WorldWideScience

Sample records for bright galaxy counts

  1. The number counts and infrared backgrounds from infrared-bright galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extragalactic number counts and diffuse backgrounds at 25, 60, and 100 microns are predicted using new luminosity functions and improved spectral-energy distribution density functions derived from IRAS observations of nearby galaxies. Galaxies at redshifts z less than 3 that are like those in the local universe should produce a minimum diffuse background of 0.0085, 0.038, and 0.13 MJy/sr at 25, 60, and 100 microns, respectively. Models with significant luminosity evolution predict backgrounds about a factor of 4 greater than this minimum. 22 refs

  2. The environment of Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, S. D.; Bomans, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    Using the Early Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) we investigated the clustering properties of Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies in comparison to normal, High Surface Brightness (HSB) galaxies. We selected LSB galaxies and HSB galaxies with well measured redshifts from the SDSS data base and performed three-dimensional neighbour counting analysis within spheres of radii between 0.8 Mpc and 8.0 Mpc. As a second analysis method we used an N-th neighbour analysis with N var...

  3. Bright Galaxies, Dark Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Vera

    In 1965, Vera Rubin was the first woman permitted to observe at Palomar Observatory. In the intervening years, she has become one of the world's finest and most respected astronomers. This particular collection of essays is compiled from work written over the past 15 years and deals with a variety of subjects in astronomy and astrophysics, specifically galaxies and dark matter. The book also contains biographical sketches of astronomers who have been colleagues and friends, providing a stimulating view of a woman in science. About the Author Since 1965 Vera Rubin has been a staff member at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Dr. Rubin has authored nearly 200 papers on the structure of our galaxy, motions within other galaxies, and large scale motions in the universe. She has been a distinguished visiting astronomer at the Cerro Tololo Inter American Observatory in Chile; a Chancellor's Distinguished Professor at the University of California, Berkeley; a President's Distinguished Visitor at Vassar College; and a Beatrice Tinsley visiting professor at the University of Texas, Austin.

  4. Bright galaxies, dark matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, V.

    This book charts two extraordinary journeys: the road to a better understanding of the structure and composition of the universe, and V. Rubin's own pathbreaking career. The scientific papers included here offer an overview of the topic that has been the major focus of her career: the motions of stars within galaxies and the evidence from these motions that most of the matter in the universe is dark. Elsewhere the author examines some of the tools of her trade - from star charts to the Hubble Telescope to some of the observatories where she has worked. The concluding section, "The astronomical life", finds V. Rubin writing candidly about the demands and rewards of her career, offering insightful portraits of colleagues, friends, and other notable women in science.

  5. Galaxy selection and the surface brightness distribution

    CERN Document Server

    McGaugh, S S; Schombert, J M

    1995-01-01

    Optical surveys for galaxies are biased against the inclusion of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. Disney (1976) suggested that the constancy of disk central surface brightness noticed by Freeman (1970) was not a physical result, but instead was an artifact of sample selection. Since LSB galaxies do exist, the pertinent and still controversial issue is if these newly discovered galaxies constitute a significant percentage of the general galaxy population. In this paper, we address this issue by determining the space density of galaxies as a function of disk central surface brightness. Using the physically reasonable assumption (which is motivated by the data) that central surface brightness is independent of disk scale length, we arrive at a distribution which is roughly flat (\\ie approximately equal numbers of galaxies at each surface brightness) faintwards of the Freeman (1970) value. Brightwards of this, we find a sharp decline in the distribution which is analogous to the turn down in the luminosity ...

  6. The lowest surface brightness disc galaxy known

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of a galaxy with a prominent bulge and a dominant extremely low surface brightness disc component is reported. The profile of this galaxy is very similar to the recently discovered giant low surface brightness galaxy Malin 1. The disc central surface brightness is found to be ∼ 26.4 Rμ, some 1.5 mag fainter than Malin 1 and thus by far the lowest yet observed. (author)

  7. Surface Brightness Profiles of Seyfert Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tugay, A V

    2014-01-01

    We built r-band surface brightness profiles by SDSS data for 16 Seyfert galaxies observed in Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. Obtained profiles can be used for finding more accurate lightcurves for these galaxies.

  8. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intrinsic surface brightness Ssub(e) of 500 disc galaxies (0<=T<=9) drawn from the Second Reference Catalogue is computed and it is shown that Ssub(e) does not correlate significantly with Msub(B), (B-V) or type. This is consistent with the notion that there is a heavy selection bias in favour of disc galaxies with that particular surface brightness which allows inclusion in the catalogue over the largest volume of space. (author)

  9. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is proposed that Freeman's discovery that the extrapolated central surface brightness of spiral galaxies is approximately constant can be simply explained if the galaxies contain a spheroidal component which dominates the light in their outer isophotes. Calculations of an effective central surface brightness indicate a wide spread of values. This requires either a wide spread in disc properties or significant spheroidal components or, most probably, both. (author)

  10. The galaxy counts-in-cells distribution from the SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Abel

    2010-01-01

    We determine the galaxy counts-in-cells distribution from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for 3D spherical cells in redshift space as well as for 2D projected cells. We find that cosmic variance in the SDSS causes the counts-in-cells distributions in different quadrants to differ from each other by up to 20%. We also find that within this cosmic variance, the overall galaxy counts-in-cells distribution agrees with both the gravitational quasi-equilibrium distribution and the negative binomial distribution. We also find that brighter galaxies are more strongly clustered than if they were randomly selected from a larger complete sample that includes galaxies of all luminosities. The results suggest that bright galaxies could be in dark matter haloes separated by less than ~10 Mpc/h.

  11. Galaxy evolution at low redshift?; 1, optical counts

    CERN Document Server

    Dennefeld, M

    1996-01-01

    We present bright galaxy number counts in the blue (16bright galaxies implying a ``high'' normalization of the local luminosity function. Our counts and colour distributions exhibit no large departure from what standard no-evolution models predict, removing the need for evolution of the galaxy population in the optical, out to Bj=21. This result disagrees with that of Maddox et al. (1990) on the APM catalog. We show that the APM and similar catalogs may be affected by a systematic magnitude scale error which would explain this discrepancy.

  12. Star formation and the surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The (blue) surface brightness of spiral galaxies is significantly correlated with their Hα linewidth. This can be most plausibly interpreted as a correlation of surface brightness with star formation rate. There is also a significant difference in surface brightness between galaxies forming stars in a grand design spiral pattern and those with floc star formation regions. (author)

  13. Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts

    CERN Document Server

    Durrer, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.

  14. Selection effects in the bivariate brightness distribution for spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The joint distribution of total luminosity and characteristic surface brightness (the bivariate brightness distribution) is investigated for a complete sample of spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster. The influence of selection and physical limits of various kinds on the apparent distribution are detailed. While the distribution of surface brightness for bright galaxies may be genuinely fairly narrow, faint galaxies exist right across the (quite small) range of accessible surface brightnesses so no statement can be made about the true extent of the distribution. The lack of high surface brightness bright galaxies in the Virgo sample relative to an overall RC2 sample (mostly field galaxies) supports the contention that the star-formation rate is reduced in the inner region of the cluster for environmental reasons. (author)

  15. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies: Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using measurements from IRAS correlations are found between optical surface brightness and both infrared-to-optical flux ratio and infrared colour temperature, in the sense that galaxies with high surface brightness have higher FIR emission and higher temperatures. (author)

  16. Submillimeter Galaxy Number Counts and Magnification by Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, Marcos; Devlin, Mark; Aguirre, James

    2010-01-01

    We present an analytical model which reproduces measured galaxy number counts from surveys in the wavelength range of 500 micron to 2 mm. The model involves a single high-redshift galaxy population with a Schechter luminosity function which has been gravitationally lensed by galaxy clusters in the mass range 10^13 to 10^15 Msun. This simple model reproduces both the low flux and the high flux end of the number counts reported by the BLAST, SCUBA, AzTEC and the SPT surveys. In particular, our model accounts for the most luminous galaxies detected by SPT as the result of high magnifications by galaxy clusters (magnification factors of 10-30). This interpretation implies that submillimeter and millimeter surveys of this population may prove to be a useful addition to ongoing cluster detection surveys. The model also implies that the bulk of submillimeter galaxies detected at wavelengths larger than 500 micron lie at redshifts greater than 2.

  17. New Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Galaxies Detected Around Nearby Spirals

    OpenAIRE

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Riepe, P.; Zilch, T.; Blauensteiner, M.; Elvov, M.; Hochleitner, P.; Hubl, B.; Kerschhuber, G.; Küppers, S.; Neyer, F.; Pölzl, R.; Remmel, P.; Schneider, O.; Sparenberg, R.; Trulson, U.

    2015-01-01

    We conduct a survey of low surface brightness (LSB) satellite galaxies around the Local Volume massive spirals using long exposures with small amateur telescopes. We identified 27 low and very low surface brightness objects around the galaxies NGC,672, 891, 1156, 2683, 3344, 4258, 4618, 4631, and 5457 situated within 10 Mpc from us, and found nothing new around NGC,2903, 3239, 4214, and 5585. Assuming that the dwarf candidates are the satellites of the neighboring luminous galaxies, their abs...

  18. Bright X-ray galaxies in SDSS filaments

    OpenAIRE

    Tugay, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Eighteen bright X-ray emitting galaxies were found in nearby filaments within SDSS region. Basic X-ray spectral parameters were estimated for these galaxies using power law model with photoelectric absorption. A close pair of X-ray galaxies was found.

  19. Low surface brightness galaxies in the Fornax Cluster: automated galaxy surface photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sample is presented of low surface brightness galaxies (with extrapolated central surface brightness fainter than 22.0 Bμ) in the Fornax Cluster region which has been measured by the APM machine. Photometric parameters, namely profile shape, scale length, central brightness and total magnitude, are derived for the sample galaxies and correlations between the parameters of low surface brightness dwarf galaxies are discussed, with particular reference to the selection limits. Contrary to previous authors we find no evidence for a luminosity-surface brightness correlation in the sense of lower surface brightness galaxies having lower luminosities and scale sizes. In fact, the present data suggest that it is the galaxies with the largest scale lengths which are more likely to be of very low surface brightness. In addition, the larger scale length galaxies occur preferentially towards the centre of the Cluster. (author)

  20. Survival analysis of the optical brightness of GRB host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Racz, I I; Bagoly, Z; Toth, L V

    2015-01-01

    We studied the unbiased optical brightness distribution which was calculated from the survival analysis of host galaxies and its relationship with the Swift GRB data of the host galaxies observed by the Keck telescopes. Based on the sample obtained from merging the Swift GRB table and the Keck optical data we also studied the dependence of this distribution on the data of the GRBs. Finally, we compared the HGs distribution with standard galaxies distribution which is in the DEEP2 galaxies catalog.

  1. Low surface brightness galaxies in the cluster A1367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have obtained deep CCD frames of apparently blank regions of sky in the hope of detecting very low surface brightness (LSB) objects in the cluster A1367. We discuss our data reduction, and image detection and selection techniques. If the galaxies detected are actually cluster members then they are dwarfs and the conclusions of a previous paper on the Fornax cluster are essentially confirmed. One area of variance is that the lowest surface brightness galaxies do not appear to be preferentially concentrated towards the cluster centre. This can be explained by there being a much larger density of dwarf galaxies over this bright galaxy-rich region of the universe. We find over our small area approximately four times as many LSB galaxies as would be expected from our Fornax data. We speculate on the possible origin and likely intensity of intergalactic light within clusters. (author)

  2. Do Baryons Alter the Halos of Low Surface Brightness Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    de Naray, Rachel Kuzio

    2011-01-01

    High-quality observations of dark matter-dominated low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies indicate that, in contrast to the triaxial, centrally-concentrated cuspy halos formed in collisionless simulations of halo assembly, these galaxies reside in round, roughly constant density cored halos. In order to reconcile these data with galaxy formation in the context of LCDM, processes that alter the shape and density structure of the inner halo are required. We compile observational properties of LSB galaxies to evaluate the plausibility that a previously higher baryonic mass content and feedback from star formation can modify the dark matter halos of these galaxies. We also compare the properties of bulgeless disk galaxies formed in recent simulations to the LSB galaxy sample. We find that observational constraints on LSB galaxy star formation histories, structure, and kinematics make it difficult for baryonic physics to sphericalize and decrease the central density of the dark matter halos of LSB galaxies.

  3. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies: Evolution in Isolation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Das

    2013-03-01

    Giant Low Surface Brightness (GLSB) galaxies are amongst the most massive spiral galaxies that we know of in our Universe. Although they fall in the class of late type spiral galaxies, their properties are far more extreme. They have very faint stellar disks that are extremely rich in neutral hydrogen gas but low in star formation and hence low in surface brightness. They often have bright bulges that are similar to those found in early type galaxies. The bulges can host low luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that have relatively low mass black holes. GLSB galaxies are usually isolated systems and are rarely found to be interacting with other galaxies. In fact many GLSB galaxies are found under dense regions close to the edges of voids. These galaxies have very massive dark matter halos that also contribute to their stability and lack of evolution. In this paper we briefly review the properties of this unique class of galaxies and conclude that both their isolation and their massive dark matter halos have led to the low star formation rates and the slower rate of evolution in these galaxies.

  4. The surface brightness of 1550 galaxies in Fornax: automated galaxy surface photometry: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of a complete sample of galaxies in the region of the Fornax cluster is presented. Measurements with the Automatic Plate Measuring machine are used to derive the observed distribution of galaxy surface brightness for 1550 objects. Corrections for surface brightness dependent selection effects are then made in order to estimate the true distribution. It is found that the sample (with 16.6 ≤ Msub(APM) ≤ 19.1) is divided into two distinct populations. The 'normal' galaxies with extrapolated central surface brightness Ssub(x) ≤ 22.5 Bμ form a uniformly distributed background of field galaxies. Low surface brightness galaxies (Ssub(x) ≥ 22.5 Bμ), on the other hand, are strongly clumped about the cluster centre. There appear to be few low surface brightness field galaxies. (author)

  5. Far-Ultraviolet Number Counts of Field Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Voyer, Elysse N; Teplitz, Harry I; Siana, Brian D; de Mello, Duilia F

    2011-01-01

    The far-ultraviolet (FUV) number counts of galaxies constrain the evolution of the star-formation rate density of the universe. We report the FUV number counts computed from FUV imaging of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and small areas within the GOODS-North and -South fields. These data were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts sample a FUV AB magnitude range from 21-29 and cover a total area of 15.9 arcmin^2, ~4 times larger than the most recent HST FUV study. Our FUV counts intersect bright FUV GALEX counts at 22.5 mag and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytic models based on dark matter "merger trees" by Somerville et al. (2011). We show that the number counts are ~35% lower than in previous HST studies that use smaller areas. The differences between these studies are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more lines of sight and more area than pre...

  6. Global properties of infrared bright galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Judith S.; Xie, Shuding; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Rice, Walter L.

    1989-01-01

    Infrared flux densities of 182 galaxies, including 50 galaxies in the Virgo cluster, were analyzed using IRAS data for 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns, and the results were compared with data listed in the Point Source Catalog (PSC, 1985). In addition, IR luminosities, L(IRs), colors, and warm dust masses were derived for these galaxies and were compared with the interstellar gas masses and optical luminosities of the galaxies. It was found that, for galaxies whose optical diameter measures between 5 and 8 arcmin, the PSC flux densities are underestimated by a factor of 2 at 60 microns, and by a factor of 1.5 at 100 microns. It was also found that, for 49 galaxies, the mass of warm dust correlated well with the H2 mass, and that L(IR) correlated with L(H-alpha), demonstrating that the L(IR) measures the rate of star formation in these galaxies.

  7. The Galaxy Counts-in-cells Distribution from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Abel; Saslaw, William C.

    2011-03-01

    We determine the galaxy counts-in-cells distribution from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for three-dimensional spherical cells in redshift space as well as for two-dimensional projected cells. We find that cosmic variance in the SDSS causes the counts-in-cells distributions in different quadrants to differ from each other by up to 20%. We also find that within this cosmic variance, the overall galaxy counts-in-cells distribution agrees with both the gravitational quasi-equilibrium distribution and the negative binomial distribution. We also find that brighter galaxies are more strongly clustered than if they were randomly selected from a larger complete sample that includes galaxies of all luminosities. The results suggest that bright galaxies could be in dark matter halos separated by less than ~10 h -1 Mpc.

  8. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasa, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. To this end, we use a Halo Model framework complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD), and we work in full-sky. We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions, as the Gaussian part of the covariance can in fact become subdominant in certain configurations. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias, and demonstrating interesting mathematical properties. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeable better constraints, in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales....

  9. Morphological Number Counts of Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, M G; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Narae

    2000-01-01

    We present a study of photometric properties of the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field South (HDFS) based on the released WFPC2 images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We have classified about 340 galaxies with $I<26$ mag in the HDFS as well as about 400 galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field North (HDFN) using the visual classification supplemented by inspection of the surface brightness profiles of the galaxies. Galaxy population statistics and morphological number counts for the HDFS are found to be similar to be those for the HDFN. We have also determined photometrically the redshifts of the galaxies with $I<26$ mag in the HDFS and the HDFN using the empirical training set method. Redshift distribution, color-redshift relation, and magnitude-redshift for each type of galaxies are investigated.

  10. Bright galaxies in the Fornax cluster. Automated galaxy surface photometry: Pt. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have determined surface-brightness profiles for all galaxies down to magnitude B = 16 in the central region of the Fornax cluster. Using existing redshift data, we have determined the distributions of surface brightness for both the whole sample and for cluster disc galaxies only. Although both distributions peak at extrapolated central surface brightness ∼ 21.7B mag/arcsec2 (the canonical result), it is shown that they are, in fact, consistent with very broad distributions of disc central surface brightness once selection effects and the effects of bulge contamination of the profile are taken into account. (author)

  11. Estimation of the Space Density of Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Briggs, F H

    1997-01-01

    The space density of low surface brightness and tiny gas-rich dwarf galaxies are estimated for two recent catalogs: The Arecibo Survey of Northern Dwarf and Low Surface Brightness Galaxies (Schneider, Thuan, Magri & Wadiak 1990) and The Catalog of Low Surface Brightness Galaxy, List II (Schombert, Bothun, Schneider & McGaugh 1992). The goals are (1) to evaluate the additions to the completeness of the Fisher and Tully (1981) 10 Mpc Sample and (2) to estimate whether the density of galaxies contained in the new catalogs adds a significant amount of neutral gas mass to the the inventory of HI already identified in the nearby, present-epoch universe. Although tiny dwarf galaxies (M_HI < ~10^7 solar masses) may be the most abundant type of extragalactic stellar system in the nearby Universe, if the new catalogs are representative, the LSB and dwarf populations they contain make only a small addition (<10%) to the total HI content of the local Universe and probably constitute even smaller fractions o...

  12. The bispectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts

    CERN Document Server

    Di Dio, Enea; Marozzi, Giovanni; Montanari, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Starting from the relativistic galaxy number counts to second order in cosmological perturbation theory which we have determined in a previous paper, we discuss the dominant terms on sub-Hubble scales and on intermediate to large redshifts. In particular, we determine their contribution to the bispectrum. In addition to the terms already known from Newtonian second order perturbation theory, we find that there are a series of additional `lensing-like' terms which contribute to the bispectrum. We derive analytical expressions for the full leading order bispectrum and we evaluate it numerically for different configurations, indicating how they can be measured with upcoming surveys. In particular, the new `lensing-like' terms are not negligible within large window functions and even dominate the bispectrum at well separated redshifts. This offers us the possibility to measure them in future surveys.

  13. Poor cluster of galaxies containing four absolutely bright Markaryan galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Zwicky cluster Zw 1122.3 + 6317, which contains four Markaryan galaxies, is discussed. Radial velocities are determined for three galaxies in the region of the sky occupied by this cluster. It is shown that the cluster is very open and consists mainly of spirals, that some compact ellipticals are possible cluster members, and that the Markarian galaxies are among the brightest cluster members. Spatial and kinematic characteristics of the cluster are estimated, including a mean recession velocity of 3557 km/s, a radial-velocity dispersion of 219 km/s, a virial mass of 92 trillion solar masses, a crossing time of 2.9 billion years, a luminosity of 1.1 trillion suns, and an M/L ratio of 84 (in solar units). The possibility is noted that this cluster might actually be two groups of galaxies, with mean recession velocities of approximately 3350 and 3750 km/s, projected onto each other

  14. The HI dominated Low Surface Brightness Galaxy KKR17

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Man I; Yang, Ming; Zhou, Zhi-Min; Du, Wei; Zhu, Yi-Nan

    2014-01-01

    We present new narrow-band (H$\\alpha$ and [OIII]) imagings and optical spectrophotometry of HII regions for a gas-rich low surface brightness irregular galaxy, KKR 17. The central surface brightness of the galaxy is $\\mu_0(B)$ = 24.15 $\\pm$0.03 mag~sec$^{-2}$. The galaxy was detected by \\emph{Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey} (ALFALFA), and its mass is dominated by neutral hydrogen (HI) gas. In contrast, both the stellar masses of the bright HII and diffuse stellar regions are small. In addition, the fit to the spectral energy distribution to each region shows the stellar populations of HII and diffuse regions are different. The bright HII region contains a large fraction of O-type stars, revealing the recent strong star formation, whereas the diffuse region is dominated by median age stars, which has a typical age of $\\sim$ 600 Myrs. Using the McGaugh's abundance model, we found that the average metallicity of KKR 17 is 12 + (O/H) = 8.0 $\\pm$ 0.1. The star formation rate of KKR 17 is 0.21$\\pm$0.04 M$_{\\odot}$...

  15. Statistical Properties of Bright Galaxies in the SDSS Photometric System

    CERN Document Server

    Shimasaku, K; Doi, M; Hamabe, M; Ichikawa, T; Okamura, S; Sekiguchi, M; Yasuda, N

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the photometric properties of 456 bright galaxies using imaging data recorded during the commissioning phase of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Morphological classification is carried out by correlating results of several human classifiers. Our purpose is to examine the statistical properties of color indices, scale lengths, and concentration indices as functions of morphology for the SDSS photometric system. We find that $u'-g'$, $g'-r'$, and $r'-i'$ colors of SDSS galaxies match well with those expected from the synthetic calculation of spectroscopic energy distribution of template galaxies and with those transformed from $UBVR_CI_C$ color data of nearby galaxies. The agreement is somewhat poor, however, for $i'-z'$ color band with a discrepancy of $0.1-0.2$ mag. With the aid of the relation between surface brightness and radius obtained by Kent (1985), we estimate the averages of the effective radius of early type galaxies and the scale length of exponential disks both to be 2.6 kpc for...

  16. Multiwavelength investigations of co-evolution of bright custer galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Boehringer, Hans

    2014-01-01

    We report a systematic multi-wavelength investigation of environments of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), using the X-ray data from the Chandra archive, and optical images taken with 34'x 27' field-of-view Subaru Suprime-Cam. Our goal is to help understand the relationship between the BCGs and their host clusters, and between the BCGs and other galaxies, to eventually address a question of the formation and co-evolution of BCGs and the clusters. Our results include: 1) Morphological variety of BCGs, or the second or the third brightest galaxy (BCG2, BCG3), is comparable to that of other bright red sequence galaxies, suggesting that we have a continuous variation of morphology between BCGs, BCG2, and BCG3, rather than a sharp separation between the BCG and the rest of the bright galaxies. 2) The offset of the BCG position relative to the cluster centre is correlated to the degree of concentration of cluster X-ray morphology (Spearman rho = -0.79), consistent with an interpretation that BCGs tend to be of...

  17. The Environment of Sy1, Sy2 & Bright IRAS Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Koulouridis, E; Plionis, M; Dultzin, D; Krongold, Y; Goudis, C; Chatzichristou, E

    2008-01-01

    We present a 3-dimensional study of the local (< 100 kpc) environment of Sy1, Sy2 and Bright IRAS Galaxies. For this purpose we use three galaxy samples (Sy1, Sy2, BIRG) located at high galactic latitudes as well as three control sample of non-active galaxies having the same morphological, redshift and diameter size distributions as the corresponding Seyfert or BIRG sample. Using the CfA2 and SSRS galaxy catalogues as well as our own spectroscopic observations, we find that the fraction of BIRGs with a close neighbor is significantly higher than that of their control sample. We also find that Sy2 galaxies demonstrate the same behaviour with BIRG galaxies but not with Sy1s which do not show any excess of companions with respect to their control sample galaxies. An additional analysis of the relation between FIR colors and activity type of the BIRG's shows a significant difference between the colors of strongly-interacting and non-interacting starbursts and a resemblance between the colors of non-interacting...

  18. The dearth of nuclear star clusters in bright galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arca-Sedda, M.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.; Spera, M.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the interaction of a massive globular cluster (GC) with a super massive black hole (SMBH), located at the centre of its host galaxy, by means of direct N-body simulations. The results show that tidal distortions induced by the stellar background and the SMBH act on a time shorter than that of dynamical friction decay for a 106 M⊙ GC whenever the SMBH mass exceeds ˜108 M⊙. This implies an almost complete dissolution of the infalling GC before it reaches the inner region (≲5 pc) of the parent galaxy. The generalization of this result to a larger sample of infalling GCs shows that such destructive process may prevent the formation and growth of a bright galactic nucleus. Another interesting, serendipitous, result we obtained is that the close interaction between the SMBH and the GC produces a `wave' of stars that escape from the cluster and, in a fraction, even from the whole galaxy.

  19. The source counts of submillimetre galaxies detected at 1.1 mm

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, K S; Aretxaga, I; Austermann, J E; Chapin, E L; Dunlop, J S; Ezawa, H; Halpern, M; Hatsukade, B; Hughes, D H; Kawabe, R; Kim, S; Kohno, K; Lowenthal, J D; Montana, A; Nakanishi, K; Oshima, T; Sanders, D; Scott, D; Scoville, N; Tamura, Y; Welch, D; Yun, M S; Zeballos, M

    2012-01-01

    The source counts of galaxies discovered at sub-millimetre and millimetre wavelengths provide important information on the evolution of infrared-bright galaxies. We combine the data from six blank-field surveys carried out at 1.1 mm with AzTEC, totalling 1.6 square degrees in area with root-mean-square depths ranging from 0.4 to 1.7 mJy, and derive the strongest constraints to date on the 1.1 mm source counts at flux densities S(1100) = 1-12 mJy. Using additional data from the AzTEC Cluster Environment Survey to extend the counts to S(1100) ~ 20 mJy, we see tentative evidence for an enhancement relative to the exponential drop in the counts at S(1100) ~ 13 mJy and a smooth connection to the bright source counts at >20 mJy measured by the South Pole Telescope; this excess may be due to strong lensing effects. We compare these counts to predictions from several semi-analytical and phenomenological models and find that for most the agreement is quite good at flux densities > 4 mJy; however, we find significant d...

  20. Quasars near bright galaxies - results from the Jodrell Bank 966-MHz survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of bright galaxies around quasars from the Jodrell Bank 966-MHz survey has been investigated. No statistical evidence is found to support the hypothesis that nearby bright galaxies and quasars are physically associated. Some selection effects which lead to a correlation between pair separation and galaxy redshift are discussed. (author)

  1. Dark matter within high surface brightness spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kranz, T; Rix, H W; Kranz, Thilo; Slyz, Adrianne; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2003-01-01

    We present results from a detailed dynamical analysis of five high surface brightness, late type spirals, studied with the aim to quantify the luminous-to-dark matter ratio inside their optical radii. The galaxies' stellar light distribution and gas kinematics have been observed and compared to hydrodynamic gas simulations, which predict the 2D gas dynamics arising in response to empirical gravitational potentials, which are combinations of differing stellar disk and dark halo contributions. The gravitational potential of the stellar disk was derived from near-infrared photometry, color-corrected to constant (M/L); the dark halo was modelled by an isothermal sphere with a core. Hydrodynamic gas simulations were performed for each galaxy for a sequence of five different mass fractions of the stellar disk and for a wide range of spiral pattern speeds. These two parameters mainly determine the modelled gas distribution and kinematics. The agreement between the non-axisymmetric part of the simulated and observed ...

  2. The bright galaxy population of five medium redshift clusters. II. Quantitative Galaxy Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Ascaso, B; Moles, M; Sánchez-Janssen, R; Bettoni, D

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Following the study already presented in our previous paper, based on the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) sample, which consists of five clusters of galaxies within the redshift range 0.18 $\\leq$ z $\\leq$ 0.25, imaged in the central 0.5-2 Mpc in very good seeing conditions, we have studied the quantitative morphology of their bright galaxy population Methods: We have analyzed the surface brightness profiles of the galaxy population in those clusters. Previously, we have performed simulations in order to check the reliability of the fits. We have also derived a quantitative morphological classification. Results: The structural parameters derived from these analysis have been analyzed. We have obtained that the structural parameters of E/S0 galaxies are similar to those showed by galaxies in low redshift clusters. However, the disc scales are different. In particular, the scales of the discs of galaxies at medium redshift clusters are statistically different than those located in similar galaxies in the Co...

  3. The properties of a large sample of low surface brightness galaxies from SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Y C; Chen, X Y; Gao, D; Hammer, F; Liu, F S; Hu, J Y; Deng, L C; Zhang, B

    2009-01-01

    A large sample of low surface brightness (LSB) disk galaxies is selected from SDSS with B-band central surface brightness mu_0(B) from 22 to 24.5 mag arcsec^(-2). Some of their properties are studied, such as magnitudes, surface brightness, scalelengths, colors, metallicities, stellar populations, stellar masses and multiwavelength SEDs from UV to IR etc. These properties of LSB galaxies have been compared with those of the galaxies with higher surface brightnesses. Then we check the variations of these properties following surface brightness.

  4. Surface Brightness Profiles of Dwarf Galaxies: I. Profiles and Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Kimberly A; Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2013-01-01

    Radial surface brightness profiles of spiral galaxies are classified into three types: (I) single exponential, or the light falls off with one exponential to a break before falling off (II) more steeply, or (III) less steeply. Profile breaks are also found in dwarf disks, but some dwarf Type IIs are flat or increasing out to a break before falling off. Here we re-examine the stellar disk profiles of 141 dwarfs: 96 dwarf irregulars (dIms), 26 Blue Compact Dwarfs (BCDs), and 19 Magellanic-type spirals (Sms). We fit single, double, or even triple exponential profiles in up to 11 passbands: GALEX FUV and NUV, ground-based UBV JHK and H{\\alpha}, and Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 {\\mu}m. We find that more luminous galaxies have brighter centers, larger inner and outer scale lengths, and break at larger radii; dwarf trends with M_B extend to spirals. However, the V-band break surface brightness is independent of break type, M_B, and Hubble type. Dwarf Type II and III profiles fall off similarly beyond the breaks but have diff...

  5. New low surface brightness dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus group

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Oliver; Binggeli, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an extensive CCD search for faint, unresolved dwarf galaxies of very low surface brightness in the whole Centaurus group region encompassing the Cen A and M 83 subgroups lying at a distance of roughly 4 and 5 Mpc, respectively. The aim is to significantly increase the sample of known Centaurus group members down to a fainter level of completeness, serving as a basis for future studies of the 3D structure of the group. Following our previous survey of 60 square degrees covering the M 83 subgroup, we extended and completed our survey of the Centaurus group region by imaging another 500 square degrees area in the g and r bands with the wide-field Dark Energy Survey Camera at the 4m Blanco telescope at CTIO. The limiting central surface brightness reached for suspected Centaurus members is $\\mu_r \\approx 29$ mag arcsec$^{-2}$, corresponding to an absolute magnitude $M_r \\approx -9.5$. The images were enhanced using different filtering techniques. We found 41 new dwarf galaxy candidates, which togethe...

  6. SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF DWARF GALAXIES. I. PROFILES AND STATISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radial surface brightness profiles of spiral galaxies are classified into three types: (I) single exponential, or the light falls off with one exponential to a break before falling off (II) more steeply, or (III) less steeply. Profile breaks are also found in dwarf disks, but some dwarf Type IIs are flat or increasing out to a break before falling off. Here we re-examine the stellar disk profiles of 141 dwarfs: 96 dwarf irregulars (dIms), 26 Blue Compact Dwarfs (BCDs), and 19 Magellanic-type spirals (Sms). We fit single, double, or even triple exponential profiles in up to 11 passbands: GALEX FUV and NUV, ground-based UBVJHK and Hα, and Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 μm. We find that more luminous galaxies have brighter centers, larger inner and outer scale lengths, and breaks at larger radii; dwarf trends with MB extend to spirals. However, the V-band break surface brightness is independent of break type, MB , and Hubble type. Dwarf Type II and III profiles fall off similarly beyond the breaks but have different interiors and IIs break ∼twice as far as IIIs. Outer Type II and III scale lengths may have weak trends with wavelength, but pure Type II inner scale lengths clearly decrease from the FUV to visible bands whereas Type III inner scale lengths increase with redder bands. This suggests the influence of different star formation histories on profile type, but nonetheless the break location is approximately the same in all passbands. Dwarfs continue trends between profile and Hubble types such that later-type galaxies have more Type II but fewer Type I and III profiles than early-type spirals. BCDs and Sms are over-represented as Types III and II, respectively, compared to dIms

  7. Dependence of the bright end of galaxy luminosity function on cluster dynamical state

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Z L

    2014-01-01

    Luminosity function of cluster galaxies provides a fundamental constraint on galaxy evolution in cluster environments. By using the bright member galaxies of a large sample of rich clusters identified from Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we obtain the bright end of composite luminosity functions of cluster galaxies, and study their dependence on cluster dynamical state. After a redshift-evolution correction of absolute magnitude, the luminosity function of member galaxies can be well fitted by a Schechter function when the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are excluded. The absolute magnitudes of BCGs follow a Gaussian function with a characteristic width of about 0.36 mag. We find that the luminosity function of galaxies in more relaxed clusters has a fainter characteristic absolute magnitude (M_{\\ast}), and these clusters have fewer bright non-BCG member galaxies but a brighter BCG. Our results suggest the co-evolution of galaxy population with cluster dynamical state and somewhat support the hierarchical formati...

  8. The dearth of nuclear star clusters in bright galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Arca-Sedda, Manuel; Spera, Mario

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of a massive globular cluster (GC) with a super massive black hole (SMBH), located at the centre of its host galaxy, by means of direct $N$-body simulations. The results show that tidal distortions induced by the stellar background and the SMBH act on a time shorter than that of dynamical friction decay for a $10^6$ M$_\\odot$ GC whenever the SMBH mass exceeds $\\sim 10^8$ M$_\\odot$. This implies an almost complete dissolution of the infalling GC before it reaches the inner region ($\\lesssim 5$ pc) of the parent galaxy. The generalization of this result to a larger sample of infalling GCs shows that such destructive process may prevent the formation and growth of a bright galactic nucleus. Another interesting, serendipitous, result we obtained is that the close interaction between the SMBH and the GC produces a ``wave'' of stars that escape from the cluster and, in a fraction, even from the whole galaxy.

  9. A universal threshold for the formation of bright galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, HongSheng; Dobbs, Clare

    2008-01-01

    The tight correlation between galaxy bulges and their central black hole masses likely emerges in a phase of rapid collapse and starburst at high redshift. The correlation is due to the balance of gravity on gas with the feedback force from starbursts and the wind from the black hole. The tightness suggests a universal scale of gravity on gas during this phase. The scalar field in some co-variant versions of MOND can create the mirage of a Newtonian effective dark halo with a "dark" gravity being a nearly universal value ~ (1.2/alpha)* 10^{-10} m sec^-2 for bright galaxies, where alpha ~ 1-3 is a fundamental constant in the Lagrangian of the theory. A dark gravity of similar order of magnitude which is insensitive to redshift can also be generated by the real 1/r cusps of Cold Dark Matter (CDM) halos. However the values generally have a larger scatter, which increases with the mass of the galaxies and adiabatic contraction effects of gas collapse. We show with a toy analytical model and a hydrodynamical simul...

  10. Surface brightness fluctuation distances for nearby dwarf elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jerjen, H; Takalo, L; Coleman, M; Valtonen, M J; Jerjen, Helmut; Rekola, Rami; Takalo, Leo; Coleman, Matthew; Valtonen, Mauri

    2001-01-01

    We obtained B and R-band CCD images for the dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies DDO44, UGC4998, KK98_77, DDO71, DDO113, and UGC7356 at the NOT. Using Fourier analysis technique we measure stellar R-band surface brightness fluctuations (SBFs) and magnitudes in 29 different fields of the galaxies. Independent tip of the red giant branch distances for DDO44, KK98_77, DDO71 are used to convert their set of apparent into absolute SBF magnitudes. The results are combined with the local (B-R) colours and compared with the (B-R)-\\bar{M}_R relation for mainly old, metal-poor stellar populations as predicted by Worthey's population synthesis models using Padova isochrones. While the colour dependency of the theoretical relation is confirmed by the empirical data, we find a systematic zero point offset between observations and theory in the sense that models are too faint by 0.13+-0.02 mag. Based on these findings we establish a new semiempirical calibration of the SBF method as distance indicator for dE galaxies with an est...

  11. HerMES: Deep Galaxy Number Counts from a P(D) Fluctuation Analysis of SPIRE Science Demonstration Phase Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Glenn, J; Bethermin, M; Altieri, B; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Babbedge, T; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Ellsworth-Bowers, T P; Fox, M; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Lagache, G; Laurent, G; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Marsden, G; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rigopoulou, D; Rizzo, D; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Portal, M Sanchez; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2010-01-01

    Dusty, star forming galaxies contribute to a bright, currently unresolved cosmic far-infrared background. Deep Herschel-SPIRE images designed to detect and characterize the galaxies that comprise this background are highly confused, such that the bulk lies below the classical confusion limit. We analyze three fields from the HerMES programme in all three SPIRE bands (250, 350, and 500 microns); parameterized galaxy number count models are derived to a depth of ~2 mJy/beam, approximately 4 times the depth of previous analyses at these wavelengths, using a P(D) (probability of deflection) approach for comparison to theoretical number count models. Our fits account for 64, 60, and 43 per cent of the far-infrared background in the three bands. The number counts are consistent with those based on individually detected SPIRE sources, but generally inconsistent with most galaxy number counts models, which generically overpredict the number of bright galaxies and are not as steep as the P(D)-derived number counts. Cl...

  12. DEEP GALEX OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMA CLUSTER: SOURCE CATALOG AND GALAXY COUNTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a source catalog from a deep 26 ks Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) observation of the Coma cluster in the far-UV (FUV; 1530 A) and near-UV (NUV; 2310 A) wavebands. The observed field is centered ∼0.09 (1.6 Mpc) southwest of the Coma core in a well-studied region of the cluster known as 'Coma-3'. The entire field is located within the apparent virial radius of the Coma cluster, and has optical photometric coverage with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and deep spectroscopic coverage to r ∼ 21. We detect GALEX sources to NUV = 24.5 and FUV = 25.0, which corresponds to a star formation rate of ∼10-3 M sun yr-1 for galaxies at the distance of Coma. We have assembled a catalog of 9700 galaxies with GALEX and SDSS photometry, including 242 spectroscopically confirmed Coma member galaxies that span a large range of galaxy types from giant spirals and elliptical galaxies to dwarf irregular and early-type galaxies. The full multi-wavelength catalog (cluster plus background galaxies) is ∼80% complete to NUV = 23 and FUV = 23.5. The GALEX images presented here are very deep and include detections of many resolved cluster members superposed on a dense field of unresolved background galaxies. This required a two-fold approach to generating a source catalog: we used a Bayesian deblending algorithm to measure faint and compact sources (using SDSS coordinates as position prior), and used the GALEX pipeline catalog for bright and/or extended objects. We performed simulations to assess the importance of systematic effects (e.g., object blends, source confusion, Eddington Bias) that influence the source detection and photometry when using both methods. The Bayesian deblending method roughly doubles the number of source detections and provides reliable photometry to a few magnitudes deeper than the GALEX pipeline catalog. This method is free from source confusion over the UV magnitude range studied here; we estimate that the GALEX pipeline catalogs are confusion

  13. The local hole revealed by galaxy counts and redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbourn, J. R.; Shanks, T.

    2014-01-01

    The redshifts of ≈250 000 galaxies are used to study the local hole and its associated peculiar velocities. The sample, compiled from the 6dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, provides wide sky coverage to a depth of ≈300 h-1 Mpc. We have therefore examined K- and r-limited galaxy redshift distributions and number counts to map the local density field. Comparing observed galaxy n(z) distributions to homogeneous models in three large regions of the high-latitude sky, we find evidence for underdensities ranging from ≈4-40 per cent in these regions to depths of ≈150 h-1 Mpc with the deepest underdensity being over the southern Galactic cap. Using the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey, we then establish the normalization of galaxy counts at fainter magnitudes and thus confirm that the underdensity over all three fields at K < 12.5 is ≈15 ± 3 per cent. Finally, we further use redshift catalogues to map sky-averaged peculiar velocities over the same areas using the average redshift-magnitude, overline{z}(m), technique of Soneira. After accounting for the direct effect of the large-scale structure on overline{z}(m), we can then search for peculiar velocities. Taking all three regions into consideration, the data reject at the ≈4σ level the idea that we have recovered the cosmic microwave background rest frame in the volume probed. We therefore conclude that there is some consistent evidence from both counts and Hubble diagrams for a `local hole' with an ≈150 h-1 Mpc underdensity that deeper counts and redshifts in the northern Galactic cap suggest may extend to ≈300 h-1 Mpc.

  14. The discovery of seven extremely low surface brightness galaxies in the field of the nearby spiral galaxy M101

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, Allison; Abraham, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Dwarf satellite galaxies are a key probe of dark matter and of galaxy formation on small scales and of the dark matter halo masses of their central galaxies. They have very low surface brightness, which makes it difficult to identify and study them outside of the Local Group. We used a low surface brightness-optimized telescope, the Dragonfly Telephoto Array, to search for dwarf galaxies in the field of the massive spiral galaxy M101. We identify seven large, low surface brightness objects in this field, with effective radii of \\(10 - 30\\) arcseconds and central surface brightnesses of \\(\\mu_{g} \\sim 25.5 - 27.5\\) mag arcsec\\(^{-2}\\). Given their large apparent sizes and low surface brightnesses, these objects would likely be missed by standard galaxy searches in deep fields. Assuming the galaxies are dwarf satellites of M101, their absolute magnitudes are in the range \\(-11.6 \\lesssim M_{V} \\lesssim -9.3\\) and their effective radii are \\(350\\) pc \\(-\\) \\(1.3\\) kpc. Their radial surface brightness profiles ar...

  15. Deep Galex Observations of the Coma Cluster: Source Catalog and Galaxy Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, D.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Mobasher, B.; Miller, N.; Smith, R.; Arnouts, S.; Milliard, B.; Jenkins, L.

    2010-01-01

    We present a source catalog from deep 26 ks GALEX observations of the Coma cluster in the far-UV (FUV; 1530 Angstroms) and near-UV (NUV; 2310 Angstroms) wavebands. The observed field is centered 0.9 deg. (1.6 Mpc) south-west of the Coma core, and has full optical photometric coverage by SDSS and spectroscopic coverage to r-21. The catalog consists of 9700 galaxies with GALEX and SDSS photometry, including 242 spectroscopically-confirmed Coma member galaxies that range from giant spirals and elliptical galaxies to dwarf irregular and early-type galaxies. The full multi-wavelength catalog (cluster plus background galaxies) is 80% complete to NUV=23 and FUV=23.5, and has a limiting depth at NUV=24.5 and FUV=25.0 which corresponds to a star formation rate of 10(exp -3) solar mass yr(sup -1) at the distance of Coma. The GALEX images presented here are very deep and include detections of many resolved cluster members superposed on a dense field of unresolved background galaxies. This required a two-fold approach to generating a source catalog: we used a Bayesian deblending algorithm to measure faint and compact sources (using SDSS coordinates as a position prior), and used the GALEX pipeline catalog for bright and/or extended objects. We performed simulations to assess the importance of systematic effects (e.g. object blends, source confusion, Eddington Bias) that influence source detection and photometry when using both methods. The Bayesian deblending method roughly doubles the number of source detections and provides reliable photometry to a few magnitudes deeper than the GALEX pipeline catalog. This method is also free from source confusion over the UV magnitude range studied here: conversely, we estimate that the GALEX pipeline catalogs are confusion limited at NUV approximately 23 and FUV approximately 24. We have measured the total UV galaxy counts using our catalog and report a 50% excess of counts across FUV=22-23.5 and NUV=21.5-23 relative to previous GALEX

  16. The Local Hole revealed by galaxy counts and redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Whitbourn, J R

    2013-01-01

    The redshifts of ~250000 galaxies are used to study the Local Hole and its associated peculiar velocities. The sample, compiled from 6dFGS and SDSS provides wide sky coverage to a depth of ~300h-1Mpc. We have therefore examined K and r limited galaxy redshift distributions and number counts to map the local density field. Comparing observed galaxy n(z) distributions to homogeneous models in three large regions of the high latitude sky, we find evidence for under-densities ranging from ~4-40% in these regions to depths of ~150h-1Mpc with the deepest under-density being over the Southern Galactic cap. Using the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey we then establish the normalisation of galaxy counts at fainter magnitudes and thus confirm that the underdensity over all three fields at K<12.5 is ~15+-3%. Finally, we further use redshift catalogues to map peculiar velocities over the same areas using the average redshift - magnitude, zbar(m), technique of Soneira (1979). After accounting for the direct effect...

  17. Measuring Distances and Probing the Unresolved Stellar Populations of Galaxies Using Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Joseph B.; Tonry, John L.; Barris, Brian J.; Thompson, Rodger I.; Liu, Michael C.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Ajhar, Edward A.; Blakeslee, John P

    2002-01-01

    To empirically calibrate the IR surface brightness fluctuation (SBF) distance scale and probe the properties of unresolved stellar populations, we measured fluctuations in 65 galaxies using NICMOS on the Hubble Space Telescope. The early-type galaxies in this sample include elliptical and S0 galaxies and spiral bulges in a variety of environments. Absolute fluctuation magnitudes in the F160W (1.6 micron) filter were derived for each galaxy using previously-measured I-band SBF and Cepheid vari...

  18. Unveiling the nature of bright z ~ 7 galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, R A A; McLure, R J; McLeod, D J

    2016-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging of 25 extremely luminous (-23.2 600A). We find that irregular, multiple-component morphologies suggestive of clumpy or merging systems are common (f_multi > 0.4) in bright z ~ 7 galaxies, and ubiquitous at the very bright end (M_UV 1000 similarly bright galaxies at z ~ 7. Our new HST imaging suggests that the vast majority of these galaxies will be spatially resolved by Euclid, mitigating concerns over dwarf star contamination.

  19. A large sample of low surface brightness disc galaxies from the SDSS- II. Metallicities in surface brightness bins

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Y C; Hammer, F; Chen, X Y; Liu, F S; Gao, D; Hu, J Y; Deng, L C; Zhang, B

    2010-01-01

    We study the spectroscopic properties of a large sample of Low Surface Brightness galaxies (LSBGs) (with B-band central surface brightness mu0(B)>22 mag arcsec^(-2)) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 (SDSS-DR4) main galaxy sample. A large sample of disk-dominated High Surface Brightness galaxies (HSBGs, with mu0(B)<22 mag arcsec^(-2)) are also selected for comparison simultaneously. To study them in more details, these sample galaxies are further divided into four subgroups according to mu0(B) (in units of mag arcsec^(-2)): vLSBGs (24.5-22.75),iLSBGs (22.75-22.0), iHSBGs (22.0-21.25), and vHSBGs (<21.25). The diagnostic diagram from spectral emission-line ratios shows that the AGN fractions of all the four subgroups are small (<9%). The 21,032 star-forming galaxies with good quality spectroscopic observations are further selected for studying their dust extinction, strong-line ratios, metallicities and stellar mass-metallicities relations. The vLSBGs have lower extinction valu...

  20. The visibility of galaxies as a function of central surface brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The likelihood of a galaxy with given intrinsic profile appearing in a photograph catalogue with limiting criteria on apparent magnitude and angular size will depend on the maximum distance at which such a galaxy can lie and still obey both criteria. It is demonstrated that the corresponding volume in which the galaxy will be visible is a sensitive function of the galaxy's central surface brightness as well as its absolute magnitude. Before the observed concentrations around preferred values of surface brightness can be regarded as real, it will be necessary to make allowance for this selection effect. (author)

  1. DGSAT: Dwarf Galaxy Survey with Amateur Telescopes. I. Discovery of low surface brightness systems around nearby spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanmardi, B.; Martinez-Delgado, D.; Kroupa, P.; Henkel, C.; Crawford, K.; Teuwen, K.; Gabany, R. J.; Hanson, M.; Chonis, T. S.; Neyer, F.

    2016-04-01

    Context. We introduce the Dwarf Galaxy Survey with Amateur Telescopes (DGSAT) project and report the discovery of eleven low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in the fields of the nearby galaxies NGC 2683, NGC 3628, NGC 4594 (M 104), NGC 4631, NGC 5457 (M 101), and NGC 7814. Aims: The DGSAT project aims to use the potential of small-sized telescopes to probe LSB features around large galaxies and to increase the sample size of the dwarf satellite galaxies in the Local Volume. Methods: Using long exposure images, fields of the target spiral galaxies are explored for extended LSB objects. After identifying dwarf galaxy candidates, their observed properties are extracted by fitting models to their light profiles. Results: We find three, one, three, one, one, and two new LSB galaxies in the fields of NGC 2683, 3628, 4594, 4631, 5457, and 7814, respectively. In addition to the newly found galaxies, we analyse the structural properties of nine already known galaxies. All of these 20 dwarf galaxy candidates have effective surface brightnesses in the range 25.3 ≲ μe ≲ 28.8 mag arcsec-2 and are fit with Sersic profiles with indices n ≲ 1. Assuming that they are in the vicinity of the above mentioned massive galaxies, their r-band absolute magnitudes, their effective radii, and their luminosities are in the ranges -15.6 ≲ Mr ≲ -7.8, 160 pc ≲ Re ≲ 4.1 kpc, and 0.1 × 106 ≲ (L/L⊙)r ≲ 127 × 106, respectively. To determine whether these LSB galaxies are indeed satellites of the above mentioned massive galaxies, their distances need to be determined via further observations. Conclusions: Using small telescopes, we are readily able to detect LSB galaxies with similar properties to the known dwarf galaxies of the Local Group.

  2. Properties of Submillimeter Galaxies in a Semi-analytic Model using the "Count Matching" Approach: Application to the ECDF-S

    CERN Document Server

    Arancibia, Alejandra M Muñoz; Padilla, Nelson D; Cora, Sofía A; Gawiser, Eric; Kurczynski, Peter L; Ruiz, Andrés N

    2014-01-01

    We present a new technique for modeling submillimeter galaxies (SMGs): the "Count Matching" approach. Using lightcones drawn from a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, we choose physical galaxy properties given by the model as proxies for their submillimeter luminosities, assuming a monotonic relationship. As recent interferometric observations of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South show that the brightest sources detected by single-dish telescopes are comprised by emission from multiple fainter sources, we assign the submillimeter fluxes so that the combined LABOCA plus bright-end ALMA observed number counts for this field are reproduced. After turning the model catalogs given by the proxies into submillimeter maps, we perform a source extraction to include the effects of the observational process on the recovered counts and galaxy properties. We find that for all proxies, there are lines of sight giving counts consistent with those derived from LABOCA observations, even for input sources with randomi...

  3. Musings concerning the possible significance of surface brightness variations in disk galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implications of the surface-brightness (SB) distribution of observed disk galaxies are explored, reviewing the results of recent investigations. Topics addressed include the SBs of catalog galaxies, proper measurements of SB, searches for new low-SB objects, and the importance of low-SB galaxies rich in H I for theoretical models of star formation. Key theoretical questions are listed, and tentative answers are given along with recommendations for further observations. 30 references

  4. Spatial distributions of core-collapse supernovae in infrared-bright galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kangas, Tuomas; Kankare, Erkki; Kotilainen, Jari K; Väisänen, P; Greimel, R; Takalo, A

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the correlation between the locations of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and host galaxy light in the Ha line, near ultraviolet (NUV), R-band and Ks-band to constrain the progenitors of CCSNe using pixel statistics. Our sample consists of 86 CCSNe in 57 infrared (IR)-bright galaxies, of which many are starbursts and ten are luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). We also analyse the radial distribution of CCSNe in these galaxies, and determine power-law and exponential fits to CCSN surface density profiles. To probe differences between the SNe of these galaxies and normal spiral galaxies, our results were compared to previous studies with samples dominated by normal spiral galaxies where possible. We obtained a normalised scale length of 0.23^{+0.03}_{-0.02} R_25 for the CCSN surface density in IR-bright galaxies; less than that derived for CCSNe in a sample dominated by normal spiral galaxies (0.29 \\pm 0.01). This reflects a more centrally concentrated population of massive stars in IR-bright g...

  5. AXIAL RATIO OF EDGE-ON SPIRAL GALAXIES AS A TEST FOR BRIGHT RADIO HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singal, J.; Jones, E.; Dunlap, H. [Physics Department, University of Richmond 28 Westhampton Way, Richmond, VA 23173 (United States); Kogut, A., E-mail: jsingal@richmond.edu [Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    We use surface brightness contour maps of nearby edge-on spiral galaxies to determine whether extended bright radio halos are common. In particular, we test a recent model of the spatial structure of the diffuse radio continuum by Subrahmanyan and Cowsik which posits that a substantial fraction of the observed high-latitude surface brightness originates from an extended Galactic halo of uniform emissivity. Measurements of the axial ratio of emission contours within a sample of normal spiral galaxies at 1500 MHz and below show no evidence for such a bright, extended radio halo. Either the Galaxy is atypical compared to nearby quiescent spirals or the bulk of the observed high-latitude emission does not originate from this type of extended halo. (letters)

  6. TESTING MODIFIED NEWTONIAN DYNAMICS WITH ROTATION CURVES OF DWARF AND LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwarf and low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are ideal objects to test modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), because in most of these galaxies the accelerations fall below the threshold where MOND supposedly applies. We have selected from the literature a sample of 27 dwarf and LSB galaxies. MOND is successful in explaining the general shape of the observed rotation curves for roughly three quarters of the galaxies in the sample presented here. However, for the remaining quarter, MOND does not adequately explain the observed rotation curves. Considering the uncertainties in distances and inclinations for the galaxies in our sample, a small fraction of poor MOND predictions is expected and is not necessarily a problem for MOND. We have also made fits taking the MOND acceleration constant, a 0, as a free parameter in order to identify any systematic trends. We find that there appears to be a correlation between central surface brightness and the best-fit value of a0, in the sense that lower surface brightness galaxies tend to have lower a0. However, this correlation depends strongly on a small number of galaxies whose rotation curves might be uncertain due to either bars or warps. Without these galaxies, there is less evidence of a trend, but the average value we find for a0 ∼ 0.7 x 10-8 cm s-2 is somewhat lower than derived from previous studies. Such lower fitted values of a0 could occur if external gravitational fields are important.

  7. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): detection of low-surface-brightness galaxies from SDSS data

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, R P; Kelvin, L S; James, P A; Driver, S P; Prescott, M; Brough, S; Brown, M J I; Davies, L J M; Holwerda, B W; Liske, J; Norberg, P; Moffett, A J; Wright, A H

    2016-01-01

    We report on a search for new low-surface-brightness galaxies (LSBGs) using Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data within the GAMA equatorial fields. The search method consisted of masking objects detected with SDSS photo, combining gri images weighted to maximise the expected signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and smoothing the images. The processed images were then run through a detection algorithm that finds all pixels above a set threshold and groups them based on their proximity to one another. The list of detections was cleaned of contaminants such as diffraction spikes and the faint wings of masked objects. From these, selecting potentially the brightest in terms of total flux, a list of 343 LSBGs was produced having been confirmed using VISTA Kilo-degree Infrared Galaxy Survey (VIKING) imaging. The photometry of this sample was refined using the deeper VIKING Z band as the aperture-defining band. Measuring their $g-i$ and $J-K$ colours shows that most are consistent with being at redshifts less than 0.2. The ...

  8. Near-Infrared Imaging of Barred Halo Dominated Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Honey, M.; Das, M.; Ninan, J. P.; Purvankara, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a near-infrared (NIR) imaging study of barred low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies using the TIFR near-infrared Spectrometer and Imager (TIRSPEC). LSB galaxies are dark matter dominated, late type spirals that have low luminosity stellar disks but large neutral hydrogen (HI) gas disks. Using SDSS images of a very large sample of LSB galaxies derived from the literature, we found that the barred fraction is only 8.3%. We imaged twenty five barred LSB galaxies in the J, H, K$_S$ wav...

  9. An Increasing Stellar Baryon Fraction in Bright Galaxies at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Steven L; Behroozi, Peter; Somerville, Rachel S; Papovich, Casey; Milosavljevic, Milos; Dekel, Avishai; Narayanan, Desika; Ashby, Matthew L N; Cooray, Asantha; Fazio, Giovanni G; Ferguson, Henry C; Koekemoer, Anton M; Salmon, Brett W; Willner, S P

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that the characteristic luminosity of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function does not significantly evolve at 4 < z < 7 and is approximately M*_UV ~ -21. We investigate this apparent non-evolution by examining a sample of 190 bright, M_UV < -21 galaxies at z=4 to 7, analyzing their stellar populations and host halo masses. Including deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging to constrain the rest-frame optical light, we find that M*_UV galaxies at z=4-7 have similar stellar masses of log(M/Msol)=9.8-9.9 and are thus relatively massive for these high redshifts. However, bright galaxies at z=4-7 are less massive and have younger inferred ages than similarly bright galaxies at z=2-3, even though the two populations have similar star formation rates and levels of dust attenuation. We match the abundances of these bright z=4-7 galaxies to halo mass functions from the Bolshoi Lambda-CDM simulation to estimate the halo masses. We find that the typical halo masses in ~M*_UV galaxie...

  10. The Effect of Nearby Voids on Galaxy Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Bucklein, Brian K; Hintz, Eric G

    2016-01-01

    The size, shape and degree of emptiness of void interiors sheds light on the details of galaxy formation. A particularly interesting question is whether void interiors are completely empty or contain a dwarf population. However the nearby voids that are most conducive for dwarf searches have large angular diameters, on the order of a steradian, making it difficult to redshift-map a statistically significant portion of their volume to the magnitude limit of dwarf galaxies. As part of addressing this problem, we investigate here the usefulness of number counts in establishing the best locations to search inside nearby (d < 300 Mpc) galaxy voids, utilizing Wolf plots of log(n < m) vs. m as the basic diagnostic. To illustrate expected signatures, we consider the signature of three void profiles, "cut out", "built up", and "universal profile" carved into Monte-Carlo Schechter function models. We then investigate the signatures of voids in the Millennium Run dark matter simulation and the Sloan Digital Sky Su...

  11. Short time-scale variability in bright Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-quality, long-slit CCD spectroscopic data were obtained to search for short time-scale (hour-day) variability in a sample of five Seyfert galaxies. The equivalent widths of all of the emission lines and the relative intensities of the Balmer lines were measured for each galaxy. No significant profile or flux variations were observed for any galaxy within errors, except for NGC 4151. The broad-line flux variation in NGC 4151 is attributed to continuum fluctuations. 21 refs

  12. Short time-scale variability in bright Seyfert galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xanthopoulos, E.; De robertis, M.M. (York University, Toronto (Canada))

    1991-04-01

    High-quality, long-slit CCD spectroscopic data were obtained to search for short time-scale (hour-day) variability in a sample of five Seyfert galaxies. The equivalent widths of all of the emission lines and the relative intensities of the Balmer lines were measured for each galaxy. No significant profile or flux variations were observed for any galaxy within errors, except for NGC 4151. The broad-line flux variation in NGC 4151 is attributed to continuum fluctuations. 21 refs.

  13. Surface Brightness Profiles and Star Formation Rates of Galaxies in NRGb054

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ellen; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Miller, Brendan; Durbala, Adriana; Fitzgerald, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    We present new optical R and H-alpha images of the galaxy group NRGb054, obtained with the WIYN 0.9m telescope at KPNO using the MOSAIC camera. This group was studied as part of the larger Undergraduate ALFALFA Team project investigating the effects of a group environment on star formation. The stacked H-alpha image was continuum subtracted by the removal of a scaled and stacked R image. Surface photometry was performed on R and continuum-subtracted H-alpha cutouts of 20 covered galaxies to determine the surface brightness as a function of radius. Integrating the continuum-subtracted H-alpha surface brightness profile provides the total star formation within that galaxy, while the shape of the profile illustrates how star formation is spread throughout the galaxy. We provide a catalog of surface brightness profiles and integrated star formation rates for NRGb054. We consider star formation as a function of galaxy-galaxy separation and galaxy location within the group, and discuss our findings in the context of the wider study. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  14. Long term optical variability of bright X-ray point sources in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present long term optical variability studies of bright X-ray sources in four nearby elliptical galaxies with the Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer array (ACIS-S) and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys. Out of the 46 bright (X-ray counts > 60) sources that are in the common field of view of the Chandra and HST observations, 34 of them have potential optical counterparts, while the rest of them are optically dark. After taking into account systematic errors, estimated using optical sources in the field as a reference, we find that four of the X-ray sources (three in NGC 1399 and one in NGC 1427) have variable optical counterparts at a high level of significance. The X-ray luminosities of these sources are ∼ 1038 erg s−1 and are also variable on similar time scales. The optical variability implies that the optical emission is associated with the X-ray source itself rather than being the integrated light from a host globular cluster. For one source, the change in optical magnitude is > 0.3, which is one of the highest reported for this class of X-ray sources and this suggests that the optical variability is induced by the X-ray activity. However, the optically variable sources in NGC 1399 have been reported to have blue colors (g — z > 1). All four sources have been detected in the infrared (IR) by Spitzer as point sources, and their ratios of 5.8 to 3.6 μm flux are > 0.63, indicating that their IR spectra are like those of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs). While spectroscopic confirmation is required, it is likely that all four sources are background AGNs. We find none of the X-ray sources having optical/IR colors different from AGNs to be optically variable

  15. High-resolution rotation curves of low surface brightness galaxies Data

    CERN Document Server

    McGaugh, S S; De Blok, E; Gaugh, Stacy Mc; Rubin, Vera; Blok, Erwin de

    2001-01-01

    We present long slit Halpha observations of 50 low surface brightness galaxies. Of these, 36 are of sufficient quality to form rotation curves. These data provide a large increase in the number of low surface brightness galaxies for which accurate rotation curves are available. They also represent an order of magnitude improvement in spatial resolution over previous 21 cm studies (1" to 2" instead of 13" to 45"). The improved resolution and accuracy of the data extend and strengthen the scientific conclusions previously inferred from 21 cm data.

  16. On the Classification of UGC1382 as a Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen, Lea M Z; Hagen, Alex; Nyland, Kristina; Neill, James D; Treyer, Marie; Young, Lisa M; Rich, Jeffrey A; Madore, Barry F

    2016-01-01

    We provide evidence that UGC1382, long believed to be a passive elliptical galaxy, is actually a giant low surface brightness (GLSB) galaxy which rivals the archetypical GLSB Malin 1 in size. Like other GLSB galaxies, it has two components: a high surface brightness disk galaxy surrounded by an extended low surface brightness (LSB) disk. For UGC1382, the central component is a lenticular system with an effective radius of 6 kpc. Beyond this, the LSB disk has an effective radius of ~38 kpc and an extrapolated central surface brightness of ~26 mag/arcsec^2. Both components have a combined stellar mass of ~8x10^10 M_sun, and are embedded in a massive (10^10 M_sun) low-density (<3 M_sun/pc^2) HI disk with a radius of 110 kpc, making this one of the largest isolated disk galaxies known. The system resides in a massive dark matter halo of at least 2x10^12 M_sun. Although possibly part of a small group, its low density environment likely plays a role in the formation and retention of the giant LSB and HI disks. W...

  17. Chemical abundances in low surface brightness galaxies: Implications for their evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgaugh, S. S.; Bothun, G. D.

    1993-01-01

    Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies are an important but often neglected part of the galaxy content of the universe. Their importance stems both from the selection effects which cause them to be under-represented in galaxy catalogs, and from what they can tell us about the physical processes of galaxy evolution that has resulted in something other than the traditional Hubble sequence of spirals. An important constraint for any evolutionary model is the present day chemical abundances of LSB disks. Towards this end, spectra for a sample of 75 H 2 regions distributed in 20 LSB disks galaxies were obtained. Structurally, this sample is defined as having B(0) fainter than 23.0 mag arcsec(sup -2) and scale lengths that cluster either around 3 kpc or 10 kpc. In fact, structurally, these galaxies are very similar to the high surface brightness spirals which define the Hubble sequence. Thus, our sample galaxies are not dwarf galaxies but instead have masses comparable to or in excess of the Milky Way. The basic results from these observations are summarized.

  18. The Effect of Surface Brightness Dimming in the Selection of High-z Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Calvi, Valentina; Bradley, Larry; Pizzella, Alessandro; Kim, Soyoung

    2014-01-01

    Cosmological surface brightness dimming of the form $(1+z)^{-4}$ affects all sources. The strong dependence of surface brightness dimming on redshift z suggests the presence of a selection bias when searching for high-redshift galaxies, i.e. we tend to detect only those galaxies with a high surface brightness (SB). However, unresolved knots of emission are not affected by SB dimming, thus providing a way to test the clumpiness of high-z galaxies. Our strategy relies on the comparison of the total flux detected for the same source in surveys characterized by different depth. For all galaxies, deeper images permit the better investigation of low-SB features. Cosmological SB dimming makes these low-SB features hard to detect when going to higher and higher redshifts. We used the GOODS and HUDF Hubble Space Telescope legacy datasets to study the effect of SB dimming on low-SB features of high-redshift galaxies and compare it to the prediction for smooth sources. We selected a sample of Lyman-break galaxies at z~4...

  19. The SWIFT AGN and Cluster Survey I: Number Counts of AGN and Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Xinyu; Kochanek, Christopher S; Nugent, Jenna M; Bregman, Joel N

    2015-01-01

    The Swift AGN and Cluster Survey (SACS) uses 125 deg^2 of Swift XRT serendipitous fields with variable depths surrounding gamma-ray bursts to provide a medium depth (4e-15 erg/s/cm^2) and area survey filling the gap between deep, narrow Chandra/XMM-Newton surveys and wide, shallow ROSAT surveys. Here we present a catalog of 22,563 point sources and 442 extended sources and examine the number counts of the AGN and galaxy cluster populations. SACS provides excellent constraints on the AGN number counts at the bright end with negligible uncertainties due to cosmic variance, and these constraints are consistent with previous measurements. We use Wise mid-infrared (MIR) colors to classify the sources. For AGN we can roughly separate the point sources into MIR-red and MIR-blue AGN, finding roughly equal numbers of each type in the soft X-ray band (0.5-2 keV), but fewer MIR-blue sources in the hard X-ray band (2-8 keV). The cluster number counts, with 5% uncertainties from cosmic variance, are also consistent with p...

  20. A 5-GHz survey of bright southern elliptical and SO galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Parkes 64-m telescope has been used in a 5.0 GHz survey of 181 Southern E and SO galaxies from the Reference catalogue of bright galaxies. Of the 39 detections above the nominal limit of 12 mJy, 15 are new, several have radio spectra indicating membership in the active class, and two have shown intensity variations at centimetre wavelengths. The results of this survey combined with results from earlier surveys of lower sensitivity suggest that only about 40 per cent of the E/SO galaxies in the Reference catalogue have Ssub(5GHz)>1 mJy. (author)

  1. Bulge-Disk Decomposition of 659 Spiral and Lenticular Galaxy Brightness Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Baggett, W. E.; Baggett, S. M.; Anderson, K. S. J.

    1998-01-01

    We present one of the largest homogeneous sets of spiral and lenticular galaxy brightness profile decompositions completed to date. The 659 galaxies in our sample have been fitted with a deVaucouleurs' law for the bulge component and an inner-truncated exponential for the disk component. Of the 659 galaxies in the sample, 620 were successfully fit with the chosen fitting functions. The fits are generally well-defined, with more than 90% having RMS deviations from the observed profile of less ...

  2. Near-Infrared Imaging of Barred Halo Dominated Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Honey, M; Ninan, J P; Purvankara, M

    2016-01-01

    We present a near-infrared (NIR) imaging study of barred low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies using the TIFR near-infrared Spectrometer and Imager (TIRSPEC). LSB galaxies are dark matter dominated, late type spirals that have low luminosity stellar disks but large neutral hydrogen (HI) gas disks. Using SDSS images of a very large sample of LSB galaxies derived from the literature, we found that the barred fraction is only 8.3%. We imaged twenty five barred LSB galaxies in the J, H, K$_S$ wavebands and twenty nine in the K$_S$ band. Most of the bars are much brighter than their stellar disks, which appear to be very diffuse. Our image analysis gives deprojected mean bar sizes of $R_{b}/R_{25}$ = 0.40 and ellipticities $e$ $\\approx$ 0.45, which are similar to bars in high surface brightness galaxies. Thus, although bars are rare in LSB galaxies, they appear to be just as strong as bars found in normal galaxies. There is no correlation of $R_{b}/R_{25}$ or $e$ with the relative HI or stellar masses of the galax...

  3. The IRAS bright galaxy sample. II - The sample and luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soifer, B. T.; Sanders, D. B.; Neugebauer, G.; Madore, B. F.; Danielson, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    A statistically complete sample of 324 of the brightest infrared galaxies discovered at 60 microns in the IRAS all-sky survey is described. The results show that far-infrared emission is a significant luminosity component in the local universe, representing 25 percent of the luminosity emitted by stars in the same volume. Above 10 to the 11th solar luminosities, the infrared luminous galaxies are the dominant population of objects in the universe, being as numerous as the Seyfert galaxies and more numerous than quasars at higher luminosities. The infrared luminosity appears to be independent of the optical luminosity of galaxies. Most infrared bright galaxies appear to require much of the interstellar matter to be contributing to the observed infrared luminosity. Approximately 60-80 percent of the far-infrared luminosity of the local universe can be attributed, directly or indirectly, to recent or ongoing star formation.

  4. Is there really a luminosity-surface brightness relation for dwarf galaxies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple test is used to argue that the luminosity-surface brightness correlation found by several authors in eye-selected samples of cluster dwarf galaxies is likely to be merely the result of selection effects. There are therefore likely to be many more dwarfs in clusters like Virgo than is generally assumed. (author)

  5. The formation of submillimetre-bright galaxies from gas infall over a billion years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Desika; Turk, Matthew; Feldmann, Robert; Robitaille, Thomas; Hopkins, Philip; Thompson, Robert; Hayward, Christopher; Ball, David; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2015-09-24

    Submillimetre-bright galaxies at high redshift are the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe and are characterized by prodigious emission in the far-infrared, with a flux of at least five millijanskys at a wavelength of 850 micrometres. They reside in haloes with masses about 10(13) times that of the Sun, have low gas fractions compared to main-sequence disks at a comparable redshift, trace complex environments and are not easily observable at optical wavelengths. Their physical origin remains unclear. Simulations have been able to form galaxies with the requisite luminosities, but have otherwise been unable to simultaneously match the stellar masses, star formation rates, gas fractions and environments. Here we report a cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation that is able to form a submillimetre galaxy that simultaneously satisfies the broad range of observed physical constraints. We find that groups of galaxies residing in massive dark matter haloes have increasing rates of star formation that peak at collective rates of about 500-1,000 solar masses per year at redshifts of two to three, by which time the interstellar medium is sufficiently enriched with metals that the region may be observed as a submillimetre-selected system. The intense star formation rates are fuelled in part by the infall of a reservoir gas supply enabled by stellar feedback at earlier times, not through major mergers. With a lifetime of nearly a billion years, our simulations show that the submillimetre-bright phase of high-redshift galaxies is prolonged and associated with significant mass buildup in early-Universe proto-clusters, and that many submillimetre-bright galaxies are composed of numerous unresolved components (for which there is some observational evidence). PMID:26399829

  6. RED GIANT BRANCH BUMP BRIGHTNESS AND NUMBER COUNTS IN 72 GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS OBSERVED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the broadest and most precise empirical investigation of red giant branch bump (RGBB) brightness and number counts ever conducted. We implement a new method and use data from two Hubble Space Telescope globular cluster (GC) surveys to measure the brightness and star counts of the RGBB in 72 GCs. The median measurement precision is 0.018 mag in the brightness and 31% in the number counts, respectively, reaching peak precision values of 0.005 mag and 10%. The position of the main-sequence turnoff and the number of horizontal branch stars are used as comparisons where appropriate. Several independent scientific conclusions are newly possible with our parameterization of the RGBB. Both brightness and number counts are shown to have second parameters in addition to their strong dependence on metallicity. The RGBBs are found to be anomalous in the GCs NGC 2808, 5286, 6388, and 6441, likely due to the presence of multiple populations. Finally, we use our empirical calibration to predict the properties of the Galactic bulge RGBB. The updated RGBB properties for the bulge are shown to differ from the GC-calibrated prediction, with the former having lower number counts, a lower brightness dispersion, and a brighter peak luminosity than would be expected from the latter. This discrepancy is well explained by the Galactic bulge having a higher helium abundance than expected from GCs, ΔY ∼ +0.06 at the median metallicity.

  7. X-Ray bright active galactic nuclei in massive galaxy clusters - II. The fraction of galaxies hosting active nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlert, S.; von der Linden, A.; Allen, S. W.;

    2013-01-01

    We present a measurement of the fraction of cluster galaxies hosting X-ray bright active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a function of clustercentric distance scaled in units of r500. Our analysis employs high-quality Chandra X-ray and Subaru optical imaging for 42 massive X-ray-selected galaxy cluster...... fields spanning the redshift range 0.2 z ..., both of which are also suppressed near cluster centres to a comparable extent. These results strongly support the idea that X-ray AGN activity and strong star formation are linked through their common dependence on available reservoirs of cold gas. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Oxford University...

  8. Damped Lyman-alpha absorption from a nearby Low Surface Brightness galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, D V

    2001-01-01

    Ground-based & HST images of the nearby galaxy SBS 1543+593 (z=0.009) show it to be a Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxy with a central surface brightness of mu_B(0)=23.2 mag/arcsec-2 and scale length 0.9 h-1 kpc, values typical for the local LSB galaxy population. The galaxy lies directly in front of the QSO HS 1543+5921 (z=0.807); an HST STIS spectrum of the quasar reveals a damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) line at the redshift of the interloper with an HI column density of log N(HI) = 20.35, as well as several low-ionization metal lines with strengths similar to those found in the Milky Way interstellar medium. Our data show that LSB galaxies are certainly able to produce the DLA lines seen at higher redshift, and fuels the speculation that LSB galaxies are a major contributor to that population of absorbers.

  9. HerMES: SPIRE galaxy number counts at 250, 350 and 500 microns

    CERN Document Server

    Oliver, S J; Smith, A J; Altieri, B; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Auld, R; Aussel, H; Babbedge, T; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Burgarella, D; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Fox, M; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Lagache, G; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Mitchell-Wynne, K; Mortier, A M J; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Omont, A; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rawlings, J I; Raymond, G; Rigopoulou, D; Rizzo, D; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Portal, M Sanchez; Savage, R; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Stevens, J A; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valiante, E; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Vigroux, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2010-01-01

    Emission at far-infrared wavelengths makes up a significant fraction of the total light detected from galaxies over the age of Universe. Herschel provides an opportunity for studying galaxies at the peak wavelength of their emission. Our aim is to provide a benchmark for models of galaxy population evolution and to test pre-existing models of galaxies. With the Herschel Multi-tiered Extra-galactic survey, HerMES, we have observed a number of fields of different areas and sensitivity using the SPIRE instrument on Herschel. We have determined the number counts of galaxies down to ~20 mJy. Our constraints from directly counting galaxies are consistent with, though more precise than, estimates from the BLAST fluctuation analysis. We have found a steep rise in the Euclidean normalised counts at <100 mJy. We have directly resolved 15% of the infrared extra-galactic background at the wavelength near where it peaks.

  10. The outer regions of galaxy clusters: Chandra constraints on the X-ray surface brightness

    CERN Document Server

    Ettori, S

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged version) We study the properties of the X-ray surface brightness profiles in a sample of galaxy clusters that are observed with Chandra and have emission detectable with a signal-to-noise ratio larger than 2 at a radius beyond R500 ~ 0.7 R200. Our study aims at measuring the slopes of the X-ray surface brightness and of the gas density profiles in the outskirts of massive clusters. These constraints are then compared to similar results obtained from observations and numerical simulations of the temperature and dark matter density profiles with the intention to present a consistent picture of the outer regions of galaxy clusters. We extract the surface brightness profiles S_b(r) from X-ray exposures obtained with Chandra of 52 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at z>0.3. We estimate R200 both using a beta-model to reproduce the surface brightness profile and scaling relations from the literature, showing that the two methods converge to comparable values. We evaluate then the radius, R_S2N, at which the ...

  11. Stellar Systems in the direction of the Hickson Compact Group 44 - I. Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Castelli, A V Smith; Escudero, C G

    2016-01-01

    Context. In spite of the numerous studies of low-luminosity galaxies in different environments, there is still no consensus about their formation scenario. In particular, a large number of galaxies displaying extremely low-surface brightnesses have been detected in the last year, and the nature of these objects is under discussion. Aims. In this paper we report the detection of two extended low-surface brightness (LSB) objects (mueff_g'~27 mag) found, in projection, next to NGC 3193 and in the zone of the Hickson Compact Group (HCG) 44, respectively. Methods. We analyzed deep, high-quality, GEMINI-GMOS images with ELLIPSE within IRAF in order to obtain their brightness profiles and structural parameters. We also search for the presence of globular clusters (GC) in these fields. Results. We have found that, if these LSB galaxies were at the distances of NGC 3193 and HCG 44, they would show sizes and luminosities similar to those of the ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) found in the Coma cluster and other associati...

  12. Simulating a slow bar in the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chequers, Matthew H.; Spekkens, Kristine; Widrow, Lawrence M.; Gilhuly, Colleen

    2016-08-01

    We present a disc-halo N-body model of the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 628, one of the few systems that harbours a "slow" bar with a ratio of corotation radius to bar length of mathcal {R} equiv R_c/a_b ˜ 2. We select our initial conditions using SDSS DR10 photometry, a physically motivated radially variable mass-to-light ratio profile, and rotation curve data from the literature. A global bar instability grows in our submaximal disc model, and the disc morphology and dynamics agree broadly with the photometry and kinematics of UGC 628 at times between peak bar strength and the onset of buckling. Prior to bar formation, the disc and halo contribute roughly equally to the potential in the galaxy's inner region, giving the disc enough self gravity for bar modes to grow. After bar formation there is significant mass redistribution, creating a baryon dominated inner and dark matter dominated outer disc. This implies that, unlike most other low surface brightness galaxies, UGC 628 is not dark matter dominated everywhere. Our model nonetheless implies that UGC 628 falls on same the relationship between dark matter fraction and rotation velocity found for high surface brightness galaxies, and lends credence to the argument that the disc mass fraction measured at the location where its contribution to the potential peaks is not a reliable indicator of its dynamical importance at all radii.

  13. The Distribution of Star Formation and Metals in the Low Surface Brightness Galaxy UGC 628

    CERN Document Server

    Young, J E; Wang, Sharon X

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the MUSCEL Program (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry and Evolution of LSB galaxies), a project aimed at determining the star-formation histories of low surface brightness galaxies. MUSCEL utilizes ground-based optical spectra and space-based UV and IR photometry to fully constrain the star-formation histories of our targets with the aim of shedding light on the processes that led low surface brightness galaxies down a different evolutionary path from that followed by high surface brightness galaxies, such as our Milky Way. Here we present the spatially-resolved optical spectra of UGC 628, observed with the VIRUS-P IFU at the 2.7-m Harlen J. Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory, and utilize emission-line diagnostics to determine the rate and distribution of star formation as well as the gas-phase metallicity and metallicity gradient. We find highly clustered star formation throughout UGC 628, excluding the core regions, and a log(O/H) metallicity around -4.2, with mo...

  14. BLACK HOLE MASS LIMITS FOR OPTICALLY DARK X-RAY BRIGHT SOURCES IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of the black hole mass in bright X-ray sources of nearby galaxies is crucial to the understanding of these systems and their formation. However, the present allowed black hole mass range spans five orders of magnitude (10 Msun 5 Msun) with the upper limit obtained from dynamical friction arguments. We show that the absence of a detectable optical counterpart for some of these sources can provide a much more stringent upper limit. The argument is based only on the assumption that the outer regions of their accretion disks are a standard one. Moreover, such optically dark X-ray sources cannot be foreground stars or background active galactic nuclei, and hence must be accreting systems residing within their host galaxies. As a demonstration we search for candidates among the point-like X-ray sources detected with Chandra in 13 nearby elliptical galaxies. We use a novel technique to search for faint optical counterparts in the Hubble Space Telescope images whereby we subtract the bright galaxy light based on isophotal modeling of the surface brightness. We show that for six sources with no detectable optical emission at the 3σ level, their black hole masses MBH sun. In particular, an ultra-luminous X-ray source in NGC 4486 has MBH sun. We discuss the potential of this method to provide stringent constraints on the black hole masses, and the implications on the physical nature of these sources.

  15. A 21-cm line study of NGC 5963, an SC galaxy with a low-surface brightness disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, A.; Athanassoula, E.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    1988-06-01

    Results are presented from a detailed 21-cm line study of the Sc galaxy NGC 5963. The extent of the H I emission is found to be roughly coincident with the optical image, the latter being of much lower surface brightness than normal for Sc galaxies. The velocity field shows little deviation from axial symmetry, and the derived rotation curve is typical for Sc galaxies about twice as bright as NGC 5963. A composite mass model is presented using the observed light distribution to calculate a rotation curve for the luminous part of the galaxy (assuming a constant M/L-ratio with radius); this calculated rotation curve is compared to the observed one to derive a rotation law for a dark halo. Comparison with Sc galaxies having normal disk surface brightnesses suggests that the halo in NGC 5963 is more concentrated than in normal Scs with similar rotation curves. The origin of the low surface brightness of the disk is discussed.

  16. Stellar populations of bulges in galaxies with a low surface-brightness disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, L.; Corsini, E. M.; Pizzella, A.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Coccato, L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.

    2015-03-01

    The radial profiles of the Hβ, Mg, and Fe line-strength indices are presented for a sample of eight spiral galaxies with a low surface-brightness stellar disc and a bulge. The correlations between the central values of the line-strength indices and velocity dispersion are consistent to those known for early-type galaxies and bulges of high surface-brightness galaxies. The age, metallicity, and α/Fe enhancement of the stellar populations in the bulge-dominated region are obtained using stellar population models with variable element abundance ratios. Almost all the sample bulges are characterized by a young stellar population, on-going star formation, and a solar α/Fe enhancement. Their metallicity spans from high to sub-solar values. No significant gradient in age and α/Fe enhancement is measured, whereas only in a few cases a negative metallicity gradient is found. These properties suggest that a pure dissipative collapse is not able to explain formation of all the sample bulges and that other phenomena, like mergers or acquisition events, need to be invoked. Such a picture is also supported by the lack of a correlation between the central value and gradient of the metallicity in bulges with very low metallicity. The stellar populations of the bulges hosted by low surface-brightness discs share many properties with those of high surface-brightness galaxies. Therefore, they are likely to have common formation scenarios and evolution histories. A strong interplay between bulges and discs is ruled out by the fact that in spite of being hosted by discs with extremely different properties, the bulges of low and high surface-brightness discs are remarkably similar.

  17. Measurable relationship between bright galaxies and their faint companions in WHL J085910.0+294957, a galaxy cluster at z = 0.30: vestiges of infallen groups?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Hyeop; Lee, Hye-Ran; Kim, Minjin; Seon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Sang Chul; Yang, Soung-Chul; Ree, Chang Hee; Lee, Jong Chul; Jeong, Hyunjin; Ko, Jongwan [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Changsu, E-mail: jhl@kasi.re.kr [CEOU/Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-20

    The properties of satellite galaxies are closely related to their host galaxies in galaxy groups. In cluster environments, on the other hand, the interaction between close neighbors is known to be limited. Our goal is to examine the relationships between host and satellite galaxies in the harsh environment of a galaxy cluster. To achieve this goal, we study a galaxy cluster WHL J085910.0+294957 at z = 0.30 using deep images obtained with CQUEAN CCD camera mounted on the 2.1 m Otto Struve Telescope. After member selection based on the scaling relations of photometric and structural parameters, we investigate the relationship between bright (M{sub i} ≤ –18) galaxies and their faint (–18 < M{sub i} ≤ –15) companions. The weighted mean color of faint companion galaxies shows no significant dependence (<1σ to bootstrap uncertainties) on cluster-centric distance and local luminosity density as well as the luminosity and concentration of an adjacent bright galaxy. However, the weighted mean color shows marginal dependence (∼2.2σ) on the color of an adjacent bright galaxy when the sample is limited to bright galaxies with at least two faint companions. By using a permutation test, we confirm that the correlation in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in this cluster is statistically significant with a confidence level of 98.7%. The statistical significance increases if we additionally remove non-members using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric redshift information (∼2.6σ and 99.3%). Our results suggest three possible scenarios: (1) vestiges of infallen groups, (2) dwarf capturing, and (3) tidal tearing of bright galaxies.

  18. Measurable relationship between bright galaxies and their faint companions in WHL J085910.0+294957, a galaxy cluster at z = 0.30: vestiges of infallen groups?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of satellite galaxies are closely related to their host galaxies in galaxy groups. In cluster environments, on the other hand, the interaction between close neighbors is known to be limited. Our goal is to examine the relationships between host and satellite galaxies in the harsh environment of a galaxy cluster. To achieve this goal, we study a galaxy cluster WHL J085910.0+294957 at z = 0.30 using deep images obtained with CQUEAN CCD camera mounted on the 2.1 m Otto Struve Telescope. After member selection based on the scaling relations of photometric and structural parameters, we investigate the relationship between bright (Mi ≤ –18) galaxies and their faint (–18 < Mi ≤ –15) companions. The weighted mean color of faint companion galaxies shows no significant dependence (<1σ to bootstrap uncertainties) on cluster-centric distance and local luminosity density as well as the luminosity and concentration of an adjacent bright galaxy. However, the weighted mean color shows marginal dependence (∼2.2σ) on the color of an adjacent bright galaxy when the sample is limited to bright galaxies with at least two faint companions. By using a permutation test, we confirm that the correlation in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in this cluster is statistically significant with a confidence level of 98.7%. The statistical significance increases if we additionally remove non-members using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric redshift information (∼2.6σ and 99.3%). Our results suggest three possible scenarios: (1) vestiges of infallen groups, (2) dwarf capturing, and (3) tidal tearing of bright galaxies.

  19. Inside-Out or Outside-In? Metallicity Gradients in Low Surface Brightness Galaxies in the MUSCEL Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jason; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Xuesong Wang, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    We present the metallicity profiles of three low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies as clues to the formation of these galaxies. This easily overlooked class of galaxy comprises up to half of the galaxy population with masses spanning that of the Milky Way, making them cosmologically significant baryon repositories. LSB galaxies are also very different from the more familiar archetypal galaxies in that they have unusually high gas fractions, up to 95%. Yet, they do not represent a distinct class of galaxy, but are simply on the low surface brightness end of a continuum.We have observed a sample of low surface brightness galaxies with the VIRUS-P integral field spectrograph as part of the MUSCEL program (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry, and Evolution of LSB galaxies). Our program aims to fully characterize the formation histories of these galaxies by using these data in tandem with Spitzer, Galex, and Swift observations.Optical emission lines contained within the VIRUS-P spectra have allowed us to determined the metallicities of HII regions within these galaxies via emission-line ratio diagnostics. Because ISM metallicities are directly linked to the competing effects of star formation and gas accretion, the distribution of metals is a significant clue to the formation of these galaxies.

  20. SIMULTANEOUS MULTI-BAND DETECTION OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES WITH MARKOVIAN MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, B.; Bonnarel, F.; Louys, M. [CDS, Observatoire Astronomique, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Perret, B.; Petremand, M.; Lavigne, F.; Collet, Ch. [LSIIT, Universite de Strasbourg, 7, Rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg (France); Van Driel, W. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Sabatini, S. [INAF/IASF-Roma, via Fosso de Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); MacArthur, L. A., E-mail: Bernd.Vollmer@astro.unistra.fr [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2013-02-01

    We present to the astronomical community an algorithm for the detection of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in images, called MARSIAA (MARkovian Software for Image Analysis in Astronomy), which is based on multi-scale Markovian modeling. MARSIAA can be applied simultaneously to different bands. It segments an image into a user-defined number of classes, according to their surface brightness and surroundings-typically, one or two classes contain the LSB structures. We have developed an algorithm, called DetectLSB, which allows the efficient identification of LSB galaxies from among the candidate sources selected by MARSIAA. The application of the method to two and three bands simultaneously was tested on simulated images. Based on our tests, we are confident that we can detect LSB galaxies down to a central surface brightness level of only 1.5 times the standard deviation from the mean pixel value in the image background. To assess the robustness of our method, the method was applied to a set of 18 B- and I-band images (covering 1.3 deg{sup 2} in total) of the Virgo Cluster to which Sabatini et al. previously applied a matched-filter dwarf LSB galaxy search algorithm. We have detected all 20 objects from the Sabatini et al. catalog which we could classify by eye as bona fide LSB galaxies. Our method has also detected four additional Virgo Cluster LSB galaxy candidates undetected by Sabatini et al. To further assess the completeness of the results of our method, both MARSIAA, SExtractor, and DetectLSB were applied to search for (1) mock Virgo LSB galaxies inserted into a set of deep Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) gri-band subimages and (2) Virgo LSB galaxies identified by eye in a full set of NGVS square degree gri images. MARSIAA/DetectLSB recovered {approx}20% more mock LSB galaxies and {approx}40% more LSB galaxies identified by eye than SExtractor/DetectLSB. With a 90% fraction of false positives from an entirely unsupervised pipeline, a completeness of

  1. Detecting edges in the X-ray surface brightness of galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, J S; Russell, H R; Walker, S A; Blundell, K M

    2016-01-01

    The effects of many physical processes in the intracluster medium of galaxy clusters imprint themselves in X-ray surface brightness images. It is therefore important to choose optimal methods for extracting information from and enhancing the interpretability of such images. We describe in detail a gradient filtering edge detection method that we previously applied to images of the Centaurus cluster of galaxies. The Gaussian gradient filter measures the gradient in the surface brightness distribution on particular spatial scales. We apply this filter on different scales to Chandra X-ray observatory images of two clusters with AGN feedback, the Perseus cluster and M87, and a merging system, A3667. By combining filtered images on different scales using radial filters spectacular images of the edges in a cluster are produced. We describe how to assess the significance of features in filtered images. We find the gradient filtering technique to have significant advantages for detecting many kinds of features compar...

  2. HOW TO IDENTIFY AND SEPARATE BRIGHT GALAXY CLUSTERS FROM THE LOW-FREQUENCY RADIO SKY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we simulate the 50-200 MHz radio sky that is constrained in the field of view (50 radius) of the 21 Centimeter Array (21CMA), a low-frequency radio interferometric array constructed in the remote area of Xinjiang, China, by carrying out Monte Carlo simulations to model the strong contaminating foreground of the redshifted cosmological reionization signals, including emissions from our Galaxy, galaxy clusters, and extragalactic discrete sources (i.e., star-forming galaxies, radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and radio-loud AGNs). As an improvement over previous works, we consider in detail not only random variations of morphological and spectroscopic parameters within the ranges allowed by multi-band observations, but also the evolution of radio halos in galaxy clusters, assuming that relativistic electrons are re-accelerated in the intracluster medium (ICM) in merger events and lose energy via both synchrotron emission and inverse Compton scattering with cosmic microwave background photons. By introducing a new approach designed on the basis of independent component analysis and wavelet detection algorithm, we prove that, with a cumulative observation of one month with the 21CMA array, about 80% of galaxy clusters (37 out of 48 clusters assuming a mean magnetic field of B = 2 μG in the ICM, or 15 out of 18 clusters assuming B = 0.2 μG) with central brightness temperatures of >10 K at 65 MHz can be safely identified and separated from the overwhelmingly bright foreground. By examining the brightness temperature images and spectra extracted from these identified clusters, we find that the morphological and spectroscopic distortions are extremely small compared to the input simulated clusters, and the reduced χ2 of brightness temperature profiles and spectra are controlled to be ∼<0.5 and ∼<1.3, respectively. These results robustly indicate that in the near future a sample of dozens of bright galaxy clusters will be disentangled from the

  3. Modelling the spectro-photometric and chemical evolution of Low Surface Brightness spiral galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Hoek, L. B. van den; de Blok, W J G

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the star formation history and chemical evolution of Low Surface Brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies by means of their observed spectro-photometric and chemical properties. We present preliminary results for Johnson-Cousins UBVRI magnitudes and stellar [O/H] abundance ratios using a galactic chemical evolution model incorporating a detailed metallicity dependent set of stellar input data covering all relevant stages of stellar evolution. Comparison of our model results with observ...

  4. Multiband optical surface brightness profile decompositions of the Seyfert galaxies Mrk 79 and NGC 5548

    OpenAIRE

    Mihov, Boyko; Slavcheva-Mihova, Lyuba

    2007-01-01

    We present preliminary results of the Johnson-Cousins (U)BVRI surface brightness profile decompositions of the Seyfert galaxies Mrk 79 and NGC 5548. The profiles were modelled as a sum of a Gaussian law for the nucleus, a Sersic law for the bulge and an exponent law for the disk. A flat bar was added to the model profile of Mrk 79. The parameters and the total magnitudes of the structural components were derived.

  5. A UNIFIED EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR INFRARED GALAXY COUNTS BASED ON THE OBSERVED PHYSICAL EVOLUTION OF DISTANT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethermin, Matthieu; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark T.; Elbaz, David; Mullaney, James; Pannella, Maurilio [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu - CNRS - Universite Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Magdis, Georgios [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Hezaveh, Yashar [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Le Borgne, Damien [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Buat, Veronique [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-Marseille, CNRS, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computation Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Lagache, Guilaine [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), batiment 121, Universite Paris-Sud 11 and CNRS (UMR 8617), F-91405 Orsay (France); Scott, Douglas, E-mail: matthieu.bethermin@cea.fr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    We reproduce the mid-infrared to radio galaxy counts with a new empirical model based on our current understanding of the evolution of main-sequence (MS) and starburst (SB) galaxies. We rely on a simple spectral energy distribution (SED) library based on Herschel observations: a single SED for the MS and another one for SB, getting warmer with redshift. Our model is able to reproduce recent measurements of galaxy counts performed with Herschel, including counts per redshift slice. This agreement demonstrates the power of our 2-Star-Formation Modes (2SFM) decomposition in describing the statistical properties of infrared sources and their evolution with cosmic time. We discuss the relative contribution of MS and SB galaxies to the number counts at various wavelengths and flux densities. We also show that MS galaxies are responsible for a bump in the 1.4 GHz radio counts around 50 {mu}Jy. Material of the model (predictions, SED library, mock catalogs, etc.) is available online.

  6. The Bright End of the Luminosity Function of Red Sequence Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Loh, Y S; Loh, Yeong-Shang; Strauss, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    We study the bright end of the luminosity distribution of galaxies in fields with Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Using 2099 square degree of SDSS imaging data, we search for luminous (> L*) early-type galaxies within 1.0 Mpc/h of a volume-limited sample of 12,608 spectroscopic LRG in the redshift range 0.12 < z < 0.38. Most of these objects lie in rich environments, with the LRG being the brightest object within 1.0 Mpc/h. The luminosity gap, M12, between the first and second-rank galaxies within 1.0 Mpc/h is large (~0.8 mag), substantially larger than can be explained with an exponentially decaying luminosity function of galaxies. The brightest member is less luminous (by 0.1 to 0.2 mag), and shows a larger gap in LRG selected groups than in cluster-like environments. The large luminosity gap shows little evolution with redshift to z = 0.4, ruling out the scenario that these LRG selected brightest cluster or group galaxies grow by recent cannibalism of cluster mem...

  7. Dust Temperatures in the Infrared Space Observatory Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bendo, G J; Wells, M; Gallais, P; Haas, M; Heras, A M; Klaas, U; Laureijs, R J; Leech, K; Lemke, D; Metcalfe, L; Rowan-Robinson, M; Schulz, B; Telesco, C M; Bendo, George J.; Joseph, Robert D.; Wells, Martyn; Gallais, Pascal; Haas, Martin; Heras, Ana M.; Klaas, Ulrich; Laureijs, Rene J.; Leech, Kieron; Lemke, Dietrich; Metcalfe, Leo; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Schulz, Bernhard; Telesco, Charles

    2003-01-01

    We examine far-infrared and submillimeter spectral energy distributions for galaxies in the Infrared Space Observatory Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies. For the 71 galaxies where we had complete 60-180 micron data, we fit blackbodies with lambda^-1 emissivities and average temperatures of 31 K or lambda^-2 emissivities and average temperatures of 22 K. Except for high temperatures determined in some early-type galaxies, the temperatures show no dependence on any galaxy characteristic. For the 60-850 micron range in eight galaxies, we fit blackbodies with lambda^-1, lambda-2, and lambda^-beta (with beta variable) emissivities to the data. The best results were with the lambda^-beta emissivities, where the temperatures were ~30 K and the emissivity coefficient beta ranged from 0.9 to 1.9. These results produced gas to dust ratios that ranged from 150 to 580, which were consistent with the ratio for the Milky Way and which exhibited relatively little dispersion compared to fits with fixed emissivities.

  8. The Role of Clustering of Sub-Clumps in Bright Elliptical Galaxy Formation from a Low-Spin Seed Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, D

    2001-01-01

    We reveal the role of clustering of sub-clumps, which is expected in the cold dark matter (CDM) universe, in forming a bright elliptical galaxy (BEG) from a low-spin seed galaxy. This can be done by comparing the evolution of a low-spin seed galaxy including small-scale density fluctuations expected in the CDM universe (Model 1) with that of a completely uniform one (Model 2), using numerical experiments. We show that Model 2 cannot reproduce the properties of BEGs and forms a disk which is too compact and too bright due to the conservation of the initial-small angular momentum. In Model 1 clustering of the sub-clumps caused by initial small-scale density fluctuations leads to angular momentum transfer from the baryon component to the dark matter and consequently a nearly spherical system supported by random motions is formed. Moreover the collisionless property of the stars formed in the sub-clumps prevents the dissipative contraction of the system, leading to a large measured half-light radius. As a result,...

  9. Source Plane Reconstruction of the Bright Lensed Galaxy RCSGA 032727-132609

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Keren; Gladders, Michael D.; Rigby, Jane R.; Wuyts, Eva; Koester, Benjamin P.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Barrientos, L. Felipe

    2011-01-01

    We present new HST/WFC3 imaging data of RCS2 032727-132609, a bright lensed galaxy at z=1.7 that is magnified and stretched by the lensing cluster RCS2 032727-132623. Using this new high-resolution imaging, we modify our previous lens model (which was based on ground-based data) to fully understand the lensing geometry, and use it to reconstruct the lensed galaxy in the source plane. This giant arc represents a unique opportunity to peer into 100-pc scale structures in a high redshift galaxy. This new source reconstruction will be crucial for a future analysis of the spatially-resolved rest-UV and rest-optical spectra of the brightest parts of the arc.

  10. B and R CCD surface photometry of selected low surface brightness galaxies in the region of the Fornax cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent discoveries of large numbers of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in clusters and of the extreme LSB giant galaxy Malin 1 are changing our view of the galactic contents of the Universe. In this paper we describe B and R band CCD photometry of a sample of LSB galaxies previously identified from photographic plates of the Fornax cluster. This sample contains some of the lowest surface brightness galaxies known, one having the same central surface brightness as Main 1. The objects in this sample have a wide range of morphologies, and galaxies of similar appearance may have very different (B-R) colours. The range of (B-R) colours for this sample (almost all of which would have been described as dE from their B band morphology alone) is as large as that of the entire Hubble sequence. (author)

  11. HerMES: A Deficit in the Surface Brightness of the Cosmic Infrared Background due to Galaxy Cluster Gravitational Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemcov, M.; Blain, A.; Cooray, A.; Béthermin, M.; Bock, J.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Dowell, C. D.; Farrah, D.; Glenn, J.; Griffin, M.; Halpern, M.; Jullo, E.; Kneib, J.-P.; Marsden, G.; Nguyen, H. T.; Oliver, S. J.; Richard, J.; Roseboom, I. G.; Schulz, B.; Scott, Douglas; Shupe, D. L.; Smith, A. J.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2013-06-01

    We have observed four massive galaxy clusters with the SPIRE instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory and measure a deficit of surface brightness within their central region after removing detected sources. We simulate the effects of instrumental sensitivity and resolution, the source population, and the lensing effect of the clusters to estimate the shape and amplitude of the deficit. The amplitude of the central deficit is a strong function of the surface density and flux distribution of the background sources. We find that for the current best fitting faint end number counts, and excellent lensing models, the most likely amplitude of the central deficit is the full intensity of the cosmic infrared background (CIB). Our measurement leads to a lower limit to the integrated total intensity of the CIB of I_{250 \\, \\mu {m}} \\gt 0.69_{-0.03}^{+0.03} ({stat.}) _{-0.06}^{+0.11} ({sys.}) MJy sr-1, with more CIB possible from both low-redshift sources and from sources within the target clusters. It should be possible to observe this effect in existing high angular resolution data at other wavelengths where the CIB is bright, which would allow tests of models of the faint source component of the CIB. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  12. HerMES: A DEFICIT IN THE SURFACE BRIGHTNESS OF THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND DUE TO GALAXY CLUSTER GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemcov, M.; Cooray, A.; Bock, J.; Dowell, C. D.; Nguyen, H. T. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Blain, A. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Bethermin, M. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Conley, A.; Glenn, J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Conversi, L. [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Farrah, D.; Oliver, S. J.; Roseboom, I. G. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Griffin, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Halpern, M.; Marsden, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Jullo, E.; Kneib, J.-P. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Richard, J., E-mail: zemcov@caltech.edu [Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, 9 avenue Charles Andre, F-69230 Saint-Genis Laval (France); and others

    2013-06-01

    We have observed four massive galaxy clusters with the SPIRE instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory and measure a deficit of surface brightness within their central region after removing detected sources. We simulate the effects of instrumental sensitivity and resolution, the source population, and the lensing effect of the clusters to estimate the shape and amplitude of the deficit. The amplitude of the central deficit is a strong function of the surface density and flux distribution of the background sources. We find that for the current best fitting faint end number counts, and excellent lensing models, the most likely amplitude of the central deficit is the full intensity of the cosmic infrared background (CIB). Our measurement leads to a lower limit to the integrated total intensity of the CIB of I{sub 250{mu}m}>0.69{sub -0.03}{sup +0.03}(stat.){sub -0.06}{sup +0.11}(sys.) MJy sr{sup -1}, with more CIB possible from both low-redshift sources and from sources within the target clusters. It should be possible to observe this effect in existing high angular resolution data at other wavelengths where the CIB is bright, which would allow tests of models of the faint source component of the CIB.

  13. Galaxy cluster number count data constraints on cosmological parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanelli, L. [Universita di Bari, Dipartimento di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Fogli, G.L.; Marrone, A. [Universita di Bari, Dipartimento di Fisica, Bari (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Kahniashvili, T. [Carnegie Mellon University, McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Laurentian University, Department of Physics, Sudbury, ON (Canada); Ilia State University, Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Tbilisi (Georgia); Ratra, Bharat [Kansas State University, Department of Physics, Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2012-11-15

    We use data on massive galaxy clusters (M{sub cluster}>8 x 10{sup 14} h{sup -1} M{sub s}un within a comoving radius of R{sub cluster}=1.5h{sup -1} Mpc) in the redshift range 0.05count derived from the observational temperature data. We show that, contrary to previous analyses, cluster data alone prefer low values of the amplitude of mass fluctuations, {sigma}{sub 8}{<=}0.69 (1 {sigma} C.L.), and large amounts of nonrelativistic matter, {Omega}{sub m} {>=}0.38 (1 {sigma} C.L.), in slight tension with the {Lambda}CDM concordance cosmological model, though the results are compatible with {Lambda}CDM at 2 {sigma}. In addition, we derive a {sigma}{sub 8} normalization relation, {sigma}{sub 8}{Omega}{sub m}{sup 1/3} = 0.49 {+-} 0.06 (2{sigma} C.L.). Combining cluster data with {sigma}{sub 8}-independent baryon acoustic oscillation observations, cosmic microwave background data, Hubble constant measurements, Hubble parameter determination from passively evolving red galaxies, and magnitude-redshift data of type Ia supernovae, we find {Omega}{sub m} = 0.28{sup +0.03}{sub -0.02} and {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.73{sup +0.03}{sub -0.03}, the former in agreement and the latter being slightly lower than the corresponding values in the concordance cosmological model. We also find H{sub 0} = 69.1{sup +1

  14. Luminosity and surface brightness distribution of K-band galaxies from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Anthony J; Cross, Nicholas J G

    2008-01-01

    We present luminosity and surface brightness distributions of 36,663 galaxies with K-band photometry from the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS), Data Release 3 and optical photometry from Data Release 5 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Various features and limitations of the new UKIDSS data are examined, such as a problem affecting Petrosian magnitudes of extended sources. Selection limits in K- and r-band magnitude, K-band surface brightness and K-band radius are included explicitly in the 1/Vmax estimation of the space density and luminosity function. The bivariate brightness distribution in K-band absolute magnitude and surface brightness is presented and found to display a clear luminosity-surface brightness correlation that flattens at high luminosity and broadens at low luminosity, consistent with similar analyses at optical wavelengths. Best fitting Schechter function parameters for the K-band luminosity function are found to be M*-5log h=-23.17 +/- 0.04, alpha=-0.8...

  15. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Globular Cluster Candidates in Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sharina, M E; Makarov, D I; Sharina, Margarita E.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Makarov, Dmitry I.

    2005-01-01

    Fifty-seven nearby low surface brightness dwarf galaxies were searched for globular cluster candidates (GCCs) using Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 imaging in V and I. The sample consists of 18 dwarf spheroidal (dSph), 36 irregular (dIrr), and 3 "transition" type (dIrr/dSph) galaxies with angular sizes less than 3.7 kpc situated at distances 2-6 Mpc in the field and in the nearby groups: M81, Centaurus A, Sculptor, Canes Venatici I cloud. We find that ~50% of dSph, dIrr/dSph, and dIrr galaxies contain GCCs. The fraction of GCCs located near the center of dwarf spheroidal galaxies is >2 times higher than that for dIrrs. The mean integral color of GCCs in dSphs, V-I = 1.04+/-0.16 mag, coincides with the corresponding value for Galactic globular clusters and is similar to the blue globular cluster sub-populations in massive early-type galaxies. The color distribution for GCCs in dIrrs shows a clear bimodality with peaks near V-I = 0.5 and 1.0 mag. Blue GCCs are presumably young with ages t -6.5 mag in both dSph an...

  16. Initial Results from the Nobeyama Molecular Gas Observations of Distant Bright Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Iono, D; Kohno, K; Kawabe, R; Ikarashi, S; Ichikawa, K; Kodama, T; Motohara, K; Nakajima, T; Nakanishi, K; Ohta, K; Ota, K; Saito, T; Suzuki, K; Tadaki, K; Tamura, Y; Ueda, J; Umehata, H; Yabe, K; Yoshida, T; Yuma, S; Kuno, N; Takano, S; Iwashita, H; Handa, K; Higuchi, A; Hirota, A; Ishikawa, S; Kimura, K; Maekawa, J; Mikoshiba, H; Miyazawa, C; Miyazawa, K; Muraoka, K; Ogawa, H; Onodera, S; Saito, Y; Sakai, T; Takahashi, S; Yun, M S

    2012-01-01

    We present initial results from the CO survey toward high redshift galaxies using the Nobeyama 45m telescope. Using the new wide bandwidth spectrometer equipped with a two-beam SIS receiver, we have robust new detections of three high redshift (z=1.6-3.4) submillimeter galaxies (SXDF 1100.001, SDP9, and SDP17), one tentative detection (SDSS J160705+533558), and one non-detection (COSMOS-AzTEC1). The galaxies observed during the commissioning phase are sources with known spectroscopic redshifts from previous optical or from wide-band submm spectroscopy. The derived molecular gas mass and line widths from Gaussian fits are ~10^11 Msun and 430-530 km/s, which are consistent with previous CO observations of distant submm galaxies and quasars. The spectrometer that allows a maximum of 32 GHz instantaneous bandwidth will provide new science capabilities at the Nobeyama 45m telescope, allowing us to determine redshifts of bright submm selected galaxies without any prior redshift information.

  17. A New Constraint on the Ly$\\alpha$ Fraction of UV Very Bright Galaxies at Redshift 7

    CERN Document Server

    Furusawa, Hisanori; Kobayashi, Masakazu A R; Dunlop, James S; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Takata, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro; Naito, Yoshiaki; Furusawa, Junko; Ouchi, Masami; Nakata, Fumiaki; Yasuda, Naoki; Okura, Yuki; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Toru; Kajisawa, Masaru; Fynbo, Johan P U; Fevre, Olivier Le

    2016-01-01

    We study the extent to which very bright (-23.0 50 Angstrom, which we estimate to be < 0.23. This result may indicate a weak trend where the fraction of strong Lya emitters ceases to rise, and possibly falls between z~6 and z~7. Our results also leave open the possibility that strong Lya may still be more prevalent in the brightest galaxies in the reionization era than their fainter counterparts. A larger spectroscopic sample of galaxies is required to derive a more reliable constraint on the neutral hydrogen fraction at z~7 based on the Lya fraction in the bright galaxies.

  18. Simulating a slow bar in the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 628

    CERN Document Server

    Chequers, Matthew H; Widrow, Lawrence M; Gilhuly, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    We present a disc-halo N-body model of the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 628, one of the few systems that harbours a "slow" bar with a ratio of corotation radius to bar length of $\\mathcal{R} \\equiv R_c/a_b \\sim 2$. We select our initial conditions using SDSS DR10 photometry, a physically motivated radially variable mass-to-light ratio profile, and rotation curve data from the literature. A global bar instability grows in our submaximal disc model, and the disc morphology and dynamics agree broadly with the photometry and kinematics of UGC 628 at times between peak bar strength and the onset of buckling. Prior to bar formation, the disc and halo contribute roughly equally to the potential in the galaxy's inner region, giving the disc enough self gravity for bar modes to grow. After bar formation there is significant mass redistribution, creating a baryon dominated inner and dark matter dominated outer disc. This implies that, unlike most other low surface brightness galaxies, UGC 628 is not dark matter do...

  19. Simultaneous multi-band detection of Low Surface Brightness galaxies with Markovian modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Vollmer, B; Petremand, M; Lavigne, F; Collet, Ch; van Driel, W; Bonnarel, F; Louys, M; Sabatini, S; MacArthur, L A

    2012-01-01

    We present an algorithm for the detection of Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies in images, called MARSIAA (MARkovian Software for Image Analysis in Astronomy), which is based on multi-scale Markovian modeling. MARSIAA can be applied simultaneously to different bands. It segments an image into a user-defined number of classes, according to their surface brightness and surroundings - typically, one or two classes contain the LSB structures. We have developed an algorithm, called DetectLSB, which allows the efficient identification of LSB galaxies from among the candidate sources selected by MARSIAA. To assess the robustness of our method, the method was applied to a set of 18 B and I band images (covering 1.3 square degrees in total) of the Virgo cluster. To further assess the completeness of the results of our method, both MARSIAA, SExtractor, and DetectLSB were applied to search for (i) mock Virgo LSB galaxies inserted into a set of deep Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) gri-band subimages and (ii) Virgo...

  20. The complex evolutionary paths of local infrared bright galaxies: a high angular resolution mid-infrared view

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Herrero, A; Roche, P F; Hernan-Caballero, A; Aretxaga, I; Martinez-Paredes, M; Almeida, C Ramos; Pereira-Santaella, M; Diaz-Santos, T; Levenson, N A; Packham, C; Colina, L; Esquej, P; Gonzalez-Martin, O; Ichikawa, K; Imanishi, M; Espinosa, J M Rodriguez; Telesco, C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the evolutionary connection between local IR-bright galaxies ($\\log L_{\\rm IR}\\ge 11.4\\,L_\\odot$) and quasars. We use high angular resolution ($\\sim$ 0.3-0.4 arcsec $\\sim$ few hundred parsecs) $8-13\\,\\mu$m ground-based spectroscopy to disentangle the AGN mid-IR properties from those of star formation. The comparison between the nuclear $11.3\\,\\mu$m PAH feature emission and that measured with Spitzer/IRS indicates that the star formation is extended over a few kpc in the IR-bright galaxies. The AGN contribution to the total IR luminosity of IR-bright galaxies is lower than in quasars. Although the dust distribution is predicted to change as IR-bright galaxies evolve to IR-bright quasars and then to optical quasars, we show that the AGN mid-IR emission of all the quasars in our sample is not significantly different. In contrast, the nuclear emission of IR-bright galaxies with low AGN contributions appears more heavily embedded in dust although there is no clear trend with the interaction stage or...

  1. Bright z ~ 3 Lyman break galaxies in deep wide field surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Fuyan

    In my thesis I investigate the luminous z ˜ 3 Lyman break galaxies in deep wide field surveys. In the first part of the thesis, I use the LBT/LUCIFER to observe a lensed high-redshift star-forming galaxy (J0900+2234) at z = 2.03. With the high S/N near-IR spectroscopic observations, I reveal the detailed physical properties of this high-redshift galaxy, including SFR, metallicity, dust extinction, dynamical mass, and electron number density. In the second part of the thesis, I select a large sample of LBGs at z ˜ 3 from our new LBT Bootes field survey, and study the bright end luminosity function (LF), stellar mass function (SMF) and clustering properties of bright LBGs (1L* < L < 2.5L*). Together with other LF and SMF measurements, the evolution of LF and SMF can be well described by continuously rising star formation history model. Using the clustering measurements in this work and other works, a tight relation between the average host galaxy halo mass and the galaxy star formation rate is found, which can be interpreted as arising from cold flow accretion. The relation also suggests that the cosmic star formation efficiency is about 5%-20% of the total cold flow mass. This cosmic star formation efficiency does not evolve with redshift (from z ˜ 5 to z ˜ 3), hosting dark matter halo mass (1011 -- 1013 M⊙ ), or galaxy luminosity (from 0.3L* to 3L* ). In the third and fourth parts, with the spectroscopic follow-up observations of the bright LBGs, I establish a sample of spectroscopically-confirmed ultraluminous LBGs (ULBGs) in NOAO Boo¨tes field. With this new ULBG sample, the rest-frame UV LF of LBG at M1700A = -23.0 was measured for the first time. I find that the ULBGs have larger outflow velocity, broader Lyalpha emission and ISM absorption line profiles, and more prominent C IV P-Cygni profile. This profile may imply a top-heavy IMF in these ULBGs. The ULBGs have larger stellar mass and SFR, but smaller dust extinction than the typical L* LBGs at z ˜ 2

  2. UV surface brightness of galaxies from the local Universe to z ~ 5

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Eric J; Scarpa, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The Tolman test for surface brightness dimming was originally proposed as a test for the expansion of the Universe. The test, which is independent of the details of the assumed cosmology,is based on comparisons of the surface brightness (SB) of identical objects at different cosmological distances. Claims have been made that the Tolman test provides compelling evidence against a static model for the Universe. In this paper we reconsider this subject by adopting a static Euclidean Universe with a linear Hubble relation at all z (which is not the standard Einstein- de Sitter model),resulting in a relation between flux and luminosity that is virtually indistinguishable from the one used for LCDM models. Based on the analysis of the UV surface brightness of luminous disk galaxies from HUDF and GALEX datasets, reaching from the local Universe to z ~ 5 we show that the surface brightness remains constant as expected in a SEU. A re-analysis of previously-published data used for the Tolman test at lower redshift, whe...

  3. Galaxy number counts to second order and their bispectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Di Dio, Enea; Marozzi, Giovanni; Montanari, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We determine the number counts to second order in cosmological perturbation theory in the Poisson gauge and allowing for anisotropic stress. The calculation is performed using an innovative approach based on the recently proposed "geodesic light-cone" gauge. This allows us to determine the number counts in a purely geometric way, without using Einstein's equation. The result is valid for general dark energy models and (most) modified gravity models. We then evaluate numerically the relevant contributions to the number counts bispectrum. In particular we consider the terms involving the density, redshift space distortion and lensing.

  4. Galaxy number counts to second order and their bispectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dio, Enea Di; Durrer, Ruth; Marozzi, Giovanni; Montanari, Francesco, E-mail: Enea.DiDio@unige.ch, E-mail: Ruth.Durrer@unige.ch, E-mail: Giovanni.Marozzi@unige.ch, E-mail: Francesco.Montanari@unige.ch [Université de Genève, Département de Physique Théorique and CAP, 24 quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)

    2014-12-01

    We determine the number counts to second order in cosmological perturbation theory in the Poisson gauge and allowing for anisotropic stress. The calculation is performed using an innovative approach based on the recently proposed ''geodesic light-cone'' gauge. This allows us to determine the number counts in a purely geometric way, without using Einstein's equation. The result is valid for general dark energy models and (most) modified gravity models. We then evaluate numerically some relevant contributions to the number counts bispectrum. In particular we consider the terms involving the density, redshift space distortion and lensing.

  5. AEGIS: The Diversity of Bright Near-IR Selected Distant Red Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Conselice, C J; Georgakakis, A; Almaini, O; Coil, A L; Cooper, M C; Eisenhardt, P; Foucaud, S; Koekemoer, A; Lotz, J; Noeske, K F; Weiner, B; Willmer, C N A

    2006-01-01

    We use deep and wide near infrared (NIR) imaging from the Palomar telescope combined with DEEP2 spectroscopy and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Chandra Space Telescope imaging to investigate the nature of galaxies that are red in NIR colors. We locate these `distant red galaxies' (DRGs) through the color cut (J-K)_{vega} > 2.3 over 0.7 deg^{2}, where we find 1010 DRG candidates down to K_s = 20.5. We combine 95 high quality spectroscopic redshifts with photometric redshifts from BRIJK photometry to determine the redshift and stellar mass distributions for these systems, and morphological/structural and X-ray properties for 107 DRGs in the Extended Groth Strip. We find that many bright (J-K)_{vega}>2.3 galaxies with K_s2 systems massive with M_*>10^{11} M_solar. HST imaging shows that the structural properties and morphologies of DRGs are also diverse, with the majority elliptical/compact (57%), and the remainder edge-on spirals (7%), and peculiar galaxies (29%). The DRGs at z < 1.4 with high quality spec...

  6. Higher order relativistic galaxy number counts: dominating terms

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jeppe Trøst

    2016-01-01

    We review the number counts to second order concentrating on the terms which dominate on sub horizon scales. We re-derive the result for these terms and compare it with the different versions found in the literature. We generalize our derivation to higher order terms, especially the third order number counts which are needed to compute the 1-loop contribution to the power spectrum.

  7. Detecting edges in the X-ray surface brightness of galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J. S.; Fabian, A. C.; Russell, H. R.; Walker, S. A.; Blundell, K. M.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of many physical processes in the intracluster medium of galaxy clusters imprint themselves in X-ray surface brightness images. It is therefore important to choose optimal methods for extracting information from and enhancing the interpretability of such images. We describe in detail a gradient filtering edge detection method that we previously applied to images of the Centaurus cluster of galaxies. The Gaussian gradient filter measures the gradient in the surface brightness distribution on particular spatial scales. We apply this filter on different scales to Chandra X-ray observatory images of two clusters with active galactic nucleus feedback, the Perseus cluster and M 87, and a merging system, A 3667. By combining filtered images on different scales using radial filters spectacular images of the edges in a cluster are produced. We describe how to assess the significance of features in filtered images. We find the gradient filtering technique to have significant advantages for detecting many kinds of features compared to other analysis techniques, such as unsharp masking. Filtering cluster images in this way in a hard energy band allows shocks to be detected.

  8. Multiwavelength study of nearly face-on low surface brightness disk galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Dong; Liu, Shun-Fang; Zhong, Guo-Hu; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Yan-Bin; Hammer, Francois; Yang, Guo-Chao; Deng, Li-Cai; Hu, Jing-Yao

    2010-01-01

    We study the ages of a large sample (1,802) of nearly face-on disk low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) by using the evolutionary population synthesis (EPS) model PEGASE with exponential decreasing star formation rate to fit their multiwavelength spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from far-ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (NIR). The derived ages of LSBGs are 1-5 Gyr for most of the sample no matter the constant or varying dust extinction is adopted, which are similar to most of the previous studies on smaller samples. This means that these LSBGs formed their majority of stars quite recently. However, a small part of the sample (~2-3%) have larger ages as 5-8 Gyr, meaning their major star forming process may occur earlier. At the same time, a large sample (5,886) of high surface brightness galaxies (HSBGs) are selected and studied in the same method for comparisons. The derived ages are 1-5 Gyr for most of the sample (97%) as well. These may mean that probably these LSBGs have no much different star for...

  9. Measurable Relationship Between Bright Galaxies and Their Faint Companions in WHL J085910.0+294957, a Galaxy Cluster at z = 0.30: Vestiges of Infallen Groups?

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Minjin; Seon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Sang Chul; Yang, Soung-Chul; Ree, Chang Hee; Lee, Jong Chul; Jeong, Hyunjin; Ko, Jongwan; Choi, Changsu

    2014-01-01

    The properties of satellite galaxies are closely related to their host galaxies in galaxy groups. In cluster environments, on the other hand, the interaction between close neighbors is known to be limited. Our goal is to examine the relationships between host and satellite galaxies in the harsh environment of a galaxy cluster. To achieve this goal, we study a galaxy cluster WHL J085910.0+294957 at z = 0.30 using deep images obtained with CQUEAN CCD camera mounted on the 2.1-m Otto Struve telescope. After member selection based on the scaling relations of photometric and structural parameters, we investigate the relationship between bright (M_i < -18) galaxies and their faint (-18 < M_i < -15) companions. The weighted mean color of faint companion galaxies shows no significant dependence (< 1 sigma to Bootstrap uncertainties) on cluster-centric distance and local luminosity density as well as the luminosity and concentration of an adjacent bright galaxy. However, the weighted mean color shows margi...

  10. Quasar-Galaxy Clustering through Projected Galaxy Counts at z=0.6-1.2

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shao-hua; Wang, Ting-Gui; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Zhou, Hongyan

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spatial clustering of galaxies around quasars at redshifts from 0.6 to 1.2 using the photometric data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82. The quasar and galaxy cross-correlation functions are measured through the projected galaxy number density n(r_p) on scales $0.05

  11. QUASAR-GALAXY CLUSTERING THROUGH PROJECTED GALAXY COUNTS AT z = 0.6-1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the spatial clustering of galaxies around quasars at z = 0.6-1.2 using photometric data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82. The quasar and galaxy cross-correlation functions are measured through the projected galaxy number density n(rp ) on scales of 0.05 p –1 Mpc around quasars for a sample of 2300 quasars from Schneider et al. We detect strong clustering signals at all redshifts and find that the clustering amplitude increases significantly with redshift. We examine the dependence of quasar-galaxy clustering on quasar and galaxy properties and find that the clustering amplitude is significantly larger for quasars with more massive black holes or with bluer colors, while there is no dependence on quasar luminosity. We also show that quasars have a stronger correlation amplitude with blue galaxies than with red galaxies. We finally discuss the implications of our findings

  12. The portrait of Malin 2: a case study of a giant low surface brightness galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Kasparova, A; Katkov, I; Chilingarian, I; Bizyaev, D

    2013-01-01

    The low surface brightness disc galaxy Malin2 challenges the standard theory of galaxy evolution by its enormous total mass ~2 10^12 Ms which must have been formed without recent major merger events. The aim of our work is to create a coherent picture of this exotic object by using the new optical multicolor photometric and spectroscopic observations at Apache Point Observatory as well as archival datasets from Gemini and wide-field surveys. We performed the Malin2 mass modelling, estimated the contribution of the host dark halo and found that it had acquired its low central density and the huge isothermal sphere core radius before the disc subsystem was formed. Our spectroscopic data analysis reveals complex kinematics of stars and gas in the very inner region. We measured the oxygen abundance in several clumps and concluded that the gas metallicity decreases from the solar value in the centre to a half of that at 20-30 kpc. We found a small satellite and measured its mass (1/500 of the host galaxy) and gas ...

  13. HerMES: A Deficit in the Surface Brightness of the Cosmic Infrared Background Due to Galaxy Cluster Gravitational Lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Zemcov, M; Cooray, A; Bethermin, M; Bock, J; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Dowell, C D; Farrah, D; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Jullo, E; Kneib, J -P; Marsden, G; Nguyen, H T; Richard, S J Oliver J; Roseboom, I G; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Wang, L; Wardlow, J

    2013-01-01

    We have observed four massive galaxy clusters with the SPIRE instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory and measure a deficit of surface brightness within their central region after subtracting sources. We simulate the effects of instrumental sensitivity and resolution, the source population, and the lensing effect of the clusters to estimate the shape and amplitude of the deficit. The amplitude of the central deficit is a strong function of the surface density and flux distribution of the background sources. We find that for the current best fitting faint end number counts, and excellent lensing models, the most likely amplitude of the central deficit is the full intensity of the cosmic infrared background (CIB). Our measurement leads to a lower limit to the integrated total intensity of the CIB of I(250 microns) > 0.69_(-0.03)^(+0.03) (stat.)_(-0.06)^(+0.11) (sys.) MJy/sr, with more CIB possible from both low-redshift sources and from sources within the target clusters. It should be possible to observe th...

  14. A Bridge from Optical to Infrared Galaxies Explaining Local Properties, Predicting Galaxy Counts and the Cosmic Background Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Totani, T; Totani, Tomonori; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.

    2002-01-01

    We give an explanation for the origin of various properties observed in local infrared galaxies, and make predictions for galaxy counts and cosmic background radiation (CBR), by a new model extended from that for optical/near-infrared galaxies. Important new characteristics of this study are that (1) mass scale dependence of dust extinction is introduced based on the size-luminosity relation of optical galaxies, and that (2) the big grain dust temperature T_dust is calculated based on a physical consideration for energy balance, rather than using the empirical relation between T_dust and total infrared luminosity L_IR found in local galaxies, which has been employed in most of previous works. Consequently, the local properties of infrared galaxies, i.e., optical/infrared luminosity ratios, L_IR-T_dust correlation, and infrared luminosity function are outputs predicted by the model. Our model indeed reproduces these local properties reasonably well. We then found considerably different results for MIR-submm co...

  15. AEGIS: The Diversity of Bright Near-IR Selected Distant Red Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use deep and wide near infrared (NIR) imaging from the Palomar telescope combined with DEEP2 spectroscopy and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Chandra Space Telescope imaging to investigate the nature of galaxies that are red in NIR colors. We locate these 'distant red galaxies' (DRGs) through the color cut (J - K)vega > 2.3 over 0.7 deg2, where we find 1010 DRG candidates down to Ks = 20.5. We combine 95 high quality spectroscopic redshifts with photometric redshifts from BRIJK photometry to determine the redshift and stellar mass distributions for these systems, and morphological/structural and X-ray properties for 107 DRGs in the Extended Groth Strip. We find that many bright (J - K)vega > 2.3 galaxies with Ks 9 - 1012 M· , but with most z > 2 systems massive with M* > 1011 M·. HST imaging shows that the structural properties and morphologies of DRGs are also diverse, with the majority elliptical/compact (57%), and the remainder edge-on spirals (7%), and peculiar galaxies (29%). The DRGs at z < 1.4 with high quality spectroscopic redshifts are generally compact, with small half-light radii, and span a range in rest-frame optical properties. The spectral energy distributions for these objects differ from higher redshift DRGs: they are bluer by one magnitude in observed (I - J) color. A pure IR color selection of high redshift populations is not sufficient to identify unique populations, and other colors, or spectroscopic redshifts are needed to produce homogeneous samples

  16. The bright end of the galaxy luminosity function at z ~ 7: before the onset of mass quenching?

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, R A A; McLure, R J; Rogers, A B; McCracken, H J; Milvang-Jensen, B; Furusawa, H; Fynbo, J P U; Taniguchi, Y; Afonso, J; Bremer, M N; Fevre, O Le

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a new search for bright star-forming galaxies at z ~ 7 within the UltraVISTA DR2 and UKIDSS UDS DR10 data, which together provide 1.65 sq deg of near-infrared imaging with overlapping optical and Spitzer data. Using a full photo-z analysis to identify high-z galaxies and reject contaminants, we have selected a sample of 34 luminous (-22.7 < M_UV < -21.2) galaxies with the 6.5 < z < 7.5. Crucially, the deeper imaging provided by UltraVISTA DR2 confirms all of the robust objects previously uncovered by Bowler et al. (2012), validating our selection technique. Our sample includes the most massive galaxies known at z ~ 7, with M_* ~ 10^{10} M_sun, and the majority are resolved, consistent with larger sizes (r_{1/2} ~ 1 - 1.5 kpc) than displayed by less massive galaxies. From our final sample, we determine the form of the bright end of the rest-frame UV galaxy luminosity function (LF) at z ~ 7, providing strong evidence that the bright end of the z = 7 LF does not decline as s...

  17. Ultraviolet number counts of galaxies from Swift UV/Optical Telescope deep imaging of the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Hoversten, E A; Berk, D E Vanden; Koch, T S; Breeveld, A A; Curran, P A; Hinshaw, D A; Marshall, F E; Roming, P W A; Siegel, M H; Still, M

    2009-01-01

    Deep Swift UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) imaging of the Chandra Deep Field South is used to measure galaxy number counts in three near ultraviolet (NUV) filters (uvw2: 1928 A, uvm2: 2246 A, uvw1: 2600 A) and the u band (3645 A). UVOT observations cover the break in the slope of the NUV number counts with greater precision than the number counts by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), spanning a range from 21 < m_AB < 25. Number counts models confirm earlier investigations in favoring models with an evolving galaxy luminosity function.

  18. Faint submillimeter galaxies revealed by multifield deep ALMA observations: number counts, spatial clustering, and a dark submillimeter line emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Momose, Rieko [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kurono, Yasutaka, E-mail: ono@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile)

    2014-11-01

    We present the statistics of faint submillimeter/millimeter galaxies (SMGs) and serendipitous detections of a submillimeter/millimeter line emitter (SLE) with no multi-wavelength continuum counterpart revealed by the deep ALMA observations. We identify faint SMGs with flux densities of 0.1-1.0 mJy in the deep Band-6 and Band-7 maps of 10 independent fields that reduce cosmic variance effects. The differential number counts at 1.2 mm are found to increase with decreasing flux density down to 0.1 mJy. Our number counts indicate that the faint (0.1-1.0 mJy, or SFR{sub IR} ∼ 30-300 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) SMGs contribute nearly a half of the extragalactic background light (EBL), while the remaining half of the EBL is mostly contributed by very faint sources with flux densities of <0.1 mJy (SFR{sub IR} ≲ 30 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We conduct counts-in-cells analysis with multifield ALMA data for the faint SMGs, and obtain a coarse estimate of galaxy bias, b {sub g} < 4. The galaxy bias suggests that the dark halo masses of the faint SMGs are ≲ 7 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}, which is smaller than those of bright (>1 mJy) SMGs, but consistent with abundant high-z star-forming populations, such as sBzKs, LBGs, and LAEs. Finally, we report the serendipitous detection of SLE-1, which has no continuum counterparts in our 1.2 mm-band or multi-wavelength images, including ultra deep HST/WFC3 and Spitzer data. The SLE has a significant line at 249.9 GHz with a signal-to-noise ratio of 7.1. If the SLE is not a spurious source made by the unknown systematic noise of ALMA, the strong upper limits of our multi-wavelength data suggest that the SLE would be a faint galaxy at z ≳ 6.

  19. Biases on cosmological parameter estimators from galaxy cluster number counts

    CERN Document Server

    Penna-Lima, M; Wuensche, C A

    2013-01-01

    The abundance of galaxy clusters is becoming a standard cosmological probe. In particular, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys are promising probes of the Dark Energy (DE) equation of state (eqos), given their ability to find distant clusters and provide estimates for their mass. However, current SZ catalogs contain tens to hundreds of objects. In this case, it is not guaranteed that maximum likelihood (ML) estimators of cosmological parameters are unbiased. In this work we study estimators from cluster abundance for some cosmological parameters. We derive an unbinned likelihood for cluster abundance, showing that it is equivalent to the one commonly used in the literature. We use the Monte Carlo (MC) approach to determine the presence of bias using this likelihood and its behavior with both area and depth of the survey, and the number of cosmological parameters fitted simultaneously. Assuming perfect knowledge on mass and redshift, we obtain that some estimators have non negligible biases. For example, the bias ...

  20. Herschel and SCUBA-2 imaging and spectroscopy of a bright, lensed submillimetre galaxy at z = 2.3

    OpenAIRE

    Ivison, R. J.; Swinbank, A. M.; Swinyard, B.; Smail, I.; Pearson, C. P.; Rigopoulou, D.; Polehampton, E.; Baluteau, J. -P.; Barlow, M.J.; Blain, A. W.; Bock, J.; Clements, D.L.; Coppin, K.; Cooray, A.; Danielson, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the far-infrared (-IR) properties of the bright, lensed, z = 2.3, submillimetre-selected galaxy (SMG), SMM J2135-0102 (hereafter SMM J2135), using new observations with Herschel, SCUBA-2 and the Very Large Array (VLA). These data allow us to constrain the galaxy's spectral energy distribution (SED) and show that it has an intrinsic rest-frame 8-1000-μm luminosity, Lbol, of (2.3±0.2) × 1012 and a likely star-formation rate (SFR) of ~400 yr-1. The galaxy sits...

  1. Spectroscopic Surface Brightness Fluctuations: a new method to analyze the stellar population content of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcher, C. Jakob; Mitzkus, Martin; Roth, Martin; Dreizler, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Rare luminous phases of stellar evolution are important scientific targets because our understanding of them strongly influences what physical parameters we can recover from integrated spectra. (TP-)AGB stars have been the focus of much attention over the last decade, as their flux contribution to the spectra of intermediate age stellar populations is highly uncertain. We here present a new approach to this problem, which relies on Surface Brightness Fluctuations (SBF) with high spectral resolution - a domain that is opening up for the first time thanks to the new MUSE integral field unit at the VLT. We will present the SSBF technique, illustrating its power through simulations. We will then present the analysis of dedicated data obtained with MUSE, providing new benchmark constraints on the luminous stellar population of entire galaxies.

  2. THROUGH THE LOOKING GLASS: BRIGHT, HIGHLY MAGNIFIED GALAXY CANDIDATES AT z {approx} 7 BEHIND A1703

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, L. D.; Coe, D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bouwens, R. J.; Smit, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Postbus 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Zitrin, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Ford, H. C.; Zheng, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Illingworth, G. D. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Benitez, N. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huetor 24, Granada 18008 (Spain); Broadhurst, T. J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU, Leioa (Spain)

    2012-03-01

    We report the discovery of seven strongly lensed Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z {approx} 7 detected in Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging of A1703. The brightest candidate, called A1703-zD1, has an observed (lensed) magnitude of 24.0 AB (26{sigma}) in the WFC3/IR F160W band, making it 0.2 mag brighter than the z{sub 850}-dropout candidate recently reported behind the Bullet Cluster and 0.7 mag brighter than the previously brightest known z {approx} 7.6 galaxy, A1689-zD1. With a cluster magnification of {approx}9, this source has an intrinsic magnitude of H{sub 160} = 26.4 AB, a strong z{sub 850} - J{sub 125} break of 1.7 mag, and a photometric redshift of z {approx} 6.7. Additionally, we find six other bright LBG candidates with H{sub 160}-band magnitudes of 24.9-26.4, photometric redshifts z {approx} 6.4 - 8.8, and magnifications {mu} {approx} 3-40. Stellar population fits to the Advanced Camera for Surveys, WFC3/IR, and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera data for A1703-zD1 and A1703-zD4 yield stellar masses (0.7 - 3.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, stellar ages 5-180 Myr, and star formation rates {approx}7.8 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and low reddening with A{sub V} {<=} 0.7. The source-plane reconstruction of the exceptionally bright candidate A1703-zD1 exhibits an extended structure, spanning {approx}4 kpc in the z {approx} 6.7 source plane, and shows three resolved star-forming knots of radius r {approx} 0.4 kpc.

  3. Count laws and projection effects in clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Adami, C; Comte, G

    1998-01-01

    We show that a 2D projection is representative of its corresponding 3D distribution at a confidence level of 90 % if it follows a King profile and if we consider the whole spatial distribution. The level is significantly lower and not decisive in the vicinity of the 2D cluster center. On another hand, if we verify the reciprocal statement of the Mattig's distribution (1958) -i.e. a flux limited sample is represented by a 0.6 slope of its count law-, we point out that, due to the usual unaccuracy of the slope determination, a slope of 0.6 is not a sufficiently strict criterion for completeness and uniformity of a sample as often used in the literature.

  4. The formation and evolution of bars in low surface brightness galaxies with cold dark matter halos

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, L; Mayer, Lucio; Wadsley, James

    2003-01-01

    We perform several high resolution N-Body/SPH simulations of low surface brightness galaxies (LSBs) embedded in cold dark matter halos to study how likely is bar formation in such systems. The behavior of various collisionless galaxy models is studied both in isolation and in the presence of a large perturbing satellite. We also consider models with a dominant gaseous component in the disk. We find that in general bar formation requires disk masses at least a factor of 2 higher than those inferred for LSBs under the assumption of a normal stellar mass-to-light ratio. Low surface density stellar disks contributing less than 10% of the total virial mass are stable within NFW halos spanning a range of concentrations. However, a purely gaseous disk can form a bar even for quite low masses and for realistic temperatures provided that cooling is very efficient (we adopt an isothermal equation of state) and that the halo has a very low concentration, c < 5. The bars that form in these LSB models are shorter than ...

  5. Predictions for the Counts of Faint, High-Redshift Galaxies in the Mid-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Haiman, Z; Turner, E L; Haiman, Zoltan; Spergel, David N.; Turner, Edwin L.

    2003-01-01

    Deep mid-infrared (MIR) observations could reveal a population of faint, high-redshift (z>3) dusty starburst galaxies that are the progenitors of present-day spheroids or bulges, and are beyond the reach of current instruments. We utilize a semi-analytic galaxy formation scheme to find an extreme model for the MIR galaxy counts, designed to maximize the number of detectable sources down to a flux level of a few nJy. The model incorporates the formation of heavily dust-enshrouded stellar populations at high redshift, and is consistent with existing observations, including faint counts at 1.6um in the NICMOS Hubble Deep Field, and the upper limit on the extragalactic MIR background from TeV gamma rays. Our models predict upto 0.5 galaxies/sq.arcsec at the threshold of 100 nJy at 6um, with a comparable or larger surface density at longer MIR wavelengths. We conclude that a significant new population of high-redshift galaxies could be detected by the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and Next Generation S...

  6. Deep galaxy count predictions in the radio, infrared, and X-ray spectral bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyer, Marie-Agnes; Silk, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The existence of a dominant population of strongly evolving starburst sources at moderate redshift is a plausible explanation for the excess number of faint blue galaxies detected in deep sky surveys. Multiwavelength observations at faint magnitudes would allow the existence of such a population to be confirmed. We use observed luminosity correlations and physical properties of known starburst galaxies to predict their contribution to the deep radio, infrared, and X-ray counts, as well as to the diffuse extragalactic background radiation in these various spectral bands.

  7. The cosmological significance of Low Surface Brightness galaxies found in a deep blind neutral-hydrogen survey

    CERN Document Server

    Minchin, R F; Parker, Q A; Boyce, P J; De Blok, W J G; Banks, G D; Ekers, R D; Freeman, K C; García, D A; Gibson, B K; Grossi, M; Haynes, R F; Knezek, P M; Lang, R H; Malin, D F; Price, R M; Putman, M E; Stewart, I M; Wright, A E

    2004-01-01

    We have placed limits on the cosmological significance of gas-rich low surface-brightness (LSB) galaxies as a proportion of the total population of gas-rich galaxies by carrying out a very deep survey (HIDEEP) for neutral hydrogen (HI) with the Parkes multibeam system. Such a survey avoids the surface-brightness selection effects that limit the usefulness of optical surveys for finding LSB galaxies. To complement the HIDEEP survey we have digitally stacked eight 1-hour R-band Tech Pan films from the UK Schmidt Telescope covering 36 square degrees of the survey area to reach a very deep isophotal limit of 26.5 R mag/sq. arcsec. At this level, we find that all of the 129 HI sources within this area have optical counterparts and that 107 of them can be identified with individual galaxies. We have used the properties of the galaxies identified as the optical counterparts of the HI sources to estimate the significance of LSB galaxies (defined to be those at least 1.5 magnitudes dimmer in effective surface-brightne...

  8. A New Constraint on the Lyα Fraction of UV Very Bright Galaxies at Redshift 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Hisanori; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Dunlop, James S.; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Takata, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro; Naito, Yoshiaki; Furusawa, Junko; Ouchi, Masami; Nakata, Fumiaki; Yasuda, Naoki; Okura, Yuki; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Toru; Kajisawa, Masaru; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Le Fèvre, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    We study the extent to which very bright (-23.0\\lt {M}{UV}\\lt -21.75) Lyman-break-selected galaxies at redshifts z≃ 7 display detectable Lyα emission. To explore this issue, we obtained follow-up optical spectroscopy of 9 z≃ 7 galaxies from a parent sample of 24 z≃ 7 galaxy candidates selected from the 1.65 deg2 COSMOS-UltraVISTA and SXDS-UDS survey fields using the latest near-infrared public survey data, and new ultra-deep Subaru z‧-band imaging (which we also present and describe in this paper). Our spectroscopy yielded only one possible detection of Lyα at z = 7.168 with a rest-frame equivalent width {{EW}}0 = {3.7}-1.1+1.7 \\mathringA . The relative weakness of this line, combined with our failure to detect Lyα emission from the other spectroscopic targets, allows us to place a new upper limit on the prevalence of strong Lyα emission at these redshifts. For conservative calculation and to facilitate comparison with previous studies at lower redshifts, we derive a 1σ upper limit on the fraction of UV-bright galaxies at z≃ 7 that display {{EW}}0\\gt 50 \\mathringA , which we estimate to be \\lt 0.23. This result may indicate a weak trend where the fraction of strong Lyα emitters ceases to rise, and possibly falls between z ≃ 6 and z≃ 7. Our results also leave open the possibility that strong Lyα may still be more prevalent in the brightest galaxies in the reionization era than their fainter counterparts. A larger spectroscopic sample of galaxies is required to derive a more reliable constraint on the neutral hydrogen fraction at z∼ 7 based on the Lyα fraction in the bright galaxies.

  9. Fast automated yeast cell counting algorithm using bright-field and fluorescence microscopic images

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Dongpyo; Lee, Gwanghee; Jung, Neon Cheol; Jeon, Moongu

    2013-01-01

    Background The faithful determination of the concentration and viability of yeast cells is important for biological research as well as industry. To this end, it is important to develop an automated cell counting algorithm that can provide not only fast but also accurate and precise measurement of yeast cells. Results With the proposed method, we measured the precision of yeast cell measurements by using 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% viability samples. As a result, the actual viability measured ...

  10. Predictions of radio counts of star forming galaxies for SKA precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extended recent semi-analitycal galaxy formation models, that fitted the far- infrared (FIR) to millimeter wave luminosity functions and ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions up to high redshifts, in order to take into account additional UV data and Hα luminosity functions. The latters are tracers of star formation in evolved galaxies at low redshifts. Using the relations between star formation rate (SFR) and radio (synchrotron and free-free) emission, we obtained predictions for the counts of star-forming galaxies down to sub-nJy fluxes. These will be very useful for the new generation of radio telescopes, thanks to which it will be possible to investigate smaller and smaller radio fluxes (down to nJy), making the detection of little SFR possible

  11. THE AGN, STAR-FORMING, AND MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LUMINOUS IR-BRIGHT/OPTICALLY-FAINT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the active galactic nucleus (AGN), star-forming, and morphological properties of a sample of 13 MIR-luminous (f 24 ∼> 700 μJy) IR-bright/optically-faint galaxies (IRBGs, f24/f R ∼> 1000). While these z ∼ 2 sources were drawn from deep Chandra fields with >200 ks X-ray coverage, only seven are formally detected in the X-ray and four lack X-ray emission at even the 2σ level. Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) spectra, however, confirm that all of the sources are AGN-dominated in the mid-IR, although half have detectable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission responsible for ∼25% of their mid-infrared flux density. When combined with other samples, this indicates that at least 30%-40% of luminous IRBGs have star formation rates in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) range (∼100-2000 Msun yr-1). X-ray hardness ratios and MIR to X-ray luminosity ratios indicate that all members of the sample contain heavily X-ray obscured AGNs, 80% of which are candidates to be Compton thick. Furthermore, the mean X-ray luminosity of the sample, log L2-10keV(erg s-1) ∼44.6, indicates that these IRBGs are Type 2 QSOs, at least from the X-ray perspective. While those sources most heavily obscured in the X-ray are also those most likely to display strong silicate absorption in the mid-IR, silicate absorption does not always accompany X-ray obscuration. Finally, ∼70% of the IRBGs are merger candidates, a rate consistent with that of sub-mm galaxies (SMGs), although SMGs appear to be physically larger than IRBGs. These characteristics are consistent with the proposal that these objects represent a later, AGN-dominated, and more relaxed evolutionary stage following soon after the star-formation-dominated one represented by the SMGs.

  12. Star formation and the interstellar medium in low surface brightness galaxies; 2, Deep CO observations of low surface brightness disk galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    De Blok, W J G

    1998-01-01

    We present deep, pointed $^{12}$CO($J=2-1$) observations of three late-type LSB galaxies. The beam-size was small enough that we could probe different environments (\\HI maximum, \\HI mininum, star forming region) in these galaxies. No CO was found at any of the positions observed. We argue that the implied lack of molecular gas is real and not caused by conversion factor effects. The virtual absence of a molecular phase may explain the very low star formation rates in these galaxies.

  13. Populations of Bright X-ray Sources in the Starburst Galaxies NGC 4038/4039

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Wei Liu; Xiang-Dong Li

    2007-01-01

    Assuming a naive star formation history,we construct synthetic X-ray source populations.using a population synthesis code,for comparison with the observed X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of the interacting galaxies NGC 4038/4039.We have included highand intermediate-mass X-ray binaries.young rotation-powered pulsars and fallback disk-fed black holes in modeling the bright X-ray sources detected.We find that the majority of the X-ray sources are likely to be intermediate-mass X-ray binaries.but for typical binary evolution parameters.the predicted XLF seems to be steeper than observed.We note that the shape of the XLFs depends critically on the existence of XLF break for young populations.and suggest super-Eddington accretion luminosities or the existence of intermediate-mass black holes to account for the high luminosity end and the slope of the XLF in NGC 4038/4039.

  14. A comprehensive analysis of the hard X-ray spectra of bright Seyfert galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lubinski, P; Gibaud, L; Paltani, S; Papadakis, I E; Ricci, C; Soldi, S; Türler, M; Walter, R; Zdziarski, A A

    2016-01-01

    Hard X-ray spectra of 28 bright Seyfert galaxies observed with INTEGRAL were analyzed together with the X-ray spectra from XMM-Newton, Suzaku and RXTE. These broad-band data were fitted with a model assuming a thermal Comptonization as a primary continuum component. We tested several model options through a fitting of the Comptonized continuum accompanied by a complex absorption and a Compton reflection. Both the large data set used and the model space explored allowed us to accurately determine a mean temperature kTe of the electron plasma, the Compton parameter y and the Compton reflection strength R for the majority of objects in the sample. Our main finding is that a vast majority of the sample (20 objects) is characterized by kTe 200 keV. The median kTe for entire sample is 48(-14,+57) keV. The distribution of the y parameter is bimodal, with a broad component centered at ~0.8 and a narrow peak at ~1.1. A complex, dual absorber model improved the fit for all data sets, compared to a simple absorption mo...

  15. Detection of an ultra-bright submillimeter galaxy behind the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Takekoshi, Tatsuya; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Kohno, Kotaro; Oogi, Taira; Sorai, Kazuo; Habe, Asao; Ezawa, Hajime; Oshima, Tai; Scott, Kimberly S; Austermann, Jason E; Komugi, Shinya; Tosaki, Tomoka; Mizuno, Norikazu; Muller, Erik; Kawamura, Akiko; Onishi, Toshikazu; Fukui, Yasuo; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David H; Kawabe, Ryohei; Wilson, Grant W; Yun, Min S

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new ultra-bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG) behind the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). This SMG is detected as a 43.3+-8.4 mJy point source (MM J01071-7302, hereafter MMJ0107) in the 1.1 mm continuum survey of the SMC by AzTEC on the ASTE telescope. MMJ0107 is also detected in the radio (843 MHz), Herschel/SPIRE, Spitzer MIPS 24 {\\mu}m, all IRAC bands, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, and near-infrared (J, H, KS). We find an optical (U, B, V) source, which might be the lensing object, at a distance of 1.4 arcsec from near-infrared and IRAC sources. Photometric redshift estimates for the SMG using representative spectral energy distribution templates show the redshifts of 1.4-3.9. We estimate total far-infrared luminosity of (0.3-2.2)x10^14 {\\mu}^-1 L_sun and a star formation rate of 5600-39, 000 {\\mu}^-1 M_sun yr^-1, where {\\mu} is the gravitational magnification factor. This apparent extreme star formation activity is likely explained by a highly magnified gravitational lens sy...

  16. DETECTION OF AN ULTRA-BRIGHT SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY BEHIND THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of a new ultra-bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG) behind the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). This SMG is detected as a 43.3 ± 8.4 mJy point source (MM J01071–7302, hereafter MMJ0107) in the 1.1 mm continuum survey of the SMC by AzTEC on the ASTE telescope. MMJ0107 is also detected in the radio (843 MHz), Herschel/SPIRE, Spitzer MIPS 24 μm, all IRAC bands, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, and near-infrared (J, H, KS ). We find an optical (U, B, V) source, which might be the lensing object, at a distance of 1.''4 from near-infrared and IRAC sources. Photometric redshift estimates for the SMG using representative spectral energy distribution templates show the redshifts of 1.4-3.9. We estimate total far-infrared luminosity of (0.3-2.2) × 1014 μ–1 L☉ and a star formation rate of 5600-39, 000 μ–1 M☉ yr–1, where μ is the gravitational magnification factor. This apparent extreme star formation activity is likely explained by a highly magnified gravitational lens system

  17. DETECTION OF AN ULTRA-BRIGHT SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY BEHIND THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takekoshi, Tatsuya; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Sorai, Kazuo; Habe, Asao [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Oogi, Taira [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Ezawa, Hajime; Komugi, Shinya; Mizuno, Norikazu; Muller, Erik; Kawamura, Akiko [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Oshima, Tai [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Scott, Kimberly S. [North American ALMA Science Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Austermann, Jason E. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Tosaki, Tomoka [Joetsu University of Education, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8512 (Japan); Onishi, Toshikazu [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, 599-8531 Osaka (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsuo, Hiroshi [Advanced Technology Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Aretxaga, Itziar [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), 72000 Puebla (Mexico); and others

    2013-09-10

    We report the discovery of a new ultra-bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG) behind the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). This SMG is detected as a 43.3 {+-} 8.4 mJy point source (MM J01071-7302, hereafter MMJ0107) in the 1.1 mm continuum survey of the SMC by AzTEC on the ASTE telescope. MMJ0107 is also detected in the radio (843 MHz), Herschel/SPIRE, Spitzer MIPS 24 {mu}m, all IRAC bands, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, and near-infrared (J, H, K{sub S} ). We find an optical (U, B, V) source, which might be the lensing object, at a distance of 1.''4 from near-infrared and IRAC sources. Photometric redshift estimates for the SMG using representative spectral energy distribution templates show the redshifts of 1.4-3.9. We estimate total far-infrared luminosity of (0.3-2.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} {mu}{sup -1} L{sub Sun} and a star formation rate of 5600-39, 000 {mu}{sup -1} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, where {mu} is the gravitational magnification factor. This apparent extreme star formation activity is likely explained by a highly magnified gravitational lens system.

  18. Type-II surface brightness profiles in edge-on galaxies produced by flares

    CERN Document Server

    Borlaff, Alejandro; Beckman, John; Font, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Previous numerical studies had apparently ruled out the possibility that flares in galaxy discs could give rise to the apparent breaks in their luminosity profiles when observed edge-on. However the studies have not, until now, analyzed this hypothesis systematically using realistic models for the disc, the flare, and the bulge. We revisit this theme by analyzing a series of models which sample a wide range of observationally based structural parameters for these three components. We have considered realistic distributions of bulge to disc ratios, morphological parameters of bulges and discs, vertical scale heights of discs and their radial gradients defining the flare for different morphological types and stellar mass bins, based on observations. The surface brightness profiles for the face-on and edge-on views of each model were simulated to find out whether the flared disc produces a Type-II break in the disc profile when observed edge-on, and if so under what conditions. Contrary to previous claims, we fi...

  19. Bright Galaxies at Hubble's Detection Frontier: The redshift z~9-10 BoRG pure-parallel survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenti, Michele

    2014-10-01

    Hubble/WFC3 observations transformed our view of early galaxy formation by building reliable samples of galaxies out to redshift z 8, 700 Myr after the Big Bang and hinting at a dramatic evolution in properties at yet earlier times. From z 8 to z 10 { 200Myr} the luminosity density seems to decrease by a factor ten, but bright galaxies may remain relatively common, based on the four z>9 objects detected so far with m_ABsuccessful Cycle 17 & 19 Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies {BoRG} Survey, which found the largest sample of L>L* galaxies at z 8. BoRG[z8] demonstrated, by adding constraints from the Ultra Deep Field {UDF}, that the luminosity function follows a Schechter form, as at lower z, but with a steeper faint-end slope, leading to a photon production sufficient to complete reionization. BoRG[z9-10] will similarly complement the UDF and Frontier Fields datasets by imaging 550 arcmin^2 over 120 sightlines in five WFC3 bands {F350LP, F105W, F125W, F140W, F160W}. Besides twenty new catches at z>9, we will double {from 60 to 120} the number of bright z 8 galaxies within reach of spectroscopy, to tighten constraints on Ly-alpha emission and reionization obtained by our BoRG@Keck follow-up. This new public dataset will reveal the connection between massive dark matter halos and formation of first galaxies, and create a legacy of rare targets for JWST

  20. Spitzer/IRAC Imaging of Exceptionally Bright Cluster-Lensed Submillimeter Galaxies Discovered by the Herschel Lensing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Eiichi; Ebeling, Harald; Rawle, Timothy; Clement, Benjamin; Walth, Gregory; Pereira, Maria; Richard, Johan; Kneib, Jean-Paul

    2012-12-01

    Over the last few years, discoveries of exceptionally bright (e.g., observed S_peak > 100 mJy in the Herschel/SPIRE bands) gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) have generated great excitement. This is because these gravitationally lensed SMGs are so bright that they enable us to perform a variety of follow-up observations using a suite of observing facilities in the submillimeter, millimeter, and radio now available on the ground. Using Herschel, our team has been conducting a survey of such bright lensed galaxies in the fields of massive galaxy clusters: ``The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS)'' (PI: Egami; 419 hours). This large Herschel program targets a total of 581 X-ray/SZ-selected massive clusters, and is currently 80% complete. Cluster lenses are often more powerful than galaxy lenses, producing larger magnifications. For example, typical magnification factors for galaxy-lensed Herschel sources are x10 or less while cluster-lensed systems can often produce magnification factors of x20-30 and even above x100. Cluster lenses will therefore allow us to detect and study intrinsically less-luminous and/or more distant sources with the ability to provide a view of finer-scale (i.e., sub-kpc) structures. Here, we propose to conduct Spitzer/IRAC imaging of 56 bright lensed SMG candidates we have identified in the ~470 HLS cluster fields observed so far. The main scientific goal is twofold: (1) to locate the underlying stellar component, and (2) to study its properties (e.g., stellar mass, specific star-formation rate) by constraining the rest-frame near-infrared SED and comparing with the Herschel and other submillimeter/millimeter data (e.g., SMA, PdB, ALMA, etc.). These rare bright lensed SMGs will allow us to probe the population of heavily dust-obscured vigorously star-forming galaxies at high redshift (z>1), which is thought to play an important role in the cosmic star-formation history of the Universe and yet has been difficult to study due to the

  1. Star Counts in the Globular Cluster ω Centauri. I. Bright Stellar Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, V.; Calamida, A.; Bono, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Freyhammer, L. M.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Moroni, P. Prada; Monelli, M.; Corsi, C. E.; Nonino, M.; Buonanno, R.; Caputo, F.; Castellani, M.; Dall'Ora, M.; Del Principe, M.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pulone, L.; Vuerli, C.

    2007-07-01

    We present a photometric investigation on HB, RGB, and MSTO stars in ω Cen=NGC 5139. The center of the cluster was covered with a mosaic of F435W, F625W, and F658N band data collected with HST ACS. The outer reaches were covered with a mosaic of U-, B-, V-, and I-band data collected with the 2.2 m ESO/MPI telescope. The final catalog includes ~1.7 million stars. We identified more than 3200 likely HB stars, the largest sample ever collected in a globular cluster. We found that the HB morphology changes with the radial distance from the cluster center. The relative number of extreme HB stars decreases from ~30% to ~21% when moving from the center toward the outer reaches of the cluster, while the fraction of less hot HB stars increases from ~62% to ~72%. The comparison between theory and observations indicates that the empirical star counts of HB stars are on average larger (30%-40%) than predicted by canonical evolutionary models. Moreover, the rate of HB stars is ~43% larger than the MSTO rate. We also compared theory and observations by assuming a mix of stellar populations made with 70% of canonical He (Y=0.23) stars and 30% of He-enhanced (Y=0.33, 0.42) stars. We found that the observed RG/MSTO ratio agrees with the predicted lifetimes of He-mixed stellar populations. The discrepancy between theory and observations decreases by a factor of 2 when compared with rates predicted by canonical He content models, but still 15%-25% (Y=0.42) and 15%-20% (Y=0.33) higher than observed. Furthermore, the ratios between HB and MSTO star counts are ~24% (Y=0.42) and 30% (Y=0.33) larger than predicted lifetime ratios. During the revision of this manuscript, Vittorio Castellani passed away on 2006 May 19. His suggestions, ideas, and personality will be greatly missed. Based on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility and the Hubble Space Telescope Archive Facility.

  2. Multicolour Optical Surface Brightness Profiles Decomposition of the Seyfert Galaxies III Zw 2, Mrk 506 and Mrk 509

    OpenAIRE

    Slavcheva-Mihova, L.; Mihov, B.; Petrov, G.; Kopchev, V.

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of the UBVRcIc surface brightness profiles decomposition of the Seyfert galaxies III Zw 2, Mrk 506 and Mrk 509. The profiles were modelled as a sum of a Gaussian, a Sersic law and an exponent. A Ferrers bar and a Gaussian ring were added to the model profiles of III Zw 2 and Mrk 506, respectively. The parameters and the total magnitudes of the structural components were derived.

  3. Relating basic properties of bright early-type dwarf galaxies to their location in Abell 901/902

    CERN Document Server

    Barazza, F D; Gray, M E; Jogee, S; Balogh, M; McIntosh, D H; Bacon, D; Barden, M; Bell, E F; Boehm, A; Caldwell, J A R; Haeussler, B; Heiderman, A; Heymans, C; van Kampen, K Jahnke E; Lane, K; Marinova, I; Meisenheimer, K; Peng, C Y; Sánchez, S F; Taylor, A; Wisotzki, L; Zheng, X

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the population of bright early-type dwarf galaxies in the multiple-cluster system Abell 901/902. We use data from the STAGES survey and COMBO-17 to investigate the relation between the color and structural properties of the dwarfs and their location in the cluster. The definition of the dwarf sample is based on the central surface brightness and includes galaxies in the luminosity range -16 >= M_B <~-19 mag. Using a fit to the color magnitude relation of the dwarfs, our sample is divided into a red and blue subsample. We find a color-density relation in the projected radial distribution of the dwarf sample: at the same luminosity dwarfs with redder colors are located closer to the cluster centers than their bluer counterparts. Furthermore, the redder dwarfs are on average more compact and rounder than the bluer dwarfs. These findings are consistent with theoretical expectations assuming that bright early-type dwarfs are the remnants of transformed late-type disk galaxies involving pro...

  4. High redshift galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey: I. selection method and number counts based on redshift PDFs

    CERN Document Server

    Viironen, K; López-Sanjuan, C; Varela, J; Chaves-Montero, J; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D; Molino, A; Fernández-Soto, A; Ascaso, B; Cenarro, A J; Cerviño, M; Cepa, J; Ederoclite, A; Márquez, I; Masegosa, J; Moles, M; Oteo, I; Pović, M; Aguerri, J A L; Alfaro, E; Aparicio-Villegas, T; Benítez, N; Broadhurst, T; Cabrera-Caño, J; Castander, J F; Del Olmo, A; Delgado, R M González; Husillos, C; Infante, L; Martínez, V J; Perea, J; Prada, F; Quintana, J M

    2015-01-01

    Context. Most observational results on the high redshift restframe UV-bright galaxies are based on samples pinpointed using the so called dropout technique or Ly-alpha selection. However, the availability of multifilter data allows now replacing the dropout selections by direct methods based on photometric redshifts. In this paper we present the methodology to select and study the population of high redshift galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey data. Aims. Our aim is to develop a less biased methodology than the traditional dropout technique to study the high redshift galaxies in ALHAMBRA and other multifilter data. Thanks to the wide area ALHAMBRA covers, we especially aim at contributing in the study of the brightest, less frequent, high redshift galaxies. Methods. The methodology is based on redshift probability distribution functions (zPDFs). It is shown how a clean galaxy sample can be obtained by selecting the galaxies with high integrated probability of being within a given redshift interval. However, reach...

  5. HST photometry of dwarf elliptical galaxies in Coma, and an explanation for the alleged structural dichotomy between dwarf and bright elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, A W; Graham, Alister W.; Guzman, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    We have analyzed archival HST F606W images of 18 dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy candidates in the Coma Cluster. We model the full radial extent of their light- profiles by simultaneously fitting a PSF-convolved Sersic R^(1/n) model and, when necessary, either a central point-source or a central PSF-convolved Gaussian. The luminosities of the central component L_nuc scale with the host galaxy luminosity L_gal such that L_nuc = 10^(4.76 +/- 0.10) (L_gal/10^7)^(0.87 +/- 0.26). The underlying host galaxies display systematic departures from an exponential model that are correlated with the model-independent host galaxy luminosity and are not due to biasing from the nuclear component. The Pearson correlation coefficient between log(n) and central galaxy surface brightness mu_0 (excluding the flux from extraneous central components) is -0.83 at a significance level of 99.99%. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the logarithm of the Sersic index `n' and the host galaxy magnitude is -0.77 at a significance of 9...

  6. Extra-galactic background light measurements from the far-UV to the far-IR from deep ground and space-based galaxy counts

    CERN Document Server

    Driver, Simon P; Davies, Luke J; Robotham, Aaron S G; Wright, Angus H; Windhorst, Rogier A; Cohen, Seth; Emig, Kim; Jansen, Rolf A; Dunne, Loretta

    2016-01-01

    We combine wide and deep galaxy number-count data from GAMA, COSMOS/G10, HST ERS, HST UVUDF and various near-, mid- and far- IR datasets from ESO, Spitzer and Herschel. The combined data range from the far-UV (0.15microns) to far-IR (500microns), and in all cases the contribution to the integrated galaxy light (IGL) of successively fainter galaxies converges. Using a simple spline fit, we derive the IGL and the extrapolated-IGL in all bands. We argue undetected low surface brightness galaxies and intra-cluster/group light is modest, and that our extrapolated-IGL measurements are an accurate representation of the extra-galactic background light. Our data agree with most earlier IGL estimates and with direct measurements in the far-IR, but disagree strongly with direct estimates in the optical. Close agreement between our results and recent very high-energy experiments (H.E.S.S. and MAGIC), suggest that there may be an additional foreground affecting the direct estimates. The most likely culprit could be the ad...

  7. Bright radio sources at 178 MHz: flux densities, optical identifications and the cosmological evolution of powerful radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to correct the biases introduced into the 3CR catalogue by confusion and partial resolution, a revised sample of bright sources has been defined at 178 MHz. The sample is 96 per cent complete to a flux-density limit of 10 Jy for sources smaller than 10 arcmin. The incompleteness of 3CR to sources of larger angular size has also been reduced. 96 per cent of the sources in the revised sample are identified optically, 71 and 25 per cent with galaxies and quasars, respectively. The radio-galaxy population shows strong space-density evolution for luminosities in excess of approx. 10sup(26.5) W Hz-1 sr-1 at 178 MHz (redshifts >approx. equal to 0.2); the evolutionary properties of galaxies and quasars of the same luminosity and redshift are very similar. (author)

  8. Extremely-bright submillimeter galaxies beyond the Lupus-I star-forming region

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Y; Shimajiri, Y; Tsukagoshi, T; Nakajima, Y; Oasa, Y; Wilner, D J; Chandler, C J; Saigo, K; Tomida, K; Yun, M S; Taniguchi, A; Kohno, K; Hatsukade, B; Aretxaga, I; Austermann, J E; Dickman, R; Ezawa, H; Goss, W M; Hayashi, M; Hughes, D H; Hiramatsu, M; Inutsuka, S; Ogasawara, R; Ohashi, N; Oshima, T; Scott, K S; Wilson, G W

    2015-01-01

    We report detections of two candidate distant submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), MM J154506.4$-$344318 and MM J154132.7$-$350320, which are discovered in the AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm survey toward the Lupus-I star-forming region. The two objects have 1.1 mm flux densities of 43.9 and 27.1 mJy, and have Herschel/SPIRE counterparts as well. The Submillimeter Array counterpart to the former SMG is identified at 890 $\\mu$m and 1.3 mm. Photometric redshift estimates using all available data from the mid-infrared to the radio suggest that the redshifts of the two SMGs are $z_{\\rm photo} \\simeq$ 4-5 and 3, respectively. Near-infrared objects are found very close to the SMGs and they are consistent with low-$z$ ellipticals, suggesting that the high apparent luminosities can be attributed to gravitational magnification. The cumulative number counts at $S_{\\rm 1.1mm} \\ge 25$ mJy, combined with other two 1.1-mm brightest sources, are $0.70 ^{+0.56}_{-0.34}$ deg$^{-2}$, which is consistent with a model prediction that accounts for ...

  9. BRIGHT Lights, BIG City: Massive Galaxies, Giant Ly-A Nebulae, and Proto-Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Breugel, W; Reuland, M; de Vries, W; Stanford, A; Dey, A; Kurk, J; Venemans, B; Rottgering, H; Miley, G; De Breuck, C; Dopita, M; Sutherland, R; Bland-Hawthorn, J

    2002-08-01

    High redshift radio galaxies are great cosmological tools for pinpointing the most massive objects in the early Universe: massive forming galaxies, active super-massive black holes and proto-clusters. They report on deep narrow-band imaging and spectroscopic observations of several z > 2 radio galaxy fields to investigate the nature of giant Ly-{alpha} nebulae centered on the galaxies and to search for over-dense regions around them. They discuss the possible implications for our understanding of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies and galaxy clusters.

  10. UBVRI photometry of bright GB/GB2 radio galaxies and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoelectric UBVRI observations of 25 radio galaxies brighter than V ∼ 17 mag, and 14 quasars and other stellar objects brighter than V ∼ 18 mag are presented and discussed. These objects coincide with the GB/GB2 radio sources, extensively observed with the VLA at 1465 MHz. Galaxy broad-band colours confirm that most of these galaxies are giant ellipticals. (author)

  11. zCOSMOS-10k-bright spectroscopic sample. The bimodality in the galaxy stellar mass function : Exploring its evolution with redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozzetti, L.; Bolzonella, M.; Zucca, E.; Zamorani, G.; Lilly, S.; Renzini, A.; Moresco, M.; Mignoli, M.; Cassata, P.; Tasca, L.; Lamareille, F.; Maier, C.; Meneux, B.; Halliday, C.; Oesch, P.; Vergani, D.; Caputi, K.; Kovac, K.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; Iovino, A.; Peng, Y.; Carollo, M.; Contini, T.; P. Kneib, J.; Le F'evre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Coppa, G.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; F. Le Borgne, J.; Le Brun, V.; Pell`o, R.; Perez Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; D. Silverman, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tresse, L.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Guzzo, L.; M. Koekemoer, A.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; J. McCracken, H.; Memeo, P.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Scarlata, C.; Scoville, N.

    2010-01-01

    We present the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) to redshift z similar or equal to 1, based on the analysis of about 8500 galaxies with I <22.5 (AB mag) over 1.4 deg(2), which are part of the zCOSMOS-bright 10k spectroscopic sample. We investigate the total GSMF, as well as the contributions of ea

  12. Sleeping Giants? - X-ray search for low-luminosity AGN candidates in nearby optically bright galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kalcheva, Ivayla E

    2014-01-01

    In this Master's project, the X-ray nuclear properties of a sample of bright nearby galaxies are explored. This is done by matching their comprehensive optical spectroscopic classification to the latest available XMM-Newton catalogue - 3XMM-DR4. The good coverage (approx. 38 per cent) ensures that a statistically representative sample is investigated. All nuclear and morphological subsets found within the original sample of 486 galaxies are encompassed, but early-type galaxies and galaxies with optical features characteristic for active galactic nuclei (AGN) are favoured. The results from the investigation of the properties of our cross-matched sample are overall consistent with the presence of a large fraction of X-ray - detected low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN). The X-ray - detected galaxies within our HII and transition-LINER subsets are of particular interest, as they could harbour LLAGN missed by optical spectroscopic selection. The properties of these nuclei are explored by X-ray spectral fitting of available...

  13. Blending bias impacts the host halo masses derived from a cross-correlation analysis of bright sub-millimetre galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cowley, William I; Baugh, Carlton M; Cole, Shaun; Wilkinson, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Placing bright sub-millimetre galaxies (SMGs) within the broader context of galaxy formation and evolution requires accurate measurements of their clustering, which can constrain the masses of their host dark matter halos. Recent work has shown that the clustering measurements of these galaxies may be affected by a `blending bias,' which results in the angular correlation function of the sources extracted from single-dish imaging surveys being boosted relative to that of the underlying galaxies. This is due to confusion introduced by the coarse angular resolution of the single-dish telescope and could lead to the inferred halo masses being significantly overestimated. We investigate the extent to which this bias affects the measurement of the correlation function of SMGs when it is derived via a cross-correlation with a more abundant galaxy population. We find that the blending bias is essentially the same as in the auto-correlation case and conclude that the best way to reduce its effects is to calculate the...

  14. Galaxy halo truncation and Giant Arc Surface Brightness Reconstruction in the Cluster MACSJ1206.2-0847

    CERN Document Server

    Eichner, Thomas; Suyu, Sherry H; Halkola, Aleksi; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; Coe, Dan; Monna, Anna; Rosati, Piero; Grillo, Claudio; Balestra, Italo; Postman, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton; Zheng, Wei; H\\ost, Ole; Lemze, Doron; Broadhurst, Tom; Moustakas, Leonidas; Bradley, Larry; Molino, Alberto; Nonino, Mario; Mercurio, Amata; Scodeggio, Marco; Bartelmann, Matthias; Benitez, Narciso; Bouwens, Rychard; Donahue, Megan; Infante, Leopoldo; Jouvel, Stephanie; Kelson, Daniel; Lahav, Ofer; Medezinski, Elinor; Melchior, Peter; Merten, Julian; Riess, Adam

    2013-01-01

    In this work we analyze the mass distribution of MACSJ1206.2-0847, especially focusing on the halo properties of its cluster members. The cluster appears relaxed in its X-ray emission, but has significant amounts of intracluster light which is not centrally concentrated, suggesting that galaxy-scale interactions are still ongoing despite the overall relaxed state. The cluster lenses 12 background galaxies into multiple images and one galaxy at $z=1.033$ into a giant arc and its counterimage. The multiple image positions and the surface brightness distribution (SFB) of the arc which is bent around several cluster members are sensitive to the cluster galaxy halo properties. We model the cluster mass distribution with a NFW profile and the galaxy halos with two parameters for the mass normalization and extent of a reference halo assuming scalings with their observed NIR--light. We match the multiple image positions at an r.m.s. level of $0.85\\arcsec$ and can reconstruct the SFB distribution of the arc in several...

  15. GALAXY HALO TRUNCATION AND GIANT ARC SURFACE BRIGHTNESS RECONSTRUCTION IN THE CLUSTER MACSJ1206.2-0847

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichner, Thomas; Seitz, Stella; Monna, Anna [Universitaets-Sternwarte Muenchen, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Suyu, Sherry H. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Halkola, Aleksi [Institute of Medical Engineering, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160 23562 Luebeck (Germany); Umetsu, Keiichi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Zitrin, Adi [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, ZAH, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Coe, Dan; Postman, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton; Bradley, Larry [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Rosati, Piero [ESO-European Southern Observatory, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Grillo, Claudio; Host, Ole [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Balestra, Italo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Zheng, Wei; Lemze, Doron [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Moustakas, Leonidas [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-327, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Molino, Alberto [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huetor 24, Granada E-18008 (Spain); and others

    2013-09-10

    In this work, we analyze the mass distribution of MACSJ1206.2-0847, particularly focusing on the halo properties of its cluster members. The cluster appears relaxed in its X-ray emission, but has a significant amount of intracluster light that is not centrally concentrated, suggesting that galaxy-scale interactions are still ongoing despite the overall relaxed state. The cluster lenses 12 background galaxies into multiple images and one galaxy at z = 1.033 into a giant arc and its counterimage. The multiple image positions and the surface brightness (SFB) distribution of the arc, which is bent around several cluster members, are sensitive to the cluster galaxy halo properties. We model the cluster mass distribution with a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and the galaxy halos with two parameters for the mass normalization and the extent of a reference halo assuming scalings with their observed near-infrared light. We match the multiple image positions at an rms level of 0.''85 and can reconstruct the SFB distribution of the arc in several filters to a remarkable accuracy based on this cluster model. The length scale where the enclosed galaxy halo mass is best constrained is about 5 effective radii-a scale in between those accessible to dynamical and field strong-lensing mass estimates on the one hand and galaxy-galaxy weak-lensing results on the other hand. The velocity dispersion and halo size of a galaxy with m{sub 160W,AB} = 19.2 and M{sub B,Vega} = -20.7 are {sigma} = 150 km s{sup -1} and r Almost-Equal-To 26 {+-} 6 kpc, respectively, indicating that the halos of the cluster galaxies are tidally stripped. We also reconstruct the unlensed source, which is smaller by a factor of {approx}5.8 in area, demonstrating the increase in morphological information due to lensing. We conclude that this galaxy likely has star-forming spiral arms with a red (older) central component.

  16. Structure and dynamics of galaxies with a low surface-brightness disc - II. Stellar populations of bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Morelli, L; Pizzella, A; Bontà, E Dalla; Coccato, L; Méndez-Abreu, J; Cesetti, M

    2012-01-01

    The radial profiles of the Hb, Mg, and Fe line-strength indices are presented for a sample of eight spiral galaxies with a low surface-brightness stellar disc and a bulge. The correlations between the central values of the line-strength indices and velocity dispersion are consistent to those known for early-type galaxies and bulges of high surface-brightness galaxies. The age, metallicity, and alpha/Fe enhancement of the stellar populations in the bulge-dominated region are obtained using stellar population models with variable element abundance ratios. Almost all the sample bulges are characterized by a young stellar population, on-going star formation, and a solar alpha/Fe enhancement. Their metallicity spans from high to sub-solar values. No significant gradient in age and alpha/Fe enhancement is measured, whereas only in a few cases a negative metallicity gradient is found. These properties suggest that a pure dissipative collapse is not able to explain formation of all the sample bulges and that other ph...

  17. Extremely Bright Submillimeter Galaxies beyond the Lupus-I Star-forming Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Y.; Kawabe, R.; Shimajiri, Y.; Tsukagoshi, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Oasa, Y.; Wilner, D. J.; Chandler, C. J.; Saigo, K.; Tomida, K.; Yun, M. S.; Taniguchi, A.; Kohno, K.; Hatsukade, B.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J. E.; Dickman, R.; Ezawa, H.; Goss, W. M.; Hayashi, M.; Hughes, D. H.; Hiramatsu, M.; Inutsuka, S.; Ogasawara, R.; Ohashi, N.; Oshima, T.; Scott, K. S.; Wilson, G. W.

    2015-08-01

    We report detections of two candidate distant submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), MM J154506.4-344318 and MM J154132.7-350320, which are discovered in the AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm survey toward the Lupus-I star-forming region. The two objects have 1.1 mm flux densities of 43.9 and 27.1 mJy, and have Herschel/SPIRE counterparts as well. The Submillimeter Array counterpart to the former SMG is identified at 890 μm and 1.3 mm. Photometric redshift estimates using all available data from the mid-infrared to the radio suggest that the redshifts of the two SMGs are {z}{photo}≃ 4-5 and 3, respectively. Near-infrared objects are found very close to the SMGs and they are consistent with low-z ellipticals, suggesting that the high apparent luminosities can be attributed to gravitational magnification. The cumulative number counts at {S}1.1{mm}≥slant 25 mJy, combined with the other two 1.1 mm brightest sources, are {0.70}-0.34+0.56 deg-2, which is consistent with a model prediction that accounts for flux magnification due to strong gravitational lensing. Unexpectedly, a z\\gt 3 SMG and a Galactic dense starless core (e.g., a first hydrostatic core) could be similar in the mid-infrared to millimeter spectral energy distributions and spatial structures at least at ≳ 1\\prime\\prime . This indicates that it is necessary to distinguish the two possibilities by means of broadband photometry from the optical to centimeter and spectroscopy to determine the redshift, when a compact object is identified toward Galactic star-forming regions.

  18. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): The Bright Void Galaxy Population in the Optical and Mid-IR

    CERN Document Server

    Penny, S J; Pimbblet, K A; Cluver, M E; Croton, D J; Owers, M S; Lange, R; Alpaslan, M; Baldry, I; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Brough, S; Driver, S P; Holwerda, B W; Hopkins, A M; Jarrett, T H; Jones, D Heath; Kelvin, L S; Lara-Lopez, M A; Liske, J; Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Loveday, J; Meyer, M; Norberg, P; Robotham, A S G; Rodrigues, M

    2015-01-01

    We examine the properties of galaxies in the Galaxies and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey located in voids with radii $>10~h^{-1}$ Mpc. Utilising the GAMA equatorial survey, 592 void galaxies are identified out to z~0.1 brighter than $M_{r} = -18.4$, our magnitude completeness limit. Using the $W_{\\rm{H\\alpha}}$ vs. [NII]/H$\\alpha$ (WHAN) line strength diagnostic diagram, we classify their spectra as star forming, AGN, or dominated by old stellar populations. For objects more massive than $5\\times10^{9}$ M$_{\\odot}$, we identify a sample of 26 void galaxies with old stellar populations classed as passive and retired galaxies in the WHAN diagnostic diagram, else they lack any emission lines in their spectra. When matched to WISE mid-IR photometry, these passive and retired galaxies exhibit a range of mid-IR colour, with a number of void galaxies exhibiting [4.6]-[12] colours inconsistent with completely quenched stellar populations, with a similar spread in colour seen for a randomly drawn non-void comparison samp...

  19. Spiral structure of the Galaxy: a statistical analysis of the spatial distribution of bright stars and open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical analysis of space distribution of bright stars and open clusters in the fourth quadpant of the Galaxy is performed. It is shown that, with a probability equal practically to 100%, the Saggitarius-Carina spiral feature cannot be a chance density fluctuation in an actually homogeneous distribution of stars. The geometrical parameters of this feature are estimated: the pitch angle i=6 deg,6+ and the distance from the Sun R1=1.0 kpc. It is found that there is a statistically significant age gradient across the Saggitarius-Carina spiral arm: the young objects (O, M 1-2 staps) are shifted with Cespect to the older objects (the B, A, F) to the inner edge of the arm approximately by 100 pc. This result favours the density wave nature of the spiral structure of the Galaxy

  20. Spiral structure of the Galaxy: a statistical analysis of the spatial distribution of bright stars and open clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovskaya, E.D.; Suchkov, A.A. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Gosudarstvennyj Astronomicheskij Inst. ' ' GAISh' ' ; Rostovskij-na-Donu Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    A statistical analysis of space distribution of bright stars and open clusters in the fourth quadrant of the Galaxy is performed. It is shown that, with a probability equal practically to 100%, the Saggitarius-Carina spiral feature cannot be a chance density fluctuation in an actually homogeneous distribution of stars. The geometrical parameters of this feature are estimated: the pitch angle i=6 deg,6+ and the distance from the Sun R/sub 1/=1.0 kpc. It is found that there is a statistically significant age gradient across the Saggitarius-Carina spiral arm: the young objects (O, M 1-2 staps) are shifted with respect to the older objects (the B, A, F) to the inner edge of the arm approximately by 100 pc. This result favours the density wave nature of the spiral structure of the Galaxy.

  1. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: blank-field number counts of 450um-selected galaxies and their contribution to the cosmic infrared background

    CERN Document Server

    Geach, J E; Coppin, K E K; Dunlop, J S; Halpern, M; Smail, Ian; van der Werf, P; Serjeant, S; Farrah, D; Roseboom, I; Targett, T; Arumugam, V; Asboth, V; Blain, A; Chrysostomou, A; Clarke, C; Ivison, R J; Jones, S L; Karim, A; Mackenzie, T; Meijerink, R; Michalowski, M J; Scott, D; Simpson, J; Swinbank, A M; Alexander, D; Almaini, O; Aretxaga, I; Best, P; Chapman, S; Clements, D L; Conselice, C; Danielson, A L R; Eales, S; Edge, A C; Gibb, A; Hughes, D; Jenness, T; Knudsen, K K; Lacey, C; Marsden, G; McMahon, R; Oliver, S; Page, M J; Peacock, J A; Rigopoulou, D; Robson, E I; Spaans, M; Stevens, J; Webb, T M A; Willott, C; Wilson, C D; Zemcov, M

    2012-01-01

    The first deep blank-field 450um map (1-sigma~1.3mJy) from the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey (S2CLS), conducted with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) is presented. Our map covers 140 arcmin^2 of the COSMOS field, in the footprint of the HST CANDELS area. Using 60 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) detected at >3.75-sigma, we evaluate the number counts of 450um-selected galaxies with flux densities S_450>5mJy. The 8-arcsec JCMT beam and high sensitivity of SCUBA-2 now make it possible to directly resolve a larger fraction of the cosmic infrared background (CIB, peaking at ~200um) into the individual galaxies responsible for its emission than has previously been possible at this wavelength. At S_450>5mJy we resolve (7.4[+/-]0.7)x10^-2 MJy/sr of the CIB at 450um (equivalent to 16[+/-]7% of the absolute brightness measured by COBE at this wavelength) into point sources. A further ~40% of the CIB can be recovered through a statistical stack of 24um emitters in this field, indicating that the majority (~60%) o...

  2. Measurements of Extragalactic Background Light from the Far UV to the Far IR from Deep Ground- and Space-based Galaxy Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Simon P.; Andrews, Stephen K.; Davies, Luke J.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Wright, Angus H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Cohen, Seth; Emig, Kim; Jansen, Rolf A.; Dunne, Loretta

    2016-08-01

    We combine wide and deep galaxy number-count data from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly, COSMOS/G10, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Early Release Science, HST UVUDF, and various near-, mid-, and far-IR data sets from ESO, Spitzer, and Herschel. The combined data range from the far UV (0.15 μm) to far-IR (500 μm), and in all cases the contribution to the integrated galaxy light (IGL) of successively fainter galaxies converges. Using a simple spline fit, we derive the IGL and the extrapolated IGL in all bands. We argue that undetected low-surface-brightness galaxies and intracluster/group light are modest, and that our extrapolated-IGL measurements are an accurate representation of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Our data agree with most earlier IGL estimates and with direct measurements in the far IR, but disagree strongly with direct estimates in the optical. Close agreement between our results and recent very high-energy experiments (H.E.S.S. and MAGIC) suggests that there may be an additional foreground affecting the direct estimates. The most likely culprit could be the adopted model of zodiacal light. Finally we use a modified version of the two-component model to integrate the EBL and obtain measurements of the cosmic optical background (COB) and cosmic infrared background of {24}-4+4 nW m‑2 sr‑1 and {26}-5+5 nW m‑2 sr‑1 respectively (48%:52%). Over the next decade, upcoming space missions such as Euclid and the Wide Field Infrared Space Telescope will have the capacity to reduce the COB error to direct detection and measurement of the reionization field.

  3. Herschel and SCUBA-2 imaging and spectroscopy of a bright, lensed submillimetre galaxy at z = 2.3

    CERN Document Server

    Ivison, R J; Swinyard, B; Smail, Ian; Pearson, C P; Rigopoulou, D; Polehampton, E; Baluteau, J -P; Barlow, M J; Blain, A W; Bock, J; Clements, D L; Coppin, K; Cooray, A; Danielson, A; Dwek, E; Edge, A C; Franceschini, A; Fulton, T; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Isaak, K; Leeks, S; Lim, T; Naylor, D; Oliver, S J; Page, M J; Perez-Fournon, I; Rowan-Robinson, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Spencer, L; Valtchanov, I; Vigroux, L; Wright, G S

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the far-IR properties of the bright, lensed, z = 2.3, SMG, SMM J2135-0102, using new observations with Herschel, SCUBA-2 and the VLA. These data allow us to constrain the galaxy's SED and show that it has an intrinsic rest-frame 8-1000um luminosity, L(bol), of (2.3 +/- 0.2) x 10^12 L(sun) and a likely SFR of ~400 M(sun)/yr. The galaxy sits on the far-IR/radio correlation for far-IR-selected galaxies. At ~>70um, the SED can be described adequately by dust components with T(d) ~ 30 and 60K. Using SPIRE's Fourier Transform Spectrometer we report a detection of the [CII] 158um cooling line. If the [CII], CO and far-IR continuum arise in photo-dissociation regions, we derive a characteristic gas density, n ~ 10^3 cm^-3, and a far-UV radiation field, G_0, 10^3x stronger than the Milky Way. L([CII])/L(bol) is significantly higher than in local ULIRGs but similar to the values found in local star-forming galaxies and starburst nuclei. This is consistent with SMM J2135-0102 being powe...

  4. The behaviour of dark matter associated with 4 bright cluster galaxies in the 10kpc core of Abell 3827

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, Richard; Smit, Renske; Swinbank, Mark; Kitching, Thomas; Harvey, David; Jauzac, Mathilde; Israel, Holger; Clowe, Douglas; Edge, Alastair; Hilton, Matt; Jullo, Eric; Leonard, Adrienne; Liesenborgs, Jori; Merten, Julian; Mohammed, Irshad; Nagai, Daisuke; Richard, Johan; Robertson, Andrew; Saha, Prasenjit; Santana, Rebecca; Stott, John; Tittley, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy cluster Abell 3827 hosts the stellar remnants of four almost equally bright elliptical galaxies within a core of radius 10kpc. Such corrugation of the stellar distribution is very rare, and suggests recent formation by several simultaneous mergers. We map the distribution of associated dark matter, using new Hubble Space Telescope imaging and VLT/MUSE integral field spectroscopy of a gravitationally lensed system threaded through the cluster core. We find that each of the central galaxies retains a dark matter halo, but that (at least) one of these is spatially offset from its stars. The best-constrained offset is 1.62+/-0.48kpc, where the 68% confidence limit includes both statistical error and systematic biases in mass modelling. Such offsets are not seen in field galaxies, but are predicted during the long infall to a cluster, if dark matter self-interactions generate an extra drag force. With such a small physical separation, it is difficult to definitively rule out astrophysical effects operating ...

  5. PROBING THE IGM/GALAXY CONNECTION. IV. THE LCO/WFCCD GALAXY SURVEY OF 20 FIELDS SURROUNDING UV-BRIGHT QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We publish the survey for galaxies in 20 fields containing ultraviolet bright quasars (with zem ∼ 0.1-0.5) that can be used to study the association between galaxies and absorption systems from the low-z intergalactic medium (IGM). The survey is magnitude limited (R ∼ 19.5 mag) and highly complete out to 10' from the quasar in each field. It was designed to detect dwarf galaxies (L ∼ 0.1L*) at an impact parameter ρ ∼ 1 Mpc (z = 0.1) from a quasar. The complete sample (all 20 fields) includes R-band photometry for 84,718 sources and confirmed redshifts for 2800 sources. This includes 1198 galaxies with 0.005 em - 0.01) at a median redshift of 0.18, which may associated with IGM absorption lines. All of the imaging was acquired with cameras on the Swope 40'' telescope and the spectra were obtained via slit mask observations using the WFCCD spectrograph on the Dupont 100'' telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. This paper describes the data reduction, imaging analysis, photometry, and spectral analysis of the survey. We tabulate the principal measurements for all sources in each field and provide the spectroscopic data set online.

  6. The abundance properties of nearby late-type galaxies. II. The relation between abundance distributions and surface brightness profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilyugin, L. S.; Grebel, E. K.; Zinchenko, I. A. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12–14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kniazev, A. Y., E-mail: pilyugin@mao.kiev.ua, E-mail: grebel@ari.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: zinchenko@mao.kiev.ua, E-mail: akniazev@saao.ac.za [South African Astronomical Observatory, PO Box 9, 7935 Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2014-12-01

    The relations between oxygen abundance and disk surface brightness (OH–SB relation) in the infrared W1 band are examined for nearby late-type galaxies. The oxygen abundances were presented in Paper I. The photometric characteristics of the disks are inferred here using photometric maps from the literature through bulge-disk decomposition. We find evidence that the OH–SB relation is not unique but depends on the galactocentric distance r (taken as a fraction of the optical radius R{sub 25}) and on the properties of a galaxy: the disk scale length h and the morphological T-type. We suggest a general, four-dimensional OH–SB relation with the values r, h, and T as parameters. The parametric OH–SB relation reproduces the observed data better than a simple, one-parameter relation; the deviations resulting when using our parametric relation are smaller by a factor of ∼1.4 than that of the simple relation. The influence of the parameters on the OH–SB relation varies with galactocentric distance. The influence of the T-type on the OH–SB relation is negligible at the centers of galaxies and increases with galactocentric distance. In contrast, the influence of the disk scale length on the OH–SB relation is at a maximum at the centers of galaxies and decreases with galactocentric distance, disappearing at the optical edges of galaxies. Two-dimensional relations can be used to reproduce the observed data at the optical edges of the disks and at the centers of the disks. The disk scale length should be used as a second parameter in the OH–SB relation at the center of the disk while the morphological T-type should be used as a second parameter in the relation at optical edge of the disk. The relations between oxygen abundance and disk surface brightness in the optical B and infrared K bands at the center of the disk and at optical edge of the disk are also considered. The general properties of the abundance–surface brightness relations are similar for the

  7. Low Surface Brightness Galaxies selected from the 40% sky area of the ALFALFA HI survey.I.Sample and statistical properties

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Wei; Lam, Man I; Zhu, Yinan; Lei, Fengjie; Zhou, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    The population of Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies is crucial for understanding the extremes of galaxy formation and evolution of the universe. As LSB galaxies are mostly rich in gas (HI), the alpha.40-SDSS DR7 sample is absolutely one of the best survey combinations to select a sample of them in the local Universe. Since the sky backgrounds are systematically overestimated for galaxy images by the SDSS photometric pipeline, particularly for luminous galaxies or galaxies with extended low surface brightness outskirts, in this paper, we above all estimated the sky backgrounds of SDSS images in the alpha.40-SDSS DR7 sample, using a precise method of sky subtraction. Once subtracting the sky background, we did surface photometry with the Kron elliptical aperture and fitted geometric parameters with an exponential profile model for each galaxy image. Basing on the photometric and geometric results, we further calculated the B-band central surface brightness, mu_{0}(B), for each galaxy and ultimately defined ...

  8. Probing the cosmic-ray content of galaxy clusters by stacking Fermi-LAT count maps

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, B; Eckert, D; Farnier, C; Manalaysay, A; Straumann, U; Walter, R

    2013-01-01

    Observation in radio have shown that galaxy clusters are giant reservoirs of cosmic rays (CR). Although a gamma-ray signal from the cluster volume is expected to arise through interactions of CR protons with the ambient plasma, a confirming observation is still missing. We search for a cumulative gamma-ray emission in direction of galaxy clusters by analysing a collection of stacked Fermi-LAT count maps. Additionally, we investigate possible systematic differences in the emission between cool-core and non-cool core cluster populations. Making use of a sample of 53 clusters selected from the HIFLUGCS catalog, we do not detect a significant signal from the stacked sample. The flux upper limit derived for the total stacked sample is at the level of a few 1e-11 ph cm-2 s-1 at 95% confidence level in the 1-300 GeV band, assuming power-law spectra with photon indices 2.0, 2.4, 2.8 and 3.2. Separate stacking of the cool core and non-cool core clusters in the sample lead to similar values of around 5e-11 ph cm-2 s-1 ...

  9. How to Identify and Separate Bright Galaxy Clusters from the Low-frequency Radio Sky?

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jingying; Xu, Haiguang; Gu, Junhua; An, Tao; Cui, Haijuan; Li, Jianxun; Zhang, Zhongli; Zheng, Qian; Wu, Xiang-Ping

    2010-01-01

    In this work we simulate the $50-200$ MHz radio sky that is constrained in the field of view ($5^{\\circ}$ radius) of the 21 Centimeter Array (21CMA), by carrying out Monte-Carlo simulations to model redshifted cosmological reionization signals and strong contaminating foregrounds, including emissions from our Galaxy, galaxy clusters, and extragalactic point sources. As an improvement of previous works, we consider in detail not only random variations of morphological and spectroscopic paramet...

  10. The Formation of Submillimetre-Bright Galaxies from Gas Infall over a Billion Years

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Desika; Feldmann, Robert; Robitaille, Thomas; Hopkins, Philip; Thompson, Robert; Hayward, Christopher; Ball, David; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Keres, Dusan

    2015-01-01

    Submillimetre-luminous galaxies at high-redshift are the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe, and are characterised by prodigious emission in the far-infrared at 850 microns (S850 > 5 mJy). They reside in halos ~ 10^13Msun, have low gas fractions compared to main sequence disks at a comparable redshift, trace complex environments, and are not easily observable at optical wavelengths. Their physical origin remains unclear. Simulations have been able to form galaxies with the requisite luminosities, but have otherwise been unable to simultaneously match the stellar masses, star formation rates, gas fractions and environments. Here we report a cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation that is able to form a submillimetre galaxy which simultaneously satisfies the broad range of observed physical constraints. We find that groups of galaxies residing in massive dark matter halos have rising star formation histories that peak at collective rates ~ 500-1000 Msun/yr at z=2-3, by wh...

  11. The Millennium Galaxy Catalogue: Star counts and the Structure of the Galactic Stellar Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Lemon, D; Liske, J; Driver, S; Horne, K; Lemon, David; Wyse, Rosemary F.G.; Liske, Jochen; Driver, Simon; Horne, Keith

    2004-01-01

    We derive a star catalogue generated from the images taken as part of the 37.5 sq. deg Millennium Galaxy Catalogue. These data, alone and together with colours gained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Early Data Release, allow the analysis of faint star counts (B(MGC) < 20) at high Galactic latitude (41 < b < 63), as a function of Galactic longitude (239 < l < 353). We focus here on the inner stellar halo, providing robust limits on the amplitude of substructure and on the large-scale flattening. In line with previous results, the thick disk, an old, intermediate-metallicity population, is clearly seen in the colour-magnitude diagram. We find that the Galactic stellar halo within ~10 kpc (the bulk of the stellar mass) is significantly flattened, with an axial ratio of (c/a) =0.56 +/- 0.01, again consistent with previous results. Our analysis using counts-in-cells, angular correlation functions and the Lee 2D statistic, confirms tidal debris from the Sagittarius dwarf but finds little evidence f...

  12. 12CO, 13CO and C18O observations along the major axes of nearby bright infrared galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Qinghua; Zhang, Zhiyu; Xia, Xiaoyang

    2011-01-01

    We present simultaneous observations of CO,13CO and C18O J=1-0 emission in 11 nearby (cz<1000 km/s) bright infrared galaxies. Both 12CO and 13CO are detected in the centers of all galaxies, except for 13CO in NGC 3031. We have also detected C18O, CS J=2-1, and HCO+ J=1-0 emission in the nuclear regions of M82 and M51. These are the first systematical extragalactic detections of 12CO and its isotopes from the PMO 14m telescope. We have conducted half-beam spacing mapping of M82 over an area of 4'*2.5' and major axis mapping of NGC 3627, NGC 3628, NGC 4631, and M51. The radial distributions of 12CO and 13CO in NGC 3627, NGC 3628, and M51 can be well fitted by an exponential profile. The 12CO/13CO intensity ratio,R,decreases monotonically with galactocentric radius in all mapped sources. The average R in the center and disk of the galaxies are 9.9+/-3.0 and 5.6+/-1.9 respectively, much lower than the peculiar R(~24) found in the center of M82. The intensity ratios of 13CO/C18O, 13CO/HCO+ and 13CO/CS (either o...

  13. A bright z=5.2 lensed submillimeter galaxy in the field of Abell 773: HLSJ091828.6+514223

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F; Rawle, T D; Egami, E; Boone, F; Smail, I; Richard, J; Ivison, R J; Gurwell, M; Casey, C M; Omont, A; Alba, A Berciano; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M; Edge, A C; Fazio, G G; Kneib, J-P; Okabe, N; Pello, R; Perez-Gonzalez, P G; Schaerer, D; Smith, G P; Swinbank, A M; van der Werf, P

    2012-01-01

    During our Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS) of massive galaxy clusters, we have discovered an exceptionally bright submillimeter source, behind the z=0.22 cluster Abell 773, which appears to be a strongly lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z=5.2429. This source is unusual compared to most other lensed sources discovered by Herschel so far, both for its higher submm flux (\\sim 200mJy at 500micron) and its high redshift. The dominant lens is a foreground z=0.63 galaxy, not the cluster itself. From the continuum detected, we derive a far-infrared luminosity of LFIR= 1.1E14 /\\mu Lo, where \\mu is the magnification factor, likely \\sim 11. We report here the redshift identification through CO lines with the IRAM-30m, and the analysis of the gas excitation, based on CO(7-6), CO(6-5), CO(5-4) detected at IRAM and the CO(2-1) detected with the EVLA. All lines decompose in a wide and strong red component, and a narrower and weaker blue component, 540\\kms apart. Assuming the local ULIRG CO-to-H2 conversion ratio, the H2 m...

  14. Investigating AGN Black Hole Masses and the M-$\\sigma_e$ relation for Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, Smitha; Das, Mousumi; George, Koshy; T, Sivarani; Prabhu, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the optical nuclear spectra from the active galactic nuclei (AGN) in a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we derived the virial black hole (BH) masses of 24 galaxies from their broad H$\\alpha$ parameters. We find that our estimates of nuclear BH masses lie in the range $10^{5}-10^{7}~M_{\\odot}$, with a median mass of 5.62 x 10$^{6}~M_{\\odot}$. The bulge stellar velocity dispersion $\\sigma_{e}$ was determined from the underlying stellar spectra. We compared our results with the existing BH mass - velocity dispersion ($M_{BH}-\\sigma_{e}$) correlations and found that the majority of our sample lie in the low BH mass regime and below the $M_{BH}-\\sigma_{e}$ correlation. We analysed the effects of any systematic bias in the M$_{BH}$ estimates, the effects of galaxy orientation in the measurement of $\\sigma_e$ and the increase of $\\sigma_e$ due to the presence of bars and found that these effects are insufficient to explain...

  15. Ellipticity and twisting of the isophotes of some bright galaxies in Virgo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellipticity and twisting of the isophotes of four lenticular and seven elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster are presented as a sample of a more complete photometric investigation. This work has been motivated by the increasing importance of this kind of information for the understanding of the spatial structure of E galaxies. The calibrated plate material from the Loiano 1.52 meter and Tautenburg Schmidt telescopes has been digitized with a PDS microdensitometer and analysed by means of the Interactive Numerical Mapping Package (INMP). Ellipticity and orientation profiles are presented in a graphical form together with a preliminary discussion. A correlation has been found between ellipticity and twisting in barred lenticulars which might help in the understanding of some E galaxies such as NGC 4406 and NGC 4374. Twisting has been detected in all of the seven ellipticals of the sample

  16. The extraordinarily bright optical afterglow of GRB 991208 and its host galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Sokolov, V.V.; Gorosabel, J.; Ceron, J.M.C.; Greiner, J.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Jensen, B.L.; Hjorth, J.; Toft, Søren; Pedersen, H.; Palazzi, E.; Pian, E.; Masetti, N.; Sagar, R.N.; Mohan, V.; Pandey, A.K.; Pandey, S.B.; Dodonov, S.N.; Fatkhullin, T.A.; Afanasiev, V.L.; Komarova, V.N.; Moiseev, A.V.; Hudec, R.; Simon, V.; Vreeswijk, P.; Rol, E.; Klose, S.; Stecklum, B.; Zapatero-Osorio, M.R.; Caon, N.; Blake, C.; Wall, J.; Heinlein, D.; Henden, A.; Benetti, S.; Magazzu, A.; Ghinassi, F.; Tommasi, L.; Bremer, M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Guziy, S.; Shlyapnikov, A.; Hopp, U.; Feulner, G.; Dreizler, S.; Hartmann, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Paredes, J.M.; Marti, J.; Xanthopoulos, E.; Kristen, H.E.; Smoker, J.; Hurley, K.

    2001-01-01

    Broad-band optical observations of the extraordinarily bright optical afterglow of the intense gamma-rag burst GRB 991208 started similar to2.1 days after the event and continued until 4 Apr. 2000. The flux decay constant of the optic al afterglow in the R-band is -2.30 +/- 0.07 up to similar to5...

  17. Determination of the abundance of cosmic matter via the cell count moments of the galaxy distribution (1)

    CERN Document Server

    Bel, Julien

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that accurate and precise information about the matter content of the universe can be retrieved via a simple cell count analysis of the 3D spatial distribution of galaxies. A new clustering statistic, the {\\it galaxy clustering ratio} $\\eta$, is the key in this process. This is defined as the ratio between one- and two-point second-order moments of the smoothed galaxy density distribution. The distinguishing feature of this statistic is its universality: on large cosmic scales both galaxies (in redshift space) and mass (in real space) display the same $\\eta$ amplitude. This quantity, in addition, does not evolve as a function of redshift. As a consequence, the $\\eta$ statistic provides insight into characteristic parameters of the real-space power spectrum of mass density fluctuations without the need to specify the galaxy biasing function, a model for galaxy redshift distortions nor the growing mode of density ripples. We demonstrate the method with the luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample extract...

  18. GALAXYCOUNT: a JAVA calculator of galaxy counts and variances in multiband wide-field surveys to 28 AB mag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, S. C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2007-05-01

    We provide a consistent framework for estimating galaxy counts and variances in wide-field images for a range of photometric bands. The variances include both Poissonian noise and variations due to large-scale structure. We demonstrate that our statistical theory is consistent with the counts in the deepest multiband surveys available. The statistical estimates depend on several observational parameters (e.g. seeing, signal-to-noise ratio), and include a sophisticated treatment of detection completeness. The JAVA calculator is freely available1 and offers the user the option to adopt our consistent framework or a different scheme. We also provide a summary table of statistical measures in the different bands for a range of different fields of view. Reliable estimation of the background counts has profound consequences in many areas of observational astronomy. We provide two such examples. One is from a recent study of the Sculptor galaxy NGC300 where stellar photometry has been used to demonstrate that the outer disc extends to 10 effective radii, far beyond what was thought possible for a normal low-luminosity spiral. We confirm this finding by a re-analysis of the background counts. Secondly, we determine the luminosity function of the galaxy cluster Abell 2734, both through spectroscopically determined cluster membership, and through statistical subtraction of the background galaxies using the calculator and offset fields. We demonstrate very good agreement, suggesting that expensive spectroscopic follow-up, or off-source observations, may often be bypassed via determination of the galaxy background with GALAXYCOUNT.

  19. Star formation in infrared bright and infrared faint starburst interacting galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Susan A.; Bushouse, Howard A.; Towns, John W.

    1990-01-01

    Short wavelength IUE spectra of Arp 248b and UGC 8315N are combined with optical spectra and interpreted using a combination of spectrum synthesis and spectral diagnostics to place constraints on the massive star populations of the central regions of these galaxies and to deduce information about the star formation histories in the last 10(exp 8) years. The authors find that both galaxies have substantial fractions of their optical light coming from massive stars and that Arp 248b may be dominated in the UV by WR stars. The UV spectra are dominated by radiation from evolved massive stars and the authors place and age on the burst in Arp 248b of a few tens of millions of years.

  20. SERENDIPITOUS ALMA DETECTION OF A DISTANT CO-EMITTING X-RAY BRIGHT GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Yoichi [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Saito, Toshiki; Iono, Daisuke; Kawabe, Ryohei [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tsuru, Takeshi G.; Uchida, Hiroyuki [Division of Physics and Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-Cho, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yun, Min S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Espada, Daniel, E-mail: ytamura@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763 0355 (Chile)

    2014-02-01

    We report the detection of a distant star-forming galaxy, ALMA J010748.3–173028, which is identified by a 13σ emission line at 99.75 GHz (SΔv = 3.1 Jy km s{sup –1}), behind the nearby merging galaxies VV114 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 3. We also find an 880 μm counterpart with ALMA Band 7 (S {sub 880μm} = 11.2 mJy). A careful comparison of the intensities of the line and the continuum suggests that the line is a redshifted {sup 12}CO transition. A photometric redshift analysis using the infrared to radio data favors a CO redshift of z = 2.467, although z = 3.622 is acceptable. We also find a hard X-ray counterpart, suggesting the presence of a luminous (L {sub X} ∼ 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1}) active galactic nucleus obscured by a large hydrogen column (N {sub H} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2} if z = 2.47). A cosmological simulation shows that the chance detection rate of a CO-emitting galaxy at z > 1 with ≥1 Jy km s{sup –1} is ∼10{sup –3} per single ALMA field of view and 7.5 GHz bandwidth at 99.75 GHz. This demonstrates that ALMA has sufficient sensitivity to find an emission-line galaxy such as ALMA J010748.3–173028 even by chance, although the likelihood of stumbling across such a source is not high.

  1. ASCA observation of three bright early-type galaxies: NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaki, Hisamitsu; Mushotzky, Richard; Tsuru, Takeshi; Fabian, Andrew C.; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Loewenstein, Michael; Makishima, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; Mihara, Tatehiro

    1994-01-01

    We report Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) 0.3-10 keV and X-ray observations of three early type galaxies, NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636. The extended mission in these galaxies is well described by thin thermal eimssion from hot gas. The gas temperature is 0.92 +/- 0.02 keV for NGC 4472, 0.79 +/- 0.01 keV for NGC 4406, and 0.73 +/- 0.02 keV for NGC 4636. The metal abundance for NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636 are, under the assumption of solar ratios, 0.63 +/- 0.15, 0.45 +/- 0.10, and 0.38 +/- 0.07, respectively. Detailed analysis has allowed determination of the abundances of oxygen, silicon, sulfur, and iron. The observed abundances are consistent with the solar ratios. For NGC 4472 and NGC 4406 we also determined the mean temperature of the gas producing the Si lines from the ratio of the Si H to He-like lines and find it to be consistent with the continuum temperature. The X-ray temperature is in good agreement with the observed optical velocity dispersion, stellar density profile, and gas density profile. Our data indicates that the supernova rate should be less than one fifth of the nominal rate in early type galaxies. We derive the mass of these systems within fixed angular scales and find that M/L greater than 40, confirming that elliptical galaxies are dark matter dominated at large radii.

  2. Surface brightness profiles of blue compact dwarf galaxies in the GOODS-N and GOODS-S field

    CERN Document Server

    Lian, Jianhui; Jiang, Ning; Yan, Wei; Gao, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the structural properties of the underlying hosts of 34 blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies with deep near-infrared (NIR) photometry. The BCD sample is selected from the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey in the Great observatories origins Deep Survey North and South fields. We extract the surface brightness profile (SBP) in the optical F 435W and NIR F 160W bands. The SBPs of BCDs in the H band reach 26 mag arcsec^-2 at the 3\\sigma level, which is so far the deepest NIR imaging of BCDs. Then we fit the SBPs with one- and two- component Sersic models. About half of the BCDs favour the two-component model which significantly improves the fit quality. The effective radii of the underlying hosts of BCDs in the B band are smaller than those of early-type dwarfs (dEs) and dwarf irregulars at a fixed luminosity. This discrepancy is similar to findings in many previous works. However, the difference in structural parameters between BCDs and other dwarf galaxies seems to be less sig...

  3. Probing Very Bright-End of Galaxy Luminosity Function at z >~ 7 Using Hubble Space Telescope Pure Parallel Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Haojing; Zamojski, Michel A; Windhorst, Rogier A; McCarthy, Patrick J; Fan, Xiaohui; Röttgering, Huub J A; Koekemoer, Anton M; Robertson, Brant E; Davé, Romeel; Cai, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    We report the first results from the Hubble Infrared Pure Parallel Imaging Extragalactic Survey, which utilizes the pure parallel orbits of the Hubble Space Telescope to do deep imaging along a large number of random sightlines. To date, our analysis includes 26 widely separated fields observed by the Wide Field Camera 3, which amounts to 122.8 sq. arcmin in total area. We have found three bright Y098-dropouts, which are candidate galaxies at z >~ 7.4. One of these objects shows a peculiar indication of variability and its nature is uncertain. The other two objects are among the brightest candidate galaxies at these redshifts known to date (L>2L*). Such very luminous objects could be the progenitors of the high-mass LBGs observed at lower redshifts. While our sample is still limited in size, it is much less subject to the uncertainty caused by "cosmic variance" than other samples because it is derived using fields along many random sightlines. We find that the existence of the brightest candidate at z~7.4 is ...

  4. CARMA SURVEY TOWARD INFRARED-BRIGHT NEARBY GALAXIES (STING). III. THE DEPENDENCE OF ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR GAS SURFACE DENSITIES ON GALAXY PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Tony; Xue, Rui [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bolatto, Alberto D.; Fisher, David B.; Vogel, Stuart N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Blitz, Leo [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Bigiel, Frank [Institut für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ott, Jürgen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Rahman, Nurur [Department of Physics, C1 Lab 140, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the correlation between CO and H I emission in 18 nearby galaxies from the CARMA Survey Toward IR-Bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) at sub-kpc and kpc scales. Our sample, spanning a wide range in stellar mass and metallicity, reveals evidence for a metallicity dependence of the H I column density measured in regions exhibiting CO emission. Such a dependence is predicted by the equilibrium model of McKee and Krumholz, which balances H{sub 2} formation and dissociation. The observed H I column density is often smaller than predicted by the model, an effect we attribute to unresolved clumping, although values close to the model prediction are also seen. We do not observe H I column densities much larger than predicted, as might be expected were there a diffuse H I component that did not contribute to H{sub 2} shielding. We also find that the H{sub 2} column density inferred from CO correlates strongly with the stellar surface density, suggesting that the local supply of molecular gas is tightly regulated by the stellar disk.

  5. CARMA SURVEY TOWARD INFRARED-BRIGHT NEARBY GALAXIES (STING). III. THE DEPENDENCE OF ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR GAS SURFACE DENSITIES ON GALAXY PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the correlation between CO and H I emission in 18 nearby galaxies from the CARMA Survey Toward IR-Bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) at sub-kpc and kpc scales. Our sample, spanning a wide range in stellar mass and metallicity, reveals evidence for a metallicity dependence of the H I column density measured in regions exhibiting CO emission. Such a dependence is predicted by the equilibrium model of McKee and Krumholz, which balances H2 formation and dissociation. The observed H I column density is often smaller than predicted by the model, an effect we attribute to unresolved clumping, although values close to the model prediction are also seen. We do not observe H I column densities much larger than predicted, as might be expected were there a diffuse H I component that did not contribute to H2 shielding. We also find that the H2 column density inferred from CO correlates strongly with the stellar surface density, suggesting that the local supply of molecular gas is tightly regulated by the stellar disk

  6. Hubble space telescope observations of the afterglow, supernova, and host galaxy associated with the extremely bright GRB 130427A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Fruchter, A. S.; Hounsell, R. A.; Graham, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Pian, E. [INAF, Trieste Astronomical Observatory, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Mazzali, P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2 Liverpool Science Park 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cano, Z. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [Science and Technology Office, ZP12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Pe' er, A. [Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Misra, K., E-mail: a.j.levan@warwick.ac.uk [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Manora Peak, Nainital-263 002 (India)

    2014-09-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 130427A. At z = 0.34, this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova (SN) and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E {sub iso} > 10{sup 54} erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated SN. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability, and invariant point-spread function of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host, and SN contributions to the observed light ∼17 rest-frame days after the burst, utilizing a host subtraction spectrum obtained one year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys grism observations show that the associated SN, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, v {sub ph} ∼ 15, 000 km s{sup –1}). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (v {sub ph} ∼ 30, 000 km s{sup –1}), but this SN is significantly fainter and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated ∼4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}), possibly interacting disk galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size, and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it, are also strikingly similar to those of GRB 980425/SN 1998bw. The similarity of the SNe and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests that broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  7. Hubble space telescope observations of the afterglow, supernova, and host galaxy associated with the extremely bright GRB 130427A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 130427A. At z = 0.34, this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova (SN) and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E iso > 1054 erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated SN. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability, and invariant point-spread function of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host, and SN contributions to the observed light ∼17 rest-frame days after the burst, utilizing a host subtraction spectrum obtained one year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys grism observations show that the associated SN, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, v ph ∼ 15, 000 km s–1). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (v ph ∼ 30, 000 km s–1), but this SN is significantly fainter and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated ∼4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 M ☉ yr–1), possibly interacting disk galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size, and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it, are also strikingly similar to those of GRB 980425/SN 1998bw. The similarity of the SNe and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests that broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Afterglow, Supernova and Host Galaxy Associated with the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, A.J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Fruchter, A. S.; Hjorth, J.; Pian, E.; Mazzali, P.; Hounsell, R. A.; Perley, D. A.; Cano, Z.; Graham, J.; Cenko, S. B.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pe'er, A.; Misra, K.; Wiersema, K.

    2014-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst, GRB 130427A. At z=0.34 this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E(sub iso) greater than 10(exp 54) erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated supernova. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability and and invariant PSF of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host and supernova contributions to the observed light approximately 17 rest-frame days after the burst utilising a host subtraction spectrum obtained 1 year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism observations show that the associated supernova, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, vph approximately 15,000 kilometers per second). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second), but SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second but this SN is significantly fainter, and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated approximately 4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 Solar Mass yr(exp-1)), possibly interacting disc galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it are also strikingly similar to those of GRB980425SN 1998bw. The similarity of supernovae and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  9. Discovery of megaparsec-scale, low surface brightness nonthermal emission in merging galaxy clusters using the green bank telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from a study of 12 X-ray bright clusters at 1.4 GHz with the 100 m Green Bank Telescope. After subtraction of point sources using existing interferometer data, we reach a median (best) 1σ rms sensitivity level of 0.01 (0.006) μJy arcsec–2, and find a significant excess of diffuse, low surface brightness emission in 11 of 12 Abell clusters observed. We also present initial results at 1.4 GHz of A2319 from the Very Large Array. In particular, we find: (1) four new detections of diffuse structures tentatively classified as two halos (A2065, A2069) and two relics (A2067, A2073); (2) the first detection of the radio halo in A2061 at 1.4 GHz, which qualifies this as a possible ultra-steep spectrum halo source with a synchrotron spectral index of α ∼ 1.8 between 327 MHz and 1.4 GHz; (3) a ∼2 Mpc radio halo in the sloshing, minor-merger cluster A2142; (4) a >2× increase of the giant radio halo extent and luminosity in the merging cluster A2319; (5) a ∼7× increase to the integrated radio flux and >4× increase to the observed extent of the peripheral radio relic in A1367 to ∼600 kpc, which we also observe to be polarized on a similar scale; (6) significant excess emission of ambiguous nature in three clusters with embedded tailed radio galaxies (A119, A400, A3744). Our radio halo detections agree with the well-known X-ray/radio luminosity correlation, but they are larger and fainter than current radio power correlation studies would predict. The corresponding volume-averaged synchrotron emissivities are 1-2 orders of magnitude below the characteristic value found in previous studies. Some of the halo-like detections may be some type of previously unseen, low surface brightness radio halo or blend of unresolved shock structures and sub-Mpc-scale turbulent regions associated with their respective cluster merging activity. Four of the five tentative halos contain one or more X-ray cold fronts, suggesting a possible connection between gas

  10. Morphological Number Counts of Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field South

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Narae

    2000-01-01

    We present a study of photometric properties of the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field South (HDFS) based on the released WFPC2 images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We have classified about 340 galaxies with $I

  11. The Detection of a Population of Submillimeter-Bright, Strongly-Lensed Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Negrello, Mattia; De Zotti, G; Cooray, A; Verma, A; Bock, J; Frayer, D T; Gurwell, M A; Omont, A; Neri, R; Dannerbauer, H; Leeuw, L L; Barton, E; Cooke, J; Kim, S; da Cunha, E; Rodighiero, G; Cox, P; Bonfield, D G; Jarvis, M J; Serjeant, S; Ivison, R J; Dye, S; Aretxaga, I; Hughes, D H; Ibar, E; Bertoldi, F; Valtchanov, I; Eales, S; Dunne, L; Driver, S P; Auld, R; Buttiglione, S; Cava, A; Grady, C A; Clements, D L; Dariush, A; Fritz, J; Hill, D; Hornbeck, J B; Kelvin, L; Lagache, G; Lopez-Caniego, M; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Maddox, S; Pascale, E; Pohlen, M; Rigby, E E; Robotham, A; Simpson, C; Smith, D J B; Temi, P; Thompson, M A; Woodgate, B E; York, D G; Aguirre, J E; Beelen, A; Blain, A; Baker, A J; Birkinshaw, M; Blundell, R; Bradford, C M; Burgarella, D; Danese, L; Dunlop, J S; Fleuren, S; Glenn, J; Harris, A I; Kamenetzky, J; Lupu, R E; Maddalena, R J; Madore, B F; Maloney, P R; Matsuhara, H; Michalowski, M J; Murphy, E J; Naylor, B J; Nguyen, H; Popescu, C; Rawlings, S; Rigopoulou, D; Scott, D; Scott, K S; Seibert, M; Smail, I; Tuffs, R J; Vieira, J D; van der Werf, P P; Zmuidzinas, J; 10.1126/science.1193420

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful astrophysical and cosmological probe and is particularly valuable at submillimeter wavelengths for the study of the statistical and individual properties of dusty starforming galaxies. However the identification of gravitational lenses is often time-intensive, involving the sifting of large volumes of imaging or spectroscopic data to find few candidates. We used early data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey to demonstrate that wide-area submillimeter surveys can simply and easily detect strong gravitational lensing events, with close to 100% efficiency.

  12. Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Selected from the 40% Sky Area of the ALFALFA H I Survey. I. Sample and Statistical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Wu, Hong; Lam, Man I.; Zhu, Yinan; Lei, Fengjie; Zhou, Zhimin

    2015-06-01

    The population of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies, which are objects with central surface brightnesses at least one magnitude fainter than the night sky, is crucial for understanding the extremes of galactic formation and evolution of the universe. As LSB galaxies are mostly rich in gas (H i), the α.40 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) sample is one of the best survey combinations to select a sample of them in the local universe. Since the sky backgrounds are systematically overestimated for galactic images by the SDSS photometric pipeline, particularly for luminous galaxies or galaxies with extended LSB outskirts, in this paper, we above all estimated the sky backgrounds of SDSS images accurately in both the g and r bands for each galaxy in the α.40 SDSS DR7 sample, using a precise method of sky subtraction. Once subtracting the sky background, we did surface photometry with the Kron elliptical aperture using the SExtractor software and fitted geometric parameters with an exponential profile model using the Galfit software for each galactic image in the α.40 SDSS DR7 sample. Based on the photometric and geometric results, we further calculated the B-band central surface brightness, {{μ }0}(B), for each galaxy and ultimately defined a sample of LSB galaxies consisting of 1129 galaxies with {{μ }0}(B) > 22.5 mag arcsec‑2 and the axis ratio b/a > 0.3 from the 12,423 α.40 SDSS DR7 galaxies. This H i-selected sample of LSB galaxies is a relatively unbiased sample of gas-rich and disk-dominated LSB galaxies, which is complete both in H i observation and the optical magnitude within the limit of the SDSS DR7 photometric survey. This LSB galactic sample spans from 22.5 to 28.3 in {{μ }0}(B) with a fraction of 4% fainter than 25.0 mag arcsec‑2 in B-band central surface brightness and distributes from ‑27.0 to ‑12.3 mag in absolute magnitude in the B band (M(B)), including the 43 faintest galaxies (M(B) > ‑17.3 mag). This sample is

  13. Digitized POSS-II: Galaxy Number Counts in Two Colors Over a Multi-Plate Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, N.; Djorgovski, S.; Fayyad, U.

    1993-05-01

    We have developed a software system for the reduction and analysis of the Palomar-STScI Digital Sky Survey (cf. B.A.A.S. 23, p. 1434, and B.A.A.S. 24, pp. 741, 750, and 1139). This system, named SKICAT, uses a number of image processing and machine-learning based modules, and conducts pipeline processing of the plate scans, from raw pixel measurement, object classification, photometric matching of multiple plate images, to high-level catalog database manipulation using an X-windows based GUI. We are now in the process of implementing a variety of tools for the scientific and multivariate statistical analysis of the object catalogs. We will present our initial results on galaxy and star counts in two colors (photographic J and F, calibrated to Gunn g and r bands), for a multi-plate region near the north Galactic pole, covering up to 5 Survey fields ( ~ 125 square degrees), and up to 11 Survey fields ( ~ 275 square degrees) in a single color. The data have been uniformly calibrated using CCD sequences and plate overlaps over the range 16 models. Acknowledgements: The POSS-II is partially funded by grants to Caltech from the Eastman Kodak Co., the National Geographic Society, the Samuel Oschin Foundation, the NSF grants AST 84-08225 and AST 87-19465, and the NASA grants NGL 05002140 and NAGW 1710. NW was supported in part by a NSF graduate fellowship and by IPAC. SD acknowledges a partial support from the NASA contract NAS5-31348, the NSF PYI award AST-9157412, the Caltech President's fund, and JPL. Work at JPL is performed under a contract with the NASA.

  14. Probing the evolution of early-type galaxies using multi-colour number counts and redshift distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Nakata, F; Doi, M; Kashikawa, N; Kawasaki, W; Komiyama, Yu; Okamura, S; Sekiguchi, M; Yagi, M; Yasuda, N; Nakata, Fumiaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Doi, Mamoru; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kawasaki, Wataru; Komiyama, Yutaka; Okamura, Sadanori; Sekiguchi, Maki; Yagi, Masafumi; Yasuda, Naoki

    1999-01-01

    We investigate pure luminosity evolution models for early-type (elliptical and S0) galaxies (i.e., no number density change or morphology transition), and examine whether these models are consistent with observed number counts in the B, I and K bands and redshift distributions of two samples of faint galaxies selected in the I and K bands. The models are characterized by the star formation time scale $\\tau_{SF}$ and the time $t_{gw}$ when galactic wind blows in addition to several other conventional parameters. We find the single-burst model ($\\tau_{SF}$=0.1 Gyr and $t_{gw}$=0.353 Gyr), which is known to reproduce the photometric properties of early-type galaxies in clusters, is inconsistent with redshift distributions of early-type galaxies in the field environment due to overpredictions of galaxies at $z\\gsim1.4$ even with strong extinction which is at work until $t_{gw}$. In order for dust extinction to be more effective, we change $\\tau_{SF}$ and $t_{gw}$ as free parameters, and find that models with $\\ta...

  15. Visibility of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is stated that counts of galaxies could be seriously biased by selection effects, largely influenced by the brightness of the night sky. To illustrate this suppose the Earth were situated near the center of a giant elliptical galaxy. The mean surface brightness of the sky would then appear some 8 to 9 mag. brighter than is observed from our position in the Galaxy. Extragalactic space would then appear to be empty void; spiral and irregular galaxies would be invisible, and all that could be easily detected would be the core regions of galaxy ellipticals very similar to our own. Much of the Universe would be blinded by the surface brightness of the parent galaxy. This blinding, however, is a relative matter and the question arises as to what extent we are blinded by the spiral galaxy in which we exist. Strong indirect evidence exists that our knowledge of galaxies is heavily biased by the sky background, and the true population of extragalactic space may be very different from that seen. Other relevant work is also discussed, and further investigational work is indicated. (U.K.)

  16. Morphological Number Counts and Redshift Distributions to I = 25 from the Hubble Deep Fields: Constraints on Cosmological Models from Early Type Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Phillipps, S.; Driver, S. P.; Couch, W. J.; Fernandez-Soto, A.; Bristow, P. D.; Odewahn, S. C.; Windhorst, R. A.; Lanzetta, K.

    2000-01-01

    We combine magnitude and photometric redshift data on galaxies in the Hubble Deep Fields with morphological classifications in order to separate out the distributions for early type galaxies. The updated morphological galaxy number counts down to I = 25 and the corresponding redshift distributions are used as joint constraints on cosmological models, in particular on the values of the density parameter Omega_{0} and normalised cosmological constant Lambda_{0}. We find that an Einstein - de Si...

  17. SPECTROPOLARIMETRY WITH THE ALLEN TELESCOPE ARRAY: FARADAY ROTATION TOWARD BRIGHT POLARIZED RADIO GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have observed 37 bright, polarized radio sources with the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) to present a novel analysis of their Faraday rotation properties. Each source was observed during the commissioning phase with two to four 100 MHz bands at frequencies ranging from 1 to 2 GHz. These observations demonstrate how the continuous frequency coverage of the ATA's log-periodic receiver can be applied to the study of Faraday rotation measures (RMs). We use RM synthesis to show that wide-bandwidth data can find multiple RM components toward a single source. Roughly a quarter of the sources studied have extra RM components with high confidence (brighter than ∼40 mJy), when observing with an RM resolution of roughly 100 rad m-2. These extra components contribute 10%-70% of the total polarized flux. This is the first time multiple RM components have been identified in a large sample of point sources. For our observing configuration, these extra RM components bias the measurement of the peak RM by 10-15 rad m-2; more generally, the peak RM cannot be determined more precisely than the RM beam size. Comparing our 1-2 GHz RM spectra to Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) polarimetric maps shows that both techniques can identify complicated Faraday structures in the sources. However, the RM values and fractional polarization are generally smaller at lower frequencies than in the higher frequency VLBA maps. With a few exceptions, the RMs from this work are consistent with that of earlier, narrow-bandwidth, all-sky surveys. This work also describes the polarimetry calibration procedure and that on-axis ATA observations of linear polarization can be calibrated to an accuracy of 0.2% of Stokes I. Future research directions include studying the time-dependent RM structure in active galactic nuclei and enabling accurate, wide-area RM surveys to test models of Galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope observations of the afterglow, supernova and host galaxy associated with the extremely bright GRB 130427A

    CERN Document Server

    Levan, A J; Fruchter, A S; Hjorth, J; Pian, E; Mazzali, P; Perley, D A; Cano, Z; Graham, J; Hounsell, R A; Cenko, S B; Fynbo, J P U; Kouveliotou, C; Pe'er, A; Misra, K; Wiersema, K

    2013-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst, GRB 130427A. At z=0.34 this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E_iso >10^54 erg), much more luminous than almost all previous GRBs with spectroscopically associated supernovae. We use the combination of the image quality and UV capability of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host and supernova contributions to the observed light ~17 rest-frame days after the burst. We find that the burst originated ~4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 Msol/yr), possibly interacting disc galaxy. ACS grism observations show that the associated supernova, SN 2013cq, is well fit in the red by an SN 1998bw-like supernovae of similar luminosity and velocity (v~15,000 km/s). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (v~30,000 km/s), but this SN fai...

  19. An ultra-bright, dust-obscured, millimeter-galaxy beyond the Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56)

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, G W; Hughes, D; Ezawa, H; Austermann, J E; Doyle, S; Hernandez-Curiel, I; Kawabe, R; Kitayama, T; Kohno, K; Kuboi, A; Matsuo, H; Mauskopf, P D; Murakoshi, Y; Montana, A; Natarajan, P; Oshima, T; Ota, N; Perera, T; Rand, J; Scott, K S; Tanaka, K; Tsuboi, M; Williams, C C; Yun, M S

    2008-01-01

    Deep 1.1 mm continuum observations of the interacting galaxy-clusters 1E0657-56 (the Bullet Cluster) taken with the millimeter-wavelength camera AzTEC on the 10-m Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE), have revealed an extremely bright (S_1.1mm=15.9mJy) unresolved source. This source, MMJ065837-5557.0, lies close to a maximum in the density of underlying mass-distribution as traced by the weak-lensing analysis of Clowe et al. 2006, towards the larger of the two interacting clusters. A lensing-derived mass model for the Bullet Cluster shows a critical-line (caustic) of magnification very near the AzTEC source, likely providing a high boost (> 20) to its millimeter flux. We explore various scenarios to explain the colors, morphologies and positional offsets between the potential optical and IR counterparts, and their relationship with MMJ065837-5557.0. One interpretation is that MMJ065837-5557.0 is an individual distant LIRG, with multiple HST and Spitzer images due to the strong lensing by the Bull...

  20. Galaxies in X-ray Selected Clusters and Groups in Dark Energy Survey Data: Stellar Mass Growth of Bright Central Galaxies Since z~1.2

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y; Mckay, T; Rooney, P; Evrard, A E; Romer, A K; Perfecto, R; Song, J; Desai, S; Mohr, J; Wilcox, H; Bermeo, A; Jeltema, T; Hollowood, D; Bacon, D; Capozzi, D; Collins, C; Das, R; Gerdes, D; Hennig, C; Hilton, M; Hoyle, B; Kay, S; Liddle, A; Mann, R G; Mehrtens, N; Nichol, R C; Papovich, C; Sahlén, M; Soares-Santos, M; Stott, J; Viana, P T; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F B; Banerji, M; Bauer, A H; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Rosell, A Carnero; Castander, F J; Diehl, H T; Doel, P; Cunha, C E; Eifler, T F; Neto, A Fausti; Fernandez, E; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gaztanaga, E; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Honscheid, K; James, D; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Maia, M A G; Makler, M; Marshall, J L; Martini, Paul; Miquel, R; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Roodman, A; Rykoff, E S; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla, I; Smith, R C; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Tucker, D; Vikram, V; Da Costa, L N

    2015-01-01

    Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) for a new sample of 106 X-Ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of Bright Central Galaxies (BCGs) since redshift 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation, $m_{*}\\propto(\\frac{M_{200}}{1.5\\times 10^{14}M_{\\odot}})^{0.24\\pm 0.08}(1+z)^{-0.19\\pm0.34}$, and compare the observed relation to the simulation prediction. We estimate the average growth rate since z = 1.0 for BCGs hosted by clusters of $M_{200, z}=10^{13.8}M_{\\odot}$, at $z=1.0$: $m_{*, BCG}$ appears to have grown by $0.13\\pm0.11$ dex, in tension at $\\sim 2.5 \\sigma$ significance level with the 0.4 dex growth rate expected in the simulation. We show that...

  1. Galaxies in X-Ray Selected Clusters and Groups in Dark Energy Survey Data. I. Stellar Mass Growth of Bright Central Galaxies since z~1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, C.; McKay, T.; Rooney, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Romer, A. K.; Perfecto, R.; Song, J.; Desai, S.; Mohr, J.; Wilcox, H.; Bermeo-Hernandez, A.; Jeltema, T.; Hollowood, D.; Bacon, D.; Capozzi, D.; Collins, C.; Das, R.; Gerdes, D.; Hennig, C.; Hilton, M.; Hoyle, B.; Kay, S.; Liddle, A.; Mann, R. G.; Mehrtens, N.; Nichol, R. C.; Papovich, C.; Sahlén, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Stott, J.; Viana, P. T.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Castander, F. J.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Cunha, C. E.; Eifler, T. F.; Fausti Neto, A.; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, Paul; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Smith, R. C.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tucker, D.; Vikram, V.; da Costa, L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z ~ 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into an analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation, {m}*∝ ({M}200}/{1.5×{10}14{M}⊙}) 0.24+/-0.08(1+z)-0.19+/- 0.34, and compare the observed relation to the model prediction. We estimate the average growth rate since z = 1.0 for BCGs hosted by clusters of M200,z = 1013.8 M⊙ at z = 1.0: m*,BCG appears to have grown by 0.13 ± 0.11 dex, in tension at the ˜2.5σ significance level with the 0.40 dex growth rate expected from the semi-analytic model. We show that the build-up of extended intracluster light after z = 1.0 may alleviate this tension in BCG growth rates.

  2. CARMA Survey Toward Infrared-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) II: Molecular Gas Star Formation Law and Depletion Time Across the Blue Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Nurur; Xue, Rui; Wong, Tony; Leroy, Adam K; Walter, Fabian; Bigiel, Frank; Rosolowsky, Erik; Fisher, David B; Vogel, Stuart N; Blitz, Leo; West, Andrew A; Ott, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the relationship between molecular gas and current star formation rate surface density at sub-kpc and kpc scales in a sample of 14 nearby star-forming galaxies. Measuring the relationship in the bright, high molecular gas surface density ($\\Shtwo\\gtrsim$20 \\msunpc) regions of the disks to minimize the contribution from diffuse extended emission, we find an approximately linear relation between molecular gas and star formation rate surface density, $\

  3. Spitzer bright, UltraVISTA faint sources in COSMOS: the contribution to the overall population of massive galaxies at z=3-7

    CERN Document Server

    Caputi, K I; Laigle, C; McCracken, H J; Fevre, O Le; Fynbo, J; Milvang-Jensen, B; Capak, P; Salvato, M; Taniguchi, Y

    2015-01-01

    We have analysed a sample of 574 Spitzer 4.5 micron-selected galaxies with [4.5]24 (AB) over the UltraVISTA ultra-deep COSMOS field. Our aim is to investigate whether these mid-IR bright, near-IR faint sources contribute significantly to the overall population of massive galaxies at redshifts z>=3. By performing a spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis using up to 30 photometric bands, we have determined that the redshift distribution of our sample peaks at redshifts z~2.5-3.0, and ~32% of the galaxies lie at z>=3. We have studied the contribution of these sources to the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) at high redshifts. We found that the [4.5]24 galaxies produce a negligible change to the GSMF previously determined for Ks~50% of the galaxies with stellar masses Mst>~6 x 10^10 Msun. We also constrained the GSMF at the highest-mass end (Mst>~2 x 10^11 Msun) at z>=5. From their presence at 5=

  4. The Tolman Surface Brightness Test for the Reality of the Expansion. III. HST Profile and Surface Brightness Data for Early-Type Galaxies in Three High-Redshift Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lubin, L M; Lubin, Lori M.; Sandage, Allan

    2001-01-01

    Photometric data for 34 early-type galaxies in the three high-redshift clusters Cl 1324+3011 (z = 0.76), Cl 1604+4304 (z = 0.90), and Cl 1604+4321 (z = 0.92), observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and with the Keck 10-meter telescopes by Oke, Postman & Lubin, are analyzed to obtain the photometric parameters of mean surface brightness, magnitudes for the growth curves, and angular radii at various Petrosian eta radii. The angular radii at eta = 1.3 mag for the program galaxies are all larger than 0.24". All of the galaxies are well resolved at this angular size using HST whose point-spread function is 0.05", half width at half maximum. The data for each of the program galaxies are listed at eta = 1.0, 1.3, 1.5, 1.7, and 2.0 mag. They are corrected by color equations and K terms for the effects of redshift to the rest-frame Cape/Cousins I for Cl 1324+3011 and Cl 1604+4304 and R for Cl 1604+4321. The K corrections are calculated from synthetic spectral energy distributions derived from evolving ste...

  5. Atmospheric CO2 remote sensing system based on high brightness semiconductor lasers and single photon counting detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Serrano, Antonio; Vilera, Maria Fernanda; Esquivias, Ignacio; Faugeron, Mickael; Krakowski, Michel; van Dijk, Frédéric; Kochem, Gerd; Traub, Martin; Adamiec, Pawel; Barbero, Juan; Ai, Xiao; Rarity, John G.; Quatrevalet, Mathieu; Ehret, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    We propose an integrated path differential absorption lidar system based on all-semiconductor laser sources and single photon counting detection for column-averaged measurements of atmospheric CO2. The Random Modulated Continuous Wave (RM-CW) approach has been selected as the best suited to semiconductor lasers. In a RM-CW lidar, a pseudo random sequence is sent to the atmosphere and the received signal reflected from the target is correlated with the original sequence in order to retrieve the path length. The transmitter design is based on two monolithic Master Oscillator Power Amplifiers (MOPAs), providing the on-line and off-line wavelengths close to the selected absorption line around 1.57 µm. Each MOPA consists of a frequency stabilized distributed feedback master oscillator, a bent modulator section, and a tapered amplifier. This design allows the emitters to deliver high power and high quality laser beams with good spectral properties. An output power above 400 mW with a SMSR higher than 45 dB and modulation capability have been demonstrated. On the side of the receiver, our theoretical and experimental results indicate that the major noise contribution comes from the ambient light and detector noise. For this reason narrow band optical filters are required in the envisioned space-borne applications. In this contribution, we present the latest progresses regarding the design, modeling and characterization of the transmitter, the receiver, the frequency stabilization unit and the complete system.

  6. MOIRCS Deep Survey. I: DRG Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Kajisawa, M; Suzuki, R; Tokoku, C; Uchimoto, Y K; Yoshikawa, T; Akiyama, M; Ichikawa, T; Ouchi, M; Omata, K; Tanaka, I; Nishimura, T; Yamada, T; Kajisawa, Masaru; Konishi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ichikawa, Takashi; Ouchi, Masami; Omata, Koji; Tanaka, Ichi; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Toru

    2006-01-01

    We use very deep near-infrared imaging data taken with Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru Telescope to investigate the number counts of Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs). We have observed a 4x7 arcmin^2 field in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North (GOODS-N), and our data reach J=24.6 and K=23.2 (5sigma, Vega magnitude). The surface density of DRGs selected by J-K>2.3 is 2.35+-0.31 arcmin^-2 at K22 is smaller than that expected from the number counts at the brighter magnitude. The result indicates that while there are many bright galaxies at 222 suggest that the mass-dependent color distribution, where most of low-mass galaxies are blue while more massive galaxies tend to have redder colors, had already been established at that epoch.

  7. MOIRCS Deep Survey. I: DRG Number Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajisawa, Masaru; Konishi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Uchimoto, Yuka; Katsuno; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ichikawa, Takashi; Ouchi, Masami; Omata, Koji; Tanaka, Ichi; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Toru

    2006-12-01

    We used very deep near-infrared imaging data taken with the Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru Telescope to investigate the number counts of Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs). We observed a 4' × 7' field in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North (GOODS-N), and our data reached J=24.6 and K=23.2 (5σ, Vega magnitude). The surface density of DRGs selected by J - K > 2.3 is 2.35 ± 0.31 arcmin-2 at K 22 is smaller than that expected from the number counts at the brighter magnitude. The result indicates that while there are many bright galaxies at 2 22 suggest that the mass-dependent color distribution, where most of the low-mass galaxies are blue, while more massive galaxies tend to have redder colors, had already been established at that epoch.

  8. Chemical and luminosity evolution, and counts of galaxies in a merger model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, P.; Schramm, D. N.

    1993-01-01

    A merger model is applied to the chemical and luminosity evolution of galaxies. Two aspects are focused on. The first is the problem of abundance ratios as a function of metallicity. The second is related to the luminosity evolution of galaxies. In relation to the former, we calculate the evolution of several chemical elements exploring a broad space of possible star formation rates, including those derived using phenomenological arguments from a multiple merger galaxy formation scenario. We are able to reproduce the observed plateau in the ratio of the abundances of oxygen to iron versus metallicity as a direct consequence of one of the merging SFR used; we have utilized a standard Type II supernovae nucleosynthesis scenario coupled with a reasonable binary model for Type Ia supernovae and its consequent nucleosynthetic yields. Following the consequent luminosity effects in a straightforward way enables the estimation of the evolution of bolometric luminosity. We have used our recently developed code for photometric evolution of galaxies to make a preliminary computation of the number-magnitude relationship, assuming a standard picture of galaxy evolution, in the B and K bands.

  9. Morphological Number Counts and Redshift Distributions to I = 25 from the Hubble Deep Fields Constraints on Cosmological Models from Early Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Phillipps, S; Couch, W J; Fernández-Soto, A; Bristow, P D; Odewahn, S C; Windhorst, R A; Lanzetta, K

    2000-01-01

    We combine magnitude and photometric redshift data on galaxies in the Hubble Deep Fields with morphological classifications in order to separate out the distributions for early type galaxies. The updated morphological galaxy number counts down to I = 25 and the corresponding redshift distributions are used as joint constraints on cosmological models, in particular on the values of the density parameter Omega_{0} and normalised cosmological constant Lambda_{0}. We find that an Einstein - de Sitter universe with simple passive evolution gives an excellent fit to the counts and redshift data at all magnitudes. An open, low Omega_{0}, model with no net evolution (and conservation of the number of ellipticals), which fits the counts equally well, is somewhat less successful, predicting slightly lower mean redshifts and, more significantly, the lack of a high--z tail. A number conserving model with a dominant contribution from Lambda_{0}, on the other hand, is far less successful, predicting a much narrower distrib...

  10. New insights to the photometric structure of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies from deep Near-Infrared studies I. Observations, surface photometry and decomposition of surface brightness profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Noeske, K G; Cairos, L M; Fricke, K J

    2003-01-01

    (shortened) We analyze deep Near Infrared (NIR) broad band images for a sample of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies (BCDs), allowing for the quantitative study of their extended stellar low-surface brightness (LSB) host galaxies. NIR surface brightness profiles (SBPs) of the LSB hosts agree at large galactocentric radii with those from optical studies. At small to intermediate radii, however, the NIR data reveal for more than half of our sample a significant flattening of the exponential SBP of the LSB host. Such SBPs ("type V" SBPs, Binggeli & Cameron 1991) have rarely been detected in LSB hosts of BCDs at optical wavelengths, where the relative flux contribution of the starburst is stronger than in the NIR and can hide such central intensity depressions of the LSB host. The structural properties, frequency and physical origin of type V LSB SBPs in BCDs and other dwarf galaxies have not yet been systematically studied. Nevertheless, their occurrence in a significant fraction of BCDs would impose important new ...

  11. CARMA SURVEY TOWARD INFRARED-BRIGHT NEARBY GALAXIES (STING). II. MOLECULAR GAS STAR FORMATION LAW AND DEPLETION TIME ACROSS THE BLUE SEQUENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of the relationship between molecular gas and current star formation rate surface density at sub-kiloparsec and kiloparsec scales in a sample of 14 nearby star-forming galaxies. Measuring the relationship in the bright, high molecular gas surface density (ΣH2∼>20 M☉ pc–2) regions of the disks to minimize the contribution from diffuse extended emission, we find an approximately linear relation between molecular gas and star formation rate surface density, Nmol ∼ 0.96 ± 0.16, with a molecular gas depletion time, τmoldep ∼ 2.30 ± 1.32 Gyr. We show that in the molecular regions of our galaxies there are no clear correlations between τmoldep and the free-fall and effective Jeans dynamical times throughout the sample. We do not find strong trends in the power-law index of the spatially resolved molecular gas star formation law or the molecular gas depletion time across the range of galactic stellar masses sampled (M* ∼ 109.7-1011.5 M☉). There is a trend, however, in global measurements that is particularly marked for low-mass galaxies. We suggest that this trend is probably due to the low surface brightness CO J = 1-0, and it is likely associated with changes in CO-to-H2 conversion factor.

  12. An ALMA survey of submillimetre galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: High resolution 870um source counts

    CERN Document Server

    Karim, Alexander; Hodge, Jackie; Smail, Ian; Walter, Fabian; Biggs, Andy; Simpson, James; Danielson, Alice; Alexander, David; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Coppin, Kristen; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Edge, Alastair; Greve, Thomas; Ivison, Rob; Knudsen, Kirsten; Menten, Karl; Schinnerer, Eva; Wardlow, Julie; Weiß, Axel; van der Werf, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We report the first counts of faint submillimetre galaxies (SMG) in the 870-um band derived from arcsecond resolution observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). We have used ALMA to map a sample of 122 870-um-selected submillimetre sources drawn from the (0.5x0.5)deg^2 LABOCA Extended Chandra Deep Field South Submillimetre Survey (LESS). These ALMA maps have an average depth of sigma(870um)~0.4mJy, some ~3x deeper than the original LABOCA survey and critically the angular resolution is more than an order of magnitude higher, FWHM of ~1.5" compared to ~19" for the LABOCA discovery map. This combination of sensitivity and resolution allows us to precisely pin-point the SMGs contributing to the submillimetre sources from the LABOCA map, free from the effects of confusion. We show that our ALMA-derived SMG counts broadly agree with the submillimetre source counts from previous, lower-resolution single-dish surveys, demonstrating that the bulk of the submillimetre sources are not caused by blendi...

  13. Gas density and X-ray surface brightness profiles of clusters of galaxies from dark matter halo potentials beyond the isothermal beta model

    CERN Document Server

    Suto, Y; Makino, N; Suto, Yasushi; Sasaki, Shin; Makino, Nobuyoshi

    1998-01-01

    We describe a theoretical framework to compute the cluster gas distribution in hydrostatic equilibrium embedded in a class of spherical dark matter halo potentials. Unlike the conventional isothermal $\\beta$-model, the present method provides a physical basis to directly probe the shape of dark matter halo from the observed X-ray surface brightness and temperature profiles of clusters of galaxies. Specifically, we examine the extent to which the resulting gas density and X-ray surface brightness profiles are sensitive to the inner slope of the dark matter halo density and other more realistic effects including the self-gravity of the gas and the polytropic equation of state. We also discuss a practical strategy to apply the present methodology to the actual cluster profiles from future X-ray observations.

  14. The Tolman Surface Brightness Test for the Reality of the Expansion. IV. A Measurement of the Tolman Signal and the Luminosity Evolution of Early-Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lubin, L M; Lubin, Lori M.; Sandage, Allan

    2001-01-01

    We review a sample of the early literature in which the reality of the expansion is discussed, explain Hubble's reticence to accept the expansion as real, and contrast the Tolman surface brightness test with three other modern tests. We search for the Tolman surface brightness depression with redshift using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data from Paper III for 34 early-type galaxies from the three clusters Cl 1324+3011 (z=0.76), Cl 1604+4304 (z=0.90), and Cl 1604+4321 (z=0.92). Depressions of the surface brightness relative to the zero-redshift fiducial lines in the mean surface brightness, log linear radius diagrams of Paper I are found for all three clusters. Expressed as the exponent, n, in 2.5 log (1 + z)^n mag, the value of n for all three clusters is n = 2.59 +/- 0.17 in the R band and 3.37 +/- 0.13 in the I band for a q_o = 1/2 model. The sensitivity of the result to the assumed value of q_o is shown to be less than 23% between q_o = 0 and +1. For a true Tolman signal with n = 4, the luminosity evol...

  15. Bright galaxies at z=9-11 from pure-parallel HST observations: Building a unique sample for JWST with Spitzer/IRAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Stephanie; Trenti, Michele; Bouwens, Rychard

    2016-08-01

    The combination of observations taken by Hubble and Spitzer revealed the unexpected presence of sources as bright as our own Milky Way as early as 400 Myr after the Big Bang, potentially highlighting a new highly efficient regime for star formation in L>L* galaxies at very early times. Yet, the sample of high-quality z>8 galaxies that have both HST and Spitzer/IRAC imaging is still very small, particularly at high luminosities. We propose here to remedy this situation and efficiently follow-up with Spitzer/IRAC the most promising z>8 sources from our Hubble Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) survey, which covers a footprint on the sky similar to CANDELS, provides a deeper search than ground-based surveys like UltraVISTA, and is robust against cosmic variance because of its 180 independent lines of sight. The proposed new 3.6 micron observations will continue the Spitzer cycle 12 BORG911 program and target 15 additional fields, leveraging over 300 new HST orbits (350 sqarcmin) to identify a final sample of about 5 to 10 bright galaxies at z >= 8.5. For optimal time use (just over 22 hours), our goal is to readily discriminate between z>8 sources (undetected or marginally detected in IRAC) and z~2 interlopers (strongly detected in IRAC) with just 1-2 hours per pointing. The high-quality candidates that we will identify with IRAC will be ideal targets for further studies to investigate the reionization state of the inter-galactic medium through near-IR Keck/VLT spectroscopy. They will also be uniquely suited to measurement of the redshift and stellar population properties through JWST/NIRSPEC observations, with the potential to elucidate how the first generations of stars are assembled in the earliest stages of the epoch of reionization.

  16. Hα Surface Brightness Profiles of Star-Forming Galaxies and Dependence on Halo Mass Using the HAGGIS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, S.; Wilman, D.; Erwin, P.; Koppenhöfer, J.; Gutierrez, L.; Beckman, J.; Saglia, R.; Bender, R.

    2014-03-01

    We present the first results from the Hα Galaxy Groups Imaging Survey (HAGGIS), a narrow-band imaging survey of SDSS groups at z Issac Newton Telescope (INT). In total, we observed 100 galaxy groups with a wide range of halo mass (1012 - 1014 M⊙) in pairs of narrow-band filters selected to get continuum subtracted rest-frame Hα images for each galaxy. The excellent data allows us to detect Hα down to the 10-18 ergs/s/cm2/arcsec2 level. Here, we examine the role played by halo mass and galaxy stellar mass in deciding the overall star formation activity in star forming disks by comparing stacked Hα profiles of galaxies in different halo mass and stellar mass bins. With this preliminary study, we have found that the star-formation activity in star-forming galaxies decreases in larger halos compared to the field galaxies. Using median equivalent width profiles, we can infer how environmental processes affect star-forming galaxies differently at different radii.

  17. Comparing galaxy morphology and star formation properties in X-ray bright and faint groups and clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ian D.; Parker, Laura C.; Karunakaran, Ananthan

    2016-02-01

    Galaxy morphologies and star formation rates depend on environment. Galaxies in underdense regions are generally star-forming and discy whereas galaxies in overdense regions tend to be early-type and not actively forming stars. The mechanism(s) responsible for star formation quenching and morphological transformation remain unclear, although many processes have been proposed. We study the dependence of star formation and morphology on X-ray luminosity for galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) groups and clusters. While controlling for stellar and halo mass dependences, we find that galaxies in X-ray strong groups and clusters have preferentially low star-forming and disc fractions - with the differences being strongest at low stellar masses. The trends that we observe do not change when considering only galaxies found within or outside of the X-ray radius of the host group. When considering central and satellite galaxies separately we find that this dependence on X-ray luminosity is only present for satellites, and we show that our results are consistent with `galaxy strangulation' as a mechanism for quenching these satellites. We investigate the dynamics of the groups and clusters in the sample, and find that the velocity distributions of galaxies beyond the virial radius in low X-ray luminosity haloes tend to be less Gaussian in nature than the rest of the data set. This may be indicative of low X-ray luminosity groups and clusters having enhanced populations of star-forming and disc galaxies as a result of recent accretion.

  18. zCOSMOS 10k-bright spectroscopic sample: exploring mass and environment dependence in early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moresco, M; Cimatti, A; Zamorani, G; Mignoli, M; Di Cesare, S; Bolzonella, M; Zucca, E; Lilly, S; Kovac, K; Scodeggio, M; Cassata, P; Tasca, L; Vergani, D; Halliday, C; Carollo, M; Contini, T; Kneib, J -P; Le Fèvre, O; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Pello, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Silverman, J D; Tanaka, M; Tresse, L; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Guzzo, L; Koekemoer, A M; Leauthaud, A; Maccagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Nair, P; Oesch, P; Porciani, C; Scaramella, R; Scarlata, C; Scoville, N

    2010-01-01

    We present the analysis of the U-V rest-frame color distribution and some spectral features as a function of mass and environment for two sample of early-type galaxies up to z=1 extracted from the zCOSMOS spectroscopic survey. The first sample ("red galaxies") is defined with a photometric classification, while the second ("ETGs") by combining morphological, photometric, and spectroscopic properties to obtain a more reliable sample. We find that the color distribution of red galaxies is not strongly dependent on environment for all mass bins, with galaxies in overdense regions redder than galaxies in underdense regions with a difference of 0.027\\pm0.008 mag. The dependence on mass is far more significant, with average colors of massive galaxies redder by 0.093\\pm0.007 mag than low-mass galaxies throughout the entire redshift range. We study the color-mass relation, finding a mean slope 0.12\\pm0.005, while the color-environment relation is flatter, with a slope always smaller than 0.04. The spectral analysis t...

  19. Faint Submillimeter Galaxies Revealed by Multifield Deep ALMA Observations: Number Counts, Spatial Clustering, and Dark Submillimeter Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Kurono, Yasutaka; Momose, Rieko

    2014-01-01

    We present the statistics of faint submillimeter/millimeter galaxies (SMGs) and serendipitous detections of submillimeter/millimeter emitters (SMEs) with no multi-wavelength continuum counterpart revealed by the deep ALMA observations. We identify faint SMGs with flux densities of 0.1-1.0 mJy in the deep Band 6 and Band 7 maps of 10 independent fields that reduce cosmic variance effects. The differential number counts at 1.2 mm are found to increase with decreasing flux density down to 0.1 mJy. Our number counts indicate that the faint (0.1-1.0 mJy, or SFR_IR ~ 30-300 Msun/yr) SMGs contribute nearly a half of the extragalactic background light (EBL), while the remaining half of the EBL is mostly contributed by very faint sources with flux densities of 1 mJy) SMGs, but comparable with abundant high-z star-forming populations such as sBzKs, LBGs, and LAEs. Finally, we report the serendipitous detections of SMEs with continuum counterparts neither in our 1.2 mm-band nor multi-wavelength images including ultra de...

  20. The LBT Bootes Field Survey: I. The Rest-frame UV and Luminosity Functions and Clustering of Bright Lyman Break Galaxies at z~3

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian; Dey, Arjun; Green, Richard; Maiolino, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Dave, Romeel

    2013-01-01

    We present a deep LBT/LBC U-band imaging survey (9 deg2) covering the NOAO Bootes field. A total of 14,485 Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z~3 are selected, which are used to measure the rest-frame UV luminosity function (LF). The large sample size and survey area reduce the LF uncertainties due to Poisson statistics and cosmic variance by >3 compared to previous studies. At the bright end, the LF shows excess power compared to the best-fit Schechter function, which can be attributed to the contribution of $z\\sim3$ quasars. We compute the rest-frame near-infrared LF and stellar mass function (SMF) of z~3 LBGs based on the R-band and IRAC [4.5 micro m]-band flux relation. We investigate the evolution of the UV LFs and SMFs between z~7 and z~3, which supports a rising star formation history in the LBGs. We study the spatial correlation function of two bright LBG samples and estimate their average host halo mass. We find a tight relation between the host halo mass and the galaxy star formation rate (SFR),which fo...

  1. The faint galaxy contribution to the diffuse extragalactic background light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Shaun; Treyer, Marie-Agnes; Silk, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Models of the faint galaxy contribution to the diffuse extragalactic background light are presented, which are consistent with current data on faint galaxy number counts and redshifts. The autocorrelation function of surface brightness fluctuations in the extragalactic diffuse light is predicted, and the way in which these predictions depend on the cosmological model and assumptions of biasing is determined. It is confirmed that the recent deep infrared number counts are most compatible with a high density universe (Omega-0 is approximately equal to 1) and that the steep blue counts then require an extra population of rapidly evolving blue galaxies. The faintest presently detectable galaxies produce an interesting contribution to the extragalactic diffuse light, and still fainter galaxies may also produce a significant contribution. These faint galaxies still only produce a small fraction of the total optical diffuse background light, but on scales of a few arcminutes to a few degrees, they produce a substantial fraction of the fluctuations in the diffuse light.

  2. The bimodality of the 10k zCOSMOS-bright galaxies up to z ~ 1: a new statistical and portable classification based on the global optical galaxy properties

    CERN Document Server

    Coppa, G; Zamorani, G; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Pozzetti, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E; Cimatti, A; Lilly, S J; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Le Fèvre, O; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Mainieri, V; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Memeo, P; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Kneib, J -P; Knobel, C; Koekemoer, A M; Kovac, K; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Pellò, R; Peng, Y; Perez-Montero, E; Ricciardelli, E; Scarlata, C; Silverman, J D; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Capak, P; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Fumana, M; Guzzo, L; Leauthaud, A; Maccagni, D; Marinoni, C; Meneux, B; Oesch, P; Porciani, C; Scaramella, R; Scoville, N

    2010-01-01

    Our goal is to develop a new and reliable statistical method to classify galaxies from large surveys. We probe the reliability of the method by comparing it with a three-dimensional classification cube (Mignoli et al.~2009), using the same set of spectral, photometric and morphological parameters.We applied two different methods of classification to a sample of galaxies extracted from the zCOSMOS redshift survey, in the redshift range 0.5 0.5$, while galaxies with lower masses - of the order of $10^{10}$ Msun - are in transition at later epochs; galaxies with $M 5\\cdot 10^{10}$ Msun) mostly completed their transition before $z\\sim 1$.

  3. The UBVRI light curve behaviour of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 during the extraordinary maximum of the nuclear brightness in 1989-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulova, N. I.

    Observations were carried out with the 1.25 m telescope of Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, equipped with a Double Image Chopping Photometer--Polarimeter by Prof. V.Piirola from Helsinki University. This device allows to obtain simultaneous observations in 5 filters of Johnson's UBVRI system. Photometric errors were less than 0,m01, time resolution was about 3--4 min. Round diaphragms with diameters 20 and 15 arcseconds were used. During this extraordinary maximum the nuclear brightness in the U band increases on ~2m.0, while in the I band -- only on ~ 0m.7. All colour indices decreased: (U-B) from ~-0m.3 to ~-0m.8, (B-V) from ~0m.9 to ~0m.4, (V-I) from ~1m.3 to ~0m.9. The flux ascending in the blue spectral region was twice more than in the red one. The galaxy nucleus seems to be more and more "bluer", but some brightness and colour variations were observed during each of the 9 observational seasons, include local mimimums, flares and intranight variability. Colour--magnitude dependences were analyzed as well as two--colour diagrams. There were no differences between data obtained in 20" and 15" apertures. This fact means that we can see only fluxes from the galactic nucleus during the epoch of brightness maximum.

  4. OPTICAL-FAINT, FAR-INFRARED-BRIGHT HERSCHEL SOURCES IN THE CANDELS FIELDS: ULTRA-LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES AT z > 1 AND THE EFFECT OF SOURCE BLENDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Haojing; Stefanon, Mauro; Ma, Zhiyuan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Somerville, Rachel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Davé, Romeel [University of the Western Cape, 7535 Bellville, Cape Town (South Africa); Pérez-González, Pablo G. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Facultad de CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Cava, Antonio [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Wiklind, Tommy [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Kocevski, Dale [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Rafelski, Marc [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kartaltepe, Jeyhan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Herschel very wide field surveys have charted hundreds of square degrees in multiple far-IR (FIR) bands. While the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is currently the best resource for optical counterpart identifications over such wide areas, it does not detect a large number of Herschel FIR sources and leaves their nature undetermined. As a test case, we studied seven ''SDSS-invisible'', very bright 250 μm sources (S {sub 250} > 55 mJy) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey fields where we have a rich multi-wavelength data set. We took a new approach to decompose the FIR sources, using the near-IR or the optical images directly for position priors. This is an improvement over the previous decomposition efforts where the priors are from mid-IR data that still suffer from the problem of source blending. We found that in most cases the single Herschel sources are made of multiple components that are not necessarily at the same redshifts. Our decomposition succeeded in identifying and extracting their major contributors. We show that these are all ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at z ∼ 1-2 whose high L {sub IR} is mainly due to dust-obscured star formation. Most of them would not be selected as submillimeter galaxies. They all have complicated morphologies indicative of mergers or violent instability, and their stellar populations are heterogeneous in terms of stellar masses, ages, and formation histories. Their current ultra-luminous infrared galaxy phases are of various degrees of importance in their stellar mass assembly. Our practice provides a promising starting point for developing an automatic routine to reliably study bright Herschel sources.

  5. OPTICAL-FAINT, FAR-INFRARED-BRIGHT HERSCHEL SOURCES IN THE CANDELS FIELDS: ULTRA-LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES AT z > 1 AND THE EFFECT OF SOURCE BLENDING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Herschel very wide field surveys have charted hundreds of square degrees in multiple far-IR (FIR) bands. While the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is currently the best resource for optical counterpart identifications over such wide areas, it does not detect a large number of Herschel FIR sources and leaves their nature undetermined. As a test case, we studied seven ''SDSS-invisible'', very bright 250 μm sources (S 250 > 55 mJy) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey fields where we have a rich multi-wavelength data set. We took a new approach to decompose the FIR sources, using the near-IR or the optical images directly for position priors. This is an improvement over the previous decomposition efforts where the priors are from mid-IR data that still suffer from the problem of source blending. We found that in most cases the single Herschel sources are made of multiple components that are not necessarily at the same redshifts. Our decomposition succeeded in identifying and extracting their major contributors. We show that these are all ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at z ∼ 1-2 whose high L IR is mainly due to dust-obscured star formation. Most of them would not be selected as submillimeter galaxies. They all have complicated morphologies indicative of mergers or violent instability, and their stellar populations are heterogeneous in terms of stellar masses, ages, and formation histories. Their current ultra-luminous infrared galaxy phases are of various degrees of importance in their stellar mass assembly. Our practice provides a promising starting point for developing an automatic routine to reliably study bright Herschel sources

  6. Evidence for Ubiquitous, High-EW Nebular Emission in z~7 Galaxies: Towards a Clean Measurement of the Specific Star Formation Rate using a Sample of Bright, Magnified Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Smit, R; Labbe, I; Zheng, W; Bradley, L; Donahue, M; Lemze, D; Moustakas, J; Umetsu, K; Zitrin, A; Coe, D; Postman, M; Gonzalez, V; Bartelmann, M; Benitez, N; Broadhurst, T; Ford, H; Grillo, C; Infante, L; Jimenez-Teja, Y; Jouvel, S; Kelson, D D; Lahav, O; Maoz, D; Medezinski, E; Melchior, P; Meneghetti, M; Merten, J; Molino, A; Moustakas, L; Nonino, M; Rosati, P; Seitz, S

    2013-01-01

    Growing observational evidence now indicates that nebular line emission has a significant impact on the rest-frame optical fluxes of z~5-7 galaxies observed with Spitzer. This line emission makes z~5-7 galaxies appear more massive, with lower specific star formation rates. However, corrections for this line emission have been very difficult to perform reliably due to huge uncertainties on the overall strength of such emission at z>~5.5. Here, we present the most direct observational evidence yet for ubiquitous high-EW [OIII]+Hbeta line emission in Lyman-break galaxies at z~7, while also presenting a strategy for an improved measurement of the sSFR at z~7. We accomplish this through the selection of bright galaxies in the narrow redshift window z~6.6-7.0 where the IRAC 4.5 micron flux provides a clean measurement of the stellar continuum light. Observed 4.5 micron fluxes in this window contrast with the 3.6 micron fluxes which are contaminated by the prominent [OIII]+Hbeta lines. To ensure a high S/N for our I...

  7. H-Band dropouts in the deepest CANDELS field. A new population of bright massive galaxies at z >3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde Pampliega, B.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Domínguez Sánchez, H.; Esquej, P.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Barro, G.

    2015-05-01

    The recent increase in depth, spatial and wavelength coverage of extragalactic surveys has improved dramatically our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution and is revealing a new population of galaxies at high redshift. That is consistent with a downsizing (Cowie, L. L., Songaila, A., Hu, E. M., & Cohen, J. G. 1996, AJ, 112, 839; Heavens, A., Panter, B., Jiménez, R., & Dunlop, J. 2004, Nature, 428, 625; Juneau, S., et al. 2005, ApJ, 619, L135; Bauer, A. E., Drory, N., Hill, G. J., & Feulner, G. 2005, ApJ, 621, L89; Pérez-González et al. 2008, ApJ, 675, 234) scenario, which implies that the most massive galaxies formed early in the history of the universe and evolved quickly. Red color criteria and the analysis of deep mid-IR, has been proven to very useful to identify high-z extremely red galaxies as shown in (Caputi, K. et al. 2012, ApJ, 750, L20 and Huang, J.-S., Zheng, X. Z., Rigopoulou, D. et al., 2011, ApJ, 742, L13). We present our analysis of the deepest near-infrared (F160W/H-band from CANDELS) and mid-infrared (IRAC from GOODS) data taken by HST and Spitzer (in the GOODS fields) to select sources only detected by IRAC and with no CANDELS counterpart (i.e., H>27, [3.6]≤25). These H-Band dropouts constitute a previously unknown population of dust-enshrouded and/or quiescent massive red galaxies at z>3. Using the wealth of data available in the GOODS field, especially the SHARDS data, we characterize the properties of this population of red galaxies and discuss on its relevance for previous estimations of the stellar mass function at z=3-5, and the evolution of massive galaxies in the early Universe.

  8. {\\em Herschel}-ATLAS/GAMA: The Environmental Density of Far-Infrared Bright Galaxies at $z \\leq 0.5$

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, C S; Smith, D J B; Bonfield, D G; Hardcastle, M J; Stevens, J A; Bourne, N; Baes, M; Brough, S; Cava, A; Cooray, A; Dariush, A; De Zotti, G; Dunne, L; Eales, S; Hopwood, R; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Liske, J; Loveday, J; Maddox, S J; Negrello, M; Smith, M W L; Valiante, E

    2013-01-01

    We compare the environmental and star formation properties of far-infrared detected and non--far-infrared detected galaxies out to $z \\sim0.5$. Using optical spectroscopy and photometry from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), with far-infrared observations from the {\\em Herschel}-ATLAS Science Demonstration Phase (SDP), we apply the technique of Voronoi Tessellations to analyse the environmental densities of individual galaxies. Applying statistical analyses to colour, $r-$band magnitude and redshift-matched samples, we show there to be a significant difference at the 3.5$\\sigma$ level between the normalized environmental densities of these two populations. This is such that infrared emission (a tracer of star formation activity) favours underdense regions compared to those inhabited by exclusively optically observed galaxies selected to be of the same $r-$band magnitude, colour and redshift. Thus more highly star-forming galaxies are found to reside in the most underdens...

  9. Evidence for ubiquitous high-equivalent-width nebular emission in z ∼ 7 galaxies: toward a clean measurement of the specific star-formation rate using a sample of bright, magnified galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, R.; Bouwens, R. J.; Labbé, I. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Zheng, W.; Lemze, D.; Ford, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Postman, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Donahue, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Moustakas, J. [Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Umetsu, K. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P. O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Zitrin, A.; Bartelmann, M. [Institut fur Theoretische Astrophysik, ZAH, Albert-Ueberle-Straß e 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gonzalez, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Benítez, N.; Jimenez-Teja, Y. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huetor 24, Granada 18008 (Spain); Broadhurst, T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country, P. O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Grillo, C. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Infante, L. [Departamento de Astronoia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, V. Mackenna 4860, Santiago 22 (Chile); and others

    2014-03-20

    Growing observational evidence indicates that nebular line emission has a significant impact on the rest-frame optical fluxes of z ∼ 5-7 galaxies. This line emission makes z ∼ 5-7 galaxies appear more massive, with lower specific star-formation rates (sSFRs). However, corrections for this line emission have been difficult to perform reliably because of huge uncertainties on the strength of such emission at z ≳ 5.5. In this paper, we present the most direct observational evidence thus far for ubiquitous high-equivalent-width (EW) [O III] + Hβ line emission in Lyman-break galaxies at z ∼ 7, and we present a strategy for an improved measurement of the sSFR at z ∼ 7. We accomplish this through the selection of bright galaxies in the narrow redshift window z ∼ 6.6-7.0 where the Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) 4.5 μm flux provides a clean measurement of the stellar continuum light, in contrast with the 3.6 μm flux, which is contaminated by the prominent [O III] + Hβ lines. To ensure a high signal-to-noise ratio for our IRAC flux measurements, we consider only the brightest (H {sub 160} < 26 mag) magnified galaxies we have identified behind galaxy clusters. It is remarkable that the mean rest-frame optical color for our bright seven-source sample is very blue, [3.6]-[4.5] = –0.9 ± 0.3. Such blue colors cannot be explained by the stellar continuum light and require that the rest-frame EW of [O III] + Hβ is greater than 637 Å for the average source. The four bluest sources from our seven-source sample require an even more extreme EW of 1582 Å. We can also set a robust lower limit of ≳ 4 Gyr{sup –1} on the sSFR of our sample based on the mean spectral energy distribution.

  10. VLBI observations of the nuclei of a mixed sample of bright galaxies and quasars at 327 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first VLBI observations using the Ooty telescope are presented. An array consisting of telescopes at Ooty (India), Crimea (USSR), Torun (Poland), Westerbork (Netherlands) and Jodrell Bank (United Kingdom) was operated in 1983 December at a frequency of 327 MHz. Nearby galaxies, compact quasars and SS433 were observed in this pilot experiment. Most of the galaxies were found to be well resolved. The structure of SS433 (visible only on the shortest baseline) is consistent with that obtained in previous high-frequency VLBI work. The visibilities of the compact quasars indicate that large-scale scattering may be taking place in the interplanetary medium. (author)

  11. Bright [CII] and dust emission in three z>6.6 quasar host galaxies observed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Venemans, B P; Zschaechner, L; Decarli, R; De Rosa, G; Findlay, J R; McMahon, R G; Sutherland, W J

    2015-01-01

    We present ALMA detections of the [CII] 158 micron emission line and the underlying far-infrared continuum of three quasars at 6.6~6 quasar hosts correlate with the quasar's bolometric luminosity. In one quasar, the [CII] line is significantly redshifted by ~1700 km/s with respect to the MgII broad emission line. Comparing to values in the literature, we find that, on average, the MgII is blueshifted by 480 km/s (with a standard deviation of 630 km/s) with respect to the host galaxy redshift, i.e. one of our quasars is an extreme outlier. Through modeling we can rule out a flat rotation curve for our brightest [CII] emitter. Finally, we find that the ratio of black hole mass to host galaxy (dynamical) mass is higher by a factor 3-4 (with significant scatter) than local relations.

  12. Subaru high-$z$ exploration of low-luminosity quasars (SHELLQs). I. Discovery of 15 quasars and bright galaxies at $5.7 < z < 6.9$

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Strauss, Michael A; Nagao, Tohru; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Niida, Mana; Toba, Yoshiki; Akiyama, Masayuki; Asami, Naoko; Bosch, James; Foucaud, Sébastien; Furusawa, Hisanori; Goto, Tomotsugu; Gunn, James E; Harikane, Yuichi; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Kikuta, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lupton, Robert H; Minezaki, Takeo; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Murayama, Hitoshi; Nishizawa, Atsushi J; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Price, Paul A; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Silverman, John D; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Tait, Philip J; Takada, Masahiro; Takata, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tang, Ji-Jia; Utsumi, Yousuke

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of 15 quasars and bright galaxies at $5.7 < z < 6.9$. This is the initial result from the Subaru High-$z$ Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars (SHELLQs) project, which exploits the exquisite multi-band imaging data produced by the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Strategic Program survey. The candidate selection is performed by combining several photometric approaches including a Bayesian probabilistic algorithm to reject stars and dwarfs. The spectroscopic identification was carried out with the Gran Telescopio Canarias and the Subaru Telescope for the first 80 deg$^2$ of the survey footprint. The success rate of our photometric selection is quite high, approaching 100 % at the brighter magnitudes ($z_{\\rm AB} < 23.5$ mag). Our selection also recovered all the known high-$z$ quasars on the HSC images. Among the 15 discovered objects, six are likely quasars, while the other six with interstellar absorption lines and in some cases narrow emission lines are likely bright Lyman-br...

  13. Bright [CII] 158$\\mu$m emission in a quasar host galaxy at $z=6.54$

    CERN Document Server

    Bañados, E; Walter, F; Venemans, B P; Farina, E P; Fan, X

    2015-01-01

    The [CII] 158$\\mu$m fine-structure line is known to trace regions of active star formation and is the main coolant of the cold, neutral atomic medium. In this \\textit{Letter}, we report a strong detection of the [CII] line in the host galaxy of the brightest quasar known at $z>6.5$, the Pan-STARRS1 selected quasar PSO J036.5078+03.0498 (hereafter P036+03), using the IRAM NOEMA millimeter interferometer. Its [CII] and total far-infrared luminosities are $(5.8 \\pm 0.7) \\times 10^9 \\,L_\\odot$ and $(7.6\\pm1.5) \\times 10^{12}\\,L_\\odot$, respectively. This results in a $L_{[CII]} /L_{TIR}$ ratio of $\\sim 0.8\\times 10^{-3}$, which is at the high end for those found for active galaxies, though it is lower than the average found in typical main sequence galaxies at $z\\sim 0$. We also report a tentative additional line which we identify as a blended emission from the $3_{22} - 3_{13}$ and $5_{23} - 4_{32}$ H$_2$O transitions. If confirmed, this would be the most distant detection of water emission to date. P036+03 riva...

  14. Non-Axisymmetric Structure in the Satellite Dwarf Galaxy NGC2976: Implications for its Dark/Bright Mass Distribution and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, O; Cano-Díaz, M; Puerari, I; Buta, R; Pichardo, B; Groess, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the result of an extensive search for non-axisymmetric structures in the dwarf satellite galaxy of M81: NGC 2976, using multiwavelength archival observations. The galaxy is known to present kinematic evidence for a bysimmetric distortion, anyhow the stellar bar presence is controversial, due to the possible interpretation of NGC 2976 presenting an elliptical disk triggered by a prolate dark matter halo. We applied diagnostics in order to detect stellar bars or spiral arms. The m=2 fourier phase has a jump around 60 arcsecs consistent with a central bar and bisymmetric arms. The CO, 3.6 $\\mu$ surface brightness and the dust lanes are consistent with a gas rich central bar and possibly with gaseous spiral arms. The kinematic jumps related with the dust lanes suggest that the bar perturbation in the disk kinematics is non-negligible and the reported non-circular motions, the central gas excess and the nuclear X-ray source (AGN/Starburst) might be produced by the central bar. SPH simulations of disks i...

  15. Non-axisymmetric structure in the satellite dwarf galaxy NGC 2976: Implications for its dark/bright mass distribution and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the result of an extensive search for non-axisymmetric structures in the dwarf satellite galaxy of M81, NGC 2976, using multiwavelength archival observations. The galaxy is known to present kinematic evidence for a bisymmetric distortion; however, the stellar bar presence is controversial. This controversy motivated the possible interpretation of NGC 2976 as presenting an elliptical disk triggered by a prolate dark matter halo. We applied diagnostics used in spiral galaxies in order to detect stellar bars or spiral arms. The m = 2 Fourier phase has a jump around 60 arcsec, consistent with a central bar and bisymmetric arms. The CO, 3.6 μm surface brightness, and the dust lanes are consistent with a gas-rich central bar and possibly with gaseous spiral arms. The bar-like feature is offset close to 20° from the disk position angle, in agreement with kinematic estimations. The kinematic jumps related to the dust lanes suggest that the bar perturbation in the disk kinematics is non-negligible and the reported non-circular motions, the central gas excess, and the nuclear X-ray source (active galactic nucleus/starburst) might be produced by the central bar. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of disks inside triaxial dark halos suggest that the two symmetric spots at 130 arcsec and the narrow arms may be produced by gas at turning points in an elliptical disk, or, alternatively, the potential ellipticity can be produced by a tidally induced strong stellar bar/arms; in both cases the rotation curve interpretation is, importantly, biased. The M81 group is a natural candidate to trigger the bisymmetric distortion and the related evolution as suggested by the H I tidal bridge detected by Chynoweth et al. We conclude that both mechanisms, the gas-rich bar and spiral arms triggered by the environment (tidal stirring) and primordial halo triaxiality, can explain most of the NGC 2976 non-circular motions, mass redistribution, and nuclear activity

  16. Non-axisymmetric structure in the satellite dwarf galaxy NGC 2976: Implications for its dark/bright mass distribution and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, Octavio; Hernandez-Toledo, Hector; Cano, Mariana; Pichardo, Bárbara [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonóma de Mexico, A.P. 70-264, 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico); Puerari, Ivanio [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Optica y Electrónica, Calle Luis Enrique Erro 1, 72840 Sta. Maria Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Buta, Ronald [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Groess, Robert, E-mail: octavio@astro.unam.mx [School of Computational and Applied Mathematics, University of Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, WITS 2050 (South Africa)

    2014-02-01

    We present the result of an extensive search for non-axisymmetric structures in the dwarf satellite galaxy of M81, NGC 2976, using multiwavelength archival observations. The galaxy is known to present kinematic evidence for a bisymmetric distortion; however, the stellar bar presence is controversial. This controversy motivated the possible interpretation of NGC 2976 as presenting an elliptical disk triggered by a prolate dark matter halo. We applied diagnostics used in spiral galaxies in order to detect stellar bars or spiral arms. The m = 2 Fourier phase has a jump around 60 arcsec, consistent with a central bar and bisymmetric arms. The CO, 3.6 μm surface brightness, and the dust lanes are consistent with a gas-rich central bar and possibly with gaseous spiral arms. The bar-like feature is offset close to 20° from the disk position angle, in agreement with kinematic estimations. The kinematic jumps related to the dust lanes suggest that the bar perturbation in the disk kinematics is non-negligible and the reported non-circular motions, the central gas excess, and the nuclear X-ray source (active galactic nucleus/starburst) might be produced by the central bar. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of disks inside triaxial dark halos suggest that the two symmetric spots at 130 arcsec and the narrow arms may be produced by gas at turning points in an elliptical disk, or, alternatively, the potential ellipticity can be produced by a tidally induced strong stellar bar/arms; in both cases the rotation curve interpretation is, importantly, biased. The M81 group is a natural candidate to trigger the bisymmetric distortion and the related evolution as suggested by the H I tidal bridge detected by Chynoweth et al. We conclude that both mechanisms, the gas-rich bar and spiral arms triggered by the environment (tidal stirring) and primordial halo triaxiality, can explain most of the NGC 2976 non-circular motions, mass redistribution, and nuclear activity

  17. Comparison of the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey with the Munich semi-analytical model - I. Magnitude counts, redshift distribution, colour bimodality, and galaxy clustering

    CERN Document Server

    de la Torre, S; De Lucia, G; Blaizot, J; Fèvre, O Le; Garilli, B; Cucciati, O; Mellier, Y; Pollo, A; Bottini, D; Brun, V Le; Maccagni, D; Scodeggio, M; Tresse, L; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Cappi, A; Charlot, S; Ciliegi, P; Contini, T; Foucaud, S; Franzetti, P; Gavignaud, I; Guzzo, L; Ilbert, O; Iovino, A; McCracken, H J; Marinoni, C; Mazure, A; Merighi, R; Paltani, S; Pelló, R; Pozzetti, L; Vergani, D; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed comparison between high-redshift observations from the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) and predictions from the Munich semi-analytical model of galaxy formation. In particular, we focus this analysis on the magnitude, redshift, and colour distributions of galaxies, as well as their clustering properties. We constructed 100 quasi-independent mock catalogues, using the output of the semi-analytical model presented in De Lucia & Blaizot (2007).We then applied the same observational selection function of the VVDS-Deep survey, so as to carry out a fair comparison between models and observations. We find that the semi-analytical model reproduces well the magnitude counts in the optical bands. It tends, however, to overpredict the abundance of faint red galaxies, in particular in the i' and z' bands. Model galaxies exhibit a colour bimodality that is only in qualitative agreement with the data. In particular, we find that the model tends to overpredict the number of red galaxies at lo...

  18. A 52 hours VLT/FORS2 spectrum of a bright z~7 HUDF galaxy: no Ly-alpha emission

    CERN Document Server

    Vanzella, E; Pentericci, L; Castellano, M; Grazian, A; Giavalisco, M; Nonino, M; Cristiani, S; Zamorani, G; Vignali, C

    2014-01-01

    We aim to determine the redshift of GDS-1408, the most solid z~7 galaxy candidate lying in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. We have used all the VLT spectra of GDS-1408 collected by us and two other groups with FORS2 at VLT in the last five years, for a total integration time of 52hr. The combined spectrum is the deepest ever obtained of a galaxy in the Reionization epoch. We do not detect any emission line or continuum over the whole wavelength range, up to 10100A. Based on an accurate set of simulations, we are able to put a stringent upper limit of f(Lya)<3x10^(-18) erg/s/cm2 at 3-9 sigma in the explored wavelength range, corresponding to a rest-frame equivalent width EW<9A. Combining this limit with the SED modelling we refine the redshift to be z=6.82+/- 0.1 (1-sigma). The same SED fitting indicates that GDS-1408 is relatively extinct (A1600~1) with a dust corrected star formation rate of ~ 20 Msol/yr. The comparison between the un-attenuated equivalent width predicted by the case-B recombination theor...

  19. Rapid and multi-band variability of the TeV-bright active nucleus of the galaxy IC 310

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Boller, A; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Tridon, D Borla; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Fidalgo, D Carreto; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Cossio, L; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; Mendez, C Delgado; De Lotto, B; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Farina, E; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadamek, A; Hadasch, D; Häfner, D; Herrero, A; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Knoetig, M L; Krähenbühl, T; Krause, J; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López-Coto, R; López, M; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Masbou, J; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moldón, J; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Partini, S; Persic, M; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Preziuso, S; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Storz, J; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Weitzel, Q; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Dauser, T; Fortin, P; Kadler, M; Krauß, F; Wilbert, S; Wilms, J; Dr-Karl-Remeis-Observatory,; Physics, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle; Bamberg, 96049; Germany,; Observatory, Fred Lawrence Whipple; Astrophysics, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for; Amado,; 85645, AZ; USA),

    2013-01-01

    Context. The galaxy IC 310 has recently been identified as a $\\gamma$-ray emitter by the Fermi-LAT and at very high energies by the MAGIC telescopes. Originally classified as a head-tail radio galaxy, the nature of this object is subject of controversy because its nucleus shows blazar-like behavior. Aims. In order to understand the nature of IC 310 and the origin of the VHE emission we studied the spectral and flux variability of IC 310 from the X-ray band to the VHE regime. Methods. The daily light curve of IC 310 above 300 GeV has been measured with MAGIC from 2009 October to 2010 February. Contemporaneous Fermi-LAT data (2008-2011) in the 10-500 GeV energy range were also analyzed. In X-ray, archival observations from 2003 to 2007 with XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Swift-XRT in the 0.5-10 keV band were studied. Results. Several flares with similar amplitude can be seen in the MAGIC light curve. Day to day flux variability is clearly present. The photon index between 120 GeV and 8 TeV is measured to be $\\Gamma=2...

  20. Dust content of a hydrogen rich, low surface brightness galaxy and the luminosity history of 3C273

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Thomas T.

    1993-01-01

    This project consists of a 30,000 second PSPC observation of the Giovanelli-Haynes Cloud in an attempt to detect light emitted by 3C273 which has been reflected by the cloud, and incidentally search the cloud for other sources of X-ray emission. The observation was carried out by ROSAT on Dec. 25, 1992 and the data was received by the P.I. in late March of 1993. We have examined the data and determined that the observation's background level, astrometry, etc. are acceptable. We have also detected diffuse emission from the direction of the Giovanelli-Haynes Cloud. Determination of the origin of this emission, by examining its morphology in relation to that of the radio map and the object's geometric relation with 3C273, requires software implementation of specialized algorithms. However, the most dramatic observation in the field is a potentially new population of discrete soft X-ray sources associated with dwarf galaxies.

  1. Rapid and multiband variability of the TeV bright active nucleus of the galaxy IC 310

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carreto Fidalgo, D.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; Delgado Mendez, C.; De Lotto, B.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Farina, E.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadamek, A.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Knoetig, M. L.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López-Coto, R.; López, M.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Masbou, J.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Preziuso, S.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Context. The radio galaxy IC 310 has recently been identified as a γ-ray emitter based on observations at GeV energies with Fermi-LAT and at very high energies (VHE, E > 100 GeV) with the MAGIC telescopes. Originally classified as a head-tail radio galaxy, the nature of this object is subject of controversy since its nucleus shows blazar-like behavior. Aims: To understand the nature of IC 310 and the origin of the VHE emission, we studied the spectral and flux variability of IC 310 from the X-ray band to the VHE γ-ray regime. Methods: The light curve of IC 310 above 300 GeV has been measured with the MAGIC telescopes from 2009 October to 2010 February. Contemporaneous Fermi-LAT data (2008-2011) in the 10-500 GeV energy range were also analyzed. In the X-ray regime, archival observations from 2003 to 2007 with XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Swift-XRT in the 0.5-10 keV band were studied. Results: The VHE light curve reveals several high-amplitude and short-duration flares. Day-to-day flux variability is clearly present (>5σ). The photon index between 120 GeV and 8 TeV remains at the value Γ ~ 2.0 during both low and high flux states. The VHE spectral shape does not show significant variability, whereas the flux at 1 TeV changes by a factor of ~7. Fermi-LAT detected only eight γ-ray events in the energy range 10 GeV-500 GeV in three years of observation. The measured photon index of Γ = 1.3 ± 0.5 in the Fermi-LAT range is very hard. The X-ray measurements show strong variability in both flux and photon index. The latter varied from 1.76 ± 0.07 to 2.55 ± 0.07. Conclusions: The rapid variability measured in γ-rays and X-rays confirms the blazar-like behavior of IC 310. The multi-TeV γ-ray emission seems to originate from scales of less than 80 Schwarzschild radii (for a black hole mass of 2 × 108 M⊙) within the compact core of its FR I radio jet with orientation angle 10°-38°. The spectral energy distribution resembles that of an extreme blazar, albeit the

  2. Can AGN and galaxy clusters explain the surface brightness fluctuations of the cosmic X-ray background?

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodzig, Alexander; Hütsi, Gert; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Fluctuations of the surface brightness of cosmic X-ray background (CXB) carry unique information about faint and low luminosity source populations, which is inaccessible for conventional large-scale structure (LSS) studies based on resolved sources. We used Chandra data of the XBOOTES field ($\\sim9\\,\\mathrm{deg^2}$) to conduct the most accurate measurement to date of the power spectrum of fluctuations of the unresolved CXB on the angular scales of $\\sim3\\,$arcsec $-$ $\\sim17\\,$arcmin. We find that at sub-arcmin angular scales, the power spectrum is consistent with the AGN shot noise, without much need for any significant contribution from their one-halo term. This is consistent with the theoretical expectation that low-luminosity AGN reside alone in their dark matter halos. However, at larger angular scales we detect a significant LSS signal above the AGN shot noise. Its power spectrum, obtained after subtracting the AGN shot noise, follows a power law with the slope of $-0.8\\pm0.1$ and its amplitude is much ...

  3. Dynamical Structure of the Molecular Interstellar Medium in an Extremely Bright, Multiply Lensed z~3 Submillimeter Galaxy Discovered with Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Riechers, Dominik A; Omont, A; Neri, R; Harris, A I; Baker, A J; Cox, P; Frayer, D T; Carpenter, J M; Auld, R; Aussel, H; Beelen, A; Blundell, R; Bock, J; Brisbin, D; Burgarella, D; Chanial, P; Chapman, S C; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Dowell, C D; Eales, S; Farrah, D; Franceschini, A; Gavazzi, R; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Gurwell, M; Ivison, R J; Kim, S; Krips, M; Mortier, A M J; Oliver, S J; Page, M J; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rawlings, J I; Raymond, G; Rodighiero, G; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Scott, K S; Seymour, N; Smith, A J; Symeonidis, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Vieira, J D; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Wardlow, J; Wright, G

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of CO 5-4, 3-2, and 1-0 emission in the strongly lensed, Herschel/SPIRE-selected submillimeter galaxy (SMG) HLSW-01 at z=2.9574+/-0.0001, using the Plateau de Bure Interferometer, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, and the Green Bank Telescope. The observations spatially resolve the molecular gas into four lensed images with a maximum separation of ~9", and reveal the internal gas dynamics in this system. We derive lensing-corrected CO line luminosities of L'(CO 1-0) = (4.17+/-0.41), L'(CO 3-2) = (3.96+/-0.20) and L'(CO 5-4) = (3.45+/-0.20) x 10^10 (mu_L/10.9)^-1 Kkm/s pc^2, corresponding to luminosity ratios of r_31 = 0.95+/-0.10, r_53 = 0.87+/-0.06, and r_51 = 0.83+/-0.09. This suggests a total molecular gas mass of Mgas = 3.3 x 10^10 (alpha_CO/0.8) (mu_L/10.9)^-1 Msun. The gas mass, gas mass fraction, gas depletion timescale, star formation efficiency, and specific star formation rate are typical for an SMG. The velocity structure of the gas reservoir sugg...

  4. Detection of an ultra-bright submillimeter galaxy in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field using AzTEC/ASTE

    CERN Document Server

    Ikarashi, S; Aguirre, J E; Aretxaga, I; Arumugam, V; Austermann, J E; Bock, J J; Bradford, C M; Cirasuolo, M; Earle, L; Ezawa, H; Furusawa, H; Furusawa, J; Glenn, J; Hatsukade, B; Hughes, D H; Iono, D; Ivison, R J; Johnson, S; Kamenetzky, J; Kawabe, R; Lupu, R; Maloney, P; Matsuhara, H; Mauskopf, P D; Motohara, K; Murphy, E J; Nakajima, K; Nakanishi, K; Naylor, B J; Nguyen, H T; Perera, T A; Scott, K S; Takagi, T; Takata, T; Tamura, Y; Tanaka, K; Tsukagoshi, T; Wilner, D J; Wilson, G W; Yun, M S; Zmuidzinas, J

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of an extremely bright ($\\sim$34 mJy at 1100 $\\mu$m and $\\sim$73 mJy at 880 $\\mu$m) submillimeter galaxy (SMG), AzTEC-ASTE-SXDF1100.001 (hereafter referred to as SXDF1100.001), discovered in 1100 $\\mu$m observations of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field using AzTEC on ASTE. Subsequent CARMA 1300 $\\mu$m and SMA 880 $\\mu$m observations successfully pinpoint the location of SXDF1100.001 and suggest that it has two components, extended (FWHM of $\\sim$4^{\\prime\\prime}) and compact (unresolved) ones. Z-Spec on CSO has also been used to obtain a wide band spectrum from 190 to 308 GHz, although no significant emission/absorption lines are found. The derived upper limit to the line-to-continuum flux ratio is 0.1--0.3 (2 $\\sigma$) across the Z-Spec band. Based on the analysis of the derived spectral energy distribution from optical to radio wavelengths of possible counterparts near the SMA/CARMA peak position, we suggest that SXDF1100.001 is a lensed, optically dark SMG lying at $z \\sim 3.4$ behin...

  5. Star counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of stars counted along a particular line of sight depends on the spatial distribution of stars, the luminosity function, and the absorption. Thus star count programs designed to constrain or determine one or more of these functions. Early efforts to understand the structure of our Galaxy, including the fundamentals of stellar statistics, were largely based on work that involved star counts. Since then a growing appreciation has developed for the variety of forms the density function and the luminosity function can take, especially the recognition of different stellar populations, each with different density and luminosity functions. In the simplest formulation two distinct populations are considered: disk and halo. This suggests two distinct formation histories, but uncertainty in the picture remains. (Auth.)

  6. Galaxies in x-ray selected clusters and groups in Dark Energy Survey Data I: Stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies since Z similar to 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, C.; McKay, T.; Rooney, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Romer, A. K.; Perfecto, R.; Song, J; Desai, S.; Mohr, J. J.; Vikram, V.

    2016-01-10

    Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z similar to 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into an analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation, m(*) proportional to (M-200/1.5 x 10(14)M(circle dot))(0.24 +/- 0.08)(1+z)(-0.19 +/- 0.34), and compare the observed relation to the model prediction. We estimate the average growth rate since z = 1.0 for BCGs hosted by clusters of M-200,M-z = 10(13.8)M(circle dot); at z = 1.0: m(*, BCG) appears to have grown by 0.13 +/- 0.11 dex, in tension at the similar to 2.5 sigma significance level with the 0.40 dex growth rate expected from the semi-analytic model. We show that the build-up of extended intracluster light after z = 1.0 may alleviate this tension in BCG growth rates.

  7. Are LGRBs biased tracers of star formation? Clues from the host galaxies of the Swift/BAT6 complete sample of bright LGRBs. II: star formation rates and metallicities at z < 1

    CERN Document Server

    Japelj, J; Salvaterra, R; D'Avanzo, P; Mannucci, F; Fernandez-Soto, A; Boissier, S; Hunt, L K; Atek, H; Rodríguez-Muñoz, L; Scodeggio, M; Cristiani, S; Floc'h, E Le; Flores, H; Gallego, J; Ghirlanda, G; Gomboc, A; Hammer, F; Perley, D A; Pescalli, A; Petitjean, P; Puech, M; Rafelski, M; Tagliaferri, G

    2016-01-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) are associated with the deaths of massive stars and could thus be a potentially powerful tool to trace cosmic star formation. However, especially at low redshifts (z < 1.5) LGRBs seem to prefer particular types of environment. Our aim is to study the host galaxies of a complete sample of bright LGRBs to investigate the impact of the environment on GRB formation. We study host galaxy spectra of the Swift/BAT6 complete sample of 14 z < 1 bright LGRBs. We use the detected nebular emission lines to measure the dust extinction, star formation rate (SFR) and nebular metallicity (Z) of the hosts and supplement the data set with previously measured stellar masses M$_{\\star}$. The distributions of the obtained properties and their interrelations (e.g. mass-metallicity and SFR-M$_{\\star}$ relations) are compared to samples of field star-forming galaxies.We find that LGRB hosts at z < 1 have on average lower SFRs than if they were direct star-formation tracers. By directly comparin...

  8. H0LiCOW III. Quantifying the effect of mass along the line of sight to the gravitational lens HE 0435-1223 through weighted galaxy counts

    CERN Document Server

    Rusu, Cristian E; Sluse, Dominique; Hilbert, Stefan; Wong, Kenneth C; Huang, Kuang-Han; Suyu, Sherry H; Collett, Thomas E; Marshall, Philip J; Treu, Tommaso; Koopmans, Leon V E

    2016-01-01

    Based on spectroscopy and multiband wide-field observations of the gravitationally lensed quasar HE 0435-1223, we determine the probability distribution function of the external convergence $\\kappa_\\mathrm{ext}$ for this system. We measure the under/overdensity of the line of sight towards the lens system and compare it to the average line of sight throughout the universe, determined by using the CFHTLenS as a control field. Aiming to constrain $\\kappa_\\mathrm{ext}$ as tightly as possible, we determine under/overdensities using various combinations of relevant informative weighing schemes for the galaxy counts, such as projected distance to the lens, redshift, and stellar mass. We then convert the measured under/overdensities into a $\\kappa_\\mathrm{ext}$ distribution, using ray-tracing through the Millennium Simulation. We explore several limiting magnitudes and apertures, and account for systematic and statistical uncertainties relevant to the quality of the observational data, which we further test through ...

  9. HerMES: A search for high-redshift dusty galaxies in the HerMES Large Mode Survey - Catalogue, number counts and early results

    CERN Document Server

    Asboth, V; Sayers, J; Bethermin, M; Chapman, S C; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Dannerbauer, H; Farrah, D; Glenn, J; Golwala, S R; Halpern, M; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Maloney, P R; Marques-Chaves, R; Martinez-Navajas, P I; Oliver, S J; Perez-Fournon, I; Riechers, D A; Rowan-Robinson, M; Scott, Douglas; Siegel, S R; Vieira, J D; Viero, M; Wang, L; Wardlow, J; Wheeler, J

    2016-01-01

    Selecting sources with rising flux densities towards longer wavelengths from Herschel/SPIRE maps is an efficient way to produce a catalogue rich in high-redshift (z > 4) dusty star-forming galaxies. The effectiveness of this approach has already been confirmed by spectroscopic follow-up observations, but the previously available catalogues made this way are limited by small survey areas. Here we apply a map-based search method to 274 deg$^2$ of the HerMES Large Mode Survey (HeLMS) and create a catalogue of 477 objects with SPIRE flux densities $S_{500} > S_{350} >S_{250}$ and a 5 \\sigma cut-off $S_{500}$ > 52 mJy. From this catalogue we determine that the total number of these "red" sources is at least an order of magnitude higher than predicted by galaxy evolution models. These results are in agreement with previous findings in smaller HerMES fields; however, due to our significantly larger sample size we are also able to investigate the shape of the red source counts for the first time. We examine the 500 $...

  10. Constraints on photoionization feedback from number counts of ultra-faint high-redshift galaxies in the Frontier Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, M; Ferrara, A; Merlin, E; Fontana, A; Amorín, R; Grazian, A; Mármol-Queralto, E; Michałowski, M J; Mortlock, A; Paris, D; Parsa, S; Pilo, S; Santini, P

    2016-01-01

    We exploit a sample of ultra-faint high-redshift galaxies (demagnified HST $H_{160}$ magnitude $>30$) in the Frontier Fields clusters A2744 and M0416 to constrain a theoretical model for the UV luminosity function (LF) in the presence of photoionization feedback. The objects have been selected on the basis of accurate photometric redshifts computed from multi-band photometry including 7 HST bands and deep $K_s$ and IRAC observations. Magnification is computed on an object-by-object basis from all available lensing models of the two clusters. We take into account source detection completeness as a function of luminosity and size, magnification effects and systematics in the lens modeling of the clusters under investigation. We find that our sample of high-$z$ galaxies constrain the cut-off halo circular velocity below which star-formation is suppressed by photo-ionization feedback to $v_c^{\\rm cut} < 50$ km s$^{-1}$. This circular velocity corresponds to a halo mass of $\\approx5.6\\times10^9~M_\\odot$ and $\\a...

  11. A rare example of low surface-brightness radio lobes in a gas-rich early-type galaxy: the story of NGC 3998

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Bradley S; Oosterloo, Tom; Nyland, Kristina; Serra, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We study the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3998. This galaxy is known to host a low-power radio AGN with a kpc-size one-sided jet and a large, nearly polar HI disc. It is therefore a good system to study to understand the relation between the availability of cold-gas and the triggering of AGNs in galaxies. Our new WSRT data reveal two faint, S-shaped radio lobes extending out to $\\sim$10 kpc from the galaxy centre. Remarkably, we find that the inner HI disc warps back towards the stellar mid-plane in a way that mirrors the warping of the radio lobes. We suggest that the polar HI disc was accreted through a minor merger, and that the torques causing it to warp in the inner regions are also responsible for feeding the AGN. The "S" shape of the radio lobes would then be due to the radio jets adapting to the changing angular momentum of the accreted gas. The extended radio jets are likely poorly collimated, which would explain their quick fading and, therefore, their rarity in galaxies similar to NGC 3998. The fue...

  12. Bright galaxies at Hubble's redshift detection frontier: Preliminary results and design from the redshift z~9-10 BoRG pure-parallel HST survey

    CERN Document Server

    Calvi, V; Stiavelli, M; Oesch, P; Bradley, L D; Schmidt, K B; Coe, D; Brammer, G; Bernard, S; Bouwens, R J; Carrasco, D; Carollo, C M; Holwerda, B W; MacKenty, J W; Mason, C A; Shull, J M; Treu, T

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results and design from the redshift z~9-10 Brightest of the Reionizing Galaxies {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} survey BoRG[z9-10], aimed at searching for intrinsically luminous unlensed galaxies during the first 700 Myr after the Big Bang. BoRG[z9-10] is the continuation of a multi-year pure-parallel near-IR and optical imaging campaign with the Wide Field Camera 3. The ongoing survey uses five filters, optimized for detecting the most distant objects and offering continuous wavelength coverage from {\\lambda}=0.35{\\mu}m to {\\lambda}=1.7{\\mu}m. We analyze the initial ~130 arcmin$^2$ of area over 28 independent lines of sight (~25% of the total planned) to search for z>7 galaxies using a combination of Lyman break and photometric redshift selections. From an effective comoving volume of (5-25) $times 10^5$ Mpc$^3$ for magnitudes brighter than $m_{AB}=26.5-24.0$ in the $H_{160}$-band respectively, we find five galaxy candidates at z~8.3-10 detected at high confidence (S/N>8), including a sour...

  13. CLASH: DISCOVERY OF A BRIGHT z {approx_equal} 6.2 DWARF GALAXY QUADRUPLY LENSED BY MACS J0329.6-0211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitrin, A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Moustakas, J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Postman, M.; Koekemoer, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Moustakas, L. A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Shu, X. [Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Zheng, W.; Ford, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Benitez, N. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Granada (Spain); Bouwens, R. [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, Leiden (Netherlands); Broadhurst, T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain); Host, O.; Jouvel, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Meneghetti, M. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Rosati, P. [European Southern Observatory, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Donahue, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Grillo, C. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Kelson, D., E-mail: adizitrin@gmail.com [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA (United States); and others

    2012-03-15

    We report the discovery of a z{sub phot} = 6.18{sup +0.05}{sub -0.07} (95% confidence level) dwarf galaxy, lensed into four images by the galaxy cluster MACS J0329.6-0211 (z{sub l} = 0.45). The galaxy is observed as a high-redshift dropout in HST/ACS/WFC3 CLASH and Spitzer/IRAC imaging. Its redshift is securely determined due to a clear detection of the Lyman break in the 18-band photometry, making this galaxy one of the highest-redshift multiply lensed objects known to date with an observed magnitude of F125W =24.00 {+-} 0.04 AB mag for its most magnified image. We also present the first strong-lensing analysis of this cluster uncovering 15 additional multiply imaged candidates of five lower-redshift sources spanning the range z{sub s} {approx_equal} 2-4. The mass model independently supports the high photometric redshift and reveals magnifications of 11.6{sup +8.9}{sub -4.1}, 17.6{sup +6.2}{sub -3.9}, 3.9{sup +3.0}{sub -1.7}, and 3.7{sup +1.3}{sub -0.2}, respectively, for the four images of the high-redshift galaxy. By delensing the most magnified image we construct an image of the source with a physical resolution of {approx}200 pc when the universe was {approx}0.9 Gyr old, where the z {approx_equal} 6.2 galaxy occupies a source-plane area of approximately 2.2 kpc{sup 2}. Modeling the observed spectral energy distribution using population synthesis models, we find a demagnified stellar mass of {approx}10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, subsolar metallicity (Z/Z{sub Sun} {approx} 0.5), low dust content (A{sub V} {approx} 0.1 mag), a demagnified star formation rate (SFR) of {approx}3.2 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and a specific SFR of {approx}3.4 Gyr{sup -1}, all consistent with the properties of local dwarf galaxies.

  14. A rare example of low surface-brightness radio lobes in a gas-rich early-type galaxy: the story of NGC 3998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Bradley S.; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Nyland, Kristina; Serra, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    We study the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3998. This galaxy is known to host a low-power radio AGN with a kpc-size one-sided jet and a large, nearly polar H i disc. It is therefore a good system to study to understand the relation between the availability of cold-gas and the triggering of AGNs in galaxies. Our new WSRT data reveal two faint, S-shaped radio lobes extending out to ~10 kpc from the galaxy centre. Remarkably, we find that the inner H i disc warps back towards the stellar mid-plane in a way that mirrors the warping of the radio lobes. We suggest that the polar H i disc was accreted through a minor merger, and that the torques causing it to warp in the inner regions are also responsible for feeding the AGN. The "S" shape of the radio lobes would then be due to the radio jets adapting to the changing angular momentum of the accreted gas. The extended radio jets are likely poorly collimated, which would explain their quick fading and, therefore, their rarity in galaxies similar to NGC 3998. The fuelling of the central super-massive black hole is likely occurring via "discrete events", suggested by the observed variability of the radio core and the extremely high core dominance, which we attribute to the formation and ejection of a new jet resulting from a recent fuelling event. The reduced radiocontinuum image and HI datacube (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/592/A94

  15. Are spiral galaxies heavy smokers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dustiness of spiral galaxies is discussed. Starburst galaxies and the shortage of truly bright spiral galaxies is cited as evidence that spiral galaxies are far dustier than has been thought. The possibility is considered that the dust may be hiding missing mass

  16. Gamma-ray detected radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Volker; Soldi, Simona; De Jong, Sandra; Kretschmer, Karsten; Savchenko, Volodymyr

    2016-07-01

    So far 15 radio galaxies have been detected in the gamma-ray domain by CGRO/EGRET and Fermi/LAT, with a few detections also in the VHE range. We search for distinguishing parameters and estimate the total number of gamma-ray emitting radio galaxies that are potentially detectable by Fermi/LAT. We use Fermi/LAT data in comparison with X-ray and hard X-ray data in order to constrain basic parameters such as the total power of the inverse Compton branch and the position of its peak. We search for possible correlations between the radio, UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray domain and derive the number counts distribution. We then compare their properties with those of the radio galaxies in the 3CRR and SMS4 catalogues. The data show no correlation between the peak of the inverse Compton emission and its luminosity. For the gamma-ray detected radio galaxies the luminosities in the various bands are correlated, except for the UV band, but there is no indication of a correlation of peak frequency or luminosity with the spectral slopes in the X-ray or gamma-ray band. The comparison with other bright radio galaxies shows that the gamma-ray detected objects are among those that have the largest X-ray but rather moderate radio fluxes. Their UV and X-ray luminosities are similar, but gamma-ray detected radio galaxies are predominantly of type FR-I, while the 3CRR sample contains mainly FR-II objects. The number counts of the so far gamma-ray detected radio galaxies shows a very shallow slope, indicating that potentially a fraction of radio galaxies has been missed so far or has not been identified as such, although the predicted number of 22 ± 7 is consistent with the observed 15 objects.

  17. TEN MORE NEW SIGHTLINES FOR THE STUDY OF INTERGALACTIC HELIUM, AND HUNDREDS OF FAR-ULTRAVIOLET-BRIGHT QUASARS, FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY, GALAXY EVOLUTION EXPLORER, AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption along quasar sightlines remains among the most sensitive direct measures of He II reionization in much of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Until recently, fewer than a half-dozen unobscured quasar sightlines suitable for the He II Gunn-Peterson test were known; although these handful demonstrated great promise, the small sample size limited confidence in cosmological inferences. We have recently added nine more such clean He II quasars, exploiting Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar samples, broadband ultraviolet (UV) imaging from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), and high-yield UV spectroscopic confirmations from Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Here we markedly expand this approach by cross-correlating SDSS DR7 and GALEX GR4+5 to catalog 428 SDSS and 165 other quasars with z > 2.78 having likely (∼70%) GALEX detections, suggesting they are bright into the far-UV. Reconnaissance HST Cycle 16 Supplemental prism data for 29 of these new quasar-GALEX matches spectroscopically confirm 17 as indeed far-UV bright. At least 10 of these confirmations have clean sightlines all the way down to He II Lyα, substantially expanding the number of known clean He II quasars, and reaffirming the order of magnitude enhanced efficiency of our selection technique. Combined confirmations from this and our past programs yield more than 20 He II quasars, quintupling the sample. These provide substantial progress toward a sample of He II quasar sightlines large enough, and spanning a sufficient redshift range, to enable statistical IGM studies that may avoid individual object peculiarity and sightline variance. Our expanded catalog of hundreds of high-likelihood far-UV-bright QSOs additionally will be useful for understanding the extreme-UV properties of the quasars themselves.

  18. SPIDER - VII. The Central Dark Matter Content of Bright Early-Type Galaxies: Benchmark Correlations with Mass, Structural Parameters and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, C; Napolitano, N R; de Carvalho, R R; Romanowsky, A J

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the central dark-matter (DM) content of $\\sim 4,500$ massive ($M_\\star \\gsim 10^{10} \\, M_\\odot$), low-redshift ($z<0.1$), early-type galaxies (ETGs), with high-quality $ugrizYJHK$ photometry and optical spectroscopy from SDSS and UKIDSS. We estimate the "central" fraction of DM within the $K$-band effective radius, \\Re. The main results of the present work are the following: (1) DM fractions increase systematically with both structural parameters (i.e. \\Re, and S\\'ersic index, $n$) and mass proxies (central velocity dispersion, stellar and dynamical mass), as in previous studies, and decrease with central stellar density. 2) All correlations involving DM fractions are caused by two fundamental ones with galaxy effective radius and central velocity dispersion. These correlations are independent of each other, so that ETGs populate a central-DM plane (DMP), i.e. a correlation among fraction of total-to-stellar mass, effective radius, and velocity dispersion, whose scatter along the total-to-stell...

  19. Powerful Activity in the Bright Ages. I. A Visible/IR Survey of High Redshift 3C Radio Galaxies and Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Hilbert, Bryan; Kotyla, JohnPaul; Tremblay, Grant R; Stanghellini, Carlo; Sparks, William B; Baum, Stefi A; Capetti, Alessandro; Macchetto, F Duccio; Miley, George K; O'Dea, Christopher P; Perlman, Eric S; Quillen, Alice C

    2016-01-01

    We present new rest frame UV and visible observations of 22 high-redshift (1 < z < 2.5) 3C radio galaxies and QSOs obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument. Using a custom data reduction strategy in order to assure the removal of cosmic rays, persistence signal, and other data artifacts, we have produced high-quality science-ready images of the targets and their local environments. We observe targets with regions of UV emission suggestive of active star formation. In addition, several targets exhibit highly distorted host galaxy morphologies in the rest frame visible images. Photometric analyses reveals that brighter QSOs tend to be generally redder than their dimmer counterparts. Using emission line fluxes from the literature, we estimate that emission line contamination is relatively small in the rest frame UV images for the QSOs. Using archival VLA data, we have also created radio map overlays for each of our targets, allowing for analysis of the optical ...

  20. UV-bright nearby early type galaxies observed in the mid-infrared: evidence for a multi-stage formation history by way of WISE and GALEX imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Petty, S M; Jarrett, T H; Blain, A W; Farrah, D G; Rich, R M; Tsai, C -W; Benford, D J; Bridge, C R; Lake, S E; Masci, F J; Wright, E L

    2013-01-01

    In the local Universe, 10% of massive elliptical galaxies are observed to exhibit a peculiar property: a substantial excess of ultraviolet emission (UVX) over what is expected from their old, red stellar populations. Several origins for the UVX have been proposed, including a population of hot young stars, or a population of old, blue horizontal branch or extended horizontal branch (BHB or EHB) stars that have undergone substantial mass loss from their outer atmospheres. We explore the radial distribution of ultraviolet excess (UVX) in a selection of 49 nearby E/S0-type galaxies by measuring the extended photometry in the UV-midIR with GALEX, SDSS and WISE. We compare UV/optical and UV/mid-IR colors with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis with EHB models (Conroy & Gunn 2010). We find that combined WISE mid-IR and GALEX UV colors are more effective in distinguishing models than optical colors, and that the UV/mid-IR combination is sensitive to EHB fraction. There are strong color gradients with the ...

  1. LENSING NOISE IN MILLIMETER-WAVE GALAXY CLUSTER SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the effects of gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters of the background of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and examine the implications for Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-based (SZ) galaxy cluster surveys. At the locations of galaxy clusters, gravitational lensing modifies the probability distribution of the background flux of the DSFGs as well as the CMB. We find that, in the case of a single-frequency 150 GHz survey, lensing of DSFGs leads both to a slight increase (∼10%) in detected cluster number counts (due to a ∼50% increase in the variance of the DSFG background, and hence an increased Eddington bias) and a rare (occurring in ∼2% of clusters) 'filling-in' of SZ cluster signals by bright strongly lensed background sources. Lensing of the CMB leads to a ∼55% reduction in CMB power at the location of massive galaxy clusters in a spatially matched single-frequency filter, leading to a net decrease in detected cluster number counts. We find that the increase in DSFG power and decrease in CMB power due to lensing at cluster locations largely cancel, such that the net effect on cluster number counts for current SZ surveys is subdominant to Poisson errors

  2. The RSA survey of dwarf galaxies, 1: Optical photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, J. Patricia; Chaboyer, Brian

    1994-01-01

    We present detailed surface photometry, based on broad B-band charge coupled device (CCD) images, of about 80 dwarf galaxies. Our sample represents approximately 10% of all dwarf galaxies identified in the vicinity of Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxies on high resolution blue photographic plates, referred to as the RSA survey of dwarf galaxies. We derive global properties and radial surface brightness profiles, and examine the morphologies. The radial surface brightness profiles of dwarf galaxies, whether early or late type, display the same varieties in shape and complexity as those of classical giant galaxies. Only a few are well described by a pure r(exp 1/4) law. Exponential profiles prevail. Features typical of giant disk galaxies, such as exponential profiles with a central depression, lenses, and even, in one case (IC 2041), a relatively prominent bulge are also found in dwarf galaxies. Our data suggest that the central region evolves from being bulge-like, with an r(exp 1/4) law profile, in bright galaxies to a lens-like structure in dwarf galaxies. We prove detailed surface photometry to be a helpful if not always sufficient tool in investigating the structure of dwarf galaxies. In many cases kinematic information is needed to complete the picture. We find the shapes of the surface brightness profiles to be loosely associated with morphological type. Our sample contains several new galaxies with properties intermediate between those of giant and dwarf ellipticals (but no M32-like objects). This shows that such intermediate galaxies exist so that at least a fraction of early-type dwarf ellipticals is structurally related to early-type giants instead of belonging to a totally unrelated, disjunct family. This supports an origin of early-type dwarf galaxies as originally more massive systems that acquired their current morphology as a result of substantial, presumable supernova-driven, mass loss. On the other hand, several early-type dwarfs in our sample are

  3. Beyond 31 mag arcsec‑2: The Frontier of Low Surface Brightness Imaging with the Largest Optical Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Ignacio; Fliri, Jüergen

    2016-06-01

    The detection of structures in the sky with optical surface brightnesses fainter than 30 mag arcsec‑2 (3σ in 10 × 10 arcsec boxes; r-band) has remained elusive in current photometric deep surveys. Here we show how present-day telescopes of 10 m class can provide broadband imaging 1.5–2 mag deeper than most previous results within a reasonable amount of time (i.e., power to explore the stellar halo of the galaxy UGC 00180, a galaxy analogous to M31 located at ∼150 Mpc, by obtaining a radial profile of surface brightness down to μ r ∼ 33 mag arcsec‑2. This depth is similar to that obtained using the star-counts techniques for Local Group galaxies, but is achieved at a distance where this technique is unfeasible. We find that the mass of the stellar halo of this galaxy is ∼4 × 109 M ⊙, i.e., (3 ± 1)% of the total stellar mass of the whole system. This amount of mass in the stellar halo is in agreement with current theoretical expectations for galaxies of this kind.

  4. Optical-faint, Far-infrared-bright Herschel Sources in the CANDELS Fields: Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies at z>1 and the Effect of Source Blending

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Haojing; Ma, Zhiyuan; Willner, Steven; Somerville, Rachel; Ashby, Matthew; Dave, Romeel; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G; Cava, Antonio; Wiklind, Tommy; Kocevski, Dale; Rafelski, Marc; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Cooray, Asantha

    2013-01-01

    Optical counterpart identification is a critical link in maximizing the science returns of the Herschel very wide-field survey data. Currently, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is the best resource for optical counterpart identifications over such wide areas. However a large number of very bright FIR sources are not detected in the SDSS, and their true nature remains to be determined. Using the public HerMES data, we studied seven such sources that are within the CANDELS fields. To deal with the source blending problem, we used the near-IR or the optical images directly for position priors and decomposed these FIR sources. This new appraoch is an improvement over the previous decomposition efforts where the position priors are derived from the mid-IR data that still suffer from the source blending problem in the first place, and can be applied to the regions where the mid-IR data are not available. We found that in most cases the single Herschel sources are made of multiple components that may or may not b...

  5. Low surface brightness galaxies rotation curves in the low energy limit of $R^n$ gravity no need for dark matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, S; Troisi, A

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that the observed flatness of the rotation curves of spiral galaxies is not an evidence for the existence of dark matter haloes, but rather a signal of the breakdown of General Relativity. To this aim, we consider power - law fourth order theories of gravity obtained by replacing the scalar curvature $R$ with $f(R) = f_0 R^n$ in the gravity Lagrangian. We show that, in the low energy limit, the gravitational potential generated by a pointlike source may be written as $\\Phi(r) \\propto r^{-1} \\left [ 1 + (r/r_c)^{\\beta} \\right ]$ with $\\beta$ a function of the slope $n$ of the gravity Lagrangian and $r_c$ a scalelength depending on the gravitating system properties. In order to apply the model to realistic systems, we compute the modified potential and the rotation curve for spherically symmetric and for thin disk mass distributions. It turns out that the potential is still asymptotically decreasing, but the corrected rotation curve, although not flat, is higher than the Newtonian...

  6. Surface Brightness Fluctuations as Stellar Population Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Blakeslee, John P

    2009-01-01

    Surface Brightness Fluctuations (SBF) can provide useful information about the unresolved stellar content of early-type galaxies and spiral bulges. The absolute SBF magnitude Mbar in a given passband depends on the properties of the stellar population and can be predicted by population synthesis models. SBF measurements in different bandpasses are sensitive to different evolutionary stages within the galaxy stellar population. Near-IR SBF magnitudes are sensitive to the evolution of stars wit...

  7. Spectral evolution of galaxies. III - Cosmological predictions for the Space Telescope faint object camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzual A., G.

    1983-10-01

    The galactic spectral evolutionary models of Bruzual A. (1981) are employed to estimate parameters which will be observable by the wide-field camera and faint-object camera of the Space Telescope. The capabilities and bandpasses of the instruments are reviewed, and the results are presented in tables and graphs. Parameters calculated include the amplitude of the Lyman discontinuity at 912 A, stellar and galaxy rest-frame colors, color evolution, two-color diagrams as a function of redshift, luminosity evolution, surface brightness profiles, galaxy counts, and color and redshift distributions. In general, it is predicted that the space measurements will follow the trends noted in round-based observations.

  8. Cell counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, M C; Lawler, G

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents protocols for counting cells using either a hemacytometer or electronically using a Coulter counter. Cell counting with a hemacytometer permits effective discrimination of live from dead cells using trypan blue exclusion. In addition, the procedure is less subject to errors arising from cell clumping or size heterogeneity. Counting cells is more quickly and easily performed using an electronic counter, but live-dead discrimination is unreliable. Cell populations containing large numbers of dead cells and/or cell clumps are difficult to count accurately. In addition, electronic counting requires resetting of the instrument for cell populations of different sizes; heterogeneous populations can give rise to inaccurate counts, and resting and activated cells may require counting at separate settings. In general, electronic cell counting is best performed on fresh peripheral blood cells. PMID:18770655

  9. Seal Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Database of seal counts from aerial photography. Counts by image, site, species, and date are stored in the database along with information on entanglements and...

  10. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... goal is not to limit carbohydrates in the diet completely, but to make ... with diabetes can better control their blood sugar if they ...

  11. Damped Lyman-Alpha Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Turnshek, D A; Lane, W; Monier, E M; Nestor, D; Bergeron, J; Briggs, F; Smette, A

    2000-01-01

    Some results from an imaging program to identify low-redshift (0.09galaxies are presented. The standard paradigm that was widely accepted a decade ago, that DLA galaxies are the progenitors of luminous disk galaxies, is now being seriously challenged. The indisputable conclusion from imaging studies at low redshift is that the morphological types of DLA galaxies are mixed and that they span a range in luminosities and surface brightnesses.

  12. The galaxy ancestor problem

    CERN Document Server

    Disney, Mike

    2011-01-01

    HST finds galaxies whose Tolman dimming should exceed 10 mag. Could evolution alone explain these as our ancestor galaxies? Or could they be representatives of quite a different dynasty whose descendants are no longer prominent today? We explore this latter hypothesis and argue that Surface Brightness Selection Effects naturally bring into focus quite different dynasties from different redshifts. Thus the HST z=7 galaxies could be examples of galaxies whose descendants are both too small and too choked with dust to be recognizable in our neighborhood easily today. Conversely the ancestors of the Milky Way and its obvious neighbors will have completely sunk below the sky at z>1.2 although their diffuse light could account for the missing Reionization flux. This Succeeding Prominent Dynasties Hypothesis (SPDH) fits the existing observations both naturally and well,including the bizarre distributions of galaxy surface brightnesses found in deep fields, the angular size ~ inverse (1+z) law,'Downsizing' which turn...

  13. H1 in RSA galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, OTTO-G.

    1993-01-01

    The original Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxy sample of almost 1300 galaxies has been augmented with further bright galaxies from the RSA appendix as well as newer galaxy catalogs. A complete and homogeneous, strictly magnitude-limited all-sky sample of 2345 galaxies brighter than 13.4 in apparent blue magnitude was formed. New 21 cm H1 line observations for more than 600 RSA galaxies have been combined with all previously available H1 data from the literature. This new extentise data act allows detailed tests of widely accepted 'standard' reduction and analysis techniques.

  14. ALMA spectroscopic survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Continuum number counts, resolved 1.2-mm extragalactic background, and properties of the faintest dusty star forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Aravena, Manuel; Walter, Fabian; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Bauer, Franz E; Carilli, Christopher; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Ivison, R J; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian R; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Assef, Roberto J; Bell, Eric; Bertoldi, Frank; Bacon, Roland; Bouwens, Rychard; Cortes, Paulo; Cox, Pierre; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Hodge, Jacqueline; Ibar, Eduardo; Inami, Hanae; Infante, Leopoldo; Karim, Alexander; Fèvre, Olivier Le; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kauzuaki; Popping, Gergö; Sheth, Kartik; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of a deep (1$\\sigma$=13 $\\mu$Jy) cosmological 1.2-mm continuum map based on ASPECS, the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. In the 1 arcmin$^2$ covered by ASPECS we detect nine sources at $>3.5\\sigma$ significance at 1.2-mm. Our ALMA--selected sample has a median redshift of $z=1.6\\pm0.4$, with only one galaxy detected at z$>$2 within the survey area. This value is significantly lower than that found in millimeter samples selected at a higher flux density cut-off and similar frequencies. Most galaxies have specific star formation rates similar to that of main sequence galaxies at the same epoch, and we find median values of stellar mass and star formation rates of $4.0\\times10^{10}\\ M_\\odot$ and $\\sim40~M_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$, respectively. Using the dust emission as a tracer for the ISM mass, we derive depletion times that are typically longer than 300 Myr, and we find molecular gas fractions ranging from $\\sim$0.1 to 1.0. As noted by previous studies, these values ar...

  15. Searching for tidal tails - investigating galaxy harassment

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, J I; Sabatini, S

    2005-01-01

    Galaxy harassment has been proposed as a physical process that morphologically transforms low surface density disc galaxies into dwarf elliptical galaxies in clusters. It has been used to link the observed very different morphology of distant cluster galaxies (relatively more blue galaxies with 'disturbed' morphologies) with the relatively large numbers of dwarf elliptical galaxies found in nearby clusters. One prediction of the harassment model is that the remnant galaxies should lie on low surface brightness tidal streams or arcs. We demonstrate in this paper that we have an analysis method that is sensitive to the detection of arcs down to a surface brightness of 29 B mag/arcsec^2 and then use this method to search for arcs around 46 Virgo cluster dwarf elliptical galaxies. We find no evidence for tidal streams or arcs and consequently no evidence for galaxy harassment as a viable explanation for the relatively large numbers of dwarf galaxies found in the Virgo cluster.

  16. Deep near-IR observations of the Chandra Deep Field and of the HDF-South - Color and Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Saracco, P; Cristiani, S; D'Odorico, S; Fontana, A; Iovino, A; Poli, F; Vanzella, E

    2001-01-01

    We present near-IR (J and Ks) number counts and colors of galaxies detected in deep VLT-ISAAC images centered on the Chandra Deep Field and Hubble Deep Field-South for a total area of 13.6 arcmin$^2$. The limiting surface brightness obtained is Ks$\\simeq$22.8 mag/arcsec$^2$ and J$\\simeq$24.5 (1$\\sigma$) on both fields. A d$log$N/dm relation with a slope of $\\sim0.34$ in J and $\\sim0.28$ in Ks is found in both fields with no evidence of decline near the magnitude limit. The median J-Ks color of galaxies becomes bluer at magnitudes fainter than Ks$\\sim18$, in agreement with the different number counts slope observed in the two bands. We find a fraction ($\\le5%$ of the total sample) of sources with color redder than J-Ks=2.3 at magnitudes Ks$>20$. Most of them appear as isolated sources, possibly elliptical or dusty starburst galaxies at redshift $z>2$. The comparison of the observed number counts with models shows that our J-band and Ks-band counts are consistent with the prediction of a model based on a small ...

  17. Counting cormorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Carss, David N; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon;

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on Cormorant population counts for both summer (i.e. breeding) and winter (i.e. migration, winter roosts) seasons. It also explains differences in the data collected from undertaking ‘day’ versus ‘roost’ counts, gives some definitions of the term ‘numbers’, and presents two e...

  18. The visibility of high-redshift galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most visible galaxies - that is, those which have the largest apparent sizes and isophotal luminosities when seen at a given distance - are those with a particular observed surface brightness. Extending this argument to high-redshift galaxies, it is clear that this optimum surface brightness moves progressively to brighter intrinsic surface brightnesses, so as to counteract the effect of K-corrections and cosmological dimming. Thus the galaxies appearing in faint surveys will be from a population distinctly different from those 'normal' galaxies observed nearby. Galaxies in deep surveys are more likely to be spirals and to be of high surface brightness. This has very important implications for observational studies of galaxy evolution. (author)

  19. Neutral Hydrogen in Local Group Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grcevich, Jana

    The gas content of the faintest and lowest mass dwarf galaxies provide means to study the evolution of these unique objects. The evolutionary histories of low mass dwarf galaxies are interesting in their own right, but may also provide insight into fundamental cosmological problems. These include the nature of dark matter, the disagreement between the number of observed Local Group dwarf galaxies and that predicted by lambda cold dark matter models, and the discrepancy between the observed census of baryonic matter in the Milky Way's environment and theoretical predictions. This thesis explores these questions by studying the neutral hydrogen (HI) component of dwarf galaxies. First, limits on the HI mass of the ultra-faint dwarfs are presented, and the HI content of all Local Group dwarf galaxies is examined from an environmental standpoint. We find that those Local Group dwarfs within 270 kpc of a massive host galaxy are deficient in HI as compared to those at larger galactocentric distances. Ram-pressure arguments are invoked, which suggest halo densities greater than 2-3 x 10-4 cm-3 out to distances of at least 70 kpc, values which are consistent with theoretical models and suggest the halo may harbor a large fraction of the host galaxy's baryons. We also find that accounting for the incompleteness of the dwarf galaxy count, known dwarf galaxies whose gas has been removed could have provided at most 2.1 x 108 M⊙ of HI gas to the Milky Way. Second, we examine the possibility of discovering unknown gas-rich ultra-faint galaxies in the Local Group using HI. The GALFA-HI Survey catalog is searched for compact, isolated HI clouds which are most similar to the expected HI characteristics of low mass dwarf galaxies. Fifty-one Local Group dwarf galaxy candidates are identified through column density, brightness temperature, and kinematic selection criteria, and their properties are explored. Third, we present hydrodynamic simulations of dwarf galaxies experiencing a

  20. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  1. BLAST Observations of the South Ecliptic Pole field: Number Counts and Source Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Valiante, Elisabetta; Bock, James; Braglia, Filiberto; Chapin, Edward; Devlin, Mark Joseph; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter; Hughes, David; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Mauskopf, Philip; Netterfield, Calvin; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Scott, Kimberly; Semisch, Christopher; Stabenau, Hans; Thomas, Nicholas; Truch, Matthew; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory; Viero, Marco; Wiebe, Donald

    2010-01-01

    We present results from a survey carried out by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) on a 9 deg^2 field near the South Ecliptic Pole at 250, 350 and 500 {\\mu}m. The median 1{\\sigma} depths of the maps are 36.0, 26.4 and 18.4 mJy, respectively. We apply a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts and find that they are in agreement with other measurements made with the same instrument and with the more recent results from Herschel/SPIRE. Thanks to the large field observed, the new measurements give additional constraints on the bright end of the counts. We identify 132, 89 and 61 sources with S/N>4 at 250, 350, 500 {\\mu}m, respectively and provide a multi-wavelength combined catalog of 232 sources. The new BLAST maps and catalogs are available publicly at http://blastexperiment.info.

  2. Galaxies probing galaxies: cool halo gas from a z = 0.47 post-starburst galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Kate H. R.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    We study the cool gas around a galaxy at z = 0.4729 using Keck/LRIS spectroscopy of a bright (B = 21.7) background galaxy at z = 0.6942 at a transverse distance of 16.5/h_70 kpc. The background galaxy spectrum reveals strong FeII, MgII, MgI, and CaII absorption at the redshift of the foreground galaxy, with a MgII 2796 rest equivalent width of 3.93 +/- 0.08 Angstroms, indicative of a velocity width exceeding 400 km/s. Because the background galaxy is large (> 4/h_70 kpc), the high covering fr...

  3. Discovery of an ultra-diffuse galaxy in the Pisces-Perseus supercluster

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Delgado, David; Sharina, Margarita; Toloba, Elisa; Fliri, Jurgen; Beaton, Rachael; Valls-Gabaud, David; Karachentsev, Igor D; Chonis, Taylor S; Grebel, Eva K; Forbes, Duncan A; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Gallego-Laborda, J; Teuwen, Karel; Gomez-Flechoso, M A; Wang, Jie; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kaisin, Serafim; Ho, Nhung

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of DGSAT I, an ultra-diffuse, quenched galaxy located 10.4 degrees in projection from the Andromeda galaxy (M31). This low-surface brightness galaxy (mu_V = 24.8 mag/arcsec), found with a small amateur telescope, appears unresolved in sub-arcsecond archival Subaru/Suprime-Cam images, and hence has been missed by optical surveys relying on resolved star counts, in spite of its relatively large effective radius (R_e(V) = 12 arcsec) and proximity (15 arcmin) to the well-known dwarf spheroidal galaxy And II. Its red color (V-I = 1.0), shallow Sersic index (n_V=0.68), and the absence of detectable H-alpha emission are typical properties of dwarf spheroidal galaxies and suggest that it is mainly composed of old stars. Initially interpreted as an interesting case of an isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the local universe, our radial velocity measurement obtained with the BTA 6-meter telescope (V_h=5450 +/- 40 km/s) shows that this system is an M31-background galaxy associated with the filam...

  4. Dynamical Friction in Cuspidal Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Arca-Sedda, M.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamical friction is the process responsible for matter transport toward the inner regions of galaxies in form of massive objects, like intermediate mass black holes, globular clusters and small satellite galaxies. While very bright galaxies show an almost flat luminosity profile in the inner region, fainter ones have, usually, a peaked, cuspidal, profile toward the center. This makes unreliable, in these cases, the use of the classic Chandrasekhar's formula for dynamical friction in its loc...

  5. Satellites in the field and lens galaxies: SDSS/COSMOS vs. SLACS/CLASS

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, N; Mao, S; Li, C

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of sub-galactic level substructures is an important quantity, as it is a generic prediction of high-resolution Cold Dark Matter (CDM) models which is susceptible to observational test. Confrontation of theory with observations is currently in an uncertain state. In particular, gravitational lens systems appear to show evidence for flux ratio anomalies, which are expected from CDM substructures although not necessarily in the same range of radius as observed. However, the current small samples of lenses suggest that the lens galaxies in these systems are unusually often accompanied by luminous galaxies. Here we investigate a large sample of unlensed elliptical galaxies from the COSMOS survey, and determine the fraction of objects with satellites, in excess of background counts, as a function of satellite brightness and separation from the primary object. We find that the incidence of luminous satellites within 20 kpc is typically a few tenths of one percent for satellites of a few tenths of the p...

  6. A bimodal model for the galaxy luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, R.; Silk, J.

    1988-01-01

    The galaxy luminosity function in the Virgo cluster has been recently found to show a clear separation between bright galaxies and dwarf galaxies. Here, consideration is given to the effect on the luminosity function of galaxy binding energy which allows gas to be retained and star formation to proceed over about 1 Gyr in massive galaxies, but implies wind-driven mass loss and inefficient star formation in dwarf galaxies.

  7. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  8. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  9. Discovery of an Ultra-diffuse Galaxy in the Pisces--Perseus Supercluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Delgado, David; Läsker, Ronald; Sharina, Margarita; Toloba, Elisa; Fliri, Jürgen; Beaton, Rachael; Valls-Gabaud, David; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Chonis, Taylor S.; Grebel, Eva K.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Gallego-Laborda, J.; Teuwen, Karel; Gómez-Flechoso, M. A.; Wang, Jie; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kaisin, Serafim; Ho, Nhung

    2016-04-01

    We report the discovery of DGSAT I, an ultra-diffuse, quenched galaxy located 10.°4 in projection from the Andromeda galaxy (M31). This low-surface brightness galaxy (μV = 24.8 mag arcsec-2), found with a small amateur telescope, appears unresolved in sub-arcsecond archival Subaru/Suprime-Cam images, and hence has been missed by optical surveys relying on resolved star counts, in spite of its relatively large effective radius (Re(V) = 12″) and proximity (15‧) to the well-known dwarf spheroidal galaxy And II. Its red color (V - I = 1.0), shallow Sérsic index (nV = 0.68), and the absence of detectable Hα emission are typical properties of dwarf spheroidal galaxies and suggest that it is mainly composed of old stars. Initially interpreted as an interesting case of an isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the local universe, our radial velocity measurement obtained with the BTA 6 m telescope (Vh = 5450 ± 40 km s-1) shows that this system is an M31-background galaxy associated with the filament of the Pisces-Perseus supercluster. At the distance of this cluster (˜78 Mpc), DGSAT I would have an Re ˜ 4.7 kpc and MV ˜ -16.3. Its properties resemble those of the ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) recently discovered in the Coma cluster. DGSAT I is the first case of these rare UDGs found in this galaxy cluster. Unlike the UDGs associated with the Coma and Virgo clusters, DGSAT I is found in a much lower density environment, which provides a fresh constraint on the formation mechanisms for this intriguing class of galaxy.

  10. Hubble ultra deep field object surface brightness variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of adjacent pixel brightness variation in log scale was applied to ultra deep field objects captured by the Hubble telescope. The local surface brightness fluctuation has a Gaussian-like distribution implying a random accretion of material, with collisions, as a random-walk motion. The larger fluctuation of log brightness in the mid to outer regions of some galaxies is consistent with the presence of dark matter. The absence of such fluctuation enhancement in two i-drop candidates at z ∼ 3 may mean that some dark matter is the result of nucleosynthesis in the evolution process. Large fluctuation in the B+V bands in contrast to the i+z band near the center in an i-drop candidate at z ∼ 3 was interpreted to be an AGN center. The distribution average shifts towards zero for more spiral galaxies, signifying the use of local surface brightness fluctuation distribution as a morphology parameter

  11. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... size: A A Contrast En Español Donate BrightFocus Foundation Alzheimer’s Disease Research Macular Degeneration Research National Glaucoma ... Bovenkamp, Ph.D., Scientific Program Officer for BrightFocus Foundation, about the basic science and therapeutic research the ...

  12. Mirages in galaxy scaling relations

    CERN Document Server

    Mosenkov, A V; Reshetnikov, V P

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed several basic correlations between structural parameters of galaxies. The data were taken from various samples in different passbands which are available in the literature. We discuss disc scaling relations as well as some debatable issues concerning the so-called Photometric Plane for bulges and elliptical galaxies in different forms and various versions of the famous Kormendy relation. We show that some of the correlations under discussion are artificial (self-correlations), while others truly reveal some new essential details of the structural properties of galaxies. Our main results are as follows: (1) At present, we can not conclude that faint stellar discs are, on average, more thin than discs in high surface brightness galaxies. The ``central surface brightness -- thickness'' correlation appears only as a consequence of the transparent exponential disc model to describe real galaxy discs. (2) The Photometric Plane appears to have no independent physical sense. Various forms of this plane ar...

  13. Galaxies in the Early Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    analyses are biased towards the brightest galaxies at all times (as these are easier to observe and identify). A complementary method relies on the absorption imprint from neutral gas in galaxies, the so-called damped Ly absorbers (DLAs) seen towards distant bright objects. This thesis seeks to understand...... how the absorption selected galaxies relate to the emission selected galaxies by identifying the faint glow from the absorbing galaxies at redshift z 2. In Chapters 2 and 3, the emission properties of DLAs are studied in detail using state-of-the-art instrumentation. The specific DLA studied in...... Chapter 3 is found to be a young, star-forming galaxy with evidence for strong outflows of gas. This suggests that the more evolved and metal-rich DLAs overlap with the faint end of the luminosity selected galaxies in terms of mass, metallicity, star formation rate, and age. DLAs are generally observed to...

  14. How Do Galaxies Grow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    to the most massive galaxies belonging to clusters. "Most surprising is that in three of the four groups, the brightest galaxy also has a bright companion galaxy. These galaxy pairs are merging systems," says Tran. The brightest galaxy in each group can be ordered in a time sequence that shows how luminous galaxies continue to grow by merging until recently, that is, in the last 5 billion years. It appears that due to the most recent episode of this 'galactic cannibalism', the brightest galaxies became at least 50% more massive. This discovery provides unique and powerful validation of hierarchical formation as manifested in both galaxy and cluster assembly. "The stars in these galaxies are already old and so we must conclude that the recent merging did not produce a new generation of stars," concludes Tran. "Most of the stars in these galaxies were born at least 7 billion years ago." The team is composed of Kim-Vy H. Tran (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zürich, Switzerland), John Moustakas (New York University, USA), Anthony H. Gonzalez and Stefan J. Kautsch (University of Florida, Gainesville, USA), and Lei Bai and Dennis Zaritsky (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, USA). The results presented here are published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters: "The Late Stellar Assembly Of Massive Cluster Galaxies Via Major Merging", by Tran et al.

  15. Global properties of the Sculptor and Fornax dwarf elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global properties of the Sculptor and Fornax dwarf elliptical galaxies are examined. These are determined from star counts from Schmidt plates. Luminosity functions (LFs) are constructed. Giants and horizontal-branch star counts imply Y = 0.23 ± 0.05 for Sculptor. Comparisons of globular cluster and theoretical LFs with Sculptor's indicate a range in the turn-off mass, or the RGB mass loss rate. The LF of Fornax shows a larger ratio of bright to faint giants than is seen in clusters, or in two-burst model functions. This indicates that a two-burst model for Fornax is inadequate. Radial profiles are compared with King (1966) models and exponential laws. Fits confirm the assertion that the profiles of the halo dwarfs are as well fit by exponentials as are many irregulars. Results for the King model fits imply a mass for the Galaxy of 1.2 ± 0.6 x 1011 solar masses. Two-dimensional structure in both systems is investigated using residual maps of the raw star counts minus symmetric fits. These maps clearly show internal structure

  16. Profile counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ''profile counting'', a counter is moved progressively along the whole length of the body, and is so collimated that, at each position, it records the radioisotope content of the whole width of the body, but of only a short section of its length. If the counting rate at each position is plotted against the distance of the counter from the vertex of the head, the ''profile'' so obtained gives a rapid and quantitative measure of the radioisotope distribution throughout the body. When a suitable isotope is selectively concentrated in certain organs or tissues of the body, the profile will show peaks indicative of the sites and extent of such concentration, the organs concerned being identified by two-dimensional mapping, and profile counts continued to follow the turnover or changes of concentration in these organs. This technique has been used in the study of I131 concentration and metabolism in thyroid carcinomata, and its value in the management of the radioiodine treatment of such tumours will be discussed. It has also been used in examining the distribution of labelled thyroxine and triiodothyronine after intravenous administration, and of yttrium-90 oxide particles after intrapulmonary artery injection; and of other isotopes by gamma radiation or bremsstrahlung. The method gives a clinically convenient simplification of whole body mapping which lends itself particularly to the quantitative comparison of isotope distribution at different intervals after a radioisotope dose, or after successive doses. (author)

  17. Sunspot Bright Points

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhary, Debi Prasad

    2010-01-01

    We used the flux calibrated images through the Broad Band Filter Imager and Stokes Polarimeter data obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope onboard the Hinode spacecraft to study the properties of bright points in and around the sunspots. The well isolated bright points were selected and classified as umbral dot, peripheral umbral dot, penumbral grains and G-band bright point depending on their location. Most of the bright points are smaller than about 150 km. The larger points are mostly associated with the penumbral features. The bright points are not uniformly distributed over the umbra but preferentially located around the penumbral boundary and in the fast decaying parts of umbra. The color temperature of the bright points, derived using the continuum irradiance, are in the range of 4600 K to 6600 K with cooler ones located in the umbra. The temperature increases as a function of distance from the center to outside. The G-band, CN-band and CaII H flux of the bright points as a function of their blue ba...

  18. Characteristic Scales in Galaxy Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Dekel, Avishai

    2004-01-01

    Recent data, e.g. from SDSS and 2dF, reveal a robust bi-modality in the distribution of galaxy properties, with a characteristic transition scale at stellar mass M_*~3x10^{10} Msun (near L_*), corresponding to virial velocity V~100 km/s. Smaller galaxies tend to be blue disks of young populations. They define a "fundamental line" of decreasing surface brightness, metallicity and velocity with decreasing M_*, which extends to the smallest dwarf galaxies. Galaxies above the critical scale are d...

  19. Mirages in galaxy scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosenkov, A. V.; Sotnikova, N. Ya.; Reshetnikov, V. P.

    2014-06-01

    We analysed several basic correlations between structural parameters of galaxies. The data were taken from various samples in different passbands which are available in the literature. We discuss disc scaling relations as well as some debatable issues concerning the so-called Photometric Plane for bulges and elliptical galaxies in different forms and various versions of the famous Kormendy relation. We show that some of the correlations under discussion are artificial (self-correlations), while others truly reveal some new essential details of the structural properties of galaxies. Our main results are as follows: At present, we cannot conclude that faint stellar discs are, on average, more thin than discs in high surface brightness galaxies. The `central surface brightness-thickness' correlation appears only as a consequence of the transparent exponential disc model to describe real galaxy discs. The Photometric Plane appears to have no independent physical sense. Various forms of this plane are merely sophisticated versions of the Kormendy relation or of the self-relation involving the central surface brightness of a bulge/elliptical galaxy and the Sérsic index n. The Kormendy relation is a physical correlation presumably reflecting the difference in the origin of bright and faint ellipticals and bulges. We present arguments that involve creating artificial samples to prove our main idea.

  20. Galaxy Strategy for LIGO-Virgo Gravitational Wave Counterpart Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrels, Neil; Kanner, Jonah; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Nissanke, Samaya; Singer, Leo P

    2015-01-01

    In this work we continue a line of inquiry begun in Kanner et al. which detailed a strategy for utilizing telescopes with narrow fields of view, such as the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT), to localize gravity wave (GW) triggers from LIGO/Virgo. If one considers the brightest galaxies that produce ~50% of the light, then the number of galaxies inside typical GW error boxes will be several tens. We have found that this result applies both in the early years of Advanced LIGO when the range is small and the error boxes large, and in the later years when the error boxes will be small and the range large. This strategy has the beneficial property of reducing the number of telescope pointings by a factor 10 to 100 compared with tiling the entire error box. Additional galaxy count reduction will come from a GW rapid distance estimate which will restrict the radial slice in search volume. Combining the bright galaxy strategy with a convolution based on anticipated GW localizations, we find that the searches can be restri...

  1. The Seyfert galaxy population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large sample of Seyfert galaxies, many of which are Markarian galaxies, has been observed with the WSRT in lambda 21 cm continuum radiation. The results are presented, and the number of radio detected Seyferts has now increased considerably. A number of accurate optical positions are given that were needed to identify radio sources with the Seyfert galaxies observed. Optical and radio luminosity functions of Seyfert galaxies are derived. The results are compared with such functions for other categories of objects that may be related to these galaxies. The discussions focus on the possible connections between normal galaxies, Seyferts, and optically selected quasars. Three investigations are reported on individual objects that are related to Seyfert galaxies. WSRT observations of four bright, optically selected quasars are presented. The identification of an X-ray discovered BL Lacertae object is discussed. Its radio emission is on a much lower level than for other BL Lacs. Perhaps it is a radio-quiet object in this class, suggesting a comparable difference in radio emission for BL Lacs as is known for quasars. Photo-electric photometry for the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1566 is reported. Besides a monitoring programme, multi-aperture photometry is described. (Auth.)

  2. Brightest Cluster Galaxy Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Luke; Haarsma, D. B.; Sebald, D. A.; ACCEPT Team

    2011-01-01

    Brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) play an important role in several fields of astronomical research. The literature includes many different methods and criteria for identifying the BCG in the cluster, such as choosing the brightest galaxy, the galaxy nearest the X-ray peak, or the galaxy with the most extended profile. Here we examine a sample of 75 clusters from the Archive of Chandra Cluster Entropy Profile Tables (ACCEPT) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), measuring masked magnitudes and profiles for BCG candidates in each cluster. We first identified galaxies by hand; in 15% of clusters at least one team member selected a different galaxy than the others.We also applied 6 other identification methods to the ACCEPT sample; in 30% of clusters at least one of these methods selected a different galaxy than the other methods. We then developed an algorithm that weighs brightness, profile, and proximity to the X-ray peak and centroid. This algorithm incorporates the advantages of by-hand identification (weighing multiple properties) and automated selection (repeatable and consistent). The BCG population chosen by the algorithm is more uniform in its properties than populations selected by other methods, particularly in the relation between absolute magnitude (a proxy for galaxy mass) and average gas temperature (a proxy for cluster mass). This work supported by a Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship and a Sid Jansma Summer Research Fellowship.

  3. How the extinction of extragalactic background light affects surface photometry of galaxies, groups and clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zackrisson, E.; Micheva, G.; Östlin, G.

    2009-08-01

    The faint regions of galaxies, groups and clusters hold important clues about how these objects formed, and surface photometry at optical and near-infrared wavelengths represents a powerful tool for studying such structures. Here, we identify a hitherto unrecognized problem with this technique, related to how the night sky flux is typically measured and subtracted from astronomical images. While most of the sky flux comes from regions between the observer and the target object, a small fraction - the extragalactic background light (EBL) - comes from behind. We argue that since this part of the sky flux can be subjected to extinction by dust present in the galaxy/group/cluster studied, standard reduction procedures may lead to a systematic oversubtraction of the EBL. Even very small amounts of extinction can lead to spurious features in radial surface brightness profiles and colour maps of extended objects. We assess the likely impact of this effect on a number of topics in extragalactic astronomy where very deep surface photometry is currently attempted, including studies of stellar haloes, starburst host galaxies, disc truncations and diffuse intragroup/intracluster light. We argue that EBL extinction may provide at least a partial explanation for the anomalously red colours reported for the haloes of disc galaxies and for the hosts of local starburst galaxies. EBL extinction effects also mimic truncations in discs with unusually high dust opacities, but are unlikely to be the cause of such features in general. Failure to account for EBL extinction can also give rise to a non-negligible underestimate of intragroup and intracluster light at the faintest surface brightness levels currently probed. Finally, we discuss how EBL extinction effects may be exploited to provide an independent constraint on the surface brightness of the EBL, using a combination of surface photometry and direct star counts.

  4. Modeling the Color Magnitude Relation for Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Noelia; Castelli, Analia Smith; Bassino, Lilia P

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the origin of the colour-magnitude relation (CMR) observed in cluster galaxies by using a combination of a cosmological N-body simulation of a cluster of galaxies and a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. The departure of galaxies in the bright end of the CMR with respect to the trend denoted by less luminous galaxies could be explained by the influence of minor mergers

  5. Early-type dwarf galaxies with multicomponent stellar structure: Are they remnants of disc galaxies strongly transformed by their environment?

    CERN Document Server

    Aguerri, J Alfonso L

    2016-01-01

    The surface brightness distribution of $\\sim$30-40$\\%$ of the early-type dwarf galaxies with $-18 \\leq M_{B} \\leq -15$ in the Virgo and the Coma clusters is fitted by models that include two structural components (S\\`ersic + exponential) as for bright disc galaxies.The goal of the present study is to determine whether early-type dwarf galaxies with a two-component stellar structure in the Virgo and the Coma clusters are low-luminosity copies of bright disc galaxies or are the remnants of bright galaxies strongly transformed by cluster environmental effects.I analysed the location of bright disc galaxies and early-type dwarfs in the $r_{b,e}/h$- $n$ plane. The location in this plane of the two-component dwarf galaxies was compared with the remnants of tidally disrupted disc galaxies reported by numerical simulations. Bright unbarred disc galaxies show a strong correlation in the $r_{b,e}/h$-$n$ plane. Galaxies with larger S\\`ersic shape parameters show a higher $r_{b,e}/h$ ratio. In contrast, two-component ear...

  6. XMM-Newton observations of the Perseus Cluster I: The temperature and surface brightness structure

    OpenAIRE

    Churazov, E.; Forman, W.; C. Jones; Böhringer, H.

    2003-01-01

    We present preliminary results of the XMM-Newton 50 ksec observation of the Perseus cluster. The global east/west asymmetry of the gas temperature and surface brightness distributions, approximately aligned with the chain of bright galaxies, suggests an ongoing merger, although the modest degree of the observed asymmetry certainly excludes a major merger interpretation. The chain of galaxies probably traces the filament along which accretion has started some time ago and is continuing at the ...

  7. Galaxy Strategy for LIGO-Virgo Gravitational Wave Counterpart Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.; Kanner, Jonah; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nissanke, Samaya; Singer, Leo P.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we continue a line of inquiry begun in Kanner et al. which detailed a strategy for utilizing telescopes with narrow fields of view, such as the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT), to localize gravitational wave (GW) triggers from LIGO/Virgo. If one considers the brightest galaxies that produce ˜50% of the light, then the number of galaxies inside typical GW error boxes will be several tens. We have found that this result applies both in the early years of Advanced LIGO when the range was small and the error boxes were large, and will apply in the later years when the error boxes will be small and the range will be large. This strategy has the beneficial property of reducing the number of telescope pointings by a factor of 10-100 compared with tiling the entire error box. Additional galaxy count reduction will come from a GW rapid distance estimate which will restrict the radial slice in search volume. Combining the bright galaxy strategy with a convolution based on anticipated GW localizations, we find that the searches can be restricted to about 18 ± 5 galaxies for 2015, about 23 ± 4 for 2017, and about 11 ± 2 for 2020. This assumes a distance localization at the putative neutron star-neutron star merger range μ for each target year, and these totals are integrated out to the range. Integrating out to the horizon would roughly double the totals. For localizations with r\\ll μ the totals would decrease. The galaxy strategy we present in this work will enable numerous sensitive optical and XRTs with small fields of view to participate meaningfully in searches wherein the prospects for rapidly fading afterglow place a premium on a fast response time.

  8. Galaxy Strategy for Ligo-Virgo Gravitational Wave Counterpart Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.; Kanner, Jonah; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nissanke, Samaya; Singer, Leo P.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we continue a line of inquiry begun in Kanner et al. which detailed a strategy for utilizing telescopes with narrow fields of view, such as the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT), to localize gravity wave (GW) triggers from LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) / Virgo. If one considers the brightest galaxies that produce 50 percent of the light, then the number of galaxies inside typical GW error boxes will be several tens. We have found that this result applies both in the early years of Advanced LIGO when the range is small and the error boxes large, and in the later years when the error boxes will be small and the range large. This strategy has the beneficial property of reducing the number of telescope pointings by a factor 10 to 100 compared with tiling the entire error box. Additional galaxy count reduction will come from a GW rapid distance estimate which will restrict the radial slice in search volume. Combining the bright galaxy strategy with a convolution based on anticipated GW localizations, we find that the searches can be restricted to about 18 plus or minus 5 galaxies for 2015, about 23 plus or minus 4 for 2017, and about 11 plus or minus for 2020. This assumes a distance localization at the putative neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) merger range mu for each target year, and these totals are integrated out to the range. Integrating out to the horizon would roughly double the totals. For localizations with r (rotation) greatly less than mu the totals would decrease. The galaxy strategy we present in this work will enable numerous sensitive optical and X-ray telescopes with small fields of view to participate meaningfully in searches wherein the prospects for rapidly fading afterglow place a premium on a fast response time.

  9. The high redshift galaxy population in hierarchical galaxy formation models

    CERN Document Server

    Kitzbichler, M G; Kitzbichler, Manfred G.; White, Simon D. M.

    2006-01-01

    We compare observations of the high redshift galaxy population to the predictions of the galaxy formation model of Croton et al. (2006). This model, implemented on the Millennium Simulation of the concordance LCDM cosmogony, introduces "radio mode" feedback from the central galaxies of groups and clusters in order to obtain quantitative agreement with the luminosity, colour, morphology and clustering properties of the low redshift galaxy population. Here we compare the predictions of this same model to the observed counts and redshift distributions of faint galaxies, as well as to their inferred luminosity and mass functions out to redshift 5. With the exception of the mass functions, all these properties are sensitive to modelling of dust obscuration. A simple but plausible treatment gives moderately good agreement with most of the data, although the predicted abundance of relatively massive (~M*) galaxies appears systematically high at high redshift, suggesting that such galaxies assemble earlier in this mo...

  10. The colours of HII galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Telles, E; Telles, Eduardo; Terlevich, Roberto

    1995-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution CCD surface photometry study in the optical V, R and I filters of 15 HII galaxies from the Nordic Optical Telescope and the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope at Canary Islands. The colours of the starburst continuum and of the underlying galaxy are measured. The distribution of colours of the underlying galaxy in HII galaxies is similar to the colours of other late type low surface brightness galaxies which suggests a close kinship of these with the quiescent phases of HII galaxies. However, comparison with recent evolutionary population synthesis models show that the observational errors and the uncertainties in the models are still too large to put strict constraints on their past star formation history.

  11. AzTEC half square degree survey of the SHADES fields - I. Maps, catalogues and source counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austermann, J. E.; Dunlop, J. S.; Perera, T. A.; Scott, K. S.; Wilson, G. W.; Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D. H.; Almaini, O.; Chapin, E. L.; Chapman, S. C.; Cirasuolo, M.; Clements, D. L.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S. A.; Egami, E.; Farrah, D.; Ferrusca, D.; Flynn, S.; Haig, D.; Halpern, M.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; van Kampen, E.; Kang, Y.; Kim, S.; Lacey, C.; Lowenthal, J. D.; Mauskopf, P. D.; McLure, R. J.; Mortier, A. M. J.; Negrello, M.; Oliver, S.; Peacock, J. A.; Pope, A.; Rawlings, S.; Rieke, G.; Roseboom, I.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Scott, D.; Serjeant, S.; Smail, I.; Swinbank, A. M.; Stevens, J. A.; Velazquez, M.; Wagg, J.; Yun, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first results from the largest deep extragalactic mm-wavelength survey undertaken to date. These results are derived from maps covering over 0.7deg2, made at λ = 1.1mm, using the AzTEC continuum camera mounted on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The maps were made in the two fields originally targeted at λ = 850μm with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) in the SCUBA Half-Degree Extragalactic Survey (SHADES) project, namely the Lockman Hole East (mapped to a depth of 0.9-1.3 mJy rms) and the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field (mapped to a depth of 1.0-1.7 mJy rms). The wealth of existing and forthcoming deep multifrequency data in these two fields will allow the bright mm source population revealed by these new wide-area 1.1mm images to be explored in detail in subsequent papers. Here, we present the maps themselves, a catalogue of 114 high-significance submillimetre galaxy detections, and a thorough statistical analysis leading to the most robust determination to date of the 1.1mm source number counts. These new maps, covering an area nearly three times greater than the SCUBA SHADES maps, currently provide the largest sample of cosmological volumes of the high-redshift Universe in the mm or sub-mm. Through careful comparison, we find that both the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) and the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North fields, also imaged with AzTEC, contain an excess of mm sources over the new 1.1mm source-count baseline established here. In particular, our new AzTEC/SHADES results indicate that very luminous high-redshift dust enshrouded starbursts (S1.1mm > 3mJy) are 25-50 per cent less common than would have been inferred from these smaller surveys, thus highlighting the potential roles of cosmic variance and clustering in such measurements. We compare number count predictions from recent models of the evolving mm/sub-mm source population to these sub-mm bright galaxy surveys, which provide important

  12. Joint Analysis of near-infrared properties and surface brightness fluctuations of LMC star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Raimondo, G

    2009-01-01

    Surface brightness fluctuations have been proved to be a very powerful technique to determine the distance and characterize the stellar content in extragalactic systems. Nevertheless, before facing the problem of stellar content in distant galaxies, we need to calibrate the method onto nearby well-known systems. In this paper we analyze the properties at $J$ and $K_s$ bands of a sample of 19 star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), for which accurate near-infrared (NIR) resolved star photometry, and integrated photometry are available. For the same sample, we derive the SBF measurements in $J$ and $K_s$-bands. We use the multi-purpose stellar population code \\emph{SPoT (Stellar POpulations Tools)} to simulate the color-magnitude diagram, stellar counts, integrated magnitudes, colors, and surface brightness fluctuations of each cluster. The present procedure allows us to estimate the age and metallicity of the clusters in a consistent way, and provides a new calibration of the empirical $s$-parameter...

  13. High Brightness Test Stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Brightness Test Stand is a 2 MeV, less than or equal to 10 kA electron accelerator module. This accelerator module, designed as an upgrade prototype for the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA), combines solid state nonlinear magnetic drives with state-of-the-art induction linac technology. The facility serves a dual role, as it not only provides a test bed for this new technology, but is used to develop high brightness electron optics. We will both further describe the accelerator, as well as present some of the preliminary electron optics measurements

  14. Surface photometry of new nearby dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Makarova, L N; Grebel, E K; Barsunova, O Y

    2002-01-01

    We present CCD surface photometry of 16 nearby dwarf galaxies, many of which were only recently discovered. Our sample comprises both isolated galaxies and galaxies that are members of nearby galaxy groups. The observations were obtained in the Johnson B and V bands (and in some cases in Kron-Cousins I). We derive surface brightness profiles, total magnitudes, and integrated colors. For the 11 galaxies in our sample with distance estimates the absolute B magnitudes lie in the range of -10>Mb>-13. The central surface brightness ranges from 22.5 to 27.0 mag/sq.arcsec. Most of the dwarf galaxies show exponential light profiles with or without a central light depression. Integrated radial color gradients, where present, appear to indicate a more centrally concentrated younger population and a more extended older population.

  15. Ghosts in the Attic: Mapping the Stellar Content of the S0 Galaxy NGC 5102

    CERN Document Server

    Davidge, T J

    2009-01-01

    Images obtained with WIRCam and MegaCam on the CFHT are used to investigate the spatial distribution of stars in the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 5102. With the exception of gaps between detector elements, the entire galaxy is surveyed in r' and i', while the galaxy is surveyed out to a radius of 6 kpc in J and Ks. A modest population of main sequence (MS) stars with M_V < -3.5 and ages ~ 70 Myr are detected throughout the disk, and these occur in greatest numbers in the southern half of the galaxy. Star counts indicate that the structure of the disk changes near R_GC = 5 kpc, in the sense that the radial surface density profile defined by bright AGB stars levels off at larger radii. AGB stars are traced out to a radius of 14 kpc (16 arcmin) along the major axis, and distinct concentrations of these stars are found in the southern part of the outer disk. The stellar disk in the northern half of the galaxy is warped, tracing structure that is also seen in HI. A large grouping of AGB stars that subtends roughly one ...

  16. SPECTROSCOPIC GRADIENTS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Buzzoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We review some relevant properties of the observed changes of H , Mg2, and Fei Lick indices across the surface of 25 bright elliptical galaxies. The impact of these spectroscopic gradients is brie y discussed, in the framework of the leading physical mechanisms that led to galaxy formation. In particular, three relevant evolutionary scenarios are sketched, each one able, in principle, to consistently match galaxy spectral properties and e ectively constrain the composing stellar populations in these systems.

  17. The bias of the submillimetre galaxy population: SMGs are poor tracers of the most massive structures in the z ~ 2 Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Tim B; Chapman, Scott C; Behroozi, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    It is often claimed that overdensities of (or even individual bright) submillimetre-selected galaxies (SMGs) trace the assembly of the most-massive dark matter structures in the Universe. We test this claim by performing a counts-in-cells analysis of mock SMG catalogues derived from the Bolshoi cosmological simulation to investigate how well SMG associations trace the underlying dark matter structure. We find that SMGs exhibit a relatively complex bias: some regions of high SMG overdensity are underdense in terms of dark matter mass, and some regions of high dark matter overdensity contain no SMGs. Because of their rarity, Poisson noise causes scatter in the SMG overdensity at fixed dark matter overdensity. Consequently, rich associations of less-luminous, more-abundant galaxies (i.e. Lyman-break galaxy analogues) trace the highest dark matter overdensities much better than SMGs. Even on average, SMG associations are relatively poor tracers of the most significant dark matter overdensities because of `downsiz...

  18. Modeling the evolution of infrared galaxies: a parametric backward evolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béthermin, M.; Dole, H.; Lagache, G.; Le Borgne, D.; Penin, A.

    2011-05-01

    Aims: We attempt to model the infrared galaxy evolution in as simple a way as possible and reproduce statistical properties such as the number counts between 15 μm and 1.1 mm, the luminosity functions, and the redshift distributions. We then use the fitted model to interpret observations from Spitzer, AKARI, BLAST, LABOCA, AzTEC, SPT, and Herschel, and make predictions for Planck and future experiments such as CCAT or SPICA. Methods: This model uses an evolution in density and luminosity of the luminosity function parametrized by broken power-laws with two breaks at redshift ~0.9 and 2, and contains the two populations of the Lagache model: normal and starburst galaxies. We also take into account the effect of the strong lensing of high-redshift sub-millimeter galaxies. This effect is significant in the sub-mm and mm range near 50 mJy. It has 13 free parameters and eight additional calibration parameters. We fit the parameters to the IRAS, Spitzer, Herschel, and AzTEC measurements with a Monte Carlo Markov chain. Results: The model adjusted to deep counts at key wavelengths reproduces the counts from mid-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, as well as the mid-infrared luminosity functions. We discuss the contribution to both the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and the infrared luminosity density of the different populations. We also estimate the effect of the lensing on the number counts, and discuss the discovery by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) of a very bright population lying at high redshift. We predict the contribution of the lensed sources to the Planck number counts, the confusion level for future missions using a P(D) formalism, and the Universe opacity to TeV photons caused by the CIB. Material of the model (software, tables and predictions) is available online.

  19. Mathematical Morphology: Star/Galaxy Differentiation & Galaxy Morphology Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, J A; Drinkwater, M J; Moore, Jason A.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Drinkwater, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    We present an application of Mathematical Morphology (MM) for the classification of astronomical objects, both for star/galaxy differentiation and galaxy morphology classification. We demonstrate that, for CCD images, 99.3 +/- 3.8 % of galaxies can be separated from stars using MM, with 19.4 +/- 7.9 % of the stars being misclassified. We demonstrate that, for photographic plate images, the number of galaxies correctly separated from the stars can be increased using our MM diffraction spike tool, which allows 51.0 +/- 6.0 % of the high-brightness galaxies that are inseparable in current techniques to be correctly classified, with only 1.4 +/- 0.5 % of the high-brightness stars contaminating the population. We demonstrate that elliptical (E) and late-type spiral (Sc-Sd) galaxies can be classified using MM at an accuracy of 91.4 +/- 7.8 %. It is a method involving less `free parameters' than current techniques, especially automated machine learning algorithms. The limitation of MM galaxy morphology based on seei...

  20. The rotation of Galaxy Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Tovmassian, Hrant M.

    2015-01-01

    The method for detection of the galaxy cluster rotation based on the study of distribution of member galaxies with velocities lower and higher of the cluster mean velocity over the cluster image is proposed. The search for rotation is made for flat clusters with $a/b>1.8$ and BMI type clusters which are expected to be rotating. For comparison there were studied also round clusters and clusters of NBMI type, the second by brightness galaxy in which does not differ significantly from the cluste...

  1. UV-BRIGHT NEARBY EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES OBSERVED IN THE MID-INFRARED: EVIDENCE FOR A MULTI-STAGE FORMATION HISTORY BY WAY OF WISE AND GALEX IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the local universe, 10% of massive elliptical galaxies are observed to exhibit a peculiar property: a substantial excess of ultraviolet emission than what is expected from their old, red stellar populations. Several origins for this ultraviolet excess (UVX) have been proposed including a population of hot young stars and a population of old, blue horizontal branch or extended horizontal branch (BHB or EHB) stars that have undergone substantial mass loss from their outer atmospheres. We explore the radial distribution of UVX in a selection of 49 nearby E/S0-type galaxies by measuring their extended photometry in the UV through mid-infrared (mid-IR) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We compare UV/optical and UV/mid-IR colors with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis models, which allow for the inclusion of EHB stars. We find that combined WISE mid-IR and GALEX UV colors are more effective in distinguishing models than optical colors, and that the UV/mid-IR combination is sensitive to the EHB fraction. There are strong color gradients, with the outer radii bluer than the inner half-light radii by ∼1 mag. This color difference is easily accounted for with an increase in the BHB fraction of 0.25 with radius. We estimated that the average ages for the inner and outer radii are 7.0 ± 0.3 Gyr, and 6.2 ± 0.2 Gyr, respectively, with the implication that the outer regions are likely to have formed ∼1 Gyr after the inner regions. Additionally, we find that metallicity gradients are likely not a significant factor in the color difference. The separation of color between the inner and outer regions, which agrees with a specific stellar population difference (e.g., higher EHB populations), and the ∼0.5-2 Gyr age difference suggests multi-stage formation. Our results are best explained by inside-out formation: rapid star formation within the core at early epochs (>4 Gyr ago

  2. UV-BRIGHT NEARBY EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES OBSERVED IN THE MID-INFRARED: EVIDENCE FOR A MULTI-STAGE FORMATION HISTORY BY WAY OF WISE AND GALEX IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, S. M.; Farrah, D. G. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Neill, J. D.; Bridge, C. R. [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jarrett, T. H.; Tsai, C.-W. [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Blain, A. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Rich, R. M.; Lake, S. E.; Wright, E. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Benford, D. J. [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Masci, F. J. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    In the local universe, 10% of massive elliptical galaxies are observed to exhibit a peculiar property: a substantial excess of ultraviolet emission than what is expected from their old, red stellar populations. Several origins for this ultraviolet excess (UVX) have been proposed including a population of hot young stars and a population of old, blue horizontal branch or extended horizontal branch (BHB or EHB) stars that have undergone substantial mass loss from their outer atmospheres. We explore the radial distribution of UVX in a selection of 49 nearby E/S0-type galaxies by measuring their extended photometry in the UV through mid-infrared (mid-IR) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We compare UV/optical and UV/mid-IR colors with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis models, which allow for the inclusion of EHB stars. We find that combined WISE mid-IR and GALEX UV colors are more effective in distinguishing models than optical colors, and that the UV/mid-IR combination is sensitive to the EHB fraction. There are strong color gradients, with the outer radii bluer than the inner half-light radii by {approx}1 mag. This color difference is easily accounted for with an increase in the BHB fraction of 0.25 with radius. We estimated that the average ages for the inner and outer radii are 7.0 {+-} 0.3 Gyr, and 6.2 {+-} 0.2 Gyr, respectively, with the implication that the outer regions are likely to have formed {approx}1 Gyr after the inner regions. Additionally, we find that metallicity gradients are likely not a significant factor in the color difference. The separation of color between the inner and outer regions, which agrees with a specific stellar population difference (e.g., higher EHB populations), and the {approx}0.5-2 Gyr age difference suggests multi-stage formation. Our results are best explained by inside-out formation: rapid star formation within the core at early

  3. The brightness of colour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The perception of brightness depends on spatial context: the same stimulus can appear light or dark depending on what surrounds it. A less well-known but equally important contextual phenomenon is that the colour of a stimulus can also alter its brightness. Specifically, stimuli that are more saturated (i.e. purer in colour appear brighter than stimuli that are less saturated at the same luminance. Similarly, stimuli that are red or blue appear brighter than equiluminant yellow and green stimuli. This non-linear relationship between stimulus intensity and brightness, called the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (HK effect, was first described in the nineteenth century but has never been explained. Here, we take advantage of the relative simplicity of this 'illusion' to explain it and contextual effects more generally, by using a simple Bayesian ideal observer model of the human visual ecology. We also use fMRI brain scans to identify the neural correlates of brightness without changing the spatial context of the stimulus, which has complicated the interpretation of related fMRI studies. RESULTS: Rather than modelling human vision directly, we use a Bayesian ideal observer to model human visual ecology. We show that the HK effect is a result of encoding the non-linear statistical relationship between retinal images and natural scenes that would have been experienced by the human visual system in the past. We further show that the complexity of this relationship is due to the response functions of the cone photoreceptors, which themselves are thought to represent an efficient solution to encoding the statistics of images. Finally, we show that the locus of the response to the relationship between images and scenes lies in the primary visual cortex (V1, if not earlier in the visual system, since the brightness of colours (as opposed to their luminance accords with activity in V1 as measured with fMRI. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that perceptions

  4. The Impact of Strong Gravitational Lensing on Observed Lyman-Break Galaxy Numbers at 4

    CERN Document Server

    Barone-Nugent, R L; Trenti, M; Treu, T; Oesch, P; Bouwens, R; Illingworth, G D; Schmidt, K B

    2015-01-01

    Detection of Lyman-Break Galaxies (LBGs) at high-redshift can be affected by gravitational lensing induced by foreground deflectors not only in galaxy clusters, but also in blank fields. We quantify the impact of strong magnification in the samples of $B$, $V$, $i$, $z$ $\\&$ $Y$ LBGs ($4\\lesssim z \\lesssim8$) observed in the XDF and GOODS/CANDELS fields, by investigating the proximity of dropouts to foreground objects. We find that $\\sim6\\%$ of bright LBGs ($m_{H_{160}}2$) by foreground objects. This fraction decreases from $\\sim 3.5\\%$ at $z\\sim6$ to $\\sim1.5\\%$ at $z\\sim4$. Since the observed fraction of strongly lensed galaxies is a function of the shape of the luminosity function (LF), it can be used to derive Schechter parameters, $\\alpha$ and $M_{\\star}$, independently from galaxy number counts. Our magnification bias analysis yields Schechter-function parameters in close agreement with those determined from galaxy counts albeit with larger uncertainties. Extrapolation of our analysis to $z\\gtrsim 8...

  5. Modelling nova populations in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Liang; Woods, T. E.; Yungelson, L. R.; Gilfanov, M.; Han, Zhanwen

    2016-05-01

    Theoretical modelling of the evolution of classical and recurrent novae plays an important role in studies of binary evolution, nucleosynthesis and accretion physics. However, from a theoretical perspective the observed statistical properties of novae remain poorly understood. In this paper, we have produced model populations of novae using a hybrid binary population synthesis approach for differing star formation histories (SFHs): a starburst case (elliptical-like galaxies), a constant star formation rate case (spiral-like galaxies) and a composite case (in line with the inferred SFH for M31). We found that the nova rate at 10 Gyr in an elliptical-like galaxy is ˜10-20 times smaller than a spiral-like galaxy with the same mass. The majority of novae in elliptical-like galaxies at the present epoch are characterized by low-mass white dwarfs (WDs), long decay times, relatively faint absolute magnitudes and long recurrence periods. In contrast, the majority of novae in spiral-like galaxies at 10 Gyr have massive WDs, short decay times, are relatively bright and have short recurrence periods. The mass-loss time distribution for novae in our M31-like galaxy is in agreement with observational data for Andromeda. However, it is possible that we underestimate the number of bright novae in our model. This may arise in part due to the present uncertainties in the appropriate bolometric correction for novae.

  6. Slowly cooking galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Legrand, F

    1999-01-01

    Recent spectroscopic observations of IZw~18 have revealed homogeneous abundance throughout the galaxy and several observations of other starburst galaxies have shown no significant gradient or discontinuity in the abundance distributions within the HII regions. I thus concur with Tenorio-Tagle (1996) and Devost et al. (1997) that these observed abundance homogeneities cannot be produced by the material ejected from the stars formed in the current burst and result from a previous star formation episode. Metals ejected in the current burst of star formation remain most probably hidden in a hot phase and are undetectable using optical spectroscopy. Combining various observational facts, for instance the faint star formation rate observed in low surface brightness galaxies (van Zee et al., 1997), I propose that a low and continuous star formation rate occurring during quiescent phases between bursts is a non negligible source of new elements in the interstellar medium. Using a spectrophotometric and chemical evol...

  7. HerMES: deep number counts at 250, 350, and 500 microns in the COSMOS and GOODS-N fields and the build-up of the cosmic infrared background

    CERN Document Server

    Béthermin, M; Ilbert, O; Conley, A; Lagache, G; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Berta, S; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Casey, C M; Castro-Rodríguez, N; Cava, A; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Eales, S; Farrah, D; Franceschini, A; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Heinis, S; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Kartaltepe, J S; Levenson, L; Magdis, G; Marchetti, L; Marsden, G; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Pérez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rigopoulou, D; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Salvato, M; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Viero, M; Wang, L; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2012-01-01

    ABRIGED Herschel/SPIRE has provided confusion limited maps of deep fields at 250, 350, and 500um, as part of the HerMES survey. Due to confusion, only a small fraction of the Cosmic Infrared Background can be resolved into individually-detected sources. Our goal is to produce deep galaxy number counts and redshift distributions below the confusion limit, which we then use to place strong constraints on the origins of the cosmic infrared background and on models of galaxy evolution. We individually extracted the bright SPIRE with a method using the positions, the flux densities, and the redshifts of the 24um sources as a prior, and derived the number counts and redshift distributions of the bright SPIRE sources. For fainter SPIRE sources, we reconstructed the number counts and the redshift distribution below the confusion limit using the deep 24um catalogs associated with photometric redshift and information provided by the stacking of these sources into the deep SPIRE maps. Finally, by integrating all these c...

  8. Bright Economic Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Minqiu

    2004-01-01

    @@ India is expected to register an 8.2% growth rate for the 2003-04 fiscal year. The overall economic situation this year has been satisfactory despite the scaled down 6-6.5% growth rate for the new fiscal year due to oil price hikes, reduced monsoon volume and some 7% inflation. Judging from the following factors, bright prospects are in store for the country down the road.

  9. The 8 Coincidences of Galaxy Photometry - Selection Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, M. J.; Phillipps, S.

    When the photometric properties of significant numbers of galaxies are compared, eight remarkable coincidences turn up. No convincing explanation for these have appeared so far. However, it may be that they can all be explained through a single powerful selection effect which brings into prominence only galaxies of certain favourable surface brightnesses. If that is the case, then our current understanding of galaxy populations is a delusion, and there must be many more galaxies about than we presently assume.

  10. Eosinophil count - absolute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  11. Stochastic 2-D Models of Galaxy Disk Evolution. The Galaxy M33

    OpenAIRE

    Mineikis, Tadas; Vansevičius, Vladas

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a fast numerical 2-D model of galaxy disk evolution (resolved along the galaxy radius and azimuth) by adopting a scheme of parameterized stochastic self-propagating star formation. We explore the parameter space of the model and demonstrate its capability to reproduce 1-D radial profiles of the galaxy M33: gas surface density, surface brightness in the i and GALEX FUV passbands, and metallicity.

  12. Abundance gradients in low surface brightness spirals: clues on the origin of common gradients in galactic discs

    CERN Document Server

    Bresolin, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We acquired spectra of 141 HII regions in ten late-type low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs). The analysis of the chemical abundances obtained from the nebular emission lines shows that metallicity gradients are a common feature of LSBGs, contrary to previous claims concerning the absence of such gradients in this class of galaxies. The average slope, when expressed in units of the isophotal radius, is found to be significantly shallower in comparison to galaxies of high surface brightness. This result can be attributed to the reduced surface brightness range measured across their discs, when combined with a universal surface mass density-metallicity relation. With a similar argument we explain the common abundance gradient observed in high surface brightness galaxy (HSBG) discs and its approximate dispersion. This conclusion is reinforced by our result that LSBGs share the same common abundance gradient with HSBGs, when the slope is expressed in terms of the exponential disc scale length.

  13. Likelihood Functions for Galaxy Cluster Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Holder, G

    2006-01-01

    Galaxy cluster surveys offer great promise for measuring cosmological parameters, but survey analysis methods have not been widely studied. Using methods developed decades ago for galaxy clustering studies, it is shown that nearly exact likelihood functions can be written down for galaxy cluster surveys. The sparse sampling of the density field by galaxy clusters allows simplifications that are not possible for galaxy surveys. An application to counts in cells is explicitly tested using cluster catalogs from numerical simulations and it is found that the calculated probability distributions are very accurate at masses above several times 10^{14}h^{-1} solar masses at z=0 and lower masses at higher redshift.

  14. Galaxy Mergers and Dark Matter Halo Mergers in LCDM: Mass, Redshift, and Mass-Ratio Dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2009-08-03

    We employ a high-resolution LCDM N-body simulation to present merger rate predictions for dark matter halos and investigate how common merger-related observables for galaxies - such as close pair counts, starburst counts, and the morphologically disturbed fraction - likely scale with luminosity, stellar mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift from z = 0 to z = 4. We provide a simple 'universal' fitting formula that describes our derived merger rates for dark matter halos a function of dark halo mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift, and go on to predict galaxy merger rates using number density-matching to associate halos with galaxies. For example, we find that the instantaneous merger rate of m/M > 0.3 mass ratio events into typical L {approx}> fL{sub *} galaxies follows the simple relation dN/dt {approx_equal} 0.03(1+f)Gyr{sup -1} (1+z){sup 2.1}. Despite the rapid increase in merger rate with redshift, only a small fraction of > 0.4L{sub *} high-redshift galaxies ({approx} 3% at z = 2) should have experienced a major merger (m/M > 0.3) in the very recent past (t < 100 Myr). This suggests that short-lived, merger-induced bursts of star formation should not contribute significantly to the global star formation rate at early times, in agreement with observational indications. In contrast, a fairly high fraction ({approx} 20%) of those z = 2 galaxies should have experienced a morphologically transformative merger within a virial dynamical time. We compare our results to observational merger rate estimates from both morphological indicators and pair-fraction based determinations between z = 0-2 and show that they are consistent with our predictions. However, we emphasize that great care must be made in these comparisons because the predicted observables depend very sensitively on galaxy luminosity, redshift, overall mass ratio, and uncertain relaxation timescales for merger remnants. We show that the majority of bright galaxies at z = 3 should have undergone a

  15. Detection of Galaxies with Gaia

    CERN Document Server

    de Souza, Ronaldo E; Anjos, Sandra dos; Ducourant, Christine; Teixeira, Ramachrisna

    2014-01-01

    Besides its major objective tuned to the detection of the stellar galactic population the Gaia mission experiment will also observe a large number of galaxies. In this work we intend to evaluate the number and the characteristics of the galaxies that will effectively pass the onboard selection algorithm of Gaia. The detection of objects in Gaia will be performed in a section of the focal plane known as the Sky Mapper. Taking into account the Video Processing Algorithm criterion of detection and considering the known light profiles of discs and bulges galaxies we assess the number and the type of extra-galactic objects that will be observed by Gaia. We show that the stellar disk population of galaxies will be very difficult to be observed. On the contrary the spheroidal component of elliptical galaxies and bulges having higher central surface brightness and steeper brightness profile will be more easy to be detected. We estimate that most of the 20 000 elliptical population of nearby galaxies inside the local ...

  16. Kinematic transitions and streams in galaxy halos

    CERN Document Server

    Romanowsky, A J; Brodie, J P; Foster, C; Forbes, D A; Lux, H; Martinez-Delgado, D; Strader, J; Zibetti, S

    2014-01-01

    The chemo-dynamics of galaxy halos beyond the Local Group may now be mapped out through the use of globular clusters and planetary nebulae as bright tracer objects, along with deep multi-slit spectroscopy of the integrated stellar light. We present results from surveying nearby early-type galaxies, including evidence for kinematically distinct halos that may reflect two-phase galaxy assembly. We also demonstrate the utility of the tracer approach in measuring the kinematics of stellar substructures around the Umbrella Galaxy, which allow us to reconstruct the progenitor properties and stream orbit.

  17. The host galaxy/AGN connection in nearby early-type galaxies. Is there a miniature radio-galaxy in every "core" galaxy?

    OpenAIRE

    Balmaverde, B.; Capetti, A.

    2005-01-01

    This is the second of a series of three papers exploring the connection between the multiwavelength properties of AGN in nearby early-type galaxies and the characteristics of their hosts. In Capetti et al. (2005) we presented a study of the surface brightness profiles for the 65 objects with available archival HST images out of the 116 radio-detected galaxies. We classified early-type galaxies into ``core'' and ``power-law'' galaxies, discriminating on the basis of the slope of their nuclear ...

  18. Quantitative Brightness Analysis of Fluorescence Intensity Fluctuations in E. Coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho Hur

    Full Text Available The brightness measured by fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy specifies the average stoichiometry of a labeled protein in a sample. Here we extended brightness analysis, which has been mainly applied in eukaryotic cells, to prokaryotic cells with E. coli serving as a model system. The small size of the E. coli cell introduces unique challenges for applying brightness analysis that are addressed in this work. Photobleaching leads to a depletion of fluorophores and a reduction of the brightness of protein complexes. In addition, the E. coli cell and the point spread function of the instrument only partially overlap, which influences intensity fluctuations. To address these challenges we developed MSQ analysis, which is based on the mean Q-value of segmented photon count data, and combined it with the analysis of axial scans through the E. coli cell. The MSQ method recovers brightness, concentration, and diffusion time of soluble proteins in E. coli. We applied MSQ to measure the brightness of EGFP in E. coli and compared it to solution measurements. We further used MSQ analysis to determine the oligomeric state of nuclear transport factor 2 labeled with EGFP expressed in E. coli cells. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of quantifying the stoichiometry of proteins by brightness analysis in a prokaryotic cell.

  19. The Atlas3D project -- XXIX. The new look of early-type galaxies and surrounding fields disclosed by extremely deep optical images

    CERN Document Server

    Duc, Pierre-Alain; Karabal, Emin; Cappellari, Michele; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M; Michel-Dansac, Leo; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Paudel, Sanjaya; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Galactic archeology based on star counts is instrumental to reconstruct the past mass assembly of Local Group galaxies. The development of new observing techniques and data-reduction, coupled with the use of sensitive large field of view cameras, now allows us to pursue this technique in more distant galaxies exploiting their diffuse low surface brightness (LSB) light. As part of the Atlas3D project, we have obtained with the MegaCam camera at the Canada-France Hawaii Telescope extremely deep, multi--band, images of nearby early-type galaxies. We present here a catalog of 92 galaxies from the Atlas3D sample, that are located in low to medium density environments. The observing strategy and data reduction pipeline, that achieve a gain of several magnitudes in the limiting surface brightness with respect to classical imaging surveys, are presented. The size and depth of the survey is compared to other recent deep imaging projects. The paper highlights the capability of LSB--optimized surveys at detecting new pr...

  20. Star-Forming Galaxies at z~2 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Kong; Wei Zhang; Min Wang

    2008-01-01

    Using a simple color selection based on B-, z- and K-band photometry, BzK =(z - K)AB - (B - z)AB -0.2, we picked out 52 star-forming galaxies at 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 2.5(sBzKs) from a K-band selected sample (KVega < 22.0) in an area of ~ 5.5 arcmin2 of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF). We develop a new photometric redshift method, and the error in our photometric redshifts is less than 0.02(1 + z). From the photometric redshift distribution, we find the BzK color criterion can be used to select star-forming galaxies at 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 2.5 with KVega < 22.0. Down to KVega < 22.0, the number counts of sBzKs increase linearly with the K magnitude; the sBzKs are strongly clustered, and most of them have irregular morphologies on the ACS images. They have a median reddening of E(B -V) ~ 0.28, an average star formation rate of ~ 36 M⊙ yr-1 and a typical stellar mass of ~ 1010M⊙. The UV criterion for the galaxies at z~2 can select most of the faint sBzKs in the UDF, but it does not work well for bright, massive, highly-reddened, actively star-forming galaxies.

  1. A High Stellar Velocity Dispersion and ~100 Globular Clusters for the Ultra Diffuse Galaxy Dragonfly 44

    CERN Document Server

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Danieli, Shany; Merritt, Allison; Mowla, Lamiya; Romanowsky, Aaron; Zhang, Jielai

    2016-01-01

    Recently a population of large, very low surface brightness, spheroidal galaxies was identified in the Coma cluster. The apparent survival of these Ultra Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) in a rich cluster suggests that they have very high masses. Here we present the stellar kinematics of Dragonfly 44, one of the largest Coma UDGs, using a 33.5 hr integration with DEIMOS on the Keck II telescope. We find a velocity dispersion of 47 km/s, which implies a dynamical mass of M_dyn=0.7x10^10 M_sun within its deprojected half-light radius of r_1/2=4.6 kpc. The mass-to-light ratio is M/L=48 M_sun/L_sun, and the dark matter fraction is 98 percent within the half-light radius. The high mass of Dragonfly 44 is accompanied by a large globular cluster population. From deep Gemini imaging taken in 0.4" seeing we infer that Dragonfly 44 has 94 globular clusters, similar to the counts for other galaxies in this mass range. Our results add to other recent evidence that many UDGs are "failed" galaxies, with the sizes, dark matter conte...

  2. Concentration of bright quasars in the Sculptor Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent objective prism searches for quasars confirm the grouping of bright quasars in the direction of the Sculptor Group of galaxies. The density of such quasars with V -2. The concentration in the NGC 55, NGC 300 and NGC 253 areas is 0.65 deg-2. Around NGC 253 the density is over 20 times the average and has a chance of -4 of being accidental. (author)

  3. The intrinsic shape of galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-09-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 galaxies, we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026} in the SDSS r band. We also find that the distribution of minor to major axis ratio has a mean value of 0.267 ± 0.009, slightly larger than previous estimates mainly due to the lower extinction used; the same affects the circularity of galactic discs, which are found to be less round in shape than in previous studies, with a mean ellipticity of 0.215 ± 0.013. For elliptical galaxies, we find that the minor to major axis ratio, with a mean value of 0.584 ± 0.006, is larger than previous estimations due to the removal of spiral interlopers present in samples with morphological information from photometric profiles. These interlopers are removed when selecting ellipticals using Galaxy Zoo data. We find that the intrinsic shapes of galaxies and their dust extinction vary with absolute magnitude, colour and physical size. We find that bright elliptical galaxies are more spherical than faint ones, a trend that is also present with galaxy size, and that there is no dependence of elliptical galaxy shape with colour. For spiral galaxies, we find that the reddest ones have higher dust extinction as expected, due to the fact that this reddening is mainly due to dust. We also find that the thickness of discs increases with luminosity and size, and that brighter, smaller and redder galaxies have less round discs.

  4. High brightness electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy physics accelerators and free electron lasers put increased demands on the electron beam sources. This paper describes the present research on attaining intense bright electron beams using photoinjectors. Recent results from the experimental programs will be given. The performance advantages and difficulties presently faced by researchers will be discussed, and the following topics will be covered. Progress has been made in photocathode materials, both in lifetime and quantum efficiency. Cesium telluride has demonstrated significantly longer lifetimes than cesium antimonide at 10-8 torr. However, the laser system is more difficult because cesium telluride requires quadrupled YLF instead of the doubled YLF required for cesium antimonide. The difficulty in using photoinjectors is primarily the drive laser, in particular the amplitude stability. Finally, emittance measurements of photoinjector systems can be complicated by the non-thermal nature of the electron beam. An example of the difficulty in measuring beam emittance is given

  5. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Lauren E.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Borish, H. Jacob; Burkhardt, Andrew; Firebaugh, Ariel; Hancock, Danielle; Rochford Hayes, Christian; Linden, Sean; Liss, Sandra; Matthews, Allison; Prager, Brian; Pryal, Matthew; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Troup, Nicholas William; Wenger, Trey

    2016-01-01

    We present updates from our seventh year of operation including new club content, continued assessments, and our fifth annual Star Party. Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in Central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts. Our primary focus is hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools. Each week, DSBK volunteers take the role of coaches to introduce astronomy-related concepts ranging from the Solar System to galaxies to astrobiology, and to lead students in interactive learning activities. Another hallmark of DSBK is hosting our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows.

  6. No Time for Dead Time: Timing Analysis of Bright Black Hole Binaries with NuSTAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bachetti; F.A. Harrison; R. Cook; J. Tomsick; C. Schmid; B.W. Grefenstette; D. Barret; S.E. Boggs; F.E. Christensen; W.W. Craig; A.C. Fabian; F. Fürst; P. Gandhi; C.J. Hailey; E. Kara; T.J. Maccarone; J.M. Miller; K. Pottschmidt; D. Stern; P. Uttley; D.J. Walton; J. Wilms; W.W. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Timing of high-count-rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time per

  7. Robust automatic photometry of local galaxies from SDSS Dissecting the color magnitude relation with color profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Consolandi, Guido; Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Fumagalli, Michele; Dotti, Massimo; Fossati, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic procedure to perform reliable photometry of galaxies on SDSS images. We selected a sample of 5853 galaxies in the Coma and Virgo superclusters. For each galaxy, we derive Petrosian g and i magnitudes, surface brightness profiles and color profiles. Unlike the SDSS pipeline, our procedure is not affected by the well known shredding problem and efficiently extracts Petrosian magnitudes for all galaxies. Hence we derived magnitudes even from the population of galaxies mis...

  8. Neutral hydrogen detection survey of dwarf galaxies. II. Faint Virgo dwarfs and a field sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral hydrogen spectra are presented for 53 faint dwarf galaxies in Virgo, completing the Arecibo survey of all late-type dwarfs in the Virgo Cluster Catalog, and for 42 dwarf galaxies from the field sample of Binggeli et al. (1989). For detected galaxies, heliocentric velocities, profile widths, and single-beam fluxes are tabulated. The field sample has been used to investigate the field luminosity function and the clustering of dwarf galaxies vis-a-vis bright galaxies. 31 refs

  9. The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. III. The Three-Component Structure of Nearby Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Song; Peng, Chien Y; Li, Zhao-Yu; Barth, Aaron J

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by recent developments in our understanding of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies, we explore the detailed photometric structure of a representative sample of 94 bright, nearby elliptical galaxies, using high-quality optical images from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. The sample spans a range of environments and stellar masses, from M* = 10^{10.2} to 10^{12.0} solar mass. We exploit the unique capabilities of two-dimensional image decomposition to explore the possibility that local elliptical galaxies may contain photometrically distinct substructure that can shed light on their evolutionary history. Compared with the traditional one-dimensional approach, these two-dimensional models are capable of consistently recovering the surface brightness distribution and the systematic radial variation of geometric information at the same time. Contrary to conventional perception, we find that the global light distribution of the majority (>75%) of elliptical galaxies is not well described by ...

  10. Infrared studies of active galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRAS observations of extragalactic objects are analyzed, supplemented by optical spectroscopy and 10 μm photometry. The relationship between various forms of activity in the nuclei of spiral galaxies and their mid- to far-infrared spectral energy distributions is explored. It is shown that more than 70% of galaxies with F60/F25 ≤ 3 are Seyferts, while the remainder have bright optical emission lines in their nuclear spectra. It is argued that most Seyferts are powered by their active nuclei at 25 μm, while there is some indication that Seyferts with large F60/F25 flux ratios are undergoing starbursts in the vicinity of their nuclei. The properties of a sample of bright, extragalactic IRAS sources are studied. A catalog containing total infrared and blue fluxes, distance estimates, recession velocities, and morphological classifications for these objects is presented. The brightest sources at mid- to far-infrared wavelengths are nearby, normal spiral galaxies; galaxies with disturbed or irregular morphology (often known as interacting galaxies); type 2 Seyferts; and dust-embedded type 1 Seyferts. All of these sources are dominated by thermal emission from dust. The dust in the peculiar, irregular, and Seyfert galaxies is exposed to a higher mean intensity of radiation. Moreover, these IR-active galaxies tend to have strong, compact nuclear sources at 11 μm, whether or not they contain a known Seyfert nucleus. The distinctive spectral behavior of IR-luminous galaxies is shown to result from the presence of compact, dust-dominated IR nuclear sources, which are the predominant cause of IR luminosities above 1011 L of sun

  11. Detection of galaxies with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R. E.; Krone-Martins, A.; dos Anjos, S.; Ducourant, C.; Teixeira, R.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: Besides its major objective tuned to detecting the stellar galactic population, the Gaia mission experiment will also observe a large number of galaxies. In this work we intend to evaluate the number and the characteristics of the galaxies that will effectively pass the on-board selection algorithm of Gaia. Methods: The detection of objects in Gaia will be performed in a section of the focal plane known as the Sky Mapper. Considering the Video Processing Algorithm criterion of detection and the known light profiles of disc and bulges galaxies, we assess the number and the type of extra-galactic objects that will be observed by Gaia. Results: We show that the stellar disc population of galaxies will be very difficult to observe. In contrast, the spheroidal component of elliptical galaxies and bulges having higher central surface brightness and steeper brightness profile will be easier to detect. We estimate that most of the 20 000 elliptical population of nearby galaxies inside the local region up to 170 Mpc are in a state to be observed by Gaia. A similar number of bulges could also be observed, although the low luminosity bulges should escape detection. About two thirds of the more distant objects up to 600 Mpc could also be detected, increasing the total sample to half a million objects including ellipticals and bulges. The angular size of the detected objects will never exceed 4.72 arcsec, which is the size of the largest transmitted windows. Conclusions: A heterogeneous population of elliptical galaxies and bulges will be observable by Gaia. This nearby Universe sample of galaxies should constitute a very rich and interesting sample for studying their structural properties and their distribution.

  12. Dwarf spheroidal galaxy kinematics and spiral galaxy scaling laws

    OpenAIRE

    Salucci, Paolo; Wilkinson, Mark I.; Walker, Matthew G.; Gilmore, Gerard F.; Grebel, Eva K.; Koch, Andreas; Martins, Christiane Frigerio; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2011-01-01

    Kinematic surveys of the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellites of the Milky Way are revealing tantalising hints about the structure of dark matter (DM) haloes at the low-mass end of the galaxy luminosity function. At the bright end, modelling of spiral galaxies has shown that their rotation curves are consistent with the hypothesis of a Universal Rotation Curve whose shape is supported by a cored dark matter halo. In this paper, we investigate whether the internal kinematics of the Milky Way dSp...

  13. A ring galaxy in Canes Venatici and related ring galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectroscopic observation was made of a ring-shaped object in Canes Venatici. A bright knot at the edge of the ring has a recession velocity of 10,960 + or - 30 km/s and so is confirmed as an extragalactic object. It shows no sign of nuclear activity but appears to be an H II region of intermediate excitation class. The linear diameter of the ring is 14.2 + or - 0.8 kpc, a typical size for ring galaxies. Recession velocities of several other ring galaxies are also given. 24 refs

  14. A pseudo-spectrum analysis of galaxy-galaxy lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Hikage, Chiaki

    2016-01-01

    We present the application of the pseudo-spectrum method to galaxy-galaxy lensing. We derive explicit expressions for the pseudo-spectrum analysis of the galaxy-shear cross spectrum, which is the Fourier space counterpart of the stacked galaxy-galaxy lensing profile. The pseudo-spectrum method corrects observational issues such as the survey geometry, masks of bright stars and their spikes, and inhomogeneous noise, which distort the spectrum and also mix the E-mode and the B-mode signals. Using ray-tracing simulations in N-body simulations including realistic masks, we confirm that the pseudo-spectrum method successfully recovers the input galaxy-shear cross spectrum. We also investigate the covariance of the galaxy-shear cross spectrum using the ray-tracing simulations to show that there is an excess covariance relative to the Gaussian covariance at small scales where the shot noise is dominated in the Gaussian approximation. We find that the excess of the covariance is consistent with the expectation from t...

  15. Automated galaxy surface photometry: Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that APM measurement of a standard deep UKSTU plate is equally as successful as photographic amplification in the detection of very low surface brightness galaxies. This method has the advantage of allowing us to detect and quantitatively measure images at the same time (i.e. without recourse to further observations). Suitable median filtering techniques allow us to detect galaxies with scale sizes of a few arcseconds and central surface brightnesses as low as 26.5 B mag arcsec-2. (author)

  16. LOCAL TADPOLE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadpole galaxies have a giant star-forming region at the end of an elongated intensity distribution. Here we use Sloan Digital Sky Survey data to determine the ages, masses, and surface densities of the heads and tails in 14 local tadpoles selected from the Kiso and Michigan surveys of UV-bright galaxies, and we compare them to tadpoles previously studied in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The young stellar mass in the head scales linearly with rest-frame galaxy luminosity, ranging from ∼105 M☉ at galaxy absolute magnitude U = –13 mag to 109 M☉ at U = –20 mag. The corresponding head surface density increases from several M ☉ pc–2 locally to 10-100 M☉ pc–2 at high redshift, and the star formation rate (SFR) per unit area in the head increases from ∼0.01 M☉ yr–1 kpc–2 locally to ∼1 M☉ yr–1 kpc–2 at high z. These local values are normal for star-forming regions, and the increases with redshift are consistent with other cosmological SFRs, most likely reflecting an increase in gas abundance. The tails in the local sample look like bulge-free galaxy disks. Their photometric ages decrease from several Gyr to several hundred Myr with increasing z, and their surface densities are more constant than the surface densities of the heads. The far-outer intensity profiles in the local sample are symmetric and exponential. We suggest that most local tadpoles are bulge-free galaxy disks with lopsided star formation, perhaps from environmental effects such as ram pressure or disk impacts, or from a Jeans length comparable to half the disk size.

  17. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function of...

  18. Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece

    Galaxy formation and evolution is one of the main research themes of modern astronomy. Active galaxies such as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) are important evolutionary stages of galaxies. The ULIRG stage is mostly associated with galaxy mergers and...... interactions. During the interactions of gas-rich galaxies, the gas inflows towards the centers of the galaxies and can trigger both star formation and AGN activity. The ULIRG stage includes rapid star formation activity and fast black hole growth that is enshrouded by dust. Once the AGN emission is...... one is related to the mass estimates of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Mass estimates of SMBHs are important to understand the formation and evolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies. Black hole masses in Type 1 AGN are measured with the reverberation mapping (RM) technique. Reverberation mapping...

  19. The t system: a new system for estimating the total magnitudes of galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Young, C. K.; Metcalfe, N.; Zhu, J.; Wu, H.; J. Chen; .

    1997-01-01

    We present a new, but simple, procedure for estimating the total magnitudes of galaxies. This procedure involves the out-focusing of digital galaxy images numerically, the fitting of the resulting surface-brightness profiles with a single generalised profile model and the extrapolation of the fitted profiles to infinite radial distances. This new system, which we denote `t', differs fundamentally from the `T' system (of the `Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies' series) in that: (1) it enable...

  20. Stochastic simulation of fields of galaxies. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stochastic simulations of galaxy fields, using the cluster multiplicity function obtained for the Lick galaxy counts, reproduces satisfactorily the observed distribution of galaxies from COSMOS measures on a deep UKST and AAT plate limited at B approx. 22.0 and B approx. 23.2, respectively. The results imply that no strong evolutionary effect is present in the clustering of galaxies, at least out to redshifts z* approx. 0.65. (orig.)

  1. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  2. Flattening and radio emission among elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a sample of 132 bright elliptical galaxies it is shown that there is a strong correlation between radio activity and flattening in the sense that radio ellipticals are both apparently and inherently rounder than the average elliptical. Both extended and compact sources are subject to the same correlation. No galaxies with axial ratios below 0.65 are found to be radio emitters. (author)

  3. Dark and visible matter in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploiting relevant information from the profiles of rotation curves, we calculate the dark-to-luminous mass ratio within the disc size for a sample of 43 spiral galaxies. The values we find, while proving the ubiquitous presence of dark matter, vary with luminosity. Faint and bright galaxies are found to be respectively halo- and disc-dominated in the disc regions. The luminosity sequence turns out to be a dark-to-luminous sequence. (author)

  4. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable ... Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: WBC Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White ...

  5. The Magnitude-Size Relation of Galaxies out to $z\\sim {1}$

    CERN Document Server

    Simard, L C; Faber, S M; Sarajedini, V L; Vogt, N P; Phillips, A C; Gebhardt, K; Illingworth, G D; Wu, K L

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe (DEEP) survey, a sample of 190 field galaxies (I_{814} 0.7), a handful of luminous, high surface brightness galaxies appears that occupies a region of the magnitude-size plane rarely populated by local galaxies. Their wide range of colors and bulge fractions points to a variety of possible origins.

  6. The Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS) of Galaxies in Groups along the Cosmic Web. II. Galaxy Structural Measurements and the Concentration of Morphologically-Classified Satellites in Diverse Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Cibinel, A; Lilly, S J; Miniati, F; Silverman, J D; van Gorkom, J H; Cameron, E; Finoguenov, A; Norberg, P; Pipino, A; Rudick, C S; Lu, T; Peng, Y

    2012-01-01

    We present structural measurements of galaxies in the z~0.06 groups of the Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS), a program aimed at establishing how galaxy properties depend on four different environmental parameters. Galaxy structure is quantified both non-parametrically and parametrically, through modeling of the two-dimensional surface brightness profiles of the galaxies. Structural parameters are also derived for subgalactic components, i.e., bulges, disks and bars. We calibrate all structural measurements on a common grid, correcting for biases due to PSF and surface brightness effects as a function of galaxy size, magnitude, light concentration and ellipticity. We use the galaxy bulge-to-total ratios (B/T), in combination with the calibrated non-parametric structural estimators, to implement a quantitative morphological classification scheme that maximizes purity in the morphological classes. We focus on how the concentration (C) of satellite galaxies depends on galaxy mass for separate Hubble types, and o...

  7. ESO 603-G21: A strange polar-ring galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Reshetnikov, V. P.; Faundez-Abans, M.; Oliveira-Abans, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of B, V, R surface photometry of ESO603-G21 - a galaxy with a possible polar ring. The morphological and photometric features of this galaxy are discussed. The central round object of the galaxy is rather red and presents a nearly exponential surface brightness distribution. This central structure is surrounded by a blue warped ring or disk. The totality of the observed characteristics (optical and NIR colors, strong color gradients, HI and H_2 content, FIR luminosity a...

  8. THE GALACTIC SPIN OF AGN GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an extensive sample of galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5, we compare the angular momentum distribution of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with non-AGN hosting late-type galaxies. To this end we characterize galactic spin through the dimensionless angular momentum parameter λ, which we estimate through simple dynamical considerations. Using a volume-limited sample, we find a considerable difference when comparing the empirical distributions of λ for AGNs and non-AGN galaxies, the AGNs showing typically low λ values and associated dispersions, while non-AGNs present higher λ values and a broader distribution. A more striking difference is found when looking at λ distributions in thin Mr cuts; while the spin of non-AGN galaxies presents an anticorrelation with Mr , with bright (massive) galaxies having low spins, AGN host galaxies present uniform values of λ at all magnitudes, a behavior probably imposed by the fact that most late-type AGN galaxies present a narrow range in color, with a typical constant λ value. We also find that the fraction of AGN hosting galaxies in our sample strongly depends on galactic spin, increasing dramatically for decreasing λ. For AGN host galaxies, we compute the mass of their supermassive black holes and find that this value tends to be higher for low spin galaxies, even at fixed luminosity, a result that could account, to a certain extent, for the spread on the luminosity-black-hole mass relation.

  9. Structure and stellar content of dwarf galaxies; IV, B and R photometry of dwarf galaxies in the CVnI cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Bremnes, T; Prugniel, P

    1999-01-01

    We have carried out CCD photometry in the Cousins B and R bands of 15 galaxies in the Canes Venatici I cloud. Total magnitudes, effective radii, effective surface brightnesses, as well as galaxy radii at various isophotal levels in both colors were determined. Best-fitting exponential parameters and color gradients are also given for these galaxies. The photometric parameters presented here will analyzed in a forthcoming paper, together with previously published data for nearby dwarf galaxies.

  10. Higher Order Moments of the Angular Distribution of Galaxies from Early SDSS Data

    CERN Document Server

    Szapudi, I; Scoccimarro, R; Szalay, A S; Connolly, A J; Dodelson, S; Eisenstein, D J; Gunn, J E; Johnston, D; Kent, S; Loveday, J; Meiksin, A; Nichol, R C; Scranton, R; Stebbins, A; Vogeley, M S; Szapudi, Istv\\'an; Frieman, Joshua A.; Scoccimarro, Roman; Szalay, Alexander S.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Dodelson, Scott; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Gunn, James E.; Johnston, David; Kent, Stephen; Loveday, Jon; Meiksin, Avery; Nichol, Robert C.; Scranton, Ryan; Stebbins, Albert; Vogeley, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    We present initial results for counts in cells statistics of the angular distribution of galaxies in early data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We analyze a rectangular stripe $2.5^\\circ$ wide, covering approximately 160 sq. degrees, containing over $10^6$ galaxies in the apparent magnitude range $18 < r^\\prime < 22$, with areas of bad seeing, contamination from bright stars, ghosts, and high galactic extinction masked out. This survey region, which forms part of the SDSS Early Data Release, is the same as that for which two-point angular clustering statistics have recently been computed. The third and fourth moments of the cell counts, $s_3$ (skewness) and $s_4$ (kurtosis), constitute the most accurate measurements to date of these quantities (for $r^\\prime < 21$) over angular scales $0.015^\\circ-0.3^\\circ$. They display the approximate hierarchical scaling expected from non-linear structure formation models and are in reasonable agreement with the predictions of $\\Lambda$-dominated cold d...

  11. The Radio Luminosity Function of the NEP Distant Cluster Radio Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Branchesi, M; Fanti, C; Fanti, R; Perley, R

    2005-01-01

    A complete sample of 18 X-ray selected clusters of galaxies belonging to the ROSAT North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) survey has been observed with the Very Large Array at 1.4 GHz. These are the most distant clusters in the X-ray survey with redshift in the range 0.3 =0.17 mJy/beam, except for three sources, belonging to the same cluster, which have a higher peak brightness limit of 0.26 mJy/beam. The NEP field source counts are in good agreement with the source counts of a comparison survey, the VLA-VIRMOS deep field survey, indicating that the NEP sample is statistically complete. Thirty-two out of the 79 sources are within 0.2 Abell radii, twenty-two of them are considered cluster members based on spectroscopic redshifts or their optical magnitude and morphological classification. The cluster radio galaxies are used to construct the Radio Luminosity Function (RLF) of distant X-ray selected clusters. A comparison with two nearby cluster RLFs shows that the NEP RLF lies above the local ones, has a steeper slope at lo...

  12. Stars, Galaxies and Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Das Gupta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief introduction to the basics of stars, galaxies and Quasi-stellar objects (QSOs. In stars, the central pressure and temperature must be high in order to halt the stellar gravitational collapse. High temperature leads to thermonuclear fusion in the stellar core, releasing thereby enormous amount of nuclear energy, making the star shine brilliantly. On the other hand, the QSOs are very bright nuclei lying in the centres of some galaxies. Many of these active galactic nuclei, which appear star-like when observed through a telescope and  whose power output are more than 1011 times that of the Sun, exhibit rapid time variability in their X-ray emissions.  Rapid variability along with the existence of a maximum speed limit, c, provide a strong argument in favour of a compact central engine model for QSOs in which a thick disc of hot gas going around a supermassive blackhole is what makes a QSO appear like a bright point source. Hence, unlike stars, QSOs are powered by gravitational potential energy.

  13. Why Galaxies Care about AGB Stars. Modelling Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Maraston, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The Thermally-Pulsating Asymptotic Giant Branch (TP-AGB) phase of stellar evolution has received attention only recently in galaxy evolution, but is now an important player in our understanding of how galaxies form and evolve. Because it is a short but very luminous phase, bright in the near-IR where dust effects are small, the TP-AGB phase is a powerful tracer of intermediate-age stars in galaxies up to high redshift. The spectral signature of TP-AGB stars as defined by population synthesis models has been detected by the Spitzer Space Telescope in high-redshift galaxies, whose spectra show an amazing similarity to spectra of local stellar populations. Even accounting for the high uncertainty affecting the theoretical modelling of this phase, stellar population models including the TP-AGB have leveraged a better determination of galaxy ages and hence stellar masses, fundamental quantities for studying galaxy formation and evolution. They have also improved the results of semi-analytic models, which can bette...

  14. First results from the Dragonfly Telephoto Array: the apparent lack of a stellar halo in the massive spiral galaxy M101

    CERN Document Server

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Merritt, Allison

    2014-01-01

    We use a new telescope concept, the Dragonfly Telephoto Array, to study the low surface brightness outskirts of the spiral galaxy M101. The radial surface brightness profile is measured down to mu_g ~ 32 mag/arcsec^2, a depth that approaches the sensitivity of star count studies in the Local Group. We convert surface brightness to surface mass density using the radial g-r color profile. The mass density profile shows no significant upturn at large radius and is well-approximated by a simple bulge + disk model out to R = 70 kpc, corresponding to 18 disk scale lengths. Fitting a bulge + disk + halo model we find that the best-fitting halo mass M_halo ~ 1.7 x 10^8 M_sun. The total stellar mass of M101 is M_tot,* ~ 5.3 x 10^10 Msun, and we infer that the halo mass fraction f_halo = M_halo / M_tot,* ~ 0.003. This mass fraction is lower than that of the Milky Way (f_halo ~ 0.02) and M31 (f_halo ~ 0.04). All three galaxies fall below the f_halo - M_tot,* relation predicted by recent cosmological simulations that tra...

  15. Galaxy Clustering Around Nearby Luminous Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Karl B.; Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the clustering of galaxies around a sample of 20 luminous low redshift (z approx. less than 0.30) quasars observed with the Wide Field Camera-2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST resolution makes possible galaxy identification brighter than V = 24.5 and as close as 1 min or 2 min to the quasar. We find a significant enhancement of galaxies within a projected separation of approx. less than 100 1/h kpc of the quasars. If we model the QSO/galaxy correlation function as a power law with a slope given by the galaxy/galaxy correlation function, we find that the ratio of the QSO/galaxy to galaxy/galaxy correlation functions is 3.8 +/- 0.8. The galaxy counts within r less than 15 1/h kpc of the quasars are too high for the density profile to have an appreciable core radius (approx. greater than 100 1/h kpc). Our results reinforce the idea that low redshift quasars are located preferentially in groups of 10-20 galaxies rather than in rich clusters. We see no significant difference in the clustering amplitudes derived from radio-loud and radio-quiet subsamples.

  16. Galaxy collisions as a mechanism of formation of ultra diffuse galaxies (UDG)

    CERN Document Server

    Baushev, Anton N

    2016-01-01

    We suggest a possible mechanism of ultra diffuse galaxy formation: the UDGs may occur as a result of a central collision of galaxies. If the galaxies are young and contain a lot of gas, the collision may kick all the gas off the systems and thus strongly suppress any farther star formation. As a result, the galaxies now have a very low surface brightness and other properties typical of the ultra diffuse galaxies. We use the Coma cluster (where numerous UDGs were recently discovered) to test the efficiency of the process. The mechanism works very well and can transform a significant fraction of the cluster population into ultra diffuse galaxies. The UDGs formed by the process concentrate towards the center of the cluster, and their globular cluster systems remain undamaged, in accordance with observational results. The projected density of UDGs on the cluster images may help us to recognize the mechanism of the UDG formation that realizes in reality.

  17. Star forming galaxies in the AKARI Deep Field South: identifications and SEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Pollo, A; Bienias, P; Shirahata, M; Matsuura, S; Kawada, M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the nature and properties of far-infrared (FIR) sources from the AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S), we performed an extensive search for the counterparts of 1000 ADF-S objects brighter than 0.0301 Jy in the WIDE-S (90 $\\mu$m) AKARI band in the public databases (NED and SIMBAD). We analyzed the properties of the resulting sample: statistic of the identified objects, number counts, redshift distribution and morphological types. We also made a crude analysis of the clustering properties of the sources and constructed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 47 selected objects with the best photometry. Among 1000 investigated ADF-S sources, 545 were identified at other wavelengths. From them, 518 are known galaxies, and 343 of them were not known previously as infra-red sources. We found redshifts of 48 extragalactic objects and morphological types of 77 galaxies. We conclude that the bright FIR point sources observed in the ADF-S are mostly nearby galaxies.Their properties are very similar to propert...

  18. Formaldehyde Densitometry of Starburst Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mangum, Jeffrey G; Menten, Karl M; Henkel, Christian

    2007-01-01

    With a goal toward deriving the physical conditions in external galaxies, we present a survey of the formaldehyde emission in a sample of starburst systems. By extending a technique used to derive the spatial density in star formation regions in our own Galaxy, we show how the relative intensity of the 1(10)-1(11) and 2(11)-2(12) K-doublet transitions of H2CO can provide an accurate densitometer for the active star formation environments found in starburst galaxies. Relying upon an assumed kinetic temperature and co-spatial emission and absorption from both H2CO transitions, our technique is applied to a sample of nineteen IR-bright galaxies which exhibit various forms of starburst activity. In the five galaxies of our sample where both H2CO transitions were detected we have derived spatial densities. We also use H2CO to estimate the dense gas mass in our starburst galaxy sample, finding similar mass estimates for the dense gas forming stars in these objects as derived using other dense gas tracers. A related...

  19. Galaxies with conspicuous optical warps

    CERN Document Server

    Reshetnikov, Vladimir P; Moiseev, Alexei V; Kotov, Sergey S; Savchenko, Sergey S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present results of a photometric and kinematic study for a sample of 13 edge-on spiral galaxies with pronounced integral-shape warps of their stellar discs. The global structure of the galaxies is analyzed on the basis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging, in the g, r and i passbands. Spectroscopic observations are obtained with the 6-m Special Astrophysical Observatory telescope. In general, galaxies of the sample are typical bright spiral galaxies satisfying the Tully-Fisher relation. Most of the galaxies reside in dense spatial environments and, therefore, tidal encounters are the most probable mechanism for generating their stellar warps. We carried out a detailed analysis of the galaxies and their warps and obtained the following main results: (i) maximum angles of stellar warps in our sample are about 20{\\deg}; (ii) warps start, on average, between 2 and 3 exponential scale lengths of a disc; (iii) stronger warps start closer to the center, weak warps start farther; (iv) warp...

  20. The Rotation of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovmassian, H. M.

    2015-09-01

    The method for detection of the galaxy cluster rotation based on the study of distribution of member galaxies with velocities lower and higher than the cluster mean velocity over the cluster image is proposed. The search for rotation is made for flat clusters with a/b > 1.8 and BMI type clusters which are expected to be rotating. For comparison there were studied also round clusters and clusters of NBMI type, the second by brightness galaxy, which does not differ significantly from the cluster cD galaxy. Seventeen out of studied 65 clusters are found to be rotating. It was found that the detection rate is sufficiently high for flat clusters, over 60%, and clusters of BMI type with dominant cD galaxy, ≈ 35% . The obtained results show that clusters were formed from the huge primordial gas clouds and preserved the rotation of the primordial clouds, unless they did not experience mergings with other clusters and groups of galaxies, as a result of which the rotation was prevented.

  1. The rotation of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Tovmassian, Hrant M

    2015-01-01

    The method for detection of the galaxy cluster rotation based on the study of distribution of member galaxies with velocities lower and higher of the cluster mean velocity over the cluster image is proposed. The search for rotation is made for flat clusters with $a/b>1.8$ and BMI type clusters which are expected to be rotating. For comparison there were studied also round clusters and clusters of NBMI type, the second by brightness galaxy in which does not differ significantly from the cluster cD galaxy. Seventeen out of studied 65 clusters are found to be rotating. It was found that the detection rate is sufficiently high for flat clusters, over 60\\%, and clusters of BMI type with dominant cD galaxy, ~ 35%. The obtained results show that clusters were formed from the huge primordial gas clouds and preserved the rotation of the primordial clouds, unless they did not have merging with other clusters and groups of galaxies, in the result of which the rotation has been prevented.

  2. PROFFIT: Analysis of X-ray surface-brightness profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Dominique

    2016-08-01

    PROFFIT analyzes X-ray surface-brightness profiles for data from any X-ray instrument. It can extract surface-brightness profiles in circular or elliptical annuli, using constant or logarithmic bin size, from the image centroid, the surface-brightness peak, or any user-given center, and provides surface-brightness profiles in any circular or elliptical sectors. It offers background map support to extract background profiles, can excise areas using SAO DS9-compatible (ascl:0003.002) region files to exclude point sources, provides fitting with a number of built-in models, including the popular beta model, double beta, cusp beta, power law, and projected broken power law, uses chi-squared or C statistic, and can fit on the surface-brightness or counts data. It has a command-line interface similar to HEASOFT’s XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) package, provides interactive help with a description of all the commands, and results can be saved in FITS, ROOT or TXT format.

  3. Observations of dark and luminous matter: the radial distribution of satellite galaxies around massive red galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tal, Tomer; van Dokkum, Pieter G

    2012-01-01

    We study the projected radial distribution of satellite galaxies around more than 28,000 Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) at z=0.34 and trace the gravitational potential of LRG groups in the range 725 kpc whereas baryons account for more than 50% of the mass at smaller radii. We calculate the total dark-to-baryonic mass ratio and show that it is consistent with measurements from weak lensing for environments dominated by massive early type galaxies. Finally, we divide the satellite galaxies in our sample into three luminosity bins and show that the satellite light profiles of all brightness levels are consistent with each other outside of roughly 25 kpc. At smaller radii we find evidence for a mild mass segregation with an increasing fraction of bright satellites close to the central LRG.

  4. Tidal Disruption Events Prefer Unusual Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, K. Decker; Arcavi, Iair; Zabludoff, Ann

    2016-02-01

    Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs) are transient events observed when a star passes close enough to a supermassive black hole to be tidally destroyed. Many TDE candidates have been discovered in host galaxies whose spectra have weak or no line emission yet strong Balmer line absorption, indicating a period of intense star formation that has recently ended. As such, TDE host galaxies fall into the rare class of quiescent Balmer-strong galaxies. Here, we quantify the fraction of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with spectral properties like those of TDE hosts, determining the extent to which TDEs are over-represented in such galaxies. Galaxies whose spectra have Balmer absorption {{H}}{δ }{{A}} - σ(H{δ }{{A}}) > 4 Å (where σ(H{δ }{{A}}) is the error in the Lick {{H}}{δ }{{A}} index) and Hα emission equivalent width (EW) energy-selected TDE Swift J1644 also lies in a galaxy with strong Balmer lines and weak Hα emission, implying a \\gt 80× enhancement in such hosts and providing an observational link between the γ/X-ray-bright and optical/UV-bright TDE classes.

  5. Dust reddening in star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Ting; Wang, Huiyuan; Zhou, Hongyan; Lu, HongLin; Dong, Xiaobo

    2011-01-01

    We present empirical relations between the global dust reddening and other physical galaxy properties including the Halpha luminosity, Halpha surface brightness, metallicity and axial ratio for star-forming disc galaxies. The study is based on a large sample of ~22 000 well-defined star-forming galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The reddening parameterized by color excess E(B-V) is derived from the Balmer decrement. Besides the dependency of reddening on Halpha luminosity / surface brightness and gas phase metallicity, it is also correlated with the galaxy inclination, in the sense that edge-on galaxies are more attenuated than face-on galaxies at a give intrinsic luminosity. In light of these correlations, we present the empirical formulae of E(B-V) as a function of these galaxy properties, with a scatter of only 0.07 mag. The empirical relation can be reproduced if most dust attenuation to the HII region is due to diffuse background dust distributing in a disc thicker than that of H...

  6. The Quest for Dusty Star-forming Galaxies at High Redshift z ≳ 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, C.; Lapi, A.; Shi, J.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Aversa, R.; Danese, L.

    2016-06-01

    We exploit the continuity equation approach and “main-sequence” star formation timescales to show that the observed high abundance of galaxies with stellar masses ≳ a few 1010 M ⊙ at redshift z ≳ 4 implies the existence of a galaxy population featuring large star formation rates (SFRs) ψ ≳ 102 M ⊙ yr‑1 in heavily dust-obscured conditions. These galaxies constitute the high-redshift counterparts of the dusty star-forming population already surveyed for z ≲ 3 in the far-IR band by the Herschel Space Observatory. We work out specific predictions for the evolution of the corresponding stellar mass and SFR functions out to z ∼ 10, determining that the number density at z ≲ 8 for SFRs ψ ≳ 30 M ⊙ yr‑1 cannot be estimated relying on the UV luminosity function alone, even when standard corrections for dust extinction based on the UV slope are applied. We compute the number counts and redshift distributions (including galaxy-scale gravitational lensing) of this galaxy population, and show that current data from the AzTEC-LABOCA, SCUBA-2, and ALMA-SPT surveys are already addressing it. We demonstrate how an observational strategy based on color preselection in the far-IR or (sub-)millimeter band with Herschel and SCUBA-2, supplemented by photometric data from on-source observations with ALMA, can allow us to reconstruct the bright end of the SFR functions out to z ≲ 8. In parallel, such a challenging task can be managed by exploiting current UV surveys in combination with (sub-)millimeter observations by ALMA and NIKA2 and/or radio observations by SKA and its precursors.

  7. Spectroscopy of superluminous supernova host galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leloudas, G.; Kruehler, T.; Schulze, S;

    2015-01-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are very bright explosions that were only discovered recently and that show a preference for occurring in faint dwarf galaxies. Understanding why stellar evolution yields different types of stellar explosions in these environments is fundamental in order to both...... uncover the elusive progenitors of SLSNe and to study star formation in dwarf galaxies. In this paper, we present the first results of our project to study SUperluminous Supernova Host galaxIES, focusing on the sample for which we have obtained spectroscopy. We show that SLSNe-I and SLSNe-R (hydrogen......-poor) often (~50% in our sample) occur in a class of galaxies that is known as Extreme Emission Line Galaxies (EELGs). The probability of this happening by chance is negligible and we therefore conclude that the extreme environmental conditions and the SLSN phenomenon are related. In contrast, SLSNe...

  8. Counting techniques-statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Referring to the determination of the activity of a given sample, the distribution of the counting results is analysed. The relation between the standard deviation and normal Gauss curve is studied. Student's -t-and X2 tests are presented in the systematic errors determination. Problems are discussed, such as: elimination of background radiation counting, optimum distribution of counting times, criterion of choice and adjustment of the equipment, as well as the elimination of doubtful results

  9. The history of mass assembly of faint red galaxies in 28 galaxy clusters since z=1.3

    CERN Document Server

    Andreon, S

    2007-01-01

    We measure the relative evolution of the number of bright and faint (as faint as 0.05 L*) red galaxies in a sample of 28 clusters, of which 16 are at 0.50<= z<=1.27, all observed through a pair of filters bracketing the 4000 Angstrom break rest-frame. The abundance of red galaxies, relative to bright ones, is constant over all the studied redshift range, 0bright and faint red galaxies as large as claimed in some past works. Faint red galaxies are largely assembled and in place at z=1.3 and their deficit does not depend on cluster mass, parametrized by velocity dispersion or X-ray luminosity. Our analysis, with respect to previous one, samples a wider redshift range, minimizes systematics and put a more attention to statistical issues, keeping at the same time a large number of clusters.

  10. Health Physics counting room

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.

  11. Wide HI profile galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brosch, Noah; Zitrin, Adi

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the nature of objects in a complete sample of 28 galaxies selected from the first sky area fully covered by ALFALFA, being well-detected and having HI profiles wider than 550 km/s. The selection does not use brightness, morphology, or any other property derived from optical or other spectral bands. We investigate the degree of isolation, the morphology, and other properties gathered or derived from open data bases and show that some objects have wide HI profiles probably because they are disturbed or are interacting, or might be confused in the ALFALFA beam. We identify a sub-sample of 14 galaxies lacking immediate interacting neighbours and showing regular, symmetric, two-horned HI profiles that we propose as candidate high-mass disk systems (CHMDs). We measure the net-Halpha emission from the CHMDs and combine this with public multispectral data to model the global star formation (SF) properties of each galaxy. The Halpha observations show SFRs not higher than a few solar masses per year. Sim...

  12. Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) Forward Brightness Temperature Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Peipmeier, Jeffrey; Kim, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The SMAP is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the US National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, Space Studies Board, National Academies Press, 2007) [1]. It is to measure the global soil moisture and freeze/thaw from space. One of the spaceborne instruments is an L-band radiometer with a shared single feedhorn and parabolic mesh reflector. While the radiometer measures the emission over a footprint of interest, unwanted emissions are also received by the antenna through the antenna sidelobes from the cosmic background and other error sources such as the Sun, the Moon and the galaxy. Their effects need to be considered accurately, and the analysis of the overall performance of the radiometer requires end-to-end performance simulation from Earth emission to antenna brightness temperature, such as the global simulation of L-band brightness temperature simulation over land and sea [2]. To assist with the SMAP radiometer level 1B algorithm development, the SMAP forward brightness temperature simulator is developed by adapting the Aquarius simulator [2] with necessary modifications. This poster presents the current status of the SMAP forward brightness simulator s development including incorporating the land microwave emission model and its input datasets, and a simplified atmospheric radiative transfer model. The latest simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the ability of supporting the SMAP L1B algorithm development.

  13. Constraints on the Unseen Galaxy Population from the Lyman-alpha Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Webb, John K.; Barcons, Xavier

    1998-01-01

    Here we describe results of our attempt to determine what types of galaxies are responsible for the Lyman-alpha forest absorption systems, based on our ongoing imaging and spectroscopic survey of faint galaxies in fields of HST spectroscopic target QSOs. Our primary conclusions are that the bulk of the Lyman-alpha forest arises in more or less normal galaxies (that span the normal range of luminosity and morphology) and that any ``unseen'' low surface brightness galaxies are unlikely to contr...

  14. The spatial distribution of dwarf galaxies in the CfA slice of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, Trinh X.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Schneider, Stephen E.

    1987-01-01

    A complete (with the the exception of one) redshift sample of 58 galaxies in the Nilson catalog classified as dwarf, irregular, or Magellanic irregular is used to investigate the large-scale clustering properties of these low-surface brightness galaxies in the CfA slice of the universe (alpha in the range of 8-17 h, delta in the range of 26.5-32.5 deg). It is found that the low-surface brightness dwarf galaxies also lie on the structures delineated by the high-surface brightness normal galaxies and that they do not fill in the voids. This is inconsistent with a class of biased galaxy formation theories which predict that dwarf galaxies should be present everywhere, including the voids.

  15. Using the Millennium II simulation to test CDM predictions for the structure of massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew P.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Wang, Jing; White, Simon D. M.

    2013-07-01

    We have combined the semi-analytic galaxy formation model of Guo et al. (2011) with a novel particle-tagging technique to predict galaxy surface brightness profiles in a representative sample of ~1900 massive dark matter haloes (1012-1014 M⊙) from the Millennium II ΛCDM N body simulation. We focus on the outer regions of galaxies and stars accreted in mergers. Our simulations cover scales from the stellar haloes of Milky Way-like galaxies to the `cD envelopes' of groups and clusters, and resolve low surface brightness substructure such as the tidal streams of dwarf galaxies. We find that the spatial distribution of stars in low surface brightness regions is tightly correlated with DM halo mass and that collisionless merging during the hierarchical assembly of galaxies largely determines the structure of spheroidal stellar components. Our ΛCDM model agrees well with the available data.

  16. Three low surface brightness dwarfs discovered around NGC 4631

    OpenAIRE

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Bautzmann, Dirk; Neyer, Fabian; Polzl, Robert; Riepe, Peter; Zilch, Thorsten; Mattern, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of three low surface brightness companions to the spiral galaxy NGC 4631, made with small amateur telescopes. Assuming their distances to be 7.4 Mpc, the same as that of NGC 4631, the absolute magnitudes and linear diameters of the dwarfs are ranged within [-12.5, -9.6] mag and [4.7 - 1.3] kpc, respectively. These new three dwarfs, together with the discovered by us diffuse structure called "bridge", look like parts of a tidal filament directed towards NGC 4656 at tota...

  17. Teradiode's high brightness semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Lochman, Bryan; Zhou, Wang; Cruz, Mike; Cook, Rob; Dugmore, Dan; Shattuck, Jeff; Tayebati, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    TeraDiode is manufacturing multi-kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers for industrial applications. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 4,680 W from a 100 μm core diameter, lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 3.5 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP multi-kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 4-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers. We have also demonstrated novel high peak power lasers and high brightness Mid-Infrared Lasers.

  18. Outer Disk Star Formation in HI selected Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Meurer, Gerhardt

    2016-01-01

    The HI in galaxies often extends past their conventionally defined optical extent. I report results from our team which has been probing low intensity star formation in outer disks using imaging in H-alpha and ultraviolet. Using a sample of hundreds of HI selected galaxies, we confirm that outer disk HII regions and extended UV disks are common. Hence outer disks are not dormant but are dimly forming stars. Although the ultraviolet light in galaxies is more centrally concentrated than the HI, the UV/HI ratio (the Star Formation Efficiency) is nearly constant, with a slight dependency on surface brightness. This result is well accounted for in a model where disks maintain a constant stability parameter Q. This model also accounts for how the ISM and star formation are distributed in the bright parts of galaxies, and how HI appears to trace the distribution of dark matter in galaxy outskirts.

  19. THE ACCRETION OF DWARF GALAXIES AND THEIR GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of where the low-metallicity globular clusters in early-type galaxies came from has profound implications for the formation of those galaxies. Our work supports the idea that the metal-poor globular cluster systems of giant early-type galaxies formed in dwarf galaxies that have been subsumed by the giants. To support this hypothesis, two linear relations, one involving globular cluster metallicity versus host galaxy luminosity and one involving metallicity versus velocity dispersion were studied. Tentatively, these relations show that the bright ellipticals do not obey the same trend as the dwarfs, suggesting that the low-metallicity globular clusters did not form within their parent bright ellipticals.

  20. Molecular and atomic line surveys of galaxies I: the dense, star-forming phase as a beacon

    CERN Document Server

    Geach, James E

    2012-01-01

    We predict the space density of molecular gas reservoirs in the Universe, and place a lower limit on the number counts of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecular and [CII] atomic emission lines in blind redshift surveys in the submillimeter-centimeter spectral regime. Our model uses: (a) recently available HCN Spectral Line Energy Distributions (SLEDs) of local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs, L_IR>10^11 L_sun), (b) a value for epsilon=SFR/M_dense(H_2) provided by new developments in the study of star formation feedback on the interstellar medium and (c) a model for the evolution of the infrared luminosity density. Minimal 'emergent' CO SLEDs from the dense gas reservoirs expected in all star-forming systems in the Universe are then computed from the HCN SLEDs since warm, HCN-bright gas will necessarily be CO-bright, with the dense star-forming gas phase setting an obvious minimum to the total molecular gas mass of any star-forming galaxy. We include [CII] as the most important of the far-inf...

  1. The Dwarf Galaxy Population in Nearby Groups. The data

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco, E R; Infante, L; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Oliveira, Claudia M. de; Infante, Leopoldo

    2006-01-01

    We used V and I CCD photometry to search for low-surface brightness dwarf galaxies (LSBD) in the central ( 22.5 V mag/arcsec^2, h > 1.5 arcsec, and diameters larger than 1.2 h^-1 kpc. Twenty of the eighty galaxies are extended LSB galaxies that were detected only on smoothed images, after masking all high surface brightness objects. The completeness in the detection is ~80% for galaxies with V<=20 and 22.5brightnesses. In this last bin, the completeness increases to ~80% when we search for galaxies in smoothed images instead. The detected LSBD galaxies are highly concentrated towards the center of the four groups in the inner 250 h^-1 kpc. The best fit power-law slope of the surface density distribution is, on average, beta ~ -1.5 (R < 250 h^-1 kpc), in agreement with the values found for satellites dwarfs around isolated E/S0 galaxies and in X-ray groups. The LSBD galaxies in the Mv-mu0 plane does not show a clear c...

  2. The Hot Gas Halos of Galaxies in Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Jeltema, Tesla E; Mulchaey, John S

    2008-01-01

    We use Chandra observations of 13 nearby groups of galaxies to investigate the hot gas content of their member galaxies. We find that a large fraction of near-IR bright, early-type galaxies in groups have extended X-ray emission, indicating that they retain significant hot gas halos even in these dense environments. In particular, we detect hot gas halos in ~80% of L_K > L_star galaxies. We do not find a significant difference in the L_K-L_X relation for detected group and cluster early-type galaxies. However, we detect X-ray emission from a significantly higher fraction of galaxies brighter than L_star in groups compared to clusters, indicating that a larger fraction of galaxies in clusters experience significant stripping of their hot gas. In addition, group and cluster galaxies appear to be X-ray faint compared to field galaxies, though a Chandra based field sample is needed to confirm this result. The near-IR bright late-types galaxies in clusters and groups appear to follow the L_K-L_X relation for early...

  3. Suzaku Discovery of a Slowly Varying Hard X-ray Continuum from the Type I Seyfert Galaxy NGC 3516

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, Hirofumi; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Shin'ya

    2014-01-01

    The bright type I Seyfert galaxy NGC 3516 was observed by {\\it Suzaku} twice, in 2005 October 12--15 and 2009 October 28--November 2, for a gross time coverage of 242 and 544 ksec and a net exposure of 134 and 255 ksec, respectively. The 2--10 keV luminosity was $2.8 \\times 10^{41}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in 2005, and $1.6 \\times 10^{41}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in 2009. The 1.4--1.7 keV and 2--10 keV count rates both exhibited peak-to-peak variations by a factor of $\\sim2$ in 2005, while $\\sim 4$ in 2009. In either observation, the 15--45 keV count rate was less variable. The 2--10 keV spectrum in 2005 was significantly more convex than that in 2009. Through a count-count-plot technique, the 2--45 keV signals in both data were successfully decomposed in a model-independent way into two distinct broadband components. One is a variable emission with a featureless spectral shape, and the other is a non-varying hard component accompanied by a prominent Fe-K emission line at 6.33 keV (6.40 keV in the rest frame). The former was fitte...

  4. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, Sukanya [School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, 84 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Magnelli, Benjamin; Lutz, Dieter; Berta, Stefano; Popesso, Paola [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); McKee, Christopher F. [Physics and Astronomy Departments, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pozzi, Francesca, E-mail: chakrabarti@astro.rit.edu [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-08-20

    We use the photometric redshift method of Chakrabarti and McKee to infer photometric redshifts of submillimeter galaxies with far-IR (FIR) Herschel data obtained as part of the PACS Evolutionary Probe program. For the sample with spectroscopic redshifts, we demonstrate the validity of this method over a large range of redshifts (4 {approx}> z {approx}> 0.3) and luminosities, finding an average accuracy in (1 + z{sub phot})/(1 + z{sub spec}) of 10%. Thus, this method is more accurate than other FIR photometric redshift methods. This method is different from typical FIR photometric methods in deriving redshifts from the light-to-gas mass (L/M) ratio of infrared-bright galaxies inferred from the FIR spectral energy distribution, rather than dust temperatures. To assess the dependence of our photometric redshift method on the data in this sample, we contrast the average accuracy of our method when we use PACS data, versus SPIRE data, versus both PACS and SPIRE data. We also discuss potential selection effects that may affect the Herschel sample. Once the redshift is derived, we can determine physical properties of infrared-bright galaxies, including the temperature variation within the dust envelope, luminosity, mass, and surface density. We use data from the GOODS-S field to calculate the star formation rate density (SFRD) of submillimeter bright sources detected by AzTEC and PACS. The AzTEC-PACS sources, which have a threshold 850 {mu}m flux {approx}> 5 mJy, contribute 15% of the SFRD from all ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L{sub IR} {approx}> 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }), and 3% of the total SFRD at z {approx} 2.

  5. The EUVE bright source list

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroozas, B.; Mcdonald, K.; Antia, B.; Mcdonald, J.; Wiercigroch, A.

    1993-01-01

    Initial results for bright extreme ultraviolet sources discovered during the EUVE all-sky and deep ecliptic surveys have been published as a Bright Source List (BSL) and released to the astronomical community with a recent NASA research announcement (NRA 93-OSS-02, Appendix F). This paper describes the data processing software, the EUVE survey data set, and the production of the BSL at the Center for EUV Astrophysics. The contents, format, and selection criteria for sources, the data processing strategy, some problems encountered, and a summary of the BSL results are presented.

  6. All things bright and beautiful

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Chloe

    2012-01-01

    'All Things Bright and Beautiful' was exhibited in 20/21 Visual Arts Centre, Scunthorpe, which is sited in a 'redundant' church. The fundamental question that the exhibition explored concerned the role of 'the animal' within contemporary art and within secular society, which in turn hoped to prompt reflections on our understanding of the place of 'the human' in the world and in nature. If there is no divine order, as posited by the hymn 'All Things Bright and Beautiful', where does this leave...

  7. Counts-in-Cylinders in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with Comparisons to N-Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrier, Heather D.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; /UC, Irvine; Berrier, Joel C.; /Arkansas U.; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /Pittsburgh U.; Wechsler, Risa H. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2010-12-16

    Environmental statistics provide a necessary means of comparing the properties of galaxies in different environments and a vital test of models of galaxy formation within the prevailing, hierarchical cosmological model. We explore counts-in-cylinders, a common statistic defined as the number of companions of a particular galaxy found within a given projected radius and redshift interval. Galaxy distributions with the same two-point correlation functions do not necessarily have the same companion count distributions. We use this statistic to examine the environments of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 4. We also make preliminary comparisons to four models for the spatial distributions of galaxies, based on N-body simulations, and data from SDSS DR4 to study the utility of the counts-in-cylinders statistic. There is a very large scatter between the number of companions a galaxy has and the mass of its parent dark matter halo and the halo occupation, limiting the utility of this statistic for certain kinds of environmental studies. We also show that prevalent, empirical models of galaxy clustering that match observed two- and three-point clustering statistics well fail to reproduce some aspects of the observed distribution of counts-in-cylinders on 1, 3 and 6-h{sup -1}Mpc scales. All models that we explore underpredict the fraction of galaxies with few or no companions in 3 and 6-h{sup -1} Mpc cylinders. Roughly 7% of galaxies in the real universe are significantly more isolated within a 6 h{sup -1} Mpc cylinder than the galaxies in any of the models we use. Simple, phenomenological models that map galaxies to dark matter halos fail to reproduce high-order clustering statistics in low-density environments.

  8. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  9. Lyman Break Galaxies and Reionization of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Harford, A G; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2003-01-01

    We compare colors and luminosities of ``galaxies'' formed in a simulation of cosmological reionization with real ones. While the simulation suffers severely from a limitation of a small box size, simulated galaxies do appear as smaller cousins of the observed ones. They have similar colors and trace the same luminosity function as the real galaxies. They are also faring well in their abilities to reionize the universe. Star formation histories of simulated galaxies are diverse, and vary systematically with magnitude. The brightest galaxies at z=4 are indeed quite young, in accord with several observational studies. But these brightest galaxies are free riders - they contributed only about 25% to the reionization of the universe at z>6. Instead, the bulk of work was done by dimmer galaxies, those that fall within the 28bright ones.

  10. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: stochastic relative biasing between galaxy populations

    CERN Document Server

    Wild, V; Lahav, O; Conway, E; Maddox, S; Baldry, I K; Baugh, C M; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bridges, T; Cannon, R; Cole, S; Colless, M; Collins, C; Couch, W; Dalton, G B; De Propris, R; Driver, S P; Efstathiou, G P; Ellis, Richard S; Frenk, C S; Glazebrook, K; Jackson, C; Lewis, I; Lumsden, S; Madgwick, D; Norberg, P; Peterson, B A; Sutherland, W; Taylor, K

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the clustering of galaxies depends on galaxy type. Such relative bias complicates the inference of cosmological parameters from galaxy redshift surveys, and is a challenge to theories of galaxy formation and evolution. In this paper we perform a joint counts-in-cells analysis on galaxies in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, classified by both colour and spectral type, eta, as early or late type galaxies. We fit three different models of relative bias to the joint probability distribution of the cell counts, assuming Poisson sampling of the galaxy density field. We investigate the nonlinearity and stochasticity of the relative bias, with cubical cells of side 10Mpc \\leq L \\leq 45Mpc (h=0.7). Exact linear bias is ruled out with high significance on all scales. Power law bias gives a better fit, but likelihood ratios prefer a bivariate lognormal distribution, with a non-zero `stochasticity' - i.e. scatter that may result from physical effects on galaxy formation other than those from the loca...

  11. Antilensing: the bright side of voids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy; Bacon, David; Meures, Nikolai; Beynon, Emma

    2013-01-11

    More than half of the volume of our Universe is occupied by cosmic voids. The lensing magnification effect from those underdense regions is generally thought to give a small dimming contribution: objects on the far side of a void are supposed to be observed as slightly smaller than if the void were not there, which together with conservation of surface brightness implies net reduction in photons received. This is predicted by the usual weak lensing integral of the density contrast along the line of sight. We show that this standard effect is swamped at low redshifts by a relativistic Doppler term that is typically neglected. Contrary to the usual expectation, objects on the far side of a void are brighter than they would be otherwise. Thus the local dynamics of matter in and near the void is crucial and is only captured by the full relativistic lensing convergence. There are also significant nonlinear corrections to the relativistic linear theory, which we show actually underpredicts the effect. We use exact solutions to estimate that these can be more than 20% for deep voids. This remains an important source of systematic errors for weak lensing density reconstruction in galaxy surveys and for supernovae observations, and may be the cause of the reported extra scatter of field supernovae located on the edge of voids compared to those in clusters. PMID:23383886

  12. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Sandra; Troup, Nicholas William; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Barcos-Munoz, Loreto D.; Beaton, Rachael; Bittle, Lauren; Borish, Henry J.; Burkhardt, Andrew; Corby, Joanna; Dean, Janice; Hancock, Danielle; King, Jennie; Prager, Brian; Romero, Charles; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Wenger, Trey; Zucker, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Now entering our sixth year of operation, Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts beyond Virginia's Standards of Learning. Our primary focus is hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools. Each week, DSBK volunteers take the role of coaches to introduce astronomy-related concepts ranging from the Solar System to galaxies to astrobiology, and to lead students in interactive learning activities. Another hallmark of DSBK is hosting our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows.DSBK has amassed over 15,000 contact hours since 2009 and we continue to broaden our impact. One important step we have taken in the past year is to establish a graduate student led assessment program to identify and implement directed learning goals for DSBK outreach. The collection of student workbooks, observations, and volunteer surveys indicates broad scale success for the program both in terms of student learning and their perception of science. The data also reveal opportunities to improve our organizational and educational practices to maximize student achievement and overall volunteer satisfaction for DSBK's future clubs and outreach endeavors.

  13. Scale Length of Disk Galaxies in the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Fathi, Kambiz

    2011-01-01

    Disk scale length and central surface brightness for a sample of about 29955 bright disk galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey have been analysed. Cross correlation of the SDSS sample with the LEDA catalogue allowed us to investigate the variation of the scale lengths for different types of disk/spiral galaxies and present distributions and typical trends of scale lengths all the SDSS bands with linear relations that indicate the relation that connect scale lengths in one passband to another. We use the volume corrected results in the r-band and revisit the relation between these parameters and the galaxy morphology. The derived scale lengths presented here are representative for a typical galaxy mass of 10^10.8 solarmasses, and the RMS dispersion is larger for more massive galaxies. We analyse the scale-length-central disk brightness plane and further investigate the Freeman Law and confirm that it indeed defines an upper limit for disk central surface brightness in bright disks (r 6) have fainter centr...

  14. KECK/LRIS SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF COMA CLUSTER DWARF GALAXY MEMBERSHIP ASSIGNMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck/LRIS multi-object spectroscopy has been carried out on 140 of some of the lowest and highest surface brightness faint (19 < R < 22) dwarf galaxy candidates in the core region of the Coma Cluster. These spectra are used to measure redshifts and establish membership for these faint dwarf populations. The primary goal of the low surface brightness sample is to test our ability to use morphological and surface brightness criteria to distinguish between Coma Cluster members and background galaxies using high resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys images. Candidates were rated as expected members, uncertain, or expected background. From 93 spectra, 51 dwarf galaxy members and 20 background galaxies are identified. Our morphological membership estimation success rate is ∼100% for objects expected to be members and better than ∼90% for galaxies expected to be in the background. We confirm that low surface brightness is a very good indicator of cluster membership. High surface brightness galaxies are almost always background with confusion arising only from the cases of the rare compact elliptical (cE) galaxies. The more problematic cases occur at intermediate surface brightness. Many of these galaxies are given uncertain membership ratings, and these were found to be members about half of the time. Including color information will improve membership determination but will fail for some of the same objects that are already misidentified when using only surface brightness and morphology criteria. cE galaxies with B-V colors ∼0.2 mag redward of the red sequence in particular require spectroscopic follow up. In a sample of 47 high surface brightness, ultracompact dwarf candidates, 19 objects have redshifts which place them in the Coma Cluster, while another 6 have questionable redshift measurements but may also prove to be members. Redshift measurements are presented and the use of indirect means for establishing cluster membership is

  15. The host galaxy/AGN connection in nearby early-type galaxies. Is there a miniature radio-galaxy in every "core" galaxy?

    CERN Document Server

    Balmaverde, B

    2005-01-01

    This is the second of a series of three papers exploring the connection between the multiwavelength properties of AGN in nearby early-type galaxies and the characteristics of their hosts. In Capetti et al. (2005) we presented a study of the surface brightness profiles for the 65 objects with available archival HST images out of the 116 radio-detected galaxies. We classified early-type galaxies into ``core'' and ``power-law'' galaxies, discriminating on the basis of the slope of their nuclear brightness profiles. Here we focus on the 29 core galaxies (hereafter CoreG). We used HST and Chandra data to isolate their nuclear emission. The CoreG invariably host radio-loud nuclei, with an average radio-loudness parameter of Log R = 3.6. The optical and X-ray nuclear luminosities correlate with the radio-core power, smoothly extending the analogous correlations already found for low luminosity radio-galaxies. This supports the interpretation of a common non-thermal origin of the nuclear emission also for CoreG. The ...

  16. Satellites and Haloes of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sales, Laura V; White, Simon D M; Navarro, Julio F

    2012-01-01

    We study the abundance of satellite galaxies as a function of primary stellar mass using the SDSS/DR7 spectroscopic catalogue. In contrast with previous studies, which focussed mainly on bright primaries, our central galaxies span a wide range of stellar mass, 10^7.5 < M_*^pri/M_sun < 10^11, from dwarfs to central cluster galaxies. Our analysis confirms that the average number of satellites around bright primaries, when expressed in terms of satellite-to-primary stellar mass ratio (m_*^sat/M_*^pri), is a strong function of M_*^pri. On the other hand, satellite abundance is largely independent of primary mass for dwarf primaries (M_*^pri<10^10 M_sun). These results are consistent with galaxy formation models in the LCDM scenario. We find excellent agreement between SDSS data and semi-analytic mock galaxy catalogues constructed from the Millennium-II Simulation. Satellite galaxies trace dark matter substructure in LCDM, so satellite abundance reflects the dependence on halo mass, M_200, of both substru...

  17. Invisible Galaxies Come to Life!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This artist's animation demonstrates that an invisible galaxy shrouded in dust can become glaringly bright when viewed in infrared light. The movie begins with a visible-light view, showing a dark blob of a galaxy that is so shrouded in dust it appears invisible. The picture then transitions to what the same region of space might look like in infrared light. A galaxy appears out of the darkness, because its heated dust glows at infrared wavelengths. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope uncovered a hidden population of invisible galaxies like these using its highly sensitive infrared eyes. The dusty galaxies are among the brightest in the universe and are located 11 billion light-years away, back to a time when the universe was 3 billion years old. The universe is currently believed to be 13.5 billion years old. Astronomers are not sure what is lighting up these cosmic behemoths, but they speculate that quasars--the most luminous objects in the universe--may be lurking inside.

  18. Galactic accretion and the diffuse halos of massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    I will review simulations and observations of diffuse stellar haloe around massive galaxies, from Milky Way analogues to the central galaxies of the most massive clusters. I will emphasize an intimate connection between surface brightness profiles, structure formation and galaxy growth, which reflects the evolving balance between in situ star formation and galactic accretion at the heart of the CDM model. I will present new models of intracluster light and discuss statistical constraints on galaxy formation models that can be obtained from stellar halo observations using current and future deep imaging surveys.

  19. Luminosity function of the brightest galaxies in the IRAS survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from a study of the far infrared properties of the brightest galaxies in the IRAS survey are described. There is a correlation between the infrared luminosity and the infrared to optical luminosity ratio and between the infrared luminosity and the far infrared color temperature in these galaxies. The infrared bright galaxies represent a significant component of extragalactic objects in the local universe, being comparable in space density to the Seyferts, optically identified starburst galaxies, and more numerous than quasars at the same bolometric luminosity. The far infrared luminosity in the local universe is approximately 25% of the starlight output in the same volume

  20. Counting trees using symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardi, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach for counting trees, and we apply it to count multitype Cayley trees and to prove the multivariate Lagrange inversion formula. The gist of our approach is to exploit the symmetries of refined enumerative formulas: proving these symmetries is easy, and once the symmetries are proved the formulas follow effortlessly. Somewhat surprisingly, our formula for the generating function of multitype Cayley trees appears to be new, and implies certain recent results by Bousquet-M\\'elou and Chapuy. We also adapt our approach to recover known enumerative formulas for cacti counted according to their degree distribution.

  1. Sublattice Counting and Orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Hanany, Amihay; Reffert, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Abelian orbifolds of C^3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet Series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L^{aba} theories, and of C^4.

  2. Sublattice counting and orbifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanany, Amihay; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne

    2010-06-01

    Abelian orbifolds of mathbb{C}3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L aba theories, and of mathbb{C}4.

  3. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-04-01

    Seven bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  4. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    Six bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  5. No time for dead time: timing analysis of bright black hole binaries with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Harrison, Fiona A.; Cook, Rick;

    2015-01-01

    Timing of high-count-rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time ...... techniques. We apply this technique to NuSTAR observations of the black hole binaries GX 339-4, Cyg X-1, and GRS 1915+105....

  6. IFU Spectroscopy of 32 SweetSpot Supernova Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Kara Ann; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Allen, Lori; Garnavich, Peter M.; Jha, Saurabh; Kroboth, Jessica Rose; Joyce, Richard R.; Matheson, Thomas; Rest, Armin; Weyant, Anja

    2016-06-01

    SweetSpot is an NOAO Survey program from 2012B-2015A that gathered NIR lightcurves for 114 Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) located in the Hubble flow. The aims of this survey are to test the standard nature of SNeIa in the NIR, explore their color evolution, study the dust of host galaxies, and provide an anchor for upcoming high redshift NIR surveys. Another primary goal of this survey is to explore relationships between SNeIa observed in the NIR with their host galaxy properties previously done with optical lightcurves.Correlations between the residual brightness of SNeIa with their host galaxy properties have been found in a series of recent papers, but have yet to be studied in the NIR. We study the NIR brightness of SNIa compared to both photometric and spectroscopic properties of the host galaxies. We use SDSS data to explore host galaxy color and mass relations with peak brightness of SNeIa. In order to examine local environment relationships, we obtained optical spectra of 32 host galaxies of NIR SNeIa using the WIYN 3.5-m Bench Spectrograph IFU HexPak. These spectra extend from H-beta through H-alpha and allow us to study the local surface brightness of very recent star formation.We here present preliminary results from these investigations.

  7. Imprint of inflation on galaxy shape correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Fabian; Chisari, Nora Elisa; Dvorkin, Cora

    2015-10-01

    We show that intrinsic (not lensing-induced) correlations between galaxy shapes offer a new probe of primordial non-Gaussianity and inflationary physics which is complementary to galaxy number counts. Specifically, intrinsic alignment correlations are sensitive to an anisotropic squeezed limit bispectrum of the primordial perturbations. Such a feature arises in solid inflation, as well as more broadly in the presence of light higher spin fields during inflation (as pointed out recently by Arkani-Hamed and Maldacena). We present a derivation of the all-sky two-point correlations of intrinsic shapes and number counts in the presence of non-Gaussianity with general angular dependence, and show that a quadrupolar (spin-2) anisotropy leads to the analog in galaxy shapes of the well-known scale-dependent bias induced in number counts by isotropic (spin-0) non-Gaussianity. Moreover, in the presence of non-zero anisotropic non-Gaussianity, the quadrupole of galaxy shapes becomes sensitive to far superhorizon modes. These effects come about because long-wavelength modes induce a local anisotropy in the initial power spectrum, with which galaxies will correlate. We forecast that future imaging surveys could provide constraints on the amplitude of anisotropic non-Gaussianity that are comparable to those from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). These are complementary as they probe different physical scales. The constraints, however, depend on the sensitivity of galaxy shapes to the initial conditions which we only roughly estimate from observed tidal alignments.

  8. Les galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Francoise

    2016-08-01

    Considerable progress has been made on galaxy formation and evolution in recent years, and new issues. The old Hubble classification according to the tuning fork of spirals, lenticulars and ellipticals, is still useful but has given place to the red sequence, the blue cloud and the green valley, showing a real bimodality of types between star forming galaxies (blue) and quenched ones (red). Large surveys have shown that stellar mass and environment density are the two main factors of the evolution from blue to red sequences. Evolution is followed directly with redshift through a look-back time of more than 12 billion years. The most distant galaxy at z=11. has already a stellar mass of a billion suns. In an apparent anti-hierarchical scenario, the most massive galaxies form stars early on, while essentially dwarf galaxies are actively star-formers now. This downsizing feature also applies to the growth of super-massive black holes at the heart of each bulgy galaxy. The feedback from active nuclei is essential to explain the distribution of mass in galaxies, and in particular to explain why the fraction of baryonic matter is so low, lower by more than a factor 5 than the baryonic fraction of the Universe. New instruments just entering in operation, like MUSE and ALMA, provide a new and rich data flow, which is developed in this series of articles.

  9. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies: Pseudobulge Growth and the Formation of Spheroidal Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kormendy, John

    2008-01-01

    Updating Kormendy & Kennicutt (2004, ARAA, 42, 603), we review internal secular evolution of galaxy disks. One consequence is the growth of pseudobulges that often are mistaken for true (merger-built) bulges. Many pseudobulges are recognizable as cold, rapidly rotating, disky structures. Bulges have Sersic function brightness profiles with index n > 2; most pseudobulges have n 150 km/s show no evidence for a classical bulge, while only 7 are ellipticals or have classical bulges. It is hard to understand how bulgeless galaxies could form as the quiescent tail of a distribution of merger histories. Our second theme is environmental secular evolution. We confirm that spheroidal galaxies have fundamental plane (FP) correlations that are almost perpendicular to those for bulges and ellipticals. Spheroidals are not dwarf ellipticals. Rather, their structural parameters are similar to those of late-type galaxies. We suggest that spheroidals are defunct late-type galaxies transformed by internal processes such a...

  10. High luminosity IRAS galaxies - I. The proportion of IRAS galaxies in interacting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report CCD imaging of a complete sample of 60 high-luminosity IRAS galaxies and of a control sample of 87 optically selected galaxies. The galaxies have been grouped in seven classes depending on the presence or absence of faint or bright, nearby or distant, companions, and signs of interaction or mergers such as tidal arms or disturbed structure. We find that 18±5 per cent of optically selected galaxies are in interacting or merging systems. The excess of interacting pairs over those which we would expect to find by chance is about 30 per cent. Many of the pairs are unresolved by the IRAS beam, but we demonstrate that this cannot explain the enhanced fraction of pairs. These results indicate that galaxy interaction is a common causal factor in luminous IR activity. (author)

  11. Comparing galaxy populations in compact and loose groups of galaxies II: brightest group galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, Héctor J; Muriel, Hernán

    2013-01-01

    The properties of the brightest galaxies (BCGs) are studied in both compact and loose groups of galaxies in order to better understand the physical mechanisms influencing galaxy evolution in different environments. Samples of BCGs are selected in the compact groups identified by McConnachie et al. (2009), and in loose groups taken from Zandivarez & Mart\\'inez (2011). The following physical properties of the BCGs in compact groups and in subsamples of loose groups are compared, defined by their mass and total luminosity. The fraction of BCGs classified as red and/or early-type as a function of galaxy luminosity are studied. The fraction of the group's total luminosity contained in the BCG and the difference in luminosity between the BCG and the second-ranked galaxy, are also analysed. Some properties of BCGs in compact and loose groups are comparable. However, BCGs in compact groups are systematically more concentrated and have larger surface brightness than their counterparts in both, high- and low-mass l...

  12. Calorie count - Alcoholic beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you drink. Cocktails mixed with soda, cream, or ice cream can have especially high calorie counts. If you ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  13. 1996 : Track Count Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge's Track Count Protocol is to provide an index to the population size of game animals inhabiting St. Vincent Island.

  14. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  15. Counting Knights and Knaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  16. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count...

  17. LOW CO LUMINOSITIES IN DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present maps of 12COJ = 2-1 emission covering the entire star-forming disks of 16 nearby dwarf galaxies observed by the IRAM HERACLES survey. The data have 13'' angular resolution, ∼250 pc at our average distance of D = 4 Mpc, and sample the galaxies by 10-1000 resolution elements. We apply stacking techniques to perform the first sensitive search for CO emission in dwarf galaxies outside the Local Group ranging from individual lines of sight, stacking over IR-bright regions of embedded star formation, and stacking over the entire galaxy. We detect five galaxies in CO with total CO luminosities of LCO2-1 = (3-28) × 106 K km s–1 pc2. The other 11 galaxies remain undetected in CO even in the stacked images and have LCO2-1 ∼6 K km s–1 pc2. We combine our sample of dwarf galaxies with a large sample of spiral galaxies from the literature to study scaling relations of LCO with MB and metallicity. We find that dwarf galaxies with metallicities of Z ≈ 1/2-1/10 Z☉ have LCO of 2-4 orders of magnitude smaller than massive spiral galaxies and that their LCO per unit LB is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller. A comparison with tracers of star formation (FUV and 24 μm) shows that LCO per unit star formation rate (SFR) is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller in dwarf galaxies. One possible interpretation is that dwarf galaxies form stars much more efficiently: we argue that the low LCO/SFR ratio is due to the fact that the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, αCO, changes significantly in low-metallicity environments. Assuming that a constant H2 depletion time of τdep = 1.8 Gyr holds in dwarf galaxies (as found for a large sample of nearby spirals) implies αCO values for dwarf galaxies with Z ≈ 1/2-1/10 Z☉ that are more than one order of magnitude higher than those found in solar metallicity spiral galaxies. Such a significant increase of αCO at low metallicity is consistent with previous studies, in particular those of Local Group dwarf galaxies that model dust emission

  18. Nuclear Activity in Circumnuclear Ring Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Aguero, M P; Dottori, H

    2016-01-01

    We have analyzed the frequency and properties of the nuclear activity in a sample of galaxies with circumnuclear rings and spirals (CNRs). This sample was compared with a control sample of galaxies with very similar global properties but without circumnuclear rings. We discuss the relevance of the results in regard to the AGN feeding processes and present the following results: (i) bright companion galaxies seem not to be important for the appearance of CNRs, which appear to be more related to intrinsic properties of the host galaxies or to minor merger processes; (ii) the proportion of strong bars in galaxies with an AGN and a CNR is somewhat higher than the expected ratio of strongly barred AGN galaxies from the results of Ho and co-workers; (iii) the incidence of Seyfert activity coeval with CNRs is clearly larger than the rate expected from the morphological distribution of the host galaxies; (iv) the rate of Sy 2 to Sy 1 type galaxies with CNRs is about three times larger than the expected ratio for gala...

  19. Properties of the Magellanic-type galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the photometric, kinematic, and dynamical properties of the Magellanic type galaxies are undertaken in order to ascertain the systematic properties of the late stages of spiral structure in the Hubble sequence. Statistical analysis of large optical and radio data sets, contained in the newly completed Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies, as well as a general survey of the largest Magellanic type galaxies on the Palomar and UK Schmidt Photographic Surveys, are used to determine properties such as mean color, frequency of bar formation, intrinsic shape, and the abundance of physically associated neighbor galaxies. Detailed photometric studies of a few select Magellanic galaxies are carried out using photographic and new-technology CCD area detectors. Studies of these same systems are conducted using the technique of Fabry-Perot interferometry in order to map the two dimensional ionized gas velocity fields. These galaxies are predominantly barred, with the center of the stellar bar often displaced from the photometric center of the galaxy disk. The dynamical consequences of such an asymmetric mass distribution are modeled using a simple prolate spheroid and exponential disk potential field and compared directly with observational data from the photometric and kinematic investigations. A systematic search is made for matter trapping and gas streaming motions caused by the bar and its associated stable Lagrangian points. Finally, a series of recent theoretical studies, as well as a set of original N-body numerical calculations, are used to explore the origin and dynamical evolution of these intriguing galaxies

  20. Star Formation in Nearby Isolated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Karachentsev, I D; Melnyk, O V; Courtois, H M

    2013-01-01

    We use the FUV fluxes measured with the GALEX to study the star formation properties of galaxies collected in the "Local Orphan Galaxies" catalog (LOG). Among 517 LOG galaxies having radial velocities V(LG) 15 degr, 428 objects have been detected in FUV. We briefly discuss some scaling relations between the specific star formation rate (SSFR) and stellar mass, HI-mass, morphology, and surface brightness of galaxies situated in extremely low density regions of the Local Supercluster. Our sample is populated with predominantly late-type, gas-rich objects with the median morphological type of Sdm. Only 5% of LOG galaxies are classified as early types: E, S0, S0/a, however, they systematically differ from normal E and S0 galaxies by lower luminosity and presence of gas and dust. We find that almost all galaxies in our sample have their SSFR below 0.4 [Gyr^{-1}]. This limit is also true even for a sample of 270 active star-burst Markarian galaxies situated in the same volume. The existence of such a quasi-Eddingt...

  1. Environments and Morphologies of Red Sequence Galaxies with Residual Star Formation in Massive Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Crossett, Jacob P; Stott, John P; Jones, D Heath

    2013-01-01

    We present a photometric investigation into recent star formation in galaxy clusters at z ~ 0.1. We use spectral energy distribution templates to quantify recent star formation in large X-ray selected clusters from the LARCS survey using matched GALEX NUV photometry. These clusters all have signs of red sequence galaxy recent star formation (as indicated by blue NUV-R colour), regardless of cluster morphology and size. A trend in environment is found for these galaxies, such that they prefer to occupy low density, high cluster radius environments. The morphology of these UV bright galaxies suggests that they are in fact red spirals, which we confirm with light curves and Galaxy Zoo voting percentages as morphological proxies. These UV bright galaxies are therefore seen to be either truncated spiral galaxies, caught by ram pressure in falling into the cluster, or high mass spirals, with the photometry dominated by the older stellar population.

  2. Photometric Redshifts of Submillimeter Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Sukanya; McKee, Christopher F; Lutz, Dieter; Berta, Stefano; Popesso, Paola; Pozzi, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    We use the photometric redshift method of Chakrabarti & McKee (2008) to infer photometric redshifts of submillimeter galaxies with far-IR (FIR) $\\it{Herschel}$ data obtained as part of the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) program. For the sample with spectroscopic redshifts, we demonstrate the validity of this method over a large range of redshifts ($ 4 \\ga z \\ga 0.3$) and luminosities, finding an average accuracy in $(1+z_{\\rm phot})/(1+z_{\\rm spec})$ of 10%. Thus, this method is more accurate than other FIR photometric redshift methods. This method is different from typical FIR photometric methods in deriving redshifts from the light-to-gas mass ($L/M$) ratio of infrared-bright galaxies inferred from the FIR spectral energy distribution (SED), rather than dust temperatures. Once the redshift is derived, we can determine physical properties of infrared bright galaxies, including the temperature variation within the dust envelope, luminosity, mass, and surface density. We use data from the GOODS-S field to c...

  3. The Hunt for Dwarf Galaxies' Ancestors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies are typically very faint, and are therefore hard to find. Given that, what are our chances of finding their distant ancestors, located billions of light-years away? A recent study aims to find out.Ancient CounterpartsDwarf galaxies are a hot topic right now, especially as we discover more and more of them nearby. Besides being great places to investigate a variety of astrophysical processes, local group dwarf galaxies are also representative of the most common type of galaxy in the universe. For many of these dwarf galaxies, their low masses and typically old stellar populations suggest that most of their stars were formed early in the universes history, and further star formation was suppressed when the universe was reionized at redshifts of z ~ 610. If this is true, most dwarf galaxies are essentially fossils: theyve evolved little since that point.To test this theory, wed like to find counterparts to our local group dwarf galaxies at these higher redshifts of z = 6 or 7. But dwarf galaxies, since they dont exhibit lots of active star formation, have very low surface brightnesses making them very difficult to detect. What are the chances that current or future telescope sensitivities will allow us to detect these? Thats the question Anna Patej and Abraham Loeb, two theorists at Harvard University, have addressed in a recent study.Entering a New RegimeThe surface brightness vs. size for 73 local dwarf galaxies scaled back to redshifts of z=6 (top) and z=7 (bottom). So far weve been able to observe high-redshift galaxies within the boxed region of the parameter space. JWST will open the shaded region of the parameter space, which includes some of the dwarf galaxies. [Patej Loeb 2015]Starting from observational data for 87 Local-Group dwarf galaxies, Patej and Loeb used a stellar population synthesis code to evolve the galaxies backward in time to redshifts of z = 6 and 7. Next, they narrowed this sample to only those dwarfs for which most star

  4. The brightness and spatial distributions of terrestrial radio sources

    CERN Document Server

    Offringa, A R; Zaroubi, S; Koopmans, L V E; Wijnholds, S J; Abdalla, F B; Brouw, W N; Ciardi, B; Iliev, I T; Harker, G J A; Mellema, G; Bernardi, G; Zarka, P; Ghosh, A; Alexov, A; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Beck, R; Bell, M E; Bell, M R; Bentum, M J; Best, P; Bîrzan, L; Breitling, F; Broderick, J; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; de Vos, M; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Fallows, R A; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Hassall, T E; Horneffer, A; Iacobelli, M; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Klijn, W; Kondratiev, V I; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; van Leeuwen, J; Loose, M; Maat, P; Macario, G; Mann, G; McKean, J P; Meulman, H; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Rafferty, D; Reich, W; van Nieuwpoort, R; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Sobey, C; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; ter Veen, S; Toribio, C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R J; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O

    2013-01-01

    Faint undetected sources of radio-frequency interference (RFI) might become visible in long radio observations when they are consistently present over time. Thereby, they might obstruct the detection of the weak astronomical signals of interest. This issue is especially important for Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) projects that try to detect the faint redshifted HI signals from the time of the earliest structures in the Universe. We explore the RFI situation at 30-163 MHz by studying brightness histograms of visibility data observed with LOFAR, similar to radio-source-count analyses that are used in cosmology. An empirical RFI distribution model is derived that allows the simulation of RFI in radio observations. The brightness histograms show an RFI distribution that follows a power-law distribution with an estimated exponent around -1.5. With several assumptions, this can be explained with a uniform distribution of terrestrial radio sources whose radiation follows existing propagation models. Extrapolation of t...

  5. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): The unimodal nature of the dwarf galaxy population

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, Smriti; Driver, S; Kelvin, Lee S; Hopkins, A M; Baldry, I; Phillipps, S; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Brough, S; Loveday, J; Penny, Samantha J; Robotham, A S G

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we aim to (i) test the number of statistically distinct classes required to classify the local galaxy population, and, (ii) identify the differences in the physical and star formation properties of visually-distinct galaxies. To accomplish this, we analyse the structural parameters (effective radius r_e, effective surface brightness within r_e (mu_e), central surface brightness (mu_0), and S'ersic index (n)), obtained by fitting the light profile of 432 galaxies (0.002galaxies (irregulars, blue spheroids and low surface brightness galaxies) form a unimodal population in a parameter space mapped by mu_e, mu_0, n, r_e, SFR, sSFR, M*, M_{dust} and (g-i). The SFR and sSFR distribution of passively evolving ...

  6. Starburst Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Muxlow, T W B; Richards, A M S; Thrall, H

    2006-01-01

    Star-formation and the Starburst phenomenon are presented with respect to a number of nearby star-forming galaxies where our understanding of the process can be calibrated. Methods of estimating star-formation rates are discussed together with the role played in the investigation of the process by multi-wavelength studies of a few selected starburst galaxies (especially the well studied galaxy M82). Our understanding of nearby systems allows us to study the star-formation history of the Universe by observing high-redshift starburst galaxies. These begin to dominate the radio source populations at centimetric wavelengths at flux densities below a few 10s of Jy. New very sensitive, high resolution telescopes in the sub-mm and radio will revolutionize our understanding of these distant star-forming systems, some of which may contain embedded AGN.

  7. Galaxy Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Buta, Ronald J

    2013-01-01

    Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or between a perturbation and the basic state of a stellar disk, can also drive secular transformations. In this series of lectures, I review many aspects of galaxy morphology with a view to delineating some of the possible evolutionary pathways between different galaxy types.

  8. Galaxies with a Central Minimum in Stellar Luminosity Density

    CERN Document Server

    Lauer, T R; Richstone, D O; Tremaine, S; Bender, R; Bower, G; Dressler, A; Faber, S M; Filippenko, A V; Green, R; Grillmair, C J; Ho, L C; Kormendy, J; Magorrian, J; Pinkney, J C; Laine, S; Postman, M; Van der Marel, R P; Lauer, Tod R.; Gebhardt, Karl; Richstone, Douglas; Tremaine, Scott; Bender, Ralf; Bower, Gary; Dressler, Alan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Green, Richard; Grillmair, Carl J.; Ho, Luis C.; Kormendy, John; Magorrian, John; Pinkney, Jason; Postman, Marc; Marel, Roeland P. van der

    2002-01-01

    We used HST WFPC2 images to identify six early-type galaxies with surface- brightness profiles that decrease inward over a limited range of radii near their centers. The implied luminosity density profiles of these galaxies have local minima interior to their core break radii. NGC 3706 harbors a high surface brightness ring of starlight with radius ~20 pc. Its central structure may be related to that in the double-nucleus galaxies M31 and NGC 4486B. NGC 4406 and NGC 6876 have nearly flat cores that on close inspection are centrally depressed. Colors for both galaxies imply that this is not due to dust absorption. The surface brightness distributions of both galaxies are consistent with stellar tori that are more diffuse than the sharply defined system in NGC 3706. The remaining three galaxies are the brightest cluster galaxies in A260, A347, and A3574. Color information is not available for these objects, but they strongly resemble NGC 4406 and NGC 6876 in their cores. The thin ring in NGC 3706 may have forme...

  9. CLASH: THREE STRONGLY LENSED IMAGES OF A CANDIDATE z Almost-Equal-To 11 GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, Dan; Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zitrin, Adi; Carrasco, Mauricio [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-29120 Heidelberg (Germany); Shu, Xinwen [Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland; Rodney, Steven A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bouwens, Rychard [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2333 Leiden (Netherlands); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Monna, Anna [Instituts fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universitaes-Sternwarte Muenchen, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Host, Ole; Jouvel, Stephanie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Moustakas, Leonidas A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, La Canada Flintridge, CA (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, Loudonville, NY (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie (MPIA), D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Donahue, Megan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Benitez, Narciso, E-mail: DCoe@STScI.edu [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA-CSIC), E-18008 Granada (Spain); and others

    2013-01-01

    We present a candidate for the most distant galaxy known to date with a photometric redshift of z = 10.7{sup +0.6} {sub -0.4} (95% confidence limits; with z < 9.5 galaxies of known types ruled out at 7.2{sigma}). This J-dropout Lyman break galaxy, named MACS0647-JD, was discovered as part of the Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). We observe three magnified images of this galaxy due to strong gravitational lensing by the galaxy cluster MACSJ0647.7+7015 at z = 0.591. The images are magnified by factors of {approx}80, 7, and 2, with the brighter two observed at {approx}26th magnitude AB ({approx}0.15 {mu}Jy) in the WFC3/IR F160W filter ({approx}1.4-1.7 {mu}m) where they are detected at {approx}>12{sigma}. All three images are also confidently detected at {approx}>6{sigma} in F140W ({approx}1.2-1.6 {mu}m), dropping out of detection from 15 lower wavelength Hubble Space Telescope filters ({approx}0.2-1.4 {mu}m), and lacking bright detections in Spitzer/IRAC 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m imaging ({approx}3.2-5.0 {mu}m). We rule out a broad range of possible lower redshift interlopers, including some previously published as high-redshift candidates. Our high-redshift conclusion is more conservative than if we had neglected a Bayesian photometric redshift prior. Given CLASH observations of 17 high-mass clusters to date, our discoveries of MACS0647-JD at z {approx} 10.8 and MACS1149-JD at z {approx} 9.6 are consistent with a lensed luminosity function extrapolated from lower redshifts. This would suggest that low-luminosity galaxies could have reionized the universe. However, given the significant uncertainties based on only two galaxies, we cannot yet rule out the sharp drop-off in number counts at z {approx}> 10 suggested by field searches.

  10. Suzaku Discovery of a Slowly Varying Hard X-ray Continuum from the Type I Seyfert Galaxy NGC 3516

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Hirofumi; Makishima, Kazuo; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; YAMADA, SHIN'YA

    2014-01-01

    The bright type I Seyfert galaxy NGC 3516 was observed by {\\it Suzaku} twice, in 2005 October 12--15 and 2009 October 28--November 2, for a gross time coverage of 242 and 544 ksec and a net exposure of 134 and 255 ksec, respectively. The 2--10 keV luminosity was $2.8 \\times 10^{41}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in 2005, and $1.6 \\times 10^{41}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in 2009. The 1.4--1.7 keV and 2--10 keV count rates both exhibited peak-to-peak variations by a factor of $\\sim2$ in 2005, while $\\sim 4$ in 2009. In eit...

  11. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.;

    2015-01-01

    We present CO(1-0) maps of 12 warm H-2-selected Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs), covering 14 individually imaged warm H2 bright galaxies, with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy. We found a variety of molecular gas distributions within the HCGs, including regularly rotating disks......, bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression......-to-dust ratios of these galaxies to determine if an incorrect LCO-M(H2) conversion caused the apparent suppression and find that HCGs have normal gas-to-dust ratios. It is likely that the cause of the apparent suppression in these objects is associated with shocks injecting turbulence into the molecular gas...

  12. The Hunt for Missing Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    Theories of galaxy formation and evolution predict that there should be significantly more dwarf galaxies than have been observed. Are our theories wrong? Or are dwarf galaxies just difficult to detect? Recent results from a survey of a galaxy cluster 62 million light-years away suggest there may be lots of undiscovered dwarf galaxies hiding throughout the universe!Hiding in FaintnessThe missing dwarf problem has had hints of a resolution with the recent discovery of Ultra-Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) in the Coma and Virgo galaxy clusters. UDGs have low masses and large radii, resulting in a very low surface brightness that makes them extremely difficult to detect. If many dwarfs are UDGs, this could well explain why weve been missing them!But the Coma and Virgo galaxy clusters are similar in that theyre both very massive. Are there UDGs in other galaxy clusters as well? To answer this question, an international team of scientists is running the Next Generation Fornax Survey (NGFS), a survey searching for faint dwarf galaxies in the central 30 square degrees of the Fornax galaxy cluster.The NGFS uses near-UV and optical observations from the Dark Energy Camera mounted on the 4m Blanco Telescope in Chile. The survey is still underway, but in a recent publication led by Roberto P. Muoz (Institute of Astrophysics at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile), the team has released an overview of the first results from only the central 3 square degrees of the NGFS field.Surprising DetectionGalaxy radii vs. their absolute i-band magnitudes, for the dwarfs found in NGFS as well as other stellar systems in the nearby universe. The NGFS dwarfs are similar to the ultra-diffuse dwarfs found in the Virgo and Coma clusters, but are several orders of magnitude fainter. [Muoz et al. 2015]In just this small central field, the team has found an astounding 284 low-surface-brightness dwarf galaxy candidates 158 of them previously undetected. At the bright end of this sample are dwarf

  13. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts

  14. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J M [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); McDonald, G S [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Chamorro-Posada, P [Departmento de TeorIa de la Senal y Comunicaciones e IngenierIa Telematica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Campus Miguel Delibes s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2007-02-16

    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts.

  15. Weak Lensing by Galaxy Troughs in DES Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruen, D. [Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany). et al.

    2015-09-29

    We measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. Furthermore, the prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. Finally, the lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  16. Bright solitons from defocusing nonlinearities

    OpenAIRE

    Borovkova, Olga V.; Kartashov, Yaroslav; Torner Sabata, Lluís; Malomed, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    We report that defocusing cubic media with spatially inhomogeneous nonlinearity, whose strength increases rapidly enough toward the periphery, can support stable bright localized modes. Such nonlinearity landscapes give rise to a variety of stable solitons in all three dimensions, including one-dimensional fundamental and multihump states, two-dimensional vortex solitons with arbitrarily high topological charges, and fundamental solitons in three dimensions. Solitons maintain their coherence ...

  17. Robust automatic photometry of local galaxies from SDSS Dissecting the color magnitude relation with color profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Consolandi, Guido; Fumagalli, Michele; Dotti, Massimo; Fossati, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic procedure to perform reliable photometry of galaxies on SDSS images. We selected a sample of 5853 galaxies in the Coma and Virgo superclusters. For each galaxy, we derive Petrosian g and i magnitudes, surface brightness profiles and color profiles. Unlike the SDSS pipeline, our procedure is not affected by the well known shredding problem and efficiently extracts Petrosian magnitudes for all galaxies. Hence we derived magnitudes even from the population of galaxies missed by the SDSS that represents 25% of all Local supercluster galaxies and ~95% of galaxies with g =0.35R{Pet})) zone, and (ii), we compute template color profiles, discussing the dependences of the templates on the galaxy masses and on their morphological type. The two analyses consistently lead to a picture where elliptical galaxies show no color gradients, irrespective of their masses. Spirals, instead, display a steeper gradient in their color profiles with increasing mass, consistently with the growing relevance of a...

  18. The European large area ISO survey - III. 90-mu m extragalactic source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Surace, C.; Sumner, T.; Heraudeau, P.; Linden-Vørnel, M.J.D.; Rigopoulou, D.; Serjeant, S.; Mann, R.G.; Cesarsky, C.J.; Danese, L.; Franceschini, A.; Genzel, R.; Lawrence, A.; Lemke, D.; McMahon, R.G.; Miley, G.; Puget, J.L.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.

    2000-01-01

    We present results and source counts at 90 mum extracted from the preliminary analysis of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). The survey covered about 12 deg(2) of the sky in four main areas and was carried out with the ISOPHOT instrument onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). The...... survey is at least an order of magnitude deeper than the IRAS 100-mum survey and is expected to provide constraints on the formation and evolution of galaxies. The majority of the detected sources are associated with galaxies on optical images. In some cases the optical associations are interacting pairs...... or small groups of galaxies, suggesting that the sample may include a significant fraction of luminous infrared galaxies. The source counts extracted from a reliable subset of the detected sources are in agreement with strongly evolving models of the starburst galaxy population....

  19. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: first 1000 galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, J. T.; Team, the SAMI Galaxy Survey

    2014-01-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey is an ongoing project to obtain integral field spectroscopic observations of ~3400 galaxies by mid-2016. Including the pilot survey, a total of ~1000 galaxies have been observed to date, making the SAMI Galaxy Survey the largest of its kind in existence. This unique dataset allows a wide range of investigations into different aspects of galaxy evolution. The first public data from the SAMI Galaxy Survey, consisting o...

  20. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222Rn and 226Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  1. Photon counting digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen

    2016-05-01

    Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.

  2. Impact of Future Submillimeter and Millimeter Large Facilities on the Studies of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Nakanishi, Koichiro; Ishii, Takako T.; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Kohji

    2001-01-01

    We investigate what we can learn about galaxy formation and evolution from the data which will be obtained by the forthcoming large submillimeter/millimeter facilities, mainly by the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array/Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array (ALMA/LMSA). We first calculate the source counts from 350 um to 3 mm using the empirical infrared galaxy number count model of Takeuchi et al. (2001). Based on the number counts, we e...

  3. THE zCOSMOS 10k-BRIGHT SPECTROSCOPIC SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present spectroscopic redshifts of a large sample of galaxies with I AB -1, independent of redshift. The reliability of individual redshifts is described by a Confidence Class that has been empirically calibrated through repeat spectroscopic observations of over 600 galaxies. There is very good agreement between spectroscopic and photometric redshifts for the most secure Confidence Classes. For the less secure Confidence Classes, there is a good correspondence between the fraction of objects with a consistent photometric redshift and the spectroscopic repeatability, suggesting that the photometric redshifts can be used to indicate which of the less secure spectroscopic redshifts are likely right and which are probably wrong, and to give an indication of the nature of objects for which we failed to determine a redshift. Using this approach, we can construct a spectroscopic sample that is 99% reliable and which is 88% complete in the sample as a whole, and 95% complete in the redshift range 0.5 < z < 0.8. The luminosity and mass completeness levels of the zCOSMOS-bright sample of galaxies is also discussed.

  4. Rainflow counting revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  5. Computerized radioautographic grain counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

  6. Counting rate logarithmic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the basic circuit and the design method for a multidecade logarithmic counting ratemeter. The method is based on the charging and discharging of several RC time constants. An F.E.T. switch is used and the drain current is converted into a proportional voltage by a current to voltage converter. The logarithmic linearity was estimated for 4 decades starting from 50 cps. This circuit can be used in several nuclear instruments like survey meters and counting systems. This circuits has been developed as part of campbell channel instrumentation. (author)

  7. MOLECULAR AND ATOMIC LINE SURVEYS OF GALAXIES. I. THE DENSE, STAR-FORMING GAS PHASE AS A BEACON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We predict the space density of molecular gas reservoirs in the universe and place a lower limit on the number counts of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecular, and [C II] atomic emission lines in blind redshift surveys in the submillimeter-centimeter spectral regime. Our model uses (1) recently available HCN spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) of local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, LIR > 1011 L☉), (2) a value for ε* = SFR/Mdense(H2) provided by new developments in the study of star formation feedback on the interstellar medium, and (3) a model for the evolution of the infrared luminosity density. Minimal 'emergent' CO SLEDs from the dense gas reservoirs expected in all star-forming systems in the universe are then computed from the HCN SLEDs since warm, HCN-bright gas will necessarily be CO-bright, with the dense star-forming gas phase setting an obvious minimum to the total molecular gas mass of any star-forming galaxy. We include [C II] as the most important of the far-infrared cooling lines. Optimal blind surveys with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) could potentially detect very distant (z ∼ 10-12) [C II] emitters in the ≥ULIRG galaxy class at a rate of ∼0.1-1 hr–1 (although this prediction is strongly dependent on the star formation and enrichment history at this early epoch), whereas the (high-frequency) Square Kilometer Array will be capable of blindly detecting z > 3 low-J CO emitters at a rate of ∼40-70 hr–1. The [C II] line holds special promise for detecting metal-poor systems with extensive reservoirs of CO-dark molecular gas where detection rates with ALMA can reach up to 2-7 hr–1 in Bands 4-6.

  8. The Ghosts of Galaxies: Tidal Debris in Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Gregg, M D; Gregg, Michael D.; West, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Gravitational interactions in rich clusters can strip material from the outer parts of galaxies or even completely disrupt entire systems, giving rise to large scale, low surface brightness ghostly features stretching across intergalactic space. The nearby Coma and Centaurus clusters both have striking examples of galaxy ghosts, in the form of 100 kpc-long plumes of intergalactic debris. By searching HST archival images, we have found numerous other examples of galaxy ghosts in rich clusters at low redshift, evidence that galaxy destruction and recycling are ubiquitous, important in cluster formation and evolution, and continue to mold clusters at the present epoch. Many ghosts appear in X-ray bright clusters, perhaps signaling a connection with energetic subcluster mergers. The fate of such material has important ramifications for cluster evolution. Our new HST WFPC2 V & I images of a portion of the Centaurus plume reveal that it contains an excess of discrete objects with -12 < M_v < -6, consisten...

  9. Galaxies of Redshift z > 5: The View from Stony Brook

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Fernandez-Soto, Alberto; Pascarelle, Sebastian; Yahata, Noriaki; Yahil, Amos

    1999-01-01

    We report on some aspects of our efforts to establish properties of the extremely faint galaxy population by applying our photometric redshift technique to the HDF and HDF-S WFPC2 and NICMOS fields. We find that cosmological surface brightness dimming effects play a dominant role in setting what is observed at redshifts z > 2, that the comoving number density of high intrinsic surface brightness regions increases monotonically with increasing redshift, and that previous estimates neglect a si...

  10. Quiescent Compact Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift in the COSMOS Field. II. The Fundamental Plane of Massive Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Damjanov, Ivana; Geller, Margaret J.; Chilingarian, Igor

    2015-06-01

    We examine the relation between surface brightness, velocity dispersion, and size—the fundamental plane (FP)—for quiescent galaxies at intermediate redshifts in the COSMOS field. The COSMOS sample consists of ˜150 massive quiescent galaxies with an average velocity dispersion of σ ˜ 250 km s-1 and redshifts between 0.2 MCQ) COSMOS galaxies onto the local FP at z = 0. Therefore, evolution in size or velocity dispersion for MCQ galaxies since z ˜ 1 is constrained by the small scatter observed in the FP. We conclude that MCQ galaxies at z ≲ 1 are not a special class of objects but rather the tail of the mass and size distribution of the normal quiescent galaxy population.

  11. Characteristic Scales in Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Dekel, A

    2004-01-01

    Recent data, e.g. from SDSS and 2dF, reveal a robust bi-modality in the distribution of galaxy properties, with a characteristic transition scale at stellar mass M_*~3x10^{10} Msun (near L_*), corresponding to virial velocity V~100 km/s. Smaller galaxies tend to be blue disks of young populations. They define a "fundamental line" of decreasing surface brightness, metallicity and velocity with decreasing M_*, which extends to the smallest dwarf galaxies. Galaxies above the critical scale are dominated by red spheroids of old populations, with roughly constant high surface brightens and metallicity, and they tend to host AGNs. A minimum in the virial M/L is obtained at the same magic scale. This bi-modality can be the combined imprint of several different physical processes. On smaller scales, disks are built by cold flows, and supernova feedback is effective in regulating star formation. On larger scales, the infalling gas is heated by a virial shock and star formation can be suppressed by AGN feedback. Anothe...

  12. Environmental Effects on Satellite Galaxies: The Link Between Concentration, Size and Colour Profile

    CERN Document Server

    Weinmann, Simone M; Bosch, Frank C van den; Pasquali, Anna; McIntosh, Daniel H; Mo, Houjun; Yang, Xiaohu; Guo, Yicheng

    2008-01-01

    Using the SDSS DR4 group catalogue of Yang et al. (2007), we investigate sizes, concentrations, colour gradients and surface brightness profiles of central and satellite galaxies. We compare central and satellite galaxies at fixed stellar mass, in order to disentangle environmental from stellar mass dependencies. Early and late type galaxies are defined according to concentration. We find that at fixed stellar mass, late type satellite galaxies have smaller radii and larger concentrations than late type central galaxies. No such differences are found for early-type galaxies. We have also constructed surface brightness and colour profiles for the central and satellite galaxies in our sample. We find that late-type satellite galaxies have a lower surface brightness and redder colours than late-type central galaxies. We show that all observed differences between satellite and central galaxies can be explained by a simple fading model, in which the star formation in the disk decreases over timescales of 2-3 Gyr a...

  13. Predictions for the abundance and colours of galaxies in high redshift clusters in hierarchical models

    CERN Document Server

    Merson, Alexander I; Abdalla, Filipe B; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Lagos, Claudia del P; Mei, Simona

    2015-01-01

    High redshift galaxy clusters allow us to examine galaxy formation in extreme environments. Here we compile data for $z>1$ galaxy clusters to test the predictions from one of the latest semi-analytical models of galaxy formation. The model gives a good match to the slope and zero-point of the cluster red sequence. The model is able to match the cluster galaxy luminosity function at faint and bright magnitudes, but under-estimates the number of galaxies around the break in the luminosity function. We find that simply assuming a weaker dust attenuation improves the model predictions for the cluster galaxy luminosity function, but worsens the predictions for the red sequence at bright magnitudes. Examination of the properties of the bright cluster galaxies suggests that the default dust attenuation is very large due to these galaxies having large reservoirs of cold gas as well as small radii. We find that matching the luminosity function and colours of high redshift cluster galaxies, whilst remaining consistent ...

  14. The extended disc and halo of the Andromeda galaxy observed with Spitzer-IRAC

    CERN Document Server

    Ravandi, Masoud Rafiei; Ashby, Matthew L N; Laine, Seppo; Davidge, T J; Zhang, Jenna; Bianchi, Luciana; Babul, Arif; Chapman, S C

    2016-01-01

    We present the first results from an extended survey of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using 41.1 hours of observations by Spitzer-IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 \\mu m. This survey extends previous observations to the outer disc and halo, covering total lengths of 4$.\\!\\!^\\circ$4 and 6$.\\!\\!^\\circ$6 along the minor and major axes, respectively. We have produced surface brightness profiles by combining the integrated light from background-corrected maps with stellar counts from a new catalogue of point sources. Using auxiliary catalogues we have carried out a statistical analysis in colour-magnitude space to discriminate M31 objects from foreground Milky Way stars and background galaxies. The catalogue includes 426,529 sources, of which 66 per cent have been assigned probability values to identify M31 objects with magnitude depths of [3.6]$\\,=\\,$19.0$\\,\\pm\\,$0.2, [4.5]$\\,=\\,$18.7$\\,\\pm\\,$0.2. We discuss applications of our data for constraining the stellar mass and characterising point sources in the outer radii.

  15. The extended disc and halo of the Andromeda galaxy observed with Spitzer-IRAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei Ravandi, Masoud; Barmby, Pauline; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Laine, Seppo; Davidge, T. J.; Zhang, Jenna; Bianchi, Luciana; Babul, Arif; Chapman, S. C.

    2016-06-01

    We present the first results from an extended survey of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using 41.1 h of observations by Spitzer-IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 µm. This survey extends previous observations to the outer disc and halo, covering total lengths of 4.4° and 6.6° along the minor and major axes, respectively. We have produced surface brightness profiles by combining the integrated light from background-corrected maps with stellar counts from a new catalogue of point sources. Using auxiliary catalogues, we have carried out a statistical analysis in colour-magnitude space to discriminate M31 objects from foreground Milky Way stars and background galaxies. The catalogue includes 426 529 sources, of which 66 per cent have been assigned probability values to identify M31 objects with magnitude depths of [3.6] = 19.0 ± 0.2, [4.5] = 18.7 ± 0.2. We discuss applications of our data for constraining the stellar mass and characterizing point sources in the outer radii.

  16. What Counts as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  17. Counting Hexagonal Lattice Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Mohamud

    2002-01-01

    We describe Maple packages for the automatic generation of generating functions(and series expansions) for counting lattice animals(fixed polyominoes), in the two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, of bounded but arbitrary width. Our Maple packages(complete with source code) are easy-to-use and available from my website.

  18. Counting on rectangular areas

    OpenAIRE

    Janjic, Milan

    2007-01-01

    In the first section of this paper we prove a theorem for the number of columns of a rectangular area that are identical to the given one. In the next section we apply this theorem to derive several combinatorial identities by counting specified subsets of a finite set.

  19. Fitting dwarf galaxy rotation curves with conformal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    O'Brien, James G

    2011-01-01

    We continue our study of the application of the conformal gravity theory to galactic rotation curves. Previously we had studied a varied 111 spiral galaxy sample consisting of high surface brightness galaxies, low surface brightness galaxies and dwarf galaxies. With no free parameters other than galactic mass to light ratios, we had found that the theory is able to account for the systematics that is observed in the entire set of galactic rotation curves without the need for any dark matter whatsoever. In the present paper we extend our study to incorporate a further 22 galaxies of which 20 are dwarf galaxies and provide updated studies of 2 additional galaxies that had been in the original sample, and again without dark matter find fully acceptable fits. Our current study brings to 133 the number of rotation curves of galaxies that have been successfully fitted by the conformal gravity theory. Since one of the primary ingredients in the theory is a universal contribution to galactic motions coming from matte...

  20. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    bulges because the latter retain a `memory' of their disky origin. That is, they have one or more characteristics of disks: (1) flatter shapes than those of classical bulges, (2) correspondingly large ratios of ordered to random velocities, (3) small velocity dispersions with respect to the Faber-Jackson correlation between velocity dispersion and bulge luminosity, (4) spiral structure or nuclear bars in the `bulge' part of the light profile, (5) nearly exponential brightness profiles and (6) starbursts. So the cleanest examples of pseudobulges are recognisable. However, pseudo and classical bulges can coexist in the same galaxy. I review two important implications of secular evolution: (1) The existence of pseudobulges highlights a problem with our theory of galaxy formation by hierarchical clustering. We cannot explain galaxies that are completely bulgeless. Galaxy mergers are expected to happen often enough so that every giant galaxy should have a classical bulge. But we observe that bulgeless giant galaxies are common in field environments. We now realise that many dense centres of galaxies that we used to think are bulges were not made by mergers; they were grown out of disks. So the challenge gets more difficult. This is the biggest problem faced by our theory of galaxy formation. (2) Pseudobulges are observed to contain supermassive black holes (BHs), but they do not show the well-known, tight correlations between BH mass and the mass and velocity dispersion of the host bulge. This leads to the suggestion that there are two fundamentally different BH feeding processes. Rapid global inward gas transport in galaxy mergers leads to giant BHs that correlate with host ellipticals and classical bulges, whereas local and more stochastic feeding of small BHs in largely bulgeless galaxies evidently involves too little energy feedback to result in BH-host coevolution. It is an important success of the secular evolution picture that morphological differences can be used to