the intensity of Raman scattering to a practical range with adsorption of analyte onto nano-size plasmonic material such as gold, silver or copper. This feature of SERS has given it a niche in tracing molecular structure, especially useful for marking diseases specific biomarker. NS1 protein has been clinically accepted as an alternative biomarker for diseases caused by flavivirus. Detection of Nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1) will allow early diagnosis of the diseases. Its presence in the blood serum has been reported as early as first day of infection. With gold substrate, our work here intends to explore if SERS is suitable to detect NS1 from saliva, with saliva becoming the most favored alternative to blood as diagnostic fluid due to its advantages in sample collection. Our experimental results find both gold coated slide (GS) and saliva being Raman inactive, but the molecular fingerprint of NS1 protein at Raman shift 1012 cm(-1), which has never been reported before. The distinct peak is discovered to be attributed by breathing vibration of the benzene ring structure of NS1 side chain molecule. The characteristic peak is also found to vary in direct proportion to concentration of the NS1-saliva mixture, with a correlation coefficient of +0.96118 and a standard error estimation of 0.11382.

  12. Electrochemical lateral flow immunosensor for detection and quantification of dengue NS1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinawang, Prima Dewi; Rai, Varun; Ionescu, Rodica E; Marks, Robert S

    2016-03-15

    An Electrochemical Lateral Flow Immunosensor (ELFI) is developed combining screen-printed gold electrodes (SPGE) enabling quantification together with the convenience of a lateral flow test strip. A cellulose glassy fiber paper conjugate pad retains the marker immunoelectroactive nanobeads which will bind to the target analyte of interest. The specific immunorecognition event continues to occur along the lateral flow bed until reaching the SPGE-capture antibodies at the end of the cellulosic lateral flow strip. The rationale of the immunoassay consists in the analyte antigen NS1 protein being captured selectively and specifically by the dengue NS1 antibody conjugated onto the immunonanobeads thus forming an immunocomplex. With the aid of a running buffer, the immunocomplexes flow and reach the immuno-conjugated electrode surface and form specific sandwich-type detection due to specific, molecular recognition, while unbound beads move along past the electrodes. The successful sandwich immunocomplex formation is then recorded electrochemically. Specific detection of NS1 is translated into an electrochemical signal contributed by a redox label present on the bead-immobilized detection dengue NS1 antibody while a proportional increase of faradic current is observed with increase in analyte NS1 protein concentration. The first generation ELFI prototype is simply assembled in a cassette and successfully demonstrates wide linear range over a concentration range of 1-25 ng/mL with an ultrasensitive detection limit of 0.5 ng/mL for the qualitative and quantitative detection of analyte dengue NS1 protein. PMID:26433352

  13. Characterization of the magnetization reversal of perpendicular Nanomagnetic Logic clocked in the ns-range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazvydas Ziemys

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the magnetization reversal of fabricated Co/Pt nanomagnets with perpendicular anisotropy within a wide range of magnetic field pulse widths. This experiment covers the pulse lengths from 700 ms to 20 ns. We observed that the commonly used Arrhenius model fits very well the experimental data with a single parameter set for pulse times above 100 ns (tp > 100 ns. However, below 100 ns (tp < 100 ns, a steep increase of the switching field amplitude is observed and the deviation from the Arrhenius model becomes unacceptable. For short pulse times the model can be adjusted by the reversal time term for the dynamic switching field which is only dependent on the pulse amplitude and not on temperature anymore. Precise modeling of the magnetization reversal in the sub-100 ns-range is crucially important to ensure reliable operation in the favored GHz-range as well as to explore and design new kinds of Nanomagnetic Logic circuits and architectures.

  14. Mutation Breeding of Penicillium Glaucum NS3 Yan Shufang et al.%灰绿青霉Penicillium glaucum NS3的诱变育种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜淑芳; 郭敏; 韩诚; 许秋香; 龙秀; 何丽

    2011-01-01

    After fermetation conditions optimising of the Penicillium glaucum NS3, a several of synergistic mutation have been carry out for increasing its cellulase - producing capacity. A higher cellulase - producing strain named NS3cl had been gotten, which was breeded through inducing mutation treatmentt of ultraviolet light and sodium nitrite. The optimal dosage of mutant by UV and sodium nitrite was 9 minutes with 15W UV light in 30em distance and 0.3% concentration. Under the repeated synergistic mutations, the CMCase and FPAase produced by mutant Penicillium glaucum NS3cl reached 400.07 IU/ mL and 9.47 IU/mL, which increased 29.47% and 28.35% than that of the original activities 309 IU/mL and 7.37 IU/mL.%以发酵条件优化的菌株Penicilliumglaucum NS3为出发菌,采用紫外线、亚硝酸钠复合诱变,在UV(15W、距30cm辐照9min)、0.3%亚硝酸钠协同诱变条件下,经多轮反复诱变,得到茵株Penicillium glaucum NS3e1,其发酵液CMC酶活和滤纸酶活分别达到400.07IU/mL和9.47IU/mL,比出发茵酶活309Iu/mL和7.37IU/mL分别提高29.47%和28.35%。

  15. LMXBs may be important LIGO sources after all

    OpenAIRE

    Heyl, Jeremy

    2002-01-01

    Andersson et al. and Bildsten proposed that the spin of accreting neutron stars is limited by removal of angular momentum by gravitational radiation which increases dramatically with the spin frequency of the star. Both Bildsten and Andersson et al. argued that the r-modes of the neutron star for sufficiently quickly rotating and hot neutron stars will grow due to the emission of gravitational radiation, thereby accounting for a time varying quadrupole component to the neutron star's mass dis...

  16. Synthesis and characterisation of NS13558: a new important tool for addressing KCa1.1 channel function ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Andersen, Rune Wederkinck; Olesen, Søren-Peter;

    2009-01-01

    derivate of NS11021, i.e., NS13558, did not confer any cardioprotection, demonstrated by an infarct size identical to control hearts. This suggests that NS11021 exerts its primary effect through KCa1.1 channels, which indicates an important role of these channels in protection against ischemia...... human KCa1.1 channels, but maintained comparable biological activity towards other cardiac ion channels as compared to NS11021. In isolated perfused rat hearts subjected to ischemia-reperfusion, infarct size was reduced from 29% in control to 7% in NS11021 treated hearts. In comparison, the inactive...

  17. Stable non-synonymous substitutions on NS gene (NS1 and NS2 proteins) of Qinghai lake H5N1 influenza virus (Clade 2.2) after successive passages in Muscovy ducks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; George; F.

    2009-01-01

    Although worldwide concern has been raised since the large-scale outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild birds at Qinghai Lake,China in 2005,the factors responsible for the ability to kill waterfowl remain unclear. The why and how questions of the H5N1 virus species-jump into its reservoir host need to be answered. In this report we test the pathogenicity and adaptation of Qinghai Lake (Clade 2.2) isolate to Muscovy ducks for further understanding of this virus. The isolate was highly pathogenic in ducks and retained its high pathogenicity even after 20 generations of passage in ducks. During the process of serial passages,only the NS gene developed non-synonymous substitutions,which caused two mutations in NS1 protein (Val23Ala and Leu207Pro) and one in NS2 (Phe55Leu). These mutations persisted immutably through all subsequent passages and the pathogenicity remained high,implying that highly pathogenic H5N1 virus remains stable in aquatic birds through oral transmission. Although the exact functions of these mutations are not known,our results provide an important foundation for further understanding the characteristics of the Qinghai Lake isolates.

  18. Direct binding of ledipasvir to HCV NS5A: mechanism of resistance to an HCV antiviral agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyock Joo Kwon

    Full Text Available Ledipasvir, a direct acting antiviral agent (DAA targeting the Hepatitis C Virus NS5A protein, exhibits picomolar activity in replicon cells. While its mechanism of action is unclear, mutations that confer resistance to ledipasvir in HCV replicon cells are located in NS5A, suggesting that NS5A is the direct target of ledipasvir. To date co-precipitation and cross-linking experiments in replicon or NS5A transfected cells have not conclusively shown a direct, specific interaction between NS5A and ledipasvir. Using recombinant, full length NS5A, we show that ledipasvir binds directly, with high affinity and specificity, to NS5A. Ledipasvir binding to recombinant NS5A is saturable with a dissociation constant in the low nanomolar range. A mutant form of NS5A (Y93H that confers resistance to ledipasvir shows diminished binding to ledipasvir. The current study shows that ledipasvir inhibits NS5A through direct binding and that resistance to ledipasvir is the result of a reduction in binding affinity to NS5A mutants.

  19. Construction of eukaryotic expression plasmid containing HCV NS3 segment and protein expression in human HL-7702 hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Wu Li; Ke Li; Jing Jiang; Xiao-Liang Xu; Ze-Qi Huang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To construct the eukaryotic expression plasmid containing HCV NS3 segment and to analyze the expression of NS3 protein in normal human hepatocyte HL-7702.METHODS: We amplified HCV NS3 fragment from plasmid pBRTM/HCV 1-3011 containing the whole length of HCV genome, recombined it with expression vector pcDNA3.1(-) to form the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(-)/NS3, and transfected human HL-7702hepatocytes with the recombined plasmid by cationic polymers. The expressed HCV NS3 protein was detected and analyzed by immunohistochemical method and Western blot.RESULTS: The amplified NS3 fragments had correct molecule weight and sequence. The successfully constructed eukaryotic expression plasmids were transfected to HL-7702 cells. The expressed NS3 proteins had correct molecular weight 70000.CONCLUSION: Eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(-)/NS3 containing NS3 segment of HCV can be constructed, the sequence of NS3 fragments is consistent with the template. Normal human HL-7702 hepatocytes can efficiently express specific HCV NS3 protein in vitro.

  20. Variations in the Fe mineralogy of bright Martian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, Scott; Mustard, John; Erard, Stephane; Geissler, Paul; Singer, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Bright regions on Mars are interpreted as 'soil' derived by chemical alteration of crustal rocks, whose main pigmentary component is ferric oxide or oxyhydroxide. The mineralogy and mineralogic variability of ferric iron are important evidence for the evolution of Martian soil: mineralogy of ferric phases is sensitive to chemical conditions in their genetic environments, and the spatial distributions of different ferric phases would record a history of both chemical environments and physical mixing. Reflectance spectroscopic studies provide several types of evidence that discriminate possible pigmentary phases, including the position of a crystal field absorption near 0.9 microns and position and strengths of absorptions in the UV-visible wavelength region. Recent telescopic spectra and laboratory measurements of Mars soil analogs suggest that spectral features of bright soil can be explained based on a single pigmentary phase, hematite (alpha-Fe2O3), occurring in both 'nanophase' and more crystalline forms. Here we report on a systematic investigation of Martian bright regions using ISM imaging spectrometer data, in which we examined spatial variations in the position and shape of the approximately 0.9 microns absorption. We found both local and regional heterogeneities that indicate differences in Fe mineralogy. These results demonstrate that bright soils do not represent a single lithology that has been homogenized by eolian mixing, and suggest that weathering of soils in different geologic settings has followed different physical and chemical pathways.

  1. Bright-dark incoherently coupled photovoltaic soliton pair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Chun-Feng; Pei Yan-Bo; Zhou Zhong-Xiang; Sun Xiu-Dong

    2005-01-01

    The coupling between two mutually incoherent optical beams that propagate collinearly in open-circuit photovoltaic photorefractive media is investigated. It is shown that an incoherently coupled bright-dark spatial soliton pair can be formed due to photovoltaic effect. The physical properties of such a soliton pair are also discussed.

  2. Star Formation Rates in Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickering, T. E.; Impey, C. D.; van Gorkom, J.; Bothun, G. D.

    1994-01-01

    The low surface brightness (LSB) disk galaxies found in recent surveys (e.g.,\\ Schombert et al. 1992, AJ, 103, 1107) tend to be blue and gas rich. These properties along with their low mean surface luminosity and H i densities imply an inefficient mode of star formation. The Hα images that we presen

  3. Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) Forward Brightness Temperature Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Peipmeier, Jeffrey; Kim, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The SMAP is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the US National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, Space Studies Board, National Academies Press, 2007) [1]. It is to measure the global soil moisture and freeze/thaw from space. One of the spaceborne instruments is an L-band radiometer with a shared single feedhorn and parabolic mesh reflector. While the radiometer measures the emission over a footprint of interest, unwanted emissions are also received by the antenna through the antenna sidelobes from the cosmic background and other error sources such as the Sun, the Moon and the galaxy. Their effects need to be considered accurately, and the analysis of the overall performance of the radiometer requires end-to-end performance simulation from Earth emission to antenna brightness temperature, such as the global simulation of L-band brightness temperature simulation over land and sea [2]. To assist with the SMAP radiometer level 1B algorithm development, the SMAP forward brightness temperature simulator is developed by adapting the Aquarius simulator [2] with necessary modifications. This poster presents the current status of the SMAP forward brightness simulator s development including incorporating the land microwave emission model and its input datasets, and a simplified atmospheric radiative transfer model. The latest simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the ability of supporting the SMAP L1B algorithm development.

  4. Quadrature measurements of a bright squeezed state via sideband swapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, J.; Glockl, O.; Leuchs, G.;

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of an arbitrary quadrature of a bright quantum state of light is a commonly requested action in many quantum information protocols, but it is experimentally challenging with previously proposed schemes. We suggest that the quadrature be measured at a specific sideband frequency of...

  5. Compact collimators for high brightness blue LEDs using dielectric multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, H.J.; Ma, H.; Ho, C.; Li, M.; Mu, C.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method is presented to inject the light of millimeter-sized high-brightness blue LEDs into light guides of submillimeter thickness. Use is made of an interference filter that is designed to pass only those modes that will propagate in the light guide by total internal reflection. Other modes

  6. Matter wave interference pattern in the collision of bright solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in a quasi one-dimensional regime in a time-dependent trap and show analytically that it is possible to observe matter wave interference patterns in the intra-trap collision of two bright solitons by selectively tuning the trap frequency and scattering length.

  7. Minimum-phase distribution of cosmic source brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimum-phase distributions of brightness (profiles) for cosmic radio sources 3C 144 (the wave lambda=21 cm), 3C 338 (lambda=3.5 m), and 3C 353 (labda=31.3 cm and 3.5 m) are obtained. A real possibility for the profile recovery from module fragments of its Fourier-image is shown

  8. The HI dominated Low Surface Brightness Galaxy KKR17

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Man I; Yang, Ming; Zhou, Zhi-Min; Du, Wei; Zhu, Yi-Nan

    2014-01-01

    We present new narrow-band (H$\\alpha$ and [OIII]) imagings and optical spectrophotometry of HII regions for a gas-rich low surface brightness irregular galaxy, KKR 17. The central surface brightness of the galaxy is $\\mu_0(B)$ = 24.15 $\\pm$0.03 mag~sec$^{-2}$. The galaxy was detected by \\emph{Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey} (ALFALFA), and its mass is dominated by neutral hydrogen (HI) gas. In contrast, both the stellar masses of the bright HII and diffuse stellar regions are small. In addition, the fit to the spectral energy distribution to each region shows the stellar populations of HII and diffuse regions are different. The bright HII region contains a large fraction of O-type stars, revealing the recent strong star formation, whereas the diffuse region is dominated by median age stars, which has a typical age of $\\sim$ 600 Myrs. Using the McGaugh's abundance model, we found that the average metallicity of KKR 17 is 12 + (O/H) = 8.0 $\\pm$ 0.1. The star formation rate of KKR 17 is 0.21$\\pm$0.04 M$_{\\odot}$...

  9. The "Brightness Rules" Alternative Conception for Light Bulb Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Joel A.; Stuessy, Carol

    2006-01-01

    An alternative conception for the observed differences in light bulb brightness was revealed during an unguided inquiry investigation in which prospective elementary teachers placed identical bulbs in series, parallel, and combination direct current circuits. Classroom observations, document analyses, and video and audio transcriptions led to the…

  10. Exploring the Multi-Wavelength, Low Surface Brightness Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, R. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Gal, R. R.; Odewahn, S. C.

    1999-12-01

    Our current understanding of the low surface brightness universe is quite incomplete, not only in the optical, but also in other wavelength regimes. We have, therefore, begun an exploration of the multi-wavelength, low surface brightness universe. This project currently involves data from DPOSS (Digitized Palomar Optical Sky Survey), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey), IRAS (Infrared Astronomical Satellite), and several neutral hydrogen surveys. We present some initial results of this work as well as discuss the implications of this work on future virtual observatories. Our main scientific goals have been the search for low surface brightness galaxies, including local group dwarf spheroidals, and also optical counterparts to high velocity clouds. Our techniques are complimentary to normal data reduction pipeline techniques in that we focus on the diffuse emission that is ignored or removed by more traditional algorithms. This requires, of course, a spatial filtering which must account for objects of interest, in addition to observational artifacts (e.g.,\\ bright stellar halos). Finally, with this work, we are exploring the intersection of the catalog and image domains in order to maximize the scientific information we can extract from the federation of large survey data.

  11. The star-bright hour : [poems] / Betti Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Betti, 1906-1989

    2003-01-01

    Autori lühitutvustus lk. 231. Sisu: The star-bright hour ; The debt ; Not a dream ; Fog-bound ; Corals in an Ancient river ; Frou-frou 1-3. Orig.: Tähetund ; Vilepuhuja ; Võlg ; "Mitte viirastus, meelepett..." ; Udus ; Korallid Emajões ; Froufrou 1-3

  12. The star-bright hour : [luuletused] / Betti Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Betti, 1906-1989

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: The star-bright hour ; Not a dream ; The Piper ; Corals in an ancent river. Luuletused pärinevad kogumikust "Tuulelaeval valgusest on aerud = Windship with Oars of Light. (Tallinn : Huma, 2001). Orig.: Tähetund ; Mitte viirastus, meelepett ; Vilepuhuja ; Korallid Emajões

  13. Enhancing the brightness of high current electron guns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barletta, W.A.; Birx, D.; Boyd, J.K.; Caporaso, G.; Weir, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    Concepts such as the two-beam accelerator offer the possibility of translating pulsed power technology into a form useful to the design of high luminosity accelerators for high-energy physics applications. Realization of the promise of these concepts will require the design of electron guns which are optimized with respect to beam brightness at current levels of approximately 1 kA. Because high luminosity implies accelerator operation at high repetition rates, the high-current beam source must be designed so that the beam does not intercept the electrodes. In our investigations of electron gun configurations, we have found that the brightness of a given source is set by practical design choices such as peak voltage, cathode type, gun electrode geometry, and focusing field topology. To investigate the sensitivity of beam brightness to these factors in a manner suitable for modelling transient phenomena at the beam head, we have developed a Darwin approximation particle code, DPC. The main component in our experimental program is a readily modified electron gun that allows us to test many candidate cathode materials, types, and electrode geometries at field stresses up to 1 MW/cm. We have also developed several diagnostics suitable for measuring the brightness of intense, low-emittance beams.

  14. Bright X-ray galaxies in SDSS filaments

    OpenAIRE

    Tugay, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Eighteen bright X-ray emitting galaxies were found in nearby filaments within SDSS region. Basic X-ray spectral parameters were estimated for these galaxies using power law model with photoelectric absorption. A close pair of X-ray galaxies was found.

  15. Bright infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng

    2013-01-01

    Record-brightness infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots have been achieved through control of the spacing between adjacent quantum-dots. By tuning the size of quantum-dots, the emission wavelengths can be tuned between 900nm and 1650nm. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  16. Association of platelet count and serological markers of dengue infection- importance of NS1 antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R D Kulkarni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dengue is an acute viral infection with potential fatal complications. Specific antibody detection has been the mainstay of diagnosis which is prone for both false positive and false negative reactions. The newer parameter NS1 appears to be highly specific and reliable for diagnosis of dengue infection from the first day of fever. Platelet count is the only accessory test for diagnosis of dengue infection in the peripheral laboratories. Therefore, we tried to evaluate the association of platelet counts against NS1 and IgM/IgG in dengue infections. Materials and Methods: Serum samples from clinically suspected dengue cases were tested for NS1, IgM and IgG by immunochromatography-based test. Platelet counts were obtained for all positive cases and 150 dengue seronegative cases of fever that served as controls. Test results of dengue-specific parameters were compared against platelet counts. The proportions obtained were compared by Standard error of the difference between the proportions (SEP test. Results: Of 2104 samples tested, 320 were positive for one or more dengue parameters. Of the 320, 95 were positive for NS1 only, 161 showed IgM only while 9 showed IgG only. More than one marker was detected in the remaining 55 samples. Thrombocytopenia was more consistently associated whenever NS1 was detected compared to antibody detection (P value <0.001. Conclusions: Inclusion of NS1 in the diagnosis of dengue increases the detection rate significantly. In cases of fever, thrombocytopenia is more consistently found in dengue positive rather than dengue negative subjects. It correlates well when NS1 and IgM are detected simultaneously.

  17. Evaluation of dengue NS1 antigen rapid tests and ELISA kits using clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhamoy Pal

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV infection can improve clinical outcomes by ensuring close follow-up, initiating appropriate supportive therapies and raising awareness to the potential of hemorrhage or shock. Non-structural glycoprotein-1 (NS1 has proven to be a useful biomarker for early diagnosis of dengue. A number of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs targeting NS1 antigen (Ag are now commercially available. Here we evaluated these tests using a well-characterized panel of clinical samples to determine their effectiveness for early diagnosis.Retrospective samples from South America were used to evaluate the following tests: (i "Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP" and (ii "Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag ELISA" (Bio-Rad, France, (iii "Dengue NS1 Detect Rapid Test (1st Generation" and (iv "DENV Detect NS1 ELISA" (InBios International, United States, (v "Panbio Dengue Early Rapid (1st generation" (vi "Panbio Dengue Early ELISA (2nd generation" and (vii "SD Bioline Dengue NS1 Ag Rapid Test" (Alere, United States. Overall, the sensitivity of the RDTs ranged from 71.9%-79.1% while the sensitivity of the ELISAs varied between 85.6-95.9%, using virus isolation as the reference method. Most tests had lower sensitivity for DENV-4 relative to the other three serotypes, were less sensitive in detecting secondary infections, and appeared to be most sensitive on Day 3-4 post symptom onset. The specificity of all evaluated tests ranged from 95%-100%.ELISAs had greater overall sensitivity than RDTs. In conjunction with other parameters, the performance data can help determine which dengue diagnostics should be used during the first few days of illness, when the patients are most likely to present to a clinic seeking care.

  18. Predicting deleterious nsSNPs: an analysis of sequence and structural attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqi Mansoor AS

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an explosion in the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within public databases. In this study we focused on non-synonymous protein coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs, some associated with disease and others which are thought to be neutral. We describe the distribution of both types of nsSNPs using structural and sequence based features and assess the relative value of these attributes as predictors of function using machine learning methods. We also address the common problem of balance within machine learning methods and show the effect of imbalance on nsSNP function prediction. We show that nsSNP function prediction can be significantly improved by 100% undersampling of the majority class. The learnt rules were then applied to make predictions of function on all nsSNPs within Ensembl. Results The measure of prediction success is greatly affected by the level of imbalance in the training dataset. We found the balanced dataset that included all attributes produced the best prediction. The performance as measured by the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC varied between 0.49 and 0.25 depending on the imbalance. As previously observed, the degree of sequence conservation at the nsSNP position is the single most useful attribute. In addition to conservation, structural predictions made using a balanced dataset can be of value. Conclusion The predictions for all nsSNPs within Ensembl, based on a balanced dataset using all attributes, are available as a DAS annotation. Instructions for adding the track to Ensembl are at http://www.brightstudy.ac.uk/das_help.html

  19. A transient homotypic interaction model for the influenza A virus NS1 protein effector domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S Kerry

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus NS1 protein is a multifunctional virulence factor consisting of an RNA binding domain (RBD, a short linker, an effector domain (ED, and a C-terminal 'tail'. Although poorly understood, NS1 multimerization may autoregulate its actions. While RBD dimerization seems functionally conserved, two possible apo ED dimers have been proposed (helix-helix and strand-strand. Here, we analyze all available RBD, ED, and full-length NS1 structures, including four novel crystal structures obtained using EDs from divergent human and avian viruses, as well as two forms of a monomeric ED mutant. The data reveal the helix-helix interface as the only strictly conserved ED homodimeric contact. Furthermore, a mutant NS1 unable to form the helix-helix dimer is compromised in its ability to bind dsRNA efficiently, implying that ED multimerization influences RBD activity. Our bioinformatical work also suggests that the helix-helix interface is variable and transient, thereby allowing two ED monomers to twist relative to one another and possibly separate. In this regard, we found a mAb that recognizes NS1 via a residue completely buried within the ED helix-helix interface, and which may help highlight potential different conformational populations of NS1 (putatively termed 'helix-closed' and 'helix-open' in virus-infected cells. 'Helix-closed' conformations appear to enhance dsRNA binding, and 'helix-open' conformations allow otherwise inaccessible interactions with host factors. Our data support a new model of NS1 regulation in which the RBD remains dimeric throughout infection, while the ED switches between several quaternary states in order to expand its functional space. Such a concept may be applicable to other small multifunctional proteins.

  20. 甲型H1N1流感病毒NS1蛋白核仁定位的研究%LOCALIZATION OF NS1 PROTEIN OF H1N1 INFLUENZA A VIRUS IN NUCLEI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宗正; 涂加钢; 张文婷; 胡勇; 周红波; 金梅林

    2012-01-01

    为研究2009年甲型H1N1流感病毒的NS1蛋白的核仁定位情况,采用RT-PCR对其NS1基因进行了扩增,将其克隆至PEGX-KG载体,构建重组质粒KG-NS1,转化大肠杆菌BL21,IPTG诱导表达重组蛋白.然后采用GST柱亲和层析方法纯化NS1重组蛋白,免疫家兔来制备多抗,Western blot检测抗体.通过间接免疫荧光对表达不同长度NS1 (NS1-219、NS1-230、NS1-237)的3种重组流感病毒进行了核仁定位的研究,3种重组毒的NS1蛋白存在于细胞核和细胞质,但都不能定位于核仁,说明NS1蛋白的截短与否并不影响其核仁定位,其生物学意义有待于进一步研究.

  1. LARGER PLANET RADII INFERRED FROM STELLAR ''FLICKER'' BRIGHTNESS VARIATIONS OF BRIGHT PLANET-HOST STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua [Physics and Astronomy Department, Vanderbilt University, 1807 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ({sup f}licker{sup )} of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ∼0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T {sub eff} = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested.

  2. PL Domain at the Carboxyl Terminus of Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein Influences The Nuclear Localization of NS1%A型流感病毒NS1蛋白羧基端PL结构域影响NS1在细胞核内的定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹桂; 李卫中; 王革非; 张衡; 曾俊; 陈幼莹; 张驰; 曾祥兴; 李康生

    2010-01-01

    A型流感病毒NS1蛋白羧基端4个氨基酸可以与PDZ结构域(the domain of PSD95,Dig and ZO-1)相结合,称为PL结构域(PDZ ligand domain).对不同亚型或毒株的流感病毒而言,其NS1蛋白PL结构域的组成存在比较人的差异.有研究发现这种差异能够影响NS1与宿主细胞蛋白的相互作用进而影响病毒的致病力.为进一步探讨PL结构域对NS1蛋白生物学特性的影响,首先构建出4种不同亚型流感病毒(H1N1、H3N2、H5N1、H9N2)来源的NSI绿色荧光蛋白表达质粒.在此基础上,对野生型H3N2病毒NS1表达质粒进行人工改造,将其PL结构域缺失或者替换为其他业型流感病毒的PL结构域,制备出4种重组.NS1蛋白表达质粒.通过比较上述不同NS1蛋白在HeLa细胞中的定位情况发现,只有野生型H3N2病毒的NS1蛋白可以定位于核仁当中,而野生型H1N1、H5N1、H9N2病毒的NS1蛋白以及PL结构域缺失或替代的G3N2病毒NS1蛋白都小能定位于核仁.而通过比较上述NS1蛋白在流感病毒易感的MDCK细胞中的定位,进一步发现所有这些蛋白均不定位于核仁.上述结果表明:PL结构域的不同可以明显影响NS1蛋白在HeLa细胞核内的定位和分布,这有可能造成其生物学功能的差异.同时,NS1蛋白在细胞核内的定位还与宿主细胞的来源有着密切关系.

  3. Analysis of the PDZ binding specificities of Influenza A Virus NS1 proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagasaka Kazunori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1 is a multifunctional virulence factor with several protein-protein interaction domains, involved in preventing apoptosis of the infected cell and in evading the interferon response. In addition, the majority of influenza A virus NS1 proteins have a class I PDZ-binding motif at the C-terminus, and this itself has been shown to be a virulence determinant. In the majority of human influenza NS1 proteins the consensus motif is RSxV: in avian NS1 it is ESxV. Of the few human strains that have the avian motif, all were from very high mortality outbreaks of the disease. Previous work has shown that minor differences in PDZ-binding motifs can have major effects on the spectrum of cellular proteins targeted. In this study we analyse the effect of these differences upon the binding of Influenza A virus NS1 protein to a range of cellular proteins involved in polarity and signal transduction.

  4. Topography of the simian rotavirus nonstructural glycoprotein (NS28) in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, W K; Au, K S; Estes, M K

    1988-06-01

    The simian rotavirus SA11 genome segment 10 codes for a nonstructural glycoprotein, NS28, that has been hypothesized to be involved in budding of viral particles into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Previous studies had suggested that NS28 is an integral membrane protein of the ER, possibly a transmembrane protein. We have examined the topography of NS28 inserted in microsomal membranes following cell-free translation of genome segment 10 transcripts. These transcripts were obtained either by hybrid selection of mRNA synthesized by the endogenous viral RNA polymerase or by in vitro transcription of genome segment 10 cDNA using SP6 polymerase. Full-length and truncated gene 10 transcripts were translated in a cell-free system supplemented with dog pancreatic microsomes. The existence of a cytoplasmic domain of the translation product was demonstrated by protease protection experiments. An 18,000 (18K) mol wt glycosylated polypeptide was protected from digestion with proteinase K and trypsin, whereas chymotrypsin digestion yielded a 23K mol wt glycosylated polypeptide. Correlation of these biochemical data with the known sequence of NS28 suggests that a 10K mol wt hydrophilic, carboxy-terminal fragment (from amino acid number 86 to amino acid number 175) of this glycoprotein is exposed on the cytoplasmic side of the ER membrane. A model of how NS28 folds in the ER membrane is proposed. PMID:2835861

  5. Molecular Docking Based Screening of Plant Flavonoids as Dengue NS1 Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Muhammad Tahir ul; Mumtaz, Arooj; Naseem, Rabbia; Ali, Amna; Fatima, Tabeer; Jabbar, Tehreem; Ahmad, Zubair; Ashfaq, Usman Ali

    2014-01-01

    Dengue infection has turned into a serious health concern globally due to its high morbidity rate and a high possibility of increase in its mortality rate on the account of unavailability of any proper treatment for severe dengue infection. The situation demands an urgent development of efficient and practicable treatment to deal with Dengue virus (DENV). Flavonoids, a class of phytochemicals present in medicinal plants, possess anti-viral activity and can be strong drug candidates against viruses. NS1 glycoprotein of Dengue virus is involved in its RNA replication and can be a strong target for screening of drugs against this virus. Current study focuses on the identification of flavonoids which can block Asn-130 glycosylation site of Dengue virus NS1 to inhibit viral replication as glycosylation of NS1 is required for its biological functioning. Molecular docking approach was used in this study and the results revealed that flavonoids have strong potential interactions with active site of NS1. Six flavonoids (Deoxycalyxin A; 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavonol-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside; (3R)-3',8-Dihydroxyvestitol; Sanggenon O; Epigallocatechin gallate; Chamaejasmin) blocked the Asn-130 glycosylation site of NS1 and could be able to inhibit the viral replication. It can be concluded from this study that these flavonoids could serve as antiviral drugs for dengue infections. Further in-vitro analyses are required to confirm their efficacy and to evaluate their drug potency. PMID:25187688

  6. Conclusions and future directions for the REiNS International Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widemann, Brigitte C; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Dombi, Eva; Fisher, Michael J; Hanemann, Clemens O; Walsh, Karin S; Wolters, Pamela L; Plotkin, Scott R

    2013-11-19

    The Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis (REiNS) International Collaboration was established with the goal to develop consensus recommendations for the use of endpoints in neurofibromatosis (NF) clinical trials. This supplement includes the first series of REiNS recommendations for the use of patient-reported, functional, and visual outcomes, and for the evaluation of imaging response in NF clinical trials. Recommendations for neurocognitive outcome measures, the use of whole-body MRI in NF, the evaluation of potential biomarkers of disease, and the comprehensive evaluation of functional and patient-reported outcomes in NF are in development. The REiNS recommendations are made based on current knowledge. Experience with the use of the recommended endpoints in clinical trials, development of new tools and technologies, new knowledge of the natural history of NF, and advances in the methods used to analyze endpoints will likely lead to modifications of the currently proposed guidelines, which will be shared with the NF research community through the REiNS Web site www.reinscollaboration.org. Due to the clinical complexity of NF, there is a need to seek expertise from multiple medical disciplines, regulatory agencies, and industry to develop trial endpoints and designs, which will lead to the identification and approval of effective treatments for NF tumor and nontumor manifestations. The REiNS Collaboration welcomes anyone interested in providing his or her expertise toward this effort. PMID:24249805

  7. Quantification of NS1 dengue biomarker in serum via optomagnetic nanocluster detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Paula; Watterson, Daniel; Parmvi, Mattias; Burger, Robert; Boisen, Anja; Young, Paul; Cooper, Matthew A.; Hansen, Mikkel F.; Ranzoni, Andrea; Donolato, Marco

    2015-11-01

    Dengue is a tropical vector-borne disease without cure or vaccine that progressively spreads into regions with temperate climates. Diagnostic tools amenable to resource-limited settings would be highly valuable for epidemiologic control and containment during outbreaks. Here, we present a novel low-cost automated biosensing platform for detection of dengue fever biomarker NS1 and demonstrate it on NS1 spiked in human serum. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are coated with high-affinity monoclonal antibodies against NS1 via bio-orthogonal Cu-free ‘click’ chemistry on an anti-fouling surface molecular architecture. The presence of the target antigen NS1 triggers MNP agglutination and the formation of nanoclusters with rapid kinetics enhanced by external magnetic actuation. The amount and size of the nanoclusters correlate with the target concentration and can be quantified using an optomagnetic readout method. The resulting automated dengue fever assay takes just 8 minutes, requires 6 μL of serum sample and shows a limit of detection of 25 ng/mL with an upper detection range of 20000 ng/mL. The technology holds a great potential to be applied to NS1 detection in patient samples. As the assay is implemented on a low-cost microfluidic disc the platform is suited for further expansion to multiplexed detection of a wide panel of biomarkers.

  8. Simultaneous removal of chlorothalonil and nitrate by Bacillus cereus strain NS1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yiqiang [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA-92521 (United States)]. E-mail: yqzhang@ucr.edu; Lu Jianhang [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA-92521 (United States); Wu Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA-92521 (United States); Chang, Andrew [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA-92521 (United States); Frankenberger, William T. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA-92521 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Elevated NO{sub 3} {sup -} and chlorothalonil (CTN) have been found in production nursery recycling ponds. Bacillus cereus strain NS1 isolated from nursery recycling pond sediment was assessed for its ability to reduce NO{sub 3} {sup -} and degrade CTN in a mineral medium. The results showed that the efficiency of NO{sub 3} {sup -} reduction and CTN degradation by B. cereus strain NS1 were related to the nature of organic carbon sources added to the medium. In the medium amended with 100 mg/L yeast extract, 86% of NO{sub 3} {sup -} (100 mg/L) and 99% of CTN (78 {mu}g/L) were simultaneously removed by B. cereus strain NS1 during the first day of the experiment. It took 6 days for the removal of 82-93% of NO{sub 3} {sup -} and 87-91% of CTN in the media containing glucose and acetate. B. cereus strain NS1 needed organic carbon as energy sources and electron donors to respire NO{sub 3} {sup -}, and simultaneously degrade CTN. These results suggest that B. cereus strain NS1 may have great potential to remediate NO{sub 3} {sup -} and CTN contaminated water in nursery recycling ponds.

  9. Flavivirus NS1 protein in infected host sera enhances viral acquisition by mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianying; Liu, Yang; Nie, Kaixiao; Du, Senyan; Qiu, Jingjun; Pang, Xiaojing; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong

    2016-01-01

    The arbovirus life cycle involves viral transfer between a vertebrate host and an arthropod vector, and acquisition of virus from an infected mammalian host by a vector is an essential step in this process. Here, we report that flavivirus nonstructural protein-1 (NS1), which is abundantly secreted into the serum of an infected host, plays a critical role in flavivirus acquisition by mosquitoes. The presence of dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus NS1s in the blood of infected interferon-α and γ receptor-deficient mice (AG6) facilitated virus acquisition by their native mosquito vectors because the protein enabled the virus to overcome the immune barrier of the mosquito midgut. Active immunization of AG6 mice with a modified DENV NS1 reduced DENV acquisition by mosquitoes and protected mice against a lethal DENV challenge, suggesting that immunization with NS1 could reduce the number of virus-carrying mosquitoes as well as the incidence of flaviviral diseases. Our study demonstrates that flaviviruses utilize NS1 proteins produced during their vertebrate phases to enhance their acquisition by vectors, which might be a result of flavivirus evolution to adapt to multiple host environments. PMID:27562253

  10. Characterization of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) in retail meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Kanika; Zhang, Yifan

    2014-09-01

    This study was to understand the extent of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) serving as a mecA reservoir in retail meat. MRCoNS were isolated from retail meat (beef, chicken, and turkey) in Detroit and characterized by sodA gene sequencing for species identification, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Unique MRCoNS isolates recovered from 25 meat samples were comprised of Staphylococcus sciuri (n = 13), Staphylococcus fleuretti (n = 4), Staphylococcus lentus (n = 3), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 2), Staphylococcus vitulinus (n = 1), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n = 1) and Staphylococcus pasteuri (n = 1). Heterogeneous and composite SCCmec types, including I, III, IV, V, I + V and III + V were identified in 16 isolates. Same SCCmec types were recovered in different staphylococcal species and meat sources. Indistinguishable PFGE patterns were also observed in S. sciuri isolated from beef, chicken, and turkey, and with different SCCmec types. In conclusion, multiple CoNS species can serve as reservoirs for mecA. In addition to the clonal transmission of MRCoNS in meat, horizontal occurrence of SCCmec is observed in staphylococcal species. PMID:24929717

  11. Identification of Damaging nsSNVs in HumanERCC2 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shuo; Zhang, Yuntong; Xu, Miao; Xue, Chunyu; He, Lin; Cai, Lei; Xing, Xin

    2016-09-01

    The hERCC2 gene is an important DNA repair molecule for initiating Cutaneous melanoma (CM). Therefore, it is advisable to study the possible functional SNVs in hERCC2. To achieve this goal, we collected total 2, 253 SNVs in hERCC2from the EMBL website, of which 303 are non-synonymous single nucleotide variants (nsSNVs). Then, SIFT and PolyPhen were used to predict the damaging nsSNVs, and four nsSNVs (rs368866996, rs377739017, rs370819591, and rs121913022) were suggested to be damaging mutations. Since I-Mutant2.0 showed a decrease in stability for the mutants containing each of the four nsSNVs, a 3D protein structure was modeled. Based on the comparison of the energy after minimization, RMSD and stabilizing residues between the native and mutant proteins' structure, rs121913022 was proposed to be the most damaging variant among the nsSNVs in hERCC2 gene by decreasing the stability of protein. The mutant G713R of hERCC2 protein caused by rs121913022 was found to have less expression level than native hERCC2 protein in melanoma cells. These results suggest that rs121913022 may have potentially important clinical and drug target implications.

  12. The relationship between brightness temperature and soil moisture. Selection of frequency range for microwave remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of brightness temperature data acquired from field and aircraft experiments demonstrates a linear relationship between soil moisture and brightness temperature. However, the analysis of brightness temperature data acquired by the Skylab radiometer demonstrates a non-linear relationship between soil moisture and brightness temperature. In view of the above and also because of recent theoretical developments for the calculation of the dielectric constant and brightness temperature under varying soil moisture profile conditions, an attempt is made to study the theoretical relationship between brightness temperature and soil moisture as a function of frequency. Through the above analysis, the appropriate microwave frequency range for soil moisture studies is recommended

  13. Design of frame aggregation simulation platform based on NS2%基于NS2的帧聚合仿真平台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祚桢; 李波; 屈桥; 闫中江

    2013-01-01

    According to the basic idea of frame aggregation adopted in IEEE802.11 standards, in this paper, a frame aggregation simulation platform applied for Wi-Fi network is designed by using network simulation software NS2. Based on the research on frame aggregation mechanisms, both the channel utilization and the network throughput are analyzed. According to the charac-teristics of mobile-node model in NS2 and that of the Wi-Fi network protocols, a cross-layer design framework is implemented on the platform. Moreover, extensive simulations are carried out to verify the performance of the platform. The simulation results match well with the mathematical analysis, which shows the correctness and the effectiveness of the implemented simulation platform.%  针对IEEE802.11标准中帧聚合的基本思想,采用网络仿真软件NS2设计并搭建了一个适用于Wi-Fi网络的帧聚合仿真平台。在对帧聚合机制进行研究的基础上,对信道利用率和网络吞吐率进行了数学分析;基于Wi-Fi网络协议和NS2移动节点模型特点,对帧聚合平台进行了跨层设计。设计了仿真实验,并对帧聚合平台进行性能验证。仿真结果与数学分析一致,验证了平台的正确性和有效性。

  14. Producing human ceramide-NS by metabolic engineering using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Suguru; Shimamoto, Toshi; Nagano, Hideaki; Tsuruno, Masahiro; Okuhara, Hiroaki; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Tojo, Hiromasa; Kodama, Yukiko; Funato, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Ceramide is one of the most important intercellular components responsible for the barrier and moisture retention functions of the skin. Because of the risks involved with using products of animal origin and the low productivity of plants, the availability of ceramides is currently limited. In this study, we successfully developed a system that produces sphingosine-containing human ceramide-NS in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by eliminating the genes for yeast sphingolipid hydroxylases (encoded by SUR2 and SCS7) and introducing the gene for a human sphingolipid desaturase (encoded by DES1). The inactivation of the ceramidase gene YDC1, overexpression of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C gene ISC1, and endoplasmic reticulum localization of the DES1 gene product resulted in enhanced production of ceramide-NS. The engineered yeast strains can serve as hosts not only for providing a sustainable source of ceramide-NS but also for developing further systems to produce sphingosine-containing sphingolipids.

  15. Antiviral phytochemicals identification from Azadirachta indica leaves against HCV NS3 protease: an in silico approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Jalil, Asma; Ul Qamar, Muhammad Tahir

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem across the world affecting the people of all age groups. It is the main cause of hepatitis and at chronic stage causes liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Various therapeutics are made against HCV but still there is a need to find out potential therapeutics to combat the virus. The goal of this study is to identify the phytochemicals of Azadirachta indica leaves having antiviral activity against HCV NS3 protease through molecular docking and simulation approach. Results show that the compound 3-Deacetyl-3-cinnamoyl-azadirachtin possesses good binding properties with HCV NS3/4A protease. It can be concluded from this study that Deacetyl-3-cinnamoyl-azadirachtin may serve as a potential inhibitor against NS3/4A protease. PMID:26274064

  16. Vasorelaxant effects of novel Kv7.4 channel enhancers ML213 and NS15370

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Bentzen, B H; Stott, J B;

    2014-01-01

    in both rodent and human blood vessels. Recently, two novel Kv7 channel enhancers have been identified, ML213 and NS15370, that show increased potency, particularly on Kv7.4 channels. The aim of this study was to characterise the effects of these novel enhancers in different rat blood vessels and compare...... them to Kv7 enhancers (S-1, BMS-204352, retigabine) described previously. We also sought to determine the binding sites of the new Kv7 enhancers. KEY RESULTS: Both ML213 and NS15370 relaxed segments of rat thoracic aorta, renal artery and mesenteric artery in a concentration-dependent manner....... In the mesenteric artery ML213 and NS15370 displayed EC50 's of 0.74 μM and 0.026 μM, respectively, which were far lower than other Kv7 enhancers tested. Current-clamp experiments revealed both novel enhancers at low concentrations caused significant hyperpolarisation in mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells...

  17. Highway Mobility and Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks in NS-3

    CERN Document Server

    Arbabi, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The study of vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) requires efficient and accurate simulation tools. As the mobility of vehicles and driver behavior can be affected by network messages, these tools must include a vehicle mobility model integrated with a quality network simulator. We present the first implementation of a well-known vehicle mobility model to ns-3, the next generation of the popular ns-2 networking simulator. Vehicle mobility and network communication are integrated through events. User-created event handlers can send network messages or alter vehicle mobility each time a network message is received and each time vehicle mobility is updated by the model. To aid in creating simulations, we have implemented a straight highway model that manages vehicle mobility, while allowing for various user customizations. We show that the results of our implementation of the mobility model matches that of the model's author and provide an example of using our implementation in ns-3.

  18. Microwave brightness temperature imaging and dielectric properties of lunar soil

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wu Ji; Li Dihui; Zhang Xiaohui; Jiang Jingshan; A T Altyntsev; B I Lubyshev

    2005-12-01

    Among many scientific objectives of lunar exploration, investigations on lunar soil become attractive due to the existence of He3 and ilmenite in the lunar soil and their possible utilization as nuclear fuel for power generation.Although the composition of the lunar surface soil can be determined by optical and /X-ray spectrometers, etc., the evaluation of the total reserves of He3 and ilmenite within the regolith and in the lunar interior are still not available.In this paper,we give a rough analysis of the microwave brightness temperature images of the lunar disc observed using the NRAO 12 meter Telescope and Siberian Solar Radio Telescope.We also present the results of the microwave dielectric properties of terrestrial analogues of lunar soil and,discuss some basic relations between the microwave brightness temperature and lunar soil properties.

  19. Bright solitons in a PT-symmetric chain of dimers

    CERN Document Server

    Kirikchi, Omar B; Susanto, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    We study the existence and stability of fundamental bright discrete solitons in a parity-time (PT)-symmetric coupler composed by a chain of dimers, that is modelled by linearly coupled discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with gain and loss terms. We use a perturbation theory for small coupling between the lattices to perform the analysis, which is then confirmed by numerical calculations. Such analysis is based on the concept of the so-called anti-continuum limit approach. We consider the fundamental onsite and intersite bright solitons. Each solution has symmetric and antisymmetric configurations between the arms. The stability of the solutions is then determined by solving the corresponding eigenvalue problem. We obtain that both symmetric and antisymmetric onsite mode can be stable for small coupling, on the contrary of the reported continuum limit where the antisymmetric solutions are always unstable. The instability is either due to the internal modes crossing the origin or the appearance of a quart...

  20. Extremely High Current, High-Brightness Energy Recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Burger, Al; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Favale, Anthony; Gassner, David M; Grimes, Jacob T; Hahn, Harald; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Segalov, Zvi; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Warren-Funk, L; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2005-01-01

    Next generation ERL light-sources, high-energy electron coolers, high-power Free-Electron Lasers, powerful Compton X-ray sources and many other accelerators were made possible by the emerging technology of high-power, high-brightness electron beams. In order to get the anticipated performance level of ampere-class currents, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL's Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for its electron cooling of RHIC application, as well as a possible future electron-hadron collider. We will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun and an accelerator cavity capable of producing low emittance (about 1 micron rms normalized) one nano-Coulomb bunches at currents of the order of one ampere average.

  1. The brightness and spatial distributions of terrestrial radio sources

    CERN Document Server

    Offringa, A R; Zaroubi, S; Koopmans, L V E; Wijnholds, S J; Abdalla, F B; Brouw, W N; Ciardi, B; Iliev, I T; Harker, G J A; Mellema, G; Bernardi, G; Zarka, P; Ghosh, A; Alexov, A; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Beck, R; Bell, M E; Bell, M R; Bentum, M J; Best, P; Bîrzan, L; Breitling, F; Broderick, J; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; de Vos, M; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Fallows, R A; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Hassall, T E; Horneffer, A; Iacobelli, M; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Klijn, W; Kondratiev, V I; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; van Leeuwen, J; Loose, M; Maat, P; Macario, G; Mann, G; McKean, J P; Meulman, H; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Rafferty, D; Reich, W; van Nieuwpoort, R; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Sobey, C; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; ter Veen, S; Toribio, C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R J; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O

    2013-01-01

    Faint undetected sources of radio-frequency interference (RFI) might become visible in long radio observations when they are consistently present over time. Thereby, they might obstruct the detection of the weak astronomical signals of interest. This issue is especially important for Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) projects that try to detect the faint redshifted HI signals from the time of the earliest structures in the Universe. We explore the RFI situation at 30-163 MHz by studying brightness histograms of visibility data observed with LOFAR, similar to radio-source-count analyses that are used in cosmology. An empirical RFI distribution model is derived that allows the simulation of RFI in radio observations. The brightness histograms show an RFI distribution that follows a power-law distribution with an estimated exponent around -1.5. With several assumptions, this can be explained with a uniform distribution of terrestrial radio sources whose radiation follows existing propagation models. Extrapolation of t...

  2. Histogram Equalization with Range Offset for Brightness Preserved Image Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidi Ibrahim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simple modification to Global Histogram Equalization (GHE, a well known digital image enhancement method, has been proposed. This proposed method known as Histogram Equalization with Range Offset (HERO is divided into two stages. In its first stage, an intensity mapping function is constructed by using the cumulative density function of the input image, similar to GHE. Then, during the second stage, an offset for the intensity mapping function will be determined to maintain the mean brightness of the image, which is a crucial criterion for digital image enhancement in consumer electronic products. Comparison with some of the current histogram equalization based enhancement methods shows that HERO successfully preserves the mean brightness and give good enhancement to the image.

  3. A ROSAT Bright Source Catalog Survey with the Swift Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, D B

    2004-01-01

    We consider the prospects for a complete survey of the 18,811 sources of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey Bright Source Catalog (BSC) with NASA's Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB) mission. By observing each BSC source for 500 s with the satellite's imaging X-ray and UV/optical telescopes, this "Swift Bright (Source) Catalog Survey" (Swift-BCS) would derive ~20 mCrab, 10-100 keV) with the wide-field Burst Alert Telescope (BAT); and a two-year all-sky BAT survey down to >~1 mCrab. The resulting expansion of the catalog of identified X-ray sources from 2000 to 18,000 will provide a greatly-enriched set of targets for observation by XMM-Newton, Chandra, and future high-energy observatories.

  4. BRITE-Constellation: Nanosatellites for Precision Photometry of Bright Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, W W; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A; Koudelka, O F; Grant, C C; Zee, R E; Kuschnig, R; Mochnacki, St; Rucinski, S M; Matthews, J M; Orleanski, P; Pamyatnykh, A; Pigulski, A; Alves, J; Guedel, M; Handler, G; Wade, G A; Scholtz, A L

    2013-01-01

    BRITE-Constellation (where BRITE stands for BRIght Target Explorer) is an international nanosatellite mission to monitor photometrically, in two colours, brightness and temperature variations of stars brighter than V = 4. The current mission design consists of three pairs of 7 kg nanosats from Austria, Canada and Poland carrying optical telescopes and CCDs. One instrument in each pair is equipped with a blue filter; the other, a red filter. The first two nanosats are UNIBRITE, designed and built by University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies - Space Flight Laboratory and its twin, BRITE-Austria, built by the Technical University Graz with support of UTIAS-SFL. They were launched on 25 February 2013 by the Indian Space Agency under contract to the Canadian Space Agency into a low-Earth dusk-dawn polar orbit.

  5. Cometary activity in 2060 Chiron at minimum brightness

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, A M; Silva, Adrian M.; Cellone, Sergio A.

    2001-01-01

    We present two-colour CCD imaging of 2060 Chiron obtained between 1996 and 1998 with the 2.15 m telescope at CASLEO (San Juan, Argentina). These post-perihelion observations show that Chiron was then near its historical brightness minima, however a coma was clearly detected. The dynamical state of the coma is studied by means of azimuthally averaged surface brightness profiles, which show the signatures of radiation pressure on the dust grain distribution. Aperture photometry shows an achromatic dimming with an amplitude \\~ 0.09 mag in approximately one hour. If due to rotation of the nucleus, this rather high amplitude is used to derive a new value for the nuclear magnitude, m_0 ~ 6.80 mag.

  6. Microwave Brightness Temperature and Lunar Son Dielectric Property Retrieve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Wu; D.H. Li; A.T. Altyntsev; B.I. Lubyshev

    2005-01-01

    Among many scientific objectives of lunar exploration, investigations on lunar soil become more and more attractive to the scientists duo to the existence of abundant 3He and ilmenite in the lunar soil and their possible utilization. Although the soil composition determination on the lunar surface is available by visible light spectrometer, γ/X-ray spectrometer etc, the evaluations on the total reserves of 3He and ilmenite in the lunar deep and on the thickness of the lunar soil are still impossible so far. In this paper, the authors first give a rough analysis of the microwave brightness temperature images of the lunar disc observed using the NRAO 12 Meter Telescope and Siberian Solar Radio Telescope; then introduce our researches on the microwave dielectric properties of lunar soil simulators; finally, discuss some basic relations between the microwave brightness temperature and lunar soil properties.

  7. Sunspot bright rings and the thermal diffusivity of solar convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, T., Jr.; Fowler, L. A.; Foukal, P.

    1983-01-01

    Raster-scan observations of 10 sunspots, made in 1980 and 1981 with the 512-channel diode array and vacuum telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, are reported. Data from several 10-min scans of 0.25-A passbands of clean continuum were summed to give an rms noise level of 0.25 percent, corrected by applying a limb-darkening curve, and analyzed to determine the average intensity for each of eight segments of a series of concentric rings around each sunspot. Faculae and pores were identified and discarded in constructing radial intensity profiles. Marginally significant bright symmetric rings (peak amplitude 0.1-0.3 percent) not attributable to residual facular signal or instrumental effects were observed around 6 of 10 sunspots. No evidence of more intense bright rings was found. These findings are discussed in terms of thermal-diffusion models proposed to explain the fate of the radiative flux blocked by sunspots.

  8. Operational Performance Improvements to BRIght Target Explorer Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Yun

    The BRIght Target Explorer (BRITE)-Constellation is composed of six nano-satellites funded by Austria, Canada, and Poland, and each of them is equipped with an optical telescope that observes stars with visual magnitude +3.5 or brighter. BRITE-Constellation has provided numerous images of bright stars from Low Earth Orbit, which will eventually lead to investigation of origin of the Universe. This thesis presents the contribution of the author to BRITE mission, especially in BRITE Operations. The author performed antenna steering experiments on UniBRITE and BRITE-Toronto, to improve data downlink. To improve scientific data collection from BRITE satellites, the author computed available observation time for multiple targets every orbit, which resulted in collection of twice the amount of scientific data. Also, the author increased the available observation time for each target from 32 minutes to 48 minutes by improving the performance of the star tracker on-board BRITE-Toronto.

  9. Three Conformational Snapshots of the Hepatitis Virus NS3 Helicase Reveal a Ratchet Translocation Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, M.; Rice, C

    2010-01-01

    A virally encoded superfamily-2 (SF2) helicase (NS3h) is essential for the replication of hepatitis C virus, a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. Efforts to elucidate the function of NS3h and to develop inhibitors against it, however, have been hampered by limited understanding of its molecular mechanism. Here we show x-ray crystal structures for a set of NS3h complexes, including ground-state and transition-state ternary complexes captured with ATP mimics (ADP {center_dot} BeF{sub 3} and ADP {center_dot} AlF{sub 4}{sup -}). These structures provide, for the first time, three conformational snapshots demonstrating the molecular basis of action for a SF2 helicase. Upon nucleotide binding, overall domain rotation along with structural transitions in motif V and the bound DNA leads to the release of one base from the substrate base-stacking row and the loss of several interactions between NS3h and the 3{prime} DNA segment. As nucleotide hydrolysis proceeds into the transition state, stretching of a 'spring' helix and another overall conformational change couples rearrangement of the (d)NTPase active site to additional hydrogen-bonding between NS3h and DNA. Together with biochemistry, these results demonstrate a 'ratchet' mechanism involved in the unidirectional translocation and define the step size of NS3h as one base per nucleotide hydrolysis cycle. These findings suggest feasible strategies for developing specific inhibitors to block the action of this attractive, yet largely unexplored drug target.

  10. Two Cases of False-Positive Dengue Non-Structural Protein 1 (NS1) Antigen in Patients with Hematological Malignancies and a Review of the Literature on the Use of NS1 for the Detection of Dengue Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Shimin J.; Krishnan, Prabha U.; Leo, Yee Sin

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of dengue has been made easier in recent years owing to the advancement in diagnostic technologies. The rapid non-structural protein 1 (NS1) test strip is widely used in many developed and developing regions at risk of dengue. Despite the relatively high specificity of this test, we recently encountered two cases of false-positive dengue NS1 antigen in patients with underlying hematological malignancies. We reviewed the literature for causes of false-positive dengue NS1.

  11. Progress in the Research of NS1 Protein from Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 Subtype%禽流感病毒H5N1亚型NS1蛋白的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏生; 赵丹; 段艳婷

    2013-01-01

    NS1蛋白(non-structural protein 1)是A型流感病毒重要的非结构蛋白,作为流感病毒的致病因子,NS1通过多种方式增强病毒的致病性和毒力.就H5N1禽流感病毒NS1蛋白的结构与功能进行了综述.

  12. 细小病毒非结构蛋白NS1功能的研究进展%Research Advances on the Function of Non-structural Protein NS1 of Parvovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊红; 李国辉; 陈慧卿; 黄国平; 姚勤

    2010-01-01

    介绍了细小病毒非结构蛋白NS1的生化特性,综述了近年来NS1蛋白与病毒复制、宿主细胞凋亡之间以及与基因表达调控之间的关系,并对NS1蛋白的进一步研究提出了建议.

  13. Structure determination of Murine Norovirus NS6 proteases with C-terminal extensions designed to probe protease–substrate interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. They encode an NS6 protease that cleaves a viral polyprotein at specific sites to produce mature viral proteins. In an earlier study we obtained crystals of murine norovirus (MNV NS6 protease in which crystal contacts were mediated by specific insertion of the C-terminus of one protein (which contains residues P5-P1 of the NS6-7 cleavage junction into the peptide binding site of an adjacent molecule, forming an adventitious protease-product complex. We sought to reproduce this crystal form to investigate protease–substrate complexes by extending the C-terminus of NS6 construct to include residues on the C-terminal (P′ side of the cleavage junction. We report the crystallization and crystal structure determination of inactive mutants of murine norovirus NS6 protease with C-terminal extensions of one, two and four residues from the N-terminus of the adjacent NS7 protein (NS6 1′, NS6 2′, NS6 4′. We also determined the structure of a chimeric extended NS6 protease in which the P4-P4′ sequence of the NS6-7 cleavage site was replaced with the corresponding sequence from the NS2-3 cleavage junction (NS6 4′ 2|3.The constructs NS6 1′ and NS6 2′ yielded crystals that diffracted anisotropically. We found that, although the uncorrected data could be phased by molecular replacement, refinement of the structures stalled unless the data were ellipsoidally truncated and corrected with anisotropic B-factors. These corrections significantly improved phasing by molecular replacement and subsequent refinement.The refined structures of all four extended NS6 proteases are very similar in structure to the mature MNV NS6—and in one case reveal additional details of a surface loop. Although the packing arrangement observed showed some similarities to those observed in the adventitious protease-product crystals reported previously, in no case were specific protease–substrate interactions

  14. Production of strongly bound 39K bright solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Lepoutre, S; Boissé, A; Berthet, G; Salomon, G; Aspect, A; Bourdel, T

    2016-01-01

    We report on the production of 39 K matter-wave bright solitons, i.e., 1D matter-waves that propagate without dispersion thanks to attractive interactions. The volume of the soliton is studied as a function of the scattering length through three-body losses, revealing peak densities as high as $\\sim 5 \\times 10^{20} m^{-3}$. Our solitons, close to the collapse threshold, are strongly bound and will find applications in fundamental physics and atom interferometry.

  15. Algebraic bright and vortex solitons in defocusing media

    OpenAIRE

    Borovkova, Olga V.; Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Boris A. Malomed; Torner, Lluis

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that spatially inhomogeneous defocusing nonlinear landscapes with the nonlinearity coefficient growing toward the periphery as [1+abs(r)]**a support one- and two-dimensional fundamental and higher-order bright solitons, as well as vortex solitons, with algebraically decaying tails. The energy flow of the solitons converges as long as nonlinearity growth rate exceeds the dimensionality, i.e., a>D. Fundamental solitons are always stable, while multipoles and vortices are stable i...

  16. Hybrid bright-field and hologram imaging of cell dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Hyeokjun; Lee, Jaehyun; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-09-01

    Volumetric observation is essential for understanding the details of complex biological phenomena. In this study, a bright-field microscope, which provides information on a specific 2D plane, and a holographic microscope, which provides information spread over 3D volumes, are integrated to acquire two complementary images simultaneously. The developed system was successfully applied to capture distinct T-cell adhesion dynamics on inflamed endothelial layers, including capture, rolling, crawling, transendothelial migration, and subendothelial migration.

  17. Measuring Anthropogenic Sky Glow Using a Natural Sky Brightness Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriscoe, Dan M.

    2013-11-01

    Anthropogenic sky glow (a result of light pollution) combines with the natural background brightness of the night sky when viewed by an observer on the earth's surface. In order to measure the anthropogenic component accurately, the natural component must be identified and subtracted. A model of the moonless natural sky brightness in the V-band was constructed from existing data on the Zodiacal Light, an airglow model based on the van Rhijn function, and a model of integrated starlight (including diffuse galactic light) constructed from images made with the same equipment used for sky brightness observations. The model also incorporates effective extinction by the atmosphere and is improved at high zenith angles (>80°) by the addition of atmospheric diffuse light. The model may be projected onto local horizon coordinates for a given observation at a resolution of 0.05° over the hemisphere of the sky, allowing it to be accurately registered with data images obtained from any site. Zodiacal Light and integrated starlight models compare favorably with observations from remote dark sky sites, matching within ± 8 nL over 95% of the sky. The natural airglow may be only approximately modeled, errors of up to ± 25 nL are seen when the airglow is rapidly changing or has considerable character (banding); ± 8 nL precision may be expected under favorable conditions. When subtracted from all-sky brightness data images, the model significantly improves estimates of sky glow from anthropogenic sources, especially at sites that experience slight to moderate light pollution.

  18. High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Jinping; Cheng Ya; Xu Zhizhan [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zeng Bin; Li Guihua; Chu Wei; Ni Jielei; Zhang Haisu [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xu Huailiang [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Chin, See Leang [Center for Optics, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    We demonstrate a harmonic-seeded switchable multiwavelength laser in air driven by intense midinfrared femtosecond laser pulses, in which population inversion occurs at an ultrafast time scale (i.e., less than {approx}200 fs) owing to direct formation of excited molecular nitrogen ions by strong-field ionization of inner-valence electrons. The bright multiwavelength laser in air opens the perspective for remote detection of multiple pollutants based on nonlinear optical spectroscopy.

  19. The Morphology of Low Surface Brightness Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, S.; Schombert, J.; Bothun, G.

    1994-01-01

    Images of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) disk galaxies are presented. These galaxies are generally late types; however, they are not dwarfs, being intrinsically large and luminous. The morphology of LSB galaxies is discussed in terms of the physical interpretation of the Hubble sequence, the stages of which are found to be nonlinear in the sense that smaller physical differences separate mid to early type spirals than late types.

  20. Survival analysis of the optical brightness of GRB host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Racz, I I; Bagoly, Z; Toth, L V

    2015-01-01

    We studied the unbiased optical brightness distribution which was calculated from the survival analysis of host galaxies and its relationship with the Swift GRB data of the host galaxies observed by the Keck telescopes. Based on the sample obtained from merging the Swift GRB table and the Keck optical data we also studied the dependence of this distribution on the data of the GRBs. Finally, we compared the HGs distribution with standard galaxies distribution which is in the DEEP2 galaxies catalog.

  1. Brightness/darkness induction and the genesis of a contour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncato, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Visual contours often result from the integration or interpolation of fragmented edges. The strength of the completion increases when the edges share the same contrast polarity (CP). Here we demonstrate that the appearance in the perceptual field of this integrated unit, or contour of invariant CP, is concomitant with a vivid brightness alteration of the surfaces at its opposite sides. To observe this effect requires some stratagems because the formation in the visual field of a contour of invariant CP normally engenders the formation of a second contour and then the rise of two streams of induction signals that interfere in different ways. Particular configurations have been introduced that allow us to observe the induction effects of one contour taken in isolation. I documented these effects by phenomenological observations and psychophysical measurement of the brightness alteration in relation to luminance contrast. When the edges of the same CP complete to form a contour, the background of homogeneous luminance appears to dim at one side and to brighten at the opposite side (in accord with the CP). The strength of the phenomenon is proportional to the local luminance contrast. This effect weakens or nulls when the contour of the invariant CP separates surfaces filled with different gray shades. These conflicting results stimulate a deeper exploration of the induction phenomena and their role in the computation of brightness contrast. An alternative perspective is offered to account for some brightness illusions and their relation to the phenomenal transparency. The main assumption asserts that, when in the same region induction signals of opposite CP overlap, the filling-in is blocked unless the image is stratified into different layers, one for each signal of the same polarity. Phenomenological observations document this “solution” by the visual system. PMID:25368570

  2. The brightness and spatial distributions of terrestrial radio sources

    OpenAIRE

    Offringa, A. R.; De Bruyn, A. G.; Zaroubi, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Wijnholds, S. J.; Abdalla, F. B.; Brouw, W. N.; Ciardi, B.; Iliev, I. T.; Harker, G. J. A.; Mellema, G.; Bernardi, G.; Zarka, P.; Ghosh, A; Alexov, A.

    2013-01-01

    Faint undetected sources of radio-frequency interference (RFI) might become visible in long radio observations when they are consistently present over time. Thereby, they might obstruct the detection of the weak astronomical signals of interest. This issue is especially important for Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) projects that try to detect the faint redshifted HI signals from the time of the earliest structures in the Universe. We explore the RFI situation at 30-163 MHz by studying brightness ...

  3. Distance Measurements and Stellar Population Properties via Surface Brightness Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Surface Brightness Fluctuations (SBFs) are one of the most powerful techniques to measure the distance and to constrain the unresolved stellar content of extragalactic systems. For a given bandpass, the absolute SBF magnitude \\bar{M} depends on the properties of the underlying stellar population. Multi-band SBFs allow scientists to probe different stages of the stellar evolution: UV and blue wavelength band SBFs are sensitive to the evolution of stars within the hot Horizontal Branch (HB) and...

  4. Bright spots among the world’s coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinner, Joshua E.; Huchery, Cindy; MacNeil, M. Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; McClanahan, Tim R.; Maina, Joseph; Maire, Eva; Kittinger, John N.; Hicks, Christina C.; Mora, Camilo; Allison, Edward H.; D'Agata, Stephanie; Hoey, Andrew; Feary, David A.; Crowder, Larry; Williams, Ivor D.; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent; Wantiez, Laurent; Edgar, Graham; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Green, Alison L.; Hardt, Marah J.; Beger, Maria; Friedlander, Alan; Campbell, Stuart J.; Holmes, Katherine E.; Wilson, Shaun K.; Brokovich, Eran; Brooks, Andrew J.; Cruz-Motta, Juan J.; Booth, David J.; Chabanet, Pascale; Gough, Charlie; Tupper, Mark; Ferse, Sebastian C. A.; Sumaila, U. Rashid; Mouillot, David

    2016-07-01

    Ongoing declines in the structure and function of the world’s coral reefs require novel approaches to sustain these ecosystems and the millions of people who depend on them. A presently unexplored approach that draws on theory and practice in human health and rural development is to systematically identify and learn from the ‘outliers’—places where ecosystems are substantially better (‘bright spots’) or worse (‘dark spots’) than expected, given the environmental conditions and socioeconomic drivers they are exposed to. Here we compile data from more than 2,500 reefs worldwide and develop a Bayesian hierarchical model to generate expectations of how standing stocks of reef fish biomass are related to 18 socioeconomic drivers and environmental conditions. We identify 15 bright spots and 35 dark spots among our global survey of coral reefs, defined as sites that have biomass levels more than two standard deviations from expectations. Importantly, bright spots are not simply comprised of remote areas with low fishing pressure; they include localities where human populations and use of ecosystem resources is high, potentially providing insights into how communities have successfully confronted strong drivers of change. Conversely, dark spots are not necessarily the sites with the lowest absolute biomass and even include some remote, uninhabited locations often considered near pristine. We surveyed local experts about social, institutional, and environmental conditions at these sites to reveal that bright spots are characterized by strong sociocultural institutions such as customary taboos and marine tenure, high levels of local engagement in management, high dependence on marine resources, and beneficial environmental conditions such as deep-water refuges. Alternatively, dark spots are characterized by intensive capture and storage technology and a recent history of environmental shocks. Our results suggest that investments in strengthening fisheries

  5. Bright spots among the world’s coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinner, Joshua E; Huchery, Cindy; MacNeil, M Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A J; McClanahan, Tim R; Maina, Joseph; Maire, Eva; Kittinger, John N; Hicks, Christina C; Mora, Camilo; Allison, Edward H; D'Agata, Stephanie; Hoey, Andrew; Feary, David A; Crowder, Larry; Williams, Ivor D; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent; Wantiez, Laurent; Edgar, Graham; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Sandin, Stuart A; Green, Alison L; Hardt, Marah J; Beger, Maria; Friedlander, Alan; Campbell, Stuart J; Holmes, Katherine E; Wilson, Shaun K; Brokovich, Eran; Brooks, Andrew J; Cruz-Motta, Juan J; Booth, David J; Chabanet, Pascale; Gough, Charlie; Tupper, Mark; Ferse, Sebastian C A; Sumaila, U Rashid; Mouillot, David

    2016-07-21

    Ongoing declines in the structure and function of the world’s coral reefs require novel approaches to sustain these ecosystems and the millions of people who depend on them3. A presently unexplored approach that draws on theory and practice in human health and rural development is to systematically identify and learn from the ‘outliers’—places where ecosystems are substantially better (‘bright spots’) or worse (‘dark spots’) than expected, given the environmental conditions and socioeconomic drivers they are exposed to. Here we compile data from more than 2,500 reefs worldwide and develop a Bayesian hierarchical model to generate expectations of how standing stocks of reef fish biomass are related to 18 socioeconomic drivers and environmental conditions. We identify 15 bright spots and 35 dark spots among our global survey of coral reefs, defined as sites that have biomass levels more than two standard deviations from expectations. Importantly, bright spots are not simply comprised of remote areas with low fishing pressure; they include localities where human populations and use of ecosystem resources is high, potentially providing insights into how communities have successfully confronted strong drivers of change. Conversely, dark spots are not necessarily the sites with the lowest absolute biomass and even include some remote, uninhabited locations often considered near pristine6. We surveyed local experts about social, institutional, and environmental conditions at these sites to reveal that bright spots are characterized by strong sociocultural institutions such as customary taboos and marine tenure, high levels of local engagement in management, high dependence on marine resources, and beneficial environmental conditions such as deep-water refuges. Alternatively, dark spots are characterized by intensive capture and storage technology and a recent history of environmental shocks. Our results suggest that investments in strengthening fisheries

  6. Developing high brightness beams for heavy ion driven inertial fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, J.W.; Ahle, L.A.; Anders, A; Bieniosek, F.M.; Chacon-Golcher, E.; Grote, D. P.; Henestroza, E.; Leung, K.N.; Molvik, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers require large currents and bright beams. In this paper we review the two different approaches for building HIF injectors and the corresponding ion source requirements. The traditional approach uses large aperture, low current density ion sources, resulting in a very large injector system. A more recent conceptual approach merges high current density mini-beamlets into a large current beam in order to significantly reduce the size of the injector. Experimen...

  7. Bright flares in supergiant fast X-ray transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakura, N.; Postnov, K.; Sidoli, L.; Paizis, A.

    2014-08-01

    At steady low-luminosity states, supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs) can be at the stage of quasi-spherical settling accretion on to slowly rotating magnetized neutron stars from the OB-companion winds. At this stage, a hot quasi-static shell is formed above the magnetosphere, the plasma entry rate into magnetosphere is controlled by (inefficient) radiative plasma cooling, and the accretion rate on to the neutron star is suppressed by a factor of ˜30 relative to the Bondi-Hoyle-Littleton value. Changes in the local wind velocity and density due to, e.g. clumps, can only slightly increase the mass accretion rate (a factor of ˜10) bringing the system into the Compton-cooling-dominated regime and led to the production of moderately bright flares (Lx ≲ 1036 erg s-1). To interpret the brightest flares (Lx > 1036 erg s-1) displayed by the SFXTs within the quasi-spherical settling accretion regimes, we propose that a larger increase in the mass accretion rate can be produced by sporadic capture of magnetized stellar wind plasma. At sufficiently low accretion rates, magnetic reconnection can enhance the magnetospheric plasma entry rate, resulting in copious production of X-ray photons, strong Compton cooling and ultimately in unstable accretion of the entire shell. A bright flare develops on the free-fall time-scale in the shell, and the typical energy released in an SFXT bright flare corresponds to the mass of the shell. This view is consistent with the energy released in SFXT bright flares (˜1038-1040 erg), their typical dynamic range (˜100) and with the observed dependence of these characteristics on the average unflaring X-ray luminosity of SFXTs. Thus, the flaring behaviour of SFXTs, as opposed to steady HMXBs, may be primarily related to their low X-ray luminosity allowing sporadic magnetic reconnection to occur during magnetized plasma entry into the magnetosphere.

  8. Evaluation of an Enzyme Immunoassay for Detection of Dengue Virus NS1 Antigen in Human Serum▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dussart, Philippe; Labeau, Bhety; Lagathu, Gisèle; Louis, Philippe; Nunes, Marcio R. T.; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Storck-Herrmann, Cécile; Cesaire, Raymond; Morvan, Jacques; Flamand, Marie; Baril, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated a one-step sandwich-format microplate enzyme immunoassay for detecting dengue virus NS1 antigen (Ag) in human serum by use of Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag kits (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Marnes La Coquette, France). We collected 299 serum samples from patients with dengue disease and 50 serum samples from patients not infected with dengue virus. For the 239 serum samples from patients with acute infections testing positive by reverse transcription-PCR and/or virus isolation for one of the ...

  9. [Advances in Parvovirus Non-structural Protein NS1 Induced Apoptosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Mengyu; Liu, Fei; Chen, Shun; Wang, Mingshu; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-11-01

    Until now, more than seventeen parvovirus have been reported which can infect mammals and poultries. The infected cells appeared different properties of apoptosis and death, present a typical cytopathic effect. NS1 is a major nonstructural protein of parvovirus, with a conservative structure and function, which plays an important role in the viral life cycle. In addition to the influence on viral replication, the NS1 also participates in apoptosis induced by viruses. Parvovirus induced apoptosis which is mainly mediated by mitochondrial pathway, this review summarized the latest research progresses of parvovirus induced apoptosis.

  10. Influenza virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1 disrupts interferon signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danlin Jia

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFNs function as the first line of defense against viral infections by modulating cell growth, establishing an antiviral state and influencing the activation of various immune cells. Viruses such as influenza have developed mechanisms to evade this defense mechanism and during infection with influenza A viruses, the non-structural protein 1 (NS1 encoded by the virus genome suppresses induction of IFNs-α/β. Here we show that expression of avian H5N1 NS1 in HeLa cells leads to a block in IFN signaling. H5N1 NS1 reduces IFN-inducible tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT2 and STAT3 and inhibits the nuclear translocation of phospho-STAT2 and the formation of IFN-inducible STAT1:1-, STAT1:3- and STAT3:3- DNA complexes. Inhibition of IFN-inducible STAT signaling by NS1 in HeLa cells is, in part, a consequence of NS1-mediated inhibition of expression of the IFN receptor subunit, IFNAR1. In support of this NS1-mediated inhibition, we observed a reduction in expression of ifnar1 in ex vivo human non-tumor lung tissues infected with H5N1 and H1N1 viruses. Moreover, H1N1 and H5N1 virus infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages led to inhibition of both ifnar1 and ifnar2 expression. In addition, NS1 expression induces up-regulation of the JAK/STAT inhibitors, SOCS1 and SOCS3. By contrast, treatment of ex vivo human lung tissues with IFN-α results in the up-regulation of a number of IFN-stimulated genes and inhibits both H5N1 and H1N1 virus replication. The data suggest that NS1 can directly interfere with IFN signaling to enhance viral replication, but that treatment with IFN can nevertheless override these inhibitory effects to block H5N1 and H1N1 virus infections.

  11. Fragment-based discovery of hepatitis C virus NS5b RNA polymerase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonysamy, Stephen S.; Aubol, Brandon; Blaney, Jeff; Browner, Michelle F.; Giannetti, Anthony M.; Harris, Seth F.; Hébert, Normand; Hendle, Jörg; Hopkins, Stephanie; Jefferson, Elizabeth; Kissinger, Charles; Leveque, Vincent; Marciano, David; McGee, Ethel; Nájera, Isabel; Nolan, Brian; Tomimoto, Masaki; Torres, Eduardo; Wright, Tobi (SGX); (Roche)

    2009-07-22

    Non-nucleoside inhibitors of HCV NS5b RNA polymerase were discovered by a fragment-based lead discovery approach, beginning with crystallographic fragment screening. The NS5b binding affinity and biochemical activity of fragment hits and inhibitors was determined by surface plasmon resonance (Biacore) and an enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Crystallographic fragment screening hits with {approx}1-10 mM binding affinity (K{sub D}) were iteratively optimized to give leads with {approx}200 nM biochemical activity and low {micro}M cellular activity in a Replicon assay.

  12. NS5 Brane and Little String Duality in the pp-wave Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Matlock, P; Viswanathan, K S; Yang, Y

    2003-01-01

    We study NSR strings in the Nappi-Witten background, which is the Penrose limit of a certain NS5-brane supergravity solution. We solve the theory in the light-cone gauge, obtaining the spectrum, which is space-time supersymmetric. In light of the LST/NS5-brane duality, this spectrum should be in correspondence with the states of little string theory in the appropriate limit. A semiclassical analysis verifies that the relationship between energy and angular momentum, after a field redefinition, matches that found for a flat background.

  13. Hagedorn Behavior of Little String Theories from string corrections to NS5-branes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmark, Troels; Obers, N. A.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the Hagedorn behavior of little string theory using its conjectured duality with near-horizon NS5-branes. In particular, by studying the string-corrected NS5-brane supergravity solution, it is shown that tree-level corrections to the temperature vanish, while the leading one-loop string...... correction generates the correct temperature dependence of the entropy near the Hagedorn temperature. Finally, the Hagedorn behavior of ODp-brane theories, which are deformed versions of little string theory, is considered via their supergravity duals....

  14. Zika virus NS1 structure reveals diversity of electrostatic surfaces among flaviviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hao; Qi, Jianxun; Haywood, Joel; Shi, Yi; Gao, George F

    2016-05-01

    The association of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections with microcephaly has resulted in an ongoing public-health emergency. Here we report the crystal structure of a C-terminal fragment of ZIKV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1), a major host-interaction molecule that functions in flaviviral replication, pathogenesis and immune evasion. Comparison with West Nile and dengue virus NS1 structures reveals conserved features but diverse electrostatic characteristics at host-interaction interfaces, thus possibly implying different modes of flavivirus pathogenesis. PMID:27088990

  15. Development and Characterization of a High Sensitivity Segmented Fast Neutron Spectrometer (FaNS-2)

    OpenAIRE

    FaNS Collaboration; Langford, T. J.; Beise, E. J.; Breuer, H.; Heimbach, C. R.; Ji, G; Nico, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    We present the development of a segmented fast neutron spectrometer (FaNS-2) based upon plastic scintillator and $^3$He proportional counters. It was designed to measure both the flux and spectrum of fast neutrons in the energy range of few MeV to 1 GeV. FaNS-2 utilizes capture-gated spectroscopy to identify neutron events and reject backgrounds. Neutrons deposit energy in the plastic scintillator before capturing on a $^3$He nucleus in the proportional counters. Segmentation improves neutron...

  16. Research and development of ns pulse width ultrafast pulsed power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High repetition rate, nanosecond pulse width fast pulsed power supply is a key technology to be overcome for particle accelerator fast kicker injection and ejection. In this paper, inductive adder topology, the RF MOSFET and its driver circuit were studied by computer simulation and table circuit experiment. On the basis of theory research, a ten-grade inductive adder pulsed power supply evaluating prototype was developed. The preliminary test of the prototype was completed. A ten-grade adder can produce a short pulse of pulse amplitude >4.3 kV, front edge <2.8 ns, and pulse width <9 ns into 50 Ω at 500 Hz repetition rate. (authors)

  17. Appearance-Disappearance Relation in 3+$N_{s}$ Short-Baseline Neutrino Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Giunti, C

    2015-01-01

    We derive the relation between the amplitudes of short-baseline appearance and disappearance oscillations in 3+$N_{s}$ neutrino mixing schemes which is the origin of the appearance-disappearance tension that is found from the analysis of the existing data in any 3+$N_{s}$ neutrino mixing scheme. We illustrate the power of the relation to reveal the appearance-disappearance tension in the cases of 3+1 and 3+2 mixing using the results of a global fit of short-baseline neutrino oscillation data.

  18. Searching for more effective HCV NS3 protease inhibitors via modification of corilagin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yue; YANG Xiaosheng; LI Zhengquan; ZHANG Wei; CHEN Lirong; XU Xiaojie

    2005-01-01

    Corilagin was seperated from extract of Phyllanthus urinaria L. and used as the precursor of inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 serine protease. Six derivatives were obtained through the chemical modification of corilagin and their structures were elucidated by the spectra analysis. Bioassay of these compounds showed that two of them had improved inhibitory efficiency than the precursor, with IC50 values of 2.28 μmol/L and 1.52 μmol/L, respectively. The binding mode of two active compounds with substrate binding site of HCV NS3 protease was also investigated by molecular docking method.

  19. Brightness limitations in multi-kiloampere electron beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuristic relationships such as the Lawson-Penner criterion, used to scale Free Electron Laser (FEL) amplifier gain and efficiency over orders of magnitude in beam current and brightness, have no fundamental basis. The brightness of a given source is set by practical design choices such as peak voltage, cathode type, gun electrode geometry, and focusing field topology. The design of low emittance, high current electron guns has received considerable attention at Livermore over the past few years. The measured brightnesses of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) and Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) guns are less than predicted with the EBQ gun design code; this discrepancy is due to plasma effects from the present cold, plasma cathode in the code. The EBQ code is well suited to exploring the current limits of gridless relativistic Pierce columns with moderate current density (2) at the cathode. As EBQ uses a steady-state calculation it is not amenable for study of transient phenomena at the beam head. For this purpose, a Darwin approximation code, DPC, has been written. The main component in our experimental cathode development effort is a readily modified electron gun that will allow us to test many candidate cathode materials, types and electrode geometries at field stresses up to 1 MV/cm. 6 references, 6 figures

  20. Night-sky brightness and extinction at Mt. Shatdzhatmaz

    CERN Document Server

    Kornilov, V; Voziakova, O; Shatsky, N; Safonov, B; Gorbunov, I; Potanin, S; Cheryasov, D; Senik, V

    2016-01-01

    The photometric sky quality of Mt. Shatdzhatmaz, the site of Sternberg Astronomical Institute Caucasian Observatory 2.5 m telescope, is characterized here by the statistics of the night-time sky brightness and extinction. The data were obtained as a by-product of atmospheric optical turbulence measurements with the MASS (Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor) device conducted in 2007--2013. The factors biasing night-sky brightness measurements are considered and a technique to reduce their impact on the statistics is proposed. The single-band photometric estimations provided by MASS are easy to transform to the standard photometric bands. The median moonless night-sky brightness is 22.1, 21.1, 20.3, and 19.0 mag per square arcsec for the $B$, $V$, $R$, and $I$ spectral bands, respectively. The median extinction coefficients for the same photometric bands are 0.28, 0.17, 0.13, and 0.09 mag. The best atmospheric transparency is observed in winter.

  1. Bright Soil Churned by Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove 22.7 meters (74 feet) toward the southwest on the 1,861st Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on Mars (March 28, 2009). After the drive, the rover took this image with its front hazard-avoidance camera, looking back at the tracks from the drive. As usual since losing the use of its right-front wheel in 2006, Spirit drove backwards. The immobile right-front wheel churned up a long stripe of bright soil during this drive. Where Spirit has found such bright soil in the past, subsequent analysis of the composition found concentrations of sulfur or silica that testified to past action of water at the site. When members of the rover team saw the large quantity of bright soil exposed by the Sol 1861 drive, they quickly laid plans to investigate the composition with Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. The Sol 1861 drive took the rover past the northwest corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate,' making progress on a route around the western side of Home Plate. The edge of Home Plate forms the horizon on the right side of this image. Husband Hill is on the horizon on the left side. For scale, the parallel rover wheel tracks are about 1 meter (40 inches) apart. The rover's hazard-avoidance cameras take 'fisheye' wide-angle images.

  2. HSV Brightness Factor Matching for Gesture Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar M. Hasan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of gesture recognition research is to establish a system which can identify specific human gestures and use these identified gestures to be carried out by the machine, In this paper, we introduce a new method for gesture recognition that based on computing the local brightness for each block of the gesture image, the gesture image is divided into 25x25 blocks each of 5x5 block size, and we calculated the local brightness of each block, so, each gesture produces 25x25 features value, our experimental shows that more that %60 of these features are zero value which leads to minimum storage space, this brightness value is calculated from the HSV (Hue, Saturation and Value color model that used for segmentation operation, the recognition rate achieved is %91 using 36 training gestures and 24 different testing gestures. This Paper focuses on the hand gesture instead of the whole body movement since hands are the most flexible part of the body and can transfer the most meaning, we build a gesture recognition system that can communicate with the machine in natural way without any mechanical devices and without using the normal input devices which are the keyboard and mouse and the mathematical equations will be the translator between the gestures and the telerobotic.

  3. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies: Evolution in Isolation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Das

    2013-03-01

    Giant Low Surface Brightness (GLSB) galaxies are amongst the most massive spiral galaxies that we know of in our Universe. Although they fall in the class of late type spiral galaxies, their properties are far more extreme. They have very faint stellar disks that are extremely rich in neutral hydrogen gas but low in star formation and hence low in surface brightness. They often have bright bulges that are similar to those found in early type galaxies. The bulges can host low luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that have relatively low mass black holes. GLSB galaxies are usually isolated systems and are rarely found to be interacting with other galaxies. In fact many GLSB galaxies are found under dense regions close to the edges of voids. These galaxies have very massive dark matter halos that also contribute to their stability and lack of evolution. In this paper we briefly review the properties of this unique class of galaxies and conclude that both their isolation and their massive dark matter halos have led to the low star formation rates and the slower rate of evolution in these galaxies.

  4. South African night sky brightness during high aerosol epochs

    CERN Document Server

    Winkler, Hartmut; Marang, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Sky conditions in the remote, dry north-western interior of South Africa are now the subject of considerable interest in view of the imminent construction of numerous solar power plants in this area. Furthermore, the part of this region in which the core of the SKA is to be located (which includes SALT) has been declared an Astronomical Advantage Zone, for which sky brightness monitoring will now be mandatory. In this project we seek to characterise the sky brightness profile under a variety of atmospheric conditions. Key factors are of course the lunar phase and altitude, but in addition the sky brightness is also significantly affected by the atmospheric aerosol loading, as that influences light beam scattering. In this paper we chose to investigate the sky characteristics soon after the Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption in 1991, which resulted in huge ash masses reaching the stratosphere (where they affected solar irradiance for several years). We re-reduced photometric sky measurements from the South Afric...

  5. BRITE-Constellation: nanosatellites for precision photometry of bright stars

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, W W; Moffat, A F J; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A; Koudelka, O F; Grant, C C; Zee, R E; Kuschnig, R; Mochnacki, St; Matthews, J M; Orleanski, P; Pamyatnykh, A; Pigulski, A; Alves, J; Guedel, M; Handler, G; Wade, G A; Zwintz, K; CCD,

    2014-01-01

    BRITE-Constellation (where BRITE stands for BRIght Target Explorer) is an international nanosatellite mission to monitor photometrically, in two colours, the brightness and temperature variations of stars generally brighter than mag(V) ~ 4, with precision and time coverage not possible from the ground. The current mission design consists of six nanosats (hence Constellation): two from Austria, two from Canada, and two from Poland. Each 7 kg nanosat carries an optical telescope of aperture 3 cm feeding an uncooled CCD. One instrument in each pair is equipped with a blue filter, the other with a red filter. Each BRITE instrument has a wide field of view (~24 degrees), so up to about 15 bright stars can be observed simultaneously, sampled in 32 pixel x 32 pixel sub-rasters. Photometry of additional fainter targets, with reduced precision but thorough time sampling, will be possible through onboard data processing. The BRITE sample is dominated by the most intrinsically luminous stars: massive stars seen at all e...

  6. Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein modulates template selection by the RNA polymerase in in vitro system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Alexander V; Tunitskaya, Vera L; Ivanova, Olga N; Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Prassolov, Vladimir S; Makarov, Alexander A; Kukhanova, Marina K; Kochetkov, Sergey N

    2009-01-22

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A phosphoprotein is a component of virus replicase. Here we demonstrate that in vitro unphosphorylated NS5A protein inhibits HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity in polyA-oligoU system but has little effect on synthesis of viral RNA. The phosphorylated casein kinase (CK) II NS5A protein causes the opposite effect on RdRp in each of these systems. The phosphorylation of NS5A protein with CKII does not affect its affinity to the HCV RdRp and RNA. The NS5A phosphorylation with CKI does not change the RdRp activity. Herein we report evidence that the NS5A prevents template binding to the RdRp.

  7. Characterization of influenza virus variants with different sizes of the non-structural (NS) genes and their potential as live influenza vaccine in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influenza virus isolate A/turkey/Oregon/71-delNS1 (H7N3) has a 10 nucleotide deletion in the coding region of the NS1 gene and as a result produces a truncated NS1 protein. From a stock of this virus, we found that several variants with different sizes of the NS genes exist. The number of varian...

  8. Hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease inhibits complement activation by cleaving complement component 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichi Mawatari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is mediated in part by viral proteins that abrogate the host immune response, including the complement system, but the precise mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated whether HCV proteins are involved in the fragmentation of complement component 4 (C4, composed of subunits C4α, C4β, and C4γ, and the role of HCV proteins in complement activation. METHODS: Human C4 was incubated with HCV nonstructural (NS 3/4A protease, core, or NS5. Samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and then subjected to peptide sequencing. The activity of the classical complement pathway was examined using an erythrocyte hemolysis assay. The cleavage pattern of C4 in NS3/4A-expressing and HCV-infected cells, respectively, was also examined. RESULTS: HCV NS3/4A protease cleaved C4γ in a concentration-dependent manner, but viral core and NS5 did not. A specific inhibitor of NS3/4A protease reduced C4γ cleavage. NS3/4A protease-mediated cleavage of C4 inhibited classical pathway activation, which was abrogated by a NS3/4A protease inhibitor. In addition, co-transfection of cells with C4 and wild-type NS3/4A, but not a catalytic-site mutant of NS3/4A, produced cleaved C4γ fragments. Such C4 processing, with a concomitant reduction in levels of full-length C4γ, was also observed in HCV-infected cells expressing C4. CONCLUSIONS: C4 is a novel cellular substrate of the HCV NS3/4A protease. Understanding disturbances in the complement system mediated by NS3/4A protease may provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying persistent HCV infection.

  9. Identification of a lead like inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus non-structural NS2 autoprotease

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Joseph; Harris, Mark; Fishwick, Colin W. G.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 2 (NS2) encodes an autoprotease activity that is essential for virus replication and thus represents an attractive anti-viral target. Recently, we demonstrated that a series of epoxide-based compounds, previously identified as potent inhibitors of the clotting factor, FXIII, also inhibited NS2-mediated proteolysis in vitro and possessed anti-viral activity in cell culture models. This suggested that a selective small molecule inhibitor of the NS2...

  10. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 1; Setup_BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the first volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User's Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running Setup_BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the Setup_BFaNS computer program.

  11. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 2; BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the second volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the BFaNS computer program.

  12. Comparison of two dengue NS1 rapid tests for sensitivity, specificity and relationship to viraemia and antibody responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrar Jeremy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Rapid and easy diagnosis of dengue can assist patient triage and care-management. The detection of DENV NS1 on rapid lateral flow tests offers a fast route to a presumptive dengue diagnosis but careful evaluations are urgently needed as more and more people use them. Methods The sensitivity and specificity of the Bio-Rad NS1 Ag Strip and SD Dengue Duo (NS1/IgM/IgG lateral flow rapid tests were evaluated in a panel of plasma samples from 245 Vietnamese patients with RT-PCR confirmed dengue and 47 with other febrile illnesses. Results The NS1 rapid tests had similar diagnostic sensitivities (respectively 61.6% and 62.4% in confirmed dengue cases but were 100% specific. When IgM/IgG results from the SD Dengue Duo were included in the test interpretation, the sensitivity improved significantly from 62.4% with NS1 alone to 75.5% when NS1 and/or IgM was positive and 83.7% when NS1 and/or IgM and/or IgG was positive. Both NS1 assays were significantly more sensitive for primary than secondary dengue. NS1 positivity was associated with the underlying viraemia as NS1-positive samples had a significantly higher viraemia than NS1-negative samples. Conclusions These data suggest that the NS1 test component of these assays are highly specific and have similar levels of sensitivity. The IgM parameter in the SD Duo test improved overall test sensitivity without compromising specificity. The SD Dengue Duo lateral flow rapid test deserves further prospective evaluation in dengue endemic settings.

  13. Two-dimensional bright and dark-in-bright dipolar Bose–Einstein condensate solitons on a one-dimensional optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    We study the statics and dynamics of anisotropic, stable, bright and dark-in-bright dipolar quasi-two-dimensional Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) solitons on a one-dimensional (1D) optical-lattice (OL) potential. These solitons mobile in a plane perpendicular to a 1D OL trap can have both repulsive and attractive contact interactions. Dark-in-bright solitons are the excited states of bright solitons. The solitons, when subjected to a small perturbation, exhibit sustained breathing oscillation. Dark-in-bright solitons can be created by phase imprinting a bright soliton. At medium velocities the collision between two solitons is found to be quasi-elastic. Results are demonstrated by a numerical simulation of the three-dimensional mean-field Gross–Pitaevskii equation in three spatial dimensions employing realistic interaction parameters for a dipolar 164Dy BEC.

  14. Stable non-synonymous substitutions on NS gene (NS1 and NS2 proteins) of Qinghai lake H5N1 influenza virus (Clade 2.2) after successive passages in Muscovy ducks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG XiaoHui; HUANG Yu; XIAO HaiXia; LIU Di; GAO George F.

    2009-01-01

    Although worldwide concern has been raised since the large-scale outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild birds at Qinghai Lake, China in 2005, the factors responsible for the ability to kill watertowl remain unclear. The why and how questions of the H5N1 virus species-jump into its reservoir host need to be answered. In this report we test the pathogenicity and adaptation of Qinghai Lake (Clade 2.2) isolate to Muscovy ducks for further understanding of this virus. The isolate was highly pathogenic in ducks and retained its high pathogenicity even after 20 generations of passage in ducks. During the process of serial passages, only the NS gene developed non-synonymous substitutions, which caused two mutations in NSl protein (Va123Ala and Leu207Pro) and one in NS2 (Phe55Leu). These mutations persisted immutably through all subsequent passages and the pathogenicity remained high, implying that highly pathogenic H5N1 virus remains stable in aquatic birds through oral transmission. Although the exact functions of these mutations are not known, our results provide an important foundation for further understanding the characteristics of the Qinghai Lake isolates.

  15. Screening of hepatocyte proteins binding to NS5ABP37 protein by yeast-two hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biological function of NS5ABP37 and to look for proteins interacting with NS5ABP37 protein in hepatocytes.Methods We constructed bait plasmid expressing NS5ABP37 protein of hepatitis C virus(HCV)by cloning the gene of NS5ABP37 protein into pGBKT7,then the recombinant plasmid DNA was transformed into yeast AH109(α type).The transformed yeast AH109 was mated with yeast Y187(α type)containing liver cDNA library plasmid in 2×YPDA medium.Diploid yeast was plated on synthetic dropout ...

  16. Detection of antibodies against porcine parvovirus nonstructural protein NS1 may distinguish between vaccinated and infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Eva Smedegaard; Madsen, Knud Gert; Nielsen, Jens;

    1997-01-01

    The humoral antibody response against the nonstructural protein NS1 and the structural protein VP2 of porcine parvovirus (PPV) was evaluated by immuno-peroxidase test (IPT) and enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant PPV antigens. The coding sequence for NS1 and VP2 was inser......The humoral antibody response against the nonstructural protein NS1 and the structural protein VP2 of porcine parvovirus (PPV) was evaluated by immuno-peroxidase test (IPT) and enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant PPV antigens. The coding sequence for NS1 and VP2...

  17. Expression and Identification of Inclusion Forming-related Domain of NS80 Nonstructural Protein of Grass Carp Reovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao FAN; Lan-lan ZHANG; Cheng-feng LEI; Qin FANG

    2009-01-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a double stranded RNA virus that infects aquatic animals, often with disastrous effects, belongs to the genus Aquareovirus and family Reoviridea. Similar to other reoviruses, genome replication of GCRV in infected cells occurs in cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, also called viral factories. Sequences analysis revealed the nonstructural protein NS80, encoded by GCRV segment 4, has a high similarity with uNS in MRV(Mammalian orthoreoviruses), which may be associated with viral factory formation. To understand the function of the uNS80 protein in virus replication, the initial expression and identification of the immunogenicity of the GCRV NS80 protein inclusion forming-related region (335.742) was investigated in this study. It is shown that the over-expressed fusion protein was produced by inducing with IPTG at 28oC. In addition, serum specific rabbit antibody was obtained by using super purified recombinant NS80(335.742) protein as antigen. Moreover, the expressed protein was able to bind to anti-his-tag monoclonal antibody (mouse) and NS80(335-742) specific rabbit antibody. Further western blot analysis indicates that the antiserum could detect NS80 or NS80C protein expression in GCRV infected cells. This data provides a foundation for further investigation of the role of NS80 in viral inclusion formation and virion assembly.

  18. High-affinity DNA binding sites for H-NS provide a molecular basis for selective silencing within proteobacterial genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Benjamin; Blot, Nicolas; Bouffartigues, Emeline; Buckle, Malcolm; Geertz, Marcel; Gualerzi, Claudio O.; Mavathur, Ramesh; Muskhelishvili, Georgi; Pon, Cynthia L.; Rimsky, Sylvie; Stella, Stefano; Babu, M. Madan; Travers, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The global transcriptional regulator H-NS selectively silences bacterial genes associated with pathogenicity and responses to environmental insults. Although there is ample evidence that H-NS binds preferentially to DNA containing curved regions, we show here that a major basis for this selectivity is the presence of a conserved sequence motif in H-NS target transcriptons. We further show that there is a strong tendency for the H-NS binding sites to be clustered, both within operons and in ge...

  19. Efficacy of a single sequence of intermittent bright light pulses for delaying circadian phase in humans. : Phase delaying efficacy of intermittent bright light

    OpenAIRE

    Gronfier, Claude; Wright, Kenneth,; Kronauer, Richard,; Jewett, Megan,; Czeisler, Charles,

    2004-01-01

    International audience It has been shown in animal studies that exposure to brief pulses of bright light can phase shift the circadian pacemaker and that the resetting action of light is most efficient during the first minutes of light exposure. In humans, multiple consecutive days of exposure to brief bright light pulses have been shown to phase shift the circadian pacemaker. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a single sequence of brief bright light pulses administered ...

  20. Collision induced splitting of bright soliton in Bose-Einstein condensate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yue-Yue; Zhang Jie-Fang

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the collision dynamics of bright soliton in Bose-Einstein condensate with trapezoid potential. It is found that besides the total reflection and total transmission, one bright soliton can be divided into two bright solitons with different amplitudes in a controllable manner.

  1. 甲型流感病毒NS1抗原捕获ELISA的建立%Antigen capture ELISA for specific detection of influenza A virus NS1 protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁细霞; Hoi-wah Tsoi; 丘立文; 王压娣; 袁国勇; 车小燕

    2010-01-01

    目的 建立基于单克隆抗体的甲型流感病毒非结构蛋白1(NS1)抗原检测的酶联免疫吸附(ELISA)法.方法 用甲型流感病毒NS1特异性单克隆抗体,通过抗体的优化组合,建立双抗体夹心抗原捕获ELISA,检测不同来源的流感病毒及副流感病毒.结果 对多种抗体组合进行反复筛选,最终确定了特异性检测到甲型流感病毒的NS1蛋白,而与乙型流感病毒和副流感病毒不发生交叉反应的最佳抗体组合.该方法 检测重组H5N1-NS1[A/HongKong/486/97(H5N1)-NS1和A/Vietnam/1194/04(H5N1)-NS1]蛋白的灵敏度最低检测值分别为15.6 ng/ml和240 pg/ml.结论 成功建立了甲型流感病毒NS1抗原捕获ELISA,为建立甲型流感病毒感染早期诊断新方法 奠定基础.%Objective To develop a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for influenza A virus nonstructural protein NS1 using two anti-NS1 monoclonal antibodies(McAb) that map to distinct sites on the protein and to detect the NS1 in the culture supernatant and cell lysis supernatant of influenza virus. Methods Among the McAb against influenza A virus NS1, antibody pairs were analyzed to choose the optimal coating McAb and detecting McAb by determinating the detection sensitivity and specificity. Results The capture ELISA efficiently detected as little as 240 pg/ml of recombinant NS1 protein and exhibited no cross-reactivity for influenza B virus, parainfluenza virus NS1. Conclusion A sensitive and specific NS1-based capture ELISA for influenza A virus NS1 was successfully established, which could be an important tool for diagnosis of influenza A virus infection.

  2. Yrityksen informatiivinen näytönsäästäja

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöstedt, Ilkka

    2007-01-01

    Alun perin näytönsäästäjät olivat hyötysovelluksia, joiden tarkoitus oli piden-tää monitorin käyttöikää. Tässä mielessä näytönsäästäjät ovat menettäneet merkityksensä, mutta ne voivat edelleen toimia hyötysovelluksina. Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee näytönsäästäjien hyödyntämistä tiedonvälityksessä. Työn tarkoituksena on tutkia periaatteita sekä menetelmiä, joiden avulla näy-tönsäästäjiä voidaan hyödyntää informaation välityksessä, sekä menetelmiä ja tekniikoita keskitetyn sisällönhallinnan tot...

  3. Method to quantify the electrical efficiency of a ns-DBD plasma actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avallone, F.; Correale, G.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on the effective efficiency of a nanosecond Dielectric Barrier Discharge (ns-DBD) plasma actuator. Back-current shunt technique and infrared thermography measurements were carried out at the same time on an upside-down flat plate in a quiescent environment

  4. An Exploratory Study of Criticism Realization Strategies Used By NS and NNS of New Zealand English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Thuy Minh

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how a group of learners of English as a second language (ESL) criticize in everyday situations compared to the native speaker (NS) with a view to expanding the range of speech acts under inquiry in the interlanguage pragmatics (ILP) literature. Data were collected from five NSs of New Zealand English and five intermediate…

  5. Decreasing the infusion rate reduces the proarrhythmic risk of NS-7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detre, Elke; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Beekman, Jet D;

    2005-01-01

    1 The rate of infusion has been suggested to be important for drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP) arrhythmias. We investigated the repolarisation-prolonging effects and proarrhythmic properties of NS-7, a neuroprotective drug in development, using two different infusion rates. 2 A fast (5 min...... intravenously (i.v.)) escalating dosing regimen (0.3 and 3.0 mg kg(-1), n=4) of NS-7 was investigated in anaesthetised control dogs in sinus rhythm (SR). This was compared to a slow infusion (60 min i.v.) of one dose (3.0 mg kg(-1), n=4) NS-7. The similar dosing regimens were investigated in anaesthetised dogs...... with chronic, complete AV block (CAVB), an animal model of TdP (n=6). 3 No electrophysiological effects were seen after 0.3 mg kg(-1) NS-7. Fast infusion of 3.0 mg kg(-1) caused prolongation of repolarisation, for example, heart rate corrected QT interval (QT(c)): in SR: 6+/-1%; in CAVB: 10+/-7%, which...

  6. Natural suppressor (NS) cells, neonatal tolerance, and total lymphoid irradiation: exploring obscure relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although several laboratories have shown that the appearance of naturally occurring suppressor cells in the spleens of neonatal or irradiated mice is temporarily related to the ease of induction of tolerance, the characteristics of these cells and their regulatory functions have been poorly understood until recently. The experimental data reviewed herein suggests that these cells are related to NK cells with regard to surface phenotype but differ with regard to function. The natural suppressor (NS) cells appear only briefly during the early maturation of the lymphoid tissues but can be induced in adults by manipulation of the lymphoid tissues with certain treatment regimens such as total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). In addition, the NS cells can be propagated and cloned in long-term tissue culture, thereby allowing a more detailed investigation of their properties. The cells have the unique feature of inhibiting the antigen-specific cytolytic arm of alloreactive immune responses but leaving intact the antigen-specific suppressive arm. In this way, alloreactions in the regulatory milieu of NS cells generate large numbers of antigen-specific suppressor cells that can maintain tolerance in vivo. Thus the NS cells may play an important role in the development of host-vs-graft and graft-vs-host tolerance in allogeneic bone marrow chimeras during the ''window'' of tolerance in which neonate and TLI-treated mice accept the infused allogeneic cells. 70 references

  7. Hansa: an automated method for discriminating disease and neutral human nsSNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Vishal; Nagarajaram, Hampapathalu A

    2012-02-01

    Variations are mostly due to nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs), some of which are associated with certain diseases. Phenotypic effects of a large number of nsSNPs have not been characterized. Although several methods have been developed to predict the effects of nsSNPs as "disease" or "neutral," there is still a need for development of methods with improved prediction accuracies. We, therefore, developed a support vector machine (SVM) based method named Hansa which uses a novel set of discriminatory features to classify nsSNPs into disease (pathogenic) and benign (neutral) types. Validation studies on a benchmark dataset and further on an independent dataset of well-characterized known disease and neutral mutations show that Hansa outperforms the other known methods. For example, fivefold cross-validation studies using the benchmark HumVar dataset reveal that at the false positive rate (FPR) of 20% Hansa yields a true positive rate (TPR) of 82% that is about 10% higher than the best-known method. Hansa is available in the form of a web server at http://hansa.cdfd.org.in:8080.

  8. Detection of dengue nonstructural 1 (NS1) protein in Vietnamese patients with fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L. Phuong; K.T.D. Thai; T.T.T. Nga; P.T. Giao; L.Q. Hung; T.Q. Binh; N.V. Nam; J. Groen; P.J. de Vries

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic dengue in febrile patients is challenging. Of a total of 459 patients with acute undifferentiated fever, randomly selected from 12 primary health facilities and 1 clinic of the provincial malaria station in southern Vietnam, dengue-specific antibody (Ab) and NS1 Ag enzyme-linked immunosor

  9. SPS Injection and Beam Quality for LHC Heavy Ions With 150 ns Kicker Rise Time

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, Brennan; Ducimetière, Laurent; Kotzian, Gerd; Uythoven, Jan; Velotti, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project for LHC heavy ions, the SPS injection kicker system rise time needs reduction below its present 225 ns. One technically challenging option under consideration is the addition of fast Pulse Forming Lines in parallel to the existing Pulse Forming Networks for the 12 kicker magnets MKP-S, targeting a system field rise time of 100 ns. An alternative option is to optimise the system to approach the existing individual magnet field rise time (2-98%) of 150 ns. This would still significantly increase the number of colliding bunches in LHC while minimising the cost and effort of the system upgrade. The observed characteristics of the present system are described, compared to the expected system rise time, together with results of simulations and measurements with 175 and 150 ns injection batch spacing. The expected beam quality at injection into LHC is quantified, with the emittance growth and simulated tail population taking into account expected jitter and synchronisatio...

  10. Quantification of NS1 dengue biomarker in serum via optomagnetic nanocluster detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antunes, Paula Soares Martins; Watterson, Daniel; Parmvi, Mattias;

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a tropical vector-borne disease without cure or vaccine that progressively spreads into regions with temperate climates. Diagnostic tools amenable to resource-limited settings would be highly valuable for epidemiologic control and containment during outbreaks. Here, we present a novel low......-cost automated biosensing platform for detection of dengue fever biomarker NS1 and demonstrate it on NS1 spiked in human serum. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are coated with high-affinity monoclonal antibodies against NS1 via bio-orthogonal Cu-free 'click' chemistry on an anti-fouling surface molecular...... method. The resulting automated dengue fever assay takes just 8 minutes, requires 6 μL of serum sample and shows a limit of detection of 25 ng/mL with an upper detection range of 20000 ng/mL. The technology holds a great potential to be applied to NS1 detection in patient samples. As the assay...

  11. The NS3 protein of rice hoja blanca virus suppresses RNA silencing in mammalian cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnettler, E.; Hemmes, J.C.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    The NS3 protein of the tenuivirus rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV) has previously been shown to represent the viral RNA interference (RNAi) suppressor and is active in both plant and insect cells by binding short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in vitro. Using a firefly luciferase-based silencing assay it is

  12. Structural Basis for dsRNA Recognition by NS1 Protein of Influenza A Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, A.; Wong, S; Yuan, Y

    2009-01-01

    Influenza A viruses are important human pathogens causing periodic pandemic threats. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) protein of influenza A virus (NS1A) shields the virus against host defense. Here, we report the crystal structure of NS1A RNA-binding domain (RBD) bound to a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) at 1.7A. NS1A RBD forms a homodimer to recognize the major groove of A-form dsRNA in a length-independent mode by its conserved concave surface formed by dimeric anti-parallel alpha-helices. dsRNA is anchored by a pair of invariable arginines (Arg38) from both monomers by extensive hydrogen bonds. In accordance with the structural observation, isothermal titration calorimetry assay shows that the unique Arg38-Arg38 pair and two Arg35-Arg46 pairs are crucial for dsRNA binding, and that Ser42 and Thr49 are also important for dsRNA binding. Agrobacterium co-infiltration assay further supports that the unique Arg38 pair plays important roles in dsRNA binding in vivo.

  13. Higher derivative corrections to WZ action: One RR, one NSNS and one NS couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In the first part of this paper, we calculate the disk-level S-matrix elements of one RR, one NSNS and one NS vertex operators, and show that they are consistent with the amplitudes that have been recently found by applying various Ward identities. We show that the massless poles of the amplitude at low energy are fully consistent with the known D-brane couplings at order $\\alpha'^2$ which involve one RR or NSNS and two NS fields. Subtracting the massless poles, we then find the contact terms of one RR, one NSNS and one NS fields at order $\\alpha'^2$. Some of these terms are reproduced by the Taylor expansion and the pull-back of two closed string couplings, some other couplings are reproduced by linear graviton in the second fundamental form and by the B-field in the gauge field extension $F\\rightarrow F+B$, in one closed and two open string couplings. In the second part, we write all independent covariant contractions of one RR, one NSNS and one NS fields with unknown coefficients. We then constrain the cou...

  14. Gamma-Rays and Neutron Spectrometers NS HEND -- Tool for Study of Phobos Surface Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A. A.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Rogozhin, A. A.; Sanin, A. B.; Schulz, R.; Schvetsov, V. N.; Tretyakov, V. I.; Vostrukhin, A. V.

    2009-03-01

    NS HEND instrument, as the part of “Phobos-Grunt” mission, will be able to provide observational data for composition of Phobos regolith and content of natural radioactive elements K, U and Th, and also for content of hydrogen or water ice in the Phobos subsurface.

  15. TO THE 120 YEARS OF PROFESSOR N.S. EFRON'S BIRTHDAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Jacupov

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article you will find N.S. Efron,s bibliographic data and his scientific contribution in the development of native dermatology and venerology in the period of his working in the Nicolas Imperial University and State Venerology Institution (Moscow.

  16. Interplay between the bacterial nucleoid protein H-NS and macromolecular crowding in compacting DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintraecken, C.H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

      In this dissertation we discuss H-NS and its connection to nucleoid compaction and organization. Nucleoid formation involves a dramatic reduction in coil volume of the genomic DNA. Four factors are thought to influence coil volume: supercoiling, DNA charge neutralization, macromolecular crow

  17. Implementation of Steganographic Method Based on IPv4 Identification Field over NS-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Kheddar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present first a study of covert channels (steganography that may be applied for each TCP/IP layer in VoIP application. Then, we present a steganographic method which hide secret data in IP protocol header fields, particularly the identification field. The IP protocol covert channel implementation was carried out in NS-3 (Network Simulator 3.

  18. Evidence that avian reovirus σNS is an RNA chaperone: implications for genome segment assortment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodavka, Alexander; Ault, James; Stockley, Peter G; Tuma, Roman

    2015-08-18

    Reoviruses are important human, animal and plant pathogens having 10-12 segments of double-stranded genomic RNA. The mechanisms controlling the assortment and packaging of genomic segments in these viruses, remain poorly understood. RNA-protein and RNA-RNA interactions between viral genomic segment precursors have been implicated in the process. While non-structural viral RNA-binding proteins, such as avian reovirus σNS, are essential for virus replication, the mechanism by which they assist packaging is unclear. Here we demonstrate that σNS assembles into stable elongated hexamers in vitro, which bind single-stranded nucleic acids with high affinity, but little sequence specificity. Using ensemble and single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, we show that σNS also binds to a partially double-stranded RNA, resulting in gradual helix unwinding. The hexamer can bind multiple RNA molecules and exhibits strand-annealing activity, thus mediating conversion of metastable, intramolecular stem-loops into more stable heteroduplexes. We demonstrate that the ARV σNS acts as an RNA chaperone facilitating specific RNA-RNA interactions between genomic precursors during segment assortment and packaging.

  19. Phage encoded H-NS: a potential achilles heel in the bacterial defence system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor T Skennerton

    Full Text Available The relationship between phage and their microbial hosts is difficult to elucidate in complex natural ecosystems. Engineered systems performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR, offer stable, lower complexity communities for studying phage-host interactions. Here, metagenomic data from an EBPR reactor dominated by Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (CAP, led to the recovery of three complete and six partial phage genomes. Heat-stable nucleoid structuring (H-NS protein, a global transcriptional repressor in bacteria, was identified in one of the complete phage genomes (EPV1, and was most similar to a homolog in CAP. We infer that EPV1 is a CAP-specific phage and has the potential to repress up to 6% of host genes based on the presence of putative H-NS binding sites in the CAP genome. These genes include CRISPR associated proteins and a Type III restriction-modification system, which are key host defense mechanisms against phage infection. Further, EPV1 was the only member of the phage community found in an EBPR microbial metagenome collected seven months prior. We propose that EPV1 laterally acquired H-NS from CAP providing it with a means to reduce bacterial defenses, a selective advantage over other phage in the EBPR system. Phage encoded H-NS could constitute a previously unrecognized weapon in the phage-host arms race.

  20. Portulaca oleracea L. as a Prospective Candidate Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Serine Protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Sobia; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Tariq, Muhammad Ilyas; Ijaz, Bushra; Iqbal, Shahid; Qamar-ul-Zaman; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide health problem affecting about 300 million individuals. HCV causes chronic liver disease, liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. Many side effects are associated with the current treatment options. Natural products that can be used as anti-HCV drugs are thus of considerable potential significance. NS3 serine protease (NS3-SP) is a target for the screening of antiviral activity against HCV. The present work explores plants with anti-HCV potential, isolating possible lead compounds. Ten plants, used for medicinal purposes against different infections in rural areas of Pakistan, were collected. The cellular toxicity effects of methanolic extracts of the plants on the viability of Huh-7 cells were studied through the Trypan blue dye exclusion method. Following this, the anti-HCV potential of phytoextracts was assessed by infecting liver cells with HCV-3a-infected serum inoculum. Only the methanolic extract of Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) exhibited more than 70% inhibition. Four fractions were obtained through bioassay-guided extraction of PO. Subsequent inhibition of all organic extract fractions against NS3 serine protease was checked to track the specific target in the virus. The results showed that the PO methanolic crude and ethyl acetate extract specifically abridged the HCV NS3 protease expression in a dose-dependent fashion. Hence, PO extract and its constituents either alone or with interferon could offer a future option to treat chronic HCV. PMID:25871297

  1. A model of H-NS mediated compaction of bacterial DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Joyeux, Marc; 10.1016/j.bpj.2013.02.043

    2013-01-01

    The Histone-like Nucleoid Structuring protein (H-NS) is a nucleoid-associated protein, which is involved in both gene regulation and DNA compaction. H-NS can bind to DNA in two different ways: in trans, by binding to two separate DNA duplexes, or in cis, by binding to different sites on the same duplex. Based on scanning force microscopy imaging and optical trap-driven unzipping assays, it has recently been suggested that DNA compaction may result from the antagonistic effects of H-NS binding to DNA in trans and cis configurations. In order to get more insight into the compaction mechanism, we constructed a coarse-grained model description of the compaction of bacterial DNA by H-NS. These simulations highlight the fact that DNA compaction indeed results from the subtle equilibrium between several competing factors, which include the deformation dynamics of the plasmid and the several binding modes of protein dimers to DNA, i.e. dangling configurations, cis- and trans-binding. In particular, the degree of comp...

  2. Molecular models of NS3 protease variants of the Hepatitis C virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Isabel MVGC

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV currently infects approximately three percent of the world population. In view of the lack of vaccines against HCV, there is an urgent need for an efficient treatment of the disease by an effective antiviral drug. Rational drug design has not been the primary way for discovering major therapeutics. Nevertheless, there are reports of success in the development of inhibitor using a structure-based approach. One of the possible targets for drug development against HCV is the NS3 protease variants. Based on the three-dimensional structure of these variants we expect to identify new NS3 protease inhibitors. In order to speed up the modeling process all NS3 protease variant models were generated in a Beowulf cluster. The potential of the structural bioinformatics for development of new antiviral drugs is discussed. Results The atomic coordinates of crystallographic structure 1CU1 and 1DY9 were used as starting model for modeling of the NS3 protease variant structures. The NS3 protease variant structures are composed of six subdomains, which occur in sequence along the polypeptide chain. The protease domain exhibits the dual beta-barrel fold that is common among members of the chymotrypsin serine protease family. The helicase domain contains two structurally related beta-alpha-beta subdomains and a third subdomain of seven helices and three short beta strands. The latter domain is usually referred to as the helicase alpha-helical subdomain. The rmsd value of bond lengths and bond angles, the average G-factor and Verify 3D values are presented for NS3 protease variant structures. Conclusions This project increases the certainty that homology modeling is an useful tool in structural biology and that it can be very valuable in annotating genome sequence information and contributing to structural and functional genomics from virus. The structural models will be used to guide future efforts in the structure

  3. Progress for dengue virus diseases. Towards the NS2B-NS3pro inhibition for a therapeutic-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melino, Sonia; Paci, Maurizio

    2007-06-01

    Transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, the dengue virus is the etiological agent of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome, and, as such, is a significant factor in the high death rate found in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Dengue diseases are not only a health burden to developing countries, but pose an emerging problem worldwide. The immunopathological mechanisms appear to include a complex series of immune responses. A rapid increase in the levels of cytokines and chemical mediators during dengue disease plays a key role in inducing plasma leakage, shock and hemorrhagic manifestations. Currently, there are no vaccines available against dengue virus, although several tetravalent live-attenuated dengue vaccines are in clinical phases I or II, and prevention through vaccination has become a major priority on the agendas of the World Health Organization and of national ministries of health and military organizations. An alternative to vaccines is found in therapeutic-based approaches. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of viral replication has led to the development of potential drugs, and new molecular viral targets for therapy are emerging. The NS3 protease domain of the NS3 protein is responsible for processing the viral polyprotein and its inhibition is one of the principal aims of pharmacological therapy. This review is an overview of the progress made against dengue virus; in particular, it examines the unique properties--structural and functional--of the NS3 protease for the treatment of dengue virus infections by the inhibition of viral polyprotein processing.

  4. 乙型脑炎病毒NS1基因重组伪狂犬病毒的构建%Construction of Recombinant Virus Strain TK /gG /NS1+ Recombinized by Pseudorabies Virus Ea Mutant Strain TK /gG /LacZ+ and NS1 Gene of Japanese Encephalitis Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐高原; 王祥; 陈焕春; 徐晓娟; 李自力; 何启盖; 吴斌

    2004-01-01

    设计1对引物从含有乙型脑炎病毒NS1基因的质粒pNS1上亚克隆NS1基因,将NS1基因插入到中间转移载体pUSK中,获得重组中间转移质粒pUSK-NS1.将pUSK-NS1与伪狂犬病毒Ea株TK /gG /LacZ+突变株基因组共转染真核细胞IBRS-2,通过空斑纯化得到了乙型脑炎病毒NS1基因重组伪狂犬病毒株TK /gG /NS1+.经检测,重组病毒能表达具有生物活性的NS1蛋白.该重组病毒可作为猪乙型脑炎和伪狂犬病双价基因工程疫苗用毒株.

  5. Intracellular expression of the proliferative marker Ki-67 and viral proteins (NS3, NS5A and C in chronic, long lasting hepatitis C virus (HCV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Olejniczak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV continues to represent the main causative agent of the hepatitis, which leads to chronic transformation of the process in 60-80% individuals. It remains unclear how far cellular expression of HCV proteins in vivo may represent an index of progression of the disease and of proliferative activity in the liver in chronic hepatitis C. Aim of the studies included detection and subcellular localization of three HCV proteins (NS3, NS5A and C in liver biopsies from adults (n=19 with chronic, long lasting hepatitis C as related to hepatocyte proliferative activity. The immunocytochemical ABC (avidin biotin-peroxidase complex technique was applied, alone or associated with the ImmunoMax technique. Results of the immunocytochemical tests were compared to histological alterations in liver biopsies, proliferation index and with selected clinical data. A significantly higher expression of NS3 protein was noted, as compared to expressions of NS5A and C proteins. In all the patients, cytoplasmic localization of all proteins dominated over nuclear localization (p0.05. At the level of electron microscopy, protein localization in endoplasmic reticulum (ER membranes, mitochondria, perinuclear region and/or in hepatocyte cell nucleus was observed. No direct relationships could be demonstrated between expressions of HCV proteins and of Ki-67 antigen. No correlations could also be demonstrated between cellular expression of any HCV protein on one hand and grading or staging, alanine transaminase (ALT, serum level of HCV RNA or alpha-fetoprotein (AFP on the other. However, positive correlations were disclosed between proliferative activity of hepatocytes on one hand and patient's age, grading and staging on the other. Advanced hepatic fibrosis correlated also with serum levels of AFP. The studies were supplemented with data on subcellular localization of HCV proteins. Moreover, they indicated that in HCV infection grading and staging

  6. Cellular RNA binding proteins NS1-BP and hnRNP K regulate influenza A virus RNA splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Ling; Chiou, Ni-Ting; Kuss, Sharon; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Lynch, Kristen W; Fontoura, Beatriz M A

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus is a major human pathogen with a genome comprised of eight single-strand, negative-sense, RNA segments. Two viral RNA segments, NS1 and M, undergo alternative splicing and yield several proteins including NS1, NS2, M1 and M2 proteins. However, the mechanisms or players involved in splicing of these viral RNA segments have not been fully studied. Here, by investigating the interacting partners and function of the cellular protein NS1-binding protein (NS1-BP), we revealed novel players in the splicing of the M1 segment. Using a proteomics approach, we identified a complex of RNA binding proteins containing NS1-BP and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), among which are hnRNPs involved in host pre-mRNA splicing. We found that low levels of NS1-BP specifically impaired proper alternative splicing of the viral M1 mRNA segment to yield the M2 mRNA without affecting splicing of mRNA3, M4, or the NS mRNA segments. Further biochemical analysis by formaldehyde and UV cross-linking demonstrated that NS1-BP did not interact directly with viral M1 mRNA but its interacting partners, hnRNPs A1, K, L, and M, directly bound M1 mRNA. Among these hnRNPs, we identified hnRNP K as a major mediator of M1 mRNA splicing. The M1 mRNA segment generates the matrix protein M1 and the M2 ion channel, which are essential proteins involved in viral trafficking, release into the cytoplasm, and budding. Thus, reduction of NS1-BP and/or hnRNP K levels altered M2/M1 mRNA and protein ratios, decreasing M2 levels and inhibiting virus replication. Thus, NS1-BP-hnRNPK complex is a key mediator of influenza A virus gene expression.

  7. A first-principles based study of ns2 containing ternary iodides and their possibility of scintillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byungkyun; Fang, C. M.; Biswas, Koushik

    2016-10-01

    A recently investigated scintillator material CsBa2I5 showed promising properties when activated with ns2 ions In+, Tl+ or the lanthanide Eu2+. This sparked our interest in an analogous group of materials, e.g. InBa2I5 or TlBa2I5 where the ns2 ion is part of the crystal framework, replacing the alkali ion. Many of these compounds of the type AB2X5 (X  =  halogen) have been previously synthesized and have interesting stereochemical activity. Using density functional calculations we have studied the stable monoclinic phase of the aforementioned ns2 containing iodides. One objective is to explore them as scintillators where the ns2 ions, now appearing as part of the crystal, play a central role. Compared to CsBa2I5, their reduced fundamental band gap and possibility of higher light yield may be attributed to an induced degree of covalency in the ns2-I bonds. The valence and conduction band edges have discernible contributions from the ns2 ions’ s and p orbitals which is crucial in carrier localization. The antibonding Ga or In s sates near valence edge may be a favored site for a hole trap, as against a {{V}k} center. Additional differences among the ns2 compounds lead to qualitatively different self-trapped excitons that may fundamentally affect luminescence. The possibility of fast electron capture at the ns2 sites and the prospect of self-activated scintillation via ns2-p  →  {{V}k} or ns2-p  →  ns2-s transitions may draw interest in related applications.

  8. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of NS1 Gene of Porcine Parvovirus LJL12 Strain%猪细小病毒NS1基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉旭华; 闻晓波; 孟凡; 周恩民

    2008-01-01

    目的:扩增猪细小病毒(Porcine Parvovinls,PPV)LJL12株NS1基因的全长序列,并进行同源性分析.方法:参考GenBank上公布的PPV中国株NS1基因序列,设计一对特异性引物增LJL12株NS1基因,测定序列,使用分子生物学软件进行同源性分析.结果:LJL12 株 NS1 基因伍长 1989bp,编码 662个氨基酸.与其他 PPV 中国株 NS1 的核苷酸同源性在 98.6%~100%之间,氨基酸同源性在98.5%~100%之间.其中,与南京株的同源性最高.结论:PPV NS1 蛋白具有高度保守性,适合用作诊断抗原.LJL12 株PPV NS1 基因的克隆,为进一步研究 NS1 的功能和作用奠定了基础.

  9. Advance in Nonstructural Protein NS3 of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus%牛病毒性腹泻病毒非结构蛋白NS3的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯佩莉; 孙涛; 何洪彬

    2012-01-01

    非结构蛋白NS3是致细胞病变型牛病毒性腹泻病毒的分子标记蛋白,它具有多种生物学功能.研究结果表明,NS3在病毒非结构蛋白的加工、成熟、基因组复制与转录过程中以及宿主细胞致细胞病变效应的产生中起重要作用.文章总结了NS3的生物学特性及其相关功能,为阐明NS3的致细胞病变作用机理奠定基础.%Nonstructural protein NS3 is considered a molecular marker for the cytopathic biotype of bovine viral diarrhea virus and has a variety of biological functions. It has been reported that NS3 played an important role in the processing of other nonstructural proteins, the release of mature particles, viral RNA replication, transcription and the generation of cytopathic effect in the host cell. This paper summarizes the biological properties of NS3 and its related functions, which lays the foundation for further study on the mechanism of NS3-induced cytopathic effect.

  10. Adapted J6/JFH1-based hepatitis C virus recombinants with genotype-specific NS4A show similar efficacies against lead protease inhibitors, alpha interferon and a putative NS4A inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottwein, Judith M; Jensen, Sanne B; Serre, Stéphanie B N;

    2013-01-01

    ), boceprevir (Sch503034), simeprevir (TMC435350), danoprevir (ITMN-191), and vaniprevir (MK-7009), to alpha interferon 2b, and to the putative NS4A inhibitor ACH-806. The efficacy of ACH-806 was lower than that of protease inhibitors and was not influenced by changes at amino acids 1042 and 1065 (in the NS3...

  11. Limitations of the Oriented Difference of Gaussian Filter in Special Cases of Brightness Perception Illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Ashish; Roy, Sourya; Mallick, Arijit; Ghosh, Kuntal

    2016-03-01

    The Oriented Difference of Gaussian (ODOG) filter of Blakeslee and McCourt has been successfully employed to explain several brightness perception illusions which include illusions of both brightness-contrast type, for example, Simultaneous Brightness Contrast and Grating Induction and the brightness-assimilation type, for example, the White effect and the shifted White effect. Here, we demonstrate some limitations of the ODOG filter in predicting perceived brightness by comparing the ODOG responses to various stimuli (generated by varying two parameters, namely, test patch length and spatial frequency) with experimental observations of the same. PMID:26562859

  12. Limitations of the Oriented Difference of Gaussian Filter in Special Cases of Brightness Perception Illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Ashish; Roy, Sourya; Mallick, Arijit; Ghosh, Kuntal

    2016-03-01

    The Oriented Difference of Gaussian (ODOG) filter of Blakeslee and McCourt has been successfully employed to explain several brightness perception illusions which include illusions of both brightness-contrast type, for example, Simultaneous Brightness Contrast and Grating Induction and the brightness-assimilation type, for example, the White effect and the shifted White effect. Here, we demonstrate some limitations of the ODOG filter in predicting perceived brightness by comparing the ODOG responses to various stimuli (generated by varying two parameters, namely, test patch length and spatial frequency) with experimental observations of the same.

  13. Human responses to bright light of different durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anne-Marie; Santhi, Nayantara; St Hilaire, Melissa; Gronfier, Claude; Bradstreet, Dayna S; Duffy, Jeanne F; Lockley, Steven W; Kronauer, Richard E; Czeisler, Charles A

    2012-07-01

    Light exposure in the early night induces phase delays of the circadian rhythm in melatonin in humans. Previous studies have investigated the effect of timing, intensity, wavelength, history and pattern of light stimuli on the human circadian timing system. We present results from a study of the duration–response relationship to phase-delaying bright light. Thirty-nine young healthy participants (16 female; 22.18±3.62 years) completed a 9-day inpatient study. Following three baseline days, participants underwent an initial circadian phase assessment procedure in dim light (bright light pulse (∼10,000 lux) of 0.2 h, 1.0 h, 2.5 h or 4.0 h duration during a 4.5 h controlled-posture episode centred in a 16 h wake episode. After another 8 h sleep episode, participants completed a second circadian phase assessment. Phase shifts were calculated from the difference in the clock time of the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) between the initial and final phase assessments. Exposure to varying durations of bright light reset the circadian pacemaker in a dose-dependent, non-linear manner. Per minute of exposure, the 0.2 h duration was over 5 times more effective at phase delaying the circadian pacemaker (1.07±0.36 h) as compared with the 4.0 h duration (2.65±0.24 h). Acute melatonin suppression and subjective sleepiness also had a dose-dependent response to light exposure duration. These results provide strong evidence for a non-linear resetting response of the human circadian pacemaker to light duration.

  14. Bright source lasers and experiments at very high irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos Bright Source has been assembled to explore the effects of intense coherent ultraviolet radiation on matter. This ultra-high brightness excimer laser is used to study the response of atoms, ions, and plasmas to the unique conditions the laser can provide. Primary areas of interest include properties and behavior of highly energetic atomic species, studies of possible intense field-induced nuclear transitions, pumping for x-ray lasers, and incoherent x-ray sources. The project consists of two phases: Los Alamos Bright Source I (LABS I) that is now in operation and is producing experimental data at an intensity up to 7 x 1017 watts/cm2 with 25 mJ of radiation and LABS II that will deliver between .1 and 1 J at an intensity of 1018 to 1020 w/cm2. At these high intensities we observe collisionless excitations to the KeV level. The exact nature of the excitation process is not known and is itself part of the investigation. Because of the coherent nature of the pump and the very large fields obtainable, new regimes of optical excitation can be expected and examined. Work is underway with LABS I to produce highly ionized species and measure their spectral and other properties. This equipment has proven to be highly reliable in the last year and should afford the opportunity for many basic studies. LABS II with its increased pulse energy and intensity will support studies involving larger pump volume and higher excitation levels. It should serve as a test bed for studies of pumping schemes for x-ray lasers. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Beyond pragmatism: defending the 'bright line' of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burin, Achas K

    2014-01-01

    It is usually accepted by ethicists that birth does not alter moral status. Rather, it is thought that the rule according full legal rights at birth is pragmatic. Pragmatic reasoning is vulnerable to competing practical concerns and stronger moral principles. This 'bright line' has therefore been criticised both by those who believe personhood begins before birth and those who believe it begins afterward. In particular, a recent article by Giubilini and Minerva puts forward both pragmatic and moral arguments in favour of permitting infanticide, and the New South Wales Court of Criminal Appeal has suggested there is a strong case for abandoning the bright line (R v Iby (2005) 63 NSWLR 278). If we desire to defend current legal doctrine against such criticism, a medical and philosophical basis for the law should be articulated. This article suggests such a medical and philosophical basis. It argues that both the multiplicity of biological changes occurring in the neonate at birth and the extrauterine context (the world) provide a justification for the distinction drawn at law between abortion and infanticide. With reference to Robert Nozick's 'experience machine' thought-experiment and elements of phenomenological philosophy, it advances two propositions to explain the status-changing nature of the neonate's emergence out of the womb. First, that expressing sentience in the world is essential for the attainment of personhood. Second, that having become a person, the harm in killing is disruption of this engagement with the world and the reduction from personhood to non-existence. This is the distinction between a neonate's death and the termination of a foetus, underscoring the qualitative difference between the two sides of the bright line drawn in law. PMID:24866181

  16. Confidence intervals for concentration and brightness from fluorescence fluctuation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryse, Kenneth M; Rong, Xi; Whisler, Jordan A; McConnaughey, William B; Jiang, Yan-Fei; Melnykov, Artem V; Elson, Elliot L; Genin, Guy M

    2012-09-01

    The theory of photon count histogram (PCH) analysis describes the distribution of fluorescence fluctuation amplitudes due to populations of fluorophores diffusing through a focused laser beam and provides a rigorous framework through which the brightnesses and concentrations of the fluorophores can be determined. In practice, however, the brightnesses and concentrations of only a few components can be identified. Brightnesses and concentrations are determined by a nonlinear least-squares fit of a theoretical model to the experimental PCH derived from a record of fluorescence intensity fluctuations. The χ(2) hypersurface in the neighborhood of the optimum parameter set can have varying degrees of curvature, due to the intrinsic curvature of the model, the specific parameter values of the system under study, and the relative noise in the data. Because of this varying curvature, parameters estimated from the least-squares analysis have varying degrees of uncertainty associated with them. There are several methods for assigning confidence intervals to the parameters, but these methods have different efficacies for PCH data. Here, we evaluate several approaches to confidence interval estimation for PCH data, including asymptotic standard error, likelihood joint-confidence region, likelihood confidence intervals, skew-corrected and accelerated bootstrap (BCa), and Monte Carlo residual resampling methods. We study these with a model two-dimensional membrane system for simplicity, but the principles are applicable as well to fluorophores diffusing in three-dimensional solution. Using simulated fluorescence fluctuation data, we find the BCa method to be particularly well-suited for estimating confidence intervals in PCH analysis, and several other methods to be less so. Using the BCa method and additional simulated fluctuation data, we find that confidence intervals can be reduced dramatically for a specific non-Gaussian beam profile. PMID:23009839

  17. Ultra-high resolution and high-brightness AMOLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Ghosh, Amal; Prache, Olivier; Draper, Russ; Fellowes, Dave

    2012-06-01

    As part of its continuing effort to improve both the resolution and optical performance of AMOLED microdisplays, eMagin has recently developed an SXGA (1280×3×1024) microdisplay under a US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD contract that combines the world's smallest OLED pixel pitch with an ultra-high brightness green OLED emitter. This development is aimed at next-generation HMD systems with "see-through" and daylight imaging requirements. The OLED pixel array is built on a 0.18-micron CMOS backplane and contains over 4 million individually addressable pixels with a pixel pitch of 2.7 × 8.1 microns, resulting in an active area of 0.52 inches diagonal. Using both spatial and temporal enhancement, the display can provide over 10-bits of gray-level control for high dynamic range applications. The new pixel design also enables the future implementation of a full-color QSXGA (2560 × RGB × 2048) microdisplay in an active area of only 1.05 inch diagonal. A low-power serialized low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) interface is integrated into the display for use as a remote video link for tethered systems. The new SXGA backplane has been combined with the high-brightness green OLED device developed by eMagin under an NVESD contract. This OLED device has produced an output brightness of more than 8000fL with all pixels on; lifetime measurements are currently underway and will presented at the meeting. This paper will describe the operational features and first optical and electrical test results of the new SXGA demonstrator microdisplay.

  18. Magneto-optical control of bright atomic solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Potting, S.; Zobay, O.; Meystre, P.; Wright, E. M.

    2000-01-01

    In previous work we showed that bright atomic solitons can arise in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates in the form of gap solitons even for repulsive many-body interactions. Here we further explore the properties of atomic gap solitons and show that their internal structure can be used to both excite them and control their center-of-mass motion using applied laser and magnetic fields. As an illustration we demonstrate a nonlinear atom-optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on gap solitons.

  19. On the azimuthal brightness variations of Saturn's rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, F. A.; Colombo, G.

    1978-01-01

    A simple semiquantitative explanation is presented which accounts both for the presence of the azimuthal brightness variations in Saturn's ring A and for their absence in ring B. This explanation avoids any ad hoc reliance on albedo variations and/or synchronous rotation of ring particles. Instead, it requires only some degree of self-gravitation between nearby orbiting bodies. A bias in the particle distribution and corresponding photometric effects are thereby produced the latter corresponding very closely to the variations observed in ring A. Their absence in ring B is primarily a consequence of the higher optical thickness and decreasing importance of self-gravitation in that ring.

  20. Time series analysis of bright galactic X-ray sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priedhorsky, W. C.; Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels

    1995-01-01

    We analyze 70 to 110 day data sets from eight bright galactic X-ray binaries observed by WATCH/Eureca, in search of periodic variations. We obtain new epochs for the orbital variation of Cyg X-3 and 4U 1700-37, and confirmation of a dip in Cyg X-1 at superior conjunction of the X-ray star. No evi...... evidence for variation at known and candidate periods is seen for Sco X-1, Cyg X-2, and GX 17+2. We set upper limits for variation at other frequencies in those three sources, GX 5-1, and GRS 1915+105....