WorldWideScience

Sample records for bright near-ir selected

  1. LENS MODELS OF HERSCHEL-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calanog, J. A.; Cooray, A.; Ma, B.; Casey, C. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Wardlow, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Amber, S. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Baes, M. [1 Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bock, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bourne, N.; Dye, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Bussmann, R. S. [Department of Astronomy, Space Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Eales, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-12-20

    We present Keck-Adaptive Optics and Hubble Space Telescope high resolution near-infrared (IR) imaging for 500 μm bright candidate lensing systems identified by the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Out of 87 candidates with near-IR imaging, 15 (∼17%) display clear near-IR lensing morphologies. We present near-IR lens models to reconstruct and recover basic rest-frame optical morphological properties of the background galaxies from 12 new systems. Sources with the largest near-IR magnification factors also tend to be the most compact, consistent with the size bias predicted from simulations and previous lensing models for submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). For four new sources that also have high-resolution submillimeter maps, we test for differential lensing between the stellar and dust components and find that the 880 μm magnification factor (μ{sub 880}) is ∼1.5 times higher than the near-IR magnification factor (μ{sub NIR}), on average. We also find that the stellar emission is ∼2 times more extended in size than dust. The rest-frame optical properties of our sample of Herschel-selected lensed SMGs are consistent with those of unlensed SMGs, which suggests that the two populations are similar.

  2. PG 1553 + 11 - A bright optically selected BL Lacertae object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falomo, R.; Treves, A.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed study of the bright optically selected BL Lac object PG 1553 + 11 is presented. UV observations, obtained during a high state of the source, together with simultaneous optical spectrophotometry and near-IR photometry, allow the spectral flux distribution to be examined from 8 x 10 to the 13th to 2.5 x 10 to the 15th Hz. This distribution is compared with that derived from quasi-simultaneous observations obtained when the source was a factor of about 3 fainter. It is found that, in the higher state, the spectrum can be described by two power laws connected by a break at about 10 to the 15th Hz, while in the low state the shape is more complex. The overall spectrum of the object is compared with the average energy distribution of X-ray and radio-selected BL Lac objects, showing that it is closer to the former class. 25 refs

  3. Near IR spectra of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrillat, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The author reports on recent observations from the near IR spectra of symbiotic stars. The helium and oxygen lines useful for the construction of theoretical models are identified. Observations for cool stars and novae (nebular phase) are outlined and the spectra of specific symbiotic stars between lambdalambda 8000-11000 are presented and discussed. (Auth./C.F.)

  4. Selection effects in the bivariate brightness distribution for spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1986-01-01

    The joint distribution of total luminosity and characteristic surface brightness (the bivariate brightness distribution) is investigated for a complete sample of spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster. The influence of selection and physical limits of various kinds on the apparent distribution are detailed. While the distribution of surface brightness for bright galaxies may be genuinely fairly narrow, faint galaxies exist right across the (quite small) range of accessible surface brightnesses so no statement can be made about the true extent of the distribution. The lack of high surface brightness bright galaxies in the Virgo sample relative to an overall RC2 sample (mostly field galaxies) supports the contention that the star-formation rate is reduced in the inner region of the cluster for environmental reasons. (author)

  5. Optical and near-IR study of LMC HII region N11AB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    N11 (DEM 34), complex HII region located about 4 degrees from the center of the LMC bar, is a very interesting giant interstellar shell. It has a complicated structure and motion. It is located on the edge of an HI concentration. This is the progress report of the study of its two components, A and B at the optical and near-IR wavelengths to investigate stars, dust and ionized gas associated with them. N11A is a compact high-excitation blob and N11B is a bright HII region in this complex, which embeds OB association Lucke-Hodge 10

  6. Near-IR imaging of cracks in teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, William A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Lucas, Seth; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Staninec, Michal; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Dental enamel is highly transparent at near-IR wavelengths and several studies have shown that these wavelengths are well suited for optical transillumination for the detection and imaging of tooth decay. We hypothesize that these wavelengths are also well suited for imaging cracks in teeth. Extracted teeth with suspected cracks were imaged at several wavelengths in the near-IR from 1300-1700-nm. Extracted teeth were also examined with optical coherence tomography to confirm the existence of suspected cracks. Several teeth of volunteers were also imaged in vivo at 1300-nm to demonstrate clinical potential. In addition we induced cracks in teeth using a carbon dioxide laser and imaged crack formation and propagation in real time using near-IR transillumination. Cracks were clearly visible using near-IR imaging at 1300-nm in both in vitro and in vivo images. Cracks and fractures also interfered with light propagation in the tooth aiding in crack identification and assessment of depth and severity.

  7. Structure and linear spectroscopic properties of near IR polymethine dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Scott; Padilha, Lazaro A.; Hu Honghua; Przhonska, Olga V.; Hagan, David J.; Van Stryland, Eric W.; Bondar, Mikhail V.; Davydenko, Iryna G.; Slominsky, Yuriy L.; Kachkovski, Alexei D.

    2008-01-01

    We performed a detailed experimental investigation and quantum-chemical analysis of a new series of near IR polymethine dyes with 5-butyl-7,8-dihydrobenzo[cd]furo[2,3-f]indolium terminal groups. We also synthesized and studied two neutral dyes, squaraine and tetraone, with the same terminal groups and performed a comparison of the spectroscopic properties of this set of 'near IR' dyes (polymethine, squaraine, and tetraone) with an analogous set of 'visible' dyes with simpler benzo[e]indolium terminal groups. From these measurements, we find that the dyes with dihydrobenzo[cd]furo[2,3-f]indolium terminal groups are characterized by a remarkably large shift ∼300 nm (∼200 nm for tetraone) of their absorption bands towards the red region. We discuss the difference in electronic structure for these molecules and show that the 'near IR' dyes are characterized by an additional weak fluorescence band from the higher lying excited states connected with the terminal groups. Absorption spectra for the longest polymethines are solvent-dependent and are characterized by a broadening of the main band in polar solvents, which is explained by ground state symmetry breaking and reduced charge delocalization within the polymethine chromophore. The results of these experiments combined with the agreement of quantum chemical calculations moves us closer to a predictive capability for structure-property relations in cyanine-like molecules

  8. A selective deficit in the appreciation and recognition of brightness: brightness agnosia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, T.C.W.; Nys, G.M.S.; van der Smagt, M.J.; de Haan, E.H.F.

    2009-01-01

    We report a patient with extensive brain damage in the right hemisphere who demonstrated a severe impairment in the appreciation of brightness. Acuity, contrast sensitivity as well as luminance discrimination were normal, suggesting her brightness impairment is not a mere consequence of low-level

  9. A selective deficit in the appreciation and recognition of brightness: brightness agnosia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Nys, Gudrun M S; van der Smagt, Maarten J; de Haan, Edward H F

    2009-01-01

    We report a patient with extensive brain damage in the right hemisphere who demonstrated a severe impairment in the appreciation of brightness. Acuity, contrast sensitivity as well as luminance discrimination were normal, suggesting her brightness impairment is not a mere consequence of low-level sensory impairments. The patient was not able to indicate the darker or the lighter of two grey squares, even though she was able to see that they differed. In addition, she could not indicate whether the lights in a room were switched on or off, nor was she able to differentiate between normal greyscale images and inverted greyscale images. As the patient recognised objects, colours, and shapes correctly, the impairment is specific for brightness. As low-level, sensory processing is normal, this specific deficit in the recognition and appreciation of brightness appears to be of a higher, cognitive level, the level of semantic knowledge. This appears to be the first report of 'brightness agnosia'.

  10. Choice of Eye-Safe Radiation Wavelength in UV and Near IR Spectral Bands for Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Belov; V. A. Gorodnichev; D. A. Kravtsov; A. A. Cherpakova

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of laser remote sensing systems carries a particular risk to the human’s sense of vision. A structure of the eye, and especially the retina, is the main critical organ as related to the laser radiation.The work uses the optical models of the atmosphere, correctly working in both the UV and the near-IR band, to select the eye-safe radiation wavelengths in the UV (0.355 m) and near-IR (~ 1.54 and ~ 2 m) spectral bands from the point of view of recorded lidar signal value to ful...

  11. UNTANGLING THE NEAR-IR SPECTRAL FEATURES IN THE PROTOPLANETARY ENVIRONMENT OF KH 15D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulanantham, Nicole A.; Herbst, William; Gilmore, Martha S.; Cauley, P. Wilson [Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Leggett, S. K., E-mail: nicole.arulanantham@colorado.edu [Gemini Observatory (North), Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We report on Gemini/GNIRS observations of the binary T Tauri system V582 Mon (KH 15D) at three orbital phases. These spectra allow us to untangle five components of the system: the photosphere and magnetosphere of star B, the jet, scattering properties of the ring material, and excess near-infrared (near-IR) radiation previously attributed to a possible self-luminous planet. We confirm an early-K subgiant classification for star B and show that the magnetospheric He i emission line is variable, possibly indicating increased mass accretion at certain times. As expected, the H{sub 2} emission features associated with the inner part of the jet show no variation with orbital phase. We show that the reflectance spectrum for the scattered light has a distinctive blue slope and spectral features consistent with scattering and absorption by a mixture of water and methane ice grains in the 1–50 μ m size range. This suggests that the methane frost line is closer than ∼5 au in this system, requiring that the grains be shielded from direct radiation. After correcting for features from the scattered light, jet, magnetosphere, and photosphere, we confirm the presence of leftover near-IR light from an additional source, detectable near minimum brightness. A spectral emission feature matching the model spectrum of a 10 M {sub J}, 1 Myr old planet is found in the excess flux, but other expected features from this model are not seen. Our observations, therefore, tentatively support the picture that a luminous planet is present within the system, although they cannot yet be considered definitive.

  12. Near-IR Two-Photon Fluorescent Sensor for K(+) Imaging in Live Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Binglin; Yue, Xiling; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D

    2015-08-19

    A new two-photon excited fluorescent K(+) sensor is reported. The sensor comprises three moieties, a highly selective K(+) chelator as the K(+) recognition unit, a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) derivative modified with phenylethynyl groups as the fluorophore, and two polyethylene glycol chains to afford water solubility. The sensor displays very high selectivity (>52-fold) in detecting K(+) over other physiological metal cations. Upon binding K(+), the sensor switches from nonfluorescent to highly fluorescent, emitting red to near-IR (NIR) fluorescence. The sensor exhibited a good two-photon absorption cross section, 500 GM at 940 nm. Moreover, it is not sensitive to pH in the physiological pH range. Time-dependent cell imaging studies via both one- and two-photon fluorescence microscopy demonstrate that the sensor is suitable for dynamic K(+) sensing in living cells.

  13. UV, visible, and near-IR reflectivity data for magnetic soils/rocks from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vempati, R. K.; Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Coey, J. M. D.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to obtain UV, visible, and near-IR reflectivity spectra for several magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks and compare them to corresponding data for Mars to see if these materials satisfy both magnetic and spectral constraints for Mars. Selected physical properties of the magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks are presented. In general, the spectral features resulting from ferric crystal-field transitions are much better defined in the spectra of the magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks than in Martian spectral data. Presumably, this results from a relatively higher proportion of crystalline ferric oxides for the former. The apparent masking of the spectral signature of maghemite by hematite or goethite for the Brazilian samples implies the magnetic and spectral constraints for Mars can be decoupled. That is, maghemite may be present in magnetically-significant but optically-insignificant amounts compared to crystalline hematite.

  14. BOOTES-IR: near IR follow-up GRB observations by a robotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Postrigo, A. de Ugarte; Jelinek, M.

    2005-01-01

    BOOTES-IR is the extension of the BOOTES experiment, which operates in Southern Spain since 1998, to the near IR (NIR). The goal is to follow up the early stage of the gamma ray burst (GRB) afterglow emission in the NIR, alike BOOTES does already at optical wavelengths. The scientific case that drives the BOOTES-IR performance is the study of GRBs with the support of spacecraft like INTEGRAL, SWIFT and GLAST. Given that the afterglow emission in both, the NIR and the optical, in the instances immediately following a GRB, is extremely bright (reached V = 8.9 in one case), it should be possible to detect this prompt emission at NIR wavelengths too. The combined observations by BOOTES-IR and BOOTES-1 and BOOTES-2 will allow for real time identification of trustworthy candidates to have a high redshift (z > 5). It is expected that, few minutes after a GRB, the IR magnitudes be H ∼ 7-10, hence very high quality spectra can be obtained for objects as far as z = 10 by larger instruments

  15. Choice of Eye-Safe Radiation Wavelength in UV and Near IR Spectral Bands for Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Belov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of laser remote sensing systems carries a particular risk to the human’s sense of vision. A structure of the eye, and especially the retina, is the main critical organ as related to the laser radiation.The work uses the optical models of the atmosphere, correctly working in both the UV and the near-IR band, to select the eye-safe radiation wavelengths in the UV (0.355 m and near-IR (~ 1.54 and ~ 2 m spectral bands from the point of view of recorded lidar signal value to fulfill the tasks of laser sensing the natural formations and laser aerosol sensing in the atmosphere.It is shown that the remote sensing lasers with appropriate characteristics can be selected both in the UV band (at a wavelength of 0.355 μm and in the near-IR band (at wavelengths of 1.54 ~ or ~ 2 μm.Molecular scattering has its maximum (for the selected wavelength at a wavelength of 0.355 μm in the UV band, and the minimum at the wavelengths of 1.54 and 2.09 μm in the near -IR band. The main contribution to the molecular absorption at a wavelength of 0.355 μm is made by ozone. In the near-IR spectral band the radiation is absorbed due to water vapor and carbon dioxide.Calculations show that the total effect of the molecular absorption and scattering has no influence on radiation transmission for both the wavelength of 0.355 μm in the UV band, and the wavelengths of 1.54 and 2.09 μm in the near-IR band for sensing trails ~ 1 km.One of the main factors of laser radiation attenuation in the Earth's atmosphere is radiation scattering by aerosol particles.The results of calculations at wavelengths of 0.355 μm, 1.54 μm and 2.09 μm for the several models of the atmosphere show that a choice of the most effective (in terms of the recorded signal of lidar and eye-safe radiation wavelength depends strongly on the task of sensing.To fulfill the task of laser sensing the natural formations, among the eye-safe wavelengths there is one significantly advantageous

  16. Near-IR laser-triggered target cell collection using a carbon nanotube-based cell-cultured substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Takao; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Niidome, Yasuro; Nakazawa, Kohji; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2011-06-28

    Unique near-IR optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNTs) are of interest in many biological applications. Here we describe the selective cell detachment and collection from an SWNT-coated cell-culture dish triggered by near-IR pulse laser irradiation. First, HeLa cells were cultured on an SWNT-coated dish prepared by a spraying of an aqueous SWNT dispersion on a glass dish. The SWNT-coated dish was found to show a good cell adhesion behavior as well as a cellular proliferation rate similar to a conventional glass dish. We discovered, by near-IR pulse laser irradiation (at the laser power over 25 mW) to the cell under optical microscopic observation, a quick single-cell detachment from the SWNT-coated surface. Shockwave generation from the irradiated SWNTs is expected to play an important role for the cell detachment. Moreover, we have succeeded in catapulting the target single cell from the cultured medium when the depth of the medium was below 150 μm and the laser power was stronger than 40 mW. The captured cell maintained its original shape. The retention of the genetic information of the cell was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. A target single-cell collection from a culture medium under optical microscopic observation is significant in wide fields of single-cell studies in biological areas.

  17. Fluorenyl benzothiadiazole and benzoselenadiazole near-IR fluorescent probes for two-photon fluorescence imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Kevin D.; Yao, Sheng; Kim, Bosung; Yue, Xiling

    2016-03-01

    Imaging biological samples with two-photon fluorescence (2PF) microscopy has the unique advantage of resulting high contrast 3D resolution subcellular image that can reach up to several millimeters depth. 2PF probes that absorb and emit at near IR region need to be developed. Two-photon excitation (2PE) wavelengths are less concerned as 2PE uses wavelengths doubles the absorption wavelength of the probe, which means 2PE wavelengths for probes even with absorption at visible wavelength will fall into NIR region. Therefore, probes that fluoresce at near IR region with high quantum yields are needed. A series of dyes based on 5-thienyl-2, 1, 3-benzothiadiazole and 5-thienyl-2, 1, 3-benzoselenadiazole core were synthesized as near infrared two-photon fluorophores. Fluorescence maxima wavelengths as long as 714 nm and fluorescence quantum yields as high as 0.67 were achieved. The fluorescence quantum yields of the dyes were nearly constant, regardless of solvents polarity. These diazoles exhibited large Stokes shift (GM), and high two-photon fluorescence figure of merit (FM , 1.04×10-2 GM). Cells incubated on a 3D scaffold with one of the new probes (encapsulated in Pluronic micelles) exhibited bright fluorescence, enabling 3D two-photon fluorescence imaging to a depth of 100 µm.

  18. A car-borne highly sensitive near-IR diode-laser methane detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezin, A G; Ershov, Oleg V; Shapovalov, Yu P

    2003-01-01

    A highly sensitive automated car-borne detector for measuring methane concentration in real time is designed, developed and tested under laboratory and field conditions. Measurements were made with the help of an uncooled tunable near-IR 1.65-μm laser diode. The detector consists of a multipass optical cell with a 45-m long optical path and a base length of 0.5 m. The car-borne detector is intended for monitoring the methane concentration in air from the moving car to reveal the leakage of domestic gas. The sensitivity limit (standard deviation) under field conditions is 1 ppm (20 ppb under laboratory conditions) for a measuring time of 0.4 s. The measuring technique based on the detection of a single methane line ensured a high selectivity of methane detector relative to other gases. The methane detector can be easily modified for measuring other simple-molecule gases (e.g., CO, CO 2 , HF, NO 2 , H 2 O) by replacing the diode laser and varying the parameters of the control program. (special issue devoted to the memory of academician a m prokhorov)

  19. Near-IR High-Resolution Imaging Polarimetry of the SU Aur Disk: Clues for Tidal Tails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Jerome; Michihiro, Takami; Karr, Jennifer; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Sitko, Michael; Mayama, Satoshi; Kusakabe, Nobuyuki; Grady, Carol A.; McElwain, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    We present new high-resolution (approximately 0.09) H-band imaging observations of the circumstellar disk around the T Tauri star SU Aur. Our observations with Subaru-HiCIAO have revealed the presence of scattered light as close as 0.15 (approximately 20 AU) to the star. Within our image, we identify bright emission associated with a disk with a minimum radius of approximately 90 AU, an inclination of approximately 35 deg from the plane of the sky, and an approximate PA of 15 deg for the major axis. We find a brightness asymmetry between the northern and southern sides of the disk due to a non-axisymmetric disk structure. We also identify a pair of asymmetric tail structures extending east and west from the disk. The western tail extends at least 2. 5 (350 AU) from the star, and is probably associated with a reflection nebula previously observed at optical and near-IR wavelengths. The eastern tail extends at least 1 (140 AU) at the present signal-to-noise. These tails are likely due to an encounter with an unseen brown dwarf, but our results do not exclude the explanation that these tails are outflow cavities or jets.

  20. Chapter 1.1 Crystallinity of Nanocellulose Materials by Near-IR FT-Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Sally A. Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Considering that crystallinity is one of the important properties that influence the end use of cellulose nanomaterials, it is important that the former be measured accurately. Recently, a new method based on near-IR FTRaman spectroscopy was proposed to determine cellulose I crystallinity. It was reported that in the Raman spectrum of cellulose materials, the...

  1. Monolayers of gold nanostars with two Near-IR LSPR capable of additive photothermal response

    KAUST Repository

    Pallavicini, Piersandro; Basile, Simone; Chirico, Giuseppe; Dacarro, Giacomo; D'Alfonso, Laura; Donà , Alice; Patrini, Maddalena; Falqui, Andrea; Sironi, Laura; Taglietti, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Monolayers of photothermally responsive gold nanostars on PEI-coated surfaces display two Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPR) in the near-IR region that can be laser-irradiated either separately, obtaining two different T jumps, or simultaneously, obtaining a T jump equal to the sum of what obtained with separate irradiations

  2. Monolayers of gold nanostars with two Near-IR LSPR capable of additive photothermal response

    KAUST Repository

    Pallavicini, Piersandro

    2015-07-06

    Monolayers of photothermally responsive gold nanostars on PEI-coated surfaces display two Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPR) in the near-IR region that can be laser-irradiated either separately, obtaining two different T jumps, or simultaneously, obtaining a T jump equal to the sum of what obtained with separate irradiations

  3. A simple approach to spectrally resolved fluorescence and bright field microscopy over select regions of interest

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlberg, Peter D.; Boughter, Christopher T.; Faruk, Nabil F.; Hong, Lu; Koh, Young Hoon; Reyer, Matthew A.; Shaiber, Alon; Sherani, Aiman; Zhang, Jiacheng; Jureller, Justin E.; Hammond, Adam T.

    2016-01-01

    A standard wide field inverted microscope was converted to a spatially selective spectrally resolved microscope through the addition of a polarizing beam splitter, a pair of polarizers, an amplitude-mode liquid crystal-spatial light modulator, and a USB spectrometer. The instrument is capable of simultaneously imaging and acquiring spectra over user defined regions of interest. The microscope can also be operated in a bright-field mode to acquire absorption spectra of micron scale objects. Th...

  4. Rydberg excitation of neutral nitric oxide molecules in strong UV and near-IR laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Hang; Zhang Jun-Feng; Zuo Wan-Long; Xu Hai-Feng; Jin Ming-Xing; Ding Da-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Rydberg state excitations of neutral nitric oxide molecules are studied in strong ultraviolet (UV) and near-infra-red (IR) laser fields using a linear time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer with the pulsed electronic field ionization method. The yield of Rydberg molecules is measured as a function of laser intensity and ellipticity, and the results in UV laser fields are compared with those in near-IR laser fields. The present study provides the first experimental evidence of neutral Rydberg molecules surviving in a strong laser field. The results indicate that a rescattering-after-tunneling process is the main contribution to the formation of Rydberg molecules in strong near-IR laser fields, while multi-photon excitation may play an important role in the strong UV laser fields. (paper)

  5. N-annulated perylene fused porphyrins with enhanced near-IR absorption and emission

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun

    2010-09-17

    N-Annulated perylene fused porphyrins 1 and 2 were synthesized by oxidative dehydrogenation using a Sc(OTf)3/DDQ system. These newly synthesized hybrid molecules are highly soluble in organic solvents and exhibit remarkably intense near-IR absorption, as well as detectable photoluminescence quantum yields, all of which are comparable to or even exceed those of either meso-β doubly linked porphyrin dimer/trimer or bis/tri-N-annulated rylenes. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Selection of high-brightness, laser-driven cathodes for electron accelerators and FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oettinger, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    Very intense, low emittance pulsed beams of electrons can be generated from laser-driven cathodes either by thermionic- or photo-emission. Several hundreds of amperes of electrons per square centimeter were observed for pulse lengths up to 50 ns. A normalized beam brightness of 10 7 A/cm 2 /rad 2 has been measured. These beams can be emission-gated at the cathode surface by modulating the laser-beam. Such beam bunching will generate picosecond-to-microsecond-long pulses at the source. A variety of cathodes are described, and a method of selection for specific applications is presented

  7. Fabrication of 3D polymer photonic crystals for near-IR applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Peng; Qiu, Liang; Shi, Shouyuan; Schneider, Garrett J.; Prather, Dennis W.; Sharkawy, Ahmed; Kelmelis, Eric

    2008-02-01

    occurred as we reduced the lattice constant for near-IR applications. In this work, we address this problem by employing SU8. The exposure is vertically confined by using a mismatched 220nm DUV source. Intermixing problem is eliminated due to more densely crosslinked resist molecules. Using this method, we have demonstrated 3D "woodpile" structure with 1.55μm lattice constant and a 2mm-by-2mm pattern area.

  8. The relationship between brightness temperature and soil moisture. Selection of frequency range for microwave remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.S.; Chandra, G.; Rao, P.V.N.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of brightness temperature data acquired from field and aircraft experiments demonstrates a linear relationship between soil moisture and brightness temperature. However, the analysis of brightness temperature data acquired by the Skylab radiometer demonstrates a non-linear relationship between soil moisture and brightness temperature. In view of the above and also because of recent theoretical developments for the calculation of the dielectric constant and brightness temperature under varying soil moisture profile conditions, an attempt is made to study the theoretical relationship between brightness temperature and soil moisture as a function of frequency. Through the above analysis, the appropriate microwave frequency range for soil moisture studies is recommended

  9. Warning signal brightness variation: sexual selection may work under the radar of natural selection in populations of a polytypic poison frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, Laura R; Cummings, Molly E

    2013-05-01

    Though theory predicts consistency of warning signals in aposematic species to facilitate predator learning, variation in these signals often occurs in nature. The strawberry poison frog Dendrobates pumilio is an exceptionally polytypic (populations are phenotypically distinct) aposematic frog exhibiting variation in warning color and brightness. In the Solarte population, males and females both respond differentially to male brightness variation. Here, we demonstrate through spectrophotometry and visual modeling that aposematic brightness variation within this population is likely visible to two putative predators (crabs, snakes) and conspecifics but not to the presumed major predator (birds). This study thus suggests that signal brightness within D. pumilio populations can be shaped by sexual selection, with limited opportunity for natural selection to influence this trait due to predator sensory constraints. Because signal brightness changes can ultimately lead to changes in hue, our findings at the within-population level can provide insights into understanding this polytypism at across-population scales.

  10. Interpretation of the Near-IR Spectra of the Kuiper Belt Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Brown, Michael E.; Stansberry, John A.

    2007-01-01

    Visible and near-IR observations of the Kuiper Belt Object (136472) 2005 FY(9) have indicated the presence of unusually long (1 cm or more) optical path lengths in a layer of methane ice. Using microphysical and radiative transfer modeling, we show that even at the frigid temperatures in the outer reaches of the solar system, a slab of low porosity methane ice can indeed form by pressureless sintering of micron-sized grains, and it can qualitatively reproduce the salient features of the measured spectra. A good semiquantitative match with the near-IR spectra can be obtained with a realistic slab model, provided the spectra are scaled to a visible albedo of 0.6, at the low end of the values currently estimated from Spitzer thermal measurements. Consistent with previous modeling studies, matching spectra scaled to higher albedos requires the incorporation of strong backscattering effects. The albedo may become better constrained through an iterative application of the slab model to the analysis of the thermal measurements from Spitzer and the visible/near-IR reflectance spectra. The slab interpretation offers two falsifiable predictions (1) Absence of an opposition surge, which is commonly attributed to the fluffiness of the optical surface. This prediction is best testable with a spacecraft, as Earth-based observations at true opposition will not be possible until early next century. (2) Unlikelihood of the simultaneous occurrence of very long spectroscopic path lengths in both methane and nitrogen ice on the surface of any Kuiper Belt Object, as the more volatile nitrogen would hinder densification in methane ice.

  11. Near-IR period-luminosity relations for pulsating stars in ω Centauri (NGC 5139)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, C.; Catelan, M.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Alonso-García, J.; Gran, F.; Dékány, I.; Minniti, D.

    2017-08-01

    Aims: The globular cluster ω Centauri (NGC 5139) hosts hundreds of pulsating variable stars of different types, thus representing a treasure trove for studies of their corresponding period-luminosity (PL) relations. Our goal in this study is to obtain the PL relations for RR Lyrae and SX Phoenicis stars in the field of the cluster, based on high-quality, well-sampled light curves in the near-infrared (IR). Methods: Observations were carried out using the VISTA InfraRed CAMera (VIRCAM) mounted on the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA). A total of 42 epochs in J and 100 epochs in KS were obtained, spanning 352 days. Point-spread function photometry was performed using DoPhot and DAOPHOT crowded-field photometry packages in the outer and inner regions of the cluster, respectively. Results: Based on the comprehensive catalog of near-IR light curves thus secured, PL relations were obtained for the different types of pulsators in the cluster, both in the J and KS bands. This includes the first PL relations in the near-IR for fundamental-mode SX Phoenicis stars. The near-IR magnitudes and periods of Type II Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars were used to derive an updated true distance modulus to the cluster, with a resulting value of (m - M)0 = 13.708 ± 0.035 ± 0.10 mag, where the error bars correspond to the adopted statistical and systematic errors, respectively. Adding the errors in quadrature, this is equivalent to a heliocentric distance of 5.52 ± 0.27 kpc. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, with the VISTA telescope (project ID 087.D-0472, PI R. Angeloni).

  12. Near-IR search for lensed supernovae behind galaxy clusters. II. First detection and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Goobar, A.; Paech, K.; Stanishev, V.; Amanullah, R.; Dahlén, T.; Jönsson, J.; Kneib, J. P.; Lidman, C.; Limousin, M.; Mörtsell, E.; Nobili, S.; Richard, J.; Riehm, T.; von Strauss, M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims. Powerful gravitational telescopes in the form of massive galaxy clusters can be used to enhance the light collecting power over a limited field of view by about an order of magnitude in flux. This effect is exploited here to increase the depth of a survey for lensed supernovae at near-IR wavelengths. Methods. We present a pilot supernova search programme conducted with the ISAAC camera at VLT. Lensed galaxies behind the massive clusters A1689, A1835, and AC114 were observed for a tot...

  13. A simple approach to spectrally resolved fluorescence and bright field microscopy over select regions of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Peter D; Boughter, Christopher T; Faruk, Nabil F; Hong, Lu; Koh, Young Hoon; Reyer, Matthew A; Shaiber, Alon; Sherani, Aiman; Zhang, Jiacheng; Jureller, Justin E; Hammond, Adam T

    2016-11-01

    A standard wide field inverted microscope was converted to a spatially selective spectrally resolved microscope through the addition of a polarizing beam splitter, a pair of polarizers, an amplitude-mode liquid crystal-spatial light modulator, and a USB spectrometer. The instrument is capable of simultaneously imaging and acquiring spectra over user defined regions of interest. The microscope can also be operated in a bright-field mode to acquire absorption spectra of micron scale objects. The utility of the instrument is demonstrated on three different samples. First, the instrument is used to resolve three differently labeled fluorescent beads in vitro. Second, the instrument is used to recover time dependent bleaching dynamics that have distinct spectral changes in the cyanobacteria, Synechococcus leopoliensis UTEX 625. Lastly, the technique is used to acquire the absorption spectra of CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 perovskites and measure differences between nanocrystal films and micron scale crystals.

  14. A simple approach to spectrally resolved fluorescence and bright field microscopy over select regions of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Peter D.; Boughter, Christopher T.; Faruk, Nabil F.; Hong, Lu; Koh, Young Hoon; Reyer, Matthew A.; Shaiber, Alon; Sherani, Aiman; Zhang, Jiacheng; Jureller, Justin E.; Hammond, Adam T.

    2016-11-01

    A standard wide field inverted microscope was converted to a spatially selective spectrally resolved microscope through the addition of a polarizing beam splitter, a pair of polarizers, an amplitude-mode liquid crystal-spatial light modulator, and a USB spectrometer. The instrument is capable of simultaneously imaging and acquiring spectra over user defined regions of interest. The microscope can also be operated in a bright-field mode to acquire absorption spectra of micron scale objects. The utility of the instrument is demonstrated on three different samples. First, the instrument is used to resolve three differently labeled fluorescent beads in vitro. Second, the instrument is used to recover time dependent bleaching dynamics that have distinct spectral changes in the cyanobacteria, Synechococcus leopoliensis UTEX 625. Lastly, the technique is used to acquire the absorption spectra of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites and measure differences between nanocrystal films and micron scale crystals.

  15. Large-format platinum silicide microwave kinetic inductance detectors for optical to near-IR astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szypryt, P; Meeker, S R; Coiffard, G; Fruitwala, N; Bumble, B; Ulbricht, G; Walter, A B; Daal, M; Bockstiegel, C; Collura, G; Zobrist, N; Lipartito, I; Mazin, B A

    2017-10-16

    We have fabricated and characterized 10,000 and 20,440 pixel Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) arrays for the Dark-speckle Near-IR Energy-resolved Superconducting Spectrophotometer (DARKNESS) and the MKID Exoplanet Camera (MEC). These instruments are designed to sit behind adaptive optics systems with the goal of directly imaging exoplanets in a 800-1400 nm band. Previous large optical and near-IR MKID arrays were fabricated using substoichiometric titanium nitride (TiN) on a silicon substrate. These arrays, however, suffered from severe non-uniformities in the TiN critical temperature, causing resonances to shift away from their designed values and lowering usable detector yield. We have begun fabricating DARKNESS and MEC arrays using platinum silicide (PtSi) on sapphire instead of TiN. Not only do these arrays have much higher uniformity than the TiN arrays, resulting in higher pixel yields, they have demonstrated better spectral resolution than TiN MKIDs of similar design. PtSi MKIDs also do not display the hot pixel effects seen when illuminating TiN on silicon MKIDs with photons with wavelengths shorter than 1 µm.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of near IR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles for optical detection of colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Sarit; Pellach, Michal [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Kam, Yossi [Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12065, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Grinberg, Igor; Corem-Salkmon, Enav [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Rubinstein, Abraham [Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12065, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Margel, Shlomo, E-mail: shlomo.margel@mail.biu.ac.il [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2013-03-01

    Near IR (NIR) fluorescent human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles hold great promise as contrast agents for tumor diagnosis. HSA nanoparticles are considered to be biocompatible, non-toxic and non-immunogenic. In addition, NIR fluorescence properties of these nanoparticles are important for in vivo tumor diagnostics, with low autofluorescence and relatively deep penetration of NIR irradiation due to low absorption of biomatrices. The present study describes the synthesis of new NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles, by entrapment of a NIR fluorescent dye within the HSA nanoparticles, which also significantly increases the photostability of the dye. Tumor-targeting ligands such as peanut agglutinin (PNA) and anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies (anti-CEA) were covalently conjugated to the NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles, increasing the potential fluorescent signal in tumors with upregulated corresponding receptors. Specific colon tumor detection by the NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles was demonstrated in a chicken embryo model and a rat model. In future work we also plan to encapsulate cancer drugs such as doxorubicin within the NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles for both colon cancer imaging and therapy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Near IR human serum albumin nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticles were shown to be physically and chemically stable and photostable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumor-targeting ligands were covalently conjugated to the nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific colon cancer tumor detection was demonstrated in chicken-embryo and rat models.

  17. NEAR-IR PHOTOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF HB, MSTO, AND SGB FOR METAL POOR GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-W. Kim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We report photometric features of the HB, MSTO, and SGB for a set of metal-poor Galactic globular clusters on the near-IR CMDs. The magnitude and color of the MSTO and SGB are measured on the fiducial normal points of the CMDs by applying a polynomial fit. The near-IR luminosity functions of horizontal branch stars in the classical second parameter pair M3 and M13 indicate that HB stars in M13 are dominated by hot stars that are rotatively faint in the infrared, whereas HB stars in M3 are brighter than those in M13. The luminosity functions of HB stars in the observed bulge clusters, except for NGC 6717, show a trend that the fainter hot HB stars are dominated in the relatively metal-poor clusters while the relatively metal-rich clusters contain the brighter HB stars. It is suggestive that NGC 6717 would be an extreme example of the second-parameter phenomenon for the bulge globular clusters.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of near IR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles for optical detection of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Sarit; Pellach, Michal; Kam, Yossi; Grinberg, Igor; Corem-Salkmon, Enav; Rubinstein, Abraham; Margel, Shlomo

    2013-01-01

    Near IR (NIR) fluorescent human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles hold great promise as contrast agents for tumor diagnosis. HSA nanoparticles are considered to be biocompatible, non-toxic and non-immunogenic. In addition, NIR fluorescence properties of these nanoparticles are important for in vivo tumor diagnostics, with low autofluorescence and relatively deep penetration of NIR irradiation due to low absorption of biomatrices. The present study describes the synthesis of new NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles, by entrapment of a NIR fluorescent dye within the HSA nanoparticles, which also significantly increases the photostability of the dye. Tumor-targeting ligands such as peanut agglutinin (PNA) and anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies (anti-CEA) were covalently conjugated to the NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles, increasing the potential fluorescent signal in tumors with upregulated corresponding receptors. Specific colon tumor detection by the NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles was demonstrated in a chicken embryo model and a rat model. In future work we also plan to encapsulate cancer drugs such as doxorubicin within the NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles for both colon cancer imaging and therapy. - Highlights: ► Near IR human serum albumin nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. ► Nanoparticles were shown to be physically and chemically stable and photostable. ► Tumor-targeting ligands were covalently conjugated to the nanoparticles. ► Specific colon cancer tumor detection was demonstrated in chicken-embryo and rat models.

  19. Impact of animal density on cattle nutrition in dry Mediterranean rangelands: a faecal near-IR spectroscopy-aided study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Yehuda, Y; Muklada, H; Peleg, G; Henkin, Z; Voet, H; Ungar, E D

    2018-02-01

    In the context of determining the sustainable carrying capacity of dry-Mediterranean herbaceous rangelands, we examined the effect of animal density on cattle nutrition, which is fundamental to animal performance and welfare. The effects on dietary components of low (0.56 cows/ha; L) and high (1.11 cows/ha; H) animal densities were monitored for three consecutive years in grazing beef cows. In the dry season (summer and early autumn), cows had free access to N-rich poultry litter (PL) given as a dietary supplement. In each season, near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to predict the chemical composition of herbage samples (ash, NDF, CP, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) content from IVDMD). Near-IR spectroscopy was applied also to faecal samples to determine the chemical composition of the diet selected by the animal, as well as the contents of ash, NDF and CP in the faeces themselves. A faecal-NIRS equation was applied to estimate the dietary proportion of PL. Seasonal categories were green, dry without PL supplementation and dry with it. We found no effects of animal density on nutrition during the green season but effects were apparent when cows consumed dry pasture. Ash content predicted by faecal NIRS was higher in the diet than in plant samples clipped from pasture, which infers that cows ingested soil. Dietary and faecal ash contents were higher (Panimals. During the dry period, dietary contents of ME were higher in L than in H (Panimal health, the above results cast doubts on the long-term sustainability of the higher of the animal densities tested. Although it may be sustainable vis-à-vis the vegetation, treatment H may have exceeded the boundaries of what is acceptable for cow health. Chemical information revealed with NIRS can be used to evaluate whether animal densities are compatible with animal health and welfare standards and can play a role in determining the carrying capacity of Mediterranean rangelands.

  20. AgCl-doped CdSe quantum dots with near-IR photoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotin, Pavel Aleksandrovich; Bubenov, Sergey Sergeevich; Mordvinova, Natalia Evgenievna; Dorofeev, Sergey Gennadievich

    2017-01-01

    We report the synthesis of colloidal CdSe quantum dots doped with a novel Ag precursor: AgCl. The addition of AgCl causes dramatic changes in the morphology of synthesized nanocrystals from spherical nanoparticles to tetrapods and finally to large ellipsoidal nanoparticles. Ellipsoidal nanoparticles possess an intensive near-IR photoluminescence ranging up to 0.9 eV (ca. 1400 nm). In this article, we explain the reasons for the formation of the ellipsoidal nanoparticles as well as the peculiarities of the process. The structure, Ag content, and optical properties of quantum dots are also investigated. The optimal conditions for maximizing both the reaction yield and IR photoluminescence quantum yield are found.

  1. Fabrication of Large Area Fishnet Optical Metamaterial Structures Operational at Near-IR Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis W. Prather

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate a fabrication process for large area (2 mm × 2 mm fishnet metamaterial structures for near IR wavelengths. This process involves: (a defining a sacrificial Si template structure onto a quartz wafer using deep-UV lithography and a dry etching process (b deposition of a stack of Au-SiO2-Au layers and (c a ‘lift-off’ process which removes the sacrificial template structure to yield the fishnet structure. The fabrication steps in this process are compatible with today’s CMOS technology making it eminently well suited for batch fabrication. Also, depending on area of the exposure mask available for patterning the template structure, this fabrication process can potentially lead to optical metamaterials spanning across wafer-size areas.

  2. Real-time near IR (1310 nm) imaging of CO2 laser ablation of enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2008-02-18

    The high-transparency of dental enamel in the near-IR (NIR) can be exploited for real-time imaging of ablation crater formation during drilling with lasers. NIR images were acquired with an InGaAs focal plane array and a NIR zoom microscope during drilling incisions in human enamel samples with a lambda=9.3-microm CO(2) laser operating at repetition rates of 50-300-Hz with and without a water spray. Crack formation, dehydration and thermal changes were observed during ablation. These initial images demonstrate the potential of NIR imaging to monitor laser-ablation events in real-time to provide information about the mechanism of ablation and to evaluate the potential for peripheral thermal and mechanical damage.

  3. Near-IR Spectral Imaging of Semiconductor Absorption Sites in Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Samson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We derive spectral maps of absorption sites in integrated circuits (ICs by varying the wavelength of the optical probe within the near-IR range. This method has allowed us to improve the contrast of the acquired images by revealing structures that have a different optical absorption from neighboring sites. A false color composite image from those acquired at different wavelengths is generated from which the response of each semiconductor structure can be deduced. With the aid of the spectral maps, nonuniform absorption was also observed in a semiconductor structure located near an electrical overstress defect. This method may prove important in failure analysis of ICs by uncovering areas exhibiting anomalous absorption, which could improve localization of defective edifices in the semiconductor parts of the microchip

  4. Real-time near-IR imaging of laser-ablation crater evolution in dental enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2007-02-01

    We have shown that the enamel of the tooth is almost completely transparent near 1310-nm in the near-infrared and that near-IR (NIR) imaging has considerable potential for the optical discrimination of sound and demineralized tissue and for observing defects in the interior of the tooth. Lasers are now routinely used for many applications in dentistry including the ablation of dental caries. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that real-time NIR imaging can be used to monitor laser-ablation under varying conditions to assess peripheral thermal and transient-stress induced damage and to measure the rate and efficiency of ablation. Moreover, NIR imaging may have considerable potential for monitoring the removal of demineralized areas of the tooth during cavity preparations. Sound human tooth sections of approximately 3-mm thickness were irradiated by a CO II laser under varying conditions with and without a water spray. The incision area in the interior of each sample was imaged using a tungsten-halogen lamp with band-pass filter centered at 131--nm combined with an InGaAs focal plane array with a NIR zoom microscope in transillumination. Due to the high transparency of enamel at 1310-nm, laser-incisions were clearly visible to the dentin-enamel junction and crack formation, dehydration and irreversible thermal changes were observed during ablation. This study showed that there is great potential for near-IR imaging to monitor laser-ablation events in real-time to: assess safe laser operating parameters by imaging thermal and stress-induced damage, elaborate the mechanisms involved in ablation such as dehydration, and monitor the removal of demineralized enamel.

  5. Photo-redox activated drug delivery systems operating under two photon excitation in the near-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado-Alvarez, Tania M; Devi, Lekshmi Sudha; Vabre, Jean-Marie; Pecorelli, Travis A; Schwartz, Benjamin J; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Mongin, Olivier; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Zink, Jeffrey I

    2014-05-07

    We report the design and synthesis of a nano-container consisting of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with the pore openings covered by "snap-top" caps that are opened by near-IR light. A photo transducer molecule that is a reducing agent in an excited electronic state is covalently attached to the system. Near IR two-photon excitation causes inter-molecular electron transfer that reduces a disulfide bond holding the cap in place, thus allowing the cargo molecules to escape. We describe the operation of the "snap-top" release mechanism by both one- and two-photon activation. This system presents a proof of concept of a near-IR photoredox-induced nanoparticle delivery system that may lead to a new type of photodynamic drug release therapy.

  6. THE ORION FINGERS: NEAR-IR SPECTRAL IMAGING OF AN EXPLOSIVE OUTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, Allison; Bally, John [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam, E-mail: allison.youngblood@colorado.edu [ESO Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2016-06-01

    We present near-IR (1.1–2.4 μ m) position–position–velocity cubes of the 500 year old Orion BN/KL explosive outflow with spatial resolution 1″ and spectral resolution 86 km s{sup −1}. We construct integrated intensity maps free of continuum sources of 15 H{sub 2} and [Fe ii] lines while preserving kinematic information of individual outflow features. Included in the detected H{sub 2} lines are the 1-0 S(1) and 1-0 Q(3) transitions, allowing extinction measurements across the outflow. Additionally, we present dereddened flux ratios for over two dozen outflow features to allow for the characterization of the true excitation conditions of the BN/KL outflow. All of the ratios show the dominance of the shock excitation of the H{sub 2} emission, although some features exhibit signs of fluorescent excitation from stellar radiation or J-type shocks. We also detect tracers of the PDR/ionization front north of the Trapezium stars in [O i] and [Fe ii] and analyze other observed outflows not associated with the BN/KL outflow.

  7. An Atomically Precise Au10 Ag2 Nanocluster with Red-Near-IR Dual Emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhen; Guan, Zong-Jie; Pei, Xiao-Li; Yuan, Shang-Fu; Wan, Xian-Kai; Zhang, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Quan-Ming

    2016-08-01

    A red-near-IR dual-emissive nanocluster with the composition [Au10 Ag2 (2-py-C≡C)3 (dppy)6 ](BF4 )5 (1; 2-py-C≡C is 2-pyridylethynyl, dppy=2-pyridyldiphenylphosphine) has been synthesized. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis reveals that 1 has a trigonal bipyramidal Au10 Ag2 core that contains a planar Au4 (2-py-C≡C)3 unit sandwiched by two Au3 Ag(dppy)3 motifs. Cluster 1 shows intense red-NIR dual emission in solution. The visible emission originates from metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) from silver atoms to phosphine ligands in the Au3 Ag(dppy)3 motifs, and the intense NIR emission is associated with the participation of 2-pyridylethynyl in the frontier orbitals of the cluster, which is confirmed by a time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. AXION DECAY AND ANISOTROPY OF NEAR-IR EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yan; Chen, Xuelei [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Cooray, Asantha; Mitchell-Wynne, Ketron [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Zemcov, Michael [Center for Detectors, School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Smidt, Joseph [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-07-10

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is composed of the cumulative radiation from all galaxies and active galactic nuclei over cosmic history. In addition to point sources, the EBL also contains information from diffuse sources of radiation. The angular power spectra of the near-infrared intensities could contain additional signals, and a complete understanding of the nature of the infrared (IR) background is still lacking in the literature. Here we explore the constraints that can be placed on particle decays, especially candidate dark matter (DM) models involving axions that trace DM halos of galaxies. Axions with a mass around a few electronvolts will decay via two photons with wavelengths in the near-IR band and will leave a signature in the IR background intensity power spectrum. Using recent power spectra measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment, we find that the 0.6–1.6 μ m power spectra can be explained by axions with masses around 4 eV. The total axion abundance Ω{sub a} ≃ 0.05, and it is comparable to the baryon density of the universe. The suggested mean axion mass and abundance are not ruled out by existing cosmological observations. Interestingly, the axion model with a mass distribution is preferred by the data, which cannot be explained by the standard quantum chromodynamics theory and needs further discussion.

  9. Water vapor retrieval from near-IR measurements of polarized scanning atmospheric corrector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Lili; Ning, Yuanming; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Xingfeng; Ma, Yan; Li, Zhengqiang; Cui, Wenyu

    2018-02-01

    Water vapor and aerosol are two key atmospheric factors effecting the remote sensing image quality. As water vapor is responsible for most of the solar radiation absorption occurring in the cloudless atmosphere, accurate measurement of water content is important to not only atmospheric correction of remote sensing images, but also many other applications such as the study of energy balance and global climate change, land surface temperature retrieval in thermal remote sensing. A multi-spectral, single-angular, polarized radiometer called Polarized Scanning Atmospheric Corrector (PSAC) were developed in China, which are designed to mount on the same satellite platform with the principle payload and provide essential parameters for principle payload image atmospheric correction. PSAC detect water vapor content via measuring atmosphere reflectance at water vapor absorbing channels (i.e. 0.91 μm) and nearby atmospheric window channel (i.e. 0.865μm). A near-IR channel ratio method was implemented to retrieve column water vapor (CWV) amount from PSAC measurements. Field experiments were performed at Yantai, in Shandong province of China, PSAC aircraft observations were acquired. The comparison between PSAC retrievals and ground-based Sun-sky radiometer measurements of CWV during the experimental flights illustrates that this method retrieves CWV with relative deviations ranging from 4% 13%. This method retrieve CWV more accurate over land than over ocean, as the water reflectance is low.

  10. Doubly and triply linked porphyrin-perylene monoimides as near IR dyes with large dipole moments and high photostability

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Chi, Chunyan; Wu, Jishan

    2011-01-01

    Doubly and triply linked porphyrin-perylene monoimides 3 and 4, with extraordinary stability, large dipole moments, and strong near IR absorption, were prepared by means of one-pot oxidative cyclodehydrogenation promoted by FeCl 3. © 2010 American

  11. Doubly and triply linked porphyrin-perylene monoimides as near IR dyes with large dipole moments and high photostability

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun

    2011-01-21

    Doubly and triply linked porphyrin-perylene monoimides 3 and 4, with extraordinary stability, large dipole moments, and strong near IR absorption, were prepared by means of one-pot oxidative cyclodehydrogenation promoted by FeCl 3. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. Retrieval of Surface Lambert Albedos and Aerosols Optical Depths Using OMEGA Near-IR EPF Observations of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendon, M.; Langevin, Y.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Gondet, B.

    2007-03-01

    We have analyzed five EPF sequences acquired by OMEGA/Mars Express in the near-IR over ice-free and ice-covered surfaces to retrieve simultaneously the Lambert albedo of the surface and the optical depth of aerosols.

  13. A CATALOG OF NEAR-IR SOURCES FOUND TO BE UNRESOLVED WITH MILLIARCSECOND RESOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richichi, A. [National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand, 191 Siriphanich Bldg., Huay Kaew Rd., Suthep, Muang, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Fors, O. [Departament Astronomia i Meteorologia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (UB/IEEC), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Cusano, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Moerchen, M., E-mail: andrea@narit.or.th [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2012-12-15

    Calibration is one of the long-standing problems in optical interferometric measurements, particularly with long baselines which demand stars with angular sizes on the milliarcsecond scale and no detectable companions. While systems of calibrators have been generally established for the near-infrared in the bright source regime (K {approx}< 3 mag), modern large interferometers are sensitive to significantly fainter magnitudes. We aim to provide a list of sources found to be unresolved from direct observations with high angular resolution and dynamic range, which can be used to choose interferometric calibrators. To this purpose, we have used a large number of lunar occultations recorded with the ISAAC instrument at the Very Large Telescope to select sources found to be unresolved and without close companions. An algorithm has been used to determine the limiting angular resolution achieved for each source, taking into account a noise model built from occulted and unocculted portions of the light curves. We have obtained upper limits on the angular sizes of 556 sources, with magnitudes ranging from K{sub s} Almost-Equal-To 4 to 10, with a median of 7.2 mag. The upper limits on possible undetected companions (within Almost-Equal-To 0.''5) range from K{sub s} Almost-Equal-To 8 to 13, with a median of 11.5 mag. One-third of the sources have angular sizes {<=}1 mas, and two-thirds have sizes {<=}2 mas. This list of unresolved sources matches well the capabilities of current large interferometric facilities. We also provide available cross-identifications, magnitudes, spectral types, and other auxiliary information. A fraction of the sources are found to be potentially variable. The list covers parts of the Galactic Bulge and in particular the vicinity of the Galactic Center, where extinction is very significant and traditional lists of calibrators are often insufficient.

  14. Optical design of a versatile FIRST high-resolution near-IR spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Ge, Jian

    2012-09-01

    We report the update optical design of a versatile FIRST high resolution near IR spectrograph, which is called Florida IR Silicon immersion grating spectromeTer (FIRST). This spectrograph uses cross-dispersed echelle design with white pupils and also takes advantage of the image slicing to increase the spectra resolution, while maintaining the instrument throughput. It is an extremely high dispersion R1.4 (blazed angle of 54.74°) silicon immersion grating with a 49 mm diameter pupil is used as the main disperser at 1.4μm -1.8μm to produce R=72,000 while an R4 echelle with the same pupil diameter produces R=60,000 at 0.8μm -1.35μm. Two cryogenic Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings are used as cross-dispersers to allow simultaneous wavelength coverage of 0.8μm -1.8μm. The butterfly mirrors and dichroic beamsplitters make a compact folding system to record these two wavelength bands with a 2kx2k H2RG array in a single exposure. By inserting a mirror before the grating disperser (the SIG and the echelle), this spectrograph becomes a very efficient integral field 3-D imaging spectrograph with R=2,000-4,000 at 0.8μm-1.8μm by coupling a 10x10 telescope fiber bundle with the spectrograph. Details about the optical design and performance are reported.

  15. IGRINS NEAR-IR HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF MULTIPLE JETS AROUND LkHα 234

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Heeyoung; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Byeong-Gon; Park, Chan; Chun, Moo-Young; Kim, Kang-Min; Oh, Jae Sok; Jeong, Ueejeong; Yu, Young Sam; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Hwihyun; Hwang, Narae; Lee, Sungho [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Pyo, Tae-Soo [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Pak, Soojong; Lee, Hye-In; Le, Huynh Anh Nguyen [School of Space Research and Institute of Natural Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Kaplan, Kyle; Pavel, Michael; Mace, Gregory, E-mail: hyoh@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); and others

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy toward the multiple outflows around the Herbig Be star LkHα 234 using the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph. Previous studies indicate that the region around LkHα 234 is complex, with several embedded young stellar objects and the outflows associated with them. In simultaneous H- and K-band spectra from HH 167, we detected 5 [Fe ii] and 14 H{sub 2} emission lines. We revealed a new [Fe ii] jet driven by radio continuum source VLA 3B. Position–velocity diagrams of the H{sub 2} 1−0 S(1) λ2.122 μm line show multiple velocity peaks. The kinematics may be explained by a geometrical bow shock model. We detected a component of H{sub 2} emission at the systemic velocity (V{sub LSR} = −10.2 km s{sup −1}) along the whole slit in all slit positions, which may arise from the ambient photodissociation region. Low-velocity gas dominates the molecular hydrogen emission from knots A and B in HH 167, which is close to the systemic velocity; [Fe ii] emission lines are detected farther from the systemic velocity, at V{sub LSR} = −100–−130 km s{sup −1}. We infer that the H{sub 2} emission arises from shocked gas entrained by a high-velocity outflow. Population diagrams of H{sub 2} lines imply that the gas is thermalized at a temperature of 2500–3000 K and the emission results from shock excitation.

  16. Interactions of monochromatic visible light and near-IR radiation with cells: currently discussed mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karu, Tiina I.

    1995-05-01

    Biological responses of cells to visible and near IR (laser) radiation occur due to physical and/or chemical changes in photoacceptor molecules, components of respiratory chains (cyt a/a3 in mitochondria, and cyt d in E. coli). As a result of the photoexcitation of electronic states, the following physical and/or chemical changes can occur: alteration of redox properties and acceleration of electron transfer, changes in biochemical activity due to local transient heating of chromophores, one-electron auto-oxidation and O2- production, and photodynamic action and 1O2 production. Different reaction channels can be activated to achieve the photobiological macroeffect. The primary physical and/or chemical changes induced by light in photoacceptor molecules are followed by a cascade of biochemical reactions in the cell that do not need further light activation and occur in the dark (photosignal transduction and amplification chains). These reactions are connected with changes in cellular homeostasis parameters. The crucial step here is thought to be an alteration of the cellular redox state: a shift towards oxidation is associated with stimulation of cellular vitality, and a shift towards reduction is linked to inhibition. Cells with a lower than normal pH, where the redox state is shifted in the reduced direction, are considered to be more sensitive to the stimulative action of light than those with the respective parameters being optimal or near optimal. This circumstance explains the possible variations in observed magnitudes of low-power laser effects. Light action on the redox state of a cell via the respiratory chain also explains the diversity of low-power laser effects. Beside explaining many controversies in the field of low-power laser effects (i.e., the diversity of effects, the variable magnitude or absence of effects in certain studies), the proposed redox-regulation mechanism may be a fundamental explanation of some clinical effects of irradiation, for

  17. AN ANALYSIS OF THE SHAPES OF INTERSTELLAR EXTINCTION CURVES. VI. THE NEAR-IR EXTINCTION LAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, E. L.; Massa, D.

    2009-01-01

    We combine new observations from the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera of Survey with existing data to investigate the wavelength dependence of near-IR (NIR) extinction. Previous studies suggest a power law form for NIR extinction, with a 'universal' value of the exponent, although some recent observations indicate that significant sight line-to-sight line variability may exist. We show that a power-law model for the NIR extinction provides an excellent fit to most extinction curves, but that the value of the power, β, varies significantly from sight line to sight line. Therefore, it seems that a 'universal NIR extinction law' is not possible. Instead, we find that as β decreases, R(V) ≡ A(V)/E(B - V) tends to increase, suggesting that NIR extinction curves which have been considered 'peculiar' may, in fact, be typical for different R(V) values. We show that the power-law parameters can depend on the wavelength interval used to derive them, with the β increasing as longer wavelengths are included. This result implies that extrapolating power-law fits to determine R(V) is unreliable. To avoid this problem, we adopt a different functional form for NIR extinction. This new form mimics a power law whose exponent increases with wavelength, has only two free parameters, can fit all of our curves over a longer wavelength baseline and to higher precision, and produces R(V) values which are consistent with independent estimates and commonly used methods for estimating R(V). Furthermore, unlike the power-law model, it gives R(V)s that are independent of the wavelength interval used to derive them. It also suggests that the relation R(V) = -1.36 E(K-V)/(E(B-V)) - 0.79 can estimate R(V) to ±0.12. Finally, we use model extinction curves to show that our extinction curves are in accord with theoretical expectations, and demonstrate how large samples of observational quantities can provide useful constraints on the grain properties.

  18. Near-IR spectroscopic monitoring of CLASS I protostars: Variability of accretion and wind indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connelley, Michael S. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Greene, Thomas P. [NASA Ames Research Center, M.S. 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We present the results of a program that monitored the near-IR spectroscopic variability of a sample of 19 embedded protostars. Spectra were taken on time intervals from 2 days to 3 yr, over a wavelength range from 0.85 μm to 2.45 μm, for 4-9 epochs of observations per target. We found that the spectra of all targets are variable and that every emission feature observed is also variable (although not for all targets). With one exception, there were no drastic changes in the continua of the spectra, nor did any line completely disappear, nor did any line appear that was not previously apparent. This analysis focuses on understanding the connection between accretion (traced by H Br γ and CO) and the wind (traced by He I, [Fe II], and sometimes H{sub 2}). For both accretion and wind tracers, the median variability was constant versus the time interval between observations; however, the maximum variability that we observed increased with the time interval between observations. Extinction is observed to vary within the minimum sampling time of 2 days, suggesting extinguishing material within a few stellar radii at high disk latitudes. The variability of [Fe II] and H{sub 2} were correlated for most (but not all) of the 7 young stellar objects showing both features, and the amplitude of the variability depends on the veiling. Although the occurrence of CO and Br γ emission are connected, their variability is uncorrelated, suggesting that these emissions originate in separate regions near the protostar (e.g., disk and wind). The variability of Br γ and wind tracers were found to be positively correlated, negatively correlated, or uncorrelated, depending on the target. The variability of Br γ, [Fe II], and H{sub 2} always lies on a plane, although the orientation of the plane in three dimensions depends on the target. While we do not understand all interactions behind the variability that we observed, we have shown that spectroscopic variability is a powerful tool

  19. Faecal near-IR spectroscopy to determine the nutritional value of diets consumed by beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Roudman, M; Muklada, H; Barkai, D; Yehuda, Y; Ungar, E D

    2016-02-01

    Rapid assessment of the nutritional quality of diets ingested by grazing animals is pivotal for successful cow-calf management in east Mediterranean rangelands, which receive unpredictable rainfall and are subject to hot-spells. Clipped vegetation samples are seldom representative of diets consumed, as cows locate and graze selectively. In contrast, faeces are easily sampled and their near-IR spectra contain information about nutrients and their utilization. However, a pre-requisite for successful faecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FNIRS) is that the calibration database encompass the spectral variability of samples to be analyzed. Using confined beef cows in Northern and Southern Israel, we calibrated prediction equations based on individual pairs of known dietary attributes and the NIR spectra of associated faeces (n=125). Diets were composed of fresh-cut green fodder of monocots (wheat and barley), dicots (safflower and garden pea) and natural pasture collected at various phenological states over 2 consecutive years, and, optionally, supplements of barley grain and dried poultry litter. A total of 48 additional pairs of faeces and diets sourced from cows fed six complete mixed rations covering a wide range of energy and CP concentrations. Precision (linearity of calibration, R2cal, and of cross-validation, R2cv) and accuracy (standard error of cross-validation, SEcv) were criteria for calibration quality. The calibrations for dietary ash, CP, NDF and in vitro dry matter digestibility yielded R2cal values >0.87, R2cv of 0.81 to 0.89 and SEcv values of 16, 13, 39 and 31 g/kg dry matter, respectively. Equations for nutrient intake were of low quality, with the exception of CP. Evaluation of FNIRS predictions was carried out with grazing animals supplemented or not with poultry litter, and implementation of the method in one herd over 2 years is presented. The potential usefulness of equations was also established by calculating the Mahalanobis (H

  20. Toward single-mode UV to near-IR guidance using hollow-core anti-resonant silica fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Md Selim; Antonio-Lopez, Jose Enrique; Van Newkirk, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Hollow-core anti-resonant (HC-AR) fibers with a “negative-curvature” of the core-cladding boundary have been extensively studied over the past few years owing to their low loss and wide transmission bandwidths. The key unique feature of the HC-AR fiber is that the coupling between the core and cl...... a silica HC-AR fiber having a single ring of 7 non-touching capillaries, designed to have effectively single-mode operation and low loss from UV to near-IR....

  1. Precision Determination of Atmospheric Extinction at Optical and Near IR Wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Axelrod, T.; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.; Blondin, Stephane; /European Southern Observ. /Marseille, CPPM; Claver, Chuck; /NOAO, Tucson; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Saha, Abhijit; /NOAO, Tucson; Smith, Allyn; /Austin Peay State U.; Smith, R.Chris; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2011-08-24

    The science goals for future ground-based all-sky surveys, such as the Dark Energy Survey, PanSTARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, require calibration of broadband photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the sky to precisions of a per cent or better, and absolute calibration of color measurements that are similarly accurate. This performance will need to be achieved with measurements made from multiple images taken over the course of many years, and these surveys will observe in less than ideal conditions. This paper describes a technique to implement a new strategy to directly measure variations of atmospheric transmittance at optical wavelengths and application of these measurements to calibration of ground-based observations. This strategy makes use of measurements of the spectra of a small catalog of bright 'probe' stars as they progress across the sky and back-light the atmosphere. The signatures of optical absorption by different atmospheric constituents are recognized in these spectra by their characteristic dependences on wavelength and airmass. State-of-the-art models of atmospheric radiation transport and modern codes are used to accurately compute atmospheric extinction over a wide range of observing conditions. We present results of an observing campaign that demonstrate that correction for extinction due to molecular constituents and aerosols can be done with precisions of a few millimagnitudes with this technique.

  2. Bright ideas. Some rules of thumb for interior lighting design and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Claudia M

    2002-07-01

    Interior lighting design and selection can be a demanding assignment for a health facilities manager or department head. It requires a balance between conflicting needs, such as providing good task lighting for a nursing station while also shielding luminaires that are visible from patients' rooms to avoid glare.

  3. The FUR to near-IR morphologies of luminous infrared galaxies in the goals sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, S. M.; Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Howell, J. H.; Surace, J. A.; Charmandaris, V.; Psychogyios, A.; Evans, A. S.; Stierwalt, S.; Floc’h, E. Le; Bridge, C.; Inami, H.

    2014-01-01

    We compare the morphologies of a sample of 20 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) in the FUV, B, I, and H bands, using the Gini (G) and M 20 parameters to quantitatively estimate the distribution and concentration of flux as a function of wavelength. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images provide an average spatial resolution of ∼80 pc. While our LIRGs can be reliably classified as mergers across the entire range of wavelengths studied here, there is a clear shift toward more negative M 20 (more bulge-dominated) and a less significant decrease in G values at longer wavelengths. We find no correlation between the derived FUV G-M 20 parameters and the global measures of the IR to FUV flux ratio (IRX). Given the fine resolution in our HST data, this suggests either that the UV morphology and IRX are correlated on very small scales, or that the regions emitting the bulk of the IR emission emit almost no FUV light. We use our multi-wavelength data to simulate how merging LIRGs would appear from z∼0.5–3 in deep optical and near-infrared images such as the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field, and use these simulations to measure the G-M 20 at these redshifts. Our simulations indicate a noticeable decrease in G, which flattens at z⩾2 by as much as 40%, resulting in mis-classifying our LIRGs as disk-like, even in the rest-frame FUV. The higher redshift values of M 20 for the GOALS sources do not appear to change more than about 10% from the values at z∼0. The change in G-M 20 is caused by the surface brightness dimming of extended tidal features and asymmetries, and also the decreased spatial resolution which reduced the number of individual clumps identified. This effect, seen as early as z∼0.5, could easily lead to an underestimate of the number of merging galaxies at high-redshift in the rest-frame FUV.

  4. The FUV to Near-IR Morphologies of Luminous Infrared Galaxies in the Goals Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, S. M.; Armus, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Evans, A. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Bridge, C.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Howell, J. H.; Inami, H.; Psychogyios, A.; Stierwalt, S.; Surace, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    We compare the morphologies of a sample of 20 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) in the FUV, B, I, and H bands, using the Gini (G) and M20 parameters to quantitatively estimate the distribution and concentration of flux as a function of wavelength. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images provide an average spatial resolution of ˜ 80 pc. While our LIRGs can be reliably classified as mergers across the entire range of wavelengths studied here, there is a clear shift toward more negative M20 (more bulge-dominated) and a less significant decrease in G values at longer wavelengths. We find no correlation between the derived FUV G-M20 parameters and the global measures of the IR to FUV flux ratio (IRX). Given the fine resolution in our HST data, this suggests either that the UV morphology and IRX are correlated on very small scales, or that the regions emitting the bulk of the IR emission emit almost no FUV light. We use our multi-wavelength data to simulate how merging LIRGs would appear from z˜ 0.5-3 in deep optical and near-infrared images such as the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field, and use these simulations to measure the G-M20 at these redshifts. Our simulations indicate a noticeable decrease in G, which flattens at z≥slant 2 by as much as 40%, resulting in mis-classifying our LIRGs as disk-like, even in the rest-frame FUV. The higher redshift values of M20 for the GOALS sources do not appear to change more than about 10% from the values at z˜ 0. The change in G-M20 is caused by the surface brightness dimming of extended tidal features and asymmetries, and also the decreased spatial resolution which reduced the number of individual clumps identified. This effect, seen as early as z˜ 0.5, could easily lead to an underestimate of the number of merging galaxies at high-redshift in the rest-frame FUV.

  5. DISCOVERING BRIGHT QUASARS AT INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFTS BASED ON OPTICAL/NEAR-INFRARED COLORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Zuo, Wenwen; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Wang, Feige

    2013-01-01

    The identification of quasars at intermediate redshifts (2.2 < z < 3.5) has been inefficient in most previous quasar surveys since the optical colors of quasars are similar to those of stars. The near-IR K-band excess technique has been suggested to overcome this difficulty. Our recent study also proposed to use optical/near-IR colors for selecting z < 4 quasars. To verify the effectiveness of this method, we selected a list of 105 unidentified bright targets with i ≤ 18.5 from the quasar candidates of SDSS DR6 with both SDSS ugriz optical and UKIDSS YJHK near-IR photometric data, which satisfy our proposed Y – K/g – z criterion and have photometric redshifts between 2.2 and 3.5 estimated from the nine-band SDSS-UKIDSS data. We observed 43 targets with the BFOSC instrument on the 2.16 m optical telescope at Xinglong station of the National Astronomical Observatory of China in the spring of 2012. We spectroscopically identified 36 targets as quasars with redshifts between 2.1 and 3.4. The high success rate of discovering these quasars in the SDSS spectroscopic surveyed area further demonstrates the robustness of both the Y – K/g – z selection criterion and the photometric redshift estimation technique. We also used the above criterion to investigate the possible stellar contamination rate among the quasar candidates of SDSS DR6, and found that the rate is much higher when selecting 3 < z < 3.5 quasar candidates than when selecting lower redshift candidates (z < 2.2). The significant improvement in the photometric redshift estimation when using the nine-band SDSS-UKIDSS data over the five-band SDSS data is demonstrated and a catalog of 7727 unidentified quasar candidates in SDSS DR6 selected with optical/near-IR colors and having photometric redshifts between 2.2 and 3.5 is provided. We also tested the Y – K/g – z selection criterion with the recently released SDSS-III/DR9 quasar catalog and found that 96.2% of 17,999 DR9 quasars with UKIDSS Y- and K

  6. CHARACTERIZING THE OPTICAL VARIABILITY OF BRIGHT BLAZARS: VARIABILITY-BASED SELECTION OF FERMI ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Becker, Andrew C.; Davenport, James R. A.; Ivezić, Željko; Burnett, T. H.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Sesar, Branimir; Stuart, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the use of optical photometric variability to select and identify blazars in large-scale time-domain surveys, in part to aid in the identification of blazar counterparts to the ∼30% of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog still lacking reliable associations. Using data from the optical LINEAR asteroid survey, we characterize the optical variability of blazars by fitting a damped random walk model to individual light curves with two main model parameters, the characteristic timescales of variability τ, and driving amplitudes on short timescales σ-circumflex. Imposing cuts on minimum τ and σ-circumflex allows for blazar selection with high efficiency E and completeness C. To test the efficacy of this approach, we apply this method to optically variable LINEAR objects that fall within the several-arcminute error ellipses of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog. Despite the extreme stellar contamination at the shallow depth of the LINEAR survey, we are able to recover previously associated optical counterparts to Fermi active galactic nuclei with E ≥ 88% and C = 88% in Fermi 95% confidence error ellipses having semimajor axis r < 8'. We find that the suggested radio counterpart to Fermi source 2FGL J1649.6+5238 has optical variability consistent with other γ-ray blazars and is likely to be the γ-ray source. Our results suggest that the variability of the non-thermal jet emission in blazars is stochastic in nature, with unique variability properties due to the effects of relativistic beaming. After correcting for beaming, we estimate that the characteristic timescale of blazar variability is ∼3 years in the rest frame of the jet, in contrast with the ∼320 day disk flux timescale observed in quasars. The variability-based selection method presented will be useful for blazar identification in time-domain optical surveys and is also a probe of jet physics.

  7. Characterizing the Optical Variability of Bright Blazars: Variability-based Selection of Fermi Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Becker, Andrew C.; Burnett, T. H.; Davenport, James R. A.; Ivezić, Željko; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Sesar, Branimir; Stuart, J. Scott

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the use of optical photometric variability to select and identify blazars in large-scale time-domain surveys, in part to aid in the identification of blazar counterparts to the ~30% of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog still lacking reliable associations. Using data from the optical LINEAR asteroid survey, we characterize the optical variability of blazars by fitting a damped random walk model to individual light curves with two main model parameters, the characteristic timescales of variability τ, and driving amplitudes on short timescales \\hat{\\sigma }. Imposing cuts on minimum τ and \\hat{\\sigma } allows for blazar selection with high efficiency E and completeness C. To test the efficacy of this approach, we apply this method to optically variable LINEAR objects that fall within the several-arcminute error ellipses of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog. Despite the extreme stellar contamination at the shallow depth of the LINEAR survey, we are able to recover previously associated optical counterparts to Fermi active galactic nuclei with E >= 88% and C = 88% in Fermi 95% confidence error ellipses having semimajor axis r beaming. After correcting for beaming, we estimate that the characteristic timescale of blazar variability is ~3 years in the rest frame of the jet, in contrast with the ~320 day disk flux timescale observed in quasars. The variability-based selection method presented will be useful for blazar identification in time-domain optical surveys and is also a probe of jet physics.

  8. On the completeness of a sample of bright quasars selected by colour excess in the direction of the North Galactic Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnock, A. III; Usher, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Medium Bright Quasar survey (MBQS) shows evidence for a dearth of bright quasars in a Palomar Schmidt field centred on Selected Area (SA) 57 near the North Galactic Pole, compared to similar fields centred on SA 28, 29, 55, and 94. The SA 57 field has been searched again for bright quasar candidates with the held of a second survey plate exposed according to a slightly modified Haro-Luyten three-colour (Tonantzintla) prescription. Candidates so selected have both a blue and ultraviolet excess (B-UVX). The main result of the paper is that there appear to be no B-UVX quasars in the SA 57 field that are brighter than B=17.25 mag. The significance of this apparent anomaly is briefly discussed. (author)

  9. Non-invasive, MRI-compatible fibreoptic device for functional near-IR reflectometry of human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorvoja, H.S.S.; Myllylae, T S; Myllylae, Risto A; Kirillin, M Yu; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A; Elseoud, A A; Nikkinen, J; Tervonen, O; Kiviniemi, V

    2011-01-01

    A non-invasive device for measuring blood oxygen variations in human brain is designed, implemented, and tested for MRI compatibility. The device is based on principles of near-IR reflectometry; power LEDs serve as sources of probing radiation delivered to patient skin surface through optical fibres. Numerical Monte Carlo simulations of probing radiation propagation in a multilayer brain model are performed to evaluate signal levels at different source - detector separations at three operation wavelengths and an additional wavelength of 915 nm. It is shown that the device can be applied for brain activity studies using power LEDs operating at 830 and 915 nm, while employment of wavelength of 660 nm requires an increased probing power. Employment of the wavelength of 592 nm in the current configuration is unreasonable. (application of lasers and laser-optical methods in life sciences)

  10. Impact of Humidity on Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Based CO Detection Using a Near-IR Telecommunication Diode Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xukun Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A near-IR CO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS is evaluated using humidified nitrogen samples. Relaxation processes in the CO-N2-H2O system are investigated. A simple kinetic model is used to predict the sensor performance at different gas pressures. The results show that CO has a ~3 and ~5 times slower relaxation time constant than CH4 and HCN, respectively, under dry conditions. However, with the presence of water, its relaxation time constant can be improved by three orders of magnitude. The experimentally determined normalized detection sensitivity for CO in humid gas is 1.556 × 10 − 8   W ⋅ cm − 1 / Hz 1 / 2 .

  11. Atmospheric pressure and temperature profiling using near IR differential absorption lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Dombrowski, M.; Weng, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with differential absorption lidar techniques for remotely measuring the atmospheric temperature and pressure profile, surface pressure, and cloud top pressure-height. The procedure used in determining the pressure is based on the conduction of high-resolution measurements of absorption in the wings of lines in the oxygen A band. Absorption with respect to these areas is highly pressure sensitive in connection with the mechanism of collisional line broadening. The method of temperature measurement utilizes a determination of the absorption at the center of a selected line in the oxygen A band which originates from a quantum state with high ground state energy.

  12. GALEX FAR-ULTRAVIOLET COLOR SELECTION OF UV-BRIGHT HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worseck, Gabor; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We study the small population of high-redshift (z em >2.7) quasars detected by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer(GALEX), whose far-UV emission is not extinguished by intervening H I Lyman limit systems. These quasars are of particular importance to detect intergalactic He II absorption along their sight lines. We correlate almost all verified z em >2.7 quasars to the GALEX GR4 source catalog covering ∼ 25,000 deg 2 , yielding 304 sources detected at signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) >3. However, ∼50% of these are only detected in the GALEX NUV band, signaling the truncation of the FUV flux by low-redshift optically thick Lyman limit systems. We exploit the GALEX UV color m FUV - m NUV to cull the most promising targets for follow-up studies, with blue (red) GALEX colors indicating transparent (opaque) sight lines. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations indicate an He II detection rate of ∼60% for quasars with m FUV - m NUV ∼ em ∼ 3 to be most promising for Hubble Space Telescope follow-up, with an additional 114 quasars if we consider S/N >2 detections in the FUV. Combining the statistical properties of H I absorbers with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar luminosity function, we predict a large all-sky population of ∼200 quasars with z em >2.7 and i ∼ 304 em ∼ em ∼ em ∼< 3.5 quasars have likely underestimated their space density by selecting intergalactic medium sight lines with an excess of strong H I absorbers.

  13. Statistical inference for classification of RRIM clone series using near IR reflectance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Faridatul Aima; Madzhi, Nina Korlina; Hashim, Hadzli; Abdullah, Noor Ezan; Khairuzzaman, Noor Aishah; Azmi, Azrie Faris Mohd; Sampian, Ahmad Faiz Mohd; Harun, Muhammad Hafiz

    2015-08-01

    RRIM clone is a rubber breeding series produced by RRIM (Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia) through "rubber breeding program" to improve latex yield and producing clones attractive to farmers. The objective of this work is to analyse measurement of optical sensing device on latex of selected clone series. The device using transmitting NIR properties and its reflectance is converted in terms of voltage. The obtained reflectance index value via voltage was analyzed using statistical technique in order to find out the discrimination among the clones. From the statistical results using error plots and one-way ANOVA test, there is an overwhelming evidence showing discrimination of RRIM 2002, RRIM 2007 and RRIM 3001 clone series with p value = 0.000. RRIM 2008 cannot be discriminated with RRIM 2014; however both of these groups are distinct from the other clones.

  14. Genetic variant near IRS1 is associated with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rung, Johan; Cauchi, Stéphane; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    sample of 4,977 French individuals. We then selected the 28 best hits for replication in 7,698 Danish subjects and identified 4 SNPs showing strong association with T2D, one of which (rs2943641, P = 9.3 x 10(-12), OR = 1.19) was located adjacent to the insulin receptor substrate 1 gene (IRS1). Unlike...... previously reported T2D risk loci, which predominantly associate with impaired beta cell function, the C allele of rs2943641 was associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in 14,358 French, Danish and Finnish participants from population-based cohorts; this allele was also associated...... with reduced basal levels of IRS1 protein and decreased insulin induction of IRS1-associated phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase activity in human skeletal muscle biopsies....

  15. The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, François; Sayède, Frédéric; Gendron, Eric; Fusco, Thierry; Burgarella, Denis; Cayatte, Véronique; Conan, Jean-Marc; Courbin, Frédéric; Flores, Hector; Guinouard, Isabelle; Jocou, Laurent; Lançon, Ariane; Monnet, Guy; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Rigaud, François; Rouan, Daniel; Rousset, Gérard; Buat, Véronique; Zamkotsian, Frédéric

    A large fraction of the present-day stellar mass was formed between z=0.5 and z˜ 3 and our understanding of the formation mechanisms at work at these epochs requires both high spatial and high spectral resolution: one shall simultaneously obtain images of objects with typical sizes as small as 1-2 kpc (˜ 0".1), while achieving 20-50 km/s (R≥ 5000) spectral resolution. In addition, the redshift range to be considered implies that most important spectral features are redshifted in the near-infrared. The obvious instrumental solution to adopt in order to tackle the science goal is therefore a combination of multi-object 3D spectrograph with multi-conjugate adaptive optics in large fields. A very promising way to achieve such a technically challenging goal is to relax the conditions of the traditional full adaptive optics correction. A partial, but still competitive correction shall be prefered, over a much wider field of view. This can be done by estimating the turbulent volume from sets of natural guide stars, by optimizing the correction to several and discrete small areas of few arcsec 2 selected in a large field (Nasmyth field of 25 arcmin) and by correcting up to the 6th, and eventually, up to the 60 th Zernike modes. Simulations on real extragalactic fields, show that for most sources (> 80%), the recovered resolution could reach 0".15-0".25 in the J and H bands. Detection of point-like objects is improved by factors from 3 to ≥10, when compared with an instrument without adaptive correction. The proposed instrument concept, FALCON, is equipped with deployable mini-integral field units (IFUs), achieving spectral resolutions between R=5000 and 20000. Its multiplex capability, combined with high spatial and spectral resolution characteristics, is a natural ground based complement to the next generation of space telescopes. Galaxy formation in the early Universe is certainly a main science driver. We describe here how FALCON shall allow to answer puzzling

  16. The Type IIP SN 2005ay: An Extensive Study From UltraViolet To Near-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufano, F. M.; Turatto, M.; Zampieri, L.; Gal-Yam, A.

    2006-08-01

    Several supernova types are thought to explode via the gravitational collapse of the core of massive stars at the end of their lifetimes. The great observational diversity has not been fully understood even if it clearly involves the progenitor masses and configurations at the time of explosion. These Supernovae, called Core Collapse Supernovae (CC SNe), are expected to dominate the counts of SNe observed at high redshifts and to be the only observable probe of the first generation stars (Pop III). Recently indicated as reliable distance indicators (Hamuy 02, Pastorello `03), CC SNe are objects of great interest but significantly less studied in comparison with the Termonuclear ones. With the aim to understand better the reasons of the heterogeneous behaviour , we have started an extensive study of the properties of SN II with different observational features (luminosity, velocity, etc..). Here we present the last results on our first observed target, SN2005ay, a Type IIP supernova observed in an extended way from the Ultraviolet wavelengths, provided by the GALEX , to the Optical and near-IR , obtained with IISP (Italian Intensive Supernova Program).

  17. Moving the Plasmon of LaB₆ from IR to Near-IR via Eu-Doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, Tracy M; Coffman, D Keith; Roh, Inwhan; Sims, Christopher; Urban, Jeffrey J

    2018-02-01

    Lanthanum hexaboride (LaB₆) has become a material of intense interest in recent years due to its low work function, thermal stability and intriguing optical properties. LaB₆ is also a semiconductor plasmonic material with the ability to support strong plasmon modes. Some of these modes uniquely stretch into the infrared, allowing the material to absorb around 1000 nm, which is of great interest to the window industry. It is well known that the plasmon of LaB₆ can be tuned by controlling particle size and shape. In this work, we explore the options available to further tune the optical properties by describing how metal vacancies and Eu doping concentrations are additional knobs for tuning the absorbance from the near-IR to far-IR in La 1-x Eu x B₆ (x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0). We also report that there is a direct correlation between Eu concentration and metal vacancies within the Eu 1-x La x B₆.

  18. Near-IR laser-based spectrophotometer for comparative analysis of isotope content of CO2 in exhale air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, E V; Glushko, A N; Kasoev, S G; Koval', A V; Lapshin, D A

    2011-01-01

    We present a laser spectrophotometer aimed at high-accuracy comparative analysis of content of 12 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 isotope modifications in the exhale air samples and based on a tunable near-IR diode laser (2.05 μm). The two-channel optical scheme of the spectrophotometer and the special digital system for its control are described. An algorithm of spectral data processing aimed at determining the difference in the isotope composition of gas mixtures is proposed. A few spectral regions (near 4880 cm -1 ) are determined to be optimal for analysis of relative content of 12 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 in the exhale air. The use of the proposed spectrophotometer scheme and the developed algorithm makes the results of the analysis less susceptible to the influence of the interference in optical elements, to the absorption in the open atmosphere, to the slow drift of the laser pulse envelope, and to the offset of optical channels. The sensitivity of the comparative analysis of the isotope content of CO 2 in exhale air samples, achieved using the proposed scheme, is estimated to be nearly 0.1‰.

  19. Moving the Plasmon of LaB6 from IR to Near-IR via Eu-Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy M. Mattox

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6 has become a material of intense interest in recent years due to its low work function, thermal stability and intriguing optical properties. LaB6 is also a semiconductor plasmonic material with the ability to support strong plasmon modes. Some of these modes uniquely stretch into the infrared, allowing the material to absorb around 1000 nm, which is of great interest to the window industry. It is well known that the plasmon of LaB6 can be tuned by controlling particle size and shape. In this work, we explore the options available to further tune the optical properties by describing how metal vacancies and Eu doping concentrations are additional knobs for tuning the absorbance from the near-IR to far-IR in La1−xEuxB6 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0. We also report that there is a direct correlation between Eu concentration and metal vacancies within the Eu1−xLaxB6.

  20. VARIABILITY AT THE EDGE: OPTICAL NEAR/IR RAPID-CADENCE MONITORING OF NEWLY OUTBURSTING FU ORIONIS OBJECT HBC 722

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Joel D.; Robertson, Paul; Pak, Soojong; Meschiari, Stefano; Baek, Giseon; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Pooley, David; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu

    2013-01-01

    We present the detection of day-timescale periodic variability in the r-band lightcurve of newly outbursting FU Orionis-type object HBC 722, taken from >42 nights of observation with the CQUEAN instrument on the McDonald Observatory 2.1 m telescope. The optical/near-IR lightcurve of HBC 722 shows a complex array of periodic variability, clustering around 5.8-day (0.044 mag amplitude) and 1.28-day (0.016 mag amplitude) periods, after removal of overall baseline variation. We attribute the unusual number of comparable strength signals to a phenomenon related to the temporary increase in accretion rate associated with FUors. We consider semi-random 'flickering', magnetic braking/field compression and rotational asymmetries in the disk instability region as potential sources of variability. Assuming that the 5.8-day period is due to stellar rotation and the 1.28-day period is indicative of Keplerian rotation at the inner radius of the accretion disk (at 2 R * ), we derive a B-field strength of 2.2-2.7 kG, slightly larger than typical T Tauri stars. If instead the 5.8-day signal is from a disk asymmetry, the instability region has an outer radius of 5.4 R * , consistent with models of FUor disks. Further exploration of the time domain in this complicated source and related objects will be key to understanding accretion processes.

  1. B and R CCD surface photometry of selected low surface brightness galaxies in the region of the Fornax cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The recent discoveries of large numbers of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in clusters and of the extreme LSB giant galaxy Malin 1 are changing our view of the galactic contents of the Universe. In this paper we describe B and R band CCD photometry of a sample of LSB galaxies previously identified from photographic plates of the Fornax cluster. This sample contains some of the lowest surface brightness galaxies known, one having the same central surface brightness as Main 1. The objects in this sample have a wide range of morphologies, and galaxies of similar appearance may have very different (B-R) colours. The range of (B-R) colours for this sample (almost all of which would have been described as dE from their B band morphology alone) is as large as that of the entire Hubble sequence. (author)

  2. Building up a database of spectro-photometric standard stars from the UV to the near-IR: A status report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernet, J.; Kerber, F.; Saitta, F.; Mainieri, V.; D'Odorico, S.; Lidman, C.; Mason, E.; Bohlin, R.C.; Rauch, T.; Ivanov, V.D.; Smette, A.; Walsh, J.R.; Fosbury, R.A.E.; Goldoni, P.; Groot, P.; Hammer, F.; Horrobin, M.; Kaper, L.; Kjaergaard-Rasmussen, P.; Pallavicini, R.; Royer, F.

    2008-01-01

    We present a project aimed at establishing a set of 12 spectro-photometric standards over a wide wavelength range from 320 to 2500 nm. Currently no such set of standard stars covering the near-IR is available. Our strategy is to extend the useful range of existing well-established optical flux

  3. THE SWIFT GRB HOST GALAXY LEGACY SURVEY. II. REST-FRAME NEAR-IR LUMINOSITY DISTRIBUTION AND EVIDENCE FOR A NEAR-SOLAR METALLICITY THRESHOLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Krühler, T. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 København Ø (Denmark); Laskar, T.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chary, R. [US Planck Data Center, MS220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Postigo, A. de Ugarte [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Michałowski, M. J. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Schulze, S., E-mail: dperley@dark-cosmology.dk [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2016-01-20

    We present rest-frame near-IR (NIR) luminosities and stellar masses for a large and uniformly selected population of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using deep Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of 119 targets from the Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey spanning 0.03 < z < 6.3, and we determine the effects of galaxy evolution and chemical enrichment on the mass distribution of the GRB host population across cosmic history. We find a rapid increase in the characteristic NIR host luminosity between z ∼ 0.5 and z ∼ 1.5, but little variation between z ∼ 1.5 and z ∼ 5. Dust-obscured GRBs dominate the massive host population but are only rarely seen associated with low-mass hosts, indicating that massive star-forming galaxies are universally and (to some extent) homogeneously dusty at high redshift while low-mass star-forming galaxies retain little dust in their interstellar medium. Comparing our luminosity distributions with field surveys and measurements of the high-z mass–metallicity relation, our results have good consistency with a model in which the GRB rate per unit star formation is constant in galaxies with gas-phase metallicity below approximately the solar value but heavily suppressed in more metal-rich environments. This model also naturally explains the previously reported “excess” in the GRB rate beyond z ≳ 2; metals stifle GRB production in most galaxies at z < 1.5 but have only minor impact at higher redshifts. The metallicity threshold we infer is much higher than predicted by single-star models and favors a binary progenitor. Our observations also constrain the fraction of cosmic star formation in low-mass galaxies undetectable to Spitzer to be small at z < 4.

  4. EVIDENCE FOR NON-STELLAR REST-FRAME NEAR-IR EMISSION ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED STAR FORMATION IN GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Johannes U.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Nelson, Erica J.; Leja, Joel; Brammer, Gabriel; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Franx, Marijn

    2016-01-01

    We explore the presence of non-stellar rest-frame near-IR (2–5 μm) emission in galaxies at z ∼ 1. Previous studies identified this excess in relatively small samples and suggested that such non-stellar emission, which could be linked to the 3.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons feature or hot dust emission, is associated with an increased star formation rate (SFR). In this Letter, we confirm and quantify the presence of an IR excess in a significant fraction of galaxies in the 3D-HST GOODS catalogs. By constructing a matched sample of galaxies with and without strong non-stellar near-IR emission, we find that galaxies with such emission are predominantly star-forming galaxies. Moreover, star-forming galaxies with an excess show increased mid- and far-IR and Hα emission compared to other star-forming galaxies without. While galaxies with a near-IR excess show a larger fraction of individually detected X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs), an X-ray stacking analysis, together with the IR-colors and Hα profiles, shows that AGNs are unlikely to be the dominant source of excess in the majority of galaxies. Our results suggest that non-stellar near-IR emission is linked to increased SFRs and is ubiquitous among star-forming galaxies. As such, the near-IR emission might be a powerful tool to measure SFRs in the era of the James Webb Space Telescope

  5. An optical-near-IR study of a triplet of super star clusters in the starburst core of M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westmoquette, M. S. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Bastian, N. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Smith, L. J. [Space Telescope Science Institute and European Space Agency, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Seth, A. C. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Gallagher III, J. S.; Ryon, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 5534 Sterling, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Silich, S.; Mayya, Y. D.; González, D. Rosa [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electronica, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, C.P. 72840, Puebla (Mexico); Muñoz-Tuñón, C., E-mail: westmoquette@gmail.com [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/vía Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-07-10

    We present HST/STIS optical and Gemini/NIFS near-IR IFU spectroscopy and archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the triplet of super star clusters (A1, A2, and A3) in the core of the M82 starburst. Using model fits to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectra and the weakness of red supergiant CO absorption features (appearing at ∼6 Myr) in the NIFS H-band spectra, the ages of A2 and A3 are 4.5 ± 1.0 Myr. A1 has strong CO bands, consistent with our previously determined age of 6.4 ± 0.5 Myr. The photometric masses of the three clusters are 4-7 × 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉}, and their sizes are R{sub eff} = 159, 104, 59 mas (∼2.8, 1.8, 1.0 pc) for A1, A2, and A3. The STIS spectra yielded radial velocities of 320 ± 2, 330 ± 6, and 336 ± 5 km s{sup –1} for A1, A2, and A3, placing them at the eastern end of the x{sub 2} orbits of M82's bar. Clusters A2 and A3 are in high-density (800-1000 cm{sup –3}) environments, and like A1, are surrounded by compact H II regions. We suggest the winds from A2 and A3 have stalled, as in A1, due to the high ISM ambient pressure. We propose that the three clusters were formed in situ on the outer x{sub 2} orbits in regions of dense molecular gas subsequently ionized by the rapidly evolving starburst. The similar radial velocities of the three clusters and their small projected separation of ∼25 pc suggest that they may merge in the near future unless this is prevented by velocity shearing.

  6. Investigation on water content in fresco mock-ups in the microwave and near-IR spectral regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrini, Donata; Riminesi, Cristiano; Cucci, Costanza; Olmi, Roberto; Picollo, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Water diffusion inside masonry is responsible for the majority of the decay phenomena observed in wall paintings and frescos. Thus, the diagnostics of moisture and water content and their monitoring represent a key issue. In order to preserve the integrity of surfaces of artistic interest, investigations by means of non-destructive techniques (NDT) are preferred over others. The aim of this research is to determine methodologies to quantify the moisture content (MC) of frescos by means of the integrated use of two non-invasive techniques, namely fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) in the near-IR region and evanescent field dielectrometry (EFD) in the microwave range. The FORS technique has been employed in order to assess the amount of water adsorbed from the surface by means of an analysis of the reflectance spectra in the Vis–NIR (350-2200 nm) range. This technique investigates the electronic and vibrational transitions that are characteristic of each compound and enables their identification. The water content is evaluated on the basis of the 1920 nm and 1450 nm absorption bands. The EFD system consists of a resonant probe connected to a network analyzer. The resonance frequency of the cavity under different moisture-content conditions of frescos is in the 1.0–1.5 GHz range. The device makes it possible to compute, in real time, the MC from a measurement of the transmission coefficient (amplitude versus frequency) through the probe. Fresco mock-ups have been prepared in collaboration with the Opificio delle Pietre Dure in order to recreate most of the possible chromatic shades obtained by mixing iron oxides and hydroxide-based pigments. Measurements were performed by employing both techniques on fresco models after wet-dry cycles obtained by means of poultices with a known water content. The results obtained with these two techniques were compared, and cross relationships between the EFD and FORS data were defined. (paper)

  7. Andromeda (M31) optical and infrared disk survey. I. Insights in wide-field near-IR surface photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sick, Jonathan; Courteau, Stéphane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; McDonald, Michael; De Jong, Roelof; Tully, R. Brent

    2014-01-01

    We present wide-field near-infrared J and K s images of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) taken with WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope as part of the Andromeda Optical and Infrared Disk Survey. This data set allows simultaneous observations of resolved stars and near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness across M31's entire bulge and disk (within R = 22 kpc), permitting a direct test of the stellar composition of near-infrared light in a nearby galaxy. Here we develop NIR observation and reduction methods to recover a uniform surface brightness map across the 3° × 1° disk of M31 with 27 WIRCam fields. Two sky-target nodding strategies are tested, and we find that strictly minimizing sky sampling latency cannot improve background subtraction accuracy to better than 2% of the background level due to spatio-temporal variations in the NIR skyglow. We fully describe our WIRCam reduction pipeline and advocate using flats built from night-sky images over a single night, rather than dome flats that do not capture the WIRCam illumination field. Contamination from scattered light and thermal background in sky flats has a negligible effect on the surface brightness shape compared to the stochastic differences in background shape between sky and galaxy disk fields, which are ∼0.3% of the background level. The most dramatic calibration step is the introduction of scalar sky offsets to each image that optimizes surface brightness continuity. Sky offsets reduce the mean surface brightness difference between observation blocks from 1% to <0.1% of the background level, though the absolute background level remains statistically uncertain to 0.15% of the background level. We present our WIRCam reduction pipeline and performance analysis to give specific recommendations for the improvement of NIR wide-field imaging methods.

  8. Specific features of diffuse reflection of human face skin for laser and non-laser sources of visible and near-IR light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolotov, L E; Sinichkin, Yu P; Tuchin, Valerii V; Al'tshuler, G B; Yaroslavskii, I V

    2011-01-01

    The specific features of diffuse reflection from different areas of human face skin for laser and non-laser sources of visible and near-IR light have been investigated to localise the closed-eye (eyelid) region. In the visible spectral range the reflection from the eyelid skin surface can be differentiated by measuring the slope of the spectral dependence of the effective optical density of skin in the wavelength range from 650 to 700nm. In the near-IR spectral range the reflectances of the skin surface at certain wavelengths, normalised to the forehead skin reflectance, can be used as a criterion for differentiating the eyelid skin. In this case, a maximum discrimination is obtained when measuring the skin reflectances at laser wavelengths of 1310 and 1470nm, which correspond to the spectral ranges of maximum and minimum water absorption. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  9. THE SPECTACULAR RADIO-NEAR-IR-X-RAY JET OF 3C 111: THE X-RAY EMISSION MECHANISM AND JET KINEMATICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clautice, Devon; Perlman, Eric S. [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 W. University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Georganopoulos, Markos [Department of Physics, University of Maryland—Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Lister, Matthew L.; Hogan, Brandon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Tombesi, Francesco [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Cara, Mihai [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Marshall, Herman L. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kazanas, Demos [NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 663, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Relativistic jets are the most energetic manifestation of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) phenomenon. AGN jets are observed from the radio through gamma-rays and carry copious amounts of matter and energy from the sub-parsec central regions out to the kiloparsec and often megaparsec scale galaxy and cluster environs. While most spatially resolved jets are seen in the radio, an increasing number have been discovered to emit in the optical/near-IR and/or X-ray bands. Here we discuss a spectacular example of this class, the 3C 111 jet, housed in one of the nearest, double-lobed FR II radio galaxies known. We discuss new, deep Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) observations that reveal both near-IR and X-ray emission from several components of the 3C 111 jet, as well as both the northern and southern hotspots. Important differences are seen between the morphologies in the radio, X-ray, and near-IR bands. The long (over 100 kpc on each side), straight nature of this jet makes it an excellent prototype for future, deep observations, as it is one of the longest such features seen in the radio, near-IR/optical, and X-ray bands. Several independent lines of evidence, including the X-ray and broadband spectral shape as well as the implied velocity of the approaching hotspot, lead us to strongly disfavor the EC/CMB model and instead favor a two-component synchrotron model to explain the observed X-ray emission for several jet components. Future observations with NuSTAR , HST , and Chandra will allow us to further constrain the emission mechanisms.

  10. Galaxy Size Evolution at High Redshift and Surface Brightness Selection Effects: Constraints from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Franx, M.

    2004-08-01

    We use the exceptional depth of the Ultra Deep Field (UDF) and UDF-parallel Advanced Camera for Surveys fields to study the sizes of high-redshift (z~2-6) galaxies and address long-standing questions about possible biases in the cosmic star formation rate due to surface brightness dimming. Contrasting B-, V-, and i-dropout samples culled from the deeper data with those obtained from the shallower Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey fields, we demonstrate that the shallower data are essentially complete at bright magnitudes to z~0.4", >~3 kpc) low surface brightness galaxies are rare. A simple comparison of the half-light radii of the Hubble Deep Field-North + Hubble Deep Field-South U-dropouts with B-, V-, and i-dropouts from the UDF shows that the sizes follow a (1+z)-1.05+/-0.21 scaling toward high redshift. A more rigorous measurement compares different scalings of our U-dropout sample with the mean profiles for a set of intermediate-magnitude (26.0dropouts from the UDF. The best fit is found with a (1+z)-0.94+0.19-0.25 size scaling (for fixed luminosity). This result is then verified by repeating this experiment with different size measures, low-redshift samples, and magnitude ranges. Very similar scalings are found for all comparisons. A robust measurement of size evolution is thereby demonstrated for galaxies from z~6 to 2.5 using data from the UDF. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  11. Validation of Correction Algorithms for Near-IR Analysis of Human Milk in an Independent Sample Set-Effect of Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Choi, Dasol; Choi, Arum; Al Kafi, Nisreen; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-02-26

    Commercial infrared (IR) milk analyzers are being increasingly used in research settings for the macronutrient measurement of breast milk (BM) prior to its target fortification. These devices, however, may not provide reliable measurement if not properly calibrated. In the current study, we tested a correction algorithm for a Near-IR milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, Brookfield, CT, USA) for fat and protein measurements, and examined the effect of pasteurization on the IR matrix and the stability of fat, protein, and lactose. Measurement values generated through Near-IR analysis were compared against those obtained through chemical reference methods to test the correction algorithm for the Near-IR milk analyzer. Macronutrient levels were compared between unpasteurized and pasteurized milk samples to determine the effect of pasteurization on macronutrient stability. The correction algorithm generated for our device was found to be valid for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Pasteurization had no effect on the macronutrient levels and the IR matrix of BM. These results show that fat and protein content can be accurately measured and monitored for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Of additional importance is the implication that donated human milk, generally low in protein content, has the potential to be target fortified.

  12. Validation of Correction Algorithms for Near-IR Analysis of Human Milk in an Independent Sample Set—Effect of Pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Choi, Dasol; Choi, Arum; Al Kafi, Nisreen; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Commercial infrared (IR) milk analyzers are being increasingly used in research settings for the macronutrient measurement of breast milk (BM) prior to its target fortification. These devices, however, may not provide reliable measurement if not properly calibrated. In the current study, we tested a correction algorithm for a Near-IR milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, Brookfield, CT, USA) for fat and protein measurements, and examined the effect of pasteurization on the IR matrix and the stability of fat, protein, and lactose. Measurement values generated through Near-IR analysis were compared against those obtained through chemical reference methods to test the correction algorithm for the Near-IR milk analyzer. Macronutrient levels were compared between unpasteurized and pasteurized milk samples to determine the effect of pasteurization on macronutrient stability. The correction algorithm generated for our device was found to be valid for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Pasteurization had no effect on the macronutrient levels and the IR matrix of BM. These results show that fat and protein content can be accurately measured and monitored for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Of additional importance is the implication that donated human milk, generally low in protein content, has the potential to be target fortified. PMID:26927169

  13. Conformers, infrared spectrum, UV-induced photochemistry, and near-IR-induced generation of two rare conformers of matrix-isolated phenylglycine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, Ana; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Fausto, Rui

    2014-10-01

    The conformational space of α-phenylglycine (PG) have been investigated theoretically at both the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and MP2/6-311++G(d,p) levels of approximation. Seventeen different minima were found on the investigated potential energy surfaces, which are characterized by different dominant intramolecular interactions: type I conformers are stabilized by hydrogen bonds of the type N-H...O=C, type II by a strong O-H...N hydrogen bond, type III by weak N-H...O-H hydrogen bonds, and type IV by a C=O...H-C contact. The calculations indicate also that entropic effects are relevant in determining the equilibrium populations of the conformers of PG in the gas phase, in particular in the case of conformers of type II, where the strong intramolecular O-H...N hydrogen bond considerably diminishes entropy by reducing the conformational mobility of the molecule. In consonance with the relative energies of the conformers and barriers for conformational interconversion, only 3 conformers of PG were observed for the compound isolated in cryogenic Ar, Xe, and N2 matrices: the conformational ground state (ICa), and forms ICc and IITa. All other significantly populated conformers existing in the gas phase prior to deposition convert either to conformer ICa or to conformer ICc during matrix deposition. The experimental observation of ICc had never been achieved hitherto. Narrowband near-IR irradiation of the first overtone of νOH vibrational mode of ICa and ICc in nitrogen matrices (at 6910 and 6930 cm-1, respectively) led to selective generation of two additional conformers of high-energy, ITc and ITa, respectively, which were also observed experimentally for the first time. In addition, these experiments also provided the key information for the detailed vibrational characterization of the 3 conformers initially present in the matrices. On the other hand, UV irradiation (λ = 255 nm) of PG isolated in a xenon matrix revealed that PG undergoes facile photofragmentation

  14. Conformers, infrared spectrum, UV-induced photochemistry, and near-IR-induced generation of two rare conformers of matrix-isolated phenylglycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Ana; Fausto, Rui; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The conformational space of α-phenylglycine (PG) have been investigated theoretically at both the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and MP2/6-311++G(d,p) levels of approximation. Seventeen different minima were found on the investigated potential energy surfaces, which are characterized by different dominant intramolecular interactions: type I conformers are stabilized by hydrogen bonds of the type N–H···O=C, type II by a strong O–H···N hydrogen bond, type III by weak N–H···O–H hydrogen bonds, and type IV by a C=O···H–C contact. The calculations indicate also that entropic effects are relevant in determining the equilibrium populations of the conformers of PG in the gas phase, in particular in the case of conformers of type II, where the strong intramolecular O–H···N hydrogen bond considerably diminishes entropy by reducing the conformational mobility of the molecule. In consonance with the relative energies of the conformers and barriers for conformational interconversion, only 3 conformers of PG were observed for the compound isolated in cryogenic Ar, Xe, and N 2 matrices: the conformational ground state (ICa), and forms ICc and IITa. All other significantly populated conformers existing in the gas phase prior to deposition convert either to conformer ICa or to conformer ICc during matrix deposition. The experimental observation of ICc had never been achieved hitherto. Narrowband near-IR irradiation of the first overtone of νOH vibrational mode of ICa and ICc in nitrogen matrices (at 6910 and 6930 cm −1 , respectively) led to selective generation of two additional conformers of high-energy, ITc and ITa, respectively, which were also observed experimentally for the first time. In addition, these experiments also provided the key information for the detailed vibrational characterization of the 3 conformers initially present in the matrices. On the other hand, UV irradiation (λ = 255 nm) of PG isolated in a xenon matrix revealed that PG

  15. Visible and Near-IR Reflectance Spectra of Smectite Acquired Under Dry Conditions for Interpretation of Martian Surface Mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; Achilles, Cherie N; Archer, Paul D.; Graff, Trevor G.; Agresti, David G.; Ming, Douglas W; Golden, Dadi C.; Mertzman, Stanley A.

    2011-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectra from the MEx OMEGA and the MRO CRISM hyper-spectral imaging instruments have spectral features associated with the H2O molecule and M OH functional groups (M = Mg, Fe, Al, and Si). Mineralogical assignments of martian spectral features are made on the basis of laboratory VNIR spectra, which were often acquired under ambient (humid) conditions. Smectites like nontronite, saponite, and montmorillionite have interlayer H2O that is exchangeable with their environment, and we have acquired smectite reflectance spectra under dry environmental conditions for interpretation of martian surface mineralogy. We also obtained chemical, Moessbauer (MB), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric (TG) data to understand variations in spectral properties. VNIR spectra were recorded in humid lab air at 25-35C, in a dynamic dry N2 atmosphere (50-150 ppmv H2O) after exposing the smectite samples (5 nontronites, 3 montmorillionites, and 1 saponite) to that atmosphere for up to approximately l000 hr each at 25-35C, approximately 105C, and approximately 215C, and after re-exposure to humid lab air. Heating at 105C and 215C for approximately 1000 hr is taken as a surrogate for geologic time scales at lower temperatures. Upon exposure to dry N2, the position and intensity of spectral features associated with M-OH were relatively insensitive to the dry environment, and the spectral features associated with H2O (e.g., approximately 1.90 micrometers) decreased in intensity and are sometimes not detectable by the end of the 215C heating step. The position and intensity of H2O spectral features recovered upon re-exposure to lab air. XRD data show interlayer collapse for the nontronites and Namontmorillionites, with the interlayer remaining collapsed for the latter after re-exposure to lab air. The interlayer did not collapse for the saponite and Ca-montmorillionite. TG data show that the concentration of H2O derived from structural OH was invariant

  16. A very bright (i = 16.44) quasar in the 'redshift desert' discovered by the Guoshoujing Telescope (LAMOST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xuebing; Chen Zhaoyu; Jia Zhendong; Zuo Wenwen; Zhao Yongheng; Luo Ali; Bai Zhongrui; Chen Jianjun; Zhang Haotong; Yan Hongliang; Ren Juanjuan; Sun Shiwei; Wu Hong; Zhang Yong; Li Yeping; Lu Qishuai; Wang You; Ni Jijun; Wang Hai; Kong Xu

    2010-01-01

    The redshift range from 2.2 to 3 is known as the 'redshift desert' of quasars because quasars with redshifts in this range have similar optical colors as normal stars and are thus difficult to find in optical sky surveys. A quasar candidate, SDSS J085543.40-001517.7, which was selected by a recently proposed criterion involving near-IR Y - K and optical g - z colors, was identified spectroscopically as a new quasar with a redshift of 2.427 by the Guoshoujing Telescope (LAMOST) commissioning observation in 2009 December and confirmed by the observation made with the NAOC/Xinglong 2.16 m telescope in 2010 March. This quasar was not identified in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. Comparing with other SDSS quasars, we found that this new quasar, with an i magnitude of 16.44, is apparently the brightest one in the redshift range from 2.3 to 2.7. From its spectral properties, we derived its central black hole mass to be (1.4 ∼ 3.9) x 10 10 M o-dot and its bolometric luminosity to be 3.7 x 10 48 erg s -1 , which indicates that this new quasar is intrinsically very bright and belongs to the class of the most luminous quasars in the universe. Our identification supports the notion that quasars in the redshift desert can be found by the quasar selection criterion involving the near-IR colors. More missing quasars are expected to be uncovered by future LAMOST spectroscopic surveys, which is important to the study of the cosmological evolution of quasars at redshifts higher than 2.2. (research papers)

  17. Comparison of Optical and Multi-Waveband Variations of Selected Gamma-ray Bright Blazars in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Benjamin; Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Williamson, K. E.; Walker, G. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of several gamma-ray bright blazars. We combine optical data obtained with the 17-inch CCD telescope of Maria Mitchell Observatory with space- and ground-based observations carried out with a variety of instruments. These include a number of other optical telescopes, the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope at photon energies of 0.1-200 GeV, and the Swift satellite at 0.3-10 keV plus optical and UV wavelengths. Three of the observed blazars proved to be particularly active - BL Lac, Mrk501, and CTA-102. BL Lac was of special interest, displaying remarkable activity in multiple wavelengths during this observation period, including the optical, in which it underwent its largest observed flare in a number of years. In addition, CTA-102 has recently undergone an unprecedented multi-wavelength outburst. We cross-correlate the variations in the different wavebands in an effort to guide theoretical interpretations of the optical and high-energy emission from blazars. This project was supported by NSF/REU grant AST-0851892 and the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association. The research at Boston University was supported in part by NSF grant AST-0907893 and by NASA through Fermi grant NNX11AQ03G.

  18. High Resolution Near-IR Imaging of VY Canis Majoris with LBT / LMIRCam (2 - 5 μm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Dinesh; Jones, T. J.; Humphreys, R. M.; LMIRCam Instrument Team

    2013-06-01

    HST imaging of the famous red hypergiant VY Canis Majoris shows a complex circumstellar reflection nebula indicative of multiple asymmetric ejection episodes. Constructing a more complete picture of the mass loss mechanism compels extending high resolution imaging of massive stars such as VY CMa into the near-infrared, where the mechanism for emission from circumstellar ejecta transitions from scattering to thermal. We present LBT/LMIRCam observations of VY CMa at Ks (2.2 μm), L' (3.8 μm) and M (4.9 μm) at sub-arcsecond resolution, comparable to the HST in the optical. The peculiar Southwest (SW) Clump, first identified as a highly reddened feature seen only at the longest wavelength (1 μm) in the HST images, appears bright in the three LMIRCam filters. The SW Clump is found to be optically thick at all three wavelengths. A silicate grain model yields a lower limit mass on the order of 7E-4 M⊙

  19. NEAR-IR TWO PHOTON MICROSCOPY IMAGING OF SILICA NANOPARTICLES FUNCTIONALIZED WITH ISOLATED SENSITIZED Yb(III) CENTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapadula, Giuseppe; Bourdolle, Adrien; Allouche, Florian; Conley, Matthew P.; Maron, Laurent; Lukens, Wayne W.; Guyot, Yannick; Andraud, Chantal; Brasselet, Sophie; Copé; ret, Christophe; Maury, Olivier; Andersen, Richard A.

    2013-01-12

    Bright nano objects emitting in the near infrared with a maximal cross section of 41.4 x 103 GM (Goppert Mayer), were prepared by implanting ca. 180 4,4 diethylaminostyryl 2,2 bipyridine (DEAS) Yb(III) complexes on the surface of 12 nm silica nanoparticles. The surface complexes ([DEAS Ln SiO2], Ln =Y,Yb) were characterized using IR, solid state NMR, UV Vis, EXAFS spectroscopies in combination with the preparation and characterization of similar molecular analogues by analytical techniques (IR, solution NMR, UV Vis, X ray crystallography) as well as DFT calculations. Starting from the partial dehydroxylation of the silica at 700 C on high vacuum having 0.8 OH.nm 2, the grafting of Ln(N(SiMe3)2)3 generate ≤SiO Ln(N(SiMe3)2)2, which upon thermal step and coordination of the DEAS chromophore yields (≤SiO)3Ln(DEAS). Surface and molecular analogues display similar properties, in terms of DEAS binding constants absorption maxima and luminescence properties (intense emission band assigned to a ligand centered CT fluorescence and life time) in the solid state, consistent with the molecular nature of the surface species. The densely functionalized nanoparticles can be dispersed via ultra-sonication in small ca. 15-20 nm aggregates (1 to 6 elementary particles) that were detected using two photon microscopy imaging at 720 nm excitation, making them promising nano objects for bio imaging.

  20. A Technique For Remote Sensing Of Suspended Sediments And Shallow Coastal Waters Using MODIS Visible and Near-IR Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R.; Kaufman, Y.

    2002-12-01

    ABSTRACT We have developed an algorithm to detect suspended sediments and shallow coastal waters using imaging data acquired with the Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS). The MODIS instruments on board the NASA Terra and Aqua Spacecrafts are equipped with one set of narrow channels located in a wide 0.4 - 2.5 micron spectral range. These channels were designed primarily for remote sensing of the land surface and atmosphere. We have found that the set of land and cloud channels are also quite useful for remote sensing of the bright coastal waters. We have developed an empirical algorithm, which uses the narrow MODIS channels in this wide spectral range, for identifying areas with suspended sediments in turbid waters and shallow waters with bottom reflections. In our algorithm, we take advantage of the strong water absorption at wavelengths longer than 1 æm that does not allow illumination of sediments in the water or a shallow ocean floor. MODIS data acquired over the east coast of China, west coast of Africa, Arabian Sea, Mississippi Delta, and west coast of Florida are used in this study.

  1. Properties of the fullerene C_6_0-containing PN Lin49 in the SMC; Explanations of strong near-IR excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Kemper, Francisca; Leal-Ferreira, Marcelo L.; Aleman, Isabel; Ochsendorf, Bram; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; Cami, Jan; Peeters, Els

    2016-01-01

    We performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the fullerene C_6o-containing planetary nebula (PN) Lin49 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). Lin49 is a C-rich and metal- deficient PN (Z∼⃒0.0006) and its nebular abundances are in agreement with the AGB model for the initially 1.25M_☉ stars with the metallicity Z = 0.001 of Fishlock et al. (2014, [1]). By stellar absorption fitting with TLUSTY, we derived stellar abundances, effective temperature, and surface gravity. We constructed the photo-ionization model with CLOUDY in order to investigate physical conditions of Lin49. The model with the 0.005-0.1 μm radius graphite and a constant hydrogen density shell could not fit the ∼⃒1-5 μm SED owing to the strong near-IR excess. We propose that the near-IR excess indicates (1) the presence of extremely small carbon molecules or (2) the presence of high-density structure surrounding the central star. (paper)

  2. PHOTOMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF SELECTED, OPTICALLY BRIGHT QUASARS FOR SPACE INTERFEROMETRY MISSION AND OTHER FUTURE CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, Roopesh; Zacharias, Norbert; Hennessy, Gregory S.; Gaume, Ralph A.; Johnston, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Photometric observations of 235 extragalactic objects that are potential targets for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) are presented. Mean B, V, R, I magnitudes at the 5% level are obtained at 1-4 epochs between 2005 and 2007 using the 1 m telescopes at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station. Of the 134 sources that have V magnitudes in the Veron and Veron-Cetty catalog, a difference of over 1.0 mag is found for the observed-catalog magnitudes for about 36% of the common sources, and 10 sources show over 3 mag difference. Our first set of observations presented here form the basis of a long-term photometric variability study of the selected reference frame sources to assist in mission target selection and to support QSO multicolor photometric variability studies in general.

  3. Energy and Emission Characteristics of a Short-Arc Xenon Flash Lamp Under "Saturated" Optical Brightness Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrukov, A. S.; Kireev, S. G.; Kozlov, N. P.; Shashkovskii, S. G.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of a study of the electrical, energy, and spectral brightness characteristics of an experimental three-electrode high-pressure xenon flash lamp under conditions ensuring close to maximum possible spectral brightness for the xenon emission. We show that under saturated optical brightness conditions (brightness temperature in the visible region of the spectrum 30,000 K), emission of a pulsed discharge in xenon is quite different from the emission from an ideal blackbody: the maximum brightness temperatures are 24,000 K in the short-wavelength UV region and 19,000 K in the near IR range. The relative fraction of UV radiation in the emission spectrum of the lamp is >50%, which lets us consider such lamps as promising broadband sources of radiation with high spectral brightness for many important practical applications.

  4. The NuSTAR  Extragalactic Surveys: X-Ray Spectroscopic Analysis of the Bright Hard-band Selected Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, L.; Comastri, A.; Civano, F.; Puccetti, S.; Fiore, F.; Aird, J.; Del Moro, A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Lanzuisi, G.; Goulding, A.; Mullaney, J. R.; Stern, D.; Ajello, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Farrah, D.; Harrison, F. A.; Gandhi, P.; Lanz, L.; Masini, A.; Marchesi, S.; Ricci, C.; Treister, E.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss the spectral analysis of a sample of 63 active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected above a limiting flux of S(8{--}24 {keV})=7× {10}-14 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2 in the multi-tiered NuSTAR extragalactic survey program. The sources span a redshift range z=0{--}2.1 (median =0.58). The spectral analysis is performed over the broad 0.5–24 keV energy range, combining NuSTAR with Chandra and/or XMM-Newton data and employing empirical and physically motivated models. This constitutes the largest sample of AGN selected at > 10 {keV} to be homogeneously spectrally analyzed at these flux levels. We study the distribution of spectral parameters such as photon index, column density ({N}{{H}}), reflection parameter ({\\boldsymbol{R}}), and 10–40 keV luminosity ({L}{{X}}). Heavily obscured ({log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]≥slant 23) and Compton-thick (CT; {log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]≥slant 24) AGN constitute ∼25% (15–17 sources) and ∼2–3% (1–2 sources) of the sample, respectively. The observed {N}{{H}} distribution agrees fairly well with predictions of cosmic X-ray background population-synthesis models (CXBPSM). We estimate the intrinsic fraction of AGN as a function of {N}{{H}}, accounting for the bias against obscured AGN in a flux-selected sample. The fraction of CT AGN relative to {log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]=20{--}24 AGN is poorly constrained, formally in the range 2–56% (90% upper limit of 66%). We derived a fraction (f abs) of obscured AGN ({log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]=22{--}24) as a function of {L}{{X}} in agreement with CXBPSM and previous zvalues.

  5. Mass Functions of the Active Black Holes in Distant Quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Color-Selected Sample of the SDSS Fall Equatorial Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Osmer, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    We present mass functions of distant actively accreting supermassive black holes residing in luminous quasars discovered in the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Fall Equatorial Stripe of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The quasars cover a wide range of redshifts (0...... functions at similar redshifts based on the SDSS Data Release 3 quasar catalog presented by Vestergaard et al. We see clear evidence of cosmic downsizing in the comoving space density distribution of active black holes in the LBQS sample alone. In forthcoming papers, further analysis, comparison......, and discussion of these mass functions will be made with other existing black hole mass functions, notably that based on the SDSS DR3 quasar catalog. We present the relationships used to estimate the black hole mass based on the MgII emission line; the relations are calibrated to the Hbeta and CIV relations...

  6. Multi-pollutants sensors based on near-IR telecom lasers and mid-IR difference frequency generation: development and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, J.

    2006-12-01

    At present the detection of VOC and other anthropic trace pollutants is an important challenge in the measurement of air quality. Infrared spectroscopy, allowing spectral regions rich in molecular absorption to be probed, is a suitable technique for in-situ monitoring of the air pollution. Thus the aim of this work was to develop instruments capable of detecting multiple pollutants for in-situ monitoring by IR spectroscopy. A first project benefited from the availability of the telecommunications lasers emitting in near-IR. This instrument was based on an external cavity diode laser (1500 - 1640 nm) in conjunction with a multipass cell (100 m). The detection sensitivity was optimised by employing a balanced detection and a sweep integration procedure. The instrument developed is deployable for in-situ measurements with a sensitivity of -8 cm -1 Hz -1/2 and allowed the quantification of chemical species such as CO 2 , CO, C 2 H 2 , CH 4 and the determination of the isotopic ratio 13 CO 2 / 12 CO 2 in combustion environment The second project consisted in mixing two near-IR fiber lasers in a non-linear crystal (PPLN) in order to produce a laser radiation by difference frequency generation in the middle-IR (3.15 - 3.43 μm), where the absorption bands of the molecules are the most intense. The first studies with this source were carried out on detection of ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) and benzene (C 6 H 6 ). Developments, characterizations and applications of these instruments in the near and middle IR are detailed and the advantages of the 2 spectral ranges is highlighted. (author)

  7. Obscured AGN at z similar to 1 from the zCOSMOS-Bright Survey : I. Selection and optical properties of a [Ne v]-selected sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mignoli, M.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Lamareille, F.; Nair, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J. -P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Le Borgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Montero, E. Perez; Presotto, V.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Bordoloi, R.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; McCracken, H. J.; Moresco, M.; Welikala, N.

    Aims. The application of multi-wavelength selection techniques is essential for obtaining a complete and unbiased census of active galactic nuclei (AGN). We present here a method for selecting z similar to 1 obscured AGN from optical spectroscopic surveys. Methods. A sample of 94 narrow-line AGN

  8. An Hα Imaging Survey of the Low-surface-brightness Galaxies Selected from the Fall Sky Region of the 40% ALFALFA H I Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Feng-Jie; Wu, Hong; Du, Wei; Zhu, Yi-Nan; Lam, Man-I.; Zhou, Zhi-Min; He, Min; Jin, Jun-Jie; Cao, Tian-Wen; Zhao, Pin-Song; Yang, Fan; Wu, Chao-Jian; Li, Hong-Bin; Ren, Juan-Juan

    2018-03-01

    We present the observed Hα flux and derived star formation rates (SFRs) for a fall sample of low-surface-brightness galaxies (LSBGs). The sample is selected from the fall sky region of the 40% ALFALFA H I Survey–SDSS DR7 photometric data, and all the Hα images were obtained using the 2.16 m telescope, operated by the National Astronomy Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A total of 111 LSBGs were observed and Hα flux was measured in 92 of them. Though almost all the LSBGs in our sample are H I-rich, their SFRs, derived from the extinction and filter-transmission-corrected Hα flux, are less than 1 M ⊙ yr‑1. LSBGs and star-forming galaxies have similar H I surface densities, but LSBGs have much lower SFRs and SFR surface densities than star-forming galaxies. Our results show that LSBGs deviate from the Kennicutt–Schmidt law significantly, which indicates that they have low star formation efficiency. The SFRs of LSBGs are close to average SFRs in Hubble time and support previous arguments that most of the LSBGs are stable systems and they tend to seldom contain strong interactions or major mergers in their star formation histories.

  9. Obscured AGN at z ~ 1 from the zCOSMOS-Bright Survey. I. Selection and optical properties of a [Ne v]-selected sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignoli, M.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Lamareille, F.; Nair, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovač, K.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pellò, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez Montero, E.; Presotto, V.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Bordoloi, R.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; McCracken, H. J.; Moresco, M.; Welikala, N.

    2013-08-01

    Aims: The application of multi-wavelength selection techniques is essential for obtaining a complete and unbiased census of active galactic nuclei (AGN). We present here a method for selecting z ~ 1 obscured AGN from optical spectroscopic surveys. Methods: A sample of 94 narrow-line AGN with 0.65 advantage of the large amount of data available in the COSMOS field, the properties of the [Ne v]-selected type 2 AGN were investigated, focusing on their host galaxies, X-ray emission, and optical line-flux ratios. Finally, a previously developed diagnostic, based on the X-ray-to-[Ne v] luminosity ratio, was exploited to search for the more heavily obscured AGN. Results: We found that [Ne v]-selected narrow-line AGN have Seyfert 2-like optical spectra, although their emission line ratios are diluted by a star-forming component. The ACS morphologies and stellar component in the optical spectra indicate a preference for our type 2 AGN to be hosted in early-type spirals with stellar masses greater than 109.5 - 10 M⊙, on average higher than those of the galaxy parent sample. The fraction of galaxies hosting [Ne v]-selected obscured AGN increases with the stellar mass, reaching a maximum of about 3% at ≈2 × 1011 M⊙. A comparison with other selection techniques at z ~ 1, namely the line-ratio diagnostics and X-ray detections, shows that the detection of the [Ne v] λ3426 line is an effective method for selecting AGN in the optical band, in particular the most heavily obscured ones, but cannot provide a complete census of type 2 AGN by itself. Finally, the high fraction of [Ne v]-selected type 2 AGN not detected in medium-deep (≈100-200 ks) Chandra observations (67%) is suggestive of the inclusion of Compton-thick (i.e., with NH > 1024 cm-2) sources in our sample. The presence of a population of heavily obscured AGN is corroborated by the X-ray-to-[Ne v] ratio; we estimated, by means of an X-ray stacking technique and simulations, that the Compton-thick fraction in our

  10. Fluorescence brightness and photostability of individual copper (I) oxide nanocubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohora, Nafisa; Kandjani, Ahmad Esmaielzadeh; Orth, Antony; Brown, Hannah M; Hutchinson, Mark R; Gibson, Brant C

    2017-12-04

    Conventional organic fluorophores lose their ability to fluoresce after repeated exposure to excitation light due to photobleaching. Therefore, research into emerging bright and photostable nanomaterials has become of great interest for a range of applications such as bio-imaging and tracking. Among these emerging fluorophores, metal oxide-based nanomaterials have attracted significant attention as a potential multifunctional material with photocatalytic and angeogenisis abilities in addition to fluorescnce applications. However, most of these applications are highly dependent on size, morphology, and chemo-physical properties of individual particles. In this manuscript, we present a method to study the intrinsic optical characteristics of individual copper (I) oxide (Cu 2 O) nanocubes. When excited at 520 nm using only 11 µW excitation power (1.7 W/cm2), individual nanocubes were observed to emit light with peak wavelengths ~760 nm which is conveniently within the near-infrared 1 (NIR1) biological window where tissue autofluorescence is minimal. Bright and photostable fluorescence was observed with intensities up to 487 K counts/s under constant illumination for at least 2 minutes with a brightness approximately four times higher than the autofluorescence from a fixed cumulus-oocyte complex. With near-IR emission, high fluorescence brightness, and outstanding photostability, Cu 2 O nanocubes are attractive candidates for long-term fluorescent bioimaging applications.

  11. Relaxation dynamics of the LH2 complex from a photosynthetic purple bacterium Thiorhodospira sibirica studied by the near-IR femtosecond pump-probe method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razjivin, A P; Pishchal'nikov, R Yu; Kozlovskii, V S; Kompanets, V O; Chekalin, Sergei V; Moskalenko, A A; Makhneva, Z K

    2005-01-01

    Photoinduced changes in the absorption spectrum of the LH2 (B800-830-850) complex from a Thiorhodospira sibirica (Trs. sibirica) bacterium are studied by the pump-probe method. The complex has the anomalous absorption spectrum exhibiting three bands in the near-IR region at 793, 826.5, and 846.5 nm. At room temperature, the excitation energy transfer from the B800, B830, and B859 bands was detected with the time constants τ 1 ∼0.5 ps, τ 2 ∼2.5 ps, and τ 3 of the order of a few hundreds of picoseconds, respectively. A rapid energy transfer from the B830 band compared to energy transfer from the B850 band (τ 2 ||τ 3 ) suggests that all the three bands belong to the same complex (i.e., that the LH2 complex from Trs. sibirica is homogeneous). A slower energy transfer (by three - five times) from the B830 band of the LH2 complex from Trs. sibirica compared to energy transfer from the B800 band of the LH2 complexes (B800-850 and especially B800-820) from other purple bacteria suggests that the electronic structures of ensembles of bacteriochlorophyll molecules in these complexes are substantially different. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  12. Visible and Near-IR Reflectance Spectra for Smectite, Sulfate And Perchlorate under Dry Conditions for Interpretation of Martian Surface Mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R.V.; Ming, W.; Golden, D.C.; Arvidson, R.E.; Wiseman, S.M.; Lichtenberg, K.A.; Cull, S.; Graff, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectral data for the martian surface obtained from orbit by the MRO-CRISM and OMEGA instruments are interpreted as having spectral signatures of H2O/OH-bearing phases, including smectites and other phyllosilicates, sulfates, and high-SiO2 phases [e.g., 1-4]. Interpretations of martian spectral signatures are based on and constrained by spectra that are obtained in the laboratory on samples with known mineralogical compositions and other physicochemical characteristics under, as appropriate, Mars-like environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, and humidity). With respect to environmental conditions, differences in the absolute concentration of atmospheric H2O can effect the hydration state and therefore the spectra signatures of smectite phyllosilicates (solvation H2O) and certain sulfates (hydration H2O) [e.g., 5-7]. We report VNIR spectral data acquired under humid (laboratory air) and dry (dry N2 gas) environments for two natural smectites (nontronite API-33A and saponite SapCa-1) to characterize the effect of solvation H2O on spectral properties. We also report spectral data for the thermal dehydration products of (1) melanterite (FeSO4.7H2O) in both air and dry N2 gas and (2) Mg-perchlorate (Mg(ClO4)2.6H2O) in dry N2 environments. Spectral measurements for samples dehydrated in dry N2 were made without exposing them to humid laboratory air.

  13. PPy@MIL-100 Nanoparticles as a pH- and Near-IR-Irradiation-Responsive Drug Carrier for Simultaneous Photothermal Therapy and Chemotherapy of Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-Da; Chen, Su-Ping; Zhao, Huan; Yang, You; Chen, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Jing; Fan, Hong-Song; Zhang, Xing-Dong

    2016-12-21

    A medical nanoplatform with small size, low cost, biocompatibility, good biodegradability, and, in particular, multifunctionality has attracted much attention in the exploration of novel therapeutic methodologies. As an emerging material of self-assembled porous structure, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have high expectations because of their special properties compared to traditional porous materials. Therefore, integration of MOFs and functional materials is leading to the creation of new multifunctional composites/hybrids. Photothermal therapy (PTT), using near-IR (NIR) laser-absorbing nanomaterials as PTT agents, has shown encouraging therapeutic effects to photothermally ablate tumors. However, the most of widely used PTT agents are inorganic materials and nonbiodegradable. Herein, uniform polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles (NPs) with good biodegradability were synthesized by a microemulsion method. The PPy NPs were further coated with the mesoporous iron-based MOF structure MIL-100 by interaction between PPy NPs and MIL-100 precursors at room temperature. As a multifunctional nanoplatform, an anticancer drug could easily be loaded into the mesopores of the MIL-100 shell. The PPy core, as an organic photothermal agent, is able to photothermally ablate cancer cells and improve the efficacy of chemotherapy under NIR irradiation. The composites showed an outstanding in vivo synergistic anticancer capacity. Our work could encourage further study in the construction of a synergetic system using MOFs and organic PTT agents.

  14. Near-IR MCD of the nonheme ferrous active site in naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase: correlation to crystallography and structural insight into the mechanism of Rieske dioxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Takehiro; Chakrabarty, Sarmistha; Lipscomb, John D; Solomon, Edward I

    2008-02-06

    Near-IR MCD and variable temperature, variable field (VTVH) MCD have been applied to naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase (NDO) to describe the coordination geometry and electronic structure of the mononuclear nonheme ferrous catalytic site in the resting and substrate-bound forms with the Rieske 2Fe2S cluster oxidized and reduced. The structural results are correlated with the crystallographic studies of NDO and other related Rieske nonheme iron oxygenases to develop molecular level insights into the structure/function correlation for this class of enzymes. The MCD data for resting NDO with the Rieske center oxidized indicate the presence of a six-coordinate high-spin ferrous site with a weak axial ligand which becomes more tightly coordinated when the Rieske center is reduced. Binding of naphthalene to resting NDO (Rieske oxidized and reduced) converts the six-coordinate sites into five-coordinate (5c) sites with elimination of a water ligand. In the Rieske oxidized form the 5c sites are square pyramidal but transform to a 1:2 mixture of trigonal bipyramial/square pyramidal sites when the Rieske center is reduced. Thus the geometric and electronic structure of the catalytic site in the presence of substrate can be significantly affected by the redox state of the Rieske center. The catalytic ferrous site is primed for the O2 reaction when substrate is bound in the active site in the presence of the reduced Rieske site. These structural changes ensure that two electrons and the substrate are present before the binding and activation of O2, which avoids the uncontrolled formation and release of reactive oxygen species.

  15. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  16. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About BrightFocus Foundation Featured Content BrightFocus: Investing in Science to Save Mind and Sight We're here to help. Explore ... recognition is very important. Monday, November 6, 2017 New Diagnosis? Managing a mind and sight disease is a journey. And you’ ...

  17. High-resolution TNG spectra of T Tauri stars. Near-IR GIANO observations of the young variables XZ Tauri and DR Tauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniucci, S.; Nisini, B.; Biazzo, K.; Giannini, T.; Lorenzetti, D.; Sanna, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Origlia, L.; Oliva, E.

    2017-10-01

    narrower metallic lines, despite its larger accretion luminosity. This suggests that accretion is not the only driver of metallic line excitation. Conclusions: The presented observations demonstrate the potential of wide-band, high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy to simultaneously probe the different phenomena that occur in the interaction region between the stellar magnetosphere and the accretion disk, thus providing hints on how these two structures are linked to each other.

  18. An Interferometric Study of the Post-AGB Binary 89 Herculis. 1: Spatially Resolving the Continuum Circumstellar Environment at Optical and Near-IR Wavelengths with the VLTI, NPOI, IOTA, PTI, and the CHARA Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Herculis I. Spatially resolving the continuum circumstellar environment at optical and near-IR wavelengths with the VLTI, NPOI, IOTA , PTI, and the CHARA...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES A&A 559, A111 (2013) 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Array ( IOTA ) and the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array, covering 0.5 to 2.2 μm and with baselines from 15 to 278 m. Here we

  19. Colors and Photometry of Bright Materials on Vesta as Seen by the Dawn Framing Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, S. E.; Li, J.-Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Keller, H. U.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Dawn spacecraft has been in orbit around the asteroid Vesta since July, 2011. The on-board Framing Camera has acquired thousands of high-resolution images of the regolith-covered surface through one clear and seven narrow-band filters in the visible and near-IR wavelength range. It has observed bright and dark materials that have a range of reflectance that is unusually wide for an asteroid. Material brighter than average is predominantly found on crater walls, and in ejecta surrounding caters in the southern hemisphere. Most likely, the brightest material identified on the Vesta surface so far is located on the inside of a crater at 64.27deg S, 1.54deg . The apparent brightness of a regolith is influenced by factors such as particle size, mineralogical composition, and viewing geometry. As such, the presence of bright material can indicate differences in lithology and/or degree of space weathering. We retrieve the spectral and photometric properties of various bright terrains from false-color images acquired in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO). We find that most bright material has a deeper 1-m pyroxene band than average. However, the aforementioned brightest material appears to have a 1-m band that is actually less deep, a result that awaits confirmation by the on-board VIR spectrometer. This site may harbor a class of material unique for Vesta. We discuss the implications of our spectral findings for the origin of bright materials.

  20. Stunningly bright optical emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinke, Craig O.

    2017-12-01

    The detection of bright, rapid optical pulsations from pulsar PSR J1023+0038 have provided a surprise for researchers working on neutron stars. This discovery poses more questions than it answers and will spur on future work and instrumentation.

  1. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.; Phillipps, S.

    1985-01-01

    The intrinsic surface brightness Ssub(e) of 500 disc galaxies (0<=T<=9) drawn from the Second Reference Catalogue is computed and it is shown that Ssub(e) does not correlate significantly with Msub(B), (B-V) or type. This is consistent with the notion that there is a heavy selection bias in favour of disc galaxies with that particular surface brightness which allows inclusion in the catalogue over the largest volume of space. (author)

  2. High Brightness OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC; Kondakova, Marina [OLEDWorks LLC; Boroson, Michael [OLEDWorks LLC; Hamer, John [OLEDWorks LLC

    2016-05-25

    In this work we describe the technology developments behind our current and future generations of high brightness OLED lighting panels. We have developed white and amber OLEDs with excellent performance based on the stacking approach. Current products achieve 40-60 lm/W, while future developments focus on achieving 80 lm/W or higher.

  3. High brightness ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfus, R.W.; Hodgson, R.T.

    1975-01-01

    A high brightness ion beam is obtainable by using lasers to excite atoms or molecules from the ground state to an ionized state in increments, rather than in one step. The spectroscopic resonances of the atom or molecule are used so that relatively long wavelength, low power lasers can be used to obtain such ion beam

  4. Panchromatic response composed of hybrid visible-light absorbing polymers and near-IR absorbing dyes for nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}-based solid-state solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyo Joong; Graetzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Md. Khaja [Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Leventis, Henry C.; Haque, Saif A. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London SW72AZ (United Kingdom); Torres, Tomas [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    In pursuit of panchromatic sensitizers for mesoporous TiO{sub 2}-based solid-state solar cells, a near-IR absorbing zinc phthalocyanine dye (coded TT1) was firstly adsorbed over relatively thin ({proportional_to}1 {mu}m) TiO{sub 2} mesoporous films and then a visible-light absorbing polymer [regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT] was incorporated into the mesopores as both a second sensitizer and a solid hole conductor. After optimizing some experimental parameters, these hybrid solid-state cells exhibited a clear panchromatic response, and an overall conversion efficiency of around 1% at full sun intensity. (author)

  5. Far-UV, visible, and near-IR reflectance spectra of frosts of H2O, CO2, NH3 and SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, B.; Wells, E.; Wagner, J.; Partlow, W.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements in the 0.1-2.5 micron range are presented for the reflectance spectra of the frosts of several volatiles pertinent to the study of comet nuclei. The frost spectra have distinctive features permitting their identification by spectroscopic reflectance remote sensing, notably in the far UV. It is found that: (1) H2O has a minimum at 0.16 microns and a maximum at 0.13 microns; (2) CO2 has minima near 0.21, 0.18 and 0.125 microns, with maxima at 0.19, 0.135 and 0.120 microns; (3) NH3 is bright at wavelengths longer than 0.21 microns, where reflectance drops to a value of only a few per cent at shorter wavelengths; (4) SO2 has a sharp drop at 0.32 microns, with a minimum at 0.18 microns and a maximum at 0.13 microns. The features in the frost spectra largely correspond to absorption line bands in the gas phase.

  6. The brightness of colour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corney

    Full Text Available The perception of brightness depends on spatial context: the same stimulus can appear light or dark depending on what surrounds it. A less well-known but equally important contextual phenomenon is that the colour of a stimulus can also alter its brightness. Specifically, stimuli that are more saturated (i.e. purer in colour appear brighter than stimuli that are less saturated at the same luminance. Similarly, stimuli that are red or blue appear brighter than equiluminant yellow and green stimuli. This non-linear relationship between stimulus intensity and brightness, called the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (HK effect, was first described in the nineteenth century but has never been explained. Here, we take advantage of the relative simplicity of this 'illusion' to explain it and contextual effects more generally, by using a simple Bayesian ideal observer model of the human visual ecology. We also use fMRI brain scans to identify the neural correlates of brightness without changing the spatial context of the stimulus, which has complicated the interpretation of related fMRI studies.Rather than modelling human vision directly, we use a Bayesian ideal observer to model human visual ecology. We show that the HK effect is a result of encoding the non-linear statistical relationship between retinal images and natural scenes that would have been experienced by the human visual system in the past. We further show that the complexity of this relationship is due to the response functions of the cone photoreceptors, which themselves are thought to represent an efficient solution to encoding the statistics of images. Finally, we show that the locus of the response to the relationship between images and scenes lies in the primary visual cortex (V1, if not earlier in the visual system, since the brightness of colours (as opposed to their luminance accords with activity in V1 as measured with fMRI.The data suggest that perceptions of brightness represent a robust

  7. The Bright Universe Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdin, M.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that viewed from the 'outside', our universe is a black hole. Hence the 'inside' cosmology considered is termed as the Bright Universe Cosmology. The model proposed avoids the singularities of cosmologies of the Big Bang variety, it gives a good account of the redshifts, the cosmic background radiation, the number counts; it also gives a satisfactory explanation of the 'large numbers coincidence' and of the variation in time of fundamental constants. (Auth.)

  8. Kiloamp high-brightness beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    Brightness preservation of high-current relativistic electron beams under two different types of transport is discussed. Recent progress in improving the brightness of laser-guided beams in the Advanced Test Accelerator is reviewed. A strategy for the preservation of the brightness of space-charge-dominated beams in a solenoidal transport system is presented

  9. Simultaneous brightness contrast of foraging Papilio butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Takahashi, Yuki; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the sense of brightness in the foraging Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We presented two red discs of different intensity on a grey background to butterflies, and trained them to select one of the discs. They were successfully trained to select either a high intensity or a low intensity disc. The trained butterflies were tested on their ability to perceive brightness in two different protocols: (i) two orange discs of different intensity presented on the same intensity grey background and (ii) two orange discs of the same intensity separately presented on a grey background that was either higher or lower in intensity than the training background. The butterflies trained to high intensity red selected the orange disc of high intensity in protocol 1, and the disc on the background of low intensity grey in protocol 2. We obtained similar results in another set of experiments with purple discs instead of orange discs. The choices of the butterflies trained to low intensity red were opposite to those just described. Taken together, we conclude that Papilio has the ability to learn brightness and darkness of targets independent of colour, and that they have the so-called simultaneous brightness contrast. PMID:22179808

  10. Take a look at the bright side: Effects of positive body exposure on selective visual attention in women with high body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glashouwer, Klaske A; Jonker, Nienke C; Thomassen, Karen; de Jong, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Women with high body dissatisfaction look less at their 'beautiful' body parts than their 'ugly' body parts. This study tested the robustness of this selective viewing pattern and examined the influence of positive body exposure on body-dissatisfied women's attention for 'ugly' and 'beautiful' body parts. In women with high body dissatisfaction (N = 28) and women with low body dissatisfaction (N = 14) eye-tracking was used to assess visual attention towards pictures of their own and other women's bodies. Participants with high body dissatisfaction were randomly assigned to 5 weeks positive body exposure (n = 15) or a no-treatment condition (n = 13). Attention bias was assessed again after 5 weeks. Body-dissatisfied women looked longer at 'ugly' than 'beautiful' body parts of themselves and others, while participants with low body dissatisfaction attended equally long to own/others' 'beautiful' and 'ugly' body parts. Although positive body exposure was very effective in improving participants' body satisfaction, it did not systematically change participants' viewing pattern. The tendency to preferentially allocate attention towards one's 'ugly' body parts seems a robust phenomenon in women with body dissatisfaction. Yet, modifying this selective viewing pattern seems not a prerequisite for successfully improving body satisfaction via positive body exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bright point study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.; Harvey, K.; Bruner, M.; Kent, B.; Antonucci, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transition region and coronal observations of bright points by instruments aboard the Solar Maximum Mission and high resolution photospheric magnetograph observations on September 11, 1980 are presented. A total of 31 bipolar ephemeral regions were found in the photosphere from birth in 9.3 hours of combined magnetograph observations from three observatories. Two of the three ephemeral regions present in the field of view of the Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Polarimeter were observed in the C IV 1548 line. The unobserved ephemeral region was determined to be the shortest-lived (2.5 hr) and lowest in magnetic flux density (13G) of the three regions. The Flat Crystal Spectrometer observed only low level signals in the O VIII 18.969 A line, which were not statistically significant to be positively identified with any of the 16 ephemeral regions detected in the photosphere. In addition, the data indicate that at any given time there lacked a one-to-one correspondence between observable bright points and photospheric ephemeral regions, while more ephemeral regions were observed than their counterparts in the transition region and the corona

  12. A Physical Model-based Correction for Charge Traps in the Hubble Space Telescope ’s Wide Field Camera 3 Near-IR Detector and Its Applications to Transiting Exoplanets and Brown Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yifan; Apai, Dániel; Schneider, Glenn [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lew, Ben W. P., E-mail: yzhou@as.arizona.edu [Department of Planetary Science/Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, 1640 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85718 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-IR channel is extensively used in time-resolved observations, especially for transiting exoplanet spectroscopy as well as brown dwarf and directly imaged exoplanet rotational phase mapping. The ramp effect is the dominant source of systematics in the WFC3 for time-resolved observations, which limits its photometric precision. Current mitigation strategies are based on empirical fits and require additional orbits to help the telescope reach a thermal equilibrium . We show that the ramp-effect profiles can be explained and corrected with high fidelity using charge trapping theories. We also present a model for this process that can be used to predict and to correct charge trap systematics. Our model is based on a very small number of parameters that are intrinsic to the detector. We find that these parameters are very stable between the different data sets, and we provide best-fit values. Our model is tested with more than 120 orbits (∼40 visits) of WFC3 observations and is proved to be able to provide near photon noise limited corrections for observations made with both staring and scanning modes of transiting exoplanets as well as for starting-mode observations of brown dwarfs. After our model correction, the light curve of the first orbit in each visit has the same photometric precision as subsequent orbits, so data from the first orbit no longer need to be discarded. Near-IR arrays with the same physical characteristics (e.g., JWST/NIRCam ) may also benefit from the extension of this model if similar systematic profiles are observed.

  13. High brightness electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.; Carlsten, B.E.; Young, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of accelerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electrons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electrons as the electrons enter the first cavity. 5 figs

  14. Galaxies in x-ray selected clusters and groups in Dark Energy Survey Data I: Stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies since Z similar to 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, C.; McKay, T.; Rooney, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Romer, A. K.; Perfecto, R.; Song, J; Desai, S.; Mohr, J. J.; Vikram, V.

    2016-01-10

    Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z similar to 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into an analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation, m(*) proportional to (M-200/1.5 x 10(14)M(circle dot))(0.24 +/- 0.08)(1+z)(-0.19 +/- 0.34), and compare the observed relation to the model prediction. We estimate the average growth rate since z = 1.0 for BCGs hosted by clusters of M-200,M-z = 10(13.8)M(circle dot); at z = 1.0: m(*, BCG) appears to have grown by 0.13 +/- 0.11 dex, in tension at the similar to 2.5 sigma significance level with the 0.40 dex growth rate expected from the semi-analytic model. We show that the build-up of extended intracluster light after z = 1.0 may alleviate this tension in BCG growth rates.

  15. Novel Wavelength Standards in the Near IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Doppler-broadened fre- quency references,10 and electromagnetically induced transparency.11–13 These studies required a single la - ser beam or a...The theory of saturated absorption spectroscopy is well known in vapor cells.17 The propagation of a la - ser beam with power Pi along the fiber in...and Kansas Technology En- terprise Corporation. K. Corwin’s email address is corwin@phys.ksu.edu. References 1. T. J. Quinn, Metrologia 40, 103 (2003

  16. Near IR observations of Quiet Chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Choudhary, Debi; Deng, N.; Tejamoortula, U.; Penn, M. J.

    2009-05-01

    We have carried out the observations of quiet solar limb during April 29 to May 1, 2008, March 9-13, 2009 using the vertical spectrograph at the focal plane of McMath-Pierce telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The solar limb was mostly featureless during the observations. The New Infrared Array (NAC) at the exit port of the spectrograph has been used to record the limb spectrum at HeI 1083.0 nm, Hydrogen Paschen beta at 1281.8 nm and Brackett gamma 2165.5 nm wavelength regions. The NAC is a 1024 x 1024 InSb Alladin III Detector operating over 1-5 micron range with high density sampling at 0.018 arc second/pixel. The all-reflective optical train minimizes number of surfaces and eliminates ghosts leading to low scatter, ghost-free optics. The close-cycle cryogenic provides a stable cooling environment over six hour period with an accuracy of about 0.01K leading to low dark current. The low read out noise combined with low scattered light and dark current makes NAC an ideal detector for making high quality infrared spectral observations of solar limb. In this presentation, we shall compare the line parameters of these lines around the solar disk. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by NSF under grant ATM 05-48952 and by NASA under grant NNX08AQ32G.

  17. The ZTF Bright Transient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremling, C.; Sharma, Y.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Miller, A. A.; Taggart, K.; Perley, D. A.; Gooba, A.

    2018-06-01

    As a supplement to the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF; ATel #11266) public alerts (ATel #11685) we plan to report (following ATel #11615) bright probable supernovae identified in the raw alert stream from the ZTF Northern Sky Survey ("Celestial Cinematography"; see Bellm & Kulkarni, 2017, Nature Astronomy 1, 71) to the Transient Name Server (https://wis-tns.weizmann.ac.il) on a daily basis; the ZTF Bright Transient Survey (BTS; see Kulkarni et al., 2018; arXiv:1710.04223).

  18. Bright Sparks of Our Future!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Naoimh

    2016-04-01

    My name is Naoimh Riordan and I am the Vice Principal of Rockboro Primary School in Cork City, South of Ireland. I am a full time class primary teacher and I teach 4th class, my students are aged between 9-10 years. My passion for education has developed over the years and grown towards STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects. I believe these subjects are the way forward for our future. My passion and beliefs are driven by the unique after school programme that I have developed. It is titled "Sparks" coming from the term Bright Sparks. "Sparks" is an after school programme with a difference where the STEM subjects are concentrated on through lessons such as Science, Veterinary Science Computer Animation /Coding, Eco engineering, Robotics, Magical Maths, Chess and Creative Writing. All these subjects are taught through activity based learning and are one-hour long each week for a ten-week term. "Sparks" is fully inclusive and non-selective which gives all students of any level of ability an opportunity to engage into these subjects. "Sparks" is open to all primary students in County Cork. The "Sparks" after school programme is taught by tutors from the different Universities and Colleges in Cork City. It works very well because the tutor brings their knowledge, skills and specialised equipment from their respective universities and in turn the tutor gains invaluable teaching practise, can trial a pilot programme in a chosen STEM subject and gain an insight into what works in the physical classroom.

  19. Teradiode's high brightness semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Lochman, Bryan; Zhou, Wang; Cruz, Mike; Cook, Rob; Dugmore, Dan; Shattuck, Jeff; Tayebati, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    TeraDiode is manufacturing multi-kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers for industrial applications. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 4,680 W from a 100 μm core diameter, BPP) of 3.5 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP multi-kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 4-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers. We have also demonstrated novel high peak power lasers and high brightness Mid-Infrared Lasers.

  20. Low surface brightness galaxies in the Fornax Cluster: automated galaxy surface photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    A sample is presented of low surface brightness galaxies (with extrapolated central surface brightness fainter than 22.0 Bμ) in the Fornax Cluster region which has been measured by the APM machine. Photometric parameters, namely profile shape, scale length, central brightness and total magnitude, are derived for the sample galaxies and correlations between the parameters of low surface brightness dwarf galaxies are discussed, with particular reference to the selection limits. Contrary to previous authors we find no evidence for a luminosity-surface brightness correlation in the sense of lower surface brightness galaxies having lower luminosities and scale sizes. In fact, the present data suggest that it is the galaxies with the largest scale lengths which are more likely to be of very low surface brightness. In addition, the larger scale length galaxies occur preferentially towards the centre of the Cluster. (author)

  1. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J M [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); McDonald, G S [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Chamorro-Posada, P [Departmento de TeorIa de la Senal y Comunicaciones e IngenierIa Telematica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Campus Miguel Delibes s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2007-02-16

    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts.

  2. A New Sky Brightness Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, David L.; McKenna, D.

    2006-12-01

    A good estimate of sky brightness and its variations throughout the night, the months, and even the years is an essential bit of knowledge both for good observing and especially as a tool in efforts to minimize sky brightness through local action. Hence a stable and accurate monitor can be a valuable and necessary tool. We have developed such a monitor, with the financial help of Vatican Observatory and Walker Management. The device is now undergoing its Beta test in preparation for production. It is simple, accurate, well calibrated, and automatic, sending its data directly to IDA over the internet via E-mail . Approximately 50 such monitors will be ready soon for deployment worldwide including most major observatories. Those interested in having one should enquire of IDA about details.

  3. High-brightness injector modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    There are many aspects to the successful conception, design, fabrication, and operation of high-brightness electron beam sources. Accurate and efficient modeling of the injector are critical to all phases of the process, from evaluating initial ideas to successful diagnosis of problems during routine operation. The basic modeling tasks will vary from design to design, according to the basic nature of the injector (dc, rf, hybrid, etc.), the type of cathode used (thermionic, photo, field emitter, etc.), and 'macro' factors such as average beam current and duty factor, as well as the usual list of desired beam properties. The injector designer must be at least aware of, if not proficient at addressing, the multitude of issues that arise from these considerations; and, as high-brightness injectors continue to move out of the laboratory, the number of such issues will continue to expand.

  4. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J M; McDonald, G S; Chamorro-Posada, P

    2007-01-01

    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts

  5. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alka; Kantharia, Nimisha G.; Das, Mousumi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present radio observations of the giant low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies made using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). LSB galaxies are generally large, dark matter dominated spirals that have low star formation efficiencies and large HI gas disks. Their properties suggest that they are less evolved compared to high surface brightness galaxies. We present GMRT emission maps of LSB galaxies with an optically-identified active nucleus. Using our radio data and archival near-infrared (2MASS) and near-ultraviolet (GALEX) data, we studied morphology and star formation efficiencies in these galaxies. All the galaxies show radio continuum emission mostly associated with the centre of the galaxy.

  6. High brightness semiconductor lasers with reduced filamentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter.; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.

    1999-01-01

    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in spectroscopy, fiber lasers, manufacturing and materials processing, medicine and free space communication or energy transfer. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that, because of COD, high power requires a large aperture...

  7. Matter wave interference pattern in the collision of bright solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V. Ramesh; Radha, R.; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in a quasi one-dimensional regime in a time-dependent trap and show analytically that it is possible to observe matter wave interference patterns in the intra-trap collision of two bright solitons by selectively tuning the trap frequency and scattering length.

  8. 150 southern compact and bright-nucleus galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairall, A.P.

    1977-01-01

    Galaxies having regions of exceptionally high surface brightness have been selected from the ESO Quick Blue Survey and investigated by 'grating photography' -direct photography plus low-dispersion slitless spectroscopy. Two new Seyfert galaxies and a peculiar multiple system have been discovered. Differences in red continua are also noted. (author)

  9. Electron beam brightness with field immersed emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.K.; Neil, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    The beam quality or brightness of an electron beam produced with field immersed emission is studied with two models. First, an envelope formulation is used to determine the scaling of brightness with current, magnetic field and cathode radius, and examine the equilibrium beam radius. Second, the DPC computer code is used to calculate the brightness of two electron beam sources

  10. Does low surface brightness mean low density?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBlok, WJG; McGaugh, SS

    1996-01-01

    We compare the dynamical properties of two galaxies at identical positions on the Tully-Fisher relation, but with different surface brightnesses. We find that the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 128 has a higher mass-to-light ratio, and yet has lower mass densities than the high surface brightness

  11. High-brightness rf linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The issue of high brightness and its ramifications in linacs driven by radio-frequency fields is discussed. A history of the RF linacs is reviewed briefly. Some current applications are then examined that are driving progress in RF linacs. The physics affecting the brightness of RF linacs is then discussed, followed by the economic feasibility of higher brightness machines

  12. Bright galaxies in the Fornax cluster. Automated galaxy surface photometry: Pt. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.; Phillipps, S.; Davies, J.L.; Cawson, M.G.M.; Kibblewhite, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    We have determined surface-brightness profiles for all galaxies down to magnitude B = 16 in the central region of the Fornax cluster. Using existing redshift data, we have determined the distributions of surface brightness for both the whole sample and for cluster disc galaxies only. Although both distributions peak at extrapolated central surface brightness ∼ 21.7B mag/arcsec 2 (the canonical result), it is shown that they are, in fact, consistent with very broad distributions of disc central surface brightness once selection effects and the effects of bulge contamination of the profile are taken into account. (author)

  13. Low surface brightness galaxies in the cluster A1367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    We have obtained deep CCD frames of apparently blank regions of sky in the hope of detecting very low surface brightness (LSB) objects in the cluster A1367. We discuss our data reduction, and image detection and selection techniques. If the galaxies detected are actually cluster members then they are dwarfs and the conclusions of a previous paper on the Fornax cluster are essentially confirmed. One area of variance is that the lowest surface brightness galaxies do not appear to be preferentially concentrated towards the cluster centre. This can be explained by there being a much larger density of dwarf galaxies over this bright galaxy-rich region of the universe. We find over our small area approximately four times as many LSB galaxies as would be expected from our Fornax data. We speculate on the possible origin and likely intensity of intergalactic light within clusters. (author)

  14. Low surface brightness spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation presents an observational overview of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies. The sample galaxies were chosen to have low surface brightness disks and indications of spiral structure visible on the Palomar Sky Survey. They are of sufficient angular size (diameter > 2.5 arcmin), to allow detailed surface photometry using Mayall 4-m prime focus plates. The major findings of this dissertation are: (1) The average disk central surface brightness of the LSB galaxies is 22.88 magnitude/arcsec 2 in the B passband. (2) From broadband color measurements of the old stellar population, we infer a low average stellar metallicity, on the order of 1/5 solar. (3) The spectra and optical colors of the HII regions in the LSB galaxies indicate a lack of hot ionizing stars compared to HII regions in other late-type galaxies. (4) The average surface mass density, measured within the radius containing half the total mass, is less than half that of a sample of normal late-type spirals. (5) The average LSB galaxy neutral hydrogen mass to blue luminosity ratio is about 0.6, significantly higher than in a sample of normal late-type galaxies. (6) We find no conclusive evidence of an abnormal mass-to-light ratio in the LSB galaxies. (7) Some of the LSB galaxies exhibit well-developed density wave patterns. (8) A very crude calculation shows the lower metallicity of the LSB galaxies compared with normal late-type spirals might be explained simply by the deficiency of massive stars in the LSB galaxies

  15. High brightness beams and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the present research on attaining intense bright electron beams. Thermionic systems are briefly covered. Recent and past results from the photoinjector programs are given. The performance advantages and difficulties presently faced by researchers using photoinjectors is discussed. The progress that has been made in photocathode materials, both in lifetime and quantum efficiency, is covered. Finally, a discussion of emittance measurements of photoinjector systems and how the measurement is complicated by the non-thermal nature of the electron beam is presented

  16. High-brightness electron injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators and synchrotron light sources require pulse trains of high peak brightness and, in some applications, high-average power. Recent developments in the technology of photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for electron-linac injector applications offer promising advances over conventional electron injectors. Reduced emittance growth in high peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by using high field strengths and by linearizing the radial component of the cavity electric field at the expense of lower shunt impedance

  17. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at Z greater than 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWel, A.; Straughn, A. N.; Rix, H.-W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z approx. 1.7 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared broad-band magnitudes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines . with rest-frame equivalent widths approx. 1000A in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are galaxies with approx.10(exp 8) Solar Mass in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M*/M* of only approx. 15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the co-moving number density (3.7x10(exp -4) Mpc(sup -3) can produce in approx.4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) Solar Mass dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that many or even most of the stars in present-day dwarf galaxies formed in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z > 1.

  18. The lowest surface brightness disc galaxy known

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of a galaxy with a prominent bulge and a dominant extremely low surface brightness disc component is reported. The profile of this galaxy is very similar to the recently discovered giant low surface brightness galaxy Malin 1. The disc central surface brightness is found to be ∼ 26.4 Rμ, some 1.5 mag fainter than Malin 1 and thus by far the lowest yet observed. (author)

  19. Increasing the Brightness of Light Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Ling

    2006-01-01

    In modern illumination systems, compact size and high brightness are important features. Light recycling allows an increase of the spectral radiance (brightness) emitted by a light source for the price of reducing the total radiant power. Light recycling means returning part of the emitted light to the source where part of it will escape absorption. As a result, the output brightness can be increased in a restricted phase space, ...

  20. The bright-bright and bright-dark mode coupling-based planar metamaterial for plasmonic EIT-like effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Meng, Hongyun; Chen, Zhangjie; Li, Xianping; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Faqiang; Wei, Zhongchao; Tan, Chunhua; Huang, Xuguang; Li, Shuti

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel planar metamaterial structure for the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like effect, which consists of a split-ring resonator (SRR) and a pair of metal strips. The simulated results indicate that a single transparency window can be realized in the symmetry situation, which originates from the bright-bright mode coupling. Further, a dual-band EIT-like effect can be achieved in the asymmetry situation, which is due to the bright-bright mode coupling and bright-dark mode coupling, respectively. Different EIT-like effect can be simultaneously achieved in the proposed structure with the different situations. It is of certain significance for the study of EIT-like effect.

  1. Improving the laser brightness of a commercial laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Darryl; Litvin, Igor; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the selection of a flat-top beam and a Gaussian beam inside a laser cavity on opposing mirrors. The concept is tested external to the laser cavity in a single pass and double pass regime where the latter mimics a single round trip in the laser. We implement this intra-cavity selection through the use of two 16 level diffractive optical elements. We consider a solid-state diode side-pumped laser resonator in a typical commercial laser configuration that consists of two planar mirrors where the DOEs are positioned at the mirrors. We out couple the Gaussian and flat-top distributions and we show that we improve the brightness of the laser with active mode control. We also demonstrate that the quality of the beam transformations determine the brightness improvement.

  2. Brightness and darkness as perceptual dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, T.; Lucassen, M.P.; Cornelissen, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    A common-sense assumption concerning visual perception states that brightness and darkness cannot coexist at a given spatial location. One corollary of this assumption is that achromatic colors, or perceived grey shades, are contained in a one-dimensional (1-D) space varying from bright to dark. The

  3. SURFACE PHOTOMETRY OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBLOK, WJG; VANDERHULST, JM; BOTHUN, GD

    1995-01-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are galaxies dominated by an exponential disc whose central surface brightness is much fainter than the value of mu(B)(0) = 21.65 +/- 0.30 mag arcsec(-2) found by Freeman. In this paper we present broadband photometry of a sample of 21 late-type LSB galaxies.

  4. The surface brightness of 1550 galaxies in Fornax: automated galaxy surface photometry: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.; Kibblewhite, E.J.; Cawson, M.G.M.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of a complete sample of galaxies in the region of the Fornax cluster is presented. Measurements with the Automatic Plate Measuring machine are used to derive the observed distribution of galaxy surface brightness for 1550 objects. Corrections for surface brightness dependent selection effects are then made in order to estimate the true distribution. It is found that the sample (with 16.6 ≤ Msub(APM) ≤ 19.1) is divided into two distinct populations. The 'normal' galaxies with extrapolated central surface brightness Ssub(x) ≤ 22.5 Bμ form a uniformly distributed background of field galaxies. Low surface brightness galaxies (Ssub(x) ≥ 22.5 Bμ), on the other hand, are strongly clumped about the cluster centre. There appear to be few low surface brightness field galaxies. (author)

  5. Brightness Alteration with Interweaving Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roncato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromatic induction is observed whenever the perceived colour of a target surface shifts towards the hue of a neighbouring surface. Some vivid manifestations may be seen in a white background where thin coloured lines have been drawn (assimilation or when lines of different colours are collinear (neon effect or adjacent (watercolour to each other. This study examines a particular colour induction that manifests in concomitance with an opposite effect of colour saturation (or anti-spread. The two phenomena can be observed when a repetitive pattern is drawn in which outline thin contours intercept wider contours or surfaces, colour spreading appear to fill the surface occupied by surfaces or thick lines whereas the background traversed by thin lines is seen as brighter or filled of a saturated white. These phenomena were first observed by Bozzi (1975 and Kanizsa (1979 in figural conditions that did not allow them to document their conjunction. Here we illustrate various manifestations of this twofold phenomenon and compare its effects with the known effects of brightness and colour induction. Some conjectures on the nature of these effects are discussed.

  6. Designers predict a bright future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statton, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    As power plant designers and builders, there is a bright future for the industry. The demand for electricity will continue to grow, and the need for new plants will increase accordingly. But companies that develop and supply these plants must adapt to new ways of doing business if they expect to see the dawn of this new age. Several factors will have a profound effect on the generation and use of electricity in future years. Instant communications now reach all corners of the globe, making people everywhere aspire to a higher standard of living. The economic surge needed to satisfy these appetites will, in turn, be fed by a network of suppliers who are themselves restructuring to serve global markets, unimpeded by past nationalistic barriers to trade. The strong correlation between economic progress and the growing demand for electricity is well recognized. A ready supply of affordable electricity is a necessary underpinning for any economic expansion. As economies advance and jobs increase, electric demand grows geometrically, fueled by an ever-improving quality of life. Coupled with increasing demand is the worldwide trend toward privatization of the generation industry. The reasons may vary in different parts of the world, but the effect is the same--companies are battling intensely for the right to build or purchase generating facilities. Those companies, like the industry they serve, are themselves in a period of transition. Once a closed, monopolistic group of owners in a predominantly services-based market, they are, thanks to competitive forces, being driven steadily toward a product-based structure

  7. Bright boys the making of information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Everything has a beginning. None was more profound-and quite as unexpected-than Information Technology. Here for the first time is the untold story of how our new age came to be and the bright boys who made it happen. What began on the bare floor of an old laundry building eventually grew to rival in size the Manhattan Project. The unexpected consequence of that journey was huge---what we now know as Information Technology. For sixty years the bright boys have been totally anonymous while their achievements have become a way of life for all of us. "Bright Boys" brings them home. By 1950 they'd

  8. Time-resolved brightness measurements by streaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Joshua S.; Speirs, Rory W.; McCulloch, Andrew J.; Scholten, Robert E.

    2018-03-01

    Brightness is a key figure of merit for charged particle beams, and time-resolved brightness measurements can elucidate the processes involved in beam creation and manipulation. Here we report on a simple, robust, and widely applicable method for the measurement of beam brightness with temporal resolution by streaking one-dimensional pepperpots, and demonstrate the technique to characterize electron bunches produced from a cold-atom electron source. We demonstrate brightness measurements with 145 ps temporal resolution and a minimum resolvable emittance of 40 nm rad. This technique provides an efficient method of exploring source parameters and will prove useful for examining the efficacy of techniques to counter space-charge expansion, a critical hurdle to achieving single-shot imaging of atomic scale targets.

  9. BrightStat.com: free statistics online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Powerful software for statistical analysis is expensive. Here I present BrightStat, a statistical software running on the Internet which is free of charge. BrightStat's goals, its main capabilities and functionalities are outlined. Three different sample runs, a Friedman test, a chi-square test, and a step-wise multiple regression are presented. The results obtained by BrightStat are compared with results computed by SPSS, one of the global leader in providing statistical software, and VassarStats, a collection of scripts for data analysis running on the Internet. Elementary statistics is an inherent part of academic education and BrightStat is an alternative to commercial products.

  10. Manakins can produce iridescent and bright feather colours without melanosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igic, Branislav; D'Alba, Liliana; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2016-06-15

    Males of many species often use colourful and conspicuous ornaments to attract females. Among these, male manakins (family: Pipridae) provide classic examples of sexual selection favouring the evolution of bright and colourful plumage coloration. The highly iridescent feather colours of birds are most commonly produced by the periodic arrangement of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) within barbules. Melanin increases the saturation of iridescent colours seen from optimal viewing angles by absorbing back-scattered light; however, this may reduce the wide-angle brightness of these signals, contributing to a dark background appearance. We examined the nanostructure of four manakin species (Lepidothrix isidorei, L. iris, L. nattereri and L. coeruleocapilla) to identify how they produce their bright plumage colours. Feather barbs of all four species were characterized by dense and fibrous internal spongy matrices that likely increase scattering of light within the barb. The iridescent, yet pale or whitish colours of L. iris and L. nattereri feathers were produced not by periodically arranged melanosomes within barbules, but by periodic matrices of air and β-keratin within barbs. Lepidothrix iris crown feathers were able to produce a dazzling display of colours with small shifts in viewing geometry, likely because of a periodic nanostructure, a flattened barb morphology and disorder at a microstructural level. We hypothesize that iridescent plumage ornaments of male L. iris and L. nattereri are under selection to increase brightness or luminance across wide viewing angles, which may potentially increase their detectability by females during dynamic and fast-paced courtship displays in dim light environments. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Measuring brightness temperature distributions of plasma bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirko, V.I.; Stadnichenko, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of restoration of brightness temperature distribution along plasma jet on the base of a simple ultra high- speed photography and subsequent photometric treatment is shown. The developed technique has been applied for finding spectral radiation intensity and brightness temperature of plasma jets of a tubular gas-cumulative charge and explosive plasma compressor. The problem of shock wave front has been successfully solved and thus distribution of above parameters beginning from the region preceeding the shock wave has been obtained [ru

  12. Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    Report: Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and...Number: W911NF-16-1-0436 Organization: University of Rochester Title: Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science Report Term: 0-Other Email: xi...exploring new cutting-edge research and broader applications, following the significant development of THz science and technology in the late 80’s, is the

  13. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is proposed that Freeman's discovery that the extrapolated central surface brightness of spiral galaxies is approximately constant can be simply explained if the galaxies contain a spheroidal component which dominates the light in their outer isophotes. Calculations of an effective central surface brightness indicate a wide spread of values. This requires either a wide spread in disc properties or significant spheroidal components or, most probably, both. (author)

  14. Brightness masking is modulated by disparity structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekanos, Vassilis; Ban, Hiroshi; Welchman, Andrew E

    2015-05-01

    The luminance contrast at the borders of a surface strongly influences surface's apparent brightness, as demonstrated by a number of classic visual illusions. Such phenomena are compatible with a propagation mechanism believed to spread contrast information from borders to the interior. This process is disrupted by masking, where the perceived brightness of a target is reduced by the brief presentation of a mask (Paradiso & Nakayama, 1991), but the exact visual stage that this happens remains unclear. In the present study, we examined whether brightness masking occurs at a monocular-, or a binocular-level of the visual hierarchy. We used backward masking, whereby a briefly presented target stimulus is disrupted by a mask coming soon afterwards, to show that brightness masking is affected by binocular stages of the visual processing. We manipulated the 3-D configurations (slant direction) of the target and mask and measured the differential disruption that masking causes on brightness estimation. We found that the masking effect was weaker when stimuli had a different slant. We suggest that brightness masking is partly mediated by mid-level neuronal mechanisms, at a stage where binocular disparity edge structure has been extracted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy-exchange collisions of dark-bright-bright vector solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, R; Manikandan, N; Aravinthan, K

    2015-12-01

    We find a dark component guiding the practically interesting bright-bright vector one-soliton to two different parametric domains giving rise to different physical situations by constructing a more general form of three-component dark-bright-bright mixed vector one-soliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with nine free real parameters. Moreover our main investigation of the collision dynamics of such mixed vector solitons by constructing the multisoliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with the help of Hirota technique reveals that the dark-bright-bright vector two-soliton supports energy-exchange collision dynamics. In particular the dark component preserves its initial form and the energy-exchange collision property of the bright-bright vector two-soliton solution of the Manakov model during collision. In addition the interactions between bound state dark-bright-bright vector solitons reveal oscillations in their amplitudes. A similar kind of breathing effect was also experimentally observed in the Bose-Einstein condensates. Some possible ways are theoretically suggested not only to control this breathing effect but also to manage the beating, bouncing, jumping, and attraction effects in the collision dynamics of dark-bright-bright vector solitons. The role of multiple free parameters in our solution is examined to define polarization vector, envelope speed, envelope width, envelope amplitude, grayness, and complex modulation of our solution. It is interesting to note that the polarization vector of our mixed vector one-soliton evolves in sphere or hyperboloid depending upon the initial parametric choices.

  16. Multi-pollutants sensors based on near-IR telecom lasers and mid-IR difference frequency generation: development and applications; Instruments de mesure multi-polluants par spectroscopie infrarouge bases sur des lasers fibres et par generation de difference de frequences: developpement et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousin, J

    2006-12-15

    At present the detection of VOC and other anthropic trace pollutants is an important challenge in the measurement of air quality. Infrared spectroscopy, allowing spectral regions rich in molecular absorption to be probed, is a suitable technique for in-situ monitoring of the air pollution. Thus the aim of this work was to develop instruments capable of detecting multiple pollutants for in-situ monitoring by IR spectroscopy. A first project benefited from the availability of the telecommunications lasers emitting in near-IR. This instrument was based on an external cavity diode laser (1500 - 1640 nm) in conjunction with a multipass cell (100 m). The detection sensitivity was optimised by employing a balanced detection and a sweep integration procedure. The instrument developed is deployable for in-situ measurements with a sensitivity of < 10{sup -8} cm{sup -1} Hz{sup -1/2} and allowed the quantification of chemical species such as CO{sub 2}, CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and the determination of the isotopic ratio {sup 13}CO{sub 2}/{sup 12}CO{sub 2} in combustion environment The second project consisted in mixing two near-IR fiber lasers in a non-linear crystal (PPLN) in order to produce a laser radiation by difference frequency generation in the middle-IR (3.15 - 3.43 {mu}m), where the absorption bands of the molecules are the most intense. The first studies with this source were carried out on detection of ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}). Developments, characterizations and applications of these instruments in the near and middle IR are detailed and the advantages of the 2 spectral ranges is highlighted. (author)

  17. Unperturbed moderator brightness in pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batkov, K.; Takibayev, A.; Zanini, L.; Mezei, F.

    2013-01-01

    The unperturbed neutron brightness of a moderator can be defined from the number of neutrons leaving the surface of a moderator completely surrounded by a reflector. Without openings for beam extraction, it is the maximum brightness that can be theoretically achieved in a moderator. The unperturbed brightness of a cylindrical cold moderator filled with pure para-H 2 was calculated using MCNPX; the moderator dimensions were optimised, for a fixed target and reflector geometry corresponding to the present concept for the ESS spallation source. This quantity does not depend on openings for beam extraction and therefore can be used for a first-round optimisation of a moderator, before effects due to beam openings are considered. We find that such an optimisation yields to a factor of 2 increase with respect to a conventional volume moderator, large enough to accommodate a viewed surface of 12×12 cm 2 : the unperturbed neutron brightness is maximum for a disc-shaped moderator of 15 cm diameter, 1.4 cm height. The reasons for this increase can be related to the properties of the scattering cross-section of para-H 2 , to the added reflector around the exit surface in the case of a compact moderator, and to a directionality effect. This large optimisation gain in the unperturbed brightness hints towards similar potentials for the perturbed neutron brightness, in particular in conjunction with advancing the optical quality of neutron delivery from the moderator to the sample, where by Liouville theorem the brightness is conserved over the beam trajectory, except for absorption and similar type losses

  18. Bright field electron microscopy of biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, B.V.

    1976-01-01

    A preirradiation procedure is described which preserves negatively stained morphological features in bright field electron micrographs to a resolution of about 1.2 nm. Prior to microscopy the pre-irradiation dose (1.6 x 10 -3 C cm -2 ) is given at low electron optical magnification at five different areas on the grid (the centre plus four 'corners'). This pre-irradiation can be measured either with a Faraday cage or through controlled exposure-developing conditions. Uranyl formate stained T2 bacteriophages and stacked disk aggregates of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) protein served as test objects. A comparative study was performed on specimens using either the pre-irradiation procedure or direct irradiation by the 'minimum beam exposure' technique. Changes in the electron diffraction pattern of the stain-protein complex and the disappearance of certain morphological features in the specimens were both used in order to compare the pre-irradiation method with the direct exposure technique. After identical electron exposures the pre-irradiation approach gave a far better preservation of specimen morphology. Consequently this procedure gives the microscopist more time to select and focus appropriate areas for imaging before deteriorations take place. The investigation also suggested that microscopy should be carried out between 60,000 and 100,000 times magnification. Within this magnification range, it is possible to take advantage of the phase contrast transfer characteristics of the objective lens while the electron load on the object is kept at a moderate level. Using the pre-irradiation procedure special features of the T2 bacteriophage morphology could be established. (author)

  19. Intermittent episodes of bright light suppress myopia in the chicken more than continuous bright light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Weizhong; Feldkaemper, Marita; Schaeffel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Bright light has been shown a powerful inhibitor of myopia development in animal models. We studied which temporal patterns of bright light are the most potent in suppressing deprivation myopia in chickens. Eight-day-old chickens wore diffusers over one eye to induce deprivation myopia. A reference group (n = 8) was kept under office-like illuminance (500 lux) at a 10:14 light:dark cycle. Episodes of bright light (15 000 lux) were super-imposed on this background as follows. Paradigm I: exposure to constant bright light for either 1 hour (n = 5), 2 hours (n = 5), 5 hours (n = 4) or 10 hours (n = 4). Paradigm II: exposure to repeated cycles of bright light with 50% duty cycle and either 60 minutes (n = 7), 30 minutes (n = 8), 15 minutes (n = 6), 7 minutes (n = 7) or 1 minute (n = 7) periods, provided for 10 hours. Refraction and axial length were measured prior to and immediately after the 5-day experiment. Relative changes were analyzed by paired t-tests, and differences among groups were tested by one-way ANOVA. Compared with the reference group, exposure to continuous bright light for 1 or 2 hours every day had no significant protective effect against deprivation myopia. Inhibition of myopia became significant after 5 hours of bright light exposure but extending the duration to 10 hours did not offer an additional benefit. In comparison, repeated cycles of 1:1 or 7:7 minutes of bright light enhanced the protective effect against myopia and could fully suppress its development. The protective effect of bright light depends on the exposure duration and, to the intermittent form, the frequency cycle. Compared to the saturation effect of continuous bright light, low frequency cycles of bright light (1:1 min) provided the strongest inhibition effect. However, our quantitative results probably might not be directly translated into humans, but rather need further amendments in clinical studies.

  20. Low-Surface-Brightness Galaxies: Hidden Galaxies Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothun, G.; Impey, C.; McGaugh, S.

    1997-07-01

    In twenty years, low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies have evolved from being an idiosyncratic notion to being one of the major baryonic repositories in the Universe. The story of their discovery and the characterization of their properties is told here. Their recovery from the noise of the night sky background is a strong testament to the severity of surface brightness selection effects. LSB galaxies have a number of remarkable properties which distinguish them from the more familiar Hubble Sequence of spirals. The two most important are 1) they evolve at a significantly slower rate and may well experience star formation outside of the molecular cloud environment, 2) they are embedded in dark matter halos which are of lower density and more extended than the halos around high surface brightness (HSB) disk galaxies. Compared to HSB disks, LSB disks are strongly dark matter dominated at all radii and show a systematic increase in $M/L$ with decreasing central surface brightness. In addition, the recognition that large numbers of LSB galaxies actually exist has changed the form of the galaxy luminosity function and has clearly increased the space density of galaxies at z =0. Recent CCD surveys have uncovered a population of red LSB disks that may be related to the excess of faint blue galaxies detected at moderate redshifts. LSB galaxies offer us a new window into galaxy evolution and formation which is every bit as important as those processes which have produced easy to detect galaxies. Indeed, the apparent youth of some LSB galaxies suggest that galaxy formation is a greatly extended process. While the discovery of LSB galaxies have lead to new insights, it remains unwise to presume that we now have a representative sample which encompasses all galaxy types and forms. (SECTION: Invited Review Paper)

  1. Continuous in-situ methane measurements at paddy fields in a rural area of India with poor electric infrastructure, using a low-cost instrument based on open-path near-IR laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidemori, T.; Matsumi, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Kawasaki, M.; Sasago, H.; Takahashi, K.; Imasu, R.; Takeuchi, W.; Adachi, M.; Machida, T.; Terao, Y.; Nomura, S.; Dhaka, S. K.; Singh, J.

    2015-12-01

    In southeast and south Asia, the previous satellite observations suggest that the methane emission from rice paddies is significant and important source of methane during rainy season. Since it is difficult to measure methane stably and continuously at rural areas such as the paddy fields in terms of infrastructures and maintenances, there are large uncertainties in quantitative estimation of methane emission in these areas and there are needs for more certification between satellite and ground based measurements. To measure methane concentrations continuously at difficult situations such as the center of paddy fields and wetlands, we developed the continuous in-situ measurement system, not to look for your lost keys under the streetlight. The methane gas sensor is used an open-path laser based measurement instrument (LaserMethane, ANRITSU CORPORATION), which can quickly and selectively detect average methane concentrations on the optical path of the laser beam. The developed system has the power supply and telecommunication system to run the laser gas sensor in rural areas with poor electricity infrastructure.The methane measurement system was installed at paddy fields of Sonepat, Haryana on the north of Delhi in India and has been operated from the end of 2014. The air sampling along with our measurement has been carried out once a week during daytime to calibrate the laser instrument. We found that the seasonal variation of methane concentrations was different from the satellite observations and there were significant diurnal variations, which it was difficult to detect from occasional air samplings. We will present details of the measurement system and recent results of continuous methane measurements in India.

  2. Proxy magnetometry of the photosphere: why are G-band bright points so bright?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.; Kiselman, Dan; Voort, Luc Rouppe van der; Plez, Bertrand

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the formation of G-band bright points in terms of standard uxtube modeling, in particular the 1D LTE models constructed by Solanki and coworkers. Combined with LTE spectral synthesis they explain observed G-band bright point contrasts quite well. The G-band contrast increase over the

  3. Plasmonic EIT-like switching in bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junxue; Wang, Pei; Chen, Chuncong; Lu, Yonghua; Ming, Hai; Zhan, Qiwen

    2011-03-28

    In this paper we report the study of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission in the bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators. It is demonstrated that the interferences between the dark plasmons excited by two bright plasmon resonators can be controlled by the incident light polarization. The constructive interference strengthens the coupling between the bright and dark resonators, leading to a more prominent EIT-like transparency window of the metamaterial. In contrary, destructive interference suppresses the coupling between the bright and dark resonators, destroying the interference pathway that forms the EIT-like transmission. Based on this observation, the plasmonic EIT switching can be realized by changing the polarization of incident light. This phenomenon may find applications in optical switching and plasmon-based information processing.

  4. STARS4ALL Night Sky Brightness Photometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Zamorano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the main features of TESS-W, the first version of a series of inexpensive but reliable photometers that will be used to measure night sky brightness. The bandpass is extended to the red with respect of that of the Sky Quality Meter (SQM. TESS-W connects to a router via WIFI and it sends automatically the brightness values to a data repository using Internet of Things protocols. The device includes an infrared sensor to estimate the cloud coverage. It is designed for fixed stations to monitor the evolution of the sky brightness. The photometer could also be used in local mode connected to a computer or tablet to gather data from a moving vehicle. The photometer is being developed within STARS4ALL project, a collective awareness platform for promoting dark skies in Europe, funded by the EU. We intend to extend the existing professional networks to a citizen-based network of photometers. 

  5. Increasing the brightness of light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ling

    2006-11-16

    In this work the principle of light recycling is applied to artificial light sources in order to achieve brightness enhancement. Firstly, the feasibilities of increasing the brightness of light sources via light recycling are examined theoretically, based on the fundamental laws of thermodynamics including Kirchhoff's law on radiation, Planck's law, Lambert-Beer's law, the etendue conservation and the brightness theorem. From an experimental viewpoint, the radiation properties of three different kinds of light sources including short-arc lamps, incandescent lamps and LEDs characterized by their light-generating mechanisms are investigated. These three types of sources are used in light recycling experiments, for the purpose of 1. validating the intrinsic light recycling effect in light sources, e. g. the intrinsic light recycling effect in incandescent lamps stemming from the coiled filament structure. 2. acquiring the required parameters for establishing physical models, e.g. the emissivity/absorptivity of the short-arc lamps, the intrinsic reflectivity and the external quantum efficiency of LEDs. 3. laying the foundations for designing optics aimed at brightness enhancement according to the characteristics of the sources and applications. Based on the fundamental laws and experiments, two physical models for simulating the radiance distribution of light sources are established, one for thermal filament lamps, the other for luminescent sources, LEDs. As validation of the theoretical and experimental investigation of the light recycling effect, an optical device, the Carambola, is designed for achieving deterministic and multiple light recycling. The Carambola has the function of a concentrator. In order to achieve the maximum possible brightness enhancement with the Carambola, several combinations of sources and Carambolas are modelled in ray-tracing simulations. Sources with different light-emitting mechanisms and different radiation properties

  6. Richard Bright and his neurological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2009-01-01

    Richard Bright was one of the famous triumvirate of Guy's Hospital physicians in the Victorian era. Remembered for his account of glomerulonephritis (Bright's disease) he also made many important and original contributions to medicine and neurology. These included his work on cortical epileptogenesis, descriptions of simple partial (Jacksonian) seizures, infantile convulsions, and a variety of nervous diseases. Most notable were his reports of neurological studies including papers on traumatic tetanus, syringomyelia, arteries of the brain, contractures of spinal origin, tumours of the base of the brain, and narcolepsy. His career and these contributions are outlined. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Human CD56bright NK Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Tatiana; Poli, Aurélie; Cuapio, Angelica

    2016-01-01

    Human NK cells can be subdivided into various subsets based on the relative expression of CD16 and CD56. In particular, CD56(bright)CD16(-/dim) NK cells are the focus of interest. They are considered efficient cytokine producers endowed with immunoregulatory properties, but they can also become c...... NK cell subsets is not fully defined, nor is their precise hematopoietic origin. In this article, we summarize recent studies about CD56(bright) NK cells in health and disease and briefly discuss the current controversies surrounding them....

  8. Diagnostics for high-brightness beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Special techniques are required for beam diagnostics on high-brightness particle beams. Examples of high-brightness beams include low-emittance proton linacs (either pulsed or CW), electron linacs suitable for free-electron-laser applications, and future linear colliders. Non-interceptive and minimally-interceptive techniques for measuring beam current, position, profile, and transverse and longitudinal emittance will be reviewed. Included will be stripline, wire scanner, laser neutralization, beam-beam scattering, interceptive microgratings, spontaneous emission, optical transition radiation, and other techniques. 24 refs

  9. Bright perspectives for nuclear photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Habs, D.

    2014-05-01

    With the advent of new high-power, short-pulse laser facilities in combination with novel technologies for the production of highly brilliant, intense γ beams (like, e.g., Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) in Bucharest, MEGaRay in Livermore or a planned upgrade of the HIγS facility at Duke University), unprecedented perspectives will open up in the coming years for photonuclear physics both in basic sciences as in various fields of applications. Ultra-high sensitivity will be enabled by an envisaged increase of the γ-beam spectral density from the presently typical 102γ/eVs to about 104γ/eVs, thus enabling a new quality of nuclear photonics [1], assisted by new γ-optical elements [2]. Photonuclear reactions with highly brilliant γ beams will allow to produce radioisotopes for nuclear medicine with much higher specific activity and/or more economically than with conventional methods. This will open the door for completely new clinical applications of radioisotopes [3]. The isotopic, state-selective sensitivity of the well-established technique of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) will be boosted by the drastically reduced energy bandwidth (tomography and microscopy, assisting the management of nuclear materials, such as radioactive waste management, the detection of nuclear fissile material in the recycling process or the detection of clandestine fissile materials. Moreover, also secondary sources like low-energy, pulsed, polarized neutron beams of high intensity and high brilliance [4] or a new type of positron source with significantly increased brilliance, for the first time fully polarized [5], can be realized and lead to new applications in solid state physics or material sciences.

  10. The Eindhoven High-Brightness Electron Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, G.J.H.; Wiel, van der M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Eindhoven High-Brightness programme is aimed at producing ultra-short intense electron bunches from compact accelerators. The RF electron gun is capable of producing 100 fs electron bunches at 7.5 MeV and 10 pC bunch charge. The DC/RF hybrid gun under development will produce bunches <75 fs at

  11. Discussion of high brightness rf linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamental aspects of high-brightness rf linacs are outlined, showing the breadth and complexity of the technology and indicating that synergism with advancements in other areas is important. Areas of technology reviewed include ion sources, injectors, rf accelerator structures, beam dynamics, rf power, and automatic control

  12. Robust fitting of diurnal brightness temperature cycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Udahemuka, G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available for a pixel concerned. Robust fitting of observed Diurnal Temperature Cycle (DTC) taken over a day of a given pixel without cloud cover and other abnormally conditions such as fire can give a data based brightness temperature model for a given pixel...

  13. Intermittent Episodes of Bright Light Suppress Myopia in the Chicken More than Continuous Bright Light

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Weizhong; Feldkaemper, Marita; Schaeffel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Bright light has been shown a powerful inhibitor of myopia development in animal models. We studied which temporal patterns of bright light are the most potent in suppressing deprivation myopia in chickens. METHODS: Eight-day-old chickens wore diffusers over one eye to induce deprivation myopia. A reference group (n = 8) was kept under office-like illuminance (500 lux) at a 10:14 light:dark cycle. Episodes of bright light (15 000 lux) were super-imposed on this background as follows....

  14. Silicon microspheres for near-IR communication applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpengüzel, Ali; Demir, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    We have performed transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarized elastic light scattering calculations at 90° and 0° in the o-band at 1.3 µm for a 15 µm radius silicon microsphere with a refractive index of 3.5. The quality factors are on the order of 10 7 and the mode/channel spacing is 7 nm, which correlate well with the refractive index and the optical size of the microsphere. The 90° elastic light scattering can be used to monitor a dropped channel (drop port), whereas the 0° elastic scattering can be used to monitor the transmission channel (through port). The optical resonances of the silicon microspheres provide the necessary narrow linewidths that are needed for high-resolution optical communication applications. Potential telecommunication applications include filters, modulators, switches, wavelength converters, detectors, amplifiers and light sources. Silicon microspheres show promise as potential building blocks for silicon-based electrophotonic integration

  15. Near IR Photolysis of HO2NO2: Supplemental Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    MkIV measurements of the volume mixing ratio (VMR) of HO2NO2 at 35 deg N, sunset on Sept. 25, 1993 are given. Measurements of HO2NO2 made between approx. 65 and 70 deg N, sunrise on May 8, 1997 are listed. The uncertainties given are 1 sigma estimates of the measurement precision. Uncertainty in the HO2NO2 line strengths is estimated to be 20%; this is the dominant contribution to the systematic error of the HO2NO2 measurement. Model inputs for the simulations are given. The albedos were obtained from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer reflectively data (raw data at ftp://jwocky.gsfc.nasa.gov) for the time and place of observation. Profiles of sulfate aerosol surface area ("Surf. Area") were obtained from monthly, zonal mean profiles measured by SAGE II [Thomason et al., 1997 updated via private communication]. The profile of Be(y) is based on the Wamsley et al. relation with N2O, using MkIV measurements of N20O. All other model inputs given are based on direct MkIV measurements. Finally, we note the latitude of the MkIV tangent point varied considerably during sunrise on May 8, 1997. The simulations shown here were obtained using different latitudes for each altitude.

  16. Intermittent episodes of bright light suppress myopia in the chicken more than continuous bright light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhong Lan

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Bright light has been shown a powerful inhibitor of myopia development in animal models. We studied which temporal patterns of bright light are the most potent in suppressing deprivation myopia in chickens. METHODS: Eight-day-old chickens wore diffusers over one eye to induce deprivation myopia. A reference group (n = 8 was kept under office-like illuminance (500 lux at a 10:14 light:dark cycle. Episodes of bright light (15 000 lux were super-imposed on this background as follows. Paradigm I: exposure to constant bright light for either 1 hour (n = 5, 2 hours (n = 5, 5 hours (n = 4 or 10 hours (n = 4. Paradigm II: exposure to repeated cycles of bright light with 50% duty cycle and either 60 minutes (n = 7, 30 minutes (n = 8, 15 minutes (n = 6, 7 minutes (n = 7 or 1 minute (n = 7 periods, provided for 10 hours. Refraction and axial length were measured prior to and immediately after the 5-day experiment. Relative changes were analyzed by paired t-tests, and differences among groups were tested by one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Compared with the reference group, exposure to continuous bright light for 1 or 2 hours every day had no significant protective effect against deprivation myopia. Inhibition of myopia became significant after 5 hours of bright light exposure but extending the duration to 10 hours did not offer an additional benefit. In comparison, repeated cycles of 1:1 or 7:7 minutes of bright light enhanced the protective effect against myopia and could fully suppress its development. CONCLUSIONS: The protective effect of bright light depends on the exposure duration and, to the intermittent form, the frequency cycle. Compared to the saturation effect of continuous bright light, low frequency cycles of bright light (1:1 min provided the strongest inhibition effect. However, our quantitative results probably might not be directly translated into humans, but rather need further amendments in clinical studies.

  17. Circadian Phase-Shifting Effects of Bright Light, Exercise, and Bright Light + Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstedt, Shawn D; Kline, Christopher E; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Zielinski, Mark R; Devlin, Tina M; Moore, Teresa A

    2016-02-26

    Limited research has compared the circadian phase-shifting effects of bright light and exercise and additive effects of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the phase-delaying effects of late night bright light, late night exercise, and late evening bright light followed by early morning exercise. In a within-subjects, counterbalanced design, 6 young adults completed each of three 2.5-day protocols. Participants followed a 3-h ultra-short sleep-wake cycle, involving wakefulness in dim light for 2h, followed by attempted sleep in darkness for 1 h, repeated throughout each protocol. On night 2 of each protocol, participants received either (1) bright light alone (5,000 lux) from 2210-2340 h, (2) treadmill exercise alone from 2210-2340 h, or (3) bright light (2210-2340 h) followed by exercise from 0410-0540 h. Urine was collected every 90 min. Shifts in the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) cosine acrophase from baseline to post-treatment were compared between treatments. Analyses revealed a significant additive phase-delaying effect of bright light + exercise (80.8 ± 11.6 [SD] min) compared with exercise alone (47.3 ± 21.6 min), and a similar phase delay following bright light alone (56.6 ± 15.2 min) and exercise alone administered for the same duration and at the same time of night. Thus, the data suggest that late night bright light followed by early morning exercise can have an additive circadian phase-shifting effect.

  18. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo, E-mail: b.cervantes@irya.unam.mx, E-mail: o.sanchez@irya.unam.mx [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, A.P. 3-72, C.P. 58089 Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-09-20

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  19. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  20. Flux and brightness calculations for various synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.M.; Hulbert, S.L.

    1991-11-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) storage rings are powerful scientific and technological tools. The first generation of storage rings in the US., e.g., SURF (Washington, D.C.), Tantalus (Wisconsin), SSRL (Stanford), and CHESS (Cornell), revolutionized VUV, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray science. The second (present) generation of storage rings, e.g. the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings and Aladdin (Wisconsin), have sustained the revolution by providing higher stored currents and up to a factor of ten smaller electron beam sizes than the first generation sources. This has made possible a large number of experiments that could not performed using first generation sources. In addition, the NSLS XRAY ring design optimizes the performance of wigglers (high field periodic magnetic insertion devices). The third generation storage rings, e.g. ALS (Berkeley) and APS (Argonne), are being designed to optimize the performance of undulators (low field periodic magnetic insertion devices). These extremely high brightness sources will further revolutionize x-ray science by providing diffraction-limited x-ray beams. The output of undulators and wigglers is distinct from that of bending magnets in magnitude, spectral shape, and in spatial and angular size. Using published equations, we have developed computer programs to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness output bending magnets and selected wigglers and undulators of the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings, the Advanced Light Source (ALS), and the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Following is a summary of the equations used, the graphs and data produced, and the computer codes written. These codes, written in the C programming language, can be used to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness curves for bending magnets and insertion devices on any storage ring

  1. Investigating a population of infrared-bright gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrimes, Ashley A.; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Levan, Andrew J.; Davies, Luke J. M.; Angus, Charlotte R.; Greis, Stephanie M. L.

    2018-04-01

    We identify and explore the properties of an infrared-bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) host population. Candidate hosts are selected by coincidence with sources in WISE, with matching to random coordinates and a false alarm probability analysis showing that the contamination fraction is ˜ 0.5. This methodology has already identified the host galaxy of GRB 080517. We combine survey photometry from Pan-STARRS, SDSS, APASS, 2MASS, GALEX and WISE with our own WHT/ACAM and VLT/X-shooter observations to classify the candidates and identify interlopers. Galaxy SED fitting is performed using MAGPHYS, in addition to stellar template fitting, yielding 13 possible IR-bright hosts. A further 7 candidates are identified from previously published work. We report a candidate host for GRB 061002, previously unidentified as such. The remainder of the galaxies have already been noted as potential hosts. Comparing the IR-bright population properties including redshift z, stellar mass M⋆, star formation rate SFR and V-band attenuation AV to GRB host catalogues in the literature, we find that the infrared-bright population is biased toward low z, high M⋆ and high AV. This naturally arises from their initial selection - local and dusty galaxies are more likely to have the required IR flux to be detected in WISE. We conclude that while IR-bright GRB hosts are not a physically distinct class, they are useful for constraining existing GRB host populations, particularly for long GRBs.

  2. Bright solitons in Bose-Fermi mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpiuk, Tomasz; Brewczyk, Miroslaw; RzaPewski, Kazimierz

    2006-01-01

    We consider the formation of bright solitons in a mixture of Bose and Fermi degenerate gases confined in a three-dimensional elongated harmonic trap. The Bose and Fermi atoms are assumed to effectively attract each other whereas bosonic atoms repel each other. Strong enough attraction between bosonic and fermionic components can change the character of the interaction within the bosonic cloud from repulsive to attractive making thus possible the generation of bright solitons in the mixture. On the other hand, such structures might be in danger due to the collapse phenomenon existing in attractive gases. We show, however, that under some conditions (defined by the strength of the Bose-Fermi components attraction) the structures which neither spread nor collapse can be generated. For elongated enough traps the formation of solitons is possible even at the 'natural' value of the mutual Bose-Fermi ( 87 Rb- 40 K in our case) scattering length

  3. Photometry of the Variable Bright Red Supergiant Betelgeuse from the Ground and from Space with the BRITE Nano-satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Robert; Guinan, Edward F.

    2016-01-01

    Robert B. Minor, Edward Guinan, Richard Wasatonic Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) is a large, luminous semi-regular red supergiant of spectral class M1.5-2Iab. It is the 8th brightest star in the night sky. Betelgeuse is 30,000 times more luminous than the Sun and 700 times larger. It has an estimated age of ~8 +/- 2 Myr. Betelgeuse explode in a Type II supernova (anytime within the next million years). When it explodes, it will shine with about the intensity of a full moon and may be visible during the day. However, it is too far away to cause any major damage to Earth. Photometry of this pre-supernova star has been ongoing at Villanova for nearly 45 years. These observations are being used to define the complex brightness variations of this star. Semi-regular periodic light variations have been found with periods of 385 days up to many years. These light variations are used to study its unstable atmosphere and resulting complex pulsations. Over the last 15 years, it has been observed by Wasatonic who has accumulated a large photometric database. The ground-based observations are limited to precisions of 1.5%, and due to poor weather, limit observations to about 1-2 times per week. However, with the recent successful launch of the BRITE Nano-satellites (http://www.brite-constellation.at) during 2013-14, it is possible to secure high precision photometry of bright stars, including Betelgeuse, continuously for up to 3 months. Villanova has participated in the BRITE guest investigators program and has been awarded observing time and data rights many bright stars, including Betelgeuse. BRITE blue and red observations of Betelgeuse were carried out during the Nov-Feb 2013-14 season and the 2014-15. These datasets were given to Villanova and have been combined with coexistent photometry from Wasatonic. Although BRITE's red data is saturated, the blue data is useable. The BRITE datasets were combined with our ground-based V, red, and near-IR photometry. Problems were

  4. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Bright Source List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Roger F.; Marshall, Herman L.; Antia, Behram; Christian, Carol A.; Dobson, Carl A.; Finley, David S.; Fruscione, Antonella; Girouard, Forrest R.; Hawkins, Isabel; Jelinsky, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Initial results from the analysis of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky survey (58-740 A) and deep survey (67-364 A) are presented through the EUVE Bright Source List (BSL). The BSL contains 356 confirmed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) point sources with supporting information, including positions, observed EUV count rates, and the identification of possible optical counterparts. One-hundred twenty-six sources have been detected longward of 200 A.

  5. High-brightness H/sup -/ accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Neutral particle beam (NPB) devices based on high-brightness H/sup -/ accelerators are an important component of proposed strategic defense systems. The basic rational and R and D program are outlined and examples given of the underlying technology thrusts toward advanced systems. Much of the research accomplished in the past year is applicable to accelerator systems in general; some of these activities are discussed

  6. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2014-12-01

    According to literature, while calculating the brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers, one needs to account for the so called 'depth-of-field' effects. In fact, the particle beam cross section varies along the wiggler. It is usually stated that the effective photon source size increases accordingly, while the brightness is reduced. Here we claim that this is a misconception originating from an analysis of the wiggler source based on geometrical arguments, regarded as almost self-evident. According to electrodynamics, depth-of-field effects do not exist: we demonstrate this statement both theoretically and numerically, using a well-known first-principle computer code. This fact shows that under the usually accepted approximations, the description of the wiggler brightness turns out to be inconsistent even qualitatively. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined procedure for computing the brightness from a wiggler source. We accomplish this task based on the use of a Wigner function formalism. In the geometrical optics limit computations can be performed analytically. Within this limit, we restrict ourselves to the case of the beam size-dominated regime, which is typical for synchrotron radiation facilities in the X-ray wavelength range. We give a direct demonstration of the fact that the apparent horizontal source size is broadened in proportion to the beamline opening angle and to the length of the wiggler. While this effect is well-understood, a direct proof appears not to have been given elsewhere. We consider the problem of the calculation of the wiggler source size by means of numerical simulations alone, which play the same role of an experiment. We report a significant numerical disagreement between exact calculations and approximations currently used in literature.

  7. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Butterfield, Karla [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    With funding from the Building America Program, part of the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with BrightBuilt Home (BBH) to evaluate and optimize building systems. CARB’s work focused on a home built by Black Bros. Builders in Lincolnville, Maine (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zone 6). As with most BBH projects to date, modular boxes were built by Keiser Homes in Oxford, Maine.

  8. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies: Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus

    1988-01-01

    Using measurements from IRAS correlations are found between optical surface brightness and both infrared-to-optical flux ratio and infrared colour temperature, in the sense that galaxies with high surface brightness have higher FIR emission and higher temperatures. (author)

  9. Search for bright stars with infrared excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raharto, Moedji, E-mail: moedji@as.itb.ac.id [Astronomy Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Bright stars, stars with visual magnitude smaller than 6.5, can be studied using small telescope. In general, if stars are assumed as black body radiator, then the color in infrared (IR) region is usually equal to zero. Infrared data from IRAS observations at 12 and 25μm (micron) with good flux quality are used to search for bright stars (from Bright Stars Catalogues) with infrared excess. In magnitude scale, stars with IR excess is defined as stars with IR color m{sub 12}−m{sub 25}>0; where m{sub 12}−m{sub 25} = −2.5log(F{sub 12}/F{sub 25})+1.56, where F{sub 12} and F{sub 25} are flux density in Jansky at 12 and 25μm, respectively. Stars with similar spectral type are expected to have similar color. The existence of infrared excess in the same spectral type indicates the existence of circum-stellar dust, the origin of which is probably due to the remnant of pre main-sequence evolution during star formation or post AGB evolution or due to physical process such as the rotation of those stars.

  10. Condensate bright solitons under transverse confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salasnich, L.; Reatto, L.; Parola, A.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensate bright solitons made of alkali-metal atoms with negative scattering length and under harmonic confinement in the transverse direction. Contrary to the one-dimensional (1D) case, the 3D bright soliton exists only below a critical attractive interaction that depends on the extent of confinement. Such a behavior is also found in multisoliton condensates with box boundary conditions. We obtain numerical and analytical estimates of the critical strength beyond which the solitons do not exist. By using an effective 1D nonpolynomial nonlinear Schroedinger equation, which accurately takes into account the transverse dynamics of cigarlike condensates, we numerically simulate the dynamics of the 'soliton train' reported in a recent experiment [Nature (London) 417, 150 (2002)]. Then, analyzing the macroscopic quantum tunneling of the bright soliton on a Gaussian barrier, we find that its interference in the tunneling region is strongly suppressed with respect to nonsolitonic case; moreover, the tunneling through a barrier breaks the shape invariance of the matter wave. Finally, we show that the collapse of the soliton is induced by the scattering on the barrier or by the collision with another matter wave when the density reaches a critical value, for which we derive an accurate analytical formula

  11. Possible Bright Starspots on TRAPPIST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brett M.; Agol, Eric; Davenport, James R. A.; Hawley, Suzanne L.

    2018-04-01

    The M8V star TRAPPIST-1 hosts seven roughly Earth-sized planets and is a promising target for exoplanet characterization. Kepler/K2 Campaign 12 observations of TRAPPIST-1 in the optical show an apparent rotational modulation with a 3.3-day period, though that rotational signal is not readily detected in the Spitzer light curve at 4.5 μm. If the rotational modulation is due to starspots, persistent dark spots can be excluded from the lack of photometric variability in the Spitzer light curve. We construct a photometric model for rotational modulation due to photospheric bright spots on TRAPPIST-1 that is consistent with both the Kepler and Spitzer light curves. The maximum-likelihood model with three spots has typical spot sizes of R spot/R ⋆ ≈ 0.004 at temperature T spot ≳ 5300 ± 200 K. We also find that large flares are observed more often when the brightest spot is facing the observer, suggesting a correlation between the position of the bright spots and flare events. In addition, these flares may occur preferentially when the spots are increasing in brightness, which suggests that the 3.3-day periodicity may not be a rotational signal, but rather a characteristic timescale of active regions.

  12. Recognizing emotions in faces : effects of acute tryptophan depletion and bright light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    aan het Rot, Marije; Coupland, Nicholas; Boivin, Diane B.; Benkelfat, Chawki; Young, Simon N.

    2010-01-01

    In healthy never-depressed individuals, acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) may selectively decrease the accurate recognition of fearful facial expressions. Here we investigated the perception of facial emotions after ATD in more detail. We also investigated whether bright light, which can reverse

  13. Suzaku observations of low surface brightness cluster Abell 1631

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazaki, Yasunori; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Ota, Naomi; Sasaki, Shin; Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Pratt, Gabriel W.; Matsumoto, Hironori

    2018-06-01

    We present analysis results for a nearby galaxy cluster Abell 1631 at z = 0.046 using the X-ray observatory Suzaku. This cluster is categorized as a low X-ray surface brightness cluster. To study the dynamical state of the cluster, we conduct four-pointed Suzaku observations and investigate physical properties of the Mpc-scale hot gas associated with the A 1631 cluster for the first time. Unlike relaxed clusters, the X-ray image shows no strong peak at the center and an irregular morphology. We perform spectral analysis and investigate the radial profiles of the gas temperature, density, and entropy out to approximately 1.5 Mpc in the east, north, west, and south directions by combining with the XMM-Newton data archive. The measured gas density in the central region is relatively low (a few ×10-4 cm-3) at the given temperature (˜2.9 keV) compared with X-ray-selected clusters. The entropy profile and value within the central region (r clusters. These features are also observed in another low surface brightness cluster, Abell 76. The spatial distributions of galaxies and the hot gas appear to be different. The X-ray luminosity is relatively lower than that expected from the velocity dispersion. A post-merger scenario may explain the observed results.

  14. Star formation and the surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1985-01-01

    The (blue) surface brightness of spiral galaxies is significantly correlated with their Hα linewidth. This can be most plausibly interpreted as a correlation of surface brightness with star formation rate. There is also a significant difference in surface brightness between galaxies forming stars in a grand design spiral pattern and those with floc star formation regions. (author)

  15. Polarization-dependent spectra in the photoassociative ionization of cold atoms in a bright sodium beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Serrano, Jaime; DeGraffenreid, William; Weiner, John

    2002-01-01

    We report measurements of cold photoassociative ionization (PAI) spectra obtained from collisions within a slow, bright Na atomic beam. A high-brightness atom flux, obtained by optical cooling and focusing of the atom beam, permits a high degree of alignment and orientation of binary collisions with respect to the laboratory atom-beam axis. The results reveal features of PAI spectra not accessible in conventional magneto-optical trap studies. We take advantage of this high degree of alignment to selectively excite autoionizing doubly excited states of specific symmetry

  16. The visibility of galaxies as a function of central surface brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.; Phillipps, S.

    1983-01-01

    The likelihood of a galaxy with given intrinsic profile appearing in a photograph catalogue with limiting criteria on apparent magnitude and angular size will depend on the maximum distance at which such a galaxy can lie and still obey both criteria. It is demonstrated that the corresponding volume in which the galaxy will be visible is a sensitive function of the galaxy's central surface brightness as well as its absolute magnitude. Before the observed concentrations around preferred values of surface brightness can be regarded as real, it will be necessary to make allowance for this selection effect. (author)

  17. Electromagnetically induced transparency control in terahertz metasurfaces based on bright-bright mode coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiaoui, R.; Burrow, J. A.; Mekonen, S. M.; Sarangan, A.; Mathews, J.; Agha, I.; Searles, T. A.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a highly flexible planar terahertz metamaterial (MM) comprised of three-gap split-ring resonators. The keys to achieve EIT in this system are the frequency detuning and hybridization processes between two bright modes coexisting in the same unit cell as opposed to bright-dark modes. We present experimental verification of two bright modes coupling for a terahertz EIT-MM in the context of numerical results and theoretical analysis based on a coupled Lorentz oscillator model. In addition, a hybrid variation of the EIT-MM is proposed and implemented numerically to dynamically tune the EIT window by incorporating photosensitive silicon pads in the split gap region of the resonators. As a result, this hybrid MM enables the active optical control of a transition from the on state (EIT mode) to the off state (dipole mode).

  18. Investigating the Bright End of LSST Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Elle; Pepper, Joshua; LSST Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will begin operations in 2022, conducting a wide-field, synoptic multiband survey of the southern sky. Some fraction of objects at the bright end of the magnitude regime observed by LSST will overlap with other wide-sky surveys, allowing for calibration and cross-checking between surveys. The LSST is optimized for observations of very faint objects, so much of this data overlap will be comprised of saturated images. This project provides the first in-depth analysis of saturation in LSST images. Using the PhoSim package to create simulated LSST images, we evaluate saturation properties of several types of stars to determine the brightness limitations of LSST. We also collect metadata from many wide-field photometric surveys to provide cross-survey accounting and comparison. Additionally, we evaluate the accuracy of the PhoSim modeling parameters to determine the reliability of the software. These efforts will allow us to determine the expected useable data overlap between bright-end LSST images and faint-end images in other wide-sky surveys. Our next steps are developing methods to extract photometry from saturated images.This material is based upon work supported in part by the National Science Foundation through Cooperative Agreement 1258333 managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), and the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515 with the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Additional LSST funding comes from private donations, grants to universities, and in-kind support from LSSTC Institutional Members.Thanks to NSF grant PHY-135195 and the 2017 LSSTC Grant Award #2017-UG06 for making this project possible.

  19. Raman beam combining for laser brightness enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jay W.; Allen, Graham S.; Pax, Paul H.; Heebner, John E.; Sridharan, Arun K.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Barty, Chrisopher B. J.

    2015-10-27

    An optical source capable of enhanced scaling of pulse energy and brightness utilizes an ensemble of single-aperture fiber lasers as pump sources, with each such fiber laser operating at acceptable pulse energy levels. Beam combining involves stimulated Raman scattering using a Stokes' shifted seed beam, the latter of which is optimized in terms of its temporal and spectral properties. Beams from fiber lasers can thus be combined to attain pulses with peak energies in excess of the fiber laser self-focusing limit of 4 MW while retaining the advantages of a fiber laser system of high average power with good beam quality.

  20. Bright emission lines in new Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasev, V.L.; Denisiuk, E.K.; Lipovetskii, V.A.; Shapovalova, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    Observational data are given on bright emission lines (H-alpha, H-beta, and forbidden N II, S II, and O III) for 14 recently discovered Seyfert galaxies. The investigated objects can be divided into three groups, which correspond approximately to the first (5 objects), the intermediate (4 objects), and the second (4 objects) Seyfert types. Attention is drawn to the properties of the galaxy Markaryan 1018, which has features of both the first and the second type and is distinguished by the weakness of its emission lines, which is probably due to a gas deficit. 7 references

  1. The optical spectra of 24 mu m galaxies in the cosmos field. I. Spitzer MIPS bright sources in the zCOSMOS-bright 10k catalog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caputi, K. I.; Lilly, S. J.; Aussel, H.; Sanders, D.; Frayer, D.; Le Fevre, O.; Renzini, A.; Zamorani, G.; Scodeggio, M.; Contini, T.; Scoville, N.; Carollo, C. M.; Hasinger, G.; Iovino, A.; Le Brun, V.; Le Floc'h, E.; Maier, C.; Mainieri, V.; Mignoli, M.; Salvato, M.; Schiminovich, D.; Silverman, J.; Surace, J.; Tasca, L.; Abbas, U.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bottini, D.; Capak, P.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Halliday, C.; Ilbert, O.; Kampczyk, P.; Kartaltepe, J.; Kneib, J. -P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Lamareille, F.; Leauthaud, A.; Le Borgne, J. F.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H.; Meneux, B.; Oesch, P.; Pello, R.; Perez-Montero, E.; Porciani, C.; Ricciardelli, E.; Scaramella, R.; Scarlata, C.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Walcher, J.; Zamojski, M.; Zucca, E.

    2008-01-01

    We study zCOSMOS-bright optical spectra for 609 Spitzer MIPS 24 mu m-selected galaxies with S-24 (mu m) > 0: 30 mJy and I <22.5 (AB mag) over 1.5 deg(2) of the COSMOS field. From emission-line diagnostics we find the following: (1) SFRs derived from the observed H alpha lambda 6563 and H beta lambda

  2. Next generation diode lasers with enhanced brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, S.; Rauch, S.; Irmler, L.; Rikels, J.; Killi, A.; Papastathopoulos, E.; Sarailou, E.; Zimer, H.

    2018-02-01

    High-power diode lasers are nowadays well established manufacturing tools in high power materials processing, mainly for tactile welding, surface treatment and cladding applications. Typical beam parameter products (BPP) of such lasers range from 30 to 50 mm·mrad at several kilowatts of output power. TRUMPF offers a product line of diode lasers to its customers ranging from 150 W up to 6 kW of output power. These diode lasers combine high reliability with small footprint and high efficiency. However, up to now these lasers are limited in brightness due to the commonly used spatial and coarse spectral beam combining techniques. Recently diode lasers with enhanced brightness have been presented by use of dense wavelength multiplexing (DWM). In this paper we report on TRUMPF's diode lasers utilizing DWM. We demonstrate a 2 kW and a 4 kW system ideally suited for fine welding and scanner welding applications. The typical laser efficiency is in the range of 50%. The system offers plug and play exchange of the fiber beam delivery cable, multiple optical outputs and integrated cooling in a very compact package. An advanced control system offers flexible integration in any customer's shop floor environment and includes industry 4.0 capabilities (e.g. condition monitoring and predictive maintenance).

  3. Bright point study. [of solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, F.; Harvey, K.; Bruner, M.; Kent, B.; Antonucci, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transition region and coronal observations of bright points by instruments aboard the Solar Maximum Mission and high resolution photospheric magnetograph observations on September 11, 1980 are presented. A total of 31 bipolar ephemeral regions were found in the photosphere from birth in 9.3 hours of combined magnetograph observations from three observatories. Two of the three ephemeral regions present in the field of view of the Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Polarimeter were observed in the C IV 1548 line. The unobserved ephemeral region was determined to be the shortest-lived (2.5 hr) and lowest in magnetic flux density (13G) of the three regions. The Flat Crystal Spectrometer observed only low level signals in the O VIII 18.969 A line, which were not statistically significant to be positively identified with any of the 16 ephemeral regions detected in the photosphere. In addition, the data indicate that at any given time there lacked a one-to-one correspondence between observable bright points and photospheric ephemeral regions, while more ephemeral regions were observed than their counterparts in the transition region and the corona.

  4. BRITE-Constellation: Nanosatellites for precision photometry of bright stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W. W.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.; Koudelka, O. F.; Grant, C. C.; Zee, R. E.; Kuschnig, R.; Mochnacki, St.; Rucinski, S. M.; Matthews, J. M.; Orleański, P.; Pamyatnykh, A. A.; Pigulski, A.; Alves, J.; Guedel, M.; Handler, G.; Wade, G. A.; Scholtz, A. L.; Scholtz

    2014-02-01

    will be selected is shown in Fig. 1. This sample falls into two principal classes of stars: (1) Hot luminous H-burning stars (O to F stars). Analyses of OB star variability have the potential to help solve two outstanding problems: the sizes of convective (mixed) cores in massive stars and the influence of rapid rotation on their structure and evolution. (2) Cool luminous stars (AGB stars, cool giants and cool supergiants). Measurements of the time scales involved in surface granulation and differential rotation will constrain turbulent convection models. Mass loss from these stars (especially the massive supernova progenitors) is a major contributor to the evolution of the interstellar medium, so in a sense, this sample dominates cosmic ``ecology'' in terms of future generations of star formation. The massive stars are believed to share many characteristics of the lower mass range of the first generation of stars ever formed (although the original examples are of course long gone). BRITE observations will also be used to detect some Jupiter- and even Neptune-sized planets around bright host stars via transits, as expected on the basis of statistics from the Kepler exoplanet mission. Detecting planets around such very bright stars will greatly facilitate their subsequent characterization. BRITE will also use surface spots to investigate stellar rotation. The following Table summarizes launch and orbit parameters of BRITE-Constellation components. The full version of this paper describing in more detail BRITE-Constellation will be published separately in a journal. The symposium presentation is available at http://iaus301.astro.uni.wroc.pl/program.php

  5. Brightness and transparency in the early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Viljami R; Vanni, Simo

    2013-06-24

    Several psychophysical studies have shown that transparency can have drastic effects on brightness and lightness. However, the neural processes generating these effects have remained unresolved. Several lines of evidence suggest that the early visual cortex is important for brightness perception. While single cell recordings suggest that surface brightness is represented in the primary visual cortex, the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have been discrepant. In addition, the location of the neural representation of transparency is not yet known. We investigated whether the fMRI responses in areas V1, V2, and V3 correlate with brightness and transparency. To dissociate the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to brightness from the response to local border contrast and mean luminance, we used variants of White's brightness illusion, both opaque and transparent, in which luminance increments and decrements cancel each other out. The stimuli consisted of a target surface and a surround. The surround luminance was always sinusoidally modulated at 0.5 Hz to induce brightness modulation to the target. The target luminance was constant or modulated in counterphase to null brightness modulation. The mean signal changes were calculated from the voxels in V1, V2, and V3 corresponding to the retinotopic location of the target surface. The BOLD responses were significantly stronger for modulating brightness than for stimuli with constant brightness. In addition, the responses were stronger for transparent than for opaque stimuli, but there was more individual variation. No interaction between brightness and transparency was found. The results show that the early visual areas V1-V3 are sensitive to surface brightness and transparency and suggest that brightness and transparency are represented separately.

  6. Bright galaxies at z=9-11 from pure-parallel HST observations: Building a unique sample for JWST with Spitzer/IRAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, Rychard; Morashita, Takahiro; Stefanon, Mauro; Magee, Dan

    2018-05-01

    The combination of observations taken by Hubble and Spitzer revealed the unexpected presence of sources as bright as our own Milky Way as early as 400 Myr after the Big Bang, potentially highlighting a new highly efficient regime for star formation in L>L* galaxies at very early times. Yet, the sample of high-quality z>8 galaxies with both HST and Spitzer/IRAC imaging is still small, particularly at the highest luminosities. We propose here to remedy this situation and use Spitzer/IRAC to efficiently follow up the most promising z>8 sources from our Hubble Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) survey, which covers a footprint on the sky similar to CANDELS, provides a deeper search than ground-based surveys like UltraVISTA, and is robust against cosmic variance because of its 210 independent lines of sight. The proposed new 3.6 micron observations will continue our Spitzer cycle 12 and 13 BORG911 programs, targeting 15 additional fields, leveraging over 200 new HST orbits to identify a final sample of about 8 bright galaxies at z >= 8.5. For optimal time use (just 20 hours), our goal is to readily discriminate between z>8 sources (undetected or marginally detected in IRAC) and z 2 interlopers (strongly detected in IRAC) with just 1-2 hours per pointing. The high-quality candidates that we will identify with IRAC will be ideal targets for further studies investigating the ionization state of the distant universe through near-IR Keck/VLT spectroscopy. They will also be uniquely suited to measurement of the redshift and stellar population properties through JWST/NIRSPEC observations, with the potential to elucidate how the first generations of stars are assembled in the earliest stages of the epoch of reionization.

  7. Very-High-Brightness Picosecond Electron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluem, H.

    2003-01-01

    Bright, RF photocathode electron guns are the source of choice for most high-performance research accelerator applications. Some of these applications are pushing the performance boundaries of the present state-of-the-art guns. Advanced Energy Systems is developing a novel photocathode RF gun that shows excellent promise for extending gun performance. Initial gun simulations with only a short booster accelerator easily break the benchmark emittance of one micron for 1 nC of bunch charge. The pulse length in these simulations is less than 2 ps. It is expected that with more detailed optimization studies, the performance can be further improved. The performance details of the gun will be presented. In addition, we will discuss the present design concept along with the status of the project

  8. New redshifts of bright galaxies. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Vaucouleurs, G.; de Vaucouleurs, A.; Nieto, J.

    1979-01-01

    Redshifts of 196 bright galaxies, and 2 QSO's are derived from 246 spectrograms obtained from 1972 to 1977 with the Galaxy meter's two-state image tube grism spectrograph attached at the Cassegrain focus of the McDonald Observatory Struve reflector. The reciprocal dispersion in 335 A/mm at Hα and the wavelength range lambdalambda 4500--8000 A. The galaxy redshifts are in the range -28 -1 , but few exceed 5,000 km s -1 . The internal mean errors of the weighted mean velocities range from 22 to 140 km s -1 . Comparisons with other systems of redshifts, particularly the RC2, 21-cm and Sandage systems, indicate a mean systematic error of -35 +- 16 km s -1 , but it is probably variable with V. The external mean error is sigma*=90 km s -1 for velocities V -1 having a mean weight =4.0

  9. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Lauren E.; Wenger, Trey; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Angell, Dylan; Burkhardt, Andrew; Davis, Blair; Firebaugh, Ariel; Hancock, Danielle; Richardson, Whitney; Rochford Hayes, Christian; Linden, Sean; Liss, Sandra; Matthews, Allison; McNair, Shunlante; Prager, Brian; Pryal, Matthew; Troup, Nicholas William

    2017-01-01

    We present activities from the eighth year of Dark Skies Bright Kids (DSBK), an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in Central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts. Over the past seven years, our primary focus has been hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools, and over the past several years, we have partnered with local businesses to host our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows. This past summer we expanded our reach through a new initiative to bring week-long summer day camps to south and southwest Virginia, home to some of the most underserved communities in the commonwealth.

  10. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Lauren E.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Borish, H. Jacob; Burkhardt, Andrew; Firebaugh, Ariel; Hancock, Danielle; Rochford Hayes, Christian; Linden, Sean; Liss, Sandra; Matthews, Allison; Prager, Brian; Pryal, Matthew; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Troup, Nicholas William; Wenger, Trey

    2016-01-01

    We present updates from our seventh year of operation including new club content, continued assessments, and our fifth annual Star Party. Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in Central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts. Our primary focus is hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools. Each week, DSBK volunteers take the role of coaches to introduce astronomy-related concepts ranging from the Solar System to galaxies to astrobiology, and to lead students in interactive learning activities. Another hallmark of DSBK is hosting our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows.

  11. Considerations for high-brightness electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Particle accelerators are now used in many areas of physics research and in industrial and medical applications. New uses are being studied to address major societal needs in energy production, materials research, generation of intense beams of radiation at optical and suboptical wavelengths, treatment of various kinds of waste, and so on. Many of these modern applications require a high intensity beam at the desired energy, along with a very good beam quality in terms of the beam confinement, aiming, or focusing. Considerations for ion and electron accelerators are often different, but there are also many commonalties, and in fact, techniques derived for one should perhaps more often be considered for the other as well. We discuss some aspects of high-brightness electron sources here from that point of view. 6 refs

  12. Suzaku observations of low surface brightness cluster Abell 1631

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazaki, Yasunori; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Ota, Naomi; Sasaki, Shin; Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Pratt, Gabriel W.; Matsumoto, Hironori

    2018-04-01

    We present analysis results for a nearby galaxy cluster Abell 1631 at z = 0.046 using the X-ray observatory Suzaku. This cluster is categorized as a low X-ray surface brightness cluster. To study the dynamical state of the cluster, we conduct four-pointed Suzaku observations and investigate physical properties of the Mpc-scale hot gas associated with the A 1631 cluster for the first time. Unlike relaxed clusters, the X-ray image shows no strong peak at the center and an irregular morphology. We perform spectral analysis and investigate the radial profiles of the gas temperature, density, and entropy out to approximately 1.5 Mpc in the east, north, west, and south directions by combining with the XMM-Newton data archive. The measured gas density in the central region is relatively low (a few ×10-4 cm-3) at the given temperature (˜2.9 keV) compared with X-ray-selected clusters. The entropy profile and value within the central region (r < 0.1 r200) are found to be flatter and higher (≳400 keV cm2). The observed bolometric luminosity is approximately three times lower than that expected from the luminosity-temperature relation in previous studies of relaxed clusters. These features are also observed in another low surface brightness cluster, Abell 76. The spatial distributions of galaxies and the hot gas appear to be different. The X-ray luminosity is relatively lower than that expected from the velocity dispersion. A post-merger scenario may explain the observed results.

  13. Advanced prior modeling for 3D bright field electron tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreehari, Suhas; Venkatakrishnan, S. V.; Drummy, Lawrence F.; Simmons, Jeffrey P.; Bouman, Charles A.

    2015-03-01

    Many important imaging problems in material science involve reconstruction of images containing repetitive non-local structures. Model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) could in principle exploit such redundancies through the selection of a log prior probability term. However, in practice, determining such a log prior term that accounts for the similarity between distant structures in the image is quite challenging. Much progress has been made in the development of denoising algorithms like non-local means and BM3D, and these are known to successfully capture non-local redundancies in images. But the fact that these denoising operations are not explicitly formulated as cost functions makes it unclear as to how to incorporate them in the MBIR framework. In this paper, we formulate a solution to bright field electron tomography by augmenting the existing bright field MBIR method to incorporate any non-local denoising operator as a prior model. We accomplish this using a framework we call plug-and-play priors that decouples the log likelihood and the log prior probability terms in the MBIR cost function. We specifically use 3D non-local means (NLM) as the prior model in the plug-and-play framework, and showcase high quality tomographic reconstructions of a simulated aluminum spheres dataset, and two real datasets of aluminum spheres and ferritin structures. We observe that streak and smear artifacts are visibly suppressed, and that edges are preserved. Also, we report lower RMSE values compared to the conventional MBIR reconstruction using qGGMRF as the prior model.

  14. Life-threatening motor vehicle crashes in bright sunlight

    OpenAIRE

    Redelmeier, Donald A.; Raza, Sheharyar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bright sunlight may create visual illusions that lead to driver error, including fallible distance judgment from aerial perspective. We tested whether the risk of a life-threatening motor vehicle crash was increased when driving in bright sunlight. This longitudinal, case-only, paired-comparison analysis evaluated patients hospitalized because of a motor vehicle crash between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. The relative risk of a crash associated with bright sunlight was estim...

  15. Study of Three-Dimensional Image Brightness Loss in Stereoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Cheng Yu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When viewing three-dimensional (3D images, whether in cinemas or on stereoscopic televisions, viewers experience the same problem of image brightness loss. This study aims to investigate image brightness loss in 3D displays, with the primary aim being to quantify the image brightness degradation in the 3D mode. A further aim is to determine the image brightness relationship to the corresponding two-dimensional (2D images in order to adjust the 3D-image brightness values. In addition, the photographic principle is used in this study to measure metering values by capturing 2D and 3D images on television screens. By analyzing these images with statistical product and service solutions (SPSS software, the image brightness values can be estimated using the statistical regression model, which can also indicate the impact of various environmental factors or hardware on the image brightness. In analysis of the experimental results, comparison of the image brightness between 2D and 3D images indicates 60.8% degradation in the 3D image brightness amplitude. The experimental values, from 52.4% to 69.2%, are within the 95% confidence interval

  16. The night sky brightness at McDonald Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, J. K.; Roosen, R. G.; Brandt, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Baseline observations of the night sky brightness in B and V are presented for McDonald Observatory. In agreement with earlier work by Elvey and Rudnick (1937) and Elvey (1943), significant night-to-night and same-night variations in sky brightness are found. Possible causes for these variations are discussed. The largest variation in sky brightness found during a single night is approximately a factor of two, a value which corresponds to a factor-of-four variation in airglow brightness. The data are used to comment on the accuracy of previously published surface photometry of M 81.

  17. Shedding light on emotional perception: Interaction of brightness and semantic content in extrastriate visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Keil, Andreas; Porcu, Emanuele; Müller, Matthias M

    2016-06-01

    The rapid extraction of affective cues from the visual environment is crucial for flexible behavior. Previous studies have reported emotion-dependent amplitude modulations of two event-related potential (ERP) components - the N1 and EPN - reflecting sensory gain control mechanisms in extrastriate visual areas. However, it is unclear whether both components are selective electrophysiological markers of attentional orienting toward emotional material or are also influenced by physical features of the visual stimuli. To address this question, electrical brain activity was recorded from seventeen male participants while viewing original and bright versions of neutral and erotic pictures. Bright neutral scenes were rated as more pleasant compared to their original counterpart, whereas erotic scenes were judged more positively when presented in their original version. Classical and mass univariate ERP analysis showed larger N1 amplitude for original relative to bright erotic pictures, with no differences for original and bright neutral scenes. Conversely, the EPN was only modulated by picture content and not by brightness, substantiating the idea that this component is a unique electrophysiological marker of attention allocation toward emotional material. Complementary topographic analysis revealed the early selective expression of a centro-parietal positivity following the presentation of original erotic scenes only, reflecting the recruitment of neural networks associated with sustained attention and facilitated memory encoding for motivationally relevant material. Overall, these results indicate that neural networks subtending the extraction of emotional information are differentially recruited depending on low-level perceptual features, which ultimately influence affective evaluations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationships between brightness of nighttime lights and population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naizhuo, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Brightness of nighttime lights has been proven to be a good proxy for socioeconomic and demographic statistics. Moreover, the satellite nighttime lights data have been used to spatially disaggregate amounts of gross domestic product (GDP), fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission, and electric power consumption (Ghosh et al., 2010; Oda and Maksyutov, 2011; Zhao et al., 2012). Spatial disaggregations were performed in these previous studies based on assumed linear relationships between digital number (DN) value of pixels in the nighttime light images and socioeconomic data. However, reliability of the linear relationships was never tested due to lack of relative high-spatial-resolution (equal to or finer than 1 km × 1 km) statistical data. With the similar assumption that brightness linearly correlates to population, Bharti et al. (2011) used nighttime light data as a proxy for population density and then developed a model about seasonal fluctuations of measles in West Africa. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory used sub-national census population data and high spatial resolution remotely-sensed-images to produce LandScan population raster datasets. The LandScan population datasets have 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution which is consistent with the spatial resolution of the nighttime light images. Therefore, in this study I selected 2008 LandScan population data as baseline reference data and the contiguous United State as study area. Relationships between DN value of pixels in the 2008 Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) stable light image and population density were established. Results showed that an exponential function can more accurately reflect the relationship between luminosity and population density than a linear function. Additionally, a certain number of saturated pixels with DN value of 63 exist in urban core areas. If directly using the exponential function to estimate the population density for the whole brightly

  19. Contrast Enhancement Using Brightness Preserving Histogram Equalization Technique for Classification of Date Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision technique is becoming popular for quality assessment of many products in food industries. Image enhancement is the first step in analyzing the images in order to obtain detailed information for the determination of quality. In this study, Brightness preserving histogram equalization technique was used to enhance the features of gray scale images to classify three date varieties (Khalas, Fard and Madina. Mean, entropy, kurtosis and skewness features were extracted from the original and enhanced images. Mean and entropy from original images and kurtosis from the enhanced images were selected based on Lukka's feature selection approach. An overall classification efficiency of 93.72% was achieved with just three features. Brightness preserving histogram equalization technique has great potential to improve the classification in various quality attributes of food and agricultural products with minimum features.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: FIR data of IR-bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) (Toba+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Y.; Nagao, T.; Wang, W.-H.; Matsuhara, H.; Akiyama, M.; Goto, T.; Koyama, Y.; Ohyama, Y.; Yamamura, I.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the star-forming activity of a sample of infrared (IR)-bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) that show an extreme red color in the optical and IR regime, (i-[22])AB>7.0. Combining an IR-bright DOG sample with the flux at 22μm>3.8mJy discovered by Toba & Nagao (2016ApJ...820...46T) with the IRAS faint source catalog version 2 and AKARI far-IR (FIR) all-sky survey bright source catalog version 2, we selected 109 DOGs with FIR data. For a subsample of seven IR-bright DOGs with spectroscopic redshifts (0.07DOGs and (2) the contribution of the active galactic nucleus to IR luminosity increases with IR luminosity. By comparing the stellar mass and SFR relation for our DOG sample and the literature, we found that most of the IR-bright DOGs lie significantly above the main sequence of star-forming galaxies at similar redshift, indicating that the majority of IRAS- or AKARI-detected IR-bright DOGs are starburst galaxies. (1 data file).

  1. Bright environments vision of the Intelligent Lighting Institute (ILI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özçelebi, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Bright Environments research program of the Eindhoven University of Technology Intelligent Lighting Institute aims to find new methods of intelligent lighting control and human interaction. We present a summary of the institute’s work on this research field and the research vision of the Bright

  2. Spatially single-mode source of bright squeezed vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, A. M.; Iskhakov, T. Sh.; Sharapova, P.; Lemieux, S.; Tikhonova, O. V.; Chekhova, M. V.; Leuchs, G.

    2014-01-01

    Bright squeezed vacuum, a macroscopic nonclassical state of light, can be obtained at the output of a strongly pumped non-seeded traveling-wave optical parametric amplifier (OPA). By constructing the OPA of two consecutive crystals separated by a large distance we make the squeezed vacuum spatially single-mode without a significant decrease in the brightness or squeezing.

  3. The ASAS-SN bright supernova catalogue - III. 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holoien, T. W. -S.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2017-01-01

    This catalogue summarizes information for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) and all other bright (m(peak)d......This catalogue summarizes information for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) and all other bright (m(peak)d...

  4. Analysis of Bright Harvest Remote Analysis for Residential Solar Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nangle, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simon, Joseph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-06-17

    Bright Harvest provides remote shading analysis and design products for residential PV system installers. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) through the NREL Commercialization Assistance Program, completed comparative assessments between on-site measurements and remotely calculated values to validate the accuracy of Bright Harvest’s remote shading and power generation.

  5. Dark and bright vortex solitons in electromagnetically induced transparent media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xuan; Xie Xiaotao; Yang Xiaoxue

    2006-01-01

    We show that dark and bright vortex solitons can exist in three-state electromagnetically induced transparent media under some appropriate conditions. We also analyse the stability of the dark and bright vortex solitons. This work may provide other research opportunities in nonlinear optical experiments and may result in a substantial impact on technology

  6. Edge integration and the perception of brightness and darkness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, T.; Lucassen, M.P.; Cornelissen, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    How do induced brightness and darkness signals from local and remote surfaces interact to determine the final achromatic color percept of a target surface? An emerging theory of achromatic color perception posits that brightness and darkness percepts are computed by weighting and summing the

  7. Lamp spectrum and spatial brightness at photopic levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotios, Steve; Atli, Deniz; Cheal, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Light sources are available in a variety of spectral power distributions (SPDs) and this affects spatial brightness in a manner not predicted by quantities such as illuminance. Tuning light source SPD to better match the sensitivity of visual perception may allow the same spatial brightness but a...

  8. Brightness waves of electroluminescence in ZnO:La electroluminor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, S.; Pandey, A.N.; Kaza, Balakrishna Rao

    1979-01-01

    A cryostat for the measurement of different luminescent characteristics from liquid N 2 temperature to above has been fabricated. Using this cryostat brightness waves due to sinusoidal excitations for ZnO:La electroluminor (EL) has been studied at different temperatures from -168deg C. Brightness waves for this system consist of two primary peaks during each cycle of excitation. Each primary peak is associated with a secondary peak. This secondary peak at -168deg C exists at the left arm of the primary peak. As the temperature is increased to 18deg C it moves towards the right arm of the primary peak. At an intermediate temperature the secondary peaks are most pronounced. Possible mechanism for these phenomena have been discussed. Temperature dependence of time averaged EL brightness for this system has also been studied and three peaks have been found. The results of brightness waves have also been discussed in the light of temperature dependence of time averaged EL brightness. (auth.)

  9. Intrinsic brightness temperatures of blazar jets at 15 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovatta Talvikki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to deconvolve light curves of blazars into individual flares, including proper estimation of the fit errors. We use the method to fit 15GHzlight curves obtained within the OVRO 40-m blazar monitoring program where a large number of AGN have been monitored since 2008 in support of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope mission. The time scales obtained from the fitted models are used to calculate the variability brightness temperature of the sources. Additionally, we have calculated brightness temperatures of a sample of these objects using Very Long Baseline Array data from the MOJAVE survey. Combining these two data sets enables us to study the intrinsic brightness temperature distribution in these blazars at 15 GHz. Our preliminary results indicate that the mean intrinsic brightness temperature in a sample of 14 sources is near the equipartition brightness temperature of ~ 1011K.

  10. Intercomparisons of nine sky brightness detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Outer, Peter; Lolkema, Dorien; Haaima, Marty; van der Hoff, Rene; Spoelstra, Henk; Schmidt, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Nine Sky Quality Meters (SQMs) have been intercompared during a night time measurement campaign held in the Netherlands in April 2011. Since then the nine SQMs have been distributed across The Netherlands and form the Dutch network for monitoring night sky brightness. The goal of the intercomparison was to infer mutual calibration factors and obtain insight into the variability of the SQMs under different meteorological situations. An ensemble average is built from the individual measurements and used as a reference to infer the mutual calibration factors. Data required additional synchronization prior to the calibration determination, because the effect of moving clouds combined with small misalignments emerges as time jitter in the measurements. Initial scatter of the individual instruments lies between ±14%. Individual night time sums range from -16% to +20%. Intercalibration reduces this to 0.5%, and -7% to +9%, respectively. During the campaign the smallest luminance measured was 0.657 ± 0.003 mcd/m(2) on 12 April, and the largest value was 5.94 ± 0.03 mcd/m(2) on 2 April. During both occurrences interfering circumstances like snow cover or moonlight were absent.

  11. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Andrew Michael; Matthews, Allison M.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Avilez, Ian; Beale, Luca; Bittle, Lauren E.; Bordenave, David; Finn, Molly; Firebaugh, Ariel; Hancock, Danielle; Hughes, Paul; Rochford Hayes, Christian; Lewis, Hannah; Linden, Sean; Liss, Sandra; Liu, Mengyao; McNair, Shunlante; Murphy, Edward; Prager, Brian; Pryal, Matthew; Richardson, Whitney; Song, Yiqing; Troup, Nicholas; Villadsen, Jackie; Wenger, Trey V.; Wilson, Robert Forrest

    2018-01-01

    We present updates from the ninth year of operation of Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) including new club content, continued assessments, and our seventh annual Star Party. DSBK is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts. DSBK’s most fundamental program is an 8-10 week long after-school Astronomy camp at surrounding local elementary schools, where each week introduces new concepts through interactive hands-on activities. Over the past two summers, we have traveled to four rural Virginia locations to bring week-long Astronomy camps to otherwise overlooked elementary school districts. These programs aim to inspire a curiosity for science and include inquiry based activities in topics ranging from the electromagnetic spectrum to the classification and evolution of galaxies. We strive to be self-reflective in our mission to inspire scientific curiosity in the minds of underserved demographics. In this effort, we continually assess the effectiveness of each activity through feedback in student-kept journal pages and observed excitement levels. This self-reflection has initiated the development of new curriculum. In addition, differing from our normal collaboration with local elementary schools, we have found great success partnering with local youth organizations, who may better represent DSBK's target demographics and have infrastructure to support incoming outreach groups.

  12. Enhanced brightness x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Cauble, R.C.; Da Silva, L.B.; Moreno, J.C.; Nilsen, J.

    1994-09-01

    We are developing short-pulsed, enhanced-brightness, and coherent x-ray lasers (XRLs) for applications in areas such as plasma imaging. In a traveling wave pump setup the optical laser creating the XRL plasma sweeps along the lasant axis at the same speed as the x-rays. This technique becomes increasingly important as the target length increases and the gain duration shortens. An order of magnitude increase in output energy was measured with vs without traveling wave pump. Using multiple pulse techniques and multilayer mirrors to inject the output of one pulse back into the plasma formed by a later pulse we have begun to develop the x-ray analog of a multi-pass amplifler. The use of multiple pulses separated by as much as 1.6 ns reduces multilayer mirror damage. This injection technique is demonstrated by imaging the near-field emission profiles of the XRL. The addition of multilayer beamsplitter will allow us to effectively produce a soft XRL cavity

  13. Featured Image: Bright Dots in a Sunspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    This image of a sunspot, located in in NOAA AR 12227, was captured in December 2014 by the 0.5-meter Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode spacecraft. This image was processed by a team of scientists led by Rahul Yadav (Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory Dewali, India) in order to examine the properties of umbral dots: transient, bright features observed in the umbral region (the central, darkest part) of a sunspot. By exploring these dots, Yadav and collaborators learned how their properties relate to the large-scale properties of the sunspots in which they form for instance, how do the number, intensities, or filling factors of dots relate to the size of a sunspots umbra? To find out more about the authors results, check out the article below.Sunspot in NOAA AR 11921. Left: umbralpenumbral boundary. Center: the isolated umbra from the sunspot. Right: The umbra with locations of umbral dots indicated by yellow plus signs. [Adapted from Yadav et al. 2018]CitationRahul Yadav et al 2018 ApJ 855 8. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaaeba

  14. The Los Alamos high-brightness photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    For a number of years Los Alamos National Laboratory has been developing photocathode RF guns for high-brightness electron beam applications such as free-electron lasers (FELs). Previously thermionic high-voltage guns have been the source of choice for the electron accelerators used to drive FELs. The performance of such FELs is severely limited by the emittance growth produced by the subharmonic bunching process and also by the low peak current of the source. In a photoinjector, a laser driven photocathode is placed directly in a high-gradient RF accelerating cavity. A photocathode allows unsurpassed control over the current, and the spatial and temporal profile of the beam. In addition the electrodeless emission'' avoids many of the difficulties associated with multi-electrode guns, i.e. the electrons are accelerated very rapidly to relativistic energies, and there are no electrodes to distort the accelerating fields. For the past two years we have been integrating a photocathode into our existing FEL facility by replacing our thermionic gun and subharmonic bunchers with a high-gradient 1.3 GHz photoinjector. The photoinjector, which is approximately 0.6 m in length, produces 6 MeV, 300 A, 15 ps linac, and accelerated to a final energy of 40 MeV. We have recently begun lasing at wavelengths near 3 {mu}m. 16 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.; Butterfield, Karla [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.

    2016-03-01

    Kaplan Thompson Architects (KTA) has specialized in sustainable, energy-efficient buildings, and they have designed several custom, zero-energy homes in New England. These zero-energy projects have generally been high-end, custom homes with budgets that could accommodate advanced energy systems. In an attempt to make zero energy homes more affordable and accessible to a larger demographic, KTA explored modular construction as way to provide high-quality homes at lower costs. In the mid-2013, KTA formalized this concept when they launched BrightBuilt Home (BBH). The BBH mission is to offer a line of architect-designed, high-performance homes that are priced to offer substantial savings off the lifetime cost of a typical home and can be delivered in less time. For the past two years, CARB has worked with BBH and Keiser Homes (the primary modular manufacturer for BBH) to discuss challenges related to wall systems, HVAC, and quality control. In Spring of 2014, CARB and BBH began looking in detail on a home to be built in Lincolnville, ME by Black Bros. Builders. This report details the solution package specified for this modular plan and the challenges that arose during the project.

  16. Intercomparisons of Nine Sky Brightness Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Spoelstra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nine Sky Quality Meters (SQMs have been intercompared during a night time measurement campaign held in the Netherlands in April 2011. Since then the nine SQMs have been distributed across the Netherlands and form the Dutch network for monitoring night sky brightness. The goal of the intercomparison was to infer mutual calibration factors and obtain insight into the variability of the SQMs under different meteorological situations. An ensemble average is built from the individual measurements and used as a reference to infer the mutual calibration factors. Data required additional synchronization prior to the calibration determination, because the effect of moving clouds combined with small misalignments emerges as time jitter in the measurements. Initial scatter of the individual instruments lies between ±14%. Individual night time sums range from −16% to +20%. Intercalibration reduces this to 0.5%, and −7% to +9%, respectively. During the campaign the smallest luminance measured was 0.657 ± 0.003 mcd/m2 on 12 April, and the largest value was 5.94 ± 0.03 mcd/m2 on 2 April. During both occurrences interfering circumstances like snow cover or moonlight were absent.

  17. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Sandra; Troup, Nicholas William; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Barcos-Munoz, Loreto D.; Beaton, Rachael; Bittle, Lauren; Borish, Henry J.; Burkhardt, Andrew; Corby, Joanna; Dean, Janice; Hancock, Danielle; King, Jennie; Prager, Brian; Romero, Charles; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Wenger, Trey; Zucker, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Now entering our sixth year of operation, Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts beyond Virginia's Standards of Learning. Our primary focus is hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools. Each week, DSBK volunteers take the role of coaches to introduce astronomy-related concepts ranging from the Solar System to galaxies to astrobiology, and to lead students in interactive learning activities. Another hallmark of DSBK is hosting our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows.DSBK has amassed over 15,000 contact hours since 2009 and we continue to broaden our impact. One important step we have taken in the past year is to establish a graduate student led assessment program to identify and implement directed learning goals for DSBK outreach. The collection of student workbooks, observations, and volunteer surveys indicates broad scale success for the program both in terms of student learning and their perception of science. The data also reveal opportunities to improve our organizational and educational practices to maximize student achievement and overall volunteer satisfaction for DSBK's future clubs and outreach endeavors.

  18. The SDSS view of the Palomar-Green bright quasar survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jester, Sebastian; Schneider, Donald P.; Richards, Gordon T.; Green, Richard F.; Schmidt, Maarten; Hall, Patrick B.; Strauss, Michael A.; Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Stoughton, Chris; Gunn, James E.; Brinkmann, Jon; Kent, Stephen M.; Smith, J.Allyn; Tucker, Douglas, L.; Yanny, Brian; /Fermilab /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /Princeton U.

    2005-02-01

    The author investigates the extent to which the Palomar-Green (PG) Bright Quasar Survey (BQS) is complete and representative of the general quasar population by comparing with imaging and spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A comparison of SDSS and PG photometry of both stars and quasars reveals the need to apply a color and magnitude recalibration to the PG data. Using the SDSS photometric catalog, they define the PG's parent sample of objects that are not main-sequence stars and simulate the selection of objects from this parent sample using the PG photometric criteria and errors. This simulation shows that the effective U-B cut in the PG survey is U-B < -0.71, implying a color-related incompleteness. As the color distribution of bright quasars peaks near U-B = -0.7 and the 2-{sigma} error in U-B is comparable to the full width of the color distribution of quasars, the color incompleteness of the BQS is approximately 50% and essentially random with respect to U-B color for z < 0.5. There is however, a bias against bright quasars at 0.5 < z < 1, which is induced by the color-redshift relation of quasars (although quasars at z > 0.5 are inherently rare in bright surveys in any case). They find no evidence for any other systematic incompleteness when comparing the distributions in color, redshift, and FIRST radio properties of the BQS and a BQS-like subsample of the SDSS quasar sample. However, the application of a bright magnitude limit biases the BQS toward the inclusion of objects which are blue in g-i, in particular compared to the full range of g-i colors found among the i-band limited SDSS quasars, and even at i-band magnitudes comparable to those of the BQS objects.

  19. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, David G.; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R. L.; Borish, J.; Corby, J. F.; Dorsey, G.; Gugliucci, N. E.; Prager, B. J.; Ries, P. A.; Romero, C. E.; Sokal, K. R.; Tang, X.; Walker, L. M.; Yang, A. J.; Zasowski, G.

    2012-01-01

    Dark Skies, Bright Kids! (DSBK) is a program that brings astronomy education to elementary schools throughout central Virginia. In a relaxed, out-of-classroom atmosphere, we are able to foster the innate curiosity that young students have about science and the world around them. We target schools that are under-served due to their rural locale or special needs students, demonstrating that science is a fun and creative process to a segment of the population that might not otherwise be exposed to astronomy. Families are included in the learning experience during semi-annual `star parties'. Since last January, we have expanded the breadth and depth of our educational capabilities. We have developed new programs for use in our digital planetarium. We held the first Central Virginia Star Party, providing an atmosphere where local children from multiple schools were able to share their love for astronomy. Local government and University officials were also invited so that they could experience our focused science outreach. Most recently, we have become part of Ivy Creek School's Club Day activities, bringing our program to a new segment of the elementary school system in Albemarle County: those that have `low-incidence' disabilities, requiring special attention. We continue to develop a curriculum for after-school programs that functions as either a series of one-time activities or several months of focused outreach at one school. Many of these activities are provided on our website, http://www.astro.virginia.edu/dsbk/, for the wider astronomical community, including the new planetarium work. We have extended our book project to include two bilingual astronomy books called `Snapshots of the Universe,' one in Spanish and English, the other in French and English. These books introduce young people to some of the many wonders of the Universe through art and captions developed by DSBK volunteers.

  20. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Kimberly R.; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R.; Borish, J.; Crawford, S. B.; Corby, J.; Damke, G.; Dean, J.; Dorsey, G.; Jackson, L.; Liss, S.; Oza, A.; Peacock, S.; Prager, B.; Romero, C.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Walker, L.; Whelan, D. G.; Zucker, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to engage young children's natural excitement and curiosity, the outreach group Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) brings a hands-on approach to astronomy to elementary schools in Virginia. We hope to enhance children's view and understanding of science while exploring the Universe using fun activities. DSBK focuses on rural and underserved schools in Albemarle County and offers a semester-long astronomy club for third through fifth grade students. We believe regular interactions foster personal relationships between students and volunteers that encourage a life-long interest in science. In our fourth year of hosting clubs, we returned to Ivy Creek Elementary School, where we saw wonderful responses from a special group of students with `low-incidence' disabilities. DSBK has grown to realize a broader reach beyond local astronomy clubs; we hope to ignite a spark of interest in astronomy and science more widely- in more children, their families, and their teachers. We also hosted the Second Annual Central Virginia Star Party with an open invitation to the community to encourage families to enjoy astronomy together. Throughout the year, DSBK now holds 'one-off' programs (akin to astronomy field days) for elementary schools and children's groups throughout Virginia. Furthermore, we are in the final stages of a project to create two bilingual astronomy books called "Snapshots of the Universe", in Spanish and French with English translations. This art book will be made available online and we are working to get a copy in every elementary school in the state. DSBK has begun to reach out to elementary school teachers in order to provide them with useful and engaging classroom material. We have adapted our volunteer-created activities into useful and ready-to-use lessons, available online. After improvements based on research through interactions and feedback from teachers, we have explicitly identified the learning goals in terms of Virginia's Standards of Learning

  1. Quantitative Brightness Analysis of Fluorescence Intensity Fluctuations in E. Coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho Hur

    Full Text Available The brightness measured by fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy specifies the average stoichiometry of a labeled protein in a sample. Here we extended brightness analysis, which has been mainly applied in eukaryotic cells, to prokaryotic cells with E. coli serving as a model system. The small size of the E. coli cell introduces unique challenges for applying brightness analysis that are addressed in this work. Photobleaching leads to a depletion of fluorophores and a reduction of the brightness of protein complexes. In addition, the E. coli cell and the point spread function of the instrument only partially overlap, which influences intensity fluctuations. To address these challenges we developed MSQ analysis, which is based on the mean Q-value of segmented photon count data, and combined it with the analysis of axial scans through the E. coli cell. The MSQ method recovers brightness, concentration, and diffusion time of soluble proteins in E. coli. We applied MSQ to measure the brightness of EGFP in E. coli and compared it to solution measurements. We further used MSQ analysis to determine the oligomeric state of nuclear transport factor 2 labeled with EGFP expressed in E. coli cells. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of quantifying the stoichiometry of proteins by brightness analysis in a prokaryotic cell.

  2. NIGHT SKY BRIGHTNESS ABOVE ZAGREB 2012.-2017.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Andreić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The night sky brightness at the RGN site (near the centre of Zagreb, Croatia was monitored form January 2012. to December 2017. The gathered data show that the average night sky brightness in this period did not change significantly, apart from differences caused by yearly variations in meteorological parameters. The nightly minima, maxima and mean values of the sky brightness do change considerably due to changes in meteorological conditions, often being between 2 and 3 magnitudes. The seasonal probability curves and histograms are constructed and are used to obtain additional information on the light pollution at the RGN site. They reveal that the night sky brightness clutters around two peaks, at about 15.0 mag/arcsec2 and at about 18.2 mag/arcsec2. The tendency to slightly lower brightness values in spring and summer can also be seen in the data. Two peaks correspond to cloudy and clear nights respectively, the difference in brightness between them being about 3 magnitudes. A crude clear/cloudy criterion can be defined too: the minimum between two peaks is around 16.7 mag/arcsec2. The brightness values smaller than thisare attributed to clear nights and vice-versa. Comparison with Vienna and Hong-Kong indicates that the light pollution of Zagreb is a few times larger.

  3. Quadrature measurements of a bright squeezed state via sideband swapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, J.; Glockl, O.; Leuchs, G.

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of an arbitrary quadrature of a bright quantum state of light is a commonly requested action in many quantum information protocols, but it is experimentally challenging with previously proposed schemes. We suggest that the quadrature be measured at a specific sideband frequency...... of a bright quantum state by transferring the sideband modes under interrogation to a vacuum state and subsequently measuring the quadrature via homodyne detection. The scheme is implemented experimentally, and it is successfully tested with a bright squeezed state of light....

  4. Dissipation-Managed Bright Soliton in a 1D Bose-Einstein Condensate in an Optical-Lattice Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zheng; Yu Huiyou; Ao Shengmei; Yan Jiaren

    2010-01-01

    We study the formation of a dynamically-stabilized dissipation-managed bright soliton in a quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate by including an imaginary three-body recombination loss term and an imaginary linear feeding one in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, trapped in a shallow optical-lattice potential. Based on the direct approach of perturbation theory for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation, we demonstrate that the height (as well as width) of bright soliton may have little change through selecting experimental parameters. (general)

  5. Identifying Bright X-Ray Beasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are astronomical sources of X-rays that, while dimmer than active galactic nuclei, are nonetheless brighter than any known stellar process. What are these beasts and why do they shine so brightly?Exceeding the LimitFirst discovered in the 1980s, ULXs are rare sources that have nonetheless been found in all types of galaxies. Though the bright X-ray radiation seems likely to be coming from compact objects accreting gas, theres a problem with this theory: ULXs outshine the Eddington luminosity for stellar-mass compact objects. This means that a stellar-mass object couldnt emit this much radiation isotropically without blowing itself apart.There are two alternative explanations commonly proposed for ULXs:Rather than being accreting stellar-mass compact objects, they are accreting intermediate-mass black holes. A hypothetical black hole of 100 solar masses or more would have a much higher Eddington luminosity than a stellar-mass black hole, making the luminosities that we observe from ULXs feasible.An example of one of the common routes the authors find for a binary system to become a ULX. In this case, the binary begins as two main sequence stars. As one star evolves off the main sequence, the binary undergoes a common envelope phase and a stage of mass transfer. The star ends its life as a supernova, and the resulting neutron star then accretes matter from the main sequence star as a ULX. [Wiktorowicz et al. 2017]They are ordinary X-ray binaries (a stellar-mass compact object accreting matter from a companion star), but they are undergoing a short phase of extreme accretion. During this time, their emission is beamed into jets, making them appear brighter than the Eddington luminosity.Clues from a New DiscoveryA few years ago, a new discovery shed some light on ULXs: M82 X-2, a pulsing ULX. Two more pulsing ULXs have been discovered since then, demonstrating that at least some ULXs contain pulsars i.e., neutron stars as the

  6. A new perspective on the infrared brightness temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CEAWMT), ... temperatures clearly discriminates the cloud pixels of deep convective and ... utilized in the modelling of the histogram of infrared brightness temperature of deep convective and ..... Henderson-Sellers A 1978 Surface type and its effect.

  7. Operational Bright-Band Snow Level Detection Using Doppler Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A method to detect the bright-band snow level from radar reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocity data collection with an atmospheric profiling Doppler radar. The...

  8. Visible Color and Photometry of Bright Materials on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, S. E.; Li, J. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Keller, H. U.

    2012-01-01

    The Dawn Framing Camera (FC) collected images of the surface of Vesta at a pixel scale of 70 m in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) phase through its clear and seven color filters spanning from 430 nm to 980 nm. The surface of Vesta displays a large diversity in its brightness and colors, evidently related to the diverse geology [1] and mineralogy [2]. Here we report a detailed investigation of the visible colors and photometric properties of the apparently bright materials on Vesta in order to study their origin. The global distribution and the spectroscopy of bright materials are discussed in companion papers [3, 4], and the synthesis results about the origin of Vestan bright materials are reported in [5].

  9. Nimbus-5 ESMR Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) data set consists of gridded brightness temperature arrays for the Arctic and Antarctic, spanning 11...

  10. Analytically derived conversion of spectral band radiance to brightness temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, Alexander [Spectral Sciences, Inc., 44th Avenue, Burlington, MA 01803 (United States)], E-mail: lex@spectral.com

    2008-05-15

    Simple analytic expressions for brightness temperature have been derived in terms of band response function spectral moments. Accuracy measures are also derived. Application of these formulas to GOES-12 Sounder thermal infrared bands produces brightness temperature residuals between -5.0 and 2.5 mK for a 150-400 K temperature range. The magnitude of residuals for the five ASTER Radiometer thermal infrared bands over the same temperature range is less than 0.22 mK.

  11. The effect of bright lines in environmental risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.N.; Desvousges, W.H.; Smith, K.V.; Payne, J.

    1993-01-01

    Bright lines in environmental risk communication refer to the specific levels at which an environmental risk becomes a serious health threat and action should be taken to mitigate its effects. This study examined the effect of ''bright lines'' in risk communication by emphasizing the radon exposure threshold level of 4 picocuries per liter. Specifically, the authors developed a computer-assisted interview containing bright-line versions of risk information. The bright-line version contained a range of possible radon levels, the corresponding number of estimated lung cancer cases, the relative health risk from radon compared to other health risks, and the EPA guidelines for mitigating levels above 4 picocuries in the home. The non-bright line version was identical to the bright-line version, except it did not include the EPA's mitigation recommendations. Effect measures included respondents' change in perceived risk after reading their materials, intended testing behavior, and advice to their neighbor for a specified radon level either above or below the 4 picocury threshold level. This paper discusses broader policy implications for designing effective risk communication programs

  12. Spanish is Numero Uno for "Project Bright."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larew, Leonor A.

    1978-01-01

    In New York State, the 24 brightest fifth and sixth graders from Avon, Caledonia, and York participated in a project funded by Title IV minigrants, distributed through BOCES. The children were bussed to a central point and permitted to study whatever they wished; Spanish was the first subject selected. (EJS)

  13. Color and emotion: effects of hue, saturation, and brightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Lisa; Oberfeld, Daniel

    2017-06-13

    Previous studies on emotional effects of color often failed to control all the three perceptual dimensions of color: hue, saturation, and brightness. Here, we presented a three-dimensional space of chromatic colors by independently varying hue (blue, green, red), saturation (low, medium, high), and brightness (dark, medium, bright) in a factorial design. The 27 chromatic colors, plus 3 brightness-matched achromatic colors, were presented via an LED display. Participants (N = 62) viewed each color for 30 s and then rated their current emotional state (valence and arousal). Skin conductance and heart rate were measured continuously. The emotion ratings showed that saturated and bright colors were associated with higher arousal. The hue also had a significant effect on arousal, which increased from blue and green to red. The ratings of valence were the highest for saturated and bright colors, and also depended on the hue. Several interaction effects of the three color dimensions were observed for both arousal and valence. For instance, the valence ratings were higher for blue than for the remaining hues, but only for highly saturated colors. Saturated and bright colors caused significantly stronger skin conductance responses. Achromatic colors resulted in a short-term deceleration in the heart rate, while chromatic colors caused an acceleration. The results confirm that color stimuli have effects on the emotional state of the observer. These effects are not only determined by the hue of a color, as is often assumed, but by all the three color dimensions as well as their interactions.

  14. Beam brightness calculation for analytical and empirical distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T.J.; Boulais, K.A.; O, Y.S.; Rhee, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    The beam brightness, a figure of merit for a beam quality useful for high-current low-emittance beams, was introduced by van Steenbergen as B = I/V 4 , where I is the beam current and V 4 is the hypervolume in the four-dimensional trace space occupied by the beam particles. Customarily, the brightness is expressed in terms of the product of emittances ε x ε y as B = ηI/(π 2 ε x ε y ), where η is a form factor of order unity which depends on the precise definition of emittance and hypervolume. Recently, a refined definition of the beam brightness based on the arithmetic mean value defined in statistics is proposed. The beam brightness is defined as B triple-bond 4 > = I -1 ∫ ρ 4 2 dxdydx'dy', where I is the beam current given by I ∫ ρ 4 dxdydx'dy'. Note that in this definition, neither the hypervolume V 4 nor the emittance, are explicitly used; the brightness is determined solely by the distribution function. Brightnesses are unambiguously calculated and expressed analytically in terms of the respective beam current and effective emittance for a few commonly used distribution functions, including Maxwellian and water-bag distributions. Other distributions of arbitrary shape frequently encountered in actual experiments are treated numerically. The resulting brightnesses are expressed in the form B = ηI/(π 2 ε x ε y ), and η is found to be weakly dependent on the form of velocity distribution as well as spatial distribution

  15. Search for bright nearby M dwarfs with virtual observatory tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberasturi, M.; Caballero, J. A.; Montesinos, B.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; Solano, E.; Martín, E. L. [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofísica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Using Virtual Observatory tools, we cross-matched the Carlsberg Meridian 14 and the 2MASS Point Source catalogs to select candidate nearby bright M dwarfs distributed over ∼25,000 deg{sup 2}. Here, we present reconnaissance low-resolution optical spectra for 27 candidates that were observed with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph at the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (R≈ 1600). We derived spectral types from a new spectral index, R, which measures the ratio of fluxes at 7485-7015 Å and 7120-7150 Å. We also used VOSA, a Virtual Observatory tool for spectral energy distribution fitting, to derive effective temperatures and surface gravities for each candidate. The resulting 27 targets were M dwarfs brighter than J = 10.5 mag, 16 of which were completely new in the Northern hemisphere and 7 of which were located at less than 15 pc. For all of them, we also measured Hα and Na I pseudo-equivalent widths, determined photometric distances, and identified the most active stars. The targets with the weakest sodium absorption, namely, J0422+2439 (with X-ray and strong Hα emissions), J0435+2523, and J0439+2333, are new members in the young Taurus-Auriga star-forming region based on proper motion, spatial distribution, and location in the color-magnitude diagram, which reopens the discussion on the deficit of M2-4 Taurus stars. Finally, based on proper motion diagrams, we report on a new wide M dwarf binary system in the field, LSPM J0326+3929EW.

  16. H{sub 2}O Megamasers toward Radio-bright Seyfert 2 Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J. S.; Liu, Z. W. [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Henkel, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Wang, J. Z. [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Coldwell, G. V., E-mail: jszhang@gzhu.edu.cn [FCEFyN-UNSJ-CONICET, San Juan (Argentina)

    2017-02-20

    Using the Effelsberg-100 m telescope, we perform a successful pilot survey on H{sub 2}O maser emission toward a small sample of radio-bright Seyfert 2 galaxies with a redshift larger than 0.04. The targets were selected from a large Seyfert 2 sample derived from the spectroscopic Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7). One source, SDSS J102802.9+104630.4 ( z ∼ 0.0448), was detected four times during our observations, with a typical maser flux density of ∼30 mJy and a corresponding (very large) luminosity of ∼1135 L {sub ⊙}. The successful detection of this radio-bright Seyfert 2 and an additional tentative detection support our previous statistical results that H{sub 2}O megamasers tend to arise from Seyfert 2 galaxies with large radio luminosity. The finding provides further motivation for an upcoming larger H{sub 2}O megamaser survey toward Seyfert 2s with particularly radio-bright nuclei with the basic goal to improve our understanding of the nuclear environment of active megamaser host galaxies.

  17. Microwave-heating synthesis and sensing applications of bright gold nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Ding-Fei; Xiang, Yang; Wang, Xu [Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yu, Xue-Feng, E-mail: yxf@whu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We establish a microwave-heating method to synthesize protein-stabilized Au nanoclusters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained Au nanoclusters show bright red fluorescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Au nanoclusters can be used as efficient fluorescence probe for Cu{sup 2+} ion sensing. -- Abstract: A rapid microwave-heating method has been developed for the synthesis of bright Au nanoclusters by using bull serum albumin as the template in an aqueous environment. The reaction time needed is only 7.0 min, and the weight of the products at one batch can reach 15 g. The Au nanoclusters exhibit bright fluorescence at {approx}613 nm with quantum yield of {approx}6.0%. By adjusting the pH value, the products can be controlled to precipitate or re-disperse in aqueous solution. Furthermore, the Au nanoclusters have exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity in the determination of Cu{sup 2+} ions in water. These results suggest an efficient method for obtaining metal nanoclusters for the detection and sensing applications.

  18. H2O Megamasers toward Radio-bright Seyfert 2 Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. S.; Liu, Z. W.; Henkel, C.; Wang, J. Z.; Coldwell, G. V.

    2017-02-01

    Using the Effelsberg-100 m telescope, we perform a successful pilot survey on H2O maser emission toward a small sample of radio-bright Seyfert 2 galaxies with a redshift larger than 0.04. The targets were selected from a large Seyfert 2 sample derived from the spectroscopic Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7). One source, SDSS J102802.9+104630.4 (z ˜ 0.0448), was detected four times during our observations, with a typical maser flux density of ˜30 mJy and a corresponding (very large) luminosity of ˜1135 L ⊙. The successful detection of this radio-bright Seyfert 2 and an additional tentative detection support our previous statistical results that H2O megamasers tend to arise from Seyfert 2 galaxies with large radio luminosity. The finding provides further motivation for an upcoming larger H2O megamaser survey toward Seyfert 2s with particularly radio-bright nuclei with the basic goal to improve our understanding of the nuclear environment of active megamaser host galaxies. Based on observations with the 100 m telescope of the MPIfR (Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie) at Effelsberg.

  19. Brightness-normalized Partial Least Squares Regression for hyperspectral data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilhauer, Hannes; Asner, Gregory P.; Martin, Roberta E.; Schmidtlein, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Developed in the field of chemometrics, Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) has become an established technique in vegetation remote sensing. PLSR was primarily designed for laboratory analysis of prepared material samples. Under field conditions in vegetation remote sensing, the performance of the technique may be negatively affected by differences in brightness due to amount and orientation of plant tissues in canopies or the observing conditions. To minimize these effects, we introduced brightness normalization to the PLSR approach and tested whether this modification improves the performance under changing canopy and observing conditions. This test was carried out using high-fidelity spectral data (400-2510 nm) to model observed leaf chemistry. The spectral data was combined with a canopy radiative transfer model to simulate effects of varying canopy structure and viewing geometry. Brightness normalization enhanced the performance of PLSR by dampening the effects of canopy shade, thus providing a significant improvement in predictions of leaf chemistry (up to 3.6% additional explained variance in validation) compared to conventional PLSR. Little improvement was made on effects due to variable leaf area index, while minor improvement (mostly not significant) was observed for effects of variable viewing geometry. In general, brightness normalization increased the stability of model fits and regression coefficients for all canopy scenarios. Brightness-normalized PLSR is thus a promising approach for application on airborne and space-based imaging spectrometer data.

  20. Sky brightness and twilight measurements at Jogyakarta city, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani

    2016-01-01

    The sky brightness measurements were performed using a portable photometer. A pocket-sized and low-cost photometer has 20 degree area measurement, and spectral ranges between 320-720 nm with output directly in magnitudes per arc second square (mass) unit. The sky brightness with 3 seconds temporal resolutions was recorded at Jogyakarta city (110° 25’ E; 70° 52’ S; elevation 100 m) within 136 days in years from 2014 to 2016. The darkest night could reach 22.61 mpass only in several seconds, with mean value 18.8±0.7 mpass and temperature variation 23.1±1.2 C. The difference of mean sky brightness between before and after midnight was about -0.76 mpass or 2.0 times brighter. Moreover, the sky brightness and temperature fluctuations were more stable in after midnight than in before midnight. It is suggested that city light pollution affects those variations, and subsequently duration of twilight. By comparing twilight brightness for several places, we also suggest a 17° solar dip or about 66 minutes before sunrise for new time of Fajr prayer. (paper)

  1. Bright and Not-So-Bright Prospects for Women in Physics in China-Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling-An; Yang, Zhongqin; Ma, Wanyun

    2009-04-01

    Science in China-Beijing is enjoying a healthy increase in funding year by year, so the prospects for physicists are also bright. However, employment discrimination against women, formerly unthinkable, is becoming more and more explicit as the country evolves toward a market economy. Some recruitment notices bluntly state that only men will be considered, or impose restrictions upon potential female candidates. Female associate professors in many institutions are forced to retire at age 55, compared with 60 for men. This double-pinching discrimination against both younger and older women threatens to lead to a "pincer" effect, more serious than the "scissors" effect. Indeed, the ratio of senior-level women physicists in general has dropped significantly in recent years in China. Ironically, the number of female students applying for graduate studies is on the rise, as it is becoming increasingly difficult for them to compete with men in the job market with just an undergraduate degree. The Chinese Physical Society has made certain efforts to promote the image of women physicists, but it will take time and effort to reverse the trend.

  2. Low dimensional neutron moderators for enhanced source brightness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mezei, Ferenc; Zanini, Luca; Takibayev, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In a recent numerical optimization study we have found that liquid para-hydrogen coupled cold neutron moderators deliver 3–5 times higher cold neutron brightness at a spallation neutron source if they take the form of a flat, quasi 2-dimensional disc, in contrast to the conventional more voluminous...... for cold neutrons. This model leads to the conclusions that the optimal shape for high brightness para-hydrogen neutron moderators is the quasi 1-dimensional tube and these low dimensional moderators can also deliver much enhanced cold neutron brightness in fission reactor neutron sources, compared...... to the much more voluminous liquid D2 or H2 moderators currently used. Neutronic simulation calculations confirm both of these theoretical conclusions....

  3. Bright Stuff on Ceres = Sulfates and Carbonates on CI Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Fries, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of the DAWN spacecraft's observations of the surface of Ceres indicate that there are bright areas, which can be explained by large amounts of the Mg sulfate hexahydrate (MgSO4•6(H2O)), although the identification appears tenuous. There are preliminary indications that water is being evolved from these bright areas, and some have inferred that these might be sites of contemporary hydro-volcanism. A heat source for such modern activity is not obvious, given the small size of Ceres, lack of any tidal forces from nearby giant planets, probable age and presumed bulk composition. We contend that observations of chondritic materials in the lab shed light on the nature of the bright spots on Ceres

  4. A high brightness probe of polymer nanoparticles for biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sirong; Zhu, Jiarong; Li, Yaping; Feng, Liheng

    2018-03-01

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) with high brightness in long wavelength region were prepared by the nano-precipitation method. Based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism, the high brightness property of the CPNs was realized by four different emission polymers. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed that the CPNs possessed a spherical structure and an average diameter of 75 nm. Analysis assays showed that the CPNs had excellent biocompatibility, good photostability and low cytotoxicity. The CPNs were bio-modified with a cell penetrating peptide (Tat, a targeted element) through covalent link. Based on the entire wave fluorescence emission, the functionalized CPNs1-4 can meet multichannel and high throughput assays in cell and organ imaging. The contribution of the work lies in not only providing a new way to obtain a high brightness imaging probe in long wavelength region, but also using targeted cell and organ imaging.

  5. Leonids 2017 from Norway – A bright surprise!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaarder, K.

    2018-01-01

    I am very pleased to have been able to observe near maximum activity of the Leonids, and clearly witnessed the unequal mass distribution during these hours. A lot of bright Leonids were seen, followed by a short period of high activity of fainter meteors, before a sharp drop in activity. The Leonids is undoubtedly a shower to watch closely, with its many variations in activity level and magnitude distribution. I already look forward to observing the next years’ display, hopefully under a dark and clear sky, filled with bright meteors!

  6. Sky Brightness During Eclipses: A Compendium from the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-05

    Star Sightings 1880A 11 Jan 1880 Santa- Lucia Jupiter -3 Mars .3 No stars 1882A 17 May 1882 Sohag, Egypt Stars shone brightly 1883A 6 M.»y 1883...1870 E 1880 A 1886 BA 1887 F 1889 A2 1900 EB 1914 A 1927 B Location London Venice Bue Island Gottenbui g Vumpurthy Seville Santa- Lucia ...manner, and at the peak of day the stars ap- peared brightly. (Tatti Annali sacri della citta di Como.) 5 MAY 840 840 DB Ginzel p. 668 Italy In

  7. Brightness distribution data on 2918 radio sources at 365 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, W.D.; Owen, F.N.; Ghigo, F.D.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series describing the results of a program attempting to fit models of the brightness distribution to radio sources observed at 365 MHz with the Bandwidth Synthesis Interferometer (BSI) operated by the University of Texas Radio Astronomy Observatory. Results for a further 2918 radio sources are given. An unresolved model and three symmetric extended models with angular sizes in the range 10--70 arcsec were attempted for each radio source. In addition, for 348 sources for which other observations of brightness distribution are published, the reference to the observations and a brief description are included

  8. IRAS variables as galactic structure tracers - Classification of the bright variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L. E.; Kleinmann, S. G.; Weinberg, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics of the 'bright infrared variables' (BIRVs), a sample consisting of the 300 brightest stars in the IRAS Point Source Catalog with IRAS variability index VAR of 98 or greater, are investigated with the purpose of establishing which of IRAS variables are AGB stars (e.g., oxygen-rich Miras and carbon stars, as was assumed by Weinberg (1992)). Results of the analysis of optical, infrared, and microwave spectroscopy of these stars indicate that, out of 88 stars in the BIRV sample identified with cataloged variables, 86 can be classified as Miras. Results of a similar analysis performed for a color-selected sample of stars, using the color limits employed by Habing (1988) to select AGB stars, showed that, out of 52 percent of classified stars, 38 percent are non-AGB stars, including H II regions, planetary nebulae, supergiants, and young stellar objects, indicating that studies using color-selected samples are subject to misinterpretation.

  9. SIMULTANEOUS MULTI-BAND DETECTION OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES WITH MARKOVIAN MODELING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, B.; Bonnarel, F.; Louys, M.; Perret, B.; Petremand, M.; Lavigne, F.; Collet, Ch.; Van Driel, W.; Sabatini, S.; MacArthur, L. A.

    2013-01-01

    We present to the astronomical community an algorithm for the detection of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in images, called MARSIAA (MARkovian Software for Image Analysis in Astronomy), which is based on multi-scale Markovian modeling. MARSIAA can be applied simultaneously to different bands. It segments an image into a user-defined number of classes, according to their surface brightness and surroundings—typically, one or two classes contain the LSB structures. We have developed an algorithm, called DetectLSB, which allows the efficient identification of LSB galaxies from among the candidate sources selected by MARSIAA. The application of the method to two and three bands simultaneously was tested on simulated images. Based on our tests, we are confident that we can detect LSB galaxies down to a central surface brightness level of only 1.5 times the standard deviation from the mean pixel value in the image background. To assess the robustness of our method, the method was applied to a set of 18 B- and I-band images (covering 1.3 deg 2 in total) of the Virgo Cluster to which Sabatini et al. previously applied a matched-filter dwarf LSB galaxy search algorithm. We have detected all 20 objects from the Sabatini et al. catalog which we could classify by eye as bona fide LSB galaxies. Our method has also detected four additional Virgo Cluster LSB galaxy candidates undetected by Sabatini et al. To further assess the completeness of the results of our method, both MARSIAA, SExtractor, and DetectLSB were applied to search for (1) mock Virgo LSB galaxies inserted into a set of deep Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) gri-band subimages and (2) Virgo LSB galaxies identified by eye in a full set of NGVS square degree gri images. MARSIAA/DetectLSB recovered ∼20% more mock LSB galaxies and ∼40% more LSB galaxies identified by eye than SExtractor/DetectLSB. With a 90% fraction of false positives from an entirely unsupervised pipeline, a completeness of 90% is

  10. Bright infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng; Choi, Joshua J.; Stachnik, David; Bartnik, Adam C.; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Malliaras, George G.; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, Frank W.

    2013-01-01

    Record-brightness infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots have been achieved through control of the spacing between adjacent quantum-dots. By tuning the size of quantum-dots, the emission wavelengths can be tuned between 900nm and 1650nm. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  11. The star-bright hour : [luuletused] / Betti Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Betti, 1906-1989

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: The star-bright hour ; Not a dream ; The Piper ; Corals in an ancent river. Luuletused pärinevad kogumikust "Tuulelaeval valgusest on aerud = Windship with Oars of Light. (Tallinn : Huma, 2001). Orig.: Tähetund ; Mitte viirastus, meelepett ; Vilepuhuja ; Korallid Emajões

  12. Optical variability of the medium-bright quasar sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K.; Mitchell, K.J.; Usher, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    A variability study of the 32-member Medium-Bright Quasar Sample is reported. It is found that the star US 1953 has undergone a noticeable variation in the course of 26 hr. Apparent variations in the extragalactic object US 3498 may be illusory, owing to its partially resolved appearance. No other evidence for variability was detected. 34 refs

  13. A surface brightness analysis of eight RR Lyrae stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, S.L.; Barnes, T.G. III; Moffett, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have used a surface brightness, (V-R) relation to analyze new contemporaneous photometry and radial velocity data for 6 RR-ab type stars and to re-analyze previously published data for RR Lyrae and X Arietis. Systematic effects were found in the surface brightness at phases near minimum radius. Excluding these phases, they determine the slope of the surface brightness relation and the mean radius for each star. They also find a zero point which includes both a distance term and the zero point of the surface brightness relation. The sample includes stars with Preston's metallicity indicator ΔS = 0 to 9, with periods ranging from 0.397 days to 0.651 days. Their results indicate a log(R/R solar ) vs. log P relation in the sense that stars with longer periods have larger radii, in agreement with theoretical predictions. Their radii are consistent with bolometric magnitudes in the range 0.2 - 0.8 magnitude but accurate magnitudes must await a reliable T e - color calibration

  14. Response of noctilucent cloud brightness to daily solar variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, P.; Pertsev, N.; Perminov, V.; Dubietis, A.; Zadorozhny, A.; Zalcik, M.; McEachran, I.; McEwan, T.; Černis, K.; Grønne, J.; Taustrup, T.; Hansen, O.; Andersen, H.; Melnikov, D.; Manevich, A.; Romejko, V.; Lifatova, D.

    2018-04-01

    For the first time, long-term data sets of ground-based observations of noctilucent clouds (NLC) around the globe have been analyzed in order to investigate a response of NLC to solar UV irradiance variability on a day-to-day scale. NLC brightness has been considered versus variations of solar Lyman-alpha flux. We have found that day-to-day solar variability, whose effect is generally masked in the natural NLC variability, has a statistically significant effect when considering large statistics for more than ten years. Average increase in day-to-day solar Lyman-α flux results in average decrease in day-to-day NLC brightness that can be explained by robust physical mechanisms taking place in the summer mesosphere. Average time lags between variations of Lyman-α flux and NLC brightness are short (0-3 days), suggesting a dominant role of direct solar heating and of the dynamical mechanism compared to photodissociation of water vapor by solar Lyman-α flux. All found regularities are consistent between various ground-based NLC data sets collected at different locations around the globe and for various time intervals. Signatures of a 27-day periodicity seem to be present in the NLC brightness for individual summertime intervals; however, this oscillation cannot be unambiguously retrieved due to inevitable periods of tropospheric cloudiness.

  15. Matter-wave bright solitons in effective bichromatic lattice potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Matter-wave bright solitons in bichromatic lattice potentials are considered and their dynamics for different lattice environments are studied. Bichromatic potentials are created from superpositions of (i) two linear optical lattices and (ii) a linear and a nonlinear optical lattice. Effective potentials are found for the solitons in both ...

  16. The morphology and surface brightness of extragalactic jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicknell, G.V.

    1983-01-01

    The problems associated with laminar flow models are reviewed, and an analogy between laboratory jets and astrophysical jets is given. The relationship between surface brightness and the jet full width half maximum is not in general as predicted by simple magnetohydrodynamic models. An alternative turbulent model is presented

  17. Minimum-phase distribution of cosmic source brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'chenko, A.A.; Malov, I.F.; Mogil'nitskaya, L.F.; Frolov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    Minimum-phase distributions of brightness (profiles) for cosmic radio sources 3C 144 (the wave lambda=21 cm), 3C 338 (lambda=3.5 m), and 3C 353 (labda=31.3 cm and 3.5 m) are obtained. A real possibility for the profile recovery from module fragments of its Fourier-image is shown

  18. The "Brightness Rules" Alternative Conception for Light Bulb Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Joel A.; Stuessy, Carol

    2006-01-01

    An alternative conception for the observed differences in light bulb brightness was revealed during an unguided inquiry investigation in which prospective elementary teachers placed identical bulbs in series, parallel, and combination direct current circuits. Classroom observations, document analyses, and video and audio transcriptions led to the…

  19. The star-bright hour : [poems] / Betti Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Betti, 1906-1989

    2003-01-01

    Autori lühitutvustus lk. 231. Sisu: The star-bright hour ; The debt ; Not a dream ; Fog-bound ; Corals in an Ancient river ; Frou-frou 1-3. Orig.: Tähetund ; Vilepuhuja ; Võlg ; "Mitte viirastus, meelepett..." ; Udus ; Korallid Emajões ; Froufrou 1-3

  20. High-brightness fiber-coupled pump laser development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kirk; Karlsen, Scott; Leisher, Paul; Martinsen, Robert

    2010-02-01

    We report on the continued development of high brightness laser diode modules at nLIGHT Photonics. These modules, based on nLIGHT's PearlTM product platform, demonstrate excellence in output power, brightness, wavelength stabilization, and long wavelength performance. This system, based on 14 single emitters, is designed to couple diode laser light into a 105 μm fiber at an excitation NA of under 0.14. We demonstrate over 100W of optical power at 9xx nm with a diode brightness exceeding 20 MW/cm2-str with an operating efficiency of approximately 50%. Additional results show over 70W of optical coupled at 8xx nm. Record brilliance at wavelengths 14xx nm and longer will also be demonstrated, with over 15 W of optical power with a beam quality of 7.5 mm-mrad. These results of high brightness, high efficiency, and wavelength stabilization demonstrate the pump technology required for next generation solid state and fiber lasers.

  1. Near-infrared photometry of bright elliptical galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Jameson, R. F.

    High-quality visual-infrared color profiles have been determined for elliptical galaxies for the first time. Surface photometry in J and K is presented for 12 bright elliptical galaxies, and the results have been combined with CCD data in visual passbands. It is shown that the galaxies become bluer

  2. Bright to dim oscillatory response of the Neurospora circadian oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Van D; Johnson, Alicia E; Larrondo, Luis F; Loros, Jennifer J; Dunlap, Jay C

    2014-02-01

    The fungus Neurospora crassa constitutes an important model system extensively used in chronobiology. Several studies have addressed how environmental cues, such as light, can reset or synchronize a circadian system. By means of an optimized firefly luciferase reporter gene and a controllable lighting system, we show that Neurospora can display molecular circadian rhythms in dim light when cultures receive bright light prior to entering dim light conditions. We refer to this behavior as the "bright to dim oscillatory response" (BDOR). The bright light treatment can be applied up to 76 h prior to dim exposure, and it can be as short as 15 min in duration. We have characterized this response in respect to the duration of the light pulse, the time of the light pulse before dim, the intensity of dim light, and the oscillation dynamics in dim light. Although the molecular mechanism that drives the BDOR remains obscure, these findings suggest that a long-term memory of bright light exists as part of the circadian molecular components. It is important to consider the ecological significance of such dim light responses in respect to how organisms naturally maintain their timing mechanism in moonlight.

  3. Progress in extremely high brightness LED-based light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelen, Christoph; Antonis, Piet; de Boer, Dick; Koole, Rolf; Kadijk, Simon; Li, Yun; Vanbroekhoven, Vincent; Van De Voorde, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Although the maximum brightness of LEDs has been increasing continuously during the past decade, their luminance is still far from what is required for multiple applications that still rely on the high brightness of discharge lamps. In particular for high brightness applications with limited étendue, e.g. front projection, only very modest luminance values in the beam can be achieved with LEDs compared to systems based on discharge lamps or lasers. With dedicated architectures, phosphor-converted green LEDs for projection may achieve luminance values up to 200-300 Mnit. In this paper we report on the progress made in the development of light engines based on an elongated luminescent concentrator pumped by blue LEDs. This concept has recently been introduced to the market as ColorSpark High Lumen Density LED technology. These sources outperform the maximum brightness of LEDs by multiple factors. In LED front projection, green LEDs are the main limiting factor. With our green modules, we now have achieved peak luminance values of 2 Gnit, enabling LED-based projection systems with over 4000 ANSI lm. Extension of this concept to yellow and red light sources is presented. The light source efficiency has been increased considerably, reaching 45-60 lm/W for green under practical application conditions. The module architecture, beam shaping, and performance characteristics are reviewed, as well as system aspects. The performance increase, spectral range extensions, beam-shaping flexibility, and cost reductions realized with the new module architecture enable a breakthrough in LED-based projection systems and in a wide variety of other high brightness applications.

  4. SKYMONITOR: A Global Network for Sky Brightness Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald R.; Mckenna, D.; Pulvermacher, R.; Everett, M.

    2010-01-01

    We are implementing a global network to measure sky brightness at dark-sky critical sites with the goal of creating a multi-decade database. The heart of this project is the Night Sky Brightness Monitor (NSBM), an autonomous 2 channel photometer which measures night sky brightness in the visual wavelengths (Mckenna et al, AAS 2009). Sky brightness is measured every minute at two elevation angles typically zenith and 20 degrees to monitor brightness and transparency. The NSBM consists of two parts, a remote unit and a base station with an internet connection. Currently these devices use 2.4 Ghz transceivers with a range of 100 meters. The remote unit is battery powered with daytime recharging using a solar panel. Data received by the base unit is transmitted via email protocol to IDA offices in Tucson where it will be collected, archived and made available to the user community via a web interface. Two other versions of the NSBM are under development: one for radio sensitive areas using an optical fiber link and the second that reads data directly to a laptop for sites without internet access. NSBM units are currently undergoing field testing at two observatories. With support from the National Science Foundation, we will construct and install a total of 10 units at astronomical observatories. With additional funding, we will locate additional units at other sites such as National Parks, dark-sky preserves and other sites where dark sky preservation is crucial. We will present the current comparison with the National Park Service sky monitoring camera. We anticipate that the SKYMONITOR network will be functioning by the end of 2010.

  5. Diode lasers optimized in brightness for fiber laser pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, M.; Gilly, J.; Friedmann, P.; Hilzensauer, S.; Ogrodowski, L.; Kissel, H.; Biesenbach, J.

    2018-02-01

    In diode laser applications for fiber laser pumping and fiber-coupled direct diode laser systems high brightness becomes essential in the last years. Fiber coupled modules benefit from continuous improvements of high-power diode lasers on chip level regarding output power, efficiency and beam characteristics resulting in record highbrightness values and increased pump power. To gain high brightness not only output power must be increased, but also near field widths and far field angles have to be below a certain value for higher power levels because brightness is proportional to output power divided by beam quality. While fast axis far fields typically show a current independent behaviour, for broadarea lasers far-fields in the slow axis suffer from a strong current and temperature dependence, limiting the brightness and therefore their use in fibre coupled modules. These limitations can be overcome by carefully optimizing chip temperature, thermal lensing and lateral mode structure by epitaxial and lateral resonator designs and processing. We present our latest results for InGaAs/AlGaAs broad-area single emitters with resonator lengths of 4mm emitting at 976nm and illustrate the improvements in beam quality over the last years. By optimizing the diode laser design a record value of the brightness for broad-area lasers with 4mm resonator length of 126 MW/cm2sr has been demonstrated with a maximum wall-plug efficiency of more than 70%. From these design also pump modules based on 9 mini-bars consisting of 5 emitters each have been realized with 360W pump power.

  6. Using the Chandra Source-Finding Algorithm to Automatically Identify Solar X-ray Bright Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Tennant, A.; Cirtain, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This poster details a technique of bright point identification that is used to find sources in Chandra X-ray data. The algorithm, part of a program called LEXTRCT, searches for regions of a given size that are above a minimum signal to noise ratio. The algorithm allows selected pixels to be excluded from the source-finding, thus allowing exclusion of saturated pixels (from flares and/or active regions). For Chandra data the noise is determined by photon counting statistics, whereas solar telescopes typically integrate a flux. Thus the calculated signal-to-noise ratio is incorrect, but we find we can scale the number to get reasonable results. For example, Nakakubo and Hara (1998) find 297 bright points in a September 11, 1996 Yohkoh image; with judicious selection of signal-to-noise ratio, our algorithm finds 300 sources. To further assess the efficacy of the algorithm, we analyze a SOHO/EIT image (195 Angstroms) and compare results with those published in the literature (McIntosh and Gurman, 2005). Finally, we analyze three sets of data from Hinode, representing different parts of the decline to minimum of the solar cycle.

  7. Engineering the Frequency Spectrum of Bright Squeezed Vacuum via Group Velocity Dispersion in an SU(1,1) Interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Lemieux, Samuel; Manceau, Mathieu; Sharapova, Polina R.; Tikhonova, Olga V.; Boyd, Robert W.; Leuchs, Gerd; Chekhova, Maria V.

    2016-01-01

    Bright squeezed vacuum, a promising tool for quantum information, can be generated by high-gain parametric down-conversion. However, its frequency and angular spectra are typically quite broad, which is undesirable for applications requiring single-mode radiation. We tailor the frequency spectrum of high-gain parametric down-conversion using an SU(1,1) interferometer consisting of two nonlinear crystals with a dispersive medium separating them. The dispersive medium allows us to select a narr...

  8. LARGER PLANET RADII INFERRED FROM STELLAR ''FLICKER'' BRIGHTNESS VARIATIONS OF BRIGHT PLANET-HOST STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ( f licker ) of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ∼0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T eff = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UV-bright quasars (Syphers+, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphers, D.; Anderson, S. F.; Zheng, W.; Haggard, D.; Meiksin, A.; Schneider, D. P.; York, D. G.

    2010-03-01

    Absorption along quasar sightlines remains among the most sensitive direct measures of HeII reionization in much of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Until recently, fewer than a half-dozen unobscured quasar sightlines suitable for the HeII Gunn-Peterson test were known; although these handful demonstrated great promise, the small sample size limited confidence in cosmological inferences. We have recently added nine more such clean HeII quasars, exploiting Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar samples, broadband ultraviolet (UV) imaging from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), and high-yield UV spectroscopic confirmations from Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Here we markedly expand this approach by cross-correlating SDSS DR7 and GALEX GR4+5 to catalog 428 SDSS and 165 other quasars with z>2.78 having likely (~70%) GALEX detections, suggesting they are bright into the far-UV. Reconnaissance HST Cycle 16 Supplemental prism data for 29 of these new quasar-GALEX matches spectroscopically confirm 17 as indeed far-UV bright. At least 10 of these confirmations have clean sightlines all the way down to HeII Lyα, substantially expanding the number of known clean HeII quasars, and reaffirming the order of magnitude enhanced efficiency of our selection technique. Combined confirmations from this and our past programs yield more than 20 HeII quasars, quintupling the sample. These provide substantial progress toward a sample of HeII quasar sightlines large enough, and spanning a sufficient redshift range, to enable statistical IGM studies that may avoid individual object peculiarity and sightline variance. Our expanded catalog of hundreds of high-likelihood far-UV-bright QSOs additionally will be useful for understanding the extreme-UV properties of the quasars themselves. (2 data files).

  10. Modeling laser brightness from cross Porro prism resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Andrew; Burger, Liesl; Litvin, Igor Anatolievich

    2006-08-01

    Laser brightness is a parameter often used to compare high power laser beam delivery from various sources, and incorporates both the power contained in the particular mode, as well as the propagation of that mode through the beam quality factor, M2. In this study a cross Porro prism resonator is considered; crossed Porro prism resonators have been known for some time, but until recently have not been modeled as a complete physical optics system that allows the modal output to be determined as a function of the rotation angle of the prisms. In this paper we consider the diffraction losses as a function of the prism rotation angle relative to one another, and combine this with the propagation of the specific modes to determine the laser output brightness as a function of the prism orientation.

  11. Optical Observations of X-ray Bright, Optically Normal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadun, Alberto C.; Aryan, N. S.; Ghosh, K. K.

    2007-05-01

    X-ray bright, optically normal galaxies (XBONGs) are galaxies that seem to have normal spectra and morphology, but are relatively bright x-ray sources. The large ratio of the x-ray to optical emission suggests that some activity, similar to that of active galactic nuclei (AGN), is occurring. Since the galaxies do not show any obvious sign of nuclear activity in their optical spectra, one possible explanation is that these galaxies do not have an optically thick accretion disk at small radii, as previously assumed. Previous data for NGC 7626 classifies it as an XBONG, and so we are studying optical features of this galaxy in order to determine better its features. After confirming an x-ray jet, we are now comparing this to optical features that we have found, including warped dust lanes and a possible optical jet.

  12. Large-scale brightness inhomogeneities in the solar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, W.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The intensity residuals are analyzed from a series of solar limb-darkening measurements in the wavelength range 5656 to 2997 A. The lengths of residual strings of the same sign exceed expectation by several orders of magnitude. The power spectrum fo the residuals shows a weak excess around 6000 km. For further study the 34000 limb-darkening residuals are subdivided into 5100 bright and faint cells. The frequency distribution of cell sizes peaks around 4500 km and increases from center to limb, the faint cells showing the greater center-limb effect. The cells are also studied as to contrast. A synoptic view indicates that only 12% of the cells are identifiable after a half hour. Phenomena that may combine to produce the observed wide spectrum of brightness inhomogeneities are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  13. The ASAS-SN bright supernova catalogue - III. 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoien, T. W.-S.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Dong, Subo; Brimacombe, J.; Bishop, D. W.; Bose, S.; Beacom, J. F.; Bersier, D.; Chen, Ping; Chomiuk, L.; Falco, E.; Godoy-Rivera, D.; Morrell, N.; Pojmanski, G.; Shields, J. V.; Strader, J.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Thompson, Todd A.; Woźniak, P. R.; Bock, G.; Cacella, P.; Conseil, E.; Cruz, I.; Fernandez, J. M.; Kiyota, S.; Koff, R. A.; Krannich, G.; Marples, P.; Masi, G.; Monard, L. A. G.; Nicholls, B.; Nicolas, J.; Post, R. S.; Stone, G.; Wiethoff, W. S.

    2017-11-01

    This catalogue summarizes information for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) and all other bright (mpeak ≤ 17), spectroscopically confirmed supernovae discovered in 2016. We then gather the near-infrared through ultraviolet magnitudes of all host galaxies and the offsets of the supernovae from the centres of their hosts from public data bases. We illustrate the results using a sample that now totals 668 supernovae discovered since 2014 May 1, including the supernovae from our previous catalogues, with type distributions closely matching those of the ideal magnitude limited sample from Li et al. This is the third of a series of yearly papers on bright supernovae and their hosts from the ASAS-SN team.

  14. Recent advances in high-brightness electron guns at AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluem, H.; Todd, A.M.M.; Cole, M.D.; Rathke, J.; Schultheiss, T.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a number of active Advanced Energy Systems projects pertaining to the development of advanced, high-brightness electron guns for various applications. These projects include a fully superconducting, CW RF gun, nearing test, that utilizes the niobium surface as the photocathode material. An integrated 100 mA, low emittance DC/SRF gun, ideal as an injector for ERL-type light sources and intended as the injector for a 100 kW FEL, is in late design stage. A parallel high-power, CW, normal-conducting L-band RF gun project has just begun. The early performance analysis for this gun also shows good promise as an injector for ERL-type light sources. Lastly, a fully axisymmetric RF gun, operating in X-band, is being studied as a source of extremely bright electron bunches

  15. Bright breathers in nonlinear left-handed metamaterial lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouloyannis, V.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Veldes, G. P.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; DiMarzio, D.; Lan, X.; Radisic, V.

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, we examine a prototypical model for the formation of bright breathers in nonlinear left-handed metamaterial lattices. Utilizing the paradigm of nonlinear transmission lines, we build a relevant lattice and develop a quasi-continuum multiscale approximation that enables us to appreciate both the underlying linear dispersion relation and the potential for bifurcation of nonlinear states. We focus here, more specifically, on bright discrete breathers which bifurcate from the lower edge of the linear dispersion relation at wavenumber k=π . Guided by the multiscale analysis, we calculate numerically both the stable inter-site centered and the unstable site-centered members of the relevant family. We quantify the associated stability via Floquet analysis and the Peierls-Nabarro barrier of the energy difference between these branches. Finally, we explore the dynamical implications of these findings towards the potential mobility or lack thereof (pinning) of such breather solutions.

  16. Quantitative Image Restoration in Bright Field Optical Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Medina, Braulio; Sánchez Miranda, Manuel de Jesús

    2017-11-07

    Bright field (BF) optical microscopy is regarded as a poor method to observe unstained biological samples due to intrinsic low image contrast. We introduce quantitative image restoration in bright field (QRBF), a digital image processing method that restores out-of-focus BF images of unstained cells. Our procedure is based on deconvolution, using a point spread function modeled from theory. By comparing with reference images of bacteria observed in fluorescence, we show that QRBF faithfully recovers shape and enables quantify size of individual cells, even from a single input image. We applied QRBF in a high-throughput image cytometer to assess shape changes in Escherichia coli during hyperosmotic shock, finding size heterogeneity. We demonstrate that QRBF is also applicable to eukaryotic cells (yeast). Altogether, digital restoration emerges as a straightforward alternative to methods designed to generate contrast in BF imaging for quantitative analysis. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Very bright, near-infrared single photon emitters in diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. M. Lau

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate activation of bright diamond single photon emitters in the near infrared range by thermal annealing alone, i.e., without ion implantation. The activation is crucially dependent on the annealing ambient. The activation of the single photon emitters is only observed when the sample is annealed in forming gas (4% H2 in Ar above temperatures of 1000 °C. By contrast, no emitters are activated by annealing in vacuum, oxygen, argon or deuterium. The emitters activated by annealing in forming gas exhibit very bright emission in the 730-760 nm wavelength range and have linewidths of ∼1.5-2.5 nm at room temperature.

  18. High-brightness tapered laser diodes with photonic crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Du, Weichuan; Kun, Zhou; Gao, Songxin; Ma, Yi; Tang, Chun

    2018-02-01

    Beam quality of tapered laser diodes is limited by higher order lateral mode. On purpose of optimizing the brightness of tapered laser diodes, we developed a novel design of tapered diodes. This devices based on InGaAs/AlGaAs asymmetry epitaxial structure, containing higher order lateral mode filtering schemes especially photonic crystal structures, which fabricated cost effectively by using standard photolithography and dry etch processes. Meanwhile, the effects of photonic crystal structures on mode control are also investigated theoretically by FDBPM (Finite-Difference Beam Propagation Method) calculation. We achieved a CW optical output power of 6.9W at 940nm for a single emitter with 4 mm cavity length. A nearly diffraction limited beam of M2 ≍1.9 @ 0.5W has been demonstrated, and a highest brightness of β =75MW/(cm2 ·sr) was reached.

  19. Using RSpec in an introductory bright star spectroscopy lab activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, James; Sitar, David J.

    2018-01-01

    After presenting at the North Carolina Section of the American Association of Physics Teachers during the fall 2016 meeting, we were encouraged to turn our poster into a paper. This article describes the strengthening of a bright star spectroscopy lab activity for introductory astronomy lab students (AST1002) at Appalachian State University. Explanations of the tools and methods used in the activity are included, particularly the preparation of additional materials using RSpec and calibrated instrument response curves.

  20. Thoughts About Nursing Curricula: Dark Clouds and Bright Lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkel, Marian C; Fawcett, Jacqueline; Amankwaa, Linda; Clarke, Pamela N; Dee, Vivien; Eustace, Rosemary; Hansell, Phyllis Shanley; Jones, Dorothy A; Smith, Marlaine C; Zahourek, Rothlyn

    2018-04-01

    In this essay, several nurse scholars who are particularly concerned about the contemporary state of nursing science present their concerns about the inclusion of nursing conceptual models and theories in the curricula of nursing programs (dark clouds) and ways in which the concerns have been addressed (bright lights). This essay is the second of two essays that were catalyzed by Barrett's paper, "Again, What Is Nursing Science?" The first essay was published in the previous issue of Nursing Science Quarterly.

  1. Human Adolescent Phase Response Curves to Bright White Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Stephanie J; Eastman, Charmane I

    2017-08-01

    Older adolescents are particularly vulnerable to circadian misalignment and sleep restriction, primarily due to early school start times. Light can shift the circadian system and could help attenuate circadian misalignment; however, a phase response curve (PRC) to determine the optimal time for receiving light and avoiding light is not available for adolescents. We constructed light PRCs for late pubertal to postpubertal adolescents aged 14 to 17 years. Participants completed 2 counterbalanced 5-day laboratory sessions after 8 or 9 days of scheduled sleep at home. Each session included phase assessments to measure the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) before and after 3 days of free-running through an ultradian light-dark (wake-sleep) cycle (2 h dim [~20 lux] light, 2 h dark). In one session, intermittent bright white light (~5000 lux; four 20-min exposures) was alternated with 10 min of dim room light once per day for 3 consecutive days. The time of light varied among participants to cover the 24-h day. For each individual, the phase shift to bright light was corrected for the free-run derived from the other laboratory session with no bright light. One PRC showed phase shifts in response to light start time relative to the DLMO and another relative to home sleep. Phase delay shifts occurred around the hours corresponding to home bedtime. Phase advances occurred during the hours surrounding wake time and later in the afternoon. The transition from delays to advances occurred at the midpoint of home sleep. The adolescent PRCs presented here provide a valuable tool to time bright light in adolescents.

  2. High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Jinping; Cheng Ya; Xu Zhizhan [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zeng Bin; Li Guihua; Chu Wei; Ni Jielei; Zhang Haisu [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xu Huailiang [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Chin, See Leang [Center for Optics, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    We demonstrate a harmonic-seeded switchable multiwavelength laser in air driven by intense midinfrared femtosecond laser pulses, in which population inversion occurs at an ultrafast time scale (i.e., less than {approx}200 fs) owing to direct formation of excited molecular nitrogen ions by strong-field ionization of inner-valence electrons. The bright multiwavelength laser in air opens the perspective for remote detection of multiple pollutants based on nonlinear optical spectroscopy.

  3. Very bright optical transient near the Trifid and Lagoon Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsby, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Peter Dunsby (University of Cape Town) reports the detection of a very bright optical transient in the region between the Lagoon and Trifid Nebulae based on observations obtained from Cape Town on 20 March 2018, between 01:00 and 03:45 UT. The object was visible throughout the full duration of the observations and not seen when this field was observed previously (08 March 2018).

  4. Bright spots among the world’s coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinner, Joshua E.; Huchery, Cindy; MacNeil, M. Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; McClanahan, Tim R.; Maina, Joseph; Maire, Eva; Kittinger, John N.; Hicks, Christina C.; Mora, Camilo; Allison, Edward H.; D'Agata, Stephanie; Hoey, Andrew; Feary, David A.; Crowder, Larry; Williams, Ivor D.; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent; Wantiez, Laurent; Edgar, Graham; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Green, Alison L.; Hardt, Marah J.; Beger, Maria; Friedlander, Alan; Campbell, Stuart J.; Holmes, Katherine E.; Wilson, Shaun K.; Brokovich, Eran; Brooks, Andrew J.; Cruz-Motta, Juan J.; Booth, David J.; Chabanet, Pascale; Gough, Charlie; Tupper, Mark; Ferse, Sebastian C. A.; Sumaila, U. Rashid; Mouillot, David

    2016-07-01

    Ongoing declines in the structure and function of the world’s coral reefs require novel approaches to sustain these ecosystems and the millions of people who depend on them. A presently unexplored approach that draws on theory and practice in human health and rural development is to systematically identify and learn from the ‘outliers’—places where ecosystems are substantially better (‘bright spots’) or worse (‘dark spots’) than expected, given the environmental conditions and socioeconomic drivers they are exposed to. Here we compile data from more than 2,500 reefs worldwide and develop a Bayesian hierarchical model to generate expectations of how standing stocks of reef fish biomass are related to 18 socioeconomic drivers and environmental conditions. We identify 15 bright spots and 35 dark spots among our global survey of coral reefs, defined as sites that have biomass levels more than two standard deviations from expectations. Importantly, bright spots are not simply comprised of remote areas with low fishing pressure; they include localities where human populations and use of ecosystem resources is high, potentially providing insights into how communities have successfully confronted strong drivers of change. Conversely, dark spots are not necessarily the sites with the lowest absolute biomass and even include some remote, uninhabited locations often considered near pristine. We surveyed local experts about social, institutional, and environmental conditions at these sites to reveal that bright spots are characterized by strong sociocultural institutions such as customary taboos and marine tenure, high levels of local engagement in management, high dependence on marine resources, and beneficial environmental conditions such as deep-water refuges. Alternatively, dark spots are characterized by intensive capture and storage technology and a recent history of environmental shocks. Our results suggest that investments in strengthening fisheries

  5. The quiet Sun brightness temperature at 408 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avignon, Y.; Lantos, P.; Palagi, F.; Patriarchi, P.

    1975-01-01

    The flux of the radio quiet Sun and the brightness temperature at 408 MHz (73cm) are derived from measurements with the E-W Nancay interferometer and the E-W arm of the Medicina North Cross. It is shown that the lowest envelopes, which defined the radio quiet Sun, correspond to transits of extended coronal holes across the disk of the Sun. (Auth.)

  6. Brightness/darkness induction and the genesis of a contour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eRoncato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual contours often result from the integration or interpolation of fragmented edges.The strength of the completion increases when the edges share the same contrast polarity (CP. Here we demonstrate that the appearance in the perceptual field of this integrated unit, or contour of invariant CP, is concomitant with a vivid brightness alteration of the surfaces at its opposite sides. To observe this effect requires some stratagems because the formation in the visual field of a contour of invariant CP normally engenders the formation of a second contour and then the rise of two streams of induction signals that interfere in different ways. Particular configurations have been introduced that allow us to observe the induction effects of one contour taken in isolation. I documented these effects by phenomenological observations and psychophysical measurement of the brightness alteration in relation to luminance contrast. When the edges of the same CP complete to form a contour, the background of homogeneous luminance appears to dim at one side and to brighten at the opposite side (in accord with the CP. The strength of the phenomenon is proportional to the local luminance contrast. This effect weakens or nulls when the contour of the invariant CP separates surfaces filled with different grey shades.These conflicting results stimulate a deeper exploration of the induction phenomena and their role in the computation of brightness contrast. An alternative perspective is offered to account for some brightness illusions and their relation to the phenomenal transparency. The main assumption asserts that, when in the same region induction signals of opposite CP overlap, the filling-in are blocked unless the image is stratified into different layers, one for each signal of the same polarity. Phenomenological observations document this solution by the visual system

  7. Bright triplet excitons in caesium lead halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael A.; Vaxenburg, Roman; Nedelcu, Georgian; Sercel, Peter C.; Shabaev, Andrew; Mehl, Michael J.; Michopoulos, John G.; Lambrakos, Samuel G.; Bernstein, Noam; Lyons, John L.; Stöferle, Thilo; Mahrt, Rainer F.; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Norris, David J.; Rainò, Gabriele; Efros, Alexander L.

    2018-01-01

    Nanostructured semiconductors emit light from electronic states known as excitons. For organic materials, Hund’s rules state that the lowest-energy exciton is a poorly emitting triplet state. For inorganic semiconductors, similar rules predict an analogue of this triplet state known as the ‘dark exciton’. Because dark excitons release photons slowly, hindering emission from inorganic nanostructures, materials that disobey these rules have been sought. However, despite considerable experimental and theoretical efforts, no inorganic semiconductors have been identified in which the lowest exciton is bright. Here we show that the lowest exciton in caesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, with X = Cl, Br or I) involves a highly emissive triplet state. We first use an effective-mass model and group theory to demonstrate the possibility of such a state existing, which can occur when the strong spin-orbit coupling in the conduction band of a perovskite is combined with the Rashba effect. We then apply our model to CsPbX3 nanocrystals, and measure size- and composition-dependent fluorescence at the single-nanocrystal level. The bright triplet character of the lowest exciton explains the anomalous photon-emission rates of these materials, which emit about 20 and 1,000 times faster than any other semiconductor nanocrystal at room and cryogenic temperatures, respectively. The existence of this bright triplet exciton is further confirmed by analysis of the fine structure in low-temperature fluorescence spectra. For semiconductor nanocrystals, which are already used in lighting, lasers and displays, these excitons could lead to materials with brighter emission. More generally, our results provide criteria for identifying other semiconductors that exhibit bright excitons, with potential implications for optoelectronic devices.

  8. Bright to Dim Oscillatory Response of the Neurospora Circadian Oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    Gooch, Van D.; Johnson, Alicia E.; Larrondo, Luis F.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.

    2014-01-01

    The fungus Neurospora crassa constitutes an important model system extensively used in chronobiology. Several studies have addressed how environmental cues, such as light, can reset or synchronize a circadian system. By means of an optimized firefly luciferase reporter gene and a controllable lighting system, we show that Neurospora can display molecular circadian rhythms in dim light when cultures receive bright light prior to entering dim light conditions. We refer to this behavior as the “...

  9. Near-Real-Time DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Near-Real-Time DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Brightness Temperature product provides near-real-time brightness temperatures for both the Northern and...

  10. On correct evaluation techniques of brightness enhancement effect measurement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukačka, Leoš; Dupuis, Pascal; Motomura, Hideki; Rozkovec, Jiří; Kolář, Milan; Zissis, Georges; Jinno, Masafumi

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to establish confidence intervals of the quantification of brightness enhancement effects resulting from the use of pulsing bright light. It is found that the methods used so far may yield significant bias in the published results, overestimating or underestimating the enhancement effect. The authors propose to use a linear algebra method called the total least squares. Upon an example dataset, it is shown that this method does not yield biased results. The statistical significance of the results is also computed. It is concluded over an observation set that the currently used linear algebra methods present many patterns of noise sensitivity. Changing algorithm details leads to inconsistent results. It is thus recommended to use the method with the lowest noise sensitivity. Moreover, it is shown that this method also permits one to obtain an estimate of the confidence interval. This paper neither aims to publish results about a particular experiment nor to draw any particular conclusion about existence or nonexistence of the brightness enhancement effect.

  11. Bright Soil Churned by Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove 22.7 meters (74 feet) toward the southwest on the 1,861st Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on Mars (March 28, 2009). After the drive, the rover took this image with its front hazard-avoidance camera, looking back at the tracks from the drive. As usual since losing the use of its right-front wheel in 2006, Spirit drove backwards. The immobile right-front wheel churned up a long stripe of bright soil during this drive. Where Spirit has found such bright soil in the past, subsequent analysis of the composition found concentrations of sulfur or silica that testified to past action of water at the site. When members of the rover team saw the large quantity of bright soil exposed by the Sol 1861 drive, they quickly laid plans to investigate the composition with Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. The Sol 1861 drive took the rover past the northwest corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate,' making progress on a route around the western side of Home Plate. The edge of Home Plate forms the horizon on the right side of this image. Husband Hill is on the horizon on the left side. For scale, the parallel rover wheel tracks are about 1 meter (40 inches) apart. The rover's hazard-avoidance cameras take 'fisheye' wide-angle images.

  12. Inversion methods for analysis of neutron brightness measurements in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorini, G.; Gottardi, N.

    1990-02-01

    The problem of determining neutron emissivity from neutron brightness measurements in magnetic fusion plasmas is addressed. In the case of two-dimensional measurements with two orthogonal cameras, a complete, tomographic analysis of the data can in principle be performed. The results depend critically on the accuracy of the measurements and alternative solutions can be sought under the assumption of a known emissivity topology (Generalized Abel Inversion). In this work, neutron brightness data from the JET tokamak have been studied with both methods. We find that with the present experimental uncertainty (levels 10-20%) the Abel inversion method works best, while two-dimensional information cannot in general be deduced. This is confirmed by studies of the error propagation in the inversion using artificial data, which are also presented here. An important application of emissivity profile information is the determination of the plasma deuterium temperature profile, T D (R). Results are presented here from the analysis of JET data and the errors in T D (R) are discussed in some detail. It is found that, for typical JET plasma conditions, the dominant source of uncertainty arises from the high plasma impurity level and the fact that it is poorly known; these problems can be expected to be remedied and neutron brightness measurements would be expected to be very effective (especially in high density plasmas) as a T D (R) diagnostics. (author)

  13. SMOS brightness temperature assimilation into the Community Land Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rains

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission brightness temperatures at a single incident angle are assimilated into the Community Land Model (CLM across Australia to improve soil moisture simulations. Therefore, the data assimilation system DasPy is coupled to the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF as well as to the Community Microwave Emission Model (CMEM. Brightness temperature climatologies are precomputed to enable the assimilation of brightness temperature anomalies, making use of 6 years of SMOS data (2010–2015. Mean correlation R with in situ measurements increases moderately from 0.61 to 0.68 (11 % for upper soil layers if the root zone is included in the updates. A reduced improvement of 5 % is achieved if the assimilation is restricted to the upper soil layers. Root-zone simulations improve by 7 % when updating both the top layers and root zone, and by 4 % when only updating the top layers. Mean increments and increment standard deviations are compared for the experiments. The long-term assimilation impact is analysed by looking at a set of quantiles computed for soil moisture at each grid cell. Within hydrological monitoring systems, extreme dry or wet conditions are often defined via their relative occurrence, adding great importance to assimilation-induced quantile changes. Although still being limited now, longer L-band radiometer time series will become available and make model output improved by assimilating such data that are more usable for extreme event statistics.

  14. Three Bright X-ray Sources in NGC 1313

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Petre, R.; Schlegel, E.

    1992-12-01

    Three bright X-ray sources were detected in a recent (April/May 1991) ROSAT PSPC observation of the nearby (D ~ 4.5 Mpc) face--on barred spiral galaxy NGC 1313. Two of the sources were at positions coincident with X-ray sources detected by Fabbiano & Trinchieri (ApJ 315, 1987) in a previous (Jan 1980) Einstein IPC observation. The position of the brightest Einstein source is near the center of NGC 1313, and the second Einstein source is ~ 7' south of the ``nuclear'' source, in the outskirts of the spiral arms. A third bright X-ray source was detected in the ROSAT observation ~ 7' southwest of the ``nuclear'' source. We present X-ray spectra and X-ray images for the three bright sources found in the ROSAT observation of NGC 1313, and compare with previous Einstein results. Spectral analysis of these sources require them to have very large soft X-ray luminosities ( ~ 10(40) erg s(-1) ) when compared with typical X-ray sources in our Galaxy. Feasible explanations for the X-ray emission are presented. The third X-ray source is positively identified with the recently discovered (Ryder et. al., ApJ 1992) peculiar type-II supernova 1978K.

  15. Bright focused ion beam sources based on laser-cooled atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J. J.; Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Twedt, K. A.; Schwarzkopf, A.; Wilson, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale focused ion beams (FIBs) represent one of the most useful tools in nanotechnology, enabling nanofabrication via milling and gas-assisted deposition, microscopy and microanalysis, and selective, spatially resolved doping of materials. Recently, a new type of FIB source has emerged, which uses ionization of laser cooled neutral atoms to produce the ion beam. The extremely cold temperatures attainable with laser cooling (in the range of 100 μK or below) result in a beam of ions with a very small transverse velocity distribution. This corresponds to a source with extremely high brightness that rivals or may even exceed the brightness of the industry standard Ga+ liquid metal ion source. In this review we discuss the context of ion beam technology in which these new ion sources can play a role, their principles of operation, and some examples of recent demonstrations. The field is relatively new, so only a few applications have been demonstrated, most notably low energy ion microscopy with Li ions. Nevertheless, a number of promising new approaches have been proposed and/or demonstrated, suggesting that a rapid evolution of this type of source is likely in the near future. PMID:27239245

  16. Bright focused ion beam sources based on laser-cooled atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, J. J.; Wilson, T. M. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Schwarzkopf, A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); zeroK NanoTech, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20878 (United States); Twedt, K. A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland Nanocenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Nanoscale focused ion beams (FIBs) represent one of the most useful tools in nanotechnology, enabling nanofabrication via milling and gas-assisted deposition, microscopy and microanalysis, and selective, spatially resolved doping of materials. Recently, a new type of FIB source has emerged, which uses ionization of laser cooled neutral atoms to produce the ion beam. The extremely cold temperatures attainable with laser cooling (in the range of 100 μK or below) result in a beam of ions with a very small transverse velocity distribution. This corresponds to a source with extremely high brightness that rivals or may even exceed the brightness of the industry standard Ga{sup +} liquid metal ion source. In this review, we discuss the context of ion beam technology in which these new ion sources can play a role, their principles of operation, and some examples of recent demonstrations. The field is relatively new, so only a few applications have been demonstrated, most notably low energy ion microscopy with Li ions. Nevertheless, a number of promising new approaches have been proposed and/or demonstrated, suggesting that a rapid evolution of this type of source is likely in the near future.

  17. The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Luigi; Rosenzweig, J.; Serafini, Luca

    2007-09-01

    Plenary sessions. RF deflector based sub-Ps beam diagnostics: application to FEL and advanced accelerators / D. Alesini. Production of fermtosecond pulses and micron beam spots for high brightness electron beam applications / S.G. Anderson ... [et al.]. Wakefields of sub-picosecond electron bunches / K.L.F. Bane. Diamond secondary emitter / I. Ben-Zvi ... [et al.]. Parametric optimization for an X-ray free electron laser with a laser wiggler / R. Bonifacio, N. Piovella and M.M. Cola. Needle cathodes for high-brightness beams / C.H. Boulware ... [et al.]. Non linear evolution of short pulses in FEL cascaded undulators and the FEL harmonic cascade / L. Giannessi and P. Musumeci. High brightness laser induced multi-meV electron/proton sources / D. Giulietti ... [et al.]. Emittance limitation of a conditioned beam in a strong focusing FEL undulator / Z. Huang, G. Stupakov and S. Reiche. Scaled models: space-charge dominated electron storage rings / R.A. Kishek ... [et al.]. High brightness beam applications: energy recovered linacs / G.A. Krafft. Maximizing brightness in photoinjectors / C. Limborg-Deprey and H. Tomizawa. Ultracold electron sources / O.J. Luiten ... [et al.]. Scaling laws of structure-based optical accelerators / A. Mizrahi, V. Karagodsky and L. Schächter. High brightness beams-applications to free-electron lasers / S. Reiche. Conception of photo-injectors for the CTF3 experiment / R. Roux. Superconducting RF photoinjectors: an overview / J. Sekutowicz. Status and perspectives of photo injector developments for high brightness beams / F. Stephan. Results from the UCLA/FNLP underdense plasma lens experiment / M.C. Thompson ... [et al.]. Medical application of multi-beam compton scattering monochromatic tunable hard X-ray source / M. Uesaka ... [et al.]. Design of a 2 kA, 30 fs RF-photoinjector for waterbag compression / S.B. Van Der Geer, O.J. Luiten and M.J. De Loos. Proposal for a high-brightness pulsed electron source / M. Zolotorev ... [et al

  18. High-efficiency, 154  W CW, diode-pumped Raman fiber laser with brightness enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Yaakov; Fromzel, Viktor; Zhang, Jun; Ter-Gabrielyan, Nikolay; Dubinskii, Mark

    2017-01-20

    We demonstrate a high-power, high-efficiency Raman fiber laser pumped directly by laser diode modules at 978 nm. 154 W of CW power were obtained at a wavelength of 1023 nm with an optical to optical efficiency of 65%. A commercial graded-index (GRIN) core fiber acts as the Raman fiber in a power oscillator configuration, which includes spectral selection to prevent generation of the second Stokes. In addition, brightness enhancement of the pump beam by a factor of 8.4 is attained due to the Raman gain distribution profile in the GRIN fiber. To the best of our knowledge this is the highest power and highest efficiency Raman fiber laser demonstrated in any configuration allowing brightness enhancement (i.e., in either cladding-pumped configuration or with GRIN fibers, excluding step-index core pumped), regardless of pumping scheme (i.e., either diode pumped or fiber laser pumped).

  19. Variation reduction of brightness and pH of pulp sent to a paper mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napassavong Rojanarowan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The variance of the brightness of pulp sent to the paper mill during the changing period of dry pulp grades affects the chemical control in the paper mill. This research aims to determine the mixing formula of pulp with different brightness from the EOP and D1 stages to handle this variation issue. This research uses response surface design with Central Composite Design type, regression technique and optimization technique to find the optimal setting of the mixing formula for each of the seven brightness levels to obtain the target brightness of 86% and the pH of 5.25. The mixing formulas are determined by the pulp mixing percentage and the sulfuric acid consumption. The experimental results reveal that when using higher EOP mixing ratio, the brightness decreases and the pH increases. Regarding the effect of the sulfuric acid, increasing the sulfuric acid makes the brightness and the pH decrease. After implementing the optimal formula in the production line, the mean of pulp brightness is closer to the target compared with the brightness before improvement and the brightness variation decreases without affecting the quality of other pulp grades, average of brightness decreased from 87.4% to 86.3% and standard deviation of brightness decreased from 1.09 to 0.46.

  20. Bright, dark and singular optical solitons in a cascaded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Qin; Zhu, Qiuping; Yu, Hua; Liu, Yaxian; Wei, Chun; Yao, Ping; Bhrawy, Ali H; Biswas, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    This work studies nonlinear dynamics of optical solitons in a cascaded system with Kerr law nonlinearity and spatio-temporal dispersion. The mathematical model that describes the propagation of optical solitons through a cascaded system is given by the vector-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is investigated analytically using three integration algorithms. The Jacobian elliptic equation expansion method, Bernoulli equation expansion approach and Riccati equation expansion scheme are the integration tools of this model that are recruited to extract singular, bright and dark solitons. The restrictions that need to hold for the existence of these solitons are derived. (paper)

  1. The bright optical afterglow of the long GRB 001007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, J.M.C.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Gorosabel, J.

    2002-01-01

    We present optical follow up observations of the long GRB 001007 between 6.14 hours and similar to468 days after the event. An unusually bright optical afterglow (OA) was seen to decline following a steep power law decay with index alpha = -2.03 +/- 0.11, possibly indicating a break in the light...... curve at t - t(0) hours after the gamma ray event provide tentative (1.2σ) evidence for a break in the optical light curve. The spectral index β of the OA yields -1.24 +/- 0.57. These values may be explained both...

  2. Bright X-ray transient in the LMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, R.; Read, A. M.; Li, D. Y.

    2018-01-01

    We report a bright X-ray transient in the LMC from an XMM-Newton slew made on 5th January 2018. The source, XMMSL2 J053629.4-675940, had a soft X-ray (0.2-2 keV) count rate in the EPIC-pn detector, medium filter of 1.82+/-0.56 c/s, equivalent to a flux Fx=2.3+/-0.7E-12 ergs/s/cm2 for a nominal spectrum of a power-law of slope 2 absorbed by a column NH=3E20 cm^-2.

  3. Technological Challenges for High-Brightness Photo-Injectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Suberlucq, Guy

    2004-01-01

    Many applications, from linear colliders to free-electron lasers, passing through light sources and many other electron sources, require high brightness electron beams, usually produced by photo-injectors. Because certain parameters of these applications differ by several orders of magnitude, various solutions were implemented for the design and construction of the three main parts of the photo-injectors: lasers, photocathodes and guns. This paper summarizes the different requirements, how they lead to technological challenges and how R&D programs try to overcome these challenges. Some examples of state-of-the-art parts are presented.

  4. Bright photoactivatable fluorophores for single-molecule imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Jonathan B; English, Brian P; Choi, Heejun; Muthusamy, Anand K; Mehl, Brian P; Dong, Peng; Brown, Timothy A; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Liu, Zhe; Lionnet, Timothée; Lavis, Luke D

    2016-12-01

    Small-molecule fluorophores are important tools for advanced imaging experiments. We previously reported a general method to improve small, cell-permeable fluorophores which resulted in the azetidine-containing 'Janelia Fluor' (JF) dyes. Here, we refine and extend the utility of these dyes by synthesizing photoactivatable derivatives that are compatible with live-cell labeling strategies. Once activated, these derived compounds retain the superior brightness and photostability of the JF dyes, enabling improved single-particle tracking and facile localization microscopy experiments.

  5. Completion of the brightness upgrade of the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steier, C; Madur, A; Bailey, B; Berg, K; Biocca, A; Black, A; Casey, P; Colomb, D; Gunion, B; Li, N; Marks, S; Nishimura, H; Pappas, C; Petermann, K; Portmann, G; Prestemon, S; Rawlins, A; Robin, D; Rossi, S; Scarvie, T

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Berkeley Lab remains one of the brightest sources for soft x-rays worldwide. A multiyear upgrade of the ALS is underway, which includes new and replacement x-ray beamlines, a replacement of many of the original insertion devices and many upgrades to the accelerator. The accelerator upgrade that affects the ALS performance most directly is the ALS brightness upgrade [1], which reduces the horizontal emittance from 6.3 to 2.0 nm (2.5 nm effective). Magnets for this upgrade were installed in late 2012 and early 2013 followed by user operation with the reduced emittance.

  6. Generation of high brightness ion beam from insulated anode PED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Yoshinobu

    1988-01-01

    Generation and focusing of a high density ion beam with high brightness from a organic center part of anode of a PED was reported previously. Mass, charge and energy distribution of this beam were analyzed. Three kind of anode were tried. Many highly ionized medium mass ions (up to C 4+ , O 6+ ) accelarated to several times of voltage difference between anode and cathode were observed. In the case of all insulator anode the current carried by the medium mass ions is about half of that carried by protons. (author)

  7. FACT — LONGTERM MONITORING OF BRIGHT TeV BLAZARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Meier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT, located on the Canary Island of La Palma, has been taking data since October 2011. FACT has been optimized for longterm monitoring of bright TeV blazars, to study their variability time scales and flare probability. G-APD photo-sensors allow for observations even under strong moonlight conditions, and the telescope can be operated remotely. The monitoring strategy of FACT is discussed and preliminary results of the flare of Mrk501 in June 2012 are shown.

  8. Automatic brightness control algorithms and their effect on fluoroscopic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, P.W.; Gagne, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports a computer model used to investigate the effect on dose and image quality of three automatic brightness control (ABC) algorithms used in the imaging of barium during general-purpose fluoroscopy. A model incorporating all aspects of image formation - i.e., x- ray production, phantom attenuation, and energy absorption in the CSI phosphor - was driven according to each ABC algorithm as a function of patient thickness. The energy absorbed in the phosphor was kept constant, while the changes in exposure, integral dose, organ dose, and contrast were monitored

  9. The role of the second zero-dispersion wavelength in generation of supercontinua and bright-bright soliton-pairs across the zero-dispersion wavelength: erratum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch; Falk, Peter Andreas; Bang, Ole

    2007-01-01

    An erratum is presented explaining that the observation in the original paper (Optics Express, volume 13, issue 16, page 6181-6192, 2005), of a bright-bright soliton with one color in the anomalous dispersion region and the other color in the normal dispersion region was mistaken; both parts...

  10. Observations of Bright Massive Stars Using Small Size Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beradze, Sopia; Kochiashvili, Nino

    2017-11-01

    The size of a telescope determines goals and objects of observations. During the latest decades it becomes more and more difficult to get photometric data of bright stars because most of telescopes of small sizes do not operate already. But there are rather interesting questions connected to the properties and evolution ties between different types of massive stars. Multi-wavelength photometric data are needed for solution of some of them. We are presenting our observational plans of bright Massive X-ray binaries, WR and LBV stars using a small size telescope. All these stars, which are presented in the poster are observational targets of Sopia Beradze's future PhD thesis. We already have got very interesting results on the reddening and possible future eruption of the massive hypergiant star P Cygni. Therefore, we decided to choose some additional interesting massive stars of different type for future observations. All Massive stars play an important role in the chemical evolution of galaxies because of they have very high mass loss - up to 10-4M⊙/a year. Our targets are on different evolutionary stages and three of them are the members of massive binaries. We plan to do UBVRI photometric observations of these stars using the 48 cm Cassegrain telescope of the Abastumani Astrophisical Observatory.

  11. Unveiling the Low Surface Brightness Stellar Peripheries of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Annette M. N.

    2018-01-01

    The low surface brightness peripheral regions of galaxies contain a gold mine of information about how minor mergers and accretions have influenced their evolution over cosmic time. Enormous stellar envelopes and copious amounts of faint tidal debris are natural outcomes of the hierarchical assembly process and the search for and study of these features, albeit highly challenging, offers the potential for unrivalled insight into the mechanisms of galaxy growth. Over the last two decades, there has been burgeoning interest in probing galaxy outskirts using resolved stellar populations. Wide-field surveys have uncovered vast tidal debris features and new populations of very remote globular clusters, while deep Hubble Space Telescope photometry has provided exquisite star formation histories back to the earliest epochs. I will highlight some recent results from studies within and beyond the Local Group and conclude by briefly discussing the great potential of future facilities, such as JWST, Euclid, LSST and WFIRST, for major breakthroughs in low surface brightness galaxy periphery science.

  12. Bright PanSTARRS Nuclear Transients – what are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smartt S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an initial analysis of 49 bright transients occurring in the nuclei of galaxies with no previous known Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN. They have been discovered as part of the PanSTARRs 3π survey, and followed up with the Liverpool Telescope. Based on colours, light curve shape, and a small number with optical spectra, these transients seem to fall into three groups. Red/fast transients are nuclear supernovae of various types. Some bright nuclear transients are blue and decay on a timescale of a few months; these may be candidates for tidal disruption events. However most of the events we have found are blue and are either still rising or decaying slowly, on a timescale of years; the few spectra we have show AGN at z ∼ 1. We argue that these transients are background AGN microlensed by stars in foreground galaxies by a factor 10–100. Monitoring such events gives us very promising prospects for measuring the structure of AGN and so testing current theories.

  13. IRAS surface brightness maps of reflection nebulae in the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelaz, Michael W.; Werner, M. W.; Sellgren, K.

    1987-01-01

    Surface brightness maps at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns were made of a 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg area of the reflection nebulae in the Pleiades by coadding IRAS scans of this region. Emission is seen surrounding 17 Tau, 20 Tau, 23 Tau, and 25 Tau in all four bands, coextensive with the visible reflection nebulosity, and extending as far as 30 arcminutes from the illuminating stars. The infrared energy distributions of the nebulae peak in the 100 micron band, but up to 40 percent of the total infrared power lies in the 12 and 25 micron bands. The brightness of the 12 and 25 micron emission and the absence of temperature gradients at these wavelengths are inconsistent with the predictions of equilibrium thermal emission models. The emission at these wavelengths appears to be the result of micron nonequilibrium emission from very small grains, or from molecules consisting of 10-100 carbon atoms, which have been excited by ultraviolet radiation from the illuminating stars.

  14. Bright Solitons in a PT-Symmetric Chain of Dimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar B. Kirikchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence and stability of fundamental bright discrete solitons in a parity-time- (PT- symmetric coupler composed by a chain of dimers that is modelled by linearly coupled discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations with gain and loss terms. We use a perturbation theory for small coupling between the lattices to perform the analysis, which is then confirmed by numerical calculations. Such analysis is based on the concept of the so-called anticontinuum limit approach. We consider the fundamental onsite and intersite bright solitons. Each solution has symmetric and antisymmetric configurations between the arms. The stability of the solutions is then determined by solving the corresponding eigenvalue problem. We obtain that both symmetric and antisymmetric onsite mode can be stable for small coupling, in contrast to the reported continuum limit where the antisymmetric solutions are always unstable. The instability is either due to the internal modes crossing the origin or the appearance of a quartet of complex eigenvalues. In general, the gain-loss term can be considered parasitic as it reduces the stability region of the onsite solitons. Additionally, we analyse the dynamic behaviour of the onsite and intersite solitons when unstable, where typically it is either in the form of travelling solitons or soliton blow-ups.

  15. Bright light treatment of depression for older adults [ISRCTN55452501

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knickerbocker Nancy C

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of insomnia and depression in the elder population is significant. It is hoped that use of light treatment for this group could provide safe, economic, and effective rapid recovery. Methods In this home-based trial we treated depressed elderly subjects with bright white (8,500 Lux and dim red ( Results Eighty-one volunteers, between 60 and 79 years old, completed the study. Both treatment and placebo groups experienced mood improvement. Average GDS scores improved 5 points, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS 17 scores (extracted from the self-rated SIGH-SAD-SR improved 6 points. There were no significant treatment effects or time-by-treatment interactions. No significant adverse reactions were observed in either treatment group. The assays of urine and saliva showed no significant differences between the treatment and placebo groups. The healthy control group was active earlier and slept earlier but received less light than the depressed group at baseline. Conclusion Antidepressant response to bright light treatment in this age group was not statistically superior to placebo. Both treatment and placebo groups experienced a clinically significant overall improvement of 16%.

  16. TWO BRIGHT SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES IN A z = 4.05 PROTOCLUSTER IN GOODS-NORTH, AND ACCURATE RADIO-INFRARED PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daddi, E.; Elbaz, D.; Mancini, C.; Dannerbauer, H.; Stern, D.; Dickinson, M.; Pope, A.; Morrison, G.; Giavalisco, M.; Spinrad, H.

    2009-01-01

    We present the serendipitous discovery of molecular gas CO emission lines with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer coincident with two luminous submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North (GOODS-N) field. The identification of the millimeter emission lines as CO[4-3] at z = 4.05 is based on the optical and near-IR photometric redshifts, radio-infrared photometric redshifts, and Keck+DEIMOS optical spectroscopy. These two galaxies include the brightest submillimeter source in the field (GN20; S 850μm = 20.3 mJy, z CO = 4.055 ± 0.001) and its companion (GN20.2; S 850μm = 9.9 mJy, z CO = 4.051 ± 0.003). These are among the most distant submillimeter-selected galaxies reliably identified through CO emission and also some of the most luminous known. GN20.2 has a possible additional counterpart and a luminous active galactic nucleus inside its primary counterpart revealed in the radio. Continuum emission of 0.3 mJy at 3.3 mm (0.65 mm in the rest frame) is detected at 5σ for GN20, the first dust continuum detection in an SMG at such long wavelength, unveiling a spectral energy distribution that is similar to local ultra luminous IR galaxies. In terms of CO to bolometric luminosities, stellar mass, and star formation rates (SFRs), these newly discovered z > 4 SMGs are similar to z ∼ 2-3 SMGs studied to date. These z ∼ 4 SMGs have much higher specific star formation rates than those of typical B-band dropout Lyman break galaxies at the same redshift. The stellar mass-SFR correlation for normal galaxies does not seem to evolve much further, between z ∼ 2 and z ∼ 4. A significant z = 4.05 spectroscopic redshift spike is observed in GOODS-N, and a strong spatial overdensity of B-band dropouts and IRAC selected z > 3.5 galaxies appears to be centered on the GN20 and GN20.2 galaxies. This suggests a protocluster structure with total mass ∼10 14 M sun . Using photometry at mid-IR (24 μm), submillimeter (850 μm), and

  17. SIMULTANEOUS MULTI-BAND DETECTION OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES WITH MARKOVIAN MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, B.; Bonnarel, F.; Louys, M. [CDS, Observatoire Astronomique, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Perret, B.; Petremand, M.; Lavigne, F.; Collet, Ch. [LSIIT, Universite de Strasbourg, 7, Rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg (France); Van Driel, W. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Sabatini, S. [INAF/IASF-Roma, via Fosso de Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); MacArthur, L. A., E-mail: Bernd.Vollmer@astro.unistra.fr [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2013-02-01

    We present to the astronomical community an algorithm for the detection of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in images, called MARSIAA (MARkovian Software for Image Analysis in Astronomy), which is based on multi-scale Markovian modeling. MARSIAA can be applied simultaneously to different bands. It segments an image into a user-defined number of classes, according to their surface brightness and surroundings-typically, one or two classes contain the LSB structures. We have developed an algorithm, called DetectLSB, which allows the efficient identification of LSB galaxies from among the candidate sources selected by MARSIAA. The application of the method to two and three bands simultaneously was tested on simulated images. Based on our tests, we are confident that we can detect LSB galaxies down to a central surface brightness level of only 1.5 times the standard deviation from the mean pixel value in the image background. To assess the robustness of our method, the method was applied to a set of 18 B- and I-band images (covering 1.3 deg{sup 2} in total) of the Virgo Cluster to which Sabatini et al. previously applied a matched-filter dwarf LSB galaxy search algorithm. We have detected all 20 objects from the Sabatini et al. catalog which we could classify by eye as bona fide LSB galaxies. Our method has also detected four additional Virgo Cluster LSB galaxy candidates undetected by Sabatini et al. To further assess the completeness of the results of our method, both MARSIAA, SExtractor, and DetectLSB were applied to search for (1) mock Virgo LSB galaxies inserted into a set of deep Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) gri-band subimages and (2) Virgo LSB galaxies identified by eye in a full set of NGVS square degree gri images. MARSIAA/DetectLSB recovered {approx}20% more mock LSB galaxies and {approx}40% more LSB galaxies identified by eye than SExtractor/DetectLSB. With a 90% fraction of false positives from an entirely unsupervised pipeline, a completeness of

  18. THE BRIGHTEST OF REIONIZING GALAXIES SURVEY: CONSTRAINTS ON THE BRIGHT END OF THE z ∼ 8 LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, L. D.; Stiavelli, M.; Pirzkal, N.; Trenti, M.; Oesch, P. A.; Treu, T.; Bouwens, R. J.; Shull, J. M.; Holwerda, B. W.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of 33 Lyman-break galaxy candidates at z ∼ 8 detected in Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging as part of the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) pure-parallel survey. The ongoing BoRG survey currently has the largest area (274 arcmin 2 ) with Y 098 (or Y 105 ), J 125 , and H 160 band coverage needed to search for z ∼ 8 galaxies, about three times the current CANDELS area, and slightly larger than what will be the final CANDELS wide component with Y 105 data (required to select z ∼ 8 sources). Our sample of 33 relatively bright Y 098 -dropout galaxies have J 125 -band magnitudes between 25.5 and 27.4 mag. This is the largest sample of bright (J 125 ∼ * (L/L * ) α e -( L /L * ) , without evidence for an excess of sources at the bright end. At 68% confidence, for h = 0.7 we derive φ * = (4.3 +3.5 –2.1 ) × 10 –4 Mpc –3 , M * = –20.26 +0.29 –0.34 , and a very steep faint-end slope α = –1.98 +0.23 –0.22 . While the best-fit parameters still have a strong degeneracy, especially between φ * and M * , our improved coverage at the bright end has reduced the uncertainty of the faint-end power-law slope at z ∼ 8 compared to the best previous determination at ±0.4. With a future expansion of the BoRG survey, combined with planned ultradeep WFC3/IR observations, it will be possible to further reduce this uncertainty and clearly demonstrate the steepening of the faint-end slope compared to measurements at lower redshift, thereby confirming the key role played by small galaxies in the reionization of the universe.

  19. Micro Coronal Bright Points Observed in the Quiet Magnetic Network by SOHO/EIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.

    1997-01-01

    When one looks at SOHO/EIT Fe XII images of quiet regions, one can see the conventional coronal bright points (> 10 arcsec in diameter), but one will also notice many smaller faint enhancements in brightness (Figure 1). Do these micro coronal bright points belong to the same family as the conventional bright points? To investigate this question we compared SOHO/EIT Fe XII images with Kitt Peak magnetograms to determine whether the micro bright points are in the magnetic network and mark magnetic bipoles within the network. To identify the coronal bright points, we applied a picture frame filter to the Fe XII images; this brings out the Fe XII network and bright points (Figure 2) and allows us to study the bright points down to the resolution limit of the SOHO/EIT instrument. This picture frame filter is a square smoothing function (hlargelyalf a network cell wide) with a central square (quarter of a network cell wide) removed so that a bright point's intensity does not effect its own background. This smoothing function is applied to the full disk image. Then we divide the original image by the smoothed image to obtain our filtered image. A bright point is defined as any contiguous set of pixels (including diagonally) which have enhancements of 30% or more above the background; a micro bright point is any bright point 16 pixels or smaller in size. We then analyzed the bright points that were fully within quiet regions (0.6 x 0.6 solar radius) centered on disk center on six different days.

  20. An HI selected sample of galaxies : The HI mass function and the surface brightness distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, M; Briggs, F; Sprayberry, D

    Results from the Arecibo HI Strip Survey, an unbiased extragalactic HI survey, combined with optical and 21 cm follow-up observations, determine the HI mass function and the cosmological mass density of HI at the present epoch. Both are consistent with earlier estimates, computed for the population

  1. Effect of evening exposure to bright or dim light after daytime bright light on absorption of dietary carbohydrates the following morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Naoko; Sone, Yoshiaki; Tokura, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    We had previously reported on the effect of exposure to light on the human digestive system: daytime bright light exposure has a positive effect, whereas, evening bright light exposure has a negative effect on the efficiency of dietary carbohydrate absorption from the evening meal. These results prompted us to examine whether the light intensity to which subjects are exposed in the evening affects the efficiency of dietary carbohydrate absorption the following morning. In this study, subjects were exposed to either 50 lux (dim light conditions) or 2,000 lux (bright light conditions) in the evening for 9 h (from 15:00 to 24:00) after staying under bright light in the daytime (under 2,000 lux from 07:00 to 15:00). We measured unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates using the breath-hydrogen test the morning after exposure to either bright light or dim light the previous evening. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two conditions in the amount of breath hydrogen. This indicates that evening exposure to bright or dim light after bright light exposure in the daytime has no varying effect on digestion or absorption of dietary carbohydrates in the following morning's breakfast.

  2. Interferon-γ production by tubulointerstitial human CD56bright natural killer cells contributes to renal fibrosis and chronic kidney disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Becker M P; Wilkinson, Ray; Wang, Xiangju; Kildey, Katrina; Lindner, Mae; Rist, Melissa J; Beagley, Kenneth; Healy, Helen; Kassianos, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a population of lymphoid cells that play a significant role in mediating innate immune responses. Studies in mice suggest a pathological role for NK cells in models of kidney disease. In this study, we characterized the NK cell subsets present in native kidneys of patients with tubulointerstitial fibrosis, the pathological hallmark of chronic kidney disease. Significantly higher numbers of total NK cells (CD3 - CD56 + ) were detected in renal biopsies with tubulointerstitial fibrosis compared with diseased biopsies without fibrosis and healthy kidney tissue using multi-color flow cytometry. At a subset level, both the CD56 dim NK cell subset and particularly the CD56 bright NK cell subset were elevated in fibrotic kidney tissue. However, only CD56 bright NK cells significantly correlated with the loss of kidney function. Expression of the tissue-retention and -activation molecule CD69 on CD56 bright NK cells was significantly increased in fibrotic biopsy specimens compared with non-fibrotic kidney tissue, indicative of a pathogenic phenotype. Further flow cytometric phenotyping revealed selective co-expression of activating receptor CD335 (NKp46) and differentiation marker CD117 (c-kit) on CD56 bright NK cells. Multi-color immunofluorescent staining of fibrotic kidney tissue localized the accumulation of NK cells within the tubulointerstitium, with CD56 bright NK cells (NKp46 + CD117 + ) identified as the source of pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ within the NK cell compartment. Thus, activated interferon-γ-producing CD56 bright NK cells are positioned to play a key role in the fibrotic process and progression to chronic kidney disease. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Large-area and bright pulsed electroluminescence in monolayer semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Der-Hsien; Amani, Matin; Desai, Sujay B.; Ahn, Geun Ho; Han, Kevin; He, Jr-Hau; Ager, Joel W.; Wu, Ming C.; Javey, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers have naturally terminated surfaces and can exhibit a near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield in the presence of suitable defect passivation. To date, steady-state monolayer light-emitting devices suffer from Schottky contacts or require complex heterostructures. We demonstrate a transient-mode electroluminescent device based on transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers (MoS, WS, MoSe, and WSe) to overcome these problems. Electroluminescence from this dopant-free two-terminal device is obtained by applying an AC voltage between the gate and the semiconductor. Notably, the electroluminescence intensity is weakly dependent on the Schottky barrier height or polarity of the contact. We fabricate a monolayer seven-segment display and achieve the first transparent and bright millimeter-scale light-emitting monolayer semiconductor device.

  4. Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Lars; Wiechers, Carlos; Wittmann, Christoffer; Elser, Dominique; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim

    2010-10-01

    The peculiar properties of quantum mechanics allow two remote parties to communicate a private, secret key, which is protected from eavesdropping by the laws of physics. So-called quantum key distribution (QKD) implementations always rely on detectors to measure the relevant quantum property of single photons. Here we demonstrate experimentally that the detectors in two commercially available QKD systems can be fully remote-controlled using specially tailored bright illumination. This makes it possible to tracelessly acquire the full secret key; we propose an eavesdropping apparatus built from off-the-shelf components. The loophole is likely to be present in most QKD systems using avalanche photodiodes to detect single photons. We believe that our findings are crucial for strengthening the security of practical QKD, by identifying and patching technological deficiencies.

  5. Design of ultrahigh brightness solar-pumped disk laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana

    2012-09-10

    To significantly improve the solar-pumped laser beam brightness, a multi-Fresnel lens scheme is proposed for side-pumping either a single-crystal Nd:YAG or a core-doped ceramic Sm(3+) Nd:YAG disk. Optimum laser system parameters are found through ZEMAX and LASCAD numerical analysis. An ultrahigh laser beam figure of merit B of 53 W is numerically calculated, corresponding to a significant enhancement of more than 180 times over the previous record. 17.7 W/m(2) collection efficiency is also numerically attained. The strong thermal effects that have hampered present-day rod-type solar-pumped lasers can also be largely alleviated.

  6. Beyond the Kepler/K2 bright limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, T. R.; Pope, B. J. S.; Antoci, V.

    2017-01-01

    The most powerful tests of stellar models come from the brightest stars in the sky, for which complementary techniques, such as astrometry, asteroseismology, spectroscopy and interferometry, can be combined. The K2 mission is providing a unique opportunity to obtain high-precision photometric time...... have developed a new photometric technique, which we call halo photometry, to observe very bright stars using a limited number of pixels. Halo photometry is simple, fast and does not require extensive pixel allocation, and will allow us to use K2 and other photometric missions, such as TESS, to observe...... to 2000 ppm. For the star Maia, we demonstrate the utility of combining K2 photometry with spectroscopy and interferometry to show that it is not a 'Maia variable', and to establish that its variability is caused by rotational modulation of a large chemical spot on a 10 d time-scale....

  7. ROLE OF DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTERS IN HIGH BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the possibility of using diamond secondary emitter in a high average current electron injector to amplify the current from the photocathode and to isolate the cathode and the injector from each other to increase the life time of the cathode and preserve the performance of the injector. Secondary electron yield of 225 and current density of 0.8 a/cm 2 have been measured in the transmission mode from type 2 a natural diamond. Although the diamond will be heated during normal operation in the injector, calculations indicate that by cryogenically cooling the diamond, the temperature gradient along the diamond can be maintained within the acceptable range. The electron energy and temporal distributions are expected to be narrow from this device resulting in high brightness beams. Plans are underway to measure the SEY in emission mode, fabricate photocathode-diamond capsule and test diamond and capsule in superconducting RF injector

  8. A new, bright and hard aluminum surface produced by anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fengyan; Hu, Bo; Tay, See Leng; Wang, Yuxin; Xiong, Chao; Gao, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Anodized aluminum (Al) and Al alloys have a wide range of applications. However, certain anodized finishings have relatively low hardness, dull appearance and/or poor corrosion resistance, which limited their applications. In this research, Al was first electropolished in a phosphoric acid-based solution, then anodized in a sulfuric acid-based solution under controlled processing parameters. The anodized specimen was then sealed by two-step sealing method. A systematic study including microstructure, surface morphology, hardness and corrosion resistance of these anodized films has been conducted. Results show that the hardness of this new anodized film was increased by a factor of 10 compared with the pure Al metal. Salt spray corrosion testing also demonstrated the greatly improved corrosion resistance. Unlike the traditional hard anodized Al which presents a dull-colored surface, this newly developed anodized Al alloy possesses a very bright and shiny surface with good hardness and corrosion resistance.

  9. High-brightness electron source driven by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Kui; Geng Rongli; Wang Lifang

    1996-01-01

    A DC high-brightness laser driven by photo emissive electron gun is being developed at Beijing University, in order to produce 50∼100 ps electron bunches of high quality. The gun consists of a photocathode preparation chamber and a DC acceleration cavity. Different ways of fabricating photocathode, such as chemical vapor deposition, ion beam implantation and ion beam enhanced deposition, can be adopted. The acceleration gap is designed with the aid of simulation codes EGUN and POISSON. 100 kV DC high voltage is fed to the anode through a careful designed ceramic insulator. The laser system is a mode locked Nd-YAG oscillator proceeded by an amplifier at 10 Hz repetition rate, which can deliver three different wavelength (1064/532/266 nm). The combination of a superconducting cavity with the photocathode preparation chamber is discussed

  10. Efficiency of observer brightness discrimination in original and subracted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swensson, R.G.; Kazda, I.; Nawfel, R.; Judy, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that, for an optimal image calculation, discriminating pairs of objects that differ only in brightness is equivalent to discriminating polarity differences in their subtraction images. This experiment measured and compared how efficiently human observers could perform the two different discriminations posed by such original and subtracted images. Disks of equal size, separated by their diameter, were superimposed on incorrelated, Gaussian noise backgrounds at different contrasts that made the two disks readily visible on the displayed radiographs. The digitally subtracted image-regions containing the two disks of each pair (shifted to registration) produced subtraction images with low-contrast disks that were either brighter or darker than the background. Observer performances in each task (measured by receiver operating characteristic [ROC] analysis) was compared with that of an optimal calculation (cross- correlator)

  11. Criteria for emittance compensation in high-brightness photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-xi Wang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A critical process in high-brightness photoinjectors is emittance compensation, which brings under control the correlated transverse emittance growth due to the linear space-charge force. Although emittance compensation has been used and studied for almost two decades, the exact criteria to achieve emittance compensation is not as clear as it should be. In this paper, a perturbative analysis of slice envelopes and emittance evolution close to any reference envelope is developed, via which space-charge and chromatic effects are investigated. A new criterion for emittance compensation is found, which is complementary to the well-known matching condition for the invariant envelope and agrees very well with simulations.

  12. High Brightness Injectors Based On Photocathode DC Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Yunn

    2001-01-01

    Sample results of new injector design method based on a photocathode dc gun are presented, based on other work analytically proving the validity of the emittance compensation scheme for the case even when beam bunching is involved. We have designed several new injectors appropriate for different bunch charge ranges accordingly. Excellent beam quality produced by these injectors clearly shows that a photocathode dc gun can compete with a rf gun on an equal footing as the source of an electron beam for the bunch charge ranging up to 2 nano Coulomb (nC). This work therefore elevates a dc gun based injector to the preferred choice for many ongoing high brightness accelerator projects considering the proven operational stability and high average power capability of the dc gun

  13. Beam position monitors for the high brightness lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, T.

    1985-06-01

    Engineering developments associated with the high brightness lattice and the projected change in machine operating parameters will inherently affect the diagnostics systems and devices installed at present in the storage ring. This is particularly true of the beam position monitoring (BPI) system. The new sixteen unit cell lattice with its higher betatron tune values and the limited space available in the redesigned machine straights for fitting standard BPI vessels forces a fundamental re-evaluation of the beam position monitor system. The design aims for the new system are based on accepting the space limitations imposed while still providing the monitor points required to give good radial and vertical closed orbit plots. The locations of BPI's in the redesigned machine straights is illustrated. A description of the new BPI assemblies and their calibration is given. The BPI's use capacitance button type pick-ups; their response is described. (U.K.)

  14. Multiwavelength Coverage of a Bright Flare from Sgr A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trap, G.; Goldwurm, A.; Terrier, R.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamical center of our galaxy hosts a supermassive black hole, Sgr A*, which has been the target of an extensive multiwavelength campaign for a week in April 2007. We report here the detection of a bright flare from the vicinity of the horizon, observed simultaneously in X-rays (XMM-Newton) and NIR (VLT/NACO) on April 4 th . For the first time, such an event also benefitted from a soft γ-rays (INTEGRAL/ISGRI) and MIR (VLT/VISIR) coverage, which enabled us to derive upper limits at both ends of Sgr A* spectral energy distribution (SED). We discuss the physical implications of the contemporaneous light curves as well as the SED, in terms of synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton emission processes.

  15. Discovery of a bright quasar without a massive host galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magain, Pierre; Letawe, Géraldine; Courbin, Frédéric; Jablonka, Pascale; Jahnke, Knud; Meylan, Georges; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2005-09-15

    A quasar is thought to be powered by the infall of matter onto a supermassive black hole at the centre of a massive galaxy. Because the optical luminosity of quasars exceeds that of their host galaxy, disentangling the two components can be difficult. This led in the 1990s to the controversial claim of the discovery of 'naked' quasars. Since then, the connection between quasars and galaxies has been well established. Here we report the discovery of a quasar lying at the edge of a gas cloud, whose size is comparable to that of a small galaxy, but whose spectrum shows no evidence for stars. The gas in the cloud is excited by the quasar itself. If a host galaxy is present, it is at least six times fainter than would normally be expected for such a bright quasar. The quasar is interacting dynamically with a neighbouring galaxy, whose gas might be feeding the black hole.

  16. Investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazarov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this project was investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors. This basic research in accelerator physics spanned over 5 years aiming to extend the fundamental understanding of high average current, low emittance sources of relativistic electrons based on photoemission guns, a necessary prerequisite for a new generation of coherent X-ray synchrotron radiation facilities based on continuous duty superconducting linacs. The program focused on two areas critical to making advances in the electron source performance: 1) the physics of photocathodes for the production of low emittance electrons and 2) control of space charge forces in the immediate vicinity to the cathode via 3D laser pulse shaping.

  17. Large-area and bright pulsed electroluminescence in monolayer semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Der-Hsien

    2018-04-04

    Transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers have naturally terminated surfaces and can exhibit a near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield in the presence of suitable defect passivation. To date, steady-state monolayer light-emitting devices suffer from Schottky contacts or require complex heterostructures. We demonstrate a transient-mode electroluminescent device based on transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers (MoS, WS, MoSe, and WSe) to overcome these problems. Electroluminescence from this dopant-free two-terminal device is obtained by applying an AC voltage between the gate and the semiconductor. Notably, the electroluminescence intensity is weakly dependent on the Schottky barrier height or polarity of the contact. We fabricate a monolayer seven-segment display and achieve the first transparent and bright millimeter-scale light-emitting monolayer semiconductor device.

  18. Investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazarov, Ivan [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project was investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors. This basic research in accelerator physics spanned over 5 years aiming to extend the fundamental understanding of high average current, low emittance sources of relativistic electrons based on photoemission guns, a necessary prerequisite for a new generation of coherent X-ray synchrotron radiation facilities based on continuous duty superconducting linacs. The program focused on two areas critical to making advances in the electron source performance: 1) the physics of photocathodes for the production of low emittance electrons and 2) control of space charge forces in the immediate vicinity to the cathode via 3D laser pulse shaping.

  19. Three Millisecond Pulsars in Fermi LAT Unassociated Bright Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Camilo, F.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Celik, O.; Wolff, M. T.; Cheung, C. C.; Kerr, M.; Pennucci, T.; DeCesar, M. E.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We searched for radio pulsars in 25 of the non-variable, unassociated sources in the Fermi LAT Bright Source List with the Green Bank Telescope at 820 MHz. We report the discovery of three radio and gamma-ray millisecond pulsar (MSPs) from a high Galactic latitude subset of these sources. All of the pulsars are in binary systems, which would have made them virtually impossible to detect in blind gamma-ray pulsation searches. They seem to be relatively normal, nearby (pulsars are power law in nature with exponential cutoffs at a few Ge V, as has been found with most other pulsars. The MSPs have all been detected as X-ray point sources. Their soft X-ray luminosities of approx 10(exp 30) - 10(exp 31) erg/s are typical of the rare radio MSPs seen in X-rays.

  20. IRAS bright galaxy sample. II. The sample and luminosity function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soifer, B.T.; Sanders, D.B.; Neugebauer, G.; Madore, B.F.; Danielson, G.E.; David Dunlap Observatory, Richmond Hill, Canada; Palomar Observatory; California Institute of Technology, Pasadena)

    1987-01-01

    A statistically complete sample of 324 of the brightest infrared galaxies discovered at 60 microns in the IRAS all-sky survey is described. The results show that far-infrared emission is a significant luminosity component in the local universe, representing 25 percent of the luminosity emitted by stars in the same volume. Above 10 to the 11th solar luminosities, the infrared luminous galaxies are the dominant population of objects in the universe, being as numerous as the Seyfert galaxies and more numerous than quasars at higher luminosities. The infrared luminosity appears to be independent of the optical luminosity of galaxies. Most infrared bright galaxies appear to require much of the interstellar matter to be contributing to the observed infrared luminosity. Approximately 60-80 percent of the far-infrared luminosity of the local universe can be attributed, directly or indirectly, to recent or ongoing star formation. 67 references

  1. Hyperfine interaction in the Autler-Townes effect: The formation of bright, dark, and chameleon states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirova, T.; Cinins, A.; Efimov, D. K.; Bruvelis, M.; Miculis, K.; Bezuglov, N. N.; Auzinsh, M.; Ryabtsev, I. I.; Ekers, A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper is devoted to clarifying the implications of hyperfine (HF) interaction in the formation of adiabatic (i.e., "laser-dressed") states and their expression in the Autler-Townes (AT) spectra. We first use the Morris-Shore model [J. R. Morris and B. W. Shore, Phys. Rev. A 27, 906 (1983), 10.1103/PhysRevA.27.906] to illustrate how bright and dark states are formed in a simple reference system where closely spaced energy levels are coupled to a single state with a strong laser field with the respective Rabi frequency ΩS. We then expand the simulations to realistic hyperfine level systems in Na atoms for a more general case when non-negligible HF interaction can be treated as a perturbation in the total system Hamiltonian. A numerical analysis of the adiabatic states that are formed by coupling of the 3 p3 /2 and 4 d5 /2 states by the strong laser field and probed by a weak laser field on the 3 s1 /2-3 p3 /2 transition yielded two important conclusions. Firstly, the perturbation introduced by the HF interaction leads to the observation of what we term "chameleon" states—states that change their appearance in the AT spectrum, behaving as bright states at small to moderate ΩS, and fading from the spectrum similarly to dark states when ΩS is much larger than the HF splitting of the 3 p3 /2 state. Secondly, excitation by the probe field from two different HF levels of the ground state allows one to address orthogonal sets of adiabatic states; this enables, with appropriate choice of ΩS and the involved quantum states, a selective excitation of otherwise unresolved hyperfine levels in excited electronic states.

  2. Multiwavelength Study of Gamma-Ray Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Daria; Larionov, V. M.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Troitskii, I. S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate total intensity radio images of 6 gamma-ray bright blazars (BL Lac, 3C 279, 3C 273, W Com, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 66A) and their optical and gamma-ray light curves to study connections between gamma-ray and optical brightness variations and changes in the parsec-scale radio structure. We use high-resolution maps obtained by the BU group at 43 GHz with the VLBA, optical light curves constructed by the St.Petersburg State U. (Russia) team using measurements with the 0.4 m telescope of St.Petersburg State U. (LX200) and the 0.7 m telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (AZT-8), and gamma-ray light curves, which we have constructed with data provided by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Over the period from August 2008 to November 2009, superluminal motion is found in all 6 objects with apparent speed ranging from 2c to 40c. The blazars with faster apparent speeds, 3C 273, 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 66A, exhibit stronger variability of the gamma-ray emission. There is a tendency for sources with sharply peaked gamma-ray flares to have faster jet speed than sources with gamma-ray light curves with no sharp peaks. Gamma-ray light curves with sharply peaked gamma-ray flares possess a stronger gamma-ray/optical correlations. The research at St.Petersburg State U. was funded by the Minister of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (state contract N#P123). The research at BU was funded in part by NASA Fermi Guest Investigator grant NNX08AV65G and by NSF grant AST-0907893. The VLBA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  3. Human responses to bright light of different durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anne-Marie; Santhi, Nayantara; St Hilaire, Melissa; Gronfier, Claude; Bradstreet, Dayna S; Duffy, Jeanne F; Lockley, Steven W; Kronauer, Richard E; Czeisler, Charles A

    2012-07-01

    Light exposure in the early night induces phase delays of the circadian rhythm in melatonin in humans. Previous studies have investigated the effect of timing, intensity, wavelength, history and pattern of light stimuli on the human circadian timing system. We present results from a study of the duration–response relationship to phase-delaying bright light. Thirty-nine young healthy participants (16 female; 22.18±3.62 years) completed a 9-day inpatient study. Following three baseline days, participants underwent an initial circadian phase assessment procedure in dim light (light pulse (∼10,000 lux) of 0.2 h, 1.0 h, 2.5 h or 4.0 h duration during a 4.5 h controlled-posture episode centred in a 16 h wake episode. After another 8 h sleep episode, participants completed a second circadian phase assessment. Phase shifts were calculated from the difference in the clock time of the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) between the initial and final phase assessments. Exposure to varying durations of bright light reset the circadian pacemaker in a dose-dependent, non-linear manner. Per minute of exposure, the 0.2 h duration was over 5 times more effective at phase delaying the circadian pacemaker (1.07±0.36 h) as compared with the 4.0 h duration (2.65±0.24 h). Acute melatonin suppression and subjective sleepiness also had a dose-dependent response to light exposure duration. These results provide strong evidence for a non-linear resetting response of the human circadian pacemaker to light duration.

  4. State-Of High Brightness RF Photo-Injector Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Massimo; Clendenin, Jym; Palmer, Dennis; Rosenzweig, James; Serafini, Luca

    2000-04-01

    The art of designing optimized high brightness electron RF Photo-Injectors has moved in the last decade from a cut and try procedure, guided by experimental experience and time consuming particle tracking simulations, up to a fast parameter space scanning, guided by recent analytical results and a fast running semi-analytical code, so to reach the optimum operating point which corresponds to maximum beam brightness. Scaling laws and the theory of invariant envelope provide to the designers excellent tools for a first parameters choice and the code HOMDYN, based on a multi-slice envelope description of the beam dynamics, is tailored to describe the space charge dominated dynamics of laminar beams in presence of time dependent space charge forces, giving rise to a very fast modeling capability for photo-injectors design. We report in this talk the results of a recent beam dynamics study, motivated by the need to redesign the LCLS photoinjector. During this work a new effective working point for a split RF photoinjector has been discovered by means of the previous mentioned approach. By a proper choice of rf gun and solenoid parameters, the emittance evolution shows a double minimum behavior in the drifting region. If the booster is located where the relative emittance maximum and the envelope waist occur, the second emittance minimum can be shifted at the booster exit and frozen at a very low level (0.3 mm-mrad for a 1 nC flat top bunch), to the extent that the invariant envelope matching conditions are satisfied.

  5. Characterizing bars in low surface brightness disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Wesley; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we use B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm azimuthal light profiles of four low surface brightness galaxies (LSBs; UGC 628, F568-1, F568-3, F563-V2) to characterize three bar parameters: length, strength, and corotation radius. We employ three techniques to measure the radius of the bars, including a new method using the azimuthal light profiles. We find comparable bar radii between the I-band and 3.6 μm for all four galaxies when using our azimuthal light profile method, and that our bar lengths are comparable to those in high surface brightness galaxies (HSBs). In addition, we find the bar strengths for our galaxies to be smaller than those for HSBs. Finally, we use Fourier transforms of the B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm images to characterize the bars as either `fast' or `slow' by measuring the corotation radius via phase profiles. When using the B- and I-band phase crossings, we find three of our galaxies have faster than expected relative bar pattern speeds for galaxies expected to be embedded in centrally dense cold dark matter haloes. When using the B-band and 3.6 μm phase crossings, we find more ambiguous results, although the relative bar pattern speeds are still faster than expected. Since we find a very slow bar in F563-V2, we are confident that we are able to differentiate between fast and slow bars. Finally, we find no relation between bar strength and relative bar pattern speed when comparing our LSBs to HSBs.

  6. Differential Rotation via Tracking of Coronal Bright Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAteer, James; Boucheron, Laura E.; Osorno, Marcy

    2016-05-01

    The accurate computation of solar differential rotation is important both as a constraint for, and evidence towards, support of models of the solar dynamo. As such, the use of Xray and Extreme Ultraviolet bright points to elucidate differential rotation has been studied in recent years. In this work, we propose the automated detection and tracking of coronal bright points (CBPs) in a large set of SDO data for re-evaluation of solar differential rotation and comparison to other results. The big data aspects, and high cadence, of SDO data mitigate a few issues common to detection and tracking of objects in image sequences and allow us to focus on the use of CBPs to determine differential rotation. The high cadence of the data allows to disambiguate individual CBPs between subsequent images by allowing for significant spatial overlap, i.e., by the fact that the CBPs will rotate a short distance relative to their size. The significant spatial overlap minimizes the effects of incorrectly detected CBPs by reducing the occurrence of outlier values of differential rotation. The big data aspects of the data allows to be more conservative in our detection of CBPs (i.e., to err on the side of missing CBPs rather than detecting extraneous CBPs) while still maintaining statistically larger populations over which to study characteristics. The ability to compute solar differential rotation through the automated detection and tracking of a large population of CBPs will allow for further analyses such as the N-S asymmetry of differential rotation, variation of differential rotation over the solar cycle, and a detailed study of the magnetic flux underlying the CBPs.

  7. SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF DWARF GALAXIES. I. PROFILES AND STATISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Kimberly A.; Hunter, Deidre A.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2013-01-01

    Radial surface brightness profiles of spiral galaxies are classified into three types: (I) single exponential, or the light falls off with one exponential to a break before falling off (II) more steeply, or (III) less steeply. Profile breaks are also found in dwarf disks, but some dwarf Type IIs are flat or increasing out to a break before falling off. Here we re-examine the stellar disk profiles of 141 dwarfs: 96 dwarf irregulars (dIms), 26 Blue Compact Dwarfs (BCDs), and 19 Magellanic-type spirals (Sms). We fit single, double, or even triple exponential profiles in up to 11 passbands: GALEX FUV and NUV, ground-based UBVJHK and Hα, and Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 μm. We find that more luminous galaxies have brighter centers, larger inner and outer scale lengths, and breaks at larger radii; dwarf trends with M B extend to spirals. However, the V-band break surface brightness is independent of break type, M B , and Hubble type. Dwarf Type II and III profiles fall off similarly beyond the breaks but have different interiors and IIs break ∼twice as far as IIIs. Outer Type II and III scale lengths may have weak trends with wavelength, but pure Type II inner scale lengths clearly decrease from the FUV to visible bands whereas Type III inner scale lengths increase with redder bands. This suggests the influence of different star formation histories on profile type, but nonetheless the break location is approximately the same in all passbands. Dwarfs continue trends between profile and Hubble types such that later-type galaxies have more Type II but fewer Type I and III profiles than early-type spirals. BCDs and Sms are over-represented as Types III and II, respectively, compared to dIms

  8. OPTICAL/NEAR-INFRARED SELECTION OF RED QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS: EVIDENCE FOR STEEP EXTINCTION CURVES TOWARD GALACTIC CENTERS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fynbo, J. P. U.; Krogager, J.-K.; Vestergaard, M.; Geier, S. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Venemans, B. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Noterdaeme, P. [CNRS-UPMC, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis Bd. Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Moller, P. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschildstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Ledoux, C. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2013-01-15

    We present the results of a search for red QSOs using a selection based on optical imaging from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and near-infrared imaging from UKIDSS. Our main goal with the selection is to search for QSOs reddened by foreground dusty absorber galaxies. For a sample of 58 candidates (including 20 objects fulfilling our selection criteria that already have spectra in the SDSS), 46 (79%) are confirmed to be QSOs. The QSOs are predominantly dust-reddened except for a handful at redshifts z {approx}> 3.5. However, the dust is most likely located in the QSO host galaxies (and for two, the reddening is primarily caused by Galactic dust) rather than in the intervening absorbers. More than half of the QSOs show evidence of associated absorption (BAL absorption). Four (7%) of the candidates turned out to be late-type stars, and another four (7%) are compact galaxies. We could not identify the remaining four objects. In terms of their optical spectra, these QSOs are similar to the QSOs selected in the FIRST-2MASS Red Quasar Survey except they are on average fainter, more distant, and only two are detected in the FIRST survey. As per the usual procedure, we estimate the amount of extinction using the SDSS QSO template reddened by Small-Magellanic-Cloud-(SMC) like dust. It is possible to get a good match to the observed (rest-frame ultraviolet) spectra, but it is not possible to match the observed near-IR photometry from UKIDSS for nearly all the reddened QSOs. The most likely reasons are that the SDSS QSO template is too red at optical wavelengths due to contaminating host galaxy light and because the assumed SMC extinction curve is too shallow. Three of the compact galaxies display old stellar populations with ages of several Gyr and masses of about 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} (based on spectral energy distribution modeling). The inferred stellar densities in these galaxies exceed 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} kpc{sup -2}, which is among the highest measured for early

  9. Bright solitons in coupled defocusing NLS equation supported by coupling: Application to Bose-Einstein condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Sadhan K.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate the formation of bright solitons in coupled self-defocusing nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation supported by attractive coupling. As an application we use a time-dependent dynamical mean-field model to study the formation of stable bright solitons in two-component repulsive Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) supported by interspecies attraction in a quasi one-dimensional geometry. When all interactions are repulsive, there cannot be bright solitons. However, bright solitons can be formed in two-component repulsive BECs for a sufficiently attractive interspecies interaction, which induces an attractive effective interaction among bosons of same type

  10. Dark and bright solitons in a quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shun-Jin; Jia, Cheng-Long; An, Jun-Hong; Zhao, Dun; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2003-01-01

    The analytical dark and bright soliton solutions of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a confining potential are obtained. For the bright soliton, the recent experimental finding is studied, and the particle number of the soliton and the window of the particle numbers for the bright soliton to occur are estimated analytically and in good agreement with the experimental data. The existence of dark soliton for the attractive interaction and bright soliton for the repulsive interaction is predicted under proper conditions

  11. Observation of near-infrared surface brightness of the large Magellanic cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Satio; Koizumi, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Toshio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Uyama, Kiichiro.

    1981-01-01

    The near-infrared surface brightness of the large Magellanic cloud was observed by an infrared telescope carried by a balloon. The balloon flight was made at Australian Balloon Launching Station. The brightness distribution of 2.4 Mu m radiation was obtained. A part of Bar was bright, and the expansion of the contour at the east end of Bar corresponded to the 30 Dor region. Many near-infrared sources distribute in this region. Discussions on the color and brightness of the center of Bar and the 30 Dor region are presented. (Kato, T.)

  12. Near-IR TRGB Distance Modulus of Dwarf Irregular Galaxy IC 1613

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Jung

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The JHKs magnitudes of the red giant branch tip (TRGB and the distance moduli of the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 have been determined from the nearinfrared luminosity functions (LFs of the resolved stars in the galaxy. Applying a Savitzky-Golay filtering, we derived the second derivatives of the LFs, and estimated the apparent magnitudes of the TRGB as mJ = 19.1, mH = 18.4, and mKs = 18:0. The mean values of the theoretical absolute magnitudes of the TRGB were measured by using the Yonsei-Yale isochrones with a metallicity range of -2.1 < [Fe/H] < -0.5 and age of 12 Gyr. The derived values of near-infrared TRGB distance moduli for IC 1613 are (m-M = 24.12±0:25, 24.20±0.44, and 24.00±0.52 for J;H, and Ks bands, respectively.

  13. The Near-IR TRGB Magnitude and Distance Modulus to NGC 185

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-J. Sohn

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We determined values of distance modulus to nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 185 from the Tip of Red-Giant Branch (TRGB method. Apparent magnitudes of the TRGB are estimated from the near-infrared JHK luminosity functions (LFs of the resolved giant branch stars. Theoretical absolute magnitudes of the TRGB in near-infrared bands have been extracted from the Yonsei-Yale isochrones. The observed apparent and theoretical absolute magnitudes of the TRGB provide values of distance modulus to NGC 185 as (m - M.

  14. Near-IR TRGB Distance to Nearby Dwarf Irregular Galaxy NGC 6822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-J. Sohn

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the distance modulus of nearby dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822 estimated from the so-called Tip of Red-giant Branch (TRGB method. To detect the apparent magnitudes of the TRGB we use the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs and luminosity functions (LFs in the near-infrared JHK bands. Foreground stars, main-sequence stars, and supergiant stars have been classified on the (g - K, g plane and removed on the near-infrared CMDs, from which only RGB and AGB stars are remained on the CMDs and LFs. By applying the Savitzky-Golay filter to the obtained LFs and detecting the peak in the second derivative of the observed LFs, we determined the apparent magnitudes of the TRGB. Theoretical absolute magnitudes of the TRGB are estimated from Yonsei-Yale isochrones with the age of 12Gyr and the metallicity range of -2.0 <[Fe/H]< -0.5. The derived values of distance modulus to NGC 6822 are (m - M

  15. Simultaneous multicolour optical and near-IR transit photometry of GJ 1214b with SOFIA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angerhausen, D.; Dreyer, L. L.; Placek, B.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Eigmueller, Ph.; Godolt, M.; Kitzmann, D.; Mallonn, M.; Becklin, E. E.; Collins, P.; Dunham, D.; Grenfell, J.L.; Hamilton, R. T.; Kabáth, Petr; Logsdon, J. M.; Mandell, A.; Mandushev, G.; McElwain, M.; McLean, I.S.; Pfueller, E.; Rauer, H.; Savage, M.; Shenoy, S.; Vacca, W. D.; Van Cleve, J. E.; Wiedemann, M.; Wolf, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 608, December (2017), A120/1-A120/12 E-ISSN 1432-0746 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : hubble- space -telescope * light curves * transmission spectrum Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics, space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  16. Kinetic Assembly of Near-IR Active Gold Nanoclusters using Weakly Adsorbing Polymers to Control Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Jasmine M.; Murthy, Avinash K.; Ingram, Davis R.; Nguyen, Robin; Sokolov, Konstantin V.; Johnston, Keith P.

    2013-01-01

    Clusters of metal nanoparticles with an overall size less than 100 nm and high metal loadings for strong optical functionality, are of interest in various fields including microelectronics, sensors, optoelectronics and biomedical imaging and therapeutics. Herein we assemble ~5 nm gold particles into clusters with controlled size, as small as 30 nm and up to 100 nm, which contain only small amounts of polymeric stabilizers. The assembly is kinetically controlled with weakly adsorbing polymers, PLA(2K)-b-PEG(10K)-b-PLA(2K) or PEG (MW = 3350), by manipulating electrostatic, van der Waals (VDW), steric, and depletion forces. The cluster size and optical properties are tuned as a function of particle volume fractions and polymer/gold ratios to modulate the interparticle interactions. The close spacing between the constituent gold nanoparticles and high gold loadings (80–85% w/w gold) produce a strong absorbance cross section of ~9×10−15 m2 in the NIR at 700 nm. This morphology results from VDW and depletion attractive interactions that exclude the weakly adsorbed polymeric stabilizer from the cluster interior. The generality of this kinetic assembly platform is demonstrated for gold nanoparticles with a range of surface charges from highly negative to neutral, with the two different polymers. PMID:20361735

  17. Neptune’s zonal winds from near-IR Keck adaptive optics imaging in August 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, S.C.; De Pater, I.; Marcus, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present H-band (1.4–1.8 ?m) images of Neptune with a spatial resolution of ?0.06?, taken with the W.M. Keck II telescope using the slit-viewing camera (SCAM) of the NIRSPEC instrument backed with Adaptive Optics. Images with 60-second integration times span 4 hours each on UT 20 and 21 August,

  18. IRTF NEAR-IR SPECTROSCOPY OF ASTEROIDS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains low-resolution, near-infrared (0.8 - 2.5 micron) spectra of asteroids obtained with SpeX at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on...

  19. Perylene-fused BODIPY dye with near-IR absorption/emission and high photostability

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun

    2011-02-18

    A N-annulated perylene unit was successfully fused to the meso-and β-positions of a boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) core. The newly synthesized BODIPY dye 1b exhibits intensified near-infrared (NIR) absorption and the longest emission maximum ever observed for all BODIPY derivatives. In addition, this dye possesses excellent solubility and photostability, beneficial to practical applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Near-IR Polarized Scattered Light Imagery of the DoAr 28 Transitional Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Evan A.; Wisiniewski, John P.; Mayama, Satoshi; Brandt, Timothy D.; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Espaillat, Catherine; Serabyn, Eugene; Grady, Carol A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    We present the first spatially resolved polarized scattered light H-band detection of the DoAr 28 transitional disk. Our two epochs of imagery detect the scattered light disk from our effective inner working angle of 0 double prime.10 (13 AU) out to 0double prime.50 (65 AU). This inner working angle is interior to the location of the system's gap inferred by previous studies using spectral energy distribution modeling (15 AU). We detected a candidate point source companion 1 double prime.08 northwest of the system; however, our second epoch of imagery strongly suggests that this object is a background star. We constructed a grid of Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer models of the system, and our best fit models utilize a modestly inclined (50 degrees), 0.01 solar mass disk that has a partially depleted inner gap from the dust sublimation radius out to approximately 8 AU. Subtracting this best fit, axi-symmetric model from our polarized intensity data reveals evidence for two small asymmetries in the disk, which could be attributable to a variety of mechanisms.

  1. N-annulated perylene fused porphyrins with enhanced near-IR absorption and emission

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Guan, Zhenping; Xu, Qinghua; Wu, Jishan

    2010-01-01

    -IR absorption, as well as detectable photoluminescence quantum yields, all of which are comparable to or even exceed those of either meso-β doubly linked porphyrin dimer/trimer or bis/tri-N-annulated rylenes. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  2. NEAR-IR STUDIES OF RECURRENT NOVA V745 SCORPII DURING ITS 2014 OUTBURST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D. P. K.; Joshi, Vishal; Venkataraman, V.; Ashok, N. M.; Raj, A.; Marion, G. H.; Hsiao, E. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The recurrent nova V745 Scorpii underwent its third known outburst on 2014 February 6. Infrared monitoring of the eruption on an almost daily basis, starting from 1.3 days after discovery, shows the emergence of a powerful blast wave generated by the high velocity nova ejecta exceeding 4000 km s –1 plowing into its surrounding environment. The temperature of the shocked gas is raised to a high value exceeding 10 8 K immediately after outburst commencement. The energetics of the outburst clearly surpass those of similar symbiotic systems like RS Oph and V407 Cyg which have giant secondaries. The shock does not show a free-expansion stage but rather shows a decelerative Sedov-Taylor phase from the beginning. Such strong shock fronts are known to be sites for γ-ray generation. V745 Sco is the latest nova, apart from five other known novae, to show γ-ray emission. It may be an important testbed to resolve the crucial question of whether or not all novae are generically γ-ray emitters by virtue of having a circumbinary reservoir of material that is shocked by the ejecta rather than γ-ray generation being restricted to only symbiotic systems with a shocked red giant (RG) wind. The lack of a free-expansion stage favors V745 Sco to have a density enhancement around the white dwarf (WD), above that contributed by a RG wind. Our analysis also suggests that the WD in V745 Sco is very massive and a potential progenitor for a future SN Ia explosion

  3. A Study of GaAsSb Nanowires by Molecular Beam Epitaxy for Near IR Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    Mosca, S. Franchi , P. Frigeri, E. Gombia, A. Carnera, M. Peroni, Mater. Science and Eng. B 80, 32 (2001). 1 Appendix C Pavan...Hossain N, Hild K, Jin S R, Sweeney S J, Yu S Q, Johnson S R, Ding D and Zhang Y H 2010 Photonics Global Conference IEEE 1 14 [3] Hwang J S, Tsai J T, Su

  4. Optical changes of dentin in the near-IR as a function of mineral content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Rhett A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2017-02-01

    The optical properties of human dentin can change markedly due to aging, friction from opposing teeth, and acute trauma, resulting in the formation of transparent or sclerotic dentin with increased mineral density. The objective of this study was to determine the optical attenuation coefficient of human dentin tissues with different mineral densities in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions from 1300-2200 nm using NIR transillumination and optical coherence tomography (OCT). N=50 dentin samples of varying opacities were obtained by sectioning whole extracted teeth into 150 μm transverse sections at the cemento-enamel junction or the apical root. Transillumination images were acquired with a NIR camera and attenuation measurements were acquired at various NIR wavelengths using a NIR sensitive photodiode. Samples were imaged with transverse microradiography (gold standard) in order to determine the mineral density of each sample.

  5. Hubble space telescope near-ir transmission spectroscopy of the super-Earth HD 97658B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dragomir, Diana [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Kreidberg, Laura; Bean, Jacob L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Kempton, Eliza M.-R. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112 (United States); McCullough, P. R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Gillon, Michael [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Universiteé de Liége, Liége 1 (Belgium); Homeier, Derek [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, F-69364 Lyon (France); Howard, Andrew W., E-mail: hknutson@caltech.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    Recent results from the Kepler mission indicate that super-Earths (planets with masses between 1-10 times that of the Earth) are the most common kind of planet around nearby Sun-like stars. These planets have no direct solar system analogue, and are currently one of the least well-understood classes of extrasolar planets. Many super-Earths have average densities that are consistent with a broad range of bulk compositions, including both water-dominated worlds and rocky planets covered by a thick hydrogen and helium atmosphere. Measurements of the transmission spectra of these planets offer the opportunity to resolve this degeneracy by directly constraining the scale heights and corresponding mean molecular weights of their atmospheres. We present Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared spectroscopy of two transits of the newly discovered transiting super-Earth HD 97658b. We use the Wide Field Camera 3's (WFC3) scanning mode to measure the wavelength-dependent transit depth in 30 individual bandpasses. Our averaged differential transmission spectrum has a median 1σ uncertainty of 23 ppm in individual bins, making this the most precise observation of an exoplanetary transmission spectrum obtained with WFC3 to date. Our data are inconsistent with a cloud-free solar metallicity atmosphere at the 10σ level. They are consistent at the 0.4σ level with a flat line model, as well as effectively flat models corresponding to a metal-rich atmosphere or a solar metallicity atmosphere with a cloud or haze layer located at pressures of 10 mbar or higher.

  6. Genetic variation near IRS1 associates with reduced adiposity and an impaired metabolic profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Zillikens, M Carola; Stančákova, Alena

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 32 loci influencing body mass index, but this measure does not distinguish lean from fat mass. To identify adiposity loci, we meta-analyzed associations between ∼2.5 million SNPs and body fat percentage from 36,626 individuals and followed up the 14...

  7. Assessment of cavitation in artificial approximal dental lesions with near-IR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Bitewing radiography is still considered state-of-the-art diagnostic technology for assessing cavitation within approximal carious dental lesions, even though radiographs cannot resolve cavitated surfaces but instead are used to measure lesion depth in order to predict cavitation. Clinicians need new technologies capable of determining whether approximal carious lesions have become cavitated because not all lesions progress to cavitation. Assessing lesion cavitation from near-infrared (NIR) imaging methods holds great potential due to the high transparency of enamel in the NIR region from λ=1300-1700-nm, which allows direct visualization and quantified measurements of enamel demineralization. The objective of this study was to measure the change in lesion appearance between non-cavitated and cavitated lesions in artificially generated lesions using NIR imaging modalities (two-dimensional) at λ=1300-nm and λ=1450-nm and cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) (thee-dimensional) λ=1300-nm. Extracted human posterior teeth with sound proximal surfaces were chosen for this study and imaged before and after artificial lesions were made. A high speed dental hand piece was used to create artificial cavitated proximal lesions in sound samples and imaged. The cavitated artificial lesions were then filled with hydroxyapatite powder to simulate non-cavitated proximal lesions.

  8. IRTF NEAR-IR SPECTROSCOPY OF ASTEROIDS V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains low-resolution, near-infrared (0.8 - 2.5 micron) spectra of asteroids obtained with SpeX at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on...

  9. Spectrally resolved confocal microscopy using lanthanide centred near-IR emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Zhiyu; Tropiano, Manuel; Mantulnikovs, Konstantins

    2015-01-01

    The narrow, near infrared (NIR) emission from lanthanide ions has attracted great interest, particularly with regard to developing tools for bioimaging, where the long lifetimes of lanthanide excited states can be exploited to address problems arising from autofluorescence and sample transparency...

  10. Near-IR Direct Detection of Water Vapor in Tau Bootis b

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-24

    unknown orbital inclination. Treating the τ Boo system as a high flux ratio double-lined spectroscopic binary permits the direct measurement of the...the atmosphere of a non-transiting hot Jupiter, τ Boo b. Key words: planets and satellites: atmospheres – techniques: spectroscopic 1. INTRODUCTION...sensitivity required for these detections. Despite the agreement between the two groups, the direct detection of exoplanets, especially τ Boo b, has

  11. Detecting Near-UV and Near-IR Wavelengths With the FOVEON Image Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fai, Cheak

    2004-01-01

    .... The signal captured by the individual photodetectors must then be interpolated and integrated to obtain the closest color match and the finest possible resolution with reference to the actual object...

  12. Utilizing Near-IR Tunable Laser Absorption Spectroscopy to Study Detonation and Combustion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    A Hencken burner, Rotating Detonation Engine ( RDE ), and a detonation tube were studied using a Time-Devision Multiplexed Tunable Diode Laser...for the three systems. Velocity was calculated for the RDE system using the Doppler shift of the spectral lines. To perform the calculations necessary...however, the CH4 flame did not match as well. The exhaust of the RDE was studied at various equivalence ratios using a hydrogen-air mixture (H2-air

  13. Near-IR imaging of thermal changes in enamel during laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, Linn H.; Lee, Chulsung; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this work was to observe the various thermal-induced optical changes that occur in the near-infrared (NIR) during drilling in dentin and enamel with the laser and the high-speed dental handpiece. Tooth sections of ~ 3 mm-thickness were prepared from extracted human incisors (N=60). Samples were ablated with a mechanically scanned CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3-μm, a 300-Hz laser pulse repetition rate, and a laser pulse duration of 10-20 μs. An InGaAs imaging camera was used to acquire real-time NIR images at 1300-nm of thermal and mechanical changes (cracks). Enamel was rapidly removed by the CO2 laser without peripheral thermal damage by mechanically scanning the laser beam while a water spray was used to cool the sample. Comparison of the peripheral thermal and mechanical changes produced while cutting with the laser and the high-speed hand-piece suggest that enamel and dentin can be removed at high speed by the CO2 laser without excessive peripheral thermal or mechanical damage. Only 2 of the 15 samples ablated with the laser showed the formation of small cracks while 9 out of 15 samples exhibited crack formation with the dental hand-piece. The first indication of thermal change is a decrease in transparency due to loss of the mobile water from pores in the enamel which increase lightscattering. To test the hypothesis that peripheral thermal changes were caused by loss of mobile water in the enamel, thermal changes were intentionally induced by heating the surface. The mean attenuation coefficient of enamel increased significantly from 2.12 +/- 0.82 to 5.08 +/- 0.98 with loss of mobile water due to heating.

  14. Engineering of near IR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles for in vivo detection of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Sarit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of near-infrared (NIR fluorescence imaging techniques has gained great interest for early detection of cancer because water and other intrinsic biomolecules display negligible absorption or autofluorescence in this region. Novel fluorescent nanoparticles with potential to improve neoplasm detection sensitivity may prove to be a valuable tool in early detection of colon tumors. Methods The present study describes the synthesis and use of NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles as a diagnostic tool for detection of colon cancer. These fluorescent nanoparticles were prepared by a precipitation process of human serum albumin (HSA in aqueous solution in the presence of a carboxylic acid derivative of the NIR dye IR-783 (CANIR. Tumor-targeting ligands such as peanut agglutinin (PNA, anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies (anti-CEA and tumor associated glycoprotein-72 monoclonal antibodies (anti-TAG-72 were covalently conjugated to the albumin nanoparticles via the surface carboxylate groups by using the carbodiimide activation method. Results and discussion Leakage of the encapsulated dye into PBS containing 4% HSA or human bowel juice was not detected. This study also demonstrates that the encapsulation of the NIR fluorescent dye within the HSA nanoparticles reduces the photobleaching of the dye significantly. Specific colon tumor detection in a mouse model was demonstrated for PNA, anti-CEA and anti-TAG-72 conjugated NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles. These bioactive NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles also detected invisible tumors that were revealed as pathological only subsequent to histological analysis. Conclusions These results may suggest a significant advantage of NIR fluorescence imaging using NIR fluorescent nanoparticles over regular colonoscopy. In future work we plan to broaden this study by encapsulating cancer drugs, such as paclitaxel and doxorubicin, within these biodegradable NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles, in order to use them for both detection as well as therapy of colon cancer and others.

  15. Engineering of near IR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles for in vivo detection of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sarit; Margel, Shlomo

    2012-08-14

    The use of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging techniques has gained great interest for early detection of cancer because water and other intrinsic biomolecules display negligible absorption or autofluorescence in this region. Novel fluorescent nanoparticles with potential to improve neoplasm detection sensitivity may prove to be a valuable tool in early detection of colon tumors. The present study describes the synthesis and use of NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles as a diagnostic tool for detection of colon cancer. These fluorescent nanoparticles were prepared by a precipitation process of human serum albumin (HSA) in aqueous solution in the presence of a carboxylic acid derivative of the NIR dye IR-783 (CANIR). Tumor-targeting ligands such as peanut agglutinin (PNA), anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies (anti-CEA) and tumor associated glycoprotein-72 monoclonal antibodies (anti-TAG-72) were covalently conjugated to the albumin nanoparticles via the surface carboxylate groups by using the carbodiimide activation method. Leakage of the encapsulated dye into PBS containing 4% HSA or human bowel juice was not detected. This study also demonstrates that the encapsulation of the NIR fluorescent dye within the HSA nanoparticles reduces the photobleaching of the dye significantly. Specific colon tumor detection in a mouse model was demonstrated for PNA, anti-CEA and anti-TAG-72 conjugated NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles. These bioactive NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles also detected invisible tumors that were revealed as pathological only subsequent to histological analysis. These results may suggest a significant advantage of NIR fluorescence imaging using NIR fluorescent nanoparticles over regular colonoscopy. In future work we plan to broaden this study by encapsulating cancer drugs, such as paclitaxel and doxorubicin, within these biodegradable NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles, in order to use them for both detection as well as therapy of colon cancer and others.

  16. Near-IR responsive nanostructures for nanobiophotonics: emerging impacts on nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun; Qu, Junle; Swihart, Mark T; Prasad, Paras N

    2016-04-01

    Nanobiophotonics is an emerging field at the intersection of nanoscience, photonics, and biotechnology. Harnessing interactions of light with nanostructures enables new types of bioimaging, sensing, and light-activated therapy which can make a major impact on nanomedicine. Low penetration through tissue limits the use of visible light in nanomedicine. Near infrared (NIR) light (~780-1100 nm) can penetrate significantly further, enabling free-space delivery into deep tissues. This review focuses on interactions of NIR light with nanostructures to produce three effects: direct photoactivation, photothermal effects, and photochemical effects. Applications of direct photoactivation include bioimaging and biosensing using NIR-emitting quantum dots, materials with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the NIR, and upconverting nanoparticles. Two key nanomedicine applications using photothermal effects are photothermal therapy (PTT), and photoacoustic (PA) imaging. For photochemical effects, we present the latest advances in in-situ upconversion and upconverting nanostructures for NIR activation of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Nanobiophotonics is a relatively new field applying light for the interactions with nanostructures, which can be used in bioimaging, sensing, and therapy. As near infrared (NIR) light (~780-1100 nm) can have better tissue penetration, its clinical potential is far greater. In this review, the authors discussed the latest research on the applications of NIR light in imaging and therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Porcine Skin Thermal Response to Near-IR Lasers Using a Fast Infrared Camera

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cain, Clarence; Milner, Thomas; Telenkov, Sergey; Schuster, Kurt; Stockton, Kevin; Stolarski, David; Condit, Chris; Rockwell, Ben; Roach, William; Welch, A. J

    2004-01-01

    ... of 1.3 mm diameter gave approximately a 43 degrees C rise at a hot spot. Computed temperature distributions as a function of time and space are presented and compared with the measured surface temperatures.

  18. Perylene-fused BODIPY dye with near-IR absorption/emission and high photostability

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Wu, Jishan

    2011-01-01

    A N-annulated perylene unit was successfully fused to the meso-and β-positions of a boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) core. The newly synthesized BODIPY dye 1b exhibits intensified near-infrared (NIR) absorption and the longest emission maximum ever observed for all BODIPY derivatives. In addition, this dye possesses excellent solubility and photostability, beneficial to practical applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Compact near-IR and mid-IR cavity ring down spectroscopy device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Houston (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    This invention relates to a compact cavity ring down spectrometer for detection and measurement of trace species in a sample gas using a tunable solid-state continuous-wave mid-infrared PPLN OPO laser or a tunable low-power solid-state continuous wave near-infrared diode laser with an algorithm for reducing the periodic noise in the voltage decay signal which subjects the data to cluster analysis or by averaging of the interquartile range of the data.

  20. Near-IR TRGB Distance to Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy NGC 147

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the distance modulus of nearby dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 147 estimated from the Tip of Red-giant Branch (TRGB method applying to the color-magnitude diagrams and luminosity functions in the near-infrared JHK bands. Apparent magnitudes of TRGBs in each band are obtained by applying Savitzky-Golay filter to the luminosity functions, and the theoretical absolute magnitudes are estimated from Yonsei-Yale isochrones. The derived values of distance modulus to NGC 147 are (m-M=23.69±0.12, 23.78±0.17, and 23.85±0.22 for J, H, and K bands, respectively. Distance modulus in bolometric magnitude is also derived as (m-M=23.87±0.11. We compare the derived values of the TRGB distance modulus to NGC 147 in the near-infrared bands with the previous results in other bands.

  1. Near IR Scanning Angle Total Internal Reflection Raman Spectroscopy at Smooth Gold Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, Kristopher; Meyer, Matthew; Smith, Emily

    2012-04-13

    Total internal reflection (TIR) Raman and reflectivity spectra were collected for nonresonant analytes as a function of incident angle at sapphire or sapphire/smooth 50 nm gold interfaces using 785 nm excitation. For both interfaces, the Raman signal as a function of incident angle is well-modeled by the calculated interfacial mean square electric field (MSEF) relative to the incident field times the thickness of the layer being probed in the Raman measurement (D{sub RS}). The Raman scatter was reproducibly enhanced at the interface containing a gold film relative to the sapphire interface by a factor of 4.3–4.6 for aqueous pyridine or 2.2–3.7 for neat nitrobenzene, depending on the analyzed vibrational mode. The mechanism for the increased Raman signal is the enhanced MSEF at incident angles where propagating surface plasmons are excited in the metal film. The background from the TIR prism was reduced by 89–95% with the addition of the gold film, and the percent relative uncertainty in peak area was reduced from 15 to 1.7% for the 1347 cm–1 mode of nitrobenzene. Single monolayers of benzenethiol (S/N = 6.8) and 4-mercaptopyridine (S/N = 16.5) on gold films were measured by TIR Raman spectroscopy with 785 nm excitation (210 mW) without resonant enhancement in 1 min.

  2. Variable selection in near-infrared spectroscopy: Benchmarking of feature selection methods on biodiesel data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabin, Roman M.; Smirnov, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    During the past several years, near-infrared (near-IR/NIR) spectroscopy has increasingly been adopted as an analytical tool in various fields from petroleum to biomedical sectors. The NIR spectrum (above 4000 cm -1 ) of a sample is typically measured by modern instruments at a few hundred of wavelengths. Recently, considerable effort has been directed towards developing procedures to identify variables (wavelengths) that contribute useful information. Variable selection (VS) or feature selection, also called frequency selection or wavelength selection, is a critical step in data analysis for vibrational spectroscopy (infrared, Raman, or NIRS). In this paper, we compare the performance of 16 different feature selection methods for the prediction of properties of biodiesel fuel, including density, viscosity, methanol content, and water concentration. The feature selection algorithms tested include stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR-step), interval partial least squares regression (iPLS), backward iPLS (BiPLS), forward iPLS (FiPLS), moving window partial least squares regression (MWPLS), (modified) changeable size moving window partial least squares (CSMWPLS/MCSMWPLSR), searching combination moving window partial least squares (SCMWPLS), successive projections algorithm (SPA), uninformative variable elimination (UVE, including UVE-SPA), simulated annealing (SA), back-propagation artificial neural networks (BP-ANN), Kohonen artificial neural network (K-ANN), and genetic algorithms (GAs, including GA-iPLS). Two linear techniques for calibration model building, namely multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares regression/projection to latent structures (PLS/PLSR), are used for the evaluation of biofuel properties. A comparison with a non-linear calibration model, artificial neural networks (ANN-MLP), is also provided. Discussion of gasoline, ethanol-gasoline (bioethanol), and diesel fuel data is presented. The results of other spectroscopic

  3. Controlling excitons. Concepts for phosphorescent organic LEDs at high brightness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reineke, Sebastian

    2009-11-15

    This work focusses on the high brightness performance of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The use of phosphorescent emitter molecules in OLEDs is essential to realize internal electron-photon conversion efficiencies of 100 %. However, due to their molecular nature, the excited triplet states have orders of magnitude longer time constants compared to their fluorescent counterparts which, in turn, strongly increases the probability of bimolecular annihilation. As a consequence, the efficiencies of phosphorescent OLEDs decline at high brightness - an effect known as efficiency roll-off, for which it has been shown to be dominated by triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA). In this work, TTA of the archetype phosphorescent emitter Ir(ppy){sub 3} is investigated in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments. For the widely used mixed system CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}, host-guest TTA - an additional unwanted TTA channel - is experimentally observed at high excitation levels. By using matrix materials with higher triplet energies, this effect is efficiently suppressed, however further studies show that the efficiency roll-off of Ir(ppy)3 is much more pronounced than predicted by a model based on Foerster-type energy transfer, which marks the intrinsic limit for TTA. These results suggest that the emitter molecules show a strong tendency to form aggregates in the mixed film as the origin for enhanced TTA. Transmission electron microscopy images of Ir(ppy){sub 3} doped mixed films give direct proof of emitter aggregates. Based on these results, two concepts are developed that improve the high brightness performance of OLEDs. In a first approach, thin intrinsic matrix interlayers are incorporated in the emission layer leading to a one-dimensional exciton confinement that suppresses exciton migration and, consequently, TTA. The second concept reduces the efficiency roll-off by using an emitter molecule with slightly different chemical structure, i.e. Ir(ppy){sub 2

  4. High Brightness Neutron Source for Radiography. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, J.T.; Piestrup, Melvin A.; Gary, Charles K.; Harris, Jack L.; Williams, David J.; Jones, Glenn E.; Vainionpaa, J.H.; Fuller, Michael J.; Rothbart, George H.; Kwan, J.W.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Gough, R.A.; Reijonen, Jani; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-01-01

    This research and development program was designed to improve nondestructive evaluation of large mechanical objects by providing both fast and thermal neutron sources for radiography. Neutron radiography permits inspection inside objects that x-rays cannot penetrate and permits imaging of corrosion and cracks in low-density materials. Discovering of fatigue cracks and corrosion in piping without the necessity of insulation removal is possible. Neutron radiography sources can provide for the nondestructive testing interests of commercial and military aircraft, public utilities and petrochemical organizations. Three neutron prototype neutron generators were designed and fabricated based on original research done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The research and development of these generators was successfully continued by LBNL and Adelphi Technology Inc. under this STTR. The original design goals of high neutron yield and generator robustness have been achieved, using new technology developed under this grant. In one prototype generator, the fast neutron yield and brightness was roughly 10 times larger than previously marketed neutron generators using the same deuterium-deuterium reaction. In another generator, we integrate a moderator with a fast neutron source, resulting in a high brightness thermal neutron generator. The moderator acts as both conventional moderator and mechanical and electrical support structure for the generator and effectively mimics a nuclear reactor. In addition to the new prototype generators, an entirely new plasma ion source for neutron production was developed. First developed by LBNL, this source uses a spiral antenna to more efficiently couple the RF radiation into the plasma, reducing the required gas pressure so that the generator head can be completely sealed, permitting the possible use of tritium gas. This also permits the generator to use the deuterium-tritium reaction to produce 14-MeV neutrons with increases

  5. Hi-C Observations of Penumbral Bright Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, S. E.; Tiwari, S. K.; Moore, R. L.; Savage, S. L.; Winebarger, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    We use high-quality data obtained by the High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) to examine bright dots (BDs) in a sunspot's penumbra. The sizes of these BDs are on the order of 1 arcsecond (1") and are therefore hard to identify using the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly's (AIA) 0.6" pixel(exp -1) resolution. These BD become readily apparent with Hi-C's 0.1" pixel(exp -1) resolution. Tian et al. (2014) found penumbral BDs in the transition region (TR) by using the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). However, only a few of their dots could be associated with any enhanced brightness in AIA channels. In this work, we examine the characteristics of the penumbral BDs observed by Hi-C in a sunspot penumbra, including their sizes, lifetimes, speeds, and intensity. We also attempt to find any association of these BDs to the IRIS BDs. There are fewer Hi-C BDs in the penumbra than seen by IRIS, though different sunspots were studied. We use 193 Angstroms Hi-C data from July 11, 2012 which observed from approximately 18:52:00 UT- 18:56:00 UT and supplement it with data from AIA's 193 Angstrom passband to see the complete lifetime of the dots that were born before and/or lasted longer than Hi- C's 5-minute observation period. We use additional AIA passbands and compare the light curves of the BDs at different temperatures to test whether the Hi-C BDs are TR BDs. We find that most Hi-C BDs show clear movement, and of those that do, they move in a radial direction, toward or away from the sunspot umbra. Single BDs interact with other BDs, combining to fade away or brighten. The BDs that do not interact with other BDs tend to move less. Many of the properties of our BDs are similar to the extreme values of the IRIS BDs, e.g., they move slower on average and their sizes and lifetimes are on the higher end of the IRIS BDs. We infer that our penumbral BDs are the large-scale end of the distribution of BDs observed by IRIS.

  6. Transient events in bright debris discs: Collisional avalanches revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebault, P.; Kral, Q.

    2018-01-01

    Context. A collisional avalanche is set off by the breakup of a large planetesimal, releasing vast amounts of small unbound grains that enter a debris disc located further away from the star, triggering there a collisional chain reaction that could potentially create detectable transient structures. Aims: We investigate this mechanism, using for the first time a fully self-consistent code coupling dynamical and collisional evolutions. We also quantify for the first time the photometric evolution of the system and investigate whether or not avalanches could explain the short-term luminosity variations recently observed in some extremely bright debris discs. Methods: We use the state-of-the-art LIDT-DD code. We consider an avalanche-favoring A6V star, and two set-ups: a "cold disc" case, with a dust release at 10 au and an outer disc extending from 50 to 120 au, and a "warm disc" case with the release at 1 au and a 5-12 au outer disc. We explore, in addition, two key parameters: the density (parameterized by its optical depth τ) of the main outer disc and the amount of dust released by the initial breakup. Results: We find that avalanches could leave detectable structures on resolved images, for both "cold" and "warm" disc cases, in discs with τ of a few 10-3, provided that large dust masses (≳1020-5 × 1022 g) are initially released. The integrated photometric excess due to an avalanche is relatively limited, less than 10% for these released dust masses, peaking in the λ 10-20 μm domain and becoming insignificant beyond 40-50 μm. Contrary to earlier studies, we do not obtain stronger avalanches when increasing τ to higher values. Likewise, we do not observe a significant luminosity deficit, as compared to the pre-avalanche level, after the passage of the avalanche. These two results concur to make avalanches an unlikely explanation for the sharp luminosity drops observed in some extremely bright debris discs. The ideal configuration for observing an

  7. ASAS-SN Discovery of a Bright Be Star Undergoing a Possible Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, T.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Thorstensen, J.; Rupert, J.; Prieto, J. L.; Shields, J. V.; Thompson, T. A.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Shappee, B. J.; Dong, Subo

    2017-09-01

    As part of an ongoing effort by ASAS-SN project (Shappee et al. 2014; Kochanek et al. 2017) to characterize and catalog all bright variable stars (e.g., Jayasinghe et al. 2017, ATel #10634, #10677), we report the discovery of a bright Be star undergoing a possible outburst.

  8. Properties of bright solitons in averaged and unaveraged models for SDG fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajit; Kumar, Atul

    1996-04-01

    Using the slowly varying envelope approximation and averaging over the fibre cross-section the evolution equation for optical pulses in semiconductor-doped glass (SDG) fibres is derived from the nonlinear wave equation. Bright soliton solutions of this equation are obtained numerically and their properties are studied and compared with those of the bright solitons in the unaveraged model.

  9. Short Pulse High Brightness X-ray Production with the PLEIADES Thomson Scattering Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.G.; Barty, C.P.J.; Betts, S.M.; Brown, W.J.; Crane, J.K.; Cross, R.R.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Gibson, D.J.; Hartemann, F.V.; Kuba, J.; LaSage, G.P.; Rosenzweig, J.B.; Slaughter, D.R.; Springer, P.T.; Tremaine, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe PLEIADES, a compact, tunable, high-brightness, ultra-short pulse, Thomson x-ray source. The peak brightness of the source is expected to exceed 10 20 photons/s/0.1% bandwidth/mm 2 /mrad 2 . Initial results are reported and compared to theoretical calculations

  10. T1 bright appendix sign to exclude acute appendicitis in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ilah; An, Chansik; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of the T1 bright appendix sign for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women. This retrospective study included 125 pregnant women with suspected appendicitis who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The T1 bright appendix sign was defined as a high intensity signal filling more than half length of the appendix on T1-weighted imaging. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix identification were calculated in all patients and in those with borderline-sized appendices (6-7 mm). The T1 bright appendix sign was seen in 51% of patients with normal appendices, but only in 4.5% of patients with acute appendicitis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix diagnosis were 44.9%, 95.5%, 97.6%, and 30.0%, respectively. All four patients with borderline sized appendix with appendicitis showed negative T1 bright appendix sign. The T1 bright appendix sign is a specific finding for the diagnosis of a normal appendix in pregnant women with suspected acute appendicitis. • Magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used in emergency settings. • Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. • Magnetic resonance imaging is widely used in pregnant population. • T1 bright appendix sign can be a specific sign representing normal appendix.

  11. SKY BRIGHTNESS AND TRANSPARENCY IN THE i-BAND AT DOME A, ANTARCTICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Hu; Zhou Xu; Jiang Zhaoji; Hu Jingyao; Ma Jun; Ashley, M. C. B.; Luong-Van, D. M.; Storey, J. W. V.; Cui Xiangqun; Feng Longlong; Gong Xuefei; Kulesa, C. A.; Lawrence, J. S.; Liu Genrong; Moore, A. M.; Pennypacker, C. R.; Travouillon, T.; Qin Weijia; Sun Bo; Shang Zhaohui

    2010-01-01

    The i-band observing conditions at Dome A on the Antarctic plateau have been investigated using data acquired during 2008 with the Chinese Small Telescope Array. The sky brightness, variations in atmospheric transparency, cloud cover, and the presence of aurorae are obtained from these images. The median sky brightness of moonless clear nights is 20.5 mag arcsec -2 in the SDSS i band at the south celestial pole (which includes a contribution of about 0.06 mag from diffuse Galactic light). The median over all Moon phases in the Antarctic winter is about 19.8 mag arcsec -2 . There were no thick clouds in 2008. We model contributions of the Sun and the Moon to the sky background to obtain the relationship between the sky brightness and transparency. Aurorae are identified by comparing the observed sky brightness to the sky brightness expected from this model. About 2% of the images are affected by relatively strong aurorae.

  12. Tolerance of brightness and contrast adjustments on chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamasari, L.; Iskandar, H. H. B.; Makes, B. N.

    2017-08-01

    In digitized radiography techniques, adjusting the image enhancement can improve the subjective image quality by optimizing the brightness and contrast for diagnostic needs. To determine the value range of image enhancement (brightness and contrast) on chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma interpretation. 30 periapical radiographs that diagnosed chronic apical abscess and 30 that diagnosed apical granuloma were adjusted by changing brightness and contrast values. The value range of brightness and contrast adjustment that can be tolerated in radiographic interpretations of chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma spans from -10 to +10. Brightness and contrast adjustments on digital radiographs do not affect the radiographic interpretation of chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma if conducted within the value range.

  13. High cortisol awakening response is associated with an impairment of the effect of bright light therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus Per Juul; Lunde, Marianne Anita; Undén, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the predictive validity of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in patients with non-seasonal major depression. METHOD: Patients were treated with sertraline in combination with bright or dim light therapy for a 5-week period. Saliva cortisol levels were measured in 63...... patients, as an awakening profile, before medication and light therapy started. The CAR was calculated by using three time-points: awakening and 20 and 60 min after awakening. RESULTS: Patients with low CAR had a very substantial effect of bright light therapy compared with dim light therapy, whereas...... patients with a high CAR had no effect of bright light therapy compared with dim light therapy. CONCLUSION: High CAR was associated with an impairment of the effect of bright light therapy. This result raises the question of whether bright light acts through a mechanism different from...

  14. Tolerance of image enhancement brightness and contrast in lateral cephalometric digital radiography for Steiner analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianti, R. A.; Priaminiarti, M.; Syahraini, S. I.

    2017-08-01

    Image enhancement brightness and contrast can be adjusted on lateral cephalometric digital radiographs to improve image quality and anatomic landmarks for measurement by Steiner analysis. To determine the limit value for adjustments of image enhancement brightness and contrast in lateral cephalometric digital radiography for Steiner analysis. Image enhancement brightness and contrast were adjusted on 100 lateral cephalometric radiography in 10-point increments (-30, -20, -10, 0, +10, +20, +30). Steiner analysis measurements were then performed by two observers. Reliabilities were tested by the Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and significance tested by ANOVA or the Kruskal Wallis test. No significant differences were detected in lateral cephalometric analysis measurements following adjustment of the image enhancement brightness and contrast. The limit value of adjustments of the image enhancement brightness and contrast associated with incremental 10-point changes (-30, -20, -10, 0, +10, +20, +30) does not affect the results of Steiner analysis.

  15. Brightness measurement of an electron impact gas ion source for proton beam writing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, N.; Santhana Raman, P. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Xu, X.; Pang, R.; Kan, J. A. van, E-mail: phyjavk@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Khursheed, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2016-02-15

    We are developing a high brightness nano-aperture electron impact gas ion source, which can create ion beams from a miniature ionization chamber with relatively small virtual source sizes, typically around 100 nm. A prototype source of this kind was designed and successively micro-fabricated using integrated circuit technology. Experiments to measure source brightness were performed inside a field emission scanning electron microscope. The total output current was measured to be between 200 and 300 pA. The highest estimated reduced brightness was found to be comparable to the injecting focused electron beam reduced brightness. This translates into an ion reduced brightness that is significantly better than that of conventional radio frequency ion sources, currently used in single-ended MeV accelerators.

  16. A spectral k-means approach to bright-field cell image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Laura; Wan, Justin W L

    2010-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of bright-field cell images is important to cell biologists, but difficult to complete due to the complex nature of the cells in bright-field images (poor contrast, broken halo, missing boundaries). Standard approaches such as level set segmentation and active contours work well for fluorescent images where cells appear as round shape, but become less effective when optical artifacts such as halo exist in bright-field images. In this paper, we present a robust segmentation method which combines the spectral and k-means clustering techniques to locate cells in bright-field images. This approach models an image as a matrix graph and segment different regions of the image by computing the appropriate eigenvectors of the matrix graph and using the k-means algorithm. We illustrate the effectiveness of the method by segmentation results of C2C12 (muscle) cells in bright-field images.

  17. Cross-dimensional mapping of number, length and brightness by preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores de Hevia

    Full Text Available Human adults in diverse cultures, children, infants, and non-human primates relate number to space, but it is not clear whether this ability reflects a specific and privileged number-space mapping. To investigate this possibility, we tested preschool children in matching tasks where the dimensions of number and length were mapped both to one another and to a third dimension, brightness. Children detected variation on all three dimensions, and they reliably performed mappings between number and length, and partially between brightness and length, but not between number and brightness. Moreover, children showed reliably better mapping of number onto the dimension of length than onto the dimension of brightness. These findings suggest that number establishes a privileged mapping with the dimension of length, and that other dimensions, including brightness, can be mapped onto length, although less efficiently. Children's adeptness at number-length mappings suggests that these two dimensions are intuitively related by the end of the preschool years.

  18. The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Duriscoe, Dan; Kyba, Christopher C M; Elvidge, Christopher D; Baugh, Kimberly; Portnov, Boris A; Rybnikova, Nataliya A; Furgoni, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    Artificial lights raise night sky luminance, creating the most visible effect of light pollution-artificial skyglow. Despite the increasing interest among scientists in fields such as ecology, astronomy, health care, and land-use planning, light pollution lacks a current quantification of its magnitude on a global scale. To overcome this, we present the world atlas of artificial sky luminance, computed with our light pollution propagation software using new high-resolution satellite data and new precision sky brightness measurements. This atlas shows that more than 80% of the world and more than 99% of the U.S. and European populations live under light-polluted skies. The Milky Way is hidden from more than one-third of humanity, including 60% of Europeans and nearly 80% of North Americans. Moreover, 23% of the world's land surfaces between 75°N and 60°S, 88% of Europe, and almost half of the United States experience light-polluted nights.

  19. THE zCOSMOS 10k-BRIGHT SPECTROSCOPIC SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilly, Simon J.; Maier, Christian; Carollo, Marcella; Caputi, Karina; Le Brun, Vincent; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Le Fevre, Olivier; De la Torre, Sylvain; De Ravel, Loic; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Mignoli, Marco; Zamorani, Gianni; Bardelli, Sandro; Bolzonella, Micol; Coppa, Graziano; Scodeggio, Marco; Contini, Thierry; Renzini, Alvio; Bongiorno, Angela; Cucciati, Olga

    2009-01-01

    We present spectroscopic redshifts of a large sample of galaxies with I AB -1 , independent of redshift. The reliability of individual redshifts is described by a Confidence Class that has been empirically calibrated through repeat spectroscopic observations of over 600 galaxies. There is very good agreement between spectroscopic and photometric redshifts for the most secure Confidence Classes. For the less secure Confidence Classes, there is a good correspondence between the fraction of objects with a consistent photometric redshift and the spectroscopic repeatability, suggesting that the photometric redshifts can be used to indicate which of the less secure spectroscopic redshifts are likely right and which are probably wrong, and to give an indication of the nature of objects for which we failed to determine a redshift. Using this approach, we can construct a spectroscopic sample that is 99% reliable and which is 88% complete in the sample as a whole, and 95% complete in the redshift range 0.5 < z < 0.8. The luminosity and mass completeness levels of the zCOSMOS-bright sample of galaxies is also discussed.

  20. Advanced laser technologies for high-brightness photocathode electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomizawa, Hiromitsu

    2012-01-01

    A laser-excited photocathode RF gun is one of the most reliable high-brightness electron beam sources for XFELs. Several 3D laser shaping methods have been developed as ideal photocathode illumination sources at SPring-8 since 2001. To suppress the emittance growth caused by nonlinear space-charge forces, the 3D cylindrical UV-pulse was optimized spatially as a flattop and temporally as squarely stacked chirped pulses. This shaping system is a serial combination of a deformable mirror that adaptively shapes the spatial profile with a genetic algorithm and a UV-pulse stacker that consists of four birefringent α-BBO crystal rods for temporal shaping. Using this 3D-shaped pulse, a normalized emittance of 1.4 πmm mrad was obtained in 2006. Utilizing laser's Z-polarization, Schottky-effect-gated photocathode gun was proposed in 2006. The cathode work functions are reduced by a laser-induced Schottky effect. As a result of focusing a radially polarized laser pulse with a hollow lens in vacuum, the Z-field (Z-polarization) is generated at the cathode. (author)

  1. Chandra's Darkest Bright Star: not so Dark after All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    2008-11-01

    The Chandra High Resolution camera (HRC) has obtained numerous short exposures of the ultraviolet (UV)-bright star Vega (α Lyrae; HD 172167: A0 V), to calibrate the response of the detector to out-of-band (non-X-ray) radiation. A new analysis uncovered a stronger "blue leak" in the imaging section (HRC-I) than reported in an earlier study of Vega based on a subset of the pointings. The higher count rate—a factor of nearly 2 above prelaunch estimates—raised the possibility that genuine coronal X-rays might lurk among the out-of-band events. Exploiting the broader point-spread function of the UV leak compared with soft X-rays identified an excess of counts centered on the target, technically at 3σ significance. A number of uncertainties, however, prevent a clear declaration of a Vegan corona. A more secure result would be within reach of a deep uninterrupted HRC-I pointing.

  2. Temporal intensity interferometry: photon bunching in three bright stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, W.; Dussaux, A.; Fouché, M.; Labeyrie, G.; Rivet, J.-P.; Vernet, D.; Vakili, F.; Kaiser, R.

    2017-12-01

    We report the first intensity correlation measured with starlight since the historical experiments of Hanbury Brown and Twiss. The photon bunching g(2)(τ, r = 0), obtained in the photon-counting regime, was measured for three bright stars: α Boo, α CMi and β Gem. The light was collected at the focal plane of a 1-m optical telescope, transported by a multi-mode optical fibre, split into two avalanche photodiodes and correlated digitally in real time. For total exposure times of a few hours, we obtained contrast values around 2 × 10-3, in agreement with the expectation for chaotic sources, given the optical and electronic bandwidths of our set-up. Comparing our results with the measurement of Hanbury Brown et al. for α CMi, we argue for the timely opportunity to extend our experiments to measuring the spatial correlation function over existing and/or foreseen arrays of optical telescopes diluted over several kilometres. This would enable microarcsec long-baseline interferometry in the optical, especially in the visible wavelengths, with a limiting magnitude of 10.

  3. On Quasi-Periodic Brightness Variations of P Cygni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochiashvili, N.; Beradze, S.; Natsvlishvili, R.; Kochiashvili, I.; Vardosanidze, M.; Pannicke, A.

    2018-03-01

    Until recent decades, it was considered that all Luminous Blue Variables are single massive and high luminosity stars. Now for several of them a companion has been found. The opinion exists that P Cygni also has a companion with an orbital period of about seven years. In accordance with this hypothesis, a known powerful eruption occurred near the periastron point. P Cygni, as well as several other well-known Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) stars, is a so-called "Supernova Impostor" because it survived after a powerful outburst. However, there were cases during the last decade when a LBV star survived after a powerful giant eruption, and then after a few years, explode as a supernova. Because the real reason for the great eruption and characteristic light variability of LBV, including P Cygni, is not established yet, any kind of photometric and spectral observational data is very significant. We present the results of analysis of the long-term photometric observations of hypergiant P Cygni. On the basis of these data, different quasi-periodic brightness changes of the star were revealed.

  4. High Brightness HDR Projection Using Dynamic Freeform Lensing

    KAUST Repository

    Damberg, Gerwin

    2016-05-03

    Cinema projectors need to compete with home theater displays in terms of image quality. High frame rate and spatial resolution as well as stereoscopic 3D are common features today, but even the most advanced cinema projectors lack in-scene contrast and, more important, high peak luminance, both of which are essential perceptual attributes of images appearing realistic. At the same time, HDR image statistics suggest that the average image intensity in a controlled ambient viewing environment such as the cinema can be as low as 1% for cinematic HDR content and not often higher than 18%, middle gray in photography. Traditional projection systems form images and colors by blocking the source light from a lamp, therefore attenuating between 99% and 82% of light, on average. This inefficient use of light poses significant challenges for achieving higher peak brightness levels. In this work, we propose a new projector architecture built around commercially available components, in which light can be steered to form images. The gain in system efficiency significantly reduces the total cost of ownership of a projector (fewer components and lower operating cost), and at the same time increases peak luminance and improves black level beyond what is practically achievable with incumbent projector technologies. At the heart of this computational display technology is a new projector hardware design using phase modulation in combination with a new optimization algorithm that is capable of on-the-fly computation of freeform lens surfaces. © 2016 ACM.

  5. The First Post-Kepler Brightness Dips of KIC 8462852

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyajian, Tabetha. S.; Alonso, Roi; Ammerman, Alex; Armstrong, David; Asensio Ramos, A.; Barkaoui, K.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Benni, Paul; Bentley, Rory O.; Berdyugin, Andrei; Berdyugina, Svetlana; Bergeron, Serge; Bieryla, Allyson; Blain, Michaela G.; Capetillo Blanco, Alicia; Bodman, Eva H. L.; Boucher, Anne; Bradley, Mark; Brincat, Stephen M.; Brink, Thomas G.; Briol, John; Brown, David J. A.; Budaj, J.; Burdanov, A.; Cale, B.; Aznar Carbo, Miguel; Castillo García, R.; Clark, Wendy J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Clem, James L.; Coker, Phillip H.; Cook, Evan M.; Copperwheat, Chris M.; Curtis, J. L.; Cutri, R. M.; Cseh, B.; Cynamon, C. H.; Daniels, Alex J.; Davenport, James R. A.; Deeg, Hans J.; De Lorenzo, Roberto; de Jaeger, Thomas; Desrosiers, Jean-Bruno; Dolan, John; Dowhos, D. J.; Dubois, Franky; Durkee, R.; Dvorak, Shawn; Easley, Lynn; Edwards, N.; Ellis, Tyler G.; Erdelyi, Emery; Ertel, Steve; Farfán, Rafael. G.; Farihi, J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Foxell, Emma; Gandolfi, Davide; Garcia, Faustino; Giddens, F.; Gillon, M.; González-Carballo, Juan-Luis; González-Fernández, C.; González Hernández, J. I.; Graham, Keith A.; Greene, Kenton A.; Gregorio, J.; Hallakoun, Na’ama; Hanyecz, Ottó; Harp, G. R.; Henry, Gregory W.; Herrero, E.; Hildbold, Caleb F.; Hinzel, D.; Holgado, G.; Ignácz, Bernadett; Ilyin, Ilya; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Jehin, E.; Jermak, Helen E.; Johnston, Steve; Kafka, S.; Kalup, Csilla; Kardasis, Emmanuel; Kaspi, Shai; Kennedy, Grant M.; Kiefer, F.; Kielty, C. L.; Kessler, Dennis; Kiiskinen, H.; Killestein, T. L.; King, Ronald A.; Kollar, V.; Korhonen, H.; Kotnik, C.; Könyves-Tóth, Réka; Kriskovics, Levente; Krumm, Nathan; Krushinsky, Vadim; Kundra, E.; Lachapelle, Francois-Rene; LaCourse, D.; Lake, P.; Lam, Kristine; Lamb, Gavin P.; Lane, Dave; Lau, Marie Wingyee; Lewin, Pablo; Lintott, Chris; Lisse, Carey; Logie, Ludwig; Longeard, Nicolas; Lopez Villanueva, M.; Whit Ludington, E.; Mainzer, A.; Malo, Lison; Maloney, Chris; Mann, A.; Mantero, A.; Marengo, Massimo; Marchant, Jon; Martínez González, M. J.; Masiero, Joseph R.; Mauerhan, Jon C.; McCormac, James; McNeely, Aaron; Meng, Huan Y. A.; Miller, Mike; Molnar, Lawrence A.; Morales, J. C.; Morris, Brett M.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Nespral, David; Nugent, C. R.; Nugent, Katherine M.; Odasso, A.; O’Keeffe, Derek; Oksanen, A.; O’Meara, John M.; Ordasi, András; Osborn, Hugh; Ott, John J.; Parks, J. R.; Rodriguez Perez, Diego; Petriew, Vance; Pickard, R.; Pál, András; Plavchan, P.; Pollacco, Don; Pozo Nuñez, F.; Pozuelos, F. J.; Rau, Steve; Redfield, Seth; Relles, Howard; Ribas, Ignasi; Richards, Jon; Saario, Joonas L. O.; Safron, Emily J.; Sallai, J. Martin; Sárneczky, Krisztián; Schaefer, Bradley E.; Schumer, Clea F.; Schwartzendruber, Madison; Siegel, Michael H.; Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Simon, Joshua D.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Sitko, Michael L.; Socas-Navarro, Hector; Sódor, Á.; Starkey, Donn; Steele, Iain A.; Stone, Geoff; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Street, R. A.; Sullivan, Tricia; Suomela, J.; Swift, J. J.; Szabó, Gyula M.; Szabó, Róbert; Szakáts, Róbert; Szalai, Tamás; Tanner, Angelle M.; Toledo-Padrón, B.; Tordai, Tamás; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Turner, Jake D.; Ulowetz, Joseph H.; Urbanik, Marian; Vanaverbeke, Siegfried; Vanderburg, Andrew; Vida, Krisztián; Vietje, Brad P.; Vinkó, József; von Braun, K.; Waagen, Elizabeth O.; Walsh, Dan; Watson, Christopher A.; Weir, R. C.; Wenzel, Klaus; Westendorp Plaza, C.; Williamson, Michael W.; Wright, Jason T.; Wyatt, M. C.; Zheng, WeiKang; Zsidi, Gabriella

    2018-01-01

    We present a photometric detection of the first brightness dips of the unique variable star KIC 8462852 since the end of the Kepler space mission in 2013 May. Our regular photometric surveillance started in 2015 October, and a sequence of dipping began in 2017 May continuing on through the end of 2017, when the star was no longer visible from Earth. We distinguish four main 1%–2.5% dips, named “Elsie,” “Celeste,” “Skara Brae,” and “Angkor,” which persist on timescales from several days to weeks. Our main results so far are as follows: (i) there are no apparent changes of the stellar spectrum or polarization during the dips and (ii) the multiband photometry of the dips shows differential reddening favoring non-gray extinction. Therefore, our data are inconsistent with dip models that invoke optically thick material, but rather they are in-line with predictions for an occulter consisting primarily of ordinary dust, where much of the material must be optically thin with a size scale ≪1 μm, and may also be consistent with models invoking variations intrinsic to the stellar photosphere. Notably, our data do not place constraints on the color of the longer-term “secular” dimming, which may be caused by independent processes, or probe different regimes of a single process.

  6. Precision Statistical Analysis of Images Based on Brightness Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzhir Shaban Al-Ani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Study the content of images is considered an important topic in which reasonable and accurate analysis of images are generated. Recently image analysis becomes a vital field because of huge number of images transferred via transmission media in our daily life. These crowded media with images lead to highlight in research area of image analysis. In this paper, the implemented system is passed into many steps to perform the statistical measures of standard deviation and mean values of both color and grey images. Whereas the last step of the proposed method concerns to compare the obtained results in different cases of the test phase. In this paper, the statistical parameters are implemented to characterize the content of an image and its texture. Standard deviation, mean and correlation values are used to study the intensity distribution of the tested images. Reasonable results are obtained for both standard deviation and mean value via the implementation of the system. The major issue addressed in the work is concentrated on brightness distribution via statistical measures applying different types of lighting.

  7. Advanced Laser Technologies for High-brightness Photocathode Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Hiromitsu

    A laser-excited photocathode RF gun is one of the most reliable high-brightness electron beam sources for XFELs. Several 3D laser shaping methods have been developed as ideal photocathode illumination sources at SPring-8 since 2001. To suppress the emittance growth caused by nonlinear space-charge forces, the 3D cylindrical UV-pulse was optimized spatially as a flattop and temporally as squarely stacked chirped pulses. This shaping system is a serial combination of a deformable mirror that adaptively shapes the spatial profile with a genetic algorithm and a UV-pulse stacker that consists of four birefringent α-BBO crystal rods for temporal shaping. Using this 3D-shaped pulse, a normalized emittance of 1.4 π mm mrad was obtained in 2006. Utilizing laser's Z-polarization, Schottky-effect-gated photocathode gun was proposed in 2006. The cathode work functions are reduced by a laser-induced Schottky effect. As a result of focusing a radially polarized laser pulse with a hollow lens in vacuum, the Z-field (Z-polarization) is generated at the cathode.

  8. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

    2012-06-30

    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  9. Bright Soil Near 'McCool': Salty Deja Vu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    While driving eastward toward the northwestern flank of 'McCool Hill,' the wheels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit churned up the largest amount of bright soil discovered so far in the mission. This image from Spirit's navigation camera, taken on the rover's 787th Martian day, or sol, of exploration (March 21, 2006), shows the strikingly light tone and large extent of the deposit. A few days earlier, Spirit's wheels unearthed a small patch of light-toned material informally named 'Tyrone.' In images from Spirit's panoramic camera, 'Tyrone' strongly resembled both 'Arad' and 'Paso Robles,' two patches of light-toned soils discovered earlier in the mission. Spirit found 'Paso Robles' in 2005 while climbing 'Cumberland Ridge' on the western slope of 'Husband Hill.' In early January 2006, the rover discovered 'Arad' on the basin floor just south of 'Husband Hill.' Spirit's instruments confirmed that those soils had a salty chemistry dominated by iron-bearing sulfates. Spirit's miniature thermal emission spectrometer is analyzing this most recent discovery, and researchers will compare it with those other deposits. These discoveries indicate that light-toned soil deposits might be widely distributed on the flanks and valley floors of the 'Columbia Hills' region in Gusev Crater on Mars. The salts may record the past presence of water, as they are easily mobilized and concentrated in liquid solution.

  10. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). XVIII. Measurement and Calibration of Surface Brightness Fluctuation Distances for Bright Galaxies in Virgo (and Beyond)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiello, Michele; Blakeslee, John P.; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Roediger, Joel C.; Raimondo, Gabriella; Peng, Eric W.; Gwyn, Stephen; Durrell, Patrick R.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles

    2018-04-01

    We describe a program to measure surface brightness fluctuation (SBF) distances to galaxies observed in the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), a photometric imaging survey covering 104 deg2 of the Virgo cluster in the u*, g, i, and z bandpasses with the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope. We describe the selection of the sample galaxies, the procedures for measuring the apparent i-band SBF magnitude {\\overline{m}}i, and the calibration of the absolute Mibar as a function of observed stellar population properties. The multiband NGVS data set provides multiple options for calibrating the SBF distances, and we explore various calibrations involving individual color indices as well as combinations of two different colors. Within the color range of the present sample, the two-color calibrations do not significantly improve the scatter with respect to wide-baseline, single-color calibrations involving u*. We adopt the ({u}* -z) calibration as a reference for the present galaxy sample, with an observed scatter of 0.11 mag. For a few cases that lack good u* photometry, we use an alternative relation based on a combination of (g-i) and (g-z) colors, with only a slightly larger observed scatter of 0.12 mag. The agreement of our measurements with the best existing distance estimates provides confidence that our measurements are accurate. We present a preliminary catalog of distances for 89 galaxies brighter than B T ≈ 13.0 mag within the survey footprint, including members of the background M and W Clouds at roughly twice the distance of the main body of the Virgo cluster. The extension of the present work to fainter and bluer galaxies is in progress.

  11. CHARACTERIZING THE POPULATION OF BRIGHT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, K. E.; Sloan, G. C.; Wood, P. R.; Jones, O. C.; Egan, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) selected from the Point Source Catalog of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX). We concentrate on the dust properties of the oxygen-rich evolved stars. The dust composition has smaller contributions from alumina compared to the Galaxy. This difference may arise from the lower metallicity in the SMC, but it could be a selection effect, as the SMC sample includes more stars that are brighter and thus more massive. The distribution of the SMC stars along the silicate sequence looks more like the Galactic sample of red supergiants than asymptotic giant branch stars (AGBs). While many of the SMC stars are definitively on the AGB, several also show evidence of hot bottom burning. Three of the supergiants show PAH emission at 11.3 μ m. Two other sources show mixed chemistry, with both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich spectral features. One, MSX SMC 134, may be the first confirmed silicate/carbon star in the SMC. The other, MSX SMC 049, is a candidate post-AGB star. MSX SMC 145, previously considered a candidate OH/IR star, is actually an AGB star with a background galaxy at z  = 0.16 along the same line of sight. We consider the overall characteristics of all the MSX sources, the most infrared-bright objects in the SMC, in light of the higher sensitivity and resolution of Spitzer , and compare them with the object types expected from the original selection criteria. This population represents what will be seen in more distant galaxies by the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ). Color–color diagrams generated from the IRS spectra and the mid-infrared filters on JWST show how one can separate evolved stars from young stellar objects (YSOs) and distinguish among different classes of YSOs.

  12. CHARACTERIZING THE POPULATION OF BRIGHT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, K. E. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Sloan, G. C. [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Wood, P. R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek ACT 2611 (Australia); Jones, O. C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Egan, M. P., E-mail: kathleen.kraemer@bc.edu, E-mail: sloan@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: wood@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: michael.p.egan@nga.mil [National Geospatial Intelligence Agency, 7500 GEOINT Drive, Springfield, VA 22150 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) selected from the Point Source Catalog of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX). We concentrate on the dust properties of the oxygen-rich evolved stars. The dust composition has smaller contributions from alumina compared to the Galaxy. This difference may arise from the lower metallicity in the SMC, but it could be a selection effect, as the SMC sample includes more stars that are brighter and thus more massive. The distribution of the SMC stars along the silicate sequence looks more like the Galactic sample of red supergiants than asymptotic giant branch stars (AGBs). While many of the SMC stars are definitively on the AGB, several also show evidence of hot bottom burning. Three of the supergiants show PAH emission at 11.3 μ m. Two other sources show mixed chemistry, with both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich spectral features. One, MSX SMC 134, may be the first confirmed silicate/carbon star in the SMC. The other, MSX SMC 049, is a candidate post-AGB star. MSX SMC 145, previously considered a candidate OH/IR star, is actually an AGB star with a background galaxy at z  = 0.16 along the same line of sight. We consider the overall characteristics of all the MSX sources, the most infrared-bright objects in the SMC, in light of the higher sensitivity and resolution of Spitzer , and compare them with the object types expected from the original selection criteria. This population represents what will be seen in more distant galaxies by the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ). Color–color diagrams generated from the IRS spectra and the mid-infrared filters on JWST show how one can separate evolved stars from young stellar objects (YSOs) and distinguish among different classes of YSOs.

  13. INTERFEROMETRIC MONITORING OF GAMMA-RAY BRIGHT AGNs. I. THE RESULTS OF SINGLE-EPOCH MULTIFREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Sung; Wajima, Kiyoaki; Algaba, Juan-Carlos; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Hodgson, Jeffrey A.; Byun, Do-Young; Kang, Sincheol; Kim, Soon-Wook; Kino, Motoki [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae-Won; Park, Jongho; Kim, Jae-Young; Trippe, Sascha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Miyazaki, Atsushi [Japan Space Forum, 3-2-1, Kandasurugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 Japan (Japan); Kim, Jeong-Sook, E-mail: sslee@kasi.re.kr [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2211 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    We present results of single-epoch very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of gamma-ray bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using the Korean VLBI Network (KVN) at the 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz bands, which are part of a KVN key science program, Interferometric Monitoring of Gamma-Ray Bright AGNs. We selected a total of 34 radio-loud AGNs of which 30 sources are gamma-ray bright AGNs with flux densities of >6 × 10{sup −10} ph cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Single-epoch multifrequency VLBI observations of the target sources were conducted during a 24 hr session on 2013 November 19 and 20. All observed sources were detected and imaged at all frequency bands, with or without a frequency phase transfer technique, which enabled the imaging of 12 faint sources at 129 GHz, except for one source. Many of the target sources are resolved on milliarcsecond scales, yielding a core-jet structure, with the VLBI core dominating the synchrotron emission on a milliarcsecond scale. CLEAN flux densities of the target sources are 0.43–28 Jy, 0.32–21 Jy, 0.18–11 Jy, and 0.35–8.0 Jy in the 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz bands, respectively. Spectra of the target sources become steeper at higher frequency, with spectral index means of −0.40, −0.62, and −1.00 in the 22–43 GHz, 43–86 GHz and 86–129 GHz bands, respectively, implying that the target sources become optically thin at higher frequencies (e.g., 86–129 GHz).

  14. High brightness diode lasers controlled by volume Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebov, Leonid

    2017-02-01

    Volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) recorded in photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass are holographic optical elements that are effective spectral and angular filters withstanding high power laser radiation. Reflecting VBGs are narrow-band spectral filters while transmitting VBGs are narrow-band angular filters. The use of these optical elements in external resonators of semiconductor lasers enables extremely resonant feedback that provides dramatic spectral and angular narrowing of laser diodes radiation without significant power and efficiency penalty. Spectral narrowing of laser diodes by reflecting VBGs demonstrated in wide spectral region from near UV to 3 μm. Commercially available VBGs have spectral width ranged from few nanometers to few tens of picometers. Efficient spectral locking was demonstrated for edge emitters (single diodes, bars, modules, and stacks), vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), grating coupled surface emitting lasers (GCSELs), and interband cascade lasers (ICLs). The use of multiplexed VBGs provides multiwavelength emission from a single emitter. Spectrally locked semiconductor lasers demonstrated CW power from milliwatts to a kilowatt. Angular narrowing by transmitting VBGs enables single transverse mode emission from wide aperture diode lasers having resonators with great Fresnel numbers. This feature provides close to diffraction limit divergence along a slow axis of wide stripe edge emitters. Radiation exchange between lasers by means of spatially profiled or multiplexed VBGs enables coherent combining of diode lasers. Sequence of VBGs or multiplexed VBGs enable spectral combining of spectrally narrowed diode lasers or laser modules. Thus the use of VBGs for diode lasers beam control provides dramatic increase of brightness.

  15. A high-brightness thermionic microwave electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borland, M.

    1991-02-01

    In a collaborative effort by SSRL, AET Associates, and Varian Associates, a high-brightness microwave electron gun using a thermionic cathode has been designed, built, tested, and installed for use with the SSRL 150 MeV linear accelerator. This thesis discusses the physics behind the design and operation of the gun and associated systems, presenting predictions and experimental tests of the gun's performance. The microwave gun concept is of increasing interest due to its promise of providing higher-current, lower-emittance electron beams than possible from conventional, DC gun technology. In a DC guns, accelerating gradients are less than 8 MV/m, while those in a microwave gun can exceed 100 MV/m, providing much more rapid initial acceleration, thereby reducing the deleterious effects of space-charge. Microwave guns produce higher momentum beams than DC guns, thus lessening space-charge effects during subsequent beam transport. Typical DC guns produce kinetic energies of 80--400 KeV, compared to 2--3 MeV for the SSRL microwave gun. ''State-of-the-art'' microwave gun designs employ laser-driven photocathodes, providing excellent performance but with greater complexity and monetary costs. A thermionic microwave gun with a magnetic bunching system is comparable in cost and complexity to a conventional system, but provides performance that is orders of magnitude better. Simulations of the SSRL microwave gun predict a normalized RMS emittance at the gun exist of e c · μm for a beam consisting of approximately 50% of the particles emitted from the gun, and having a momentum spread ±10%. These emittances are for up to 5 x 10 9 e - per bunch. Chromatic aberrations in the transport line between the gun and linear accelerator increase this to typically e · μm

  16. A high-brightness thermionic microwave electron gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, Michael [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1991-02-01

    In a collaborative effort by SSRL, AET Associates, and Varian Associates, a high-brightness microwave electron gun using a thermionic cathode has been designed, built, tested, and installed for use with the SSRL 150 MeV linear accelerator. This thesis discusses the physics behind the design and operation of the gun and associated systems, presenting predictions and experimental tests of the gun`s performance. The microwave gun concept is of increasing interest due to its promise of providing higher-current, lower-emittance electron beams than possible from conventional, DC gun technology. In a DC guns, accelerating gradients are less than 8 MV/m, while those in a microwave gun can exceed 100 MV/m, providing much more rapid initial acceleration, thereby reducing the deleterious effects of space-charge. Microwave guns produce higher momentum beams than DC guns, thus lessening space-charge effects during subsequent beam transport. Typical DC guns produce kinetic energies of 80--400 KeV, compared to 2--3 MeV for the SSRL microwave gun. ``State-of-the-art`` microwave gun designs employ laser-driven photocathodes, providing excellent performance but with greater complexity and monetary costs. A thermionic microwave gun with a magnetic bunching system is comparable in cost and complexity to a conventional system, but provides performance that is orders of magnitude better. Simulations of the SSRL microwave gun predict a normalized RMS emittance at the gun exist of < 10 π • mec • μm for a beam consisting of approximately 50% of the particles emitted from the gun, and having a momentum spread ±10%. These emittances are for up to 5 x 109e- per bunch. Chromatic aberrations in the transport line between the gun and linear accelerator increase this to typically < 30 π • me • μm.

  17. Projection displays and MEMS: timely convergence for a bright future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbeck, Larry J.

    1995-09-01

    Projection displays and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have evolved independently, occasionally crossing paths as early as the 1950s. But the commercially viable use of MEMS for projection displays has been illusive until the recent invention of Texas Instruments Digital Light Processing TM (DLP) technology. DLP technology is based on the Digital Micromirror DeviceTM (DMD) microchip, a MEMS technology that is a semiconductor digital light switch that precisely controls a light source for projection display and hardcopy applications. DLP technology provides a unique business opportunity because of the timely convergence of market needs and technology advances. The world is rapidly moving to an all- digital communications and entertainment infrastructure. In the near future, most of the technologies necessary for this infrastrucutre will be available at the right performance and price levels. This will make commercially viable an all-digital chain (capture, compression, transmission, reception decompression, hearing, and viewing). Unfortunately, the digital images received today must be translated into analog signals for viewing on today's televisions. Digital video is the final link in the all-digital infrastructure and DLP technoogy provides that link. DLP technology is an enabler for digital, high-resolution, color projection displays that have high contrast, are bright, seamless, and have the accuracy of color and grayscale that can be achieved only by digital control. This paper contains an introduction to DMD and DLP technology, including the historical context from which to view their developemnt. The architecture, projection operation, and fabrication are presented. Finally, the paper includes an update about current DMD business opportunities in projection displays and hardcopy.

  18. Prognostic factors for acute encephalopathy with bright tree appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Junji; Nabatame, Shin; Nakano, Sayaka; Iwatani, Yoshiko; Kitai, Yukihiro; Tominaga, Koji; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Okinaga, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Ozono, Keiichi

    2015-02-01

    To determine the prognostic factors for encephalopathy with bright tree appearance (BTA) in the acute phase through retrospective case evaluation. We recruited 10 children with encephalopathy who presented with BTA and classified them into 2 groups. Six patients with evident regression and severe psychomotor developmental delay after encephalopathy were included in the severe group, while the remaining 4 patients with mild mental retardation were included in the mild group. We retrospectively analyzed their clinical symptoms, laboratory data, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings. Patients in the severe group developed subsequent complications such as epilepsy and severe motor impairment. Univariate analysis revealed that higher maximum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (p=0.055) were a weak predictor of poor outcome. Maximum creatinine levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) and minimal platelet counts were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the severe group than in the mild group. Acute renal failure was not observed in any patient throughout the study. MRS of the BTA lesion during the BTA period showed elevated lactate levels in 5 children in the severe group and 1 child in the mild group. MRI performed during the chronic phase revealed severe brain atrophy in all patients in the severe group. Higher creatinine and LDH levels and lower platelet counts in the acute phase correlated with poor prognosis. Increased lactate levels in the BTA lesion during the BTA period on MRS may predict severe physical and mental disability. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Velocity bunching of high-brightness electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Anderson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Velocity bunching has been recently proposed as a tool for compressing electron beam pulses in modern high brightness photoinjector sources. This tool is familiar from earlier schemes implemented for bunching dc electron sources, but presents peculiar challenges when applied to high current, low emittance beams from photoinjectors. The main difficulty foreseen is control of emittance oscillations in the beam in this scheme, which can be naturally considered as an extension of the emittance compensation process at moderate energies. This paper presents two scenarios in which velocity bunching, combined with emittance control, is to play a role in nascent projects. The first is termed ballistic bunching, where the changing of relative particle velocities and positions occur in distinct regions, a short high gradient linac, and a drift length. This scenario is discussed in the context of the proposed ORION photoinjector. Simulations are used to explore the relationship between the degree of bunching, and the emittance compensation process. Experimental measurements performed at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory of the surprisingly robust bunching process, as well as accompanying deleterious transverse effects, are presented. An unanticipated mechanism for emittance growth in bends for highly momentum chirped beam was identified and studied in these experiments. The second scenario may be designated as phase space rotation, and corresponds closely to the recent proposal of Ferrario and Serafini. Its implementation for the compression of the electron beam pulse length in the PLEIADES inverse Compton scattering (ICS experiment at LLNL is discussed. It is shown in simulations that optimum compression may be obtained by manipulation of the phases in low gradient traveling wave accelerator sections. Measurements of the bunching and emittance control achieved in such an implementation at PLEIADES, as well as aspects of the use of velocity-bunched beam directly

  20. Dark-Bright Soliton Dynamics Beyond the Mean-Field Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsimiga, Garyfallia; Koutentakis, Georgios; Mistakidis, Simeon; Kevrekidis, Panagiotis; Schmelcher, Peter; Theory Group of Fundamental Processes in Quantum Physics Team

    2017-04-01

    The dynamics of dark bright solitons beyond the mean-field approximation is investigated. We first examine the case of a single dark-bright soliton and its oscillations within a parabolic trap. Subsequently, we move to the setting of collisions, comparing the mean-field approximation to that involving multiple orbitals in both the dark and the bright component. Fragmentation is present and significantly affects the dynamics, especially in the case of slower solitons and in that of lower atom numbers. It is shown that the presence of fragmentation allows for bipartite entanglement between the distinguishable species. Most importantly the interplay between fragmentation and entanglement leads to the decay of each of the initial mean-field dark-bright solitons into fast and slow fragmented dark-bright structures. A variety of excitations including dark-bright solitons in multiple (concurrently populated) orbitals is observed. Dark-antidark states and domain-wall-bright soliton complexes can also be observed to arise spontaneously in the beyond mean-field dynamics. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.

  1. T1 bright appendix sign to exclude acute appendicitis in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ilah; An, Chansik; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of the T1 bright appendix sign for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women. This retrospective study included 125 pregnant women with suspected appendicitis who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The T1 bright appendix sign was defined as a high intensity signal filling more than half length of the appendix on T1-weighted imaging. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix identification were calculated in all patients and in those with borderline-sized appendices (6-7 mm). The T1 bright appendix sign was seen in 51% of patients with normal appendices, but only in 4.5% of patients with acute appendicitis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix diagnosis were 44.9%, 95.5%, 97.6%, and 30.0%, respectively. All four patients with borderline sized appendix with appendicitis showed negative T1 bright appendix sign. The T1 bright appendix sign is a specific finding for the diagnosis of a normal appendix in pregnant women with suspected acute appendicitis. (orig.)

  2. T1 bright appendix sign to exclude acute appendicitis in pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ilah; An, Chansik; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of the T1 bright appendix sign for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women. This retrospective study included 125 pregnant women with suspected appendicitis who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The T1 bright appendix sign was defined as a high intensity signal filling more than half length of the appendix on T1-weighted imaging. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix identification were calculated in all patients and in those with borderline-sized appendices (6-7 mm). The T1 bright appendix sign was seen in 51% of patients with normal appendices, but only in 4.5% of patients with acute appendicitis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix diagnosis were 44.9%, 95.5%, 97.6%, and 30.0%, respectively. All four patients with borderline sized appendix with appendicitis showed negative T1 bright appendix sign. The T1 bright appendix sign is a specific finding for the diagnosis of a normal appendix in pregnant women with suspected acute appendicitis. (orig.)

  3. Music for a Brighter World: Brightness Judgment Bias by Musical Emotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeep Bhattacharya

    Full Text Available A prevalent conceptual metaphor is the association of the concepts of good and evil with brightness and darkness, respectively. Music cognition, like metaphor, is possibly embodied, yet no study has addressed the question whether musical emotion can modulate brightness judgment in a metaphor consistent fashion. In three separate experiments, participants judged the brightness of a grey square that was presented after a short excerpt of emotional music. The results of Experiment 1 showed that short musical excerpts are effective emotional primes that cross-modally influence brightness judgment of visual stimuli. Grey squares were consistently judged as brighter after listening to music with a positive valence, as compared to music with a negative valence. The results of Experiment 2 revealed that the bias in brightness judgment does not require an active evaluation of the emotional content of the music. By applying a different experimental procedure in Experiment 3, we showed that this brightness judgment bias is indeed a robust effect. Altogether, our findings demonstrate a powerful role of musical emotion in biasing brightness judgment and that this bias is aligned with the metaphor viewpoint.

  4. Music for a Brighter World: Brightness Judgment Bias by Musical Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Joydeep; Lindsen, Job P

    2016-01-01

    A prevalent conceptual metaphor is the association of the concepts of good and evil with brightness and darkness, respectively. Music cognition, like metaphor, is possibly embodied, yet no study has addressed the question whether musical emotion can modulate brightness judgment in a metaphor consistent fashion. In three separate experiments, participants judged the brightness of a grey square that was presented after a short excerpt of emotional music. The results of Experiment 1 showed that short musical excerpts are effective emotional primes that cross-modally influence brightness judgment of visual stimuli. Grey squares were consistently judged as brighter after listening to music with a positive valence, as compared to music with a negative valence. The results of Experiment 2 revealed that the bias in brightness judgment does not require an active evaluation of the emotional content of the music. By applying a different experimental procedure in Experiment 3, we showed that this brightness judgment bias is indeed a robust effect. Altogether, our findings demonstrate a powerful role of musical emotion in biasing brightness judgment and that this bias is aligned with the metaphor viewpoint.

  5. Quantitative measurement of brightness from living cells in the presence of photodepletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho Hur

    Full Text Available The brightness of fluorescently labeled proteins provides an excellent marker for identifying protein interactions in living cells. Quantitative interpretation of brightness, however, hinges on a detailed understanding of the processes that affect the signal fluctuation of the fluorescent label. Here, we focus on the cumulative influence of photobleaching on brightness measurements in cells. Photobleaching within the finite volume of the cell leads to a depletion of the population of fluorescently labeled proteins with time. The process of photodepletion reduces the fluorescence signal which biases the analysis of brightness data. Our data show that even small reductions in the signal can introduce significant bias into the analysis of the data. We develop a model that quantifies the bias and introduce an analysis method that accurately determines brightness in the presence of photodepletion as verified by experiments with mammalian and yeast cells. In addition, photodepletion experiments with the fluorescent protein EGFP reveal the presence of a photoconversion process, which leads to a marked decrease in the brightness of the EGFP protein. We also identify conditions where the effect of EGFP's photoconversion on brightness experiments can be safely ignored.

  6. A time-dependent search for high-energy neutrinos from bright GRBs with ANTARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celli Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrophysical point-like neutrino sources, like Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs, are one of the main targets for neutrino telescopes, since they are among the best candidates for Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR acceleration. From the interaction between the accelerated protons and the intense radiation fields of the source jet, charged mesons are produced, which then decay into neutrinos. The methods and the results of a search for high-energy neutrinos in spatial and temporal correlation with the detected gamma-ray emission are presented for four bright GRBs observed between 2008 and 2013: a time-dependent analysis, optimised for each flare of the selected bursts, is performed to predict detailed neutrino spectra. The internal shock scenario of the fireball model is investigated, relying on the neutrino spectra computed through the numerical code NeuCosmA. The analysis is optimized on a per burst basis, through the maximization of the signal discovery probability. Since no events in ANTARES data passed the optimised cuts, 90% C.L. upper limits are derived on the expected neutrino fluences.

  7. DISCOVERY OF A BRIGHT, EXTREMELY LOW MASS WHITE DWARF IN A CLOSE DOUBLE DEGENERATE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vennes, S.; Kawka, A.; Nemeth, P.; Thorstensen, J. R.; Skinner, J. N.; Pigulski, A.; Steslicki, M.; Kolaczkowski, Z.; Srodka, P.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of a bright (V ∼ 13.7), extremely low mass white dwarf in a close double degenerate system. We originally selected GALEX J171708.5+675712 for spectroscopic follow-up among a group of white dwarf candidates in an ultraviolet-optical reduced proper-motion diagram. The new white dwarf has a mass of 0.18 M sun and is the primary component of a close double degenerate system (P = 0.246137 days, K 1 = 288 km s -1 ) comprising a fainter white dwarf secondary with M 2 ∼ 0.9 M sun . Light curves phased with the orbital ephemeris show evidence of relativistic beaming and weaker ellipsoidal variations. The light curves also reveal secondary eclipses (depth ∼8 mmag) while the primary eclipses appear partially compensated by the secondary gravitational deflection and are below detection limits. Photospheric abundance measurements show a nearly solar composition of Si, Ca, and Fe (0.1-1 sun), while the normal kinematics suggest a relatively recent formation history. Close binary evolutionary scenarios suggest that extremely low mass white dwarfs form via a common-envelope phase and possible Roche lobe overflow.

  8. High-brightness electron guns for linac-based light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Most proposed linac-based light sources, such as single-pass free-electron lasers and energy-recovery-linacs, require very high-brightness electron beams in order to achieve their design performance. These beam requirements must be achieved not on an occasional basis, but rather must be met by every bunch produced by the source over extended periods of time. It is widely assumed that the beam source will be a photocathode electron gun; the selection of accelerator technique (e.g., dc or rf) for the gun is more dependent on the application.The current state of the art of electron beam production is adequate but not ideal for the first generation of linac-based light sources, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free-electron laser (X-FEL). For the next generation of linac-based light sources, an order of magnitude reduction in the transverse electron beam emittance is required to significantly reduce the cost of the facility. This is beyond the present state of the art, given the other beam properties that must be maintained. The requirements for current and future linac-based light source beam sources are presented here, along with a review of the present state of the art. A discussion of potential paths towards meeting future needs is presented at the conclusion.

  9. Comparison of contrast in brightness mode and strain ultrasonography of glial brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selbekk, Tormod; Brekken, Reidar; Indergaard, Marit; Solheim, Ole; Unsgård, Geirmund

    2012-01-01

    Image contrast between normal tissue and brain tumours may sometimes appear to be low in intraoperative ultrasound. Ultrasound imaging of strain is an image modality that has been recently explored for intraoperative imaging of the brain. This study aims to investigate differences in image contrast between ultrasound brightness mode (B-mode) images and ultrasound strain magnitude images of brain tumours. Ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data was acquired during surgery in 15 patients with glial tumours. The data were subsequently processed to provide strain magnitude images. The contrast in the B-mode images and the strain images was determined in assumed normal brain tissue and tumour tissue at selected regions of interest (ROI). Three measurements of contrast were done in the ultrasound data for each patient. The B-mode and strain contrasts measurements were compared using the paired samples t- test. The statistical analysis of a total of 45 measurements shows that the contrasts in the strain magnitude images are significantly higher than in the conventional ultrasound B-mode images (P < 0.0001). The results indicate that ultrasound strain imaging provides better discrimination between normal brain tissue and glial tumour tissue than conventional ultrasound B-mode imaging. Ultrasound imaging of tissue strain therefore holds the potential of becoming a valuable adjunct to conventional intraoperative ultrasound imaging in brain tumour surgery

  10. Arctic sea ice signatures: L-band brightness temperature sensitivity comparison using two radiation transfer models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Richter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice is a crucial component for short-, medium- and long-term numerical weather predictions. Most importantly, changes of sea ice coverage and areas covered by thin sea ice have a large impact on heat fluxes between the ocean and the atmosphere. L-band brightness temperatures from ESA's Earth Explorer SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity have been proven to be a valuable tool to derive thin sea ice thickness. These retrieved estimates were already successfully assimilated in forecasting models to constrain the ice analysis, leading to more accurate initial conditions and subsequently more accurate forecasts. However, the brightness temperature measurements can potentially be assimilated directly in forecasting systems, reducing the data latency and providing a more consistent first guess. As a first step towards such a data assimilation system we studied the forward operator that translates geophysical parameters provided by a model into brightness temperatures. We use two different radiative transfer models to generate top of atmosphere brightness temperatures based on ORAP5 model output for the 2012/2013 winter season. The simulations are then compared against actual SMOS measurements. The results indicate that both models are able to capture the general variability of measured brightness temperatures over sea ice. The simulated brightness temperatures are dominated by sea ice coverage and thickness changes are most pronounced in the marginal ice zone where new sea ice is formed. There we observe the largest differences of more than 20 K over sea ice between simulated and observed brightness temperatures. We conclude that the assimilation of SMOS brightness temperatures yields high potential for forecasting models to correct for uncertainties in thin sea ice areas and suggest that information on sea ice fractional coverage from higher-frequency brightness temperatures should be used simultaneously.

  11. Arctic sea ice signatures: L-band brightness temperature sensitivity comparison using two radiation transfer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Friedrich; Drusch, Matthias; Kaleschke, Lars; Maaß, Nina; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; Mecklenburg, Susanne

    2018-03-01

    Sea ice is a crucial component for short-, medium- and long-term numerical weather predictions. Most importantly, changes of sea ice coverage and areas covered by thin sea ice have a large impact on heat fluxes between the ocean and the atmosphere. L-band brightness temperatures from ESA's Earth Explorer SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) have been proven to be a valuable tool to derive thin sea ice thickness. These retrieved estimates were already successfully assimilated in forecasting models to constrain the ice analysis, leading to more accurate initial conditions and subsequently more accurate forecasts. However, the brightness temperature measurements can potentially be assimilated directly in forecasting systems, reducing the data latency and providing a more consistent first guess. As a first step towards such a data assimilation system we studied the forward operator that translates geophysical parameters provided by a model into brightness temperatures. We use two different radiative transfer models to generate top of atmosphere brightness temperatures based on ORAP5 model output for the 2012/2013 winter season. The simulations are then compared against actual SMOS measurements. The results indicate that both models are able to capture the general variability of measured brightness temperatures over sea ice. The simulated brightness temperatures are dominated by sea ice coverage and thickness changes are most pronounced in the marginal ice zone where new sea ice is formed. There we observe the largest differences of more than 20 K over sea ice between simulated and observed brightness temperatures. We conclude that the assimilation of SMOS brightness temperatures yields high potential for forecasting models to correct for uncertainties in thin sea ice areas and suggest that information on sea ice fractional coverage from higher-frequency brightness temperatures should be used simultaneously.

  12. Comparison of solar photospheric bright points between Sunrise observations and MHD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Schüssler, M.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Feller, A.; Gandorfer, A.; Hirzberger, J.

    2014-08-01

    Bright points (BPs) in the solar photosphere are thought to be the radiative signatures (small-scale brightness enhancements) of magnetic elements described by slender flux tubes or sheets located in the darker intergranular lanes in the solar photosphere. They contribute to the ultraviolet (UV) flux variations over the solar cycle and hence may play a role in influencing the Earth's climate. Here we aim to obtain a better insight into their properties by combining high-resolution UV and spectro-polarimetric observations of BPs by the Sunrise Observatory with 3D compressible radiation magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations. To this end, full spectral line syntheses are performed with the MHD data and a careful degradation is applied to take into account all relevant instrumental effects of the observations. In a first step it is demonstrated that the selected MHD simulations reproduce the measured distributions of intensity at multiple wavelengths, line-of-sight velocity, spectral line width, and polarization degree rather well. The simulated line width also displays the correct mean, but a scatter that is too small. In the second step, the properties of observed BPs are compared with synthetic ones. Again, these are found to match relatively well, except that the observations display a tail of large BPs with strong polarization signals (most likely network elements) not found in the simulations, possibly due to the small size of the simulation box. The higher spatial resolution of the simulations has a significant effect, leading to smaller and more numerous BPs. The observation that most BPs are weakly polarized is explained mainly by the spatial degradation, the stray light contamination, and the temperature sensitivity of the Fe i line at 5250.2 Å. Finally, given that the MHD simulations are highly consistent with the observations, we used the simulations to explore the properties of BPs further. The Stokes V asymmetries increase with the distance to the

  13. Dark Skies as a Universal Resource: Citizen Scientists Measuring Sky Brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. E.; Isbell, D.; Pompea, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    The international star-hunting event known as GLOBE at Night returned March 8-21, 2007 in two flavors: the classic GLOBE at Night activity incorporating unaided-eye observations which debuted last year, and a new effort to obtain precise measurements of urban dark skies using digital sky-brightness meters. Both flavors of the program were designed to aid in heightening the awareness about the impact of artificial lighting on local environments, and the ongoing loss of a dark night sky as a natural resource for much of the world's population. To make possible the digital GLOBE at Night program, NSF funded 135 low-cost, digital sky-quality meter (manufactured by Unihedron). With these, citizen-scientists took direct measurements of the integrated sky brightness across a wide swath of night sky. Along with related materials developed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the meters were distributed to citizen-scientists in 21 U.S. states plus Washington DC, and in 5 other countries, including Chile, where NOAO has a major observatory. The citizen- scientists were selected from teachers, their students, astronomers at mountain-top observatories, International Dark-Sky Association members and staff from 19 small science centers. Most sites had a coordinator, who instructed local educators in the proper use of the meters and develop a plan to share them as widely as possible during the 2-week window. The local teams pooled their data for regional analysis and in some cases shared the results with their schools and local policymakers. Building upon the worldwide participation sparked by the first GLOBE at Night campaign in March 2006, the observations this year approached 8500 (from 60 countries), 85% higher than the number from last year. The success of GLOBE at Night 2007 is a major step toward the International Year of Astronomy in 2009, when one goal is to make the digital data collection into a worldwide activity. In this presentation, we will outline

  14. Electron Source Brightness and Illumination Semi-Angle Distribution Measurement in a Transmission Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börrnert, Felix; Renner, Julian; Kaiser, Ute

    2018-05-21

    The electron source brightness is an important parameter in an electron microscope. Reliable and easy brightness measurement routes are not easily found. A determination method for the illumination semi-angle distribution in transmission electron microscopy is even less well documented. Herein, we report a simple measurement route for both entities and demonstrate it on a state-of-the-art instrument. The reduced axial brightness of the FEI X-FEG with a monochromator was determined to be larger than 108 A/(m2 sr V).

  15. Brightness of the photosphere and faculae at the limb based on eclipse observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimov, L.A.; Belkina, I.L.; Dyatel, N.P.

    1982-05-01

    The absolute distributions of integral and surface brightness of the photospheric continuum (lambdaroughly-equal5870 A) and in faculae at the very limb are obtained from slitless spectrograms of the total solar eclipse of July 10, 1972. Several possible reasons for the brightness increase toward the limb in the distribution of photospheric surface brightness are discussed. The faculae showed high contrasts, up to 1.76 at a height of 200 km from the limb. A comparison of the times of local contacts observed and calculated with allowance for lunar relief showed that the active regions are at about 300 km above the photosphere. A schematic model of a facula is proposed.

  16. Solar brightness distribution at 8.6 mm from interferometer observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, K.; Fujishita, M.; Kato, T.; Ogawa, H.; Omodaka, T.

    1980-01-01

    The radial brightness distribution of the quiet Sun at 8.6 mm is synthesized from observations using a sixteen element east-west interferometer in Nagoya. The observed brightness is flat from the disk center to 0.8 Rsub(sun). A slight darkening appeared between 0.8 Rsub(sun) and the limb. No evidence if the bright ring near the limb is found. The radio radius at 8.6 mm is 1.015 +- 0.005 Rsub(sun). In addition there exists a coronal component just outside the radio limb. (orig.)

  17. AVHRR Leads-ARI Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of AVHRR imagery selected from hard copy 'quick look' images to provide the best coverage possible over the Arctic approximately every three...

  18. AVHRR Leads-ARI Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of AVHRR imagery selected from hard copy 'quick look' images to provide the best coverage possible over the Arctic approximately every three...

  19. THE BRIGHTEST OF REIONIZING GALAXIES SURVEY: CONSTRAINTS ON THE BRIGHT END OF THE z {approx} 8 LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, L. D.; Stiavelli, M.; Pirzkal, N. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Trenti, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Oesch, P. A. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Treu, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Bouwens, R. J. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Shull, J. M. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Holwerda, B. W. [European Space Agency (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, NL-2200 AG, Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2012-12-01

    We report the discovery of 33 Lyman-break galaxy candidates at z {approx} 8 detected in Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging as part of the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) pure-parallel survey. The ongoing BoRG survey currently has the largest area (274 arcmin{sup 2}) with Y {sub 098} (or Y {sub 105}), J {sub 125}, and H {sub 160} band coverage needed to search for z {approx} 8 galaxies, about three times the current CANDELS area, and slightly larger than what will be the final CANDELS wide component with Y {sub 105} data (required to select z {approx} 8 sources). Our sample of 33 relatively bright Y {sub 098}-dropout galaxies have J {sub 125}-band magnitudes between 25.5 and 27.4 mag. This is the largest sample of bright (J {sub 125} {approx}< 27.4) z {approx} 8 galaxy candidates presented to date. Combining our data set with the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field data set, we constrain the rest-frame ultraviolet galaxy luminosity function at z {approx} 8 over the widest dynamic range currently available. The combined data sets are well fitted by a Schechter function, i.e., {phi} (L) = {phi}{sub *} (L/L{sub *}){sup {alpha}} e{sup -(}L{sup /L{sub *})}, without evidence for an excess of sources at the bright end. At 68% confidence, for h = 0.7 we derive {phi}{sub *} = (4.3{sup +3.5} {sub -2.1}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} Mpc{sup -3}, M {sub *} = -20.26{sup +0.29} {sub -0.34}, and a very steep faint-end slope {alpha} = -1.98{sup +0.23} {sub -0.22}. While the best-fit parameters still have a strong degeneracy, especially between {phi}{sub *} and M {sub *}, our improved coverage at the bright end has reduced the uncertainty of the faint-end power-law slope at z {approx} 8 compared to the best previous determination at {+-}0.4. With a future expansion of the BoRG survey, combined with planned ultradeep WFC3/IR observations, it will be possible to further reduce this uncertainty and clearly demonstrate the steepening of the faint-end slope compared

  20. Phase advancing human circadian rhythms with morning bright light, afternoon melatonin, and gradually shifted sleep: can we reduce morning bright-light duration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Stephanie J; Eastman, Charmane I

    2015-02-01

    Efficient treatments to phase-advance human circadian rhythms are needed to attenuate circadian misalignment and the associated negative health outcomes that accompany early-morning shift work, early school start times, jet lag, and delayed sleep phase disorder. This study compared three morning bright-light exposure patterns from a single light box (to mimic home treatment) in combination with afternoon melatonin. Fifty adults (27 males) aged 25.9 ± 5.1 years participated. Sleep/dark was advanced 1 h/day for three treatment days. Participants took 0.5 mg of melatonin 5 h before the baseline bedtime on treatment day 1, and an hour earlier each treatment day. They were exposed to one of three bright-light (~5000 lux) patterns upon waking each morning: four 30-min exposures separated by 30 min of room light (2-h group), four 15-min exposures separated by 45 min of room light (1-h group), and one 30-min exposure (0.5-h group). Dim-light melatonin onsets (DLMOs) before and after treatment determined the phase advance. Compared to the 2-h group (phase shift = 2.4 ± 0.8 h), smaller phase-advance shifts were seen in the 1-h (1.7 ± 0.7 h) and 0.5-h (1.8 ± 0.8 h) groups. The 2-h pattern produced the largest phase advance; however, the single 30-min bright-light exposure was as effective as 1 h of bright light spread over 3.25 h, and it produced 75% of the phase shift observed with 2 h of bright light. A 30-min morning bright-light exposure with afternoon melatonin is an efficient treatment to phase-advance human circadian rhythms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phase advancing human circadian rhythms with morning bright light, afternoon melatonin, and gradually shifted sleep: can we reduce morning bright light duration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Stephanie J.; Eastman, Charmane I.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Efficient treatments to phase advance human circadian rhythms are needed to attenuate circadian misalignment and the associated negative health outcomes that accompany early morning shift work, early school start times, jet lag, and delayed sleep phase disorder. This study compared three morning bright light exposure patterns from a single light box (to mimic home treatment) in combination with afternoon melatonin. METHODS Fifty adults (27 males) aged 25.9±5.1 years participated. Sleep/dark was advanced 1 hour/day for 3 treatment days. Participants took 0.5 mg melatonin 5 hours before baseline bedtime on treatment day 1, and an hour earlier each treatment day. They were exposed to one of three bright light (~5000 lux) patterns upon waking each morning: four 30-minute exposures separated by 30 minutes of room light (2 h group); four 15-minute exposures separated by 45 minutes of room light (1 h group), and one 30-minute exposure (0.5 h group). Dim light melatonin onsets (DLMOs) before and after treatment determined the phase advance. RESULTS Compared to the 2 h group (phase shift=2.4±0.8 h), smaller phase advance shifts were seen in the 1 h (1.7±0.7 h) and 0.5 h (1.8±0.8 h) groups. The 2-hour pattern produced the largest phase advance; however, the single 30-minute bright light exposure was as effective as 1 hour of bright light spread over 3.25 h, and produced 75% of the phase shift observed with 2 hours of bright light. CONCLUSIONS A 30-minute morning bright light exposure with afternoon melatonin is an efficient treatment to phase advance human circadian rhythms. PMID:25620199

  2. The Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies Survey: Constraints on the Bright End of the z ~ 8 Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, L. D.; Trenti, M.; Oesch, P. A.; Stiavelli, M.; Treu, T.; Bouwens, R. J.; Shull, J. M.; Holwerda, B. W.; Pirzkal, N.

    2012-12-01

    We report the discovery of 33 Lyman-break galaxy candidates at z ~ 8 detected in Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging as part of the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) pure-parallel survey. The ongoing BoRG survey currently has the largest area (274 arcmin2) with Y 098 (or Y 105), J 125, and H 160 band coverage needed to search for z ~ 8 galaxies, about three times the current CANDELS area, and slightly larger than what will be the final CANDELS wide component with Y 105 data (required to select z ~ 8 sources). Our sample of 33 relatively bright Y 098-dropout galaxies have J 125-band magnitudes between 25.5 and 27.4 mag. This is the largest sample of bright (J 125 universe. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 11519, 11520, 11524, 11528, 11530, 11533, 11534, 11541, 11700, 11702, 12024, 12025, and 12572.

  3. A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF BRIGHT SWIFT LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS. I. SAMPLE PRESENTATION, LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvaterra, R.; Campana, S.; Vergani, S. D.; Covino, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; Fugazza, D.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Melandri, A.; Sbarufatti, B.; Tagliaferri, G.; Nava, L.; Flores, H.; Piranomonte, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present a carefully selected sub-sample of Swift long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that is complete in redshift. The sample is constructed by considering only bursts with favorable observing conditions for ground-based follow-up searches, which are bright in the 15-150 keV Swift/BAT band, i.e., with 1-s peak photon fluxes in excess to 2.6 photons s –1 cm –2 . The sample is composed of 58 bursts, 52 of them with redshift for a completeness level of 90%, while another two have a redshift constraint, reaching a completeness level of 95%. For only three bursts we have no constraint on the redshift. The high level of redshift completeness allows us for the first time to constrain the GRB luminosity function and its evolution with cosmic times in an unbiased way. We find that strong evolution in luminosity (δ l = 2.3 ± 0.6) or in density (δ d = 1.7 ± 0.5) is required in order to account for the observations. The derived redshift distributions in the two scenarios are consistent with each other, in spite of their different intrinsic redshift distributions. This calls for other indicators to distinguish among different evolution models. Complete samples are at the base of any population studies. In future works we will use this unique sample of Swift bright GRBs to study the properties of the population of long GRBs.

  4. A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF BRIGHT SWIFT LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS. I. SAMPLE PRESENTATION, LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvaterra, R. [INAF, IASF Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Campana, S.; Vergani, S. D.; Covino, S.; D' Avanzo, P.; Fugazza, D.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Melandri, A.; Sbarufatti, B.; Tagliaferri, G. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Saint Lucia) (Italy); Nava, L. [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Flores, H. [Laboratoire GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS-UMR8111, Univ. Paris-Diderot 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France); Piranomonte, S., E-mail: ruben@lambrate.inaf.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Rome (Italy)

    2012-04-10

    We present a carefully selected sub-sample of Swift long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that is complete in redshift. The sample is constructed by considering only bursts with favorable observing conditions for ground-based follow-up searches, which are bright in the 15-150 keV Swift/BAT band, i.e., with 1-s peak photon fluxes in excess to 2.6 photons s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. The sample is composed of 58 bursts, 52 of them with redshift for a completeness level of 90%, while another two have a redshift constraint, reaching a completeness level of 95%. For only three bursts we have no constraint on the redshift. The high level of redshift completeness allows us for the first time to constrain the GRB luminosity function and its evolution with cosmic times in an unbiased way. We find that strong evolution in luminosity ({delta}{sub l} = 2.3 {+-} 0.6) or in density ({delta}{sub d} = 1.7 {+-} 0.5) is required in order to account for the observations. The derived redshift distributions in the two scenarios are consistent with each other, in spite of their different intrinsic redshift distributions. This calls for other indicators to distinguish among different evolution models. Complete samples are at the base of any population studies. In future works we will use this unique sample of Swift bright GRBs to study the properties of the population of long GRBs.

  5. Dynamics of bright-bright solitons in Bose-Einstein condensate with Raman-induced one-dimensional spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Hu, Ai-Yuan; Zhou, Jing; Yu, Peng; Xia, Lei; Sun, Qing; Ji, An-Chun

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the dynamics of bright-bright solitons in one-dimensional two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with Raman-induced spin-orbit coupling, via the variational approximation and the numerical simulation of Gross-Pitaevskii equations. For the uniform system without trapping potential, we obtain two population balanced stationary solitons. By performing the linear stability analysis, we find a Goldstone eigenmode and an oscillation eigenmode around these stationary solitons. Moreover, we derive a general dynamical solution to describe the center-of-mass motion and spin evolution of the solitons under the action of spin-orbit coupling. The effects of a harmonic trap have also been discussed.

  6. Mechanical design and fabrication of the VHF-gun, the Berkeley normal-conducting continuous-wave high-brightness electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R. P.; Ghiorso, W.; Staples, J.; Huang, T. M.; Sannibale, F.; Kramasz, T. D.

    2016-02-01

    A high repetition rate, MHz-class, high-brightness electron source is a key element in future high-repetition-rate x-ray free electron laser-based light sources. The VHF-gun, a novel low frequency radio-frequency gun, is the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) response to that need. The gun design is based on a normal conducting, single cell cavity resonating at 186 MHz in the VHF band and capable of continuous wave operation while still delivering the high accelerating fields at the cathode required for the high brightness performance. The VHF-gun was fabricated and successfully commissioned in the framework of the Advanced Photo-injector EXperiment, an injector built at LBNL to demonstrate the capability of the gun to deliver the required beam quality. The basis for the selection of the VHF-gun technology, novel design features, and fabrication techniques are described.

  7. Bright Single InAsP Quantum Dots at Telecom Wavelengths in Position-Controlled InP Nanowires: The Role of the Photonic Waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffouz, Sofiane; Zeuner, Katharina D; Dalacu, Dan; Poole, Philip J; Lapointe, Jean; Poitras, Daniel; Mnaymneh, Khaled; Wu, Xiaohua; Couillard, Martin; Korkusinski, Marek; Schöll, Eva; Jöns, Klaus D; Zwiller, Valery; Williams, Robin L

    2018-05-09

    We report on the site-selected growth of bright single InAsP quantum dots embedded within InP photonic nanowire waveguides emitting at telecom wavelengths. We demonstrate a dramatic dependence of the emission rate on both the emission wavelength and the nanowire diameter. With an appropriately designed waveguide, tailored to the emission wavelength of the dot, an increase in the count rate by nearly 2 orders of magnitude (0.4 to 35 kcps) is obtained for quantum dots emitting in the telecom O-band, showing high single-photon purity with multiphoton emission probabilities down to 2%. Using emission-wavelength-optimized waveguides, we demonstrate bright, narrow-line-width emission from single InAsP quantum dots with an unprecedented tuning range of 880 to 1550 nm. These results pave the way toward efficient single-photon sources at telecom wavelengths using deterministically grown InAsP/InP nanowire quantum dots.

  8. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of MSU Level 1c Brightness Temperature, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains Level 1c inter-calibrated brightness temperatures from the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) sensors onboard nine polar orbiting satellites...

  9. Evaluations of the new LiF-scintillator and optional brightness enhancement films for neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iikura, H., E-mail: Iikura.hiroshi@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Tsutsui, N. [Chichibu Fuji Co., Ltd., Ogano, Chichibu, Saitama 368-0193 (Japan); Nakamura, T.; Katagiri, M.; Kureta, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Kubo, J. [Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0126 (Japan); Matsubayashi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2011-09-21

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed the neutron scintillator jointly with Chichibu Fuji Co., Ltd. In this study, we evaluated the new ZnS(Ag):Al/{sup 6}Li scintillator developed for neutron imaging. It was confirmed that the brightness increased by about double while maintaining equal performance for the spatial resolution as compared with a conventional scintillator. High frame-rate imaging using a high-speed video camera system and this new scintillator made it possible to image beyond 10 000 frames per second while still having enough brightness. This technique allowed us to obtain a high-frame-rate visualization of oil flow in a running car engine. Furthermore, we devised a technique to increase the light intensity of reception for a camera by adding brightness enhancement films on the output surface of the scintillator. It was confirmed that the spatial resolution degraded more than double, but the brightness increased by about three times.

  10. SMAP L1B Radiometer Half-Orbit Time-Ordered Brightness Temperatures V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level-1B (L1B) product provides calibrated estimates of time-ordered geolocated brightness temperatures measured by the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP)...

  11. Nimbus-5/THIR Level 1 Brightness Temperature at 11.5 microns V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-5 Temperature-Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) Level 1 Brightness Temperature at 11.5 microns data product contains radiances expressed in units of...

  12. Detecting gradual visual changes in colour and brightness agnosia: a double dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; te Pas, Susan F; van der Smagt, Maarten J

    2011-03-09

    Two patients, one with colour agnosia and one with brightness agnosia, performed a task that required the detection of gradual temporal changes in colour and brightness. The results for these patients, who showed anaverage or an above-average performance on several tasks designed to test low-level colour and luminance (contrast) perception in the spatial domain, yielded a double dissociation; the brightness agnosic patient was within the normal range for the coloured stimuli, but much slower to detect brightness differences, whereas the colour agnosic patient was within the normal range for the achromatic stimuli, but much slower for the coloured stimuli. These results suggest that a modality-specific impairment in the detection of gradual temporal changes might be related to, if not underlie, the phenomenon of visual agnosia.

  13. Influences of diurnal bright or dim light exposure on urine volume in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Ki-Ja; Nishimura, Shinya; Tokura, Hiromi

    2006-03-01

    We investigated with eight healthy females if 8 hr diurnal (0700 to 1500 h) bright rather than dim light (5,000 vs. 80 lx) influenced urine volume. Environmental illuminance was made identical at all other times besides 07:00 to 15:00 h. The participants spent time at strictly regulated schedules in a bioclimatic chamber (26 degrees C, relative humidity 60%) for 57 h. Blood was drawn (2 ml) just before lunch in order to calculate Creatinine clearance (Ccr). Urine volume was significantly higher during wakefulness and the 8-h sleep period with bright rather than dim light. Ccr was significantly higher after bright light. The results were discussed in terms of suppression of the sympathetic nerve system under the influence of diurnal bright light exposure. We also discussed these in terms of physiological polymorphisms.

  14. NOAA Fundamental Climate Data Record (CDR) of AMSU-B and MHS Brightness Temperature, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B) and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) brightness temperature (Tb) in "window...

  15. VOYAGER 1&2 JUPITER BRIGHTNESS NORTH/SOUTH MAP SET V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Voyager 1 and 2 measurements of the brightness of Jupiter at H Lyman alpha and in the H2 Lyman and Werner bands shortward of H Lyman alpha....

  16. AXIAL RATIO OF EDGE-ON SPIRAL GALAXIES AS A TEST FOR BRIGHT RADIO HALOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, J.; Jones, E.; Dunlap, H.; Kogut, A.

    2015-01-01

    We use surface brightness contour maps of nearby edge-on spiral galaxies to determine whether extended bright radio halos are common. In particular, we test a recent model of the spatial structure of the diffuse radio continuum by Subrahmanyan and Cowsik which posits that a substantial fraction of the observed high-latitude surface brightness originates from an extended Galactic halo of uniform emissivity. Measurements of the axial ratio of emission contours within a sample of normal spiral galaxies at 1500 MHz and below show no evidence for such a bright, extended radio halo. Either the Galaxy is atypical compared to nearby quiescent spirals or the bulk of the observed high-latitude emission does not originate from this type of extended halo. (letters)

  17. Critical issues in enhancing brightness in thin film phosphors for flat-panel display applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.; Chen, Z.; Kumar, D.; Cho, K.; Ollinger, M.

    2002-01-01

    Thin film phosphors have potential applications in field emission flat-panel displays. However, they are limited by the lower cathodoluminescent brightness in comparison to phosphor powders. In this paper, we have investigated the critical parameters that need to be optimized to increase the brightness of phosphor thin films. Specifically, we studied the role of surface roughness and optical properties of the substrate on the brightness of the phosphor films. Thin Y 2 O 3 :Eu phosphor films were deposited on various substrates (lanthanum aluminate, quartz, sapphire, and silicon) with thicknesses varying from 50 to 500 nm. A model that accounts for diffuse and specular or scattering effects has been developed to understand the effects of the microstructure on the emission characteristics of the cathodoluminescent films. The results from the model show that both the optical properties of the substrate and the surface roughness of the films play a critical role in controlling the brightness of laser deposited phosphor films

  18. Three-dimensional analysis of free-electron laser performance using brightness scaled variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gullans

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional analysis of radiation generation in a free-electron laser (FEL is performed in the small signal regime. The analysis includes beam conditioning, harmonic generation, flat beams, and a new scaling of the FEL equations using the six-dimensional beam brightness. The six-dimensional beam brightness is an invariant under Liouvillian flow; therefore, any nondissipative manipulation of the phase space, performed, for example, in order to optimize FEL performance, must conserve this brightness. This scaling is more natural than the commonly used scaling with the one-dimensional growth rate. The brightness-scaled equations allow for the succinct characterization of the optimal FEL performance under various additional constraints. The analysis allows for the simple evaluation of gain enhancement schemes based on beam phase space manipulations such as emittance exchange and conditioning. An example comparing the gain in the first and third harmonics of round or flat and conditioned or unconditioned beams is presented.

  19. Wavelength Selection For Laser Raman Spectroscopy of Putative Martian Habitats and Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn-Williams, D. D.; Newton, E. M. G.; Edwards, H. G. M.

    Pigments are key potential biomarkers for any former life on Mars because of the selective pressure of solar radiation on any biological system that could have evolved at its surface. We have found that the near -Infrared laser Raman spectrometer available to use was eminently suitable for diagnostic analysis of pigments because of their minimal autofluorescence at its 1064 nm excitation wav elength. However, we have now evaluated a diverse range of excitation wavelengths to confirm this choice, to ensure that we have the best technique to seek for pigments and their derivatives from any former surface life on Mars. The Raman is weak relative to fluorescence, which results in elevated baseline and concurrent swamping of Raman bands. We confirm the molecular information available from near-IR FT Raman spectra for two highly pigmented UV-tolerant epilithic Antarctic lichens (Acarospora chlorop hana and Caloplaca saxicola) from Victoria Land, a whole endolithic microbial community and endolithic cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis from within translucent sandstone of the Trans -Antarctic Mountains, and the free- living cyanobacterium Nostoc commune from Alexander Island, Antarctic Peninsula region. We also show that much of the information we require on biomolecules is not evident from lasers of shorter wavelengths. A miniature 1064 nm Raman spectrometer with an In-Ga-As detector sensitive to IR is being developed by Montana State University (now existing as a prototype) as the prime instrument for a proposed UK-led Mars rover mission (Vanguard). Preliminary spectra from this system confirm the suitability of the near-IR laser.

  20. Measuring and mapping the night sky brightness of Perth, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, James D.; Fouché, Tiffany; Bilki, Frank; Zadnik, Marjan G.

    2012-04-01

    In order to study the light pollution produced in the city of Perth, Western Australia, we have used a hand-held sky brightness meter to measure the night sky brightness across the city. The data acquired facilitated the creation of a contour map of night sky brightness across the 2400 km2 area of the city - the first such map to be produced for a city. Importantly, this map was created using a methodology borrowed from the field of geophysics - the well proven and rigorous techniques of geostatistical analysis and modelling. A major finding of this study is the effect of land use on night sky brightness. By overlaying the night sky brightness map on to a suitably processed Landsat satellite image of Perth we found that locations near commercial and/or light industrial areas have a brighter night sky, whereas locations used for agriculture or having high vegetation coverage have a fainter night sky than surrounding areas. Urban areas have intermediate amounts of vegetation and are intermediate in brightness compared with the above-mentioned land uses. Regions with a higher density of major highways also appear to contribute to increased night sky brightness. When corrected for the effects of direct illumination from high buildings, we found that the night sky brightness in the central business district (CBD) is very close to that expected for a city of Perth's population from modelling work and observations obtained in earlier studies. Given that our night sky brightness measurements in Perth over 2009 and 2010 are commensurate with that measured in Canadian cities over 30 years earlier implies that the various lighting systems employed in Perth (and probably most other cities) have not been optimised to minimize light pollution over that time. We also found that night sky brightness diminished with distance with an exponent of approximately -0.25 ± 0.02 from 3.5 to 10 km from the Perth CBD, a region characterized by urban and commercial land use. For distances