WorldWideScience

Sample records for bright galaxy counts

  1. Low surface brightness galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhulst, J. M.; Deblok, W. J. G.; Mcgaugh, S. S.; Bothun, G. D.

    1993-01-01

    A program to investigate the properties of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies involving surface photometry in U, B, V, R, I, and H-alpha, HI imaging with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and the very large array (VLA) and spectrophotometry of H2 regions in LSB galaxies is underway. The goal is to verify the idea that LSB galaxies have low star formation rates because the local gas density falls below the critical density for star formation, and to study the stellar population and abundances in LSB galaxies. Such information should help understanding the evolutionary history of LSB galaxies. Some preliminary results are reported.

  2. The environment of Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, S. D.; Bomans, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    Using the Early Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) we investigated the clustering properties of Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies in comparison to normal, High Surface Brightness (HSB) galaxies. We selected LSB galaxies and HSB galaxies with well measured redshifts from the SDSS data base and performed three-dimensional neighbour counting analysis within spheres of radii between 0.8 Mpc and 8.0 Mpc. As a second analysis method we used an N-th neighbour analysis with N var...

  3. SURFACE PHOTOMETRY OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBLOK, WJG; VANDERHULST, JM; BOTHUN, GD

    1995-01-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are galaxies dominated by an exponential disc whose central surface brightness is much fainter than the value of mu(B)(0) = 21.65 +/- 0.30 mag arcsec(-2) found by Freeman. In this paper we present broadband photometry of a sample of 21 late-type LSB galaxies. Th

  4. Dark matter in low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blok, WJG; McGaugh, SS; Persic, M; Salucci, P

    1997-01-01

    Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies form a large population of disc galaxies that extend the Hubble sequence towards extreme late-types. They are only slowly evolving, and still in an early evolutionary state. The Tully-Fisher relation and rotation curves of LSB galaxies both show that LSB galaxie

  5. Dark Matter in Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, W. J. G. de; McGaugh, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract: Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies form a large population of disc galaxies that extend the Hubble sequence towards extreme late-types. They are only slowly evolving, and still in an early evolutionary state. The Tully-Fisher relation and rotation curves of LSB galaxies both show that L

  6. Evolution of bulgeless low surface brightness galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, X.; Hammer, F.; Yang, Y. B.; Liang, Y. C.

    Based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR 7, we investigate the environment, morphology, and stellar population of bulgeless low surface-brightness (LSB) galaxies in a volume-limited sample with redshift ranging from 0.024 to 0.04 and M r LSB galaxies have more young stars and are more metal-poor than regular LSB galaxies. These results suggest that the evolution of LSB galaxies may be driven by their dynamics, including mergers rather than by their large-scale environment.

  7. The radio properties of bright Seyfert galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuricin, G.; Mardirossian, F.; Mezzetti, M.; Bertotti, G. (Centro Interuniversitario Regionale per l' Astrofisica e la Cosmologia (Italy) Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics (Italy))

    1990-03-01

    The radio properties of a sample of 69 bright spectroscopically selected Seyfert galaxies, which suffers from little bias toward Markarian galaxies with strong UV excess. At variance with most of the earlier results, generally based on galaxy samples which are strongly biased toward the inclusion of Markarian objects, there is no clear evidence of a significant difference in the major radio properties (radio power, radio-to-optical luminosity ratio, radio spectral index and radio size) of type 1 and type 2 Seyferts. The resulting observational scenario appears now to be more consistent than before with the idea that Seyfert 2 galaxies are simply Seyfert 1 obscured objects. 70 refs.

  8. Counting pairs of faint galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, D; Richer, H B; Woods, David; Fahlman, Gregory G; Richer, Harvey B

    1995-01-01

    The number of close pairs of galaxies observed to faint magnitude limits, when compared to nearby samples, determines the interaction or merger rate as a function of redshift. The prevalence of mergers at intermediate redshifts is fundamental to understanding how galaxies evolve and the relative population of galaxy types. Mergers have been used to explain the excess of galaxies in faint blue counts above the numbers expected from no-evolution models. Using deep CFHT (I\\leq24) imaging of a ``blank'' field we find a pair fraction which is consistent with the galaxies in our sample being randomly distributed with no significant excess of ``physical'' close pairs. This is contrary to the pair fraction of 34\\%\\pm9\\% found by Burkey {\\it et al.} for similar magnitude limits and using an identical approach to the pair analysis. Various reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Colors and morphologies of our close pairs are consistent with the bulk of them being random superpositions although, as indicators of int...

  9. The galaxy counts-in-cells distribution from the SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Abel

    2010-01-01

    We determine the galaxy counts-in-cells distribution from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for 3D spherical cells in redshift space as well as for 2D projected cells. We find that cosmic variance in the SDSS causes the counts-in-cells distributions in different quadrants to differ from each other by up to 20%. We also find that within this cosmic variance, the overall galaxy counts-in-cells distribution agrees with both the gravitational quasi-equilibrium distribution and the negative binomial distribution. We also find that brighter galaxies are more strongly clustered than if they were randomly selected from a larger complete sample that includes galaxies of all luminosities. The results suggest that bright galaxies could be in dark matter haloes separated by less than ~10 Mpc/h.

  10. Galaxy evolution at low redshift?; 1, optical counts

    CERN Document Server

    Dennefeld, M

    1996-01-01

    We present bright galaxy number counts in the blue (16bright galaxies implying a ``high'' normalization of the local luminosity function. Our counts and colour distributions exhibit no large departure from what standard no-evolution models predict, removing the need for evolution of the galaxy population in the optical, out to Bj=21. This result disagrees with that of Maddox et al. (1990) on the APM catalog. We show that the APM and similar catalogs may be affected by a systematic magnitude scale error which would explain this discrepancy.

  11. Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts

    CERN Document Server

    Durrer, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.

  12. Submillimeter Galaxy Number Counts and Magnification by Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, Marcos; Devlin, Mark; Aguirre, James

    2010-01-01

    We present an analytical model which reproduces measured galaxy number counts from surveys in the wavelength range of 500 micron to 2 mm. The model involves a single high-redshift galaxy population with a Schechter luminosity function which has been gravitationally lensed by galaxy clusters in the mass range 10^13 to 10^15 Msun. This simple model reproduces both the low flux and the high flux end of the number counts reported by the BLAST, SCUBA, AzTEC and the SPT surveys. In particular, our model accounts for the most luminous galaxies detected by SPT as the result of high magnifications by galaxy clusters (magnification factors of 10-30). This interpretation implies that submillimeter and millimeter surveys of this population may prove to be a useful addition to ongoing cluster detection surveys. The model also implies that the bulk of submillimeter galaxies detected at wavelengths larger than 500 micron lie at redshifts greater than 2.

  13. Surface photometry of bulge dominated low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, M; de Blok, WJG; van der Hulst, JM

    1999-01-01

    We present results of broad band BVRI observations of a sample of galaxies with a low surface brightness (LSB) disk and a bulge. These galaxies are well described as exponential disks and exponential bulges with no preferred value for either scale length or central surface brightness. The median B b

  14. New Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Galaxies Detected Around Nearby Spirals

    OpenAIRE

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Riepe, P.; Zilch, T.; Blauensteiner, M.; Elvov, M.; Hochleitner, P.; Hubl, B.; Kerschhuber, G.; Küppers, S.; Neyer, F.; Pölzl, R.; Remmel, P.; Schneider, O.; Sparenberg, R.; Trulson, U.

    2015-01-01

    We conduct a survey of low surface brightness (LSB) satellite galaxies around the Local Volume massive spirals using long exposures with small amateur telescopes. We identified 27 low and very low surface brightness objects around the galaxies NGC,672, 891, 1156, 2683, 3344, 4258, 4618, 4631, and 5457 situated within 10 Mpc from us, and found nothing new around NGC,2903, 3239, 4214, and 5585. Assuming that the dwarf candidates are the satellites of the neighboring luminous galaxies, their abs...

  15. Bright X-ray galaxies in SDSS filaments

    OpenAIRE

    Tugay, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Eighteen bright X-ray emitting galaxies were found in nearby filaments within SDSS region. Basic X-ray spectral parameters were estimated for these galaxies using power law model with photoelectric absorption. A close pair of X-ray galaxies was found.

  16. THE TULLY-FISHER RELATION FOR LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES - IMPLICATIONS FOR GALAXY EVOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, M.A.; VAN DER HULST, JM; DE BLOK, WJG; MCGAUGH, SS

    1995-01-01

    We present the B-band Tully-Fisher relation for low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. These LSB galaxies follow the same Tully-Fisher relation as normal spiral galaxies. This implies that the mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of LSB galaxies is typically a factor of 2 larger than that of normal galaxies of

  17. Survival analysis of the optical brightness of GRB host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Racz, I I; Bagoly, Z; Toth, L V

    2015-01-01

    We studied the unbiased optical brightness distribution which was calculated from the survival analysis of host galaxies and its relationship with the Swift GRB data of the host galaxies observed by the Keck telescopes. Based on the sample obtained from merging the Swift GRB table and the Keck optical data we also studied the dependence of this distribution on the data of the GRBs. Finally, we compared the HGs distribution with standard galaxies distribution which is in the DEEP2 galaxies catalog.

  18. Interpreting Central Surface Brightness and Color Profiles in Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, David R.; Wise, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope imagery has revealed dust features in the central regions of many (50%--80%) nearby bright elliptical galaxies. If these features are an indication of an underlying smooth diffuse dust distribution, then the interpretation of central surface brightness and color profiles in elliptical galaxies becomes significantly more difficult. In this Letter, diagnostics for constraining the presence of such an underlying central dust distribution are presented. We show that easily detectable central color gradients and flattened central surface brightness profiles can be induced by even small amounts of smoothly distributed dust (~100 M⊙). Conversely, combinations of flat surface brightness profiles and flat color gradients or steep surface brightness profiles and steep color gradients are unlikely to be caused by dust. Taken as a whole, these results provide a simple observational tautology for constraining the existence of smooth diffuse dust distributions in the central regions of elliptical galaxies.

  19. New Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Galaxies Detected Around Nearby Spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Karachentsev, I D; Zilch, T; Blauensteiner, M; Elvov, M; Hochleitner, P; Hubl, B; Kerschhuber, G; Küppers, S; Neyer, F; Pölzl, R; Remmel, P; Schneider, O; Sparenberg, R; Trulson, U; Willems, G; Ziegler, H

    2015-01-01

    We conduct a survey of low surface brightness (LSB) satellite galaxies around the Local Volume massive spirals using long exposures with small amateur telescopes. We identified 27 low and very low surface brightness objects around the galaxies NGC,672, 891, 1156, 2683, 3344, 4258, 4618, 4631, and 5457 situated within 10 Mpc from us, and found nothing new around NGC,2903, 3239, 4214, and 5585. Assuming that the dwarf candidates are the satellites of the neighboring luminous galaxies, their absolute magnitudes are in the range of -8.6 > M_B > -13.3, their effective diameters are 0.4-4.7 kpc, and the average surface brightness is 26.1 mag/sq arcsec. The mean linear projected separation of the satellite candidates from the host galaxies is 73 kpc. Our spectroscopic observations of two LSB dwarfs with the Russian 6-meter telescope confirm their physical connection to the host galaxies NGC,891 and NGC,2683.

  20. New low surface brightness dwarf galaxies detected around nearby spirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Riepe, P.; Zilch, T.; Blauensteiner, M.; Elvov, M.; Hochleitner, P.; Hubl, B.; Kerschhuber, G.; Küppers, S.; Neyer, F.; Pölzl, R.; Remmel, P.; Schneider, O.; Sparenberg, R.; Trulson, U.; Willems, G.; Ziegler, H.

    2015-10-01

    We conduct a survey of low surface brightness (LSB) satellite galaxies around the Local Volume massive spirals using long exposures with small amateur telescopes. We identified 27 low and very low surface brightness objects around the galaxies NGC672, 891, 1156, 2683, 3344, 4258, 4618, 4631, and 5457 situated within 10 Mpc from us, and found nothing new around NGC2903, 3239, 4214, and 5585. Assuming that the dwarf candidates are the satellites of the neighboring luminous galaxies, their absolute magnitudes are in the range of -8.6 > M B > -13.3, their effective diameters are 0.4-4.7 kpc, and the average surface brightness is 26ṃ1/□″. The mean linear projected separation of the satellite candidates from the host galaxies is 73 kpc. Our spectroscopic observations of two LSB dwarfs with the Russian 6-meter telescope confirm their physical connection to the host galaxies NGC891 and NGC2683.

  1. Do Baryons Alter the Halos of Low Surface Brightness Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    de Naray, Rachel Kuzio

    2011-01-01

    High-quality observations of dark matter-dominated low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies indicate that, in contrast to the triaxial, centrally-concentrated cuspy halos formed in collisionless simulations of halo assembly, these galaxies reside in round, roughly constant density cored halos. In order to reconcile these data with galaxy formation in the context of LCDM, processes that alter the shape and density structure of the inner halo are required. We compile observational properties of LSB galaxies to evaluate the plausibility that a previously higher baryonic mass content and feedback from star formation can modify the dark matter halos of these galaxies. We also compare the properties of bulgeless disk galaxies formed in recent simulations to the LSB galaxy sample. We find that observational constraints on LSB galaxy star formation histories, structure, and kinematics make it difficult for baryonic physics to sphericalize and decrease the central density of the dark matter halos of LSB galaxies.

  2. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies: Evolution in Isolation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Das

    2013-03-01

    Giant Low Surface Brightness (GLSB) galaxies are amongst the most massive spiral galaxies that we know of in our Universe. Although they fall in the class of late type spiral galaxies, their properties are far more extreme. They have very faint stellar disks that are extremely rich in neutral hydrogen gas but low in star formation and hence low in surface brightness. They often have bright bulges that are similar to those found in early type galaxies. The bulges can host low luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that have relatively low mass black holes. GLSB galaxies are usually isolated systems and are rarely found to be interacting with other galaxies. In fact many GLSB galaxies are found under dense regions close to the edges of voids. These galaxies have very massive dark matter halos that also contribute to their stability and lack of evolution. In this paper we briefly review the properties of this unique class of galaxies and conclude that both their isolation and their massive dark matter halos have led to the low star formation rates and the slower rate of evolution in these galaxies.

  3. The Morphology of Low Surface Brightness Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, S.; Schombert, J.; Bothun, G.

    1994-01-01

    Images of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) disk galaxies are presented. These galaxies are generally late types; however, they are not dwarfs, being intrinsically large and luminous. The morphology of LSB galaxies is discussed in terms of the physical interpretation of the Hubble sequence, the stages of which are found to be nonlinear in the sense that smaller physical differences separate mid to early type spirals than late types.

  4. Global properties of infrared bright galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Judith S.; Xie, Shuding; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Rice, Walter L.

    1989-01-01

    Infrared flux densities of 182 galaxies, including 50 galaxies in the Virgo cluster, were analyzed using IRAS data for 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns, and the results were compared with data listed in the Point Source Catalog (PSC, 1985). In addition, IR luminosities, L(IRs), colors, and warm dust masses were derived for these galaxies and were compared with the interstellar gas masses and optical luminosities of the galaxies. It was found that, for galaxies whose optical diameter measures between 5 and 8 arcmin, the PSC flux densities are underestimated by a factor of 2 at 60 microns, and by a factor of 1.5 at 100 microns. It was also found that, for 49 galaxies, the mass of warm dust correlated well with the H2 mass, and that L(IR) correlated with L(H-alpha), demonstrating that the L(IR) measures the rate of star formation in these galaxies.

  5. Do low surface brightness galaxies have dense disks?

    CERN Document Server

    Saburova, A S

    2010-01-01

    The disk masses of four low surface brightness galaxies (LSB) were estimated using marginal gravitational stability criterion and the stellar velocity dispersion data which were taken from Pizzella et al., 2008 [1]. The constructed mass models appear to be close to the models of maximal disk. The results show that the disks of LSB galaxies may be significantly more massive than it is usually accepted from their brightnesses. In this case their surface densities and masses appear to be rather typical for normal spirals. Otherwise, unlike the disks of many spiral galaxies, the LSB disks are dynamically overheated.

  6. HI observations of low surface brightness galaxies : Probing low-density galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBlok, WJG; McGaugh, SS; vanderHulst, JM

    1996-01-01

    We present Very Large Array (VLA) and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) 21-cm HI observations of 19 late-type low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. Our main findings are that these galaxies, as well as having low surface brightnesses, have low HI surface densities, about a factor of simil

  7. The Galaxy Counts-in-cells Distribution from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Abel; Saslaw, William C.

    2011-03-01

    We determine the galaxy counts-in-cells distribution from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for three-dimensional spherical cells in redshift space as well as for two-dimensional projected cells. We find that cosmic variance in the SDSS causes the counts-in-cells distributions in different quadrants to differ from each other by up to 20%. We also find that within this cosmic variance, the overall galaxy counts-in-cells distribution agrees with both the gravitational quasi-equilibrium distribution and the negative binomial distribution. We also find that brighter galaxies are more strongly clustered than if they were randomly selected from a larger complete sample that includes galaxies of all luminosities. The results suggest that bright galaxies could be in dark matter halos separated by less than ~10 h -1 Mpc.

  8. The Millennium Galaxy Catalogue 16 < B_MGC < 24 galaxy counts and the calibration of the local galaxy luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Liske, J; Driver, S P; Cross, N J G; Couch, W J

    2003-01-01

    The Millennium Galaxy Catalogue (MGC) is a 37.5 deg^2, medium-deep, B-band imaging survey along the celestial equator, taken with the Wide Field Camera on the Isaac Newton Telescope. The survey region is contained within the regions of both the Two Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Early Data Release (SDSS-EDR). The survey has a uniform isophotal detection limit of 26 mag arcsec^-2 and it provides a robust, well-defined catalogue of stars and galaxies in the range 16 < B_MGC < 24 mag. Here we describe the survey strategy, the photometric and astrometric calibration, source detection and analysis, and present the galaxy number counts which connect the bright and faint galaxy populations within a single survey. We argue that these counts represent the state of the art and use them to constrain the normalisations (phi*) of a number of recent estimates of the local galaxy luminosity function. We find that the 2dFGRS, SDSS-EDR, SSRS2, Durham/UKST, ESO Slice Project...

  9. Extinction in the Galaxy from surface brightnesses of ESO-LV galaxies : Testing "standard" extinction maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choloniewski, J.; Valentijn, E. A.

    2003-01-01

    A new method for the determination of the extinction in the Galaxy is proposed. The method uses surface brightnesses of external galaxies in the B and R-bands. The observational data have been taken from the ESO-LV galaxy catalog. As a first application of our model we derive the ratio of R-band to

  10. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasa, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. To this end, we use a Halo Model framework complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD), and we work in full-sky. We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions, as the Gaussian part of the covariance can in fact become subdominant in certain configurations. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias, and demonstrating interesting mathematical properties. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeable better constraints, in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales....

  11. Orientations of Bright Galaxies within their Dark Matter Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, Tereasa G.

    2013-07-01

    Few constraints exist on the ways in which large, bright galaxies are embedded within their dark matter halos. Understanding the relationships between visible galaxies and their invisible dark matter halos is, however, important for many applications, including measurements of halo shapes from weak lensing and intrinsic alignments of galaxies. A key component of the galaxy-halo relationship is the degree to which mass and light are aligned and, hence, whether the observed major axes of bright galaxies are aligned with the major axes of their dark matter halos. Here I will show that the locations of satellite galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) can be used to constrain the orientations of the primary galaxies within their dark matter halos. In particular, the dependence of satellite galaxy location on the colors and stellar masses of the primaries can only be reproduced if elliptical and disk primaries are embedded within their halos in different ways: the principal axes of the luminous ellipticals are well-aligned with the principal axes of their dark matter halos, while the luminous disks are oriented such that the angular momentum of the disk is well-aligned with the net angular momentum of the dark matter halo. The latter induces a significant misalignment of mass and light in disk primaries. This has implications for the use of galaxy-galaxy lensing to measure halo shapes. If the dark matter halos are non-spherical, then the resulting anisotropic galaxy-galaxy lensing signal is likely to be detected only around elliptical lenses, not disk lenses. I will show that a preliminary analysis of the anisotropic galaxy-galaxy lensing signal in the SDSS supports this hypothesis. This analysis differs from previous galaxy-galaxy lensing studies in the SDSS in that the lenses are sufficiently isolated that they, themselves, will not have been lensed by any other objects along the line of sight. This insures that the observed major axes of the lens galaxies are

  12. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, Fabien; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2016-08-01

    The abundance of clusters and the clustering of galaxies are two of the important cosmological probes for current and future large scale surveys of galaxies, such as the Dark Energy Survey. In order to combine them one has to account for the fact that they are not independent quantities, since they probe the same density field. It is important to develop a good understanding of their correlation in order to extract parameter constraints. We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. We employ the framework of the halo model complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions. Indeed, we show that the non-Gaussian covariance becomes dominant at small scales, low redshifts or high cluster masses. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias. We demonstrate that the SSC obeys mathematical inequalities and positivity. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeably better constraints, with improvements of order 20% on cosmological parameters compared to the best single probe, and even greater improvement on HOD parameters, with reduction of error bars by a factor 1.4-4.8. This happens in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales. We conclude that accounting for non-Gaussian effects is required for the joint analysis of these observables in galaxy surveys.

  13. Hubble space telescope counts of elliptical galaxies constraints on cosmological models?

    CERN Document Server

    Driver, S P; Phillipps, S; Bristow, P D; Driver, Simon P; Windhorst, Rogier A; Phillipps, Steven; Bristow, Paul D

    1995-01-01

    The interpretation of galaxy number counts in terms of cosmological models is fraught with difficulty due to uncertainties in the overall galaxy population (mix of morphological types, luminosity functions etc.) and in the observations (loss of low surface brightness images, image blending etc.). Many of these can be overcome if we use deep high resolution imaging of a single class of high surface brightness galaxies, whose evolution is thought to be fairly well understood. This is now possible by selecting elliptical and S0 galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope images from the Medium Deep Survey and other ultradeep WFPC2 images. In the present paper, we examine whether such data can be used to discriminate between open and closed universes, or between conventional cosmological models and those dominated by a cosmological constant. We find, based on the currently available data, that unless elliptical galaxies undergo very strong merging since z \\sim 1 (and/or very large errors exist in the morphological clas...

  14. Morphological Number Counts of Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, M G; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Narae

    2000-01-01

    We present a study of photometric properties of the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field South (HDFS) based on the released WFPC2 images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We have classified about 340 galaxies with $I<26$ mag in the HDFS as well as about 400 galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field North (HDFN) using the visual classification supplemented by inspection of the surface brightness profiles of the galaxies. Galaxy population statistics and morphological number counts for the HDFS are found to be similar to be those for the HDFN. We have also determined photometrically the redshifts of the galaxies with $I<26$ mag in the HDFS and the HDFN using the empirical training set method. Redshift distribution, color-redshift relation, and magnitude-redshift for each type of galaxies are investigated.

  15. GMRT HI study of giant low surface brightness galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alka; Kantharia, N. G.; Das, M.; Omar, A.; Srivastava, D. C.

    2016-10-01

    We present HI observations of four giant low surface brightness (GLSB) galaxies UGC 1378, UGC 1922, UGC 4422 and UM 163 using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We include HI results on UGC 2936, UGC 6614 and Malin 2 from literature. HI is detected from all the galaxies and the extent is roughly twice the optical size; in UM 163, HI is detected along a broken disk encircling the optical galaxy. We combine our results with those in literature to further understand these systems. The main results are the following: (1) The peak HI surface densities in GLSB galaxies are several times 1021 cm-2. The HI mass is between 0.3 - 4 × 1010 M⊙, dynamical mass ranges from a few times 1011 M⊙ to a few times 1012 M⊙. (2) The rotation curves of GLSB galaxies are flat to the outermost measured point with rotation velocities of the seven GLSB galaxies being between 225 and 432 km s-1. (3) Recent star formation traced by near-ultraviolet emission in five GLSB galaxies in our sample appears to be located in rings around the galaxy centre. We suggest that this could be due to a stochastic burst of star formation at one location in the galaxy being propagated along a ring over a rotation period. (4) The HI is correlated with recent star formation in five of the seven GLSB galaxies.

  16. Star Formation Rates in Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickering, T. E.; Impey, C. D.; van Gorkom, J.; Bothun, G. D.

    1994-01-01

    The low surface brightness (LSB) disk galaxies found in recent surveys (e.g.,\\ Schombert et al. 1992, AJ, 103, 1107) tend to be blue and gas rich. These properties along with their low mean surface luminosity and H i densities imply an inefficient mode of star formation. The Hα images that we presen

  17. The bispectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts

    CERN Document Server

    Di Dio, Enea; Marozzi, Giovanni; Montanari, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Starting from the relativistic galaxy number counts to second order in cosmological perturbation theory which we have determined in a previous paper, we discuss the dominant terms on sub-Hubble scales and on intermediate to large redshifts. In particular, we determine their contribution to the bispectrum. In addition to the terms already known from Newtonian second order perturbation theory, we find that there are a series of additional `lensing-like' terms which contribute to the bispectrum. We derive analytical expressions for the full leading order bispectrum and we evaluate it numerically for different configurations, indicating how they can be measured with upcoming surveys. In particular, the new `lensing-like' terms are not negligible within large window functions and even dominate the bispectrum at well separated redshifts. This offers us the possibility to measure them in future surveys.

  18. The HI dominated Low Surface Brightness Galaxy KKR17

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Man I; Yang, Ming; Zhou, Zhi-Min; Du, Wei; Zhu, Yi-Nan

    2014-01-01

    We present new narrow-band (H$\\alpha$ and [OIII]) imagings and optical spectrophotometry of HII regions for a gas-rich low surface brightness irregular galaxy, KKR 17. The central surface brightness of the galaxy is $\\mu_0(B)$ = 24.15 $\\pm$0.03 mag~sec$^{-2}$. The galaxy was detected by \\emph{Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey} (ALFALFA), and its mass is dominated by neutral hydrogen (HI) gas. In contrast, both the stellar masses of the bright HII and diffuse stellar regions are small. In addition, the fit to the spectral energy distribution to each region shows the stellar populations of HII and diffuse regions are different. The bright HII region contains a large fraction of O-type stars, revealing the recent strong star formation, whereas the diffuse region is dominated by median age stars, which has a typical age of $\\sim$ 600 Myrs. Using the McGaugh's abundance model, we found that the average metallicity of KKR 17 is 12 + (O/H) = 8.0 $\\pm$ 0.1. The star formation rate of KKR 17 is 0.21$\\pm$0.04 M$_{\\odot}$...

  19. Submillimetre galaxies in a hierarchical universe: number counts, redshift distribution, and implications for the IMF

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Christopher C; Kereš, Dušan; Jonsson, Patrik; Hopkins, Philip F; Cox, T J; Hernquist, Lars

    2012-01-01

    High-redshift submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) are some of the most rapidly star-forming galaxies in the Universe. Historically, galaxy formation models have had difficulty explaining the observed number counts of SMGs. We combine a semi-empirical model with 3-D hydrodynamical simulations and 3-D dust radiative transfer to predict the number counts of unlensed SMGs. Because the stellar mass functions, gas and dust masses, and sizes of our galaxies are constrained to match observations, we can isolate uncertainties related to the dynamical evolution of galaxy mergers and the dust radiative transfer. The number counts and redshift distributions predicted by our model agree well with observations. Isolated disc galaxies dominate the faint (S_1.1 ~0.5 mJy (S_850 > ~1 mJy). The mean redshifts are ~3.0 - 3.5, depending on the flux cut, and the brightest sources tend to be at higher redshifts. Because the galaxy-pair SMGs will be resolved into multiple fainter sources by ALMA, the bright ALMA counts should be as much ...

  20. Statistical Properties of Bright Galaxies in the SDSS Photometric System

    CERN Document Server

    Shimasaku, K; Doi, M; Hamabe, M; Ichikawa, T; Okamura, S; Sekiguchi, M; Yasuda, N

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the photometric properties of 456 bright galaxies using imaging data recorded during the commissioning phase of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Morphological classification is carried out by correlating results of several human classifiers. Our purpose is to examine the statistical properties of color indices, scale lengths, and concentration indices as functions of morphology for the SDSS photometric system. We find that $u'-g'$, $g'-r'$, and $r'-i'$ colors of SDSS galaxies match well with those expected from the synthetic calculation of spectroscopic energy distribution of template galaxies and with those transformed from $UBVR_CI_C$ color data of nearby galaxies. The agreement is somewhat poor, however, for $i'-z'$ color band with a discrepancy of $0.1-0.2$ mag. With the aid of the relation between surface brightness and radius obtained by Kent (1985), we estimate the averages of the effective radius of early type galaxies and the scale length of exponential disks both to be 2.6 kpc for...

  1. GMRT HI study of giant low surface brightness galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Alka; Das, M; Omar, A; Srivastava, D C

    2016-01-01

    We present HI observations of four giant low surface brightness (GLSB) galaxies UGC 1378, UGC 1922, UGC 4422 and UM 163 using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We include HI results on UGC 2936, UGC 6614 and Malin 2 from literature. HI is detected from all the galaxies and the extent is roughly twice the optical size; in UM 163, HI is detected along a broken disk encircling the optical galaxy. We combine our results with those in literature to further understand these systems. The main results are the following: (1) The peak HI surface densities in GLSB galaxies are several times 10^21 cm^{-2} . The HI mass is between 0.3 - 4 x 10^10 M_Sun/yr, dynamical mass ranges from a few times 10^11 M_Sun/yr to a few times 10^12 M_Sun/yr. (2) The rotation curves of GLSB galaxies are flat to the outermost measured point with rotation velocities of the seven GLSB galaxies being between 225 and 432 km s^{-1}. (3) Recent star formation traced by near-ultraviolet emission in five GLSB galaxies in our sample appears ...

  2. The Environment of Sy1, Sy2 & Bright IRAS Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Koulouridis, E; Plionis, M; Dultzin, D; Krongold, Y; Goudis, C; Chatzichristou, E

    2008-01-01

    We present a 3-dimensional study of the local (< 100 kpc) environment of Sy1, Sy2 and Bright IRAS Galaxies. For this purpose we use three galaxy samples (Sy1, Sy2, BIRG) located at high galactic latitudes as well as three control sample of non-active galaxies having the same morphological, redshift and diameter size distributions as the corresponding Seyfert or BIRG sample. Using the CfA2 and SSRS galaxy catalogues as well as our own spectroscopic observations, we find that the fraction of BIRGs with a close neighbor is significantly higher than that of their control sample. We also find that Sy2 galaxies demonstrate the same behaviour with BIRG galaxies but not with Sy1s which do not show any excess of companions with respect to their control sample galaxies. An additional analysis of the relation between FIR colors and activity type of the BIRG's shows a significant difference between the colors of strongly-interacting and non-interacting starbursts and a resemblance between the colors of non-interacting...

  3. Properties of galaxies in the disc central surface brightness gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorce, Jenny G.; Creasey, Peter; Libeskind, Noam I.

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate surface brightness (ISB) galaxies are less numerous than their counterparts at high and low surface brightness (HSB and LSB). Investigating ISB characteristics from a sample from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies survey, complete down to MB = -16, we find that they have intermediate stellar, gas and baryonic masses and on average as much gas as stars. They lie on the (baryonic) Tully-Fisher relation between HSBs and LSBs, although they present a higher scatter than the latter. Their stellar to baryonic mass ratios have intermediate values unlike their condensed baryonic fractions. By comparing their environments, as classified by the eigenvalues of the velocity shear tensor of local constrained simulations, ISBs have a 5-10 per cent probability higher (smaller) to be in sheets (filaments) with respect to HSBs and LSBs. Additionally, for galaxies in filaments (with close neighbours), the mass and μ0 are correlated at 2.5 (2)σ more than for those in sheets. ISBs live in regions where the divergence of the velocity field is smaller than where HSBs and LSBs live, a result at more than 50 per cent significance. ISBs may exist as an unstable transition state between LSBs and HSBs, the low flow activity environment maximally encouraging their formation. Interaction events altering the central baryon fraction could happen at a lower rate in these less dense environment, whilst in the higher density environments the LSBs are primarily satellite galaxies, whose accretion is sufficiently constrained that it fails to promote them to HSBs.

  4. New H-band Galaxy Number Counts: A Large Local Hole in the Galaxy Distribution?

    CERN Document Server

    Frith, W J; Shanks, T

    2005-01-01

    We examine H-band number counts determined using new photometry over 0.30 sq.deg. to H=19, as well as H20 counts display a relatively constant deficit in the counts of 15-20%. We investigate various possible causes for these results: In order to address the issue of the model normalisation, we examine faint number counts for the new faint photometry presented in this work and also for the LCIRS. In each case a zeropoint is chosen to match that of the 2MASS photometry at bright magnitudes. We find a large offset between 2MASS and the LCIRS data of 0.28+/-0.01 magnitudes. Applying a consistent zeropoint, the combined faint data is in good agreement with the homogeneous model prediction used previously. We examine possible effects arising from unexpected galaxy evolution and photometric errors and find no evidence for a significant contribution from either. However, incompleteness in the 2MASS catalogue and in the faint data may have a significant contribution. Addressing the contribution from large-scale struct...

  5. The dark and visible matter content of low surface brightness disc galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBlok, WJG; McGaugh, SS

    1997-01-01

    We present mass models of a sample of 19 low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies and compare the properties of their constituent mass components with those of a sample of high surface brightness (HSB) galaxies. We find that LSB galaxies are dark matter dominated, Their halo parameters are only slightl

  6. The dark and visible matter content of low surface brightness disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, W. J. G. de; McGaugh, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: We present mass models of a sample of 19 low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies and compare the properties of their constituent mass components with those of a sample of high surface brightness (HSB) galaxies.We find that LSB galaxies are dark matter dominated. Their halo parameters are onl

  7. The source counts of submillimetre galaxies detected at 1.1 mm

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, K S; Aretxaga, I; Austermann, J E; Chapin, E L; Dunlop, J S; Ezawa, H; Halpern, M; Hatsukade, B; Hughes, D H; Kawabe, R; Kim, S; Kohno, K; Lowenthal, J D; Montana, A; Nakanishi, K; Oshima, T; Sanders, D; Scott, D; Scoville, N; Tamura, Y; Welch, D; Yun, M S; Zeballos, M

    2012-01-01

    The source counts of galaxies discovered at sub-millimetre and millimetre wavelengths provide important information on the evolution of infrared-bright galaxies. We combine the data from six blank-field surveys carried out at 1.1 mm with AzTEC, totalling 1.6 square degrees in area with root-mean-square depths ranging from 0.4 to 1.7 mJy, and derive the strongest constraints to date on the 1.1 mm source counts at flux densities S(1100) = 1-12 mJy. Using additional data from the AzTEC Cluster Environment Survey to extend the counts to S(1100) ~ 20 mJy, we see tentative evidence for an enhancement relative to the exponential drop in the counts at S(1100) ~ 13 mJy and a smooth connection to the bright source counts at >20 mJy measured by the South Pole Telescope; this excess may be due to strong lensing effects. We compare these counts to predictions from several semi-analytical and phenomenological models and find that for most the agreement is quite good at flux densities > 4 mJy; however, we find significant d...

  8. Dark matter within high surface brightness spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kranz, T; Rix, H W; Kranz, Thilo; Slyz, Adrianne; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2003-01-01

    We present results from a detailed dynamical analysis of five high surface brightness, late type spirals, studied with the aim to quantify the luminous-to-dark matter ratio inside their optical radii. The galaxies' stellar light distribution and gas kinematics have been observed and compared to hydrodynamic gas simulations, which predict the 2D gas dynamics arising in response to empirical gravitational potentials, which are combinations of differing stellar disk and dark halo contributions. The gravitational potential of the stellar disk was derived from near-infrared photometry, color-corrected to constant (M/L); the dark halo was modelled by an isothermal sphere with a core. Hydrodynamic gas simulations were performed for each galaxy for a sequence of five different mass fractions of the stellar disk and for a wide range of spiral pattern speeds. These two parameters mainly determine the modelled gas distribution and kinematics. The agreement between the non-axisymmetric part of the simulated and observed ...

  9. The influence of galaxy surface brightness on the mass-metallicity relation

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Po-Feng; Tully, R Brent; Neill, J D

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of surface brightness on the mass-metallicity relation using nearby galaxies whose gas content and metallicity profiles are available. Previous studies using fiber spectra indicated that lower surface brightness galaxies have systematically lower metallicity for their stellar mass, but the results were uncertain because of aperture effect. With stellar masses and surface brightnesses measured at WISE W1 and W2 bands, we re-investigate the surface brightness dependence with spatially-resolved metallicity profiles and find the similar result. We further demonstrate that the systematical difference cannot be explained by the gas content of galaxies. For two galaxies with similar stellar and gas masses, the one with lower surface brightness tends to have lower metallicity. Using chemical evolution models, we investigate the inflow and outflow properties of galaxies of different masses and surface brightnesses. We find that, on average, high mass galaxies have lower inflow and outflow rates rel...

  10. The bright galaxy population of five medium redshift clusters. II. Quantitative Galaxy Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Ascaso, B; Moles, M; Sánchez-Janssen, R; Bettoni, D

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Following the study already presented in our previous paper, based on the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) sample, which consists of five clusters of galaxies within the redshift range 0.18 $\\leq$ z $\\leq$ 0.25, imaged in the central 0.5-2 Mpc in very good seeing conditions, we have studied the quantitative morphology of their bright galaxy population Methods: We have analyzed the surface brightness profiles of the galaxy population in those clusters. Previously, we have performed simulations in order to check the reliability of the fits. We have also derived a quantitative morphological classification. Results: The structural parameters derived from these analysis have been analyzed. We have obtained that the structural parameters of E/S0 galaxies are similar to those showed by galaxies in low redshift clusters. However, the disc scales are different. In particular, the scales of the discs of galaxies at medium redshift clusters are statistically different than those located in similar galaxies in the Co...

  11. Properties of Galaxies in the Disc Central Surface Brightness Gap

    CERN Document Server

    Sorce, Jenny G; Libeskind, Noam I

    2015-01-01

    Intermediate surface brightness (ISB) galaxies are less numerous than their counterparts at high and low surface brightness (HSB and LSB). Investigating ISB characteristics from a sample from the S4G survey, complete down to M_B=-16, we find that they have intermediate stellar, gas and baryonic masses and on average as much gas as stars. They lie on the (baryonic) Tully-Fisher relation between HSBs and LSBs, although they present a higher scatter than the latter. Their stellar to baryonic mass ratios have intermediate values unlike their condensed baryonic fractions. By comparing their environments, as classified by the eigenvalues of the velocity shear tensor of local constrained simulations, ISBs have a 5-10% probability higher (smaller) to be in sheets (filaments) with respect to HSBs and LSBs. Additionally, for galaxies in filaments (with close neighbors), the mass and mu_0 are correlated at 2.5 (2) sigma more than for those in sheets. ISBs live in regions where the divergence of the velocity field is sma...

  12. Surface Brightness Profiles of Dwarf Galaxies: I. Profiles and Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Kimberly A; Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2013-01-01

    Radial surface brightness profiles of spiral galaxies are classified into three types: (I) single exponential, or the light falls off with one exponential to a break before falling off (II) more steeply, or (III) less steeply. Profile breaks are also found in dwarf disks, but some dwarf Type IIs are flat or increasing out to a break before falling off. Here we re-examine the stellar disk profiles of 141 dwarfs: 96 dwarf irregulars (dIms), 26 Blue Compact Dwarfs (BCDs), and 19 Magellanic-type spirals (Sms). We fit single, double, or even triple exponential profiles in up to 11 passbands: GALEX FUV and NUV, ground-based UBV JHK and H{\\alpha}, and Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 {\\mu}m. We find that more luminous galaxies have brighter centers, larger inner and outer scale lengths, and break at larger radii; dwarf trends with M_B extend to spirals. However, the V-band break surface brightness is independent of break type, M_B, and Hubble type. Dwarf Type II and III profiles fall off similarly beyond the breaks but have diff...

  13. New low surface brightness dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus group

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Oliver; Binggeli, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an extensive CCD search for faint, unresolved dwarf galaxies of very low surface brightness in the whole Centaurus group region encompassing the Cen A and M 83 subgroups lying at a distance of roughly 4 and 5 Mpc, respectively. The aim is to significantly increase the sample of known Centaurus group members down to a fainter level of completeness, serving as a basis for future studies of the 3D structure of the group. Following our previous survey of 60 square degrees covering the M 83 subgroup, we extended and completed our survey of the Centaurus group region by imaging another 500 square degrees area in the g and r bands with the wide-field Dark Energy Survey Camera at the 4m Blanco telescope at CTIO. The limiting central surface brightness reached for suspected Centaurus members is $\\mu_r \\approx 29$ mag arcsec$^{-2}$, corresponding to an absolute magnitude $M_r \\approx -9.5$. The images were enhanced using different filtering techniques. We found 41 new dwarf galaxy candidates, which togethe...

  14. Surface brightness fluctuation distances for nearby dwarf elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jerjen, H; Takalo, L; Coleman, M; Valtonen, M J; Jerjen, Helmut; Rekola, Rami; Takalo, Leo; Coleman, Matthew; Valtonen, Mauri

    2001-01-01

    We obtained B and R-band CCD images for the dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies DDO44, UGC4998, KK98_77, DDO71, DDO113, and UGC7356 at the NOT. Using Fourier analysis technique we measure stellar R-band surface brightness fluctuations (SBFs) and magnitudes in 29 different fields of the galaxies. Independent tip of the red giant branch distances for DDO44, KK98_77, DDO71 are used to convert their set of apparent into absolute SBF magnitudes. The results are combined with the local (B-R) colours and compared with the (B-R)-\\bar{M}_R relation for mainly old, metal-poor stellar populations as predicted by Worthey's population synthesis models using Padova isochrones. While the colour dependency of the theoretical relation is confirmed by the empirical data, we find a systematic zero point offset between observations and theory in the sense that models are too faint by 0.13+-0.02 mag. Based on these findings we establish a new semiempirical calibration of the SBF method as distance indicator for dE galaxies with an est...

  15. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): detection of low-surface-brightness galaxies from SDSS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard P.; Baldry, I. K.; Kelvin, L. S.; James, P. A.; Driver, S. P.; Prescott, M.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Davies, L. J. M.; Holwerda, B. W.; Liske, J.; Norberg, P.; Moffett, A. J.; Wright, A. H.

    2016-09-01

    We report on a search for new low-surface-brightness galaxies (LSBGs) using Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data within the GAMA equatorial fields. The search method consisted of masking objects detected with SDSS PHOTO, combining gri images weighted to maximise the expected signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and smoothing the images. The processed images were then run through a detection algorithm that finds all pixels above a set threshold and groups them based on their proximity to one another. The list of detections was cleaned of contaminants such as diffraction spikes and the faint wings of masked objects. From these, selecting potentially the brightest in terms of total flux, a list of 343 LSBGs was produced having been confirmed using VISTA Kilo-degree Infrared Galaxy Survey (VIKING) imaging. The photometry of this sample was refined using the deeper VIKING Z band as the aperture-defining band. Measuring their g - i and J - K colours shows that most are consistent with being at redshifts less than 0.2. The photometry is carried out using an AUTO aperture for each detection giving surface brightnesses of μr ≳ 25 mag arcsec-2 and magnitudes of r > 19.8 mag. None of these galaxies are bright enough to be within the GAMA main survey limit but could be part of future deeper surveys to measure the low-mass end of the galaxy stellar mass function.

  16. HerMES: Deep Galaxy Number Counts from a P(D) Fluctuation Analysis of SPIRE Science Demonstration Phase Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Glenn, J; Bethermin, M; Altieri, B; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Babbedge, T; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Ellsworth-Bowers, T P; Fox, M; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Lagache, G; Laurent, G; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Marsden, G; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rigopoulou, D; Rizzo, D; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Portal, M Sanchez; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2010-01-01

    Dusty, star forming galaxies contribute to a bright, currently unresolved cosmic far-infrared background. Deep Herschel-SPIRE images designed to detect and characterize the galaxies that comprise this background are highly confused, such that the bulk lies below the classical confusion limit. We analyze three fields from the HerMES programme in all three SPIRE bands (250, 350, and 500 microns); parameterized galaxy number count models are derived to a depth of ~2 mJy/beam, approximately 4 times the depth of previous analyses at these wavelengths, using a P(D) (probability of deflection) approach for comparison to theoretical number count models. Our fits account for 64, 60, and 43 per cent of the far-infrared background in the three bands. The number counts are consistent with those based on individually detected SPIRE sources, but generally inconsistent with most galaxy number counts models, which generically overpredict the number of bright galaxies and are not as steep as the P(D)-derived number counts. Cl...

  17. DEEP GALEX OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMA CLUSTER: SOURCE CATALOG AND GALAXY COUNTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a source catalog from a deep 26 ks Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) observation of the Coma cluster in the far-UV (FUV; 1530 A) and near-UV (NUV; 2310 A) wavebands. The observed field is centered ∼0.09 (1.6 Mpc) southwest of the Coma core in a well-studied region of the cluster known as 'Coma-3'. The entire field is located within the apparent virial radius of the Coma cluster, and has optical photometric coverage with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and deep spectroscopic coverage to r ∼ 21. We detect GALEX sources to NUV = 24.5 and FUV = 25.0, which corresponds to a star formation rate of ∼10-3 M sun yr-1 for galaxies at the distance of Coma. We have assembled a catalog of 9700 galaxies with GALEX and SDSS photometry, including 242 spectroscopically confirmed Coma member galaxies that span a large range of galaxy types from giant spirals and elliptical galaxies to dwarf irregular and early-type galaxies. The full multi-wavelength catalog (cluster plus background galaxies) is ∼80% complete to NUV = 23 and FUV = 23.5. The GALEX images presented here are very deep and include detections of many resolved cluster members superposed on a dense field of unresolved background galaxies. This required a two-fold approach to generating a source catalog: we used a Bayesian deblending algorithm to measure faint and compact sources (using SDSS coordinates as position prior), and used the GALEX pipeline catalog for bright and/or extended objects. We performed simulations to assess the importance of systematic effects (e.g., object blends, source confusion, Eddington Bias) that influence the source detection and photometry when using both methods. The Bayesian deblending method roughly doubles the number of source detections and provides reliable photometry to a few magnitudes deeper than the GALEX pipeline catalog. This method is free from source confusion over the UV magnitude range studied here; we estimate that the GALEX pipeline catalogs are confusion

  18. Optical Surface Brightness Fluctuations of shell galaxies towards 100 Mpc

    CERN Document Server

    Biscardi, I; Cantiello, M; Brocato, E

    2008-01-01

    We measure F814W Surface Brightness Fluctuations (SBF) for a sample of distant shell galaxies with radial velocities ranging from 4000 to 8000 km/s. The distance at galaxies is then evaluated by using the SBF method. For this purpose, theoretical SBF magnitudes for the ACS@HST filters are computed for single burst stellar populations covering a wide range of ages (t=1.5-14 Gyr) and metallicities (Z=0.008-0.04). Using these stellar population models we provide the first $\\bar{M}_{F814W}$ versus $(F475W-F814W)_0$ calibration and we extend the previous I-band versus $(B-I)_0$ color relation to colors $(B-I)_{0}\\leq 2.0$ mag. Coupling our SBF measurements with the theoretical calibration we derive distances with a statistical uncertainty of $\\sim 8%$, and systematic error of $\\sim 6 %$. The procedure developed to analyze data ensures that the indetermination due to possible unmasked residual shells is well below $\\sim 12 %$. The results suggest that \\emph{optical} SBFs can be measured at $d \\geq 100 Mpc$ with ACS...

  19. Environment, morphology and stellar populations of bulgeless low surface brightness galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, X; Yang, Y B; Hammer, F; Puech, M; Rodrigues, M; Liang, Y C; Deng, L C

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR 7, we investigate the environment, morphology and stellar population of bulgeless low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in a volume-limited sample with redshift ranging from 0.024 to 0.04 and $M_r$ $\\leq$ $-18.8$. The local density parameter $\\Sigma_5$ is used to trace their environments. We find that, for bulgeless galaxies, the surface brightness does not depend on the environment. The stellar populations are compared for bulgeless LSB galaxies in different environments and for bulgeless LSB galaxies with different morphologies. The stellar populations of LSB galaxies in low density regions are similar to those of LSB galaxies in high density regions. Irregular LSB galaxies have more young stars and are more metal-poor than regular LSB galaxies. These results suggest that the evolution of LSB galaxies may be driven by their dynamics including mergers rather than by their large scale environment.

  20. Environment, morphology, and stellar populations of bulgeless low surface-brightness galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, X.; Disseau, K.; Yang, Y. B.; Hammer, F.; Puech, M.; Rodrigues, M.; Liang, Y. C.; Deng, L. C.

    2015-07-01

    Based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR 7, we investigate the environment, morphology, and stellar population of bulgeless low surface-brightness (LSB) galaxies in a volume-limited sample with redshift ranging from 0.024 to 0.04 and Mr≤-18.8. The local density parameter Σ5 is used to trace their environments. We find that, for bulgeless galaxies, the surface brightness does not depend on the environment. The stellar populations are compared for bulgeless LSB galaxies in different environments and for bulgeless LSB galaxies with different morphologies. The stellar populations of LSB galaxies in low-density regions are similar to those of LSB galaxies in high-density regions. Irregular LSB galaxies have more young stars and are more metal-poor than regular LSB galaxies. These results suggest that the evolution of LSB galaxies may be driven by their dynamics, including mergers rather than by their large-scale environment.

  1. Where are the nearby gas-rich low surface brightness galaxies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briggs, FH

    1997-01-01

    The Fisher-Tully (F-T) ''10 Mpc Catalog of Late-Type Galaxies'' is remarkably complete. Despite the considerable effort that has been spent searching for and cataloging low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies, almost no new HI-rich galaxies have been added to the volume to which the F-T observations w

  2. The discovery of seven extremely low surface brightness galaxies in the field of the nearby spiral galaxy M101

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, Allison; Abraham, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Dwarf satellite galaxies are a key probe of dark matter and of galaxy formation on small scales and of the dark matter halo masses of their central galaxies. They have very low surface brightness, which makes it difficult to identify and study them outside of the Local Group. We used a low surface brightness-optimized telescope, the Dragonfly Telephoto Array, to search for dwarf galaxies in the field of the massive spiral galaxy M101. We identify seven large, low surface brightness objects in this field, with effective radii of \\(10 - 30\\) arcseconds and central surface brightnesses of \\(\\mu_{g} \\sim 25.5 - 27.5\\) mag arcsec\\(^{-2}\\). Given their large apparent sizes and low surface brightnesses, these objects would likely be missed by standard galaxy searches in deep fields. Assuming the galaxies are dwarf satellites of M101, their absolute magnitudes are in the range \\(-11.6 \\lesssim M_{V} \\lesssim -9.3\\) and their effective radii are \\(350\\) pc \\(-\\) \\(1.3\\) kpc. Their radial surface brightness profiles ar...

  3. Deep Galex Observations of the Coma Cluster: Source Catalog and Galaxy Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, D.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Mobasher, B.; Miller, N.; Smith, R.; Arnouts, S.; Milliard, B.; Jenkins, L.

    2010-01-01

    We present a source catalog from deep 26 ks GALEX observations of the Coma cluster in the far-UV (FUV; 1530 Angstroms) and near-UV (NUV; 2310 Angstroms) wavebands. The observed field is centered 0.9 deg. (1.6 Mpc) south-west of the Coma core, and has full optical photometric coverage by SDSS and spectroscopic coverage to r-21. The catalog consists of 9700 galaxies with GALEX and SDSS photometry, including 242 spectroscopically-confirmed Coma member galaxies that range from giant spirals and elliptical galaxies to dwarf irregular and early-type galaxies. The full multi-wavelength catalog (cluster plus background galaxies) is 80% complete to NUV=23 and FUV=23.5, and has a limiting depth at NUV=24.5 and FUV=25.0 which corresponds to a star formation rate of 10(exp -3) solar mass yr(sup -1) at the distance of Coma. The GALEX images presented here are very deep and include detections of many resolved cluster members superposed on a dense field of unresolved background galaxies. This required a two-fold approach to generating a source catalog: we used a Bayesian deblending algorithm to measure faint and compact sources (using SDSS coordinates as a position prior), and used the GALEX pipeline catalog for bright and/or extended objects. We performed simulations to assess the importance of systematic effects (e.g. object blends, source confusion, Eddington Bias) that influence source detection and photometry when using both methods. The Bayesian deblending method roughly doubles the number of source detections and provides reliable photometry to a few magnitudes deeper than the GALEX pipeline catalog. This method is also free from source confusion over the UV magnitude range studied here: conversely, we estimate that the GALEX pipeline catalogs are confusion limited at NUV approximately 23 and FUV approximately 24. We have measured the total UV galaxy counts using our catalog and report a 50% excess of counts across FUV=22-23.5 and NUV=21.5-23 relative to previous GALEX

  4. Unveiling the nature of bright z ~ 7 galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, R A A; McLure, R J; McLeod, D J

    2016-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging of 25 extremely luminous (-23.2 600A). We find that irregular, multiple-component morphologies suggestive of clumpy or merging systems are common (f_multi > 0.4) in bright z ~ 7 galaxies, and ubiquitous at the very bright end (M_UV 1000 similarly bright galaxies at z ~ 7. Our new HST imaging suggests that the vast majority of these galaxies will be spatially resolved by Euclid, mitigating concerns over dwarf star contamination.

  5. Red, Gas Rich Low Surface Brightness Galaxies And Enigmatic Deviations from the Tully-Fisher Relation

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, K; Schombert, J M

    1999-01-01

    [Abridged] Using the refurbished 305m Arecibo Gregorian Telescope, we detected 43 low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies from the catalog of O'Neil, Bothun, & Cornell (1997a). The detected galaxies range from 22.0 mag/arcsec^2 200 km s^{-1} and yet are at least an order of magnitude below L* in total luminosity. As such, they represent extreme departure from the standard Tully-Fisher relation. In fact, our sample does not appear to have any significant correlation between the velocity widths and absolute magnitudes, with only 40% of the galaxies falling within the 1 sigma low surface brightness galaxy Tully-Fisher relation.

  6. Depletion curves of galaxy number counts behind cluster lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Mayen, C.; Soucail, G.

    1999-01-01

    When the logarithmic slope of the galaxy counts is lower than 0.4 (this is the case in all filters at high magnitude), the magnification bias due to the lens makes the number density of objects decrease. Consequently, the radial distribution shows a typical depletion curve. We present simulations of depletion curves obtained for a variety of different lens models and we show how the model parameters affect the depletion area.

  7. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: ALMA resolves the bright-end of the sub-millimeter number counts

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, James; Swinbank, Mark; Chapman, Scott; Geach, James; Ivison, Rob; Thomson, Alasdair; Aretxaga, Itziar; Blain, Andrew; Cowley, Will; Chen, Chian-Chou; Coppin, Kristen; Dunlop, Jim; Edge, Alastair; Farrah, Duncan; Ibar, Edo; Karim, Alex; Knudsen, Kirsten; Meijerink, Rowin; Michalowski, Michal; Scott, Douglas; Spanns, Marco; van der Werf, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution 870-um ALMA continuum maps of 30 bright sub-millimeter sources in the UKIDSS UDS field. These sources are selected from deep, 1-square degrees 850-um maps from the SCUBA--2 Cosmology Legacy Survey, and are representative of the brightest sources in the field (median SCUBA2 flux S_850=8.7+/-0.4 mJy). We detect 52 sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) at >4-sigma significance in our 30 ALMA maps. In 61+/-17% of the ALMA maps the single-dish source comprises a blend of >=2 SMGs, where the secondary SMGs are Ultra--Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) with L_IR>10^12 Lo. The brightest SMG contributes on average 80+/-4% of the single-dish flux density, and in the ALMA maps containing >=2 SMGs the secondary SMG contributes 25+/-3% of the integrated ALMA flux. We construct source counts and show that multiplicity boosts the apparent single-dish cumulative counts by 20% at S_870>7.5mJy, and by 60% at S_870>12mJy. We combine our sample with previous ALMA studies of fainter SMGs and show that the cou...

  8. DGSAT: Dwarf Galaxy Survey with Amateur Telescopes. I. Discovery of low surface brightness systems around nearby spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanmardi, B.; Martinez-Delgado, D.; Kroupa, P.; Henkel, C.; Crawford, K.; Teuwen, K.; Gabany, R. J.; Hanson, M.; Chonis, T. S.; Neyer, F.

    2016-04-01

    Context. We introduce the Dwarf Galaxy Survey with Amateur Telescopes (DGSAT) project and report the discovery of eleven low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in the fields of the nearby galaxies NGC 2683, NGC 3628, NGC 4594 (M 104), NGC 4631, NGC 5457 (M 101), and NGC 7814. Aims: The DGSAT project aims to use the potential of small-sized telescopes to probe LSB features around large galaxies and to increase the sample size of the dwarf satellite galaxies in the Local Volume. Methods: Using long exposure images, fields of the target spiral galaxies are explored for extended LSB objects. After identifying dwarf galaxy candidates, their observed properties are extracted by fitting models to their light profiles. Results: We find three, one, three, one, one, and two new LSB galaxies in the fields of NGC 2683, 3628, 4594, 4631, 5457, and 7814, respectively. In addition to the newly found galaxies, we analyse the structural properties of nine already known galaxies. All of these 20 dwarf galaxy candidates have effective surface brightnesses in the range 25.3 ≲ μe ≲ 28.8 mag arcsec-2 and are fit with Sersic profiles with indices n ≲ 1. Assuming that they are in the vicinity of the above mentioned massive galaxies, their r-band absolute magnitudes, their effective radii, and their luminosities are in the ranges -15.6 ≲ Mr ≲ -7.8, 160 pc ≲ Re ≲ 4.1 kpc, and 0.1 × 106 ≲ (L/L⊙)r ≲ 127 × 106, respectively. To determine whether these LSB galaxies are indeed satellites of the above mentioned massive galaxies, their distances need to be determined via further observations. Conclusions: Using small telescopes, we are readily able to detect LSB galaxies with similar properties to the known dwarf galaxies of the Local Group.

  9. Northern dwarf and low surface brightness galaxies. IV - The large-scale space distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, Trinh X.; Alimi, Jean-Michel; Gott, J. Richard, III; Schneider, Stephen E.

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from a statistical analysis of published observational data on a sample of 860 northern dwarf and low-surface-brightness (D/LSB) galaxies with delta = 0 deg or greater and b between -40 and 40 deg, selected from the Uppsala General Catalogue of Galaxies (Nilson et al., 1973). The results are presented in extensive redshift/space maps, histograms, graphs and tables and characterized in detail. It is shown that the distribution of D/LSB galaxies closely resembles that of bright galaxies, apparently ruling out biased-star-formation models predicting a uniform distribution of D/LSBs. Although bright galaxies outside clusters are somewhat more clustered than the H I-rich D/LSBs, the latters' pairwise peculiar velocity (460 + or - 50 km/sec) is similar to that of the former.

  10. Surface Brightness Profiles for a sample of LMC, SMC and Fornax galaxy Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Noyola, Eva

    2007-01-01

    We use Hubble Space Telescope archival images to measure central surface brightness profiles of globular clusters around satellite galaxies of the Milky Way. We report results for 21 clusters around the LMC, 5 around the SMC, and 4 around the Fornax dwarf galaxy. The profiles are obtained using a recently developed technique based on measuring integrated light, which is tested on an extensive simulated dataset. Our results show that for 70% of the sample, the central photometric points of our profiles are brighter than previous measurements using star counts with deviations as large as 2 mag/arcsec^2. About 40% of the objects have central profiles deviating from a flat central core, with central logarithmic slopes continuously distributed between -0.2 and -1.2. These results are compared with those found for a sample of Galactic clusters using the same method. We confirm the known correlation in which younger clusters tend to have smaller core radii, and we find that they also have brighter central surface br...

  11. DGSAT: Dwarf Galaxy Survey with Amateur Telescopes I. Discovery of low surface brightness systems around nearby spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Javanmardi, B; Kroupa, P; Henkel, C; Crawford, K; Teuwen, K; Gabany, R J; Hanson, M; Neyer, F

    2015-01-01

    Context: We introduce the Dwarf Galaxy Survey with Amateur Telescopes (DGSAT) project and report the discovery of eleven Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies in the fields of the nearby galaxies NGC 2683, NGC 3628, NGC 4594 (M104), NGC 4631, NGC 5457 (M101), and NGC7814. Aims: The DGSAT project aims at using the potential of small-sized telescopes to probe LSB features around large galaxies and to increase the sample size of the dwarf satellite galaxies in the Local Volume. Methods: Using long exposure images centred on the target, its field is explored for extended low surface brightness objects. After identifying dwarf galaxy candidates, their observed properties are extracted by fitting models to their light profiles. Results: We find three, one, three, one, one, and two new LSB galaxies in the fields of NGC 2683, 3628, 4594, 4631, 5457, and 7814, respectively. In addition to the newly found galaxies, we analyse the structural properties of 9 already known galaxies. All of these 20 dwarf galaxy candidates...

  12. Musings concerning the possible significance of surface brightness variations in disk galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implications of the surface-brightness (SB) distribution of observed disk galaxies are explored, reviewing the results of recent investigations. Topics addressed include the SBs of catalog galaxies, proper measurements of SB, searches for new low-SB objects, and the importance of low-SB galaxies rich in H I for theoretical models of star formation. Key theoretical questions are listed, and tentative answers are given along with recommendations for further observations. 30 references

  13. Properties of Submillimeter Galaxies in a Semi-analytic Model using the "Count Matching" Approach: Application to the ECDF-S

    CERN Document Server

    Arancibia, Alejandra M Muñoz; Padilla, Nelson D; Cora, Sofía A; Gawiser, Eric; Kurczynski, Peter L; Ruiz, Andrés N

    2014-01-01

    We present a new technique for modeling submillimeter galaxies (SMGs): the "Count Matching" approach. Using lightcones drawn from a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, we choose physical galaxy properties given by the model as proxies for their submillimeter luminosities, assuming a monotonic relationship. As recent interferometric observations of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South show that the brightest sources detected by single-dish telescopes are comprised by emission from multiple fainter sources, we assign the submillimeter fluxes so that the combined LABOCA plus bright-end ALMA observed number counts for this field are reproduced. After turning the model catalogs given by the proxies into submillimeter maps, we perform a source extraction to include the effects of the observational process on the recovered counts and galaxy properties. We find that for all proxies, there are lines of sight giving counts consistent with those derived from LABOCA observations, even for input sources with randomi...

  14. Spatial distributions of core-collapse supernovae in infrared-bright galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kangas, Tuomas; Kankare, Erkki; Kotilainen, Jari K; Väisänen, P; Greimel, R; Takalo, A

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the correlation between the locations of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and host galaxy light in the Ha line, near ultraviolet (NUV), R-band and Ks-band to constrain the progenitors of CCSNe using pixel statistics. Our sample consists of 86 CCSNe in 57 infrared (IR)-bright galaxies, of which many are starbursts and ten are luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). We also analyse the radial distribution of CCSNe in these galaxies, and determine power-law and exponential fits to CCSN surface density profiles. To probe differences between the SNe of these galaxies and normal spiral galaxies, our results were compared to previous studies with samples dominated by normal spiral galaxies where possible. We obtained a normalised scale length of 0.23^{+0.03}_{-0.02} R_25 for the CCSN surface density in IR-bright galaxies; less than that derived for CCSNe in a sample dominated by normal spiral galaxies (0.29 \\pm 0.01). This reflects a more centrally concentrated population of massive stars in IR-bright g...

  15. AXIAL RATIO OF EDGE-ON SPIRAL GALAXIES AS A TEST FOR BRIGHT RADIO HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singal, J.; Jones, E.; Dunlap, H. [Physics Department, University of Richmond 28 Westhampton Way, Richmond, VA 23173 (United States); Kogut, A., E-mail: jsingal@richmond.edu [Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    We use surface brightness contour maps of nearby edge-on spiral galaxies to determine whether extended bright radio halos are common. In particular, we test a recent model of the spatial structure of the diffuse radio continuum by Subrahmanyan and Cowsik which posits that a substantial fraction of the observed high-latitude surface brightness originates from an extended Galactic halo of uniform emissivity. Measurements of the axial ratio of emission contours within a sample of normal spiral galaxies at 1500 MHz and below show no evidence for such a bright, extended radio halo. Either the Galaxy is atypical compared to nearby quiescent spirals or the bulk of the observed high-latitude emission does not originate from this type of extended halo. (letters)

  16. TESTING MODIFIED NEWTONIAN DYNAMICS WITH ROTATION CURVES OF DWARF AND LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwarf and low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are ideal objects to test modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), because in most of these galaxies the accelerations fall below the threshold where MOND supposedly applies. We have selected from the literature a sample of 27 dwarf and LSB galaxies. MOND is successful in explaining the general shape of the observed rotation curves for roughly three quarters of the galaxies in the sample presented here. However, for the remaining quarter, MOND does not adequately explain the observed rotation curves. Considering the uncertainties in distances and inclinations for the galaxies in our sample, a small fraction of poor MOND predictions is expected and is not necessarily a problem for MOND. We have also made fits taking the MOND acceleration constant, a 0, as a free parameter in order to identify any systematic trends. We find that there appears to be a correlation between central surface brightness and the best-fit value of a0, in the sense that lower surface brightness galaxies tend to have lower a0. However, this correlation depends strongly on a small number of galaxies whose rotation curves might be uncertain due to either bars or warps. Without these galaxies, there is less evidence of a trend, but the average value we find for a0 ∼ 0.7 x 10-8 cm s-2 is somewhat lower than derived from previous studies. Such lower fitted values of a0 could occur if external gravitational fields are important.

  17. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): detection of low-surface-brightness galaxies from SDSS data

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, R P; Kelvin, L S; James, P A; Driver, S P; Prescott, M; Brough, S; Brown, M J I; Davies, L J M; Holwerda, B W; Liske, J; Norberg, P; Moffett, A J; Wright, A H

    2016-01-01

    We report on a search for new low-surface-brightness galaxies (LSBGs) using Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data within the GAMA equatorial fields. The search method consisted of masking objects detected with SDSS photo, combining gri images weighted to maximise the expected signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and smoothing the images. The processed images were then run through a detection algorithm that finds all pixels above a set threshold and groups them based on their proximity to one another. The list of detections was cleaned of contaminants such as diffraction spikes and the faint wings of masked objects. From these, selecting potentially the brightest in terms of total flux, a list of 343 LSBGs was produced having been confirmed using VISTA Kilo-degree Infrared Galaxy Survey (VIKING) imaging. The photometry of this sample was refined using the deeper VIKING Z band as the aperture-defining band. Measuring their $g-i$ and $J-K$ colours shows that most are consistent with being at redshifts less than 0.2. The ...

  18. Near-Infrared Imaging of Barred Halo Dominated Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Honey, M.; Das, M.; Ninan, J. P.; Purvankara, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a near-infrared (NIR) imaging study of barred low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies using the TIFR near-infrared Spectrometer and Imager (TIRSPEC). LSB galaxies are dark matter dominated, late type spirals that have low luminosity stellar disks but large neutral hydrogen (HI) gas disks. Using SDSS images of a very large sample of LSB galaxies derived from the literature, we found that the barred fraction is only 8.3%. We imaged twenty five barred LSB galaxies in the J, H, K$_S$ wav...

  19. On the Classification of UGC 1382 as a Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Lea M. Z.; Seibert, Mark; Hagen, Alex; Nyland, Kristina; Neill, James D.; Treyer, Marie; Young, Lisa M.; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Madore, Barry F.

    2016-08-01

    We provide evidence that UGC 1382, long believed to be a passive elliptical galaxy, is actually a giant low surface brightness (GLSB) galaxy that rivals the archetypical GLSB Malin 1 in size. Like other GLSB galaxies, it has two components: a high surface brightness disk galaxy surrounded by an extended low surface brightness (LSB) disk. For UGC 1382, the central component is a lenticular system with an effective radius of 6 kpc. Beyond this, the LSB disk has an effective radius of ˜38 kpc and an extrapolated central surface brightness of ˜26 mag arcsec-2. Both components have a combined stellar mass of ˜8 × 1010 M ⊙, and are embedded in a massive (1010 M ⊙) low-density (LSB and HI disks. We model the spectral energy distributions and find that the LSB disk is likely older than the lenticular component. UGC 1382 has UV-optical colors typical of galaxies transitioning through the green valley. Within the LSB disk are spiral arms forming stars at extremely low efficiencies. The gas depletion timescale of ˜1011 years suggests that UGC 1382 may be a very-long-term resident of the green valley. We find that the formation and evolution of the LSB disk in UGC 1382 is best explained by the accretion of gas-rich LSB dwarf galaxies.

  20. An Increasing Stellar Baryon Fraction in Bright Galaxies at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Steven L; Behroozi, Peter; Somerville, Rachel S; Papovich, Casey; Milosavljevic, Milos; Dekel, Avishai; Narayanan, Desika; Ashby, Matthew L N; Cooray, Asantha; Fazio, Giovanni G; Ferguson, Henry C; Koekemoer, Anton M; Salmon, Brett W; Willner, S P

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that the characteristic luminosity of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function does not significantly evolve at 4 < z < 7 and is approximately M*_UV ~ -21. We investigate this apparent non-evolution by examining a sample of 190 bright, M_UV < -21 galaxies at z=4 to 7, analyzing their stellar populations and host halo masses. Including deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging to constrain the rest-frame optical light, we find that M*_UV galaxies at z=4-7 have similar stellar masses of log(M/Msol)=9.8-9.9 and are thus relatively massive for these high redshifts. However, bright galaxies at z=4-7 are less massive and have younger inferred ages than similarly bright galaxies at z=2-3, even though the two populations have similar star formation rates and levels of dust attenuation. We match the abundances of these bright z=4-7 galaxies to halo mass functions from the Bolshoi Lambda-CDM simulation to estimate the halo masses. We find that the typical halo masses in ~M*_UV galaxie...

  1. STELLAR POPULATIONS AND THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES. II. H II REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schombert, James [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); McGaugh, Stacy [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Maciel, Tamela, E-mail: jschombe@uoregon.edu, E-mail: stacy.mcgaugh@case.edu, E-mail: tm419@cam.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    The luminosities, colors, and H{alpha} emission for 429 H II regions in 54 low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are presented. While the number of H II regions per galaxy is lower in LSB galaxies compared to star-forming irregulars and spirals, there is no indication that the size or luminosity function of H II regions differs from other galaxy types. The lower number of H II regions per galaxy is consistent with their lower total star formation rates. The fraction of the total L{sub H{alpha}} contributed by H II regions varies from 10% to 90% in LSB galaxies (the rest of the H{alpha} emission being associated with a diffuse component) with no correlation with galaxy stellar or gas mass. Bright H II regions have bluer colors, similar to the trend in spirals; their number and luminosities are consistent with the hypothesis that they are produced by the same H II luminosity function as spirals. Comparison with stellar population models indicates that the brightest H II regions in LSB galaxies range in cluster mass from a few 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} (e.g., {rho} Oph) to globular-cluster-sized systems (e.g., 30 Dor) and that their ages are consistent with clusters from 2 to 15 Myr old. The faintest H II regions are comparable to those in the LMC powered by a single O or B star. Thus, star formation in LSB galaxies covers the full range of stellar cluster mass.

  2. The Effect of Nearby Voids on Galaxy Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Bucklein, Brian K; Hintz, Eric G

    2016-01-01

    The size, shape and degree of emptiness of void interiors sheds light on the details of galaxy formation. A particularly interesting question is whether void interiors are completely empty or contain a dwarf population. However the nearby voids that are most conducive for dwarf searches have large angular diameters, on the order of a steradian, making it difficult to redshift-map a statistically significant portion of their volume to the magnitude limit of dwarf galaxies. As part of addressing this problem, we investigate here the usefulness of number counts in establishing the best locations to search inside nearby (d < 300 Mpc) galaxy voids, utilizing Wolf plots of log(n < m) vs. m as the basic diagnostic. To illustrate expected signatures, we consider the signature of three void profiles, "cut out", "built up", and "universal profile" carved into Monte-Carlo Schechter function models. We then investigate the signatures of voids in the Millennium Run dark matter simulation and the Sloan Digital Sky Su...

  3. Surface Brightness Profiles and Star Formation Rates of Galaxies in NRGb054

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ellen; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Miller, Brendan; Durbala, Adriana; Fitzgerald, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    We present new optical R and H-alpha images of the galaxy group NRGb054, obtained with the WIYN 0.9m telescope at KPNO using the MOSAIC camera. This group was studied as part of the larger Undergraduate ALFALFA Team project investigating the effects of a group environment on star formation. The stacked H-alpha image was continuum subtracted by the removal of a scaled and stacked R image. Surface photometry was performed on R and continuum-subtracted H-alpha cutouts of 20 covered galaxies to determine the surface brightness as a function of radius. Integrating the continuum-subtracted H-alpha surface brightness profile provides the total star formation within that galaxy, while the shape of the profile illustrates how star formation is spread throughout the galaxy. We provide a catalog of surface brightness profiles and integrated star formation rates for NRGb054. We consider star formation as a function of galaxy-galaxy separation and galaxy location within the group, and discuss our findings in the context of the wider study. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  4. On the Classification of UGC1382 as a Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen, Lea M Z; Hagen, Alex; Nyland, Kristina; Neill, James D; Treyer, Marie; Young, Lisa M; Rich, Jeffrey A; Madore, Barry F

    2016-01-01

    We provide evidence that UGC1382, long believed to be a passive elliptical galaxy, is actually a giant low surface brightness (GLSB) galaxy which rivals the archetypical GLSB Malin 1 in size. Like other GLSB galaxies, it has two components: a high surface brightness disk galaxy surrounded by an extended low surface brightness (LSB) disk. For UGC1382, the central component is a lenticular system with an effective radius of 6 kpc. Beyond this, the LSB disk has an effective radius of ~38 kpc and an extrapolated central surface brightness of ~26 mag/arcsec^2. Both components have a combined stellar mass of ~8x10^10 M_sun, and are embedded in a massive (10^10 M_sun) low-density (<3 M_sun/pc^2) HI disk with a radius of 110 kpc, making this one of the largest isolated disk galaxies known. The system resides in a massive dark matter halo of at least 2x10^12 M_sun. Although possibly part of a small group, its low density environment likely plays a role in the formation and retention of the giant LSB and HI disks. W...

  5. Near-infrared imaging of barred halo-dominated low surface brightness galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, M.; Das, M.; Ninan, J. P.; Manoj, P.

    2016-10-01

    We present a near-infrared (NIR) imaging study of barred low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies using the TIFR1 NIR Spectrometer and Imager. LSB galaxies are dark matter dominated, late-type spirals that have low-luminosity stellar discs but large neutral hydrogen (H I) gas discs. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey images of a very large sample of LSB galaxies derived from the literature, we found that the barred fraction is only 8.3 per cent. We imaged 25 barred LSB galaxies in the J, H, KS wavebands and 29 in the KS band. Most of the bars are much brighter than their stellar discs, which appear to be very diffuse. Our image analysis gives deprojected mean bar sizes of Rb/R25 = 0.40 and ellipticities e ≈ 0.45, which are similar to bars in high surface brightness galaxies. Thus, although bars are rare in LSB galaxies, they appear to be just as strong as bars found in normal galaxies. There is no correlation of Rb/R25 or e with the relative H I or stellar masses of the galaxies. In the (J - KS) colour images most of the bars have no significant colour gradient which indicates that their stellar population is uniformly distributed and confirms that they have low dust content.

  6. The Effect of Surface Brightness Dimming in the Selection of High-z Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Calvi, Valentina; Bradley, Larry; Pizzella, Alessandro; Kim, Soyoung

    2014-01-01

    Cosmological surface brightness dimming of the form $(1+z)^{-4}$ affects all sources. The strong dependence of surface brightness dimming on redshift z suggests the presence of a selection bias when searching for high-redshift galaxies, i.e. we tend to detect only those galaxies with a high surface brightness (SB). However, unresolved knots of emission are not affected by SB dimming, thus providing a way to test the clumpiness of high-z galaxies. Our strategy relies on the comparison of the total flux detected for the same source in surveys characterized by different depth. For all galaxies, deeper images permit the better investigation of low-SB features. Cosmological SB dimming makes these low-SB features hard to detect when going to higher and higher redshifts. We used the GOODS and HUDF Hubble Space Telescope legacy datasets to study the effect of SB dimming on low-SB features of high-redshift galaxies and compare it to the prediction for smooth sources. We selected a sample of Lyman-break galaxies at z~4...

  7. The SWIFT AGN and Cluster Survey I: Number Counts of AGN and Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Xinyu; Kochanek, Christopher S; Nugent, Jenna M; Bregman, Joel N

    2015-01-01

    The Swift AGN and Cluster Survey (SACS) uses 125 deg^2 of Swift XRT serendipitous fields with variable depths surrounding gamma-ray bursts to provide a medium depth (4e-15 erg/s/cm^2) and area survey filling the gap between deep, narrow Chandra/XMM-Newton surveys and wide, shallow ROSAT surveys. Here we present a catalog of 22,563 point sources and 442 extended sources and examine the number counts of the AGN and galaxy cluster populations. SACS provides excellent constraints on the AGN number counts at the bright end with negligible uncertainties due to cosmic variance, and these constraints are consistent with previous measurements. We use Wise mid-infrared (MIR) colors to classify the sources. For AGN we can roughly separate the point sources into MIR-red and MIR-blue AGN, finding roughly equal numbers of each type in the soft X-ray band (0.5-2 keV), but fewer MIR-blue sources in the hard X-ray band (2-8 keV). The cluster number counts, with 5% uncertainties from cosmic variance, are also consistent with p...

  8. Near-Infrared Imaging of Barred Halo Dominated Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Honey, M; Ninan, J P; Purvankara, M

    2016-01-01

    We present a near-infrared (NIR) imaging study of barred low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies using the TIFR near-infrared Spectrometer and Imager (TIRSPEC). LSB galaxies are dark matter dominated, late type spirals that have low luminosity stellar disks but large neutral hydrogen (HI) gas disks. Using SDSS images of a very large sample of LSB galaxies derived from the literature, we found that the barred fraction is only 8.3%. We imaged twenty five barred LSB galaxies in the J, H, K$_S$ wavebands and twenty nine in the K$_S$ band. Most of the bars are much brighter than their stellar disks, which appear to be very diffuse. Our image analysis gives deprojected mean bar sizes of $R_{b}/R_{25}$ = 0.40 and ellipticities $e$ $\\approx$ 0.45, which are similar to bars in high surface brightness galaxies. Thus, although bars are rare in LSB galaxies, they appear to be just as strong as bars found in normal galaxies. There is no correlation of $R_{b}/R_{25}$ or $e$ with the relative HI or stellar masses of the galax...

  9. The evolution of the stellar populations in low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoek, LB; de Blok, WJG; van der Hulst, JM; de Jong, T

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the star formation history and chemical evolution of low surface brightness (LSB) disk galaxies by modelling their observed spectro-photometric and chemical properties using a galactic chemical and photometric evolution model incorporating a detailed metallicity dependent set of stell

  10. The evolution of the stellar populations in low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, W. J. G. de; Hulst, J. M. van der; Jong, T. de

    2000-01-01

    Abstract: We investigate the star formation history and chemical evolution of low surface brightness (LSB) disk galaxies by modelling their observed spectro-photometric and chemical properties using a galactic chemical and photometric evolution model incorporating a detailed metallicity depen dent s

  11. The formation of submillimetre-bright galaxies from gas infall over a billion years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Desika; Turk, Matthew; Feldmann, Robert; Robitaille, Thomas; Hopkins, Philip; Thompson, Robert; Hayward, Christopher; Ball, David; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2015-09-24

    Submillimetre-bright galaxies at high redshift are the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe and are characterized by prodigious emission in the far-infrared, with a flux of at least five millijanskys at a wavelength of 850 micrometres. They reside in haloes with masses about 10(13) times that of the Sun, have low gas fractions compared to main-sequence disks at a comparable redshift, trace complex environments and are not easily observable at optical wavelengths. Their physical origin remains unclear. Simulations have been able to form galaxies with the requisite luminosities, but have otherwise been unable to simultaneously match the stellar masses, star formation rates, gas fractions and environments. Here we report a cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation that is able to form a submillimetre galaxy that simultaneously satisfies the broad range of observed physical constraints. We find that groups of galaxies residing in massive dark matter haloes have increasing rates of star formation that peak at collective rates of about 500-1,000 solar masses per year at redshifts of two to three, by which time the interstellar medium is sufficiently enriched with metals that the region may be observed as a submillimetre-selected system. The intense star formation rates are fuelled in part by the infall of a reservoir gas supply enabled by stellar feedback at earlier times, not through major mergers. With a lifetime of nearly a billion years, our simulations show that the submillimetre-bright phase of high-redshift galaxies is prolonged and associated with significant mass buildup in early-Universe proto-clusters, and that many submillimetre-bright galaxies are composed of numerous unresolved components (for which there is some observational evidence). PMID:26399829

  12. X-Ray bright active galactic nuclei in massive galaxy clusters - II. The fraction of galaxies hosting active nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlert, S.; von der Linden, A.; Allen, S. W.;

    2013-01-01

    We present a measurement of the fraction of cluster galaxies hosting X-ray bright active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a function of clustercentric distance scaled in units of r500. Our analysis employs high-quality Chandra X-ray and Subaru optical imaging for 42 massive X-ray-selected galaxy cluster...... fields spanning the redshift range 0.2 z ..., both of which are also suppressed near cluster centres to a comparable extent. These results strongly support the idea that X-ray AGN activity and strong star formation are linked through their common dependence on available reservoirs of cold gas. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Oxford University...

  13. The outer regions of galaxy clusters: Chandra constraints on the X-ray surface brightness

    CERN Document Server

    Ettori, S

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged version) We study the properties of the X-ray surface brightness profiles in a sample of galaxy clusters that are observed with Chandra and have emission detectable with a signal-to-noise ratio larger than 2 at a radius beyond R500 ~ 0.7 R200. Our study aims at measuring the slopes of the X-ray surface brightness and of the gas density profiles in the outskirts of massive clusters. These constraints are then compared to similar results obtained from observations and numerical simulations of the temperature and dark matter density profiles with the intention to present a consistent picture of the outer regions of galaxy clusters. We extract the surface brightness profiles S_b(r) from X-ray exposures obtained with Chandra of 52 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at z>0.3. We estimate R200 both using a beta-model to reproduce the surface brightness profile and scaling relations from the literature, showing that the two methods converge to comparable values. We evaluate then the radius, R_S2N, at which the ...

  14. HerMES: SPIRE galaxy number counts at 250, 350 and 500 microns

    CERN Document Server

    Oliver, S J; Smith, A J; Altieri, B; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Auld, R; Aussel, H; Babbedge, T; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Burgarella, D; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Fox, M; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Lagache, G; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Mitchell-Wynne, K; Mortier, A M J; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Omont, A; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rawlings, J I; Raymond, G; Rigopoulou, D; Rizzo, D; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Portal, M Sanchez; Savage, R; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Stevens, J A; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valiante, E; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Vigroux, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2010-01-01

    Emission at far-infrared wavelengths makes up a significant fraction of the total light detected from galaxies over the age of Universe. Herschel provides an opportunity for studying galaxies at the peak wavelength of their emission. Our aim is to provide a benchmark for models of galaxy population evolution and to test pre-existing models of galaxies. With the Herschel Multi-tiered Extra-galactic survey, HerMES, we have observed a number of fields of different areas and sensitivity using the SPIRE instrument on Herschel. We have determined the number counts of galaxies down to ~20 mJy. Our constraints from directly counting galaxies are consistent with, though more precise than, estimates from the BLAST fluctuation analysis. We have found a steep rise in the Euclidean normalised counts at <100 mJy. We have directly resolved 15% of the infrared extra-galactic background at the wavelength near where it peaks.

  15. The distribution of star formation and metals in the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. E.; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Wang, Sharon X.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce the MUSCEL Programme (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry and Evolution of LSB galaxies), a project aimed at determining the star-formation histories of low surface brightness galaxies. MUSCEL utilizes ground-based optical spectra and space-based UV and IR photometry to fully constrain the star-formation histories of our targets with the aim of shedding light on the processes that led low surface brightness galaxies down a different evolutionary path from that followed by high surface brightness galaxies, such as our Milky Way. Here we present the spatially resolved optical spectra of UGC 628, observed with the VIRUS-P IFU at the 2.7-m Harlen J. Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory, and utilize emission-line diagnostics to determine the rate and distribution of star formation as well as the gas-phase metallicity and metallicity gradient. We find highly clustered star formation throughout UGC 628, excluding the core regions, and a log(O/H) metallicity around -4.2, with more metal-rich regions near the edges of the galactic disc. Based on the emission-line diagnostics alone, the current mode of star formation, slow and concentrated in the outer disc, appears to have dominated for quite some time, although there are clear signs of a much older stellar population formed in a more standard inside-out fashion.

  16. The Distribution of Star Formation and Metals in the Low Surface Brightness Galaxy UGC 628

    CERN Document Server

    Young, J E; Wang, Sharon X

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the MUSCEL Program (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry and Evolution of LSB galaxies), a project aimed at determining the star-formation histories of low surface brightness galaxies. MUSCEL utilizes ground-based optical spectra and space-based UV and IR photometry to fully constrain the star-formation histories of our targets with the aim of shedding light on the processes that led low surface brightness galaxies down a different evolutionary path from that followed by high surface brightness galaxies, such as our Milky Way. Here we present the spatially-resolved optical spectra of UGC 628, observed with the VIRUS-P IFU at the 2.7-m Harlen J. Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory, and utilize emission-line diagnostics to determine the rate and distribution of star formation as well as the gas-phase metallicity and metallicity gradient. We find highly clustered star formation throughout UGC 628, excluding the core regions, and a log(O/H) metallicity around -4.2, with mo...

  17. Simulating a slow bar in the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chequers, Matthew H.; Spekkens, Kristine; Widrow, Lawrence M.; Gilhuly, Colleen

    2016-08-01

    We present a disc-halo N-body model of the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 628, one of the few systems that harbours a "slow" bar with a ratio of corotation radius to bar length of mathcal {R} equiv R_c/a_b ˜ 2. We select our initial conditions using SDSS DR10 photometry, a physically motivated radially variable mass-to-light ratio profile, and rotation curve data from the literature. A global bar instability grows in our submaximal disc model, and the disc morphology and dynamics agree broadly with the photometry and kinematics of UGC 628 at times between peak bar strength and the onset of buckling. Prior to bar formation, the disc and halo contribute roughly equally to the potential in the galaxy's inner region, giving the disc enough self gravity for bar modes to grow. After bar formation there is significant mass redistribution, creating a baryon dominated inner and dark matter dominated outer disc. This implies that, unlike most other low surface brightness galaxies, UGC 628 is not dark matter dominated everywhere. Our model nonetheless implies that UGC 628 falls on same the relationship between dark matter fraction and rotation velocity found for high surface brightness galaxies, and lends credence to the argument that the disc mass fraction measured at the location where its contribution to the potential peaks is not a reliable indicator of its dynamical importance at all radii.

  18. Stellar Systems in the direction of the Hickson Compact Group 44 - I. Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Castelli, A V Smith; Escudero, C G

    2016-01-01

    Context. In spite of the numerous studies of low-luminosity galaxies in different environments, there is still no consensus about their formation scenario. In particular, a large number of galaxies displaying extremely low-surface brightnesses have been detected in the last year, and the nature of these objects is under discussion. Aims. In this paper we report the detection of two extended low-surface brightness (LSB) objects (mueff_g'~27 mag) found, in projection, next to NGC 3193 and in the zone of the Hickson Compact Group (HCG) 44, respectively. Methods. We analyzed deep, high-quality, GEMINI-GMOS images with ELLIPSE within IRAF in order to obtain their brightness profiles and structural parameters. We also search for the presence of globular clusters (GC) in these fields. Results. We have found that, if these LSB galaxies were at the distances of NGC 3193 and HCG 44, they would show sizes and luminosities similar to those of the ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) found in the Coma cluster and other associati...

  19. A 21-cm line study of NGC 5963, an SC galaxy with a low-surface brightness disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, A.; Athanassoula, E.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    1988-06-01

    Results are presented from a detailed 21-cm line study of the Sc galaxy NGC 5963. The extent of the H I emission is found to be roughly coincident with the optical image, the latter being of much lower surface brightness than normal for Sc galaxies. The velocity field shows little deviation from axial symmetry, and the derived rotation curve is typical for Sc galaxies about twice as bright as NGC 5963. A composite mass model is presented using the observed light distribution to calculate a rotation curve for the luminous part of the galaxy (assuming a constant M/L-ratio with radius); this calculated rotation curve is compared to the observed one to derive a rotation law for a dark halo. Comparison with Sc galaxies having normal disk surface brightnesses suggests that the halo in NGC 5963 is more concentrated than in normal Scs with similar rotation curves. The origin of the low surface brightness of the disk is discussed.

  20. Measurable relationship between bright galaxies and their faint companions in WHL J085910.0+294957, a galaxy cluster at z = 0.30: vestiges of infallen groups?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of satellite galaxies are closely related to their host galaxies in galaxy groups. In cluster environments, on the other hand, the interaction between close neighbors is known to be limited. Our goal is to examine the relationships between host and satellite galaxies in the harsh environment of a galaxy cluster. To achieve this goal, we study a galaxy cluster WHL J085910.0+294957 at z = 0.30 using deep images obtained with CQUEAN CCD camera mounted on the 2.1 m Otto Struve Telescope. After member selection based on the scaling relations of photometric and structural parameters, we investigate the relationship between bright (Mi ≤ –18) galaxies and their faint (–18 < Mi ≤ –15) companions. The weighted mean color of faint companion galaxies shows no significant dependence (<1σ to bootstrap uncertainties) on cluster-centric distance and local luminosity density as well as the luminosity and concentration of an adjacent bright galaxy. However, the weighted mean color shows marginal dependence (∼2.2σ) on the color of an adjacent bright galaxy when the sample is limited to bright galaxies with at least two faint companions. By using a permutation test, we confirm that the correlation in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in this cluster is statistically significant with a confidence level of 98.7%. The statistical significance increases if we additionally remove non-members using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric redshift information (∼2.6σ and 99.3%). Our results suggest three possible scenarios: (1) vestiges of infallen groups, (2) dwarf capturing, and (3) tidal tearing of bright galaxies.

  1. AN EXPONENTIAL DECLINE AT THE BRIGHT END OF THE z = 6 GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willott, Chris J. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Rd, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); McLure, Ross J.; Bruce, Victoria A. [SUPA Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Hibon, Pascale [Gemini Observatory, Gemini South, AURA/Chile, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Bielby, Richard [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); McCracken, Henry J. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Kneib, Jean-Paul; Ilbert, Olivier [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Universite Aix-Marseille, 38 Rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille (France); Bonfield, David G.; Jarvis, Matt J., E-mail: chris.willott@nrc.ca [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a search for the most luminous star-forming galaxies at redshifts z Almost-Equal-To 6 based on Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey data. We identify a sample of 40 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) brighter than magnitude z' = 25.3 across an area of almost 4 deg{sup 2}. Sensitive spectroscopic observations of seven galaxies provide redshifts for four, of which only two have moderate to strong Ly{alpha} emission lines. All four have clear continuum breaks in their spectra. Approximately half of the LBGs are spatially resolved in 0.7 arcsec seeing images, indicating larger sizes than lower luminosity galaxies discovered with the Hubble Space Telescope, possibly due to ongoing mergers. The stacked optical and infrared photometry is consistent with a galaxy model with stellar mass {approx}10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. There is strong evidence for substantial dust reddening with a best-fit A{sub V} = 0.75 and A{sub V} > 0.48 at 2{sigma} confidence, in contrast to the typical dust-free galaxies of lower luminosity at this epoch. The spatial extent and spectral energy distribution suggest that the most luminous z Almost-Equal-To 6 galaxies are undergoing merger-induced starbursts. The luminosity function of z = 5.9 star-forming galaxies is derived. This agrees well with previous work and shows strong evidence for an exponential decline at the bright end, indicating that the feedback processes that govern the shape of the bright end are occurring effectively at this epoch.

  2. Discovery of A Very Bright, Strongly-Lensed z=2 Galaxy in the SDSS DR5

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Huan; Allam, Sahar S; Tucker, Douglas L; Diehl, H Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Kubo, Jeffrey M; Annis, James; Frieman, Joshua A; Oguri, Masamune; Inada, Naohisa

    2008-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a very bright z = 2.00 star-forming galaxy that is strongly lensed by a foreground z=0.422 luminous red galaxy (LRG). This system was found in a systematic search for bright arcs lensed by LRGs and brightest cluster galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 sample. Follow-up observations on the Subaru 8.2m telescope on Mauna Kea and the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5m telescope at Apache Point Observatory confirmed the lensing nature of this system. A simple lens model for the system, assuming a singular isothermal ellipsoid mass distribution, yields an Einstein radius of 3.82 +/- 0.03 arcsec or 14.8 +/- 0.1 kpc/h at the lens redshift. The total projected mass enclosed within the Einstein radius is 2.10 +/- 0.03 x 10^12 M_sun/h, and the magnification factor for the source galaxy is 27 +/- 1. Combining the lens model with our gVriz photometry, we find an (unlensed) star formation rate for the source galaxy of 32 M_sun/h / yr, adopting a fiducial constant star ...

  3. Supernovae without host galaxies? The low surface brightness host of SN 2009Z

    CERN Document Server

    Zinn, P -C; Braithwaite, J; Gallazzi, A; Grunden, P; Bomans, D J; Morrell, N I; Bach, U

    2011-01-01

    A remarkable fraction of supernovae (SNe) have no obvious host galaxy. Two possible explanations are that (i) the host galaxy is simply not detected within the sensitivity of the available data or that (ii) the progenitor is a hypervelocity star that has escaped its parent galaxy. We use the Type IIb SN 2009Z as a prototype of case (i), an example of how a very faint (here Low Surface Brightness; LSB) galaxy can be discovered via the observation of a seemingly host-less SN. By identifying and studying LSB galaxies that host SNe related to the death of massive stars, we can place constraints on the stellar population and environment of LSB galaxies, which at present are poorly understood. From an HI spectrum, a redshift of z = 0.02513+-0.00001 and an HI mass of (2.96+-0.12) 10^9 M_sun are computed. This redshift is consistent with that obtained from optical emission lines of SN 2009Z. Furthermore, a gas mass fraction of f_g = 0.87+-0.04 is obtained, one of the highest fractions ever measured. The host galaxy s...

  4. Investigating the AGN activity and black hole masses in Low Surface brightness galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian., Smitha; Das., Mousumi; George., Koshy; Sivarani, T; Prabhu, T P

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the optical nuclear spectra from the active galactic nuclei (AGN) in a sample of giant low surface brightness (GLSB) galaxies. GLSB galaxies are extreme late type spirals that are large, isolated and poorly evolved compared to regular spiral galaxies. Earlier studies have indicated that their nuclei have relatively low mass black holes. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we selected a sample of 30 GLSB galaxies that showed broad H$\\alpha$ emission lines in their AGN spectra. In some galaxies such as UGC 6284, the broad component of H$\\alpha$ is more related to outflows rather than the black hole. One galaxy (UGC 6614) showed two broad components in H$\\alpha$, one associated with the black hole and the other associated with an outflow event. We derived the nuclear black hole (BH) masses of 29 galaxies from their broad H$\\alpha$ parameters. We find that the nuclear BH masses lie in the range $10^{5}-10^{7} M_{\\odot}$. The bulge stellar velocity dispersion $\\sigma_{e}$...

  5. Inside-Out or Outside-In? Metallicity Gradients in Low Surface Brightness Galaxies in the MUSCEL Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jason; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Xuesong Wang, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    We present the metallicity profiles of three low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies as clues to the formation of these galaxies. This easily overlooked class of galaxy comprises up to half of the galaxy population with masses spanning that of the Milky Way, making them cosmologically significant baryon repositories. LSB galaxies are also very different from the more familiar archetypal galaxies in that they have unusually high gas fractions, up to 95%. Yet, they do not represent a distinct class of galaxy, but are simply on the low surface brightness end of a continuum.We have observed a sample of low surface brightness galaxies with the VIRUS-P integral field spectrograph as part of the MUSCEL program (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry, and Evolution of LSB galaxies). Our program aims to fully characterize the formation histories of these galaxies by using these data in tandem with Spitzer, Galex, and Swift observations.Optical emission lines contained within the VIRUS-P spectra have allowed us to determined the metallicities of HII regions within these galaxies via emission-line ratio diagnostics. Because ISM metallicities are directly linked to the competing effects of star formation and gas accretion, the distribution of metals is a significant clue to the formation of these galaxies.

  6. SIMULTANEOUS MULTI-BAND DETECTION OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES WITH MARKOVIAN MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, B.; Bonnarel, F.; Louys, M. [CDS, Observatoire Astronomique, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Perret, B.; Petremand, M.; Lavigne, F.; Collet, Ch. [LSIIT, Universite de Strasbourg, 7, Rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg (France); Van Driel, W. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Sabatini, S. [INAF/IASF-Roma, via Fosso de Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); MacArthur, L. A., E-mail: Bernd.Vollmer@astro.unistra.fr [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2013-02-01

    We present to the astronomical community an algorithm for the detection of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in images, called MARSIAA (MARkovian Software for Image Analysis in Astronomy), which is based on multi-scale Markovian modeling. MARSIAA can be applied simultaneously to different bands. It segments an image into a user-defined number of classes, according to their surface brightness and surroundings-typically, one or two classes contain the LSB structures. We have developed an algorithm, called DetectLSB, which allows the efficient identification of LSB galaxies from among the candidate sources selected by MARSIAA. The application of the method to two and three bands simultaneously was tested on simulated images. Based on our tests, we are confident that we can detect LSB galaxies down to a central surface brightness level of only 1.5 times the standard deviation from the mean pixel value in the image background. To assess the robustness of our method, the method was applied to a set of 18 B- and I-band images (covering 1.3 deg{sup 2} in total) of the Virgo Cluster to which Sabatini et al. previously applied a matched-filter dwarf LSB galaxy search algorithm. We have detected all 20 objects from the Sabatini et al. catalog which we could classify by eye as bona fide LSB galaxies. Our method has also detected four additional Virgo Cluster LSB galaxy candidates undetected by Sabatini et al. To further assess the completeness of the results of our method, both MARSIAA, SExtractor, and DetectLSB were applied to search for (1) mock Virgo LSB galaxies inserted into a set of deep Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) gri-band subimages and (2) Virgo LSB galaxies identified by eye in a full set of NGVS square degree gri images. MARSIAA/DetectLSB recovered {approx}20% more mock LSB galaxies and {approx}40% more LSB galaxies identified by eye than SExtractor/DetectLSB. With a 90% fraction of false positives from an entirely unsupervised pipeline, a completeness of

  7. Detecting edges in the X-ray surface brightness of galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, J S; Russell, H R; Walker, S A; Blundell, K M

    2016-01-01

    The effects of many physical processes in the intracluster medium of galaxy clusters imprint themselves in X-ray surface brightness images. It is therefore important to choose optimal methods for extracting information from and enhancing the interpretability of such images. We describe in detail a gradient filtering edge detection method that we previously applied to images of the Centaurus cluster of galaxies. The Gaussian gradient filter measures the gradient in the surface brightness distribution on particular spatial scales. We apply this filter on different scales to Chandra X-ray observatory images of two clusters with AGN feedback, the Perseus cluster and M87, and a merging system, A3667. By combining filtered images on different scales using radial filters spectacular images of the edges in a cluster are produced. We describe how to assess the significance of features in filtered images. We find the gradient filtering technique to have significant advantages for detecting many kinds of features compar...

  8. The galaxy luminosity function at z ~ 6 and evidence for rapid evolution in the bright end from z ~ 7 to 5

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, R A A; McLure, R J; McCracken, H J; Furusawa, H; Taniguchi, Y; Fynbo, J P U; Milvang-Jensen, B; Fevre, O Le

    2014-01-01

    We present a sample of 266 bright (-22.7 5. We calculate the bright end of the rest-frame Ultra-Violet (UV) luminosity function (LF) at z ~ 6. The galaxy number counts are a factor of 2 lower than predicted by the recent LF determination by Bouwens et al.. In comparison to other smaller area studies, we find an evolution in the characteristic magnitude between z ~ 5 and z ~ 7 of dM* ~ 0.4 mag, and show that a double power-law or a Schechter function can equally well describe the LF at z = 6. Furthermore, the bright-end of the LF appears to steepen from z ~ 7 to z ~ 5, which could indicate the onset of mass quenching or the rise of dust obscuration, a conclusion supported by comparing the observed LFs to a range of theoretical model predictions.

  9. Discovery of A Very Bright, Strongly-Lensed z=2 Galaxy in the SDSS DR5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Huan; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; /Fermilab; Allam, Sahar S.; /Fermilab /Wyoming U.; Tucker, Douglas L.; Diehl, H.Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Annis, James; /Fermilab; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Fermilab /KICP, Chicago; Oguri, Masamune; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Inada, Naohisa; /Wako, RIKEN

    2008-09-30

    We report on the discovery of a very bright z = 2.00 star-forming galaxy that is strongly lensed by a foreground z = 0.422 luminous red galaxy (LRG). This system was found in a systematic search for bright arcs lensed by LRGs and brightest cluster galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 sample. Follow-up observations on the Subaru 8.2m telescope on Mauna Kea and the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5m telescope at Apache Point Observatory confirmed the lensing nature of this system. A simple lens model for the system, assuming a singular isothermal ellipsoid mass distribution, yields an Einstein radius of {theta}{sub Ein} = 3.82 {+-} 0.03{double_prime} or 14.8 {+-} 0.1h{sup -1} kpc at the lens redshift. The total projected mass enclosed within the Einstein radius is 2.10 {+-} 0.03 x 10{sup 12}h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}}, and the magnification factor for the source galaxy is 27 {+-} 1. Combining the lens model with our gVriz photometry, we find an (unlensed) star formation rate for the source galaxy of 32 h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} hr{sup -1}, adopting a fiducial constant star formation rate model with an age of 100 Myr and E(B-V) = 0.25. With an apparent magnitude of r = 19.9, this system is among the very brightest lensed z {ge} 2 galaxies, and provides an excellent opportunity to pursue detailed studies of the physical properties of an individual high-redshift star-forming galaxy.

  10. HOW TO IDENTIFY AND SEPARATE BRIGHT GALAXY CLUSTERS FROM THE LOW-FREQUENCY RADIO SKY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we simulate the 50-200 MHz radio sky that is constrained in the field of view (50 radius) of the 21 Centimeter Array (21CMA), a low-frequency radio interferometric array constructed in the remote area of Xinjiang, China, by carrying out Monte Carlo simulations to model the strong contaminating foreground of the redshifted cosmological reionization signals, including emissions from our Galaxy, galaxy clusters, and extragalactic discrete sources (i.e., star-forming galaxies, radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and radio-loud AGNs). As an improvement over previous works, we consider in detail not only random variations of morphological and spectroscopic parameters within the ranges allowed by multi-band observations, but also the evolution of radio halos in galaxy clusters, assuming that relativistic electrons are re-accelerated in the intracluster medium (ICM) in merger events and lose energy via both synchrotron emission and inverse Compton scattering with cosmic microwave background photons. By introducing a new approach designed on the basis of independent component analysis and wavelet detection algorithm, we prove that, with a cumulative observation of one month with the 21CMA array, about 80% of galaxy clusters (37 out of 48 clusters assuming a mean magnetic field of B = 2 μG in the ICM, or 15 out of 18 clusters assuming B = 0.2 μG) with central brightness temperatures of >10 K at 65 MHz can be safely identified and separated from the overwhelmingly bright foreground. By examining the brightness temperature images and spectra extracted from these identified clusters, we find that the morphological and spectroscopic distortions are extremely small compared to the input simulated clusters, and the reduced χ2 of brightness temperature profiles and spectra are controlled to be ∼<0.5 and ∼<1.3, respectively. These results robustly indicate that in the near future a sample of dozens of bright galaxy clusters will be disentangled from the

  11. Modelling the spectro-photometric and chemical evolution of Low Surface Brightness spiral galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Hoek, L. B. van den; de Blok, W J G

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the star formation history and chemical evolution of Low Surface Brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies by means of their observed spectro-photometric and chemical properties. We present preliminary results for Johnson-Cousins UBVRI magnitudes and stellar [O/H] abundance ratios using a galactic chemical evolution model incorporating a detailed metallicity dependent set of stellar input data covering all relevant stages of stellar evolution. Comparison of our model results with observ...

  12. High redshift galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey . I. Selection method and number counts based on redshift PDFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viironen, K.; Marín-Franch, A.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Varela, J.; Chaves-Montero, J.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Molino, A.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Vilella-Rojo, G.; Ascaso, B.; Cenarro, A. J.; Cerviño, M.; Cepa, J.; Ederoclite, A.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Moles, M.; Oteo, I.; Pović, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alfaro, E.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Benítez, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Castander, J. F.; Del Olmo, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husillos, C.; Infante, L.; Martínez, V. J.; Perea, J.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Most observational results on the high redshift restframe UV-bright galaxies are based on samples pinpointed using the so-called dropout technique or Ly-α selection. However, the availability of multifilter data now allows the dropout selections to be replaced by direct methods based on photometric redshifts. In this paper we present the methodology to select and study the population of high redshift galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey data. Aims: Our aim is to develop a less biased methodology than the traditional dropout technique to study the high redshift galaxies in ALHAMBRA and other multifilter data. Thanks to the wide area ALHAMBRA covers, we especially aim at contributing to the study of the brightest, least frequent, high redshift galaxies. Methods: The methodology is based on redshift probability distribution functions (zPDFs). It is shown how a clean galaxy sample can be obtained by selecting the galaxies with high integrated probability of being within a given redshift interval. However, reaching both a complete and clean sample with this method is challenging. Hence, a method to derive statistical properties by summing the zPDFs of all the galaxies in the redshift bin of interest is introduced. Results: Using this methodology we derive the galaxy rest frame UV number counts in five redshift bins centred at z = 2.5,3.0,3.5,4.0, and 4.5, being complete up to the limiting magnitude at mUV(AB) = 24, where mUV refers to the first ALHAMBRA filter redwards of the Ly-α line. With the wide field ALHAMBRA data we especially contribute to the study of the brightest ends of these counts, accurately sampling the surface densities down to mUV(AB) = 21-22. Conclusions: We show that using the zPDFs it is easy to select a very clean sample of high redshift galaxies. We also show that it is better to do statistical analysis of the properties of galaxies using a probabilistic approach, which takes into account both the incompleteness and contamination issues in a

  13. The connection between radio loudness and central surface brightness profiles in optically selected low-luminosity active galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richings, A. J.; Uttley, P.; Körding, E.

    2011-08-01

    Recent results indicate a correlation between nuclear radio loudness of active galaxies and their central stellar surface-brightness profiles, in that 'core' galaxies (with inner logarithmic slope γ≤ 0.3) are significantly more radio loud than 'power-law' galaxies (γ≥ 0.5). This connection, which indicates possible links between radio loudness and galaxy formation history (e.g. through black hole spin), has so far only been confirmed for a radio-selected sample of galaxies. Furthermore, it has since been shown that the Nuker law, which was used to parametrize the brightness profiles in these studies, gives a poor description of the brightness profile, with its parameters varying systematically with the radial fitted extent of the profile. Here, we present an analysis of the central surface brightness profiles of the active galaxies of Hubble type T≤ 3, that were identified by the optically selected Palomar spectroscopic survey of nearby galaxies. We fit the brightness profiles using Sérsic, Core-Sérsic and, where necessary, Double-Sérsic models, which we fit to the semimajor axis brightness profiles extracted from high-resolution images of the galaxies from the Hubble Space Telescope. We use these fits to classify the galaxies as 'Core', 'Sérsic' or 'Double-Sérsic'. We compare the properties of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) and their host galaxies with this classification, and we recover the already established trend for Core galaxies to be more luminous and contain a higher mass supermassive black hole. Defining the radio loudness of an AGN as the ratio of the nuclear radio luminosity to [O III] line luminosity, which allows us to include most of the AGN in our sample and prevents a bias against dim nuclei that are harder to extract from the brightness profiles, we find that AGN hosted in Core galaxies are generally more radio loud than those hosted in Sérsic galaxies, although there is a large overlap between the two subsamples. The correlation

  14. The Bright End of the Luminosity Function of Red Sequence Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Loh, Y S; Loh, Yeong-Shang; Strauss, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    We study the bright end of the luminosity distribution of galaxies in fields with Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Using 2099 square degree of SDSS imaging data, we search for luminous (> L*) early-type galaxies within 1.0 Mpc/h of a volume-limited sample of 12,608 spectroscopic LRG in the redshift range 0.12 < z < 0.38. Most of these objects lie in rich environments, with the LRG being the brightest object within 1.0 Mpc/h. The luminosity gap, M12, between the first and second-rank galaxies within 1.0 Mpc/h is large (~0.8 mag), substantially larger than can be explained with an exponentially decaying luminosity function of galaxies. The brightest member is less luminous (by 0.1 to 0.2 mag), and shows a larger gap in LRG selected groups than in cluster-like environments. The large luminosity gap shows little evolution with redshift to z = 0.4, ruling out the scenario that these LRG selected brightest cluster or group galaxies grow by recent cannibalism of cluster mem...

  15. Dust Temperatures in the Infrared Space Observatory Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bendo, G J; Wells, M; Gallais, P; Haas, M; Heras, A M; Klaas, U; Laureijs, R J; Leech, K; Lemke, D; Metcalfe, L; Rowan-Robinson, M; Schulz, B; Telesco, C M; Bendo, George J.; Joseph, Robert D.; Wells, Martyn; Gallais, Pascal; Haas, Martin; Heras, Ana M.; Klaas, Ulrich; Laureijs, Rene J.; Leech, Kieron; Lemke, Dietrich; Metcalfe, Leo; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Schulz, Bernhard; Telesco, Charles

    2003-01-01

    We examine far-infrared and submillimeter spectral energy distributions for galaxies in the Infrared Space Observatory Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies. For the 71 galaxies where we had complete 60-180 micron data, we fit blackbodies with lambda^-1 emissivities and average temperatures of 31 K or lambda^-2 emissivities and average temperatures of 22 K. Except for high temperatures determined in some early-type galaxies, the temperatures show no dependence on any galaxy characteristic. For the 60-850 micron range in eight galaxies, we fit blackbodies with lambda^-1, lambda-2, and lambda^-beta (with beta variable) emissivities to the data. The best results were with the lambda^-beta emissivities, where the temperatures were ~30 K and the emissivity coefficient beta ranged from 0.9 to 1.9. These results produced gas to dust ratios that ranged from 150 to 580, which were consistent with the ratio for the Milky Way and which exhibited relatively little dispersion compared to fits with fixed emissivities.

  16. The Role of Clustering of Sub-Clumps in Bright Elliptical Galaxy Formation from a Low-Spin Seed Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, D

    2001-01-01

    We reveal the role of clustering of sub-clumps, which is expected in the cold dark matter (CDM) universe, in forming a bright elliptical galaxy (BEG) from a low-spin seed galaxy. This can be done by comparing the evolution of a low-spin seed galaxy including small-scale density fluctuations expected in the CDM universe (Model 1) with that of a completely uniform one (Model 2), using numerical experiments. We show that Model 2 cannot reproduce the properties of BEGs and forms a disk which is too compact and too bright due to the conservation of the initial-small angular momentum. In Model 1 clustering of the sub-clumps caused by initial small-scale density fluctuations leads to angular momentum transfer from the baryon component to the dark matter and consequently a nearly spherical system supported by random motions is formed. Moreover the collisionless property of the stars formed in the sub-clumps prevents the dissipative contraction of the system, leading to a large measured half-light radius. As a result,...

  17. Source Plane Reconstruction of The Bright Lensed Galaxy RCSGA 032727-132609

    CERN Document Server

    Sharon, Keren; Rigby, Jane R; Wuyts, Eva; Koester, Benjamin P; Bayliss, Matthew B; Barrientos, L Felipe

    2012-01-01

    We present new HST/WFC3 imaging data of RCSGA 032727-132609, a bright lensed galaxy at z=1.7 that is magnified and stretched by the lensing cluster RCS2 032727-132623. Using this new high-resolution imaging, we modify our previous lens model (which was based on ground-based data) to fully understand the lensing geometry, and use it to reconstruct the lensed galaxy in the source plane. This giant arc represents a unique opportunity to peer into 100-pc scale structures in a high-redshift galaxy. This new source reconstruction will be crucial for a future analysis of the spatially-resolved rest-UV and rest-optical spectra of the brightest parts of the arc.

  18. SOURCE-PLANE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE BRIGHT LENSED GALAXY RCSGA 032727-132609

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, Keren; Gladders, Michael D.; Wuyts, Eva; Bayliss, Matthew B. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rigby, Jane R. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Koester, Benjamin P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Barrientos, L. Felipe, E-mail: kerens@kicp.uchicago.edu [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2012-02-20

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging data of RCSGA 032727-132609, a bright lensed galaxy at z = 1.7 that is magnified and stretched by the lensing cluster RCS2 032727-132623. Using this new high-resolution imaging, we modify our previous lens model (which was based on ground-based data) to fully understand the lensing geometry, and use it to reconstruct the lensed galaxy in the source plane. This giant arc represents a unique opportunity to peer into 100 pc scale structures in a high-redshift galaxy. This new source reconstruction will be crucial for a future analysis of the spatially resolved rest-UV and rest-optical spectra of the brightest parts of the arc.

  19. Source Plane Reconstruction of the Bright Lensed Galaxy RCSGA 032727-132609

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Keren; Gladders, Michael D.; Rigby, Jane R.; Wuyts, Eva; Koester, Benjamin P.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Barrientos, L. Felipe

    2011-01-01

    We present new HST/WFC3 imaging data of RCS2 032727-132609, a bright lensed galaxy at z=1.7 that is magnified and stretched by the lensing cluster RCS2 032727-132623. Using this new high-resolution imaging, we modify our previous lens model (which was based on ground-based data) to fully understand the lensing geometry, and use it to reconstruct the lensed galaxy in the source plane. This giant arc represents a unique opportunity to peer into 100-pc scale structures in a high redshift galaxy. This new source reconstruction will be crucial for a future analysis of the spatially-resolved rest-UV and rest-optical spectra of the brightest parts of the arc.

  20. HerMES: A Deficit in the Surface Brightness of the Cosmic Infrared Background due to Galaxy Cluster Gravitational Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemcov, M.; Blain, A.; Cooray, A.; Béthermin, M.; Bock, J.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Dowell, C. D.; Farrah, D.; Glenn, J.; Griffin, M.; Halpern, M.; Jullo, E.; Kneib, J.-P.; Marsden, G.; Nguyen, H. T.; Oliver, S. J.; Richard, J.; Roseboom, I. G.; Schulz, B.; Scott, Douglas; Shupe, D. L.; Smith, A. J.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2013-06-01

    We have observed four massive galaxy clusters with the SPIRE instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory and measure a deficit of surface brightness within their central region after removing detected sources. We simulate the effects of instrumental sensitivity and resolution, the source population, and the lensing effect of the clusters to estimate the shape and amplitude of the deficit. The amplitude of the central deficit is a strong function of the surface density and flux distribution of the background sources. We find that for the current best fitting faint end number counts, and excellent lensing models, the most likely amplitude of the central deficit is the full intensity of the cosmic infrared background (CIB). Our measurement leads to a lower limit to the integrated total intensity of the CIB of I_{250 \\, \\mu {m}} \\gt 0.69_{-0.03}^{+0.03} ({stat.}) _{-0.06}^{+0.11} ({sys.}) MJy sr-1, with more CIB possible from both low-redshift sources and from sources within the target clusters. It should be possible to observe this effect in existing high angular resolution data at other wavelengths where the CIB is bright, which would allow tests of models of the faint source component of the CIB. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  1. HerMES: A DEFICIT IN THE SURFACE BRIGHTNESS OF THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND DUE TO GALAXY CLUSTER GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemcov, M.; Cooray, A.; Bock, J.; Dowell, C. D.; Nguyen, H. T. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Blain, A. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Bethermin, M. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Conley, A.; Glenn, J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Conversi, L. [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Farrah, D.; Oliver, S. J.; Roseboom, I. G. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Griffin, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Halpern, M.; Marsden, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Jullo, E.; Kneib, J.-P. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Richard, J., E-mail: zemcov@caltech.edu [Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, 9 avenue Charles Andre, F-69230 Saint-Genis Laval (France); and others

    2013-06-01

    We have observed four massive galaxy clusters with the SPIRE instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory and measure a deficit of surface brightness within their central region after removing detected sources. We simulate the effects of instrumental sensitivity and resolution, the source population, and the lensing effect of the clusters to estimate the shape and amplitude of the deficit. The amplitude of the central deficit is a strong function of the surface density and flux distribution of the background sources. We find that for the current best fitting faint end number counts, and excellent lensing models, the most likely amplitude of the central deficit is the full intensity of the cosmic infrared background (CIB). Our measurement leads to a lower limit to the integrated total intensity of the CIB of I{sub 250{mu}m}>0.69{sub -0.03}{sup +0.03}(stat.){sub -0.06}{sup +0.11}(sys.) MJy sr{sup -1}, with more CIB possible from both low-redshift sources and from sources within the target clusters. It should be possible to observe this effect in existing high angular resolution data at other wavelengths where the CIB is bright, which would allow tests of models of the faint source component of the CIB.

  2. Luminosity and surface brightness distribution of K-band galaxies from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Anthony J; Cross, Nicholas J G

    2008-01-01

    We present luminosity and surface brightness distributions of 36,663 galaxies with K-band photometry from the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS), Data Release 3 and optical photometry from Data Release 5 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Various features and limitations of the new UKIDSS data are examined, such as a problem affecting Petrosian magnitudes of extended sources. Selection limits in K- and r-band magnitude, K-band surface brightness and K-band radius are included explicitly in the 1/Vmax estimation of the space density and luminosity function. The bivariate brightness distribution in K-band absolute magnitude and surface brightness is presented and found to display a clear luminosity-surface brightness correlation that flattens at high luminosity and broadens at low luminosity, consistent with similar analyses at optical wavelengths. Best fitting Schechter function parameters for the K-band luminosity function are found to be M*-5log h=-23.17 +/- 0.04, alpha=-0.8...

  3. Low Surface Brightness Galaxies in the SDSS: the link between environment, star-forming properties and AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Galaz, Gaspar; Garcia-Lambas, Diego; Padilla, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 4 (DR 4), we investigate the spatial distribution of low and high surface brightness galaxies (LSBs and HSBs, respectively). In particular, we focus our attention on the influence of interactions between galaxies on the star formation strength in the redshift range $0.01 < z < 0.1$. With cylinder counts and projected distance to the first and fifth-nearest neighbor as environment tracers, we found that LSBs tend to have a lack of companions compared to HSBs at small scales ($<2$ Mpc). Regarding the interactions, we have evidence that the fraction of LSBs with strong star formation activity increases when the neighbor is closer than $r_{p}/r_{90} \\sim 4$. The intensity of the effect of the interaction on the star formation strength, measured by the average value of the birthrate parameter $b$, seems to be stronger for HSBs than for LSBs. The analysis of our population of LSBs and HSBs hosting an AGN show that, regardless of the mass range, the fra...

  4. Galaxy cluster number count data constraints on cosmological parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanelli, L. [Universita di Bari, Dipartimento di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Fogli, G.L.; Marrone, A. [Universita di Bari, Dipartimento di Fisica, Bari (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Kahniashvili, T. [Carnegie Mellon University, McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Laurentian University, Department of Physics, Sudbury, ON (Canada); Ilia State University, Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Tbilisi (Georgia); Ratra, Bharat [Kansas State University, Department of Physics, Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2012-11-15

    We use data on massive galaxy clusters (M{sub cluster}>8 x 10{sup 14} h{sup -1} M{sub s}un within a comoving radius of R{sub cluster}=1.5h{sup -1} Mpc) in the redshift range 0.05count derived from the observational temperature data. We show that, contrary to previous analyses, cluster data alone prefer low values of the amplitude of mass fluctuations, {sigma}{sub 8}{<=}0.69 (1 {sigma} C.L.), and large amounts of nonrelativistic matter, {Omega}{sub m} {>=}0.38 (1 {sigma} C.L.), in slight tension with the {Lambda}CDM concordance cosmological model, though the results are compatible with {Lambda}CDM at 2 {sigma}. In addition, we derive a {sigma}{sub 8} normalization relation, {sigma}{sub 8}{Omega}{sub m}{sup 1/3} = 0.49 {+-} 0.06 (2{sigma} C.L.). Combining cluster data with {sigma}{sub 8}-independent baryon acoustic oscillation observations, cosmic microwave background data, Hubble constant measurements, Hubble parameter determination from passively evolving red galaxies, and magnitude-redshift data of type Ia supernovae, we find {Omega}{sub m} = 0.28{sup +0.03}{sub -0.02} and {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.73{sup +0.03}{sub -0.03}, the former in agreement and the latter being slightly lower than the corresponding values in the concordance cosmological model. We also find H{sub 0} = 69.1{sup +1

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Globular Cluster Candidates in Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sharina, M E; Makarov, D I; Sharina, Margarita E.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Makarov, Dmitry I.

    2005-01-01

    Fifty-seven nearby low surface brightness dwarf galaxies were searched for globular cluster candidates (GCCs) using Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 imaging in V and I. The sample consists of 18 dwarf spheroidal (dSph), 36 irregular (dIrr), and 3 "transition" type (dIrr/dSph) galaxies with angular sizes less than 3.7 kpc situated at distances 2-6 Mpc in the field and in the nearby groups: M81, Centaurus A, Sculptor, Canes Venatici I cloud. We find that ~50% of dSph, dIrr/dSph, and dIrr galaxies contain GCCs. The fraction of GCCs located near the center of dwarf spheroidal galaxies is >2 times higher than that for dIrrs. The mean integral color of GCCs in dSphs, V-I = 1.04+/-0.16 mag, coincides with the corresponding value for Galactic globular clusters and is similar to the blue globular cluster sub-populations in massive early-type galaxies. The color distribution for GCCs in dIrrs shows a clear bimodality with peaks near V-I = 0.5 and 1.0 mag. Blue GCCs are presumably young with ages t -6.5 mag in both dSph an...

  6. Surface Brightness Profiles of Dwarf Galaxies: II. Color Trends and Mass Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Kimberly A; Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2016-01-01

    In this second paper of a series, we explore the B-V, U-B, and FUV-NUV radial color trends from a multi-wavelength sample of 141 dwarf disk galaxies. Like spirals, dwarf galaxies have three types of radial surface brightness profiles: (I) single exponential throughout the observed extent (the minority), (II) down-bending (the majority), and (III) up-bending. We find that colors of (1) Type I dwarfs generally become redder with increasing radius unlike spirals that have a blueing trend that flattens beyond ~1.5 disk scale lengths, (2) Type II dwarfs come in six different "flavors," one of which mimics the "U" shape of spirals, and (3) Type III dwarfs have a stretched "S" shape where central colors are flattish, become steeply redder to the surface brightness break, then remain roughly constant beyond, similar to spiral TypeIII color profiles, but without the central outward bluing. Faint (-9 > M_B > -14) Type II dwarfs tend to have continuously red or "U" shaped colors and steeper color slopes than bright (-14...

  7. A New Constraint on the Ly$\\alpha$ Fraction of UV Very Bright Galaxies at Redshift 7

    CERN Document Server

    Furusawa, Hisanori; Kobayashi, Masakazu A R; Dunlop, James S; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Takata, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro; Naito, Yoshiaki; Furusawa, Junko; Ouchi, Masami; Nakata, Fumiaki; Yasuda, Naoki; Okura, Yuki; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Toru; Kajisawa, Masaru; Fynbo, Johan P U; Fevre, Olivier Le

    2016-01-01

    We study the extent to which very bright (-23.0 50 Angstrom, which we estimate to be < 0.23. This result may indicate a weak trend where the fraction of strong Lya emitters ceases to rise, and possibly falls between z~6 and z~7. Our results also leave open the possibility that strong Lya may still be more prevalent in the brightest galaxies in the reionization era than their fainter counterparts. A larger spectroscopic sample of galaxies is required to derive a more reliable constraint on the neutral hydrogen fraction at z~7 based on the Lya fraction in the bright galaxies.

  8. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: the nature of bright submm galaxies from 2 deg2 of 850-um imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Michałowski, Michał J; Koprowski, M P; Cirasuolo, M; Geach, J E; Bowler, R A A; Mortlock, A; Caputi, K I; Aretxaga, I; Arumugam, V; Chen, Chian-Chou; McLure, R J; Birkinshaw, M; Bourne, N; Farrah, D; Ibar, E; van der Werf, P; Zemcov, M

    2016-01-01

    We present physical properties [redshifts (z), star-formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses (Mstar)] of nearly 2000 bright (S850 > 4 mJy) submm galaxies in the ~2 deg2 COSMOS and UDS fields selected with SCUBA-2 on the JCMT, representing the largest homogeneous sample of 850-um-selected sources to date. We check the reliability of our identifications, and the robustness of the SCUBA-2 fluxes by revisiting the recent ALMA follow-up. Considering > 4 mJy ALMA sources, our identification method has a completeness of ~86 per cent with a reliability of ~92 per cent, and only ~15-20 per cent of sources are significantly affected by multiplicity (when a secondary component is brighter than a third of the primary one). The impact of source blending on the 850-um source counts as determined with SCUBA-2 is modest; scaling the single-dish fluxes by ~0.9 reproduces the ALMA source counts. We find median values of z = 2.40+0.10-0.04, SFR = 287+-6 Mo yr-1, and log(Mstar/Mo) = 11.12+-0.02. These properties clearly locate ...

  9. Simultaneous multi-band detection of Low Surface Brightness galaxies with Markovian modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Vollmer, B; Petremand, M; Lavigne, F; Collet, Ch; van Driel, W; Bonnarel, F; Louys, M; Sabatini, S; MacArthur, L A

    2012-01-01

    We present an algorithm for the detection of Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies in images, called MARSIAA (MARkovian Software for Image Analysis in Astronomy), which is based on multi-scale Markovian modeling. MARSIAA can be applied simultaneously to different bands. It segments an image into a user-defined number of classes, according to their surface brightness and surroundings - typically, one or two classes contain the LSB structures. We have developed an algorithm, called DetectLSB, which allows the efficient identification of LSB galaxies from among the candidate sources selected by MARSIAA. To assess the robustness of our method, the method was applied to a set of 18 B and I band images (covering 1.3 square degrees in total) of the Virgo cluster. To further assess the completeness of the results of our method, both MARSIAA, SExtractor, and DetectLSB were applied to search for (i) mock Virgo LSB galaxies inserted into a set of deep Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) gri-band subimages and (ii) Virgo...

  10. Simulating a slow bar in the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 628

    CERN Document Server

    Chequers, Matthew H; Widrow, Lawrence M; Gilhuly, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    We present a disc-halo N-body model of the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 628, one of the few systems that harbours a "slow" bar with a ratio of corotation radius to bar length of $\\mathcal{R} \\equiv R_c/a_b \\sim 2$. We select our initial conditions using SDSS DR10 photometry, a physically motivated radially variable mass-to-light ratio profile, and rotation curve data from the literature. A global bar instability grows in our submaximal disc model, and the disc morphology and dynamics agree broadly with the photometry and kinematics of UGC 628 at times between peak bar strength and the onset of buckling. Prior to bar formation, the disc and halo contribute roughly equally to the potential in the galaxy's inner region, giving the disc enough self gravity for bar modes to grow. After bar formation there is significant mass redistribution, creating a baryon dominated inner and dark matter dominated outer disc. This implies that, unlike most other low surface brightness galaxies, UGC 628 is not dark matter do...

  11. The complex evolutionary paths of local infrared bright galaxies: a high angular resolution mid-infrared view

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Herrero, A; Roche, P F; Hernan-Caballero, A; Aretxaga, I; Martinez-Paredes, M; Almeida, C Ramos; Pereira-Santaella, M; Diaz-Santos, T; Levenson, N A; Packham, C; Colina, L; Esquej, P; Gonzalez-Martin, O; Ichikawa, K; Imanishi, M; Espinosa, J M Rodriguez; Telesco, C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the evolutionary connection between local IR-bright galaxies ($\\log L_{\\rm IR}\\ge 11.4\\,L_\\odot$) and quasars. We use high angular resolution ($\\sim$ 0.3-0.4 arcsec $\\sim$ few hundred parsecs) $8-13\\,\\mu$m ground-based spectroscopy to disentangle the AGN mid-IR properties from those of star formation. The comparison between the nuclear $11.3\\,\\mu$m PAH feature emission and that measured with Spitzer/IRS indicates that the star formation is extended over a few kpc in the IR-bright galaxies. The AGN contribution to the total IR luminosity of IR-bright galaxies is lower than in quasars. Although the dust distribution is predicted to change as IR-bright galaxies evolve to IR-bright quasars and then to optical quasars, we show that the AGN mid-IR emission of all the quasars in our sample is not significantly different. In contrast, the nuclear emission of IR-bright galaxies with low AGN contributions appears more heavily embedded in dust although there is no clear trend with the interaction stage or...

  12. UV surface brightness of galaxies from the local Universe to z ~ 5

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Eric J; Scarpa, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The Tolman test for surface brightness dimming was originally proposed as a test for the expansion of the Universe. The test, which is independent of the details of the assumed cosmology,is based on comparisons of the surface brightness (SB) of identical objects at different cosmological distances. Claims have been made that the Tolman test provides compelling evidence against a static model for the Universe. In this paper we reconsider this subject by adopting a static Euclidean Universe with a linear Hubble relation at all z (which is not the standard Einstein- de Sitter model),resulting in a relation between flux and luminosity that is virtually indistinguishable from the one used for LCDM models. Based on the analysis of the UV surface brightness of luminous disk galaxies from HUDF and GALEX datasets, reaching from the local Universe to z ~ 5 we show that the surface brightness remains constant as expected in a SEU. A re-analysis of previously-published data used for the Tolman test at lower redshift, whe...

  13. AGN Activity and Black Hole Masses in Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ramya, S; Das, M

    2011-01-01

    We present medium resolution optical spectroscopy of a sample of nine Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies. For those that show clear signatures of AGN emission, we have disentangled the AGN component from stellar light and any Fe I and Fe II contribution. We have decomposed the H_alpha line into narrow and broad components and determined the velocities of the broad components; typical values lie between 900--2500 km/s. Of the galaxies in our study, UGC 6614, UGC 1922, UGC 6968 and LSBC F568-6 (Malin~2) show clear signatures of AGN activity. We have calculated the approximate black hole masses for these galaxies from the H_alpha line emission using the virial approximation. The black hole masses are ~3x10^{5} M_sun for three galaxies and lie in the intermediate mass black holes domain rather than the supermassive range. UGC 6614 harbors a BH of mass 3.8x10^{6} M_sun; it also shows an interesting feature blueward of H_alpha and H_beta implying outflow of gas or a one-sided jet streaming towards us. We have al...

  14. Galaxy number counts to second order and their bispectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dio, Enea Di; Durrer, Ruth; Marozzi, Giovanni; Montanari, Francesco, E-mail: Enea.DiDio@unige.ch, E-mail: Ruth.Durrer@unige.ch, E-mail: Giovanni.Marozzi@unige.ch, E-mail: Francesco.Montanari@unige.ch [Université de Genève, Département de Physique Théorique and CAP, 24 quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)

    2014-12-01

    We determine the number counts to second order in cosmological perturbation theory in the Poisson gauge and allowing for anisotropic stress. The calculation is performed using an innovative approach based on the recently proposed ''geodesic light-cone'' gauge. This allows us to determine the number counts in a purely geometric way, without using Einstein's equation. The result is valid for general dark energy models and (most) modified gravity models. We then evaluate numerically some relevant contributions to the number counts bispectrum. In particular we consider the terms involving the density, redshift space distortion and lensing.

  15. Galaxy number counts to second order and their bispectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Di Dio, Enea; Marozzi, Giovanni; Montanari, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We determine the number counts to second order in cosmological perturbation theory in the Poisson gauge and allowing for anisotropic stress. The calculation is performed using an innovative approach based on the recently proposed "geodesic light-cone" gauge. This allows us to determine the number counts in a purely geometric way, without using Einstein's equation. The result is valid for general dark energy models and (most) modified gravity models. We then evaluate numerically the relevant contributions to the number counts bispectrum. In particular we consider the terms involving the density, redshift space distortion and lensing.

  16. Higher order relativistic galaxy number counts: dominating terms

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jeppe Trøst

    2016-01-01

    We review the number counts to second order concentrating on the terms which dominate on sub horizon scales. We re-derive the result for these terms and compare it with the different versions found in the literature. We generalize our derivation to higher order terms, especially the third order number counts which are needed to compute the 1-loop contribution to the power spectrum.

  17. Detecting edges in the X-ray surface brightness of galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J. S.; Fabian, A. C.; Russell, H. R.; Walker, S. A.; Blundell, K. M.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of many physical processes in the intracluster medium of galaxy clusters imprint themselves in X-ray surface brightness images. It is therefore important to choose optimal methods for extracting information from and enhancing the interpretability of such images. We describe in detail a gradient filtering edge detection method that we previously applied to images of the Centaurus cluster of galaxies. The Gaussian gradient filter measures the gradient in the surface brightness distribution on particular spatial scales. We apply this filter on different scales to Chandra X-ray observatory images of two clusters with active galactic nucleus feedback, the Perseus cluster and M 87, and a merging system, A 3667. By combining filtered images on different scales using radial filters spectacular images of the edges in a cluster are produced. We describe how to assess the significance of features in filtered images. We find the gradient filtering technique to have significant advantages for detecting many kinds of features compared to other analysis techniques, such as unsharp masking. Filtering cluster images in this way in a hard energy band allows shocks to be detected.

  18. Measurable Relationship Between Bright Galaxies and Their Faint Companions in WHL J085910.0+294957, a Galaxy Cluster at z = 0.30: Vestiges of Infallen Groups?

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Minjin; Seon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Sang Chul; Yang, Soung-Chul; Ree, Chang Hee; Lee, Jong Chul; Jeong, Hyunjin; Ko, Jongwan; Choi, Changsu

    2014-01-01

    The properties of satellite galaxies are closely related to their host galaxies in galaxy groups. In cluster environments, on the other hand, the interaction between close neighbors is known to be limited. Our goal is to examine the relationships between host and satellite galaxies in the harsh environment of a galaxy cluster. To achieve this goal, we study a galaxy cluster WHL J085910.0+294957 at z = 0.30 using deep images obtained with CQUEAN CCD camera mounted on the 2.1-m Otto Struve telescope. After member selection based on the scaling relations of photometric and structural parameters, we investigate the relationship between bright (M_i < -18) galaxies and their faint (-18 < M_i < -15) companions. The weighted mean color of faint companion galaxies shows no significant dependence (< 1 sigma to Bootstrap uncertainties) on cluster-centric distance and local luminosity density as well as the luminosity and concentration of an adjacent bright galaxy. However, the weighted mean color shows margi...

  19. Quasar-Galaxy Clustering through Projected Galaxy Counts at z=0.6-1.2

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shao-hua; Wang, Ting-Gui; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Zhou, Hongyan

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spatial clustering of galaxies around quasars at redshifts from 0.6 to 1.2 using the photometric data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82. The quasar and galaxy cross-correlation functions are measured through the projected galaxy number density n(r_p) on scales $0.05

  20. The portrait of Malin 2: a case study of a giant low surface brightness galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Kasparova, A; Katkov, I; Chilingarian, I; Bizyaev, D

    2013-01-01

    The low surface brightness disc galaxy Malin2 challenges the standard theory of galaxy evolution by its enormous total mass ~2 10^12 Ms which must have been formed without recent major merger events. The aim of our work is to create a coherent picture of this exotic object by using the new optical multicolor photometric and spectroscopic observations at Apache Point Observatory as well as archival datasets from Gemini and wide-field surveys. We performed the Malin2 mass modelling, estimated the contribution of the host dark halo and found that it had acquired its low central density and the huge isothermal sphere core radius before the disc subsystem was formed. Our spectroscopic data analysis reveals complex kinematics of stars and gas in the very inner region. We measured the oxygen abundance in several clumps and concluded that the gas metallicity decreases from the solar value in the centre to a half of that at 20-30 kpc. We found a small satellite and measured its mass (1/500 of the host galaxy) and gas ...

  1. Galaxy Modelling - II. Multi-Wavelength Faint Counts from a Semi-Analytic Model of Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Devriendt, J E G

    2000-01-01

    (Abridged) This paper predicts self-consistent faint galaxy counts from the UV to the submm wavelength range. The STARDUST spectral energy distributions described in Devriendt et al. (1999) are embedded within the explicit cosmological framework of a simple semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and evolution. We build a class of models which capture the luminosity budget of the universe through faint galaxy counts and redshift distributions in the whole wavelength range spanned by our spectra. In contrast with a rather stable behaviour in the optical and even in the far-IR, the submm counts are dramatically sensitive to variations in the cosmological parameters and changes in the star formation history. Faint submm counts are more easily accommodated within an open universe with a low value of $\\Omega_0$, or a flat universe with a non-zero cosmological constant. This study illustrates the implementation of multi-wavelength spectra into a semi-analytic model. In spite of its simplicity, it already provides f...

  2. HerMES: A Deficit in the Surface Brightness of the Cosmic Infrared Background Due to Galaxy Cluster Gravitational Lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Zemcov, M; Cooray, A; Bethermin, M; Bock, J; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Dowell, C D; Farrah, D; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Jullo, E; Kneib, J -P; Marsden, G; Nguyen, H T; Richard, S J Oliver J; Roseboom, I G; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Wang, L; Wardlow, J

    2013-01-01

    We have observed four massive galaxy clusters with the SPIRE instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory and measure a deficit of surface brightness within their central region after subtracting sources. We simulate the effects of instrumental sensitivity and resolution, the source population, and the lensing effect of the clusters to estimate the shape and amplitude of the deficit. The amplitude of the central deficit is a strong function of the surface density and flux distribution of the background sources. We find that for the current best fitting faint end number counts, and excellent lensing models, the most likely amplitude of the central deficit is the full intensity of the cosmic infrared background (CIB). Our measurement leads to a lower limit to the integrated total intensity of the CIB of I(250 microns) > 0.69_(-0.03)^(+0.03) (stat.)_(-0.06)^(+0.11) (sys.) MJy/sr, with more CIB possible from both low-redshift sources and from sources within the target clusters. It should be possible to observe th...

  3. The bright end of the galaxy luminosity function at z ~ 7: before the onset of mass quenching?

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, R A A; McLure, R J; Rogers, A B; McCracken, H J; Milvang-Jensen, B; Furusawa, H; Fynbo, J P U; Taniguchi, Y; Afonso, J; Bremer, M N; Fevre, O Le

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a new search for bright star-forming galaxies at z ~ 7 within the UltraVISTA DR2 and UKIDSS UDS DR10 data, which together provide 1.65 sq deg of near-infrared imaging with overlapping optical and Spitzer data. Using a full photo-z analysis to identify high-z galaxies and reject contaminants, we have selected a sample of 34 luminous (-22.7 < M_UV < -21.2) galaxies with the 6.5 < z < 7.5. Crucially, the deeper imaging provided by UltraVISTA DR2 confirms all of the robust objects previously uncovered by Bowler et al. (2012), validating our selection technique. Our sample includes the most massive galaxies known at z ~ 7, with M_* ~ 10^{10} M_sun, and the majority are resolved, consistent with larger sizes (r_{1/2} ~ 1 - 1.5 kpc) than displayed by less massive galaxies. From our final sample, we determine the form of the bright end of the rest-frame UV galaxy luminosity function (LF) at z ~ 7, providing strong evidence that the bright end of the z = 7 LF does not decline as s...

  4. Ultraviolet number counts of galaxies from Swift UV/Optical Telescope deep imaging of the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Hoversten, E A; Berk, D E Vanden; Koch, T S; Breeveld, A A; Curran, P A; Hinshaw, D A; Marshall, F E; Roming, P W A; Siegel, M H; Still, M

    2009-01-01

    Deep Swift UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) imaging of the Chandra Deep Field South is used to measure galaxy number counts in three near ultraviolet (NUV) filters (uvw2: 1928 A, uvm2: 2246 A, uvw1: 2600 A) and the u band (3645 A). UVOT observations cover the break in the slope of the NUV number counts with greater precision than the number counts by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), spanning a range from 21 < m_AB < 25. Number counts models confirm earlier investigations in favoring models with an evolving galaxy luminosity function.

  5. XMM-Newton observation of the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy, MCG+8-11-11

    CERN Document Server

    Matt, G; De Rosa, A; Grandi, P; Perola, G C

    2005-01-01

    We report on the XMM-Newton observation of the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy, MCG+8-11-11. Data from the EPIC/p-n camera, the Reflection Gratings Spectrometers (RGS) and the Optical Monitor (OM) have been analyzed. The p-n spectrum is well fitted by a power law, a spectrally unresolved Fe Kalpha line, a Compton reflection component (whose large value, when compared to the iron line equivalent width, suggests iron underabundance), and absorption by warm material. Absorption lines are apparent in the RGS spectra, but their identification is uncertain and would require large matter velocities. The UV fluxes measured by the OM are well above the extrapolation of the X-ray spectrum, indicating the presence of a UV bump.

  6. Spectroscopic Surface Brightness Fluctuations: a new method to analyze the stellar population content of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcher, C. Jakob; Mitzkus, Martin; Roth, Martin; Dreizler, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Rare luminous phases of stellar evolution are important scientific targets because our understanding of them strongly influences what physical parameters we can recover from integrated spectra. (TP-)AGB stars have been the focus of much attention over the last decade, as their flux contribution to the spectra of intermediate age stellar populations is highly uncertain. We here present a new approach to this problem, which relies on Surface Brightness Fluctuations (SBF) with high spectral resolution - a domain that is opening up for the first time thanks to the new MUSE integral field unit at the VLT. We will present the SSBF technique, illustrating its power through simulations. We will then present the analysis of dedicated data obtained with MUSE, providing new benchmark constraints on the luminous stellar population of entire galaxies.

  7. THROUGH THE LOOKING GLASS: BRIGHT, HIGHLY MAGNIFIED GALAXY CANDIDATES AT z {approx} 7 BEHIND A1703

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, L. D.; Coe, D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bouwens, R. J.; Smit, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Postbus 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Zitrin, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Ford, H. C.; Zheng, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Illingworth, G. D. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Benitez, N. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huetor 24, Granada 18008 (Spain); Broadhurst, T. J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU, Leioa (Spain)

    2012-03-01

    We report the discovery of seven strongly lensed Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z {approx} 7 detected in Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging of A1703. The brightest candidate, called A1703-zD1, has an observed (lensed) magnitude of 24.0 AB (26{sigma}) in the WFC3/IR F160W band, making it 0.2 mag brighter than the z{sub 850}-dropout candidate recently reported behind the Bullet Cluster and 0.7 mag brighter than the previously brightest known z {approx} 7.6 galaxy, A1689-zD1. With a cluster magnification of {approx}9, this source has an intrinsic magnitude of H{sub 160} = 26.4 AB, a strong z{sub 850} - J{sub 125} break of 1.7 mag, and a photometric redshift of z {approx} 6.7. Additionally, we find six other bright LBG candidates with H{sub 160}-band magnitudes of 24.9-26.4, photometric redshifts z {approx} 6.4 - 8.8, and magnifications {mu} {approx} 3-40. Stellar population fits to the Advanced Camera for Surveys, WFC3/IR, and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera data for A1703-zD1 and A1703-zD4 yield stellar masses (0.7 - 3.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, stellar ages 5-180 Myr, and star formation rates {approx}7.8 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and low reddening with A{sub V} {<=} 0.7. The source-plane reconstruction of the exceptionally bright candidate A1703-zD1 exhibits an extended structure, spanning {approx}4 kpc in the z {approx} 6.7 source plane, and shows three resolved star-forming knots of radius r {approx} 0.4 kpc.

  8. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of Bright ULX Sources in the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/4039)

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, J M; Fabbiano, G; Schweizer, F

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of spectral fits to bright ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/4039) obtained through a 41 ksec observation with XMM-Newton. Although emission regions are not resolved as well as in prior Chandra observations, at least four ULXs (X-11, X-16, X-37, and X-44 in the Zezas & Fabbiano scheme) are sufficiently bright and well-separated with XMM-Newton that reliable extractions and spectral analyses are possible. Fits to the source spectra with only the multi-color disk blackbody model give high disk color temperatures (kT = 1.0-1.7 keV); however, none of the spectra are acceptably fit by this model. Source X-37 is not well-fitted by any single component model. Fits with a model consisting of multi-color disk blackbody and power-law components may reveal a cool accretion disk (kT = 0.13 +/- 0.02 keV). Interestingly, when the multi-color disk blackbody plus power-law model is fit to all four ULXs, low temperatures are obtained for each (kT = 0.11-0.21 keV);...

  9. On the nature of faint Low Surface Brightness galaxies in the Coma cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Adami, C; Ulmer, M P; Cuillandre, J C; Durret, F; Mazure, A; Picat, J P; Scheidegger, R

    2008-01-01

    This project is the continuation of our study of faint Low Surface Brightness Galaxies (fLSBs) in one of the densest nearby galaxy regions known, the Coma cluster. Our goal is to improve our understanding of the nature of these objects by comparing the broad band spectral energy distribution with population synthesis models. The data were obtained with the MEGACAM and CFH12K cameras at the CFHT. We used the resulting photometry in 5 broad band filters (u*, B, V, R, and I), that included new u*-band data, to fit spectral models. With these spectral fits we inferred a cluster membership criterium, as well as the ages, dust extinctions, and photometric types of these fLSBs. We show that about half of the Coma cluster fLSBs have a spectral energy distribution well represented in our template library while the other half present a flux deficit at ultraviolet wavelengths. Among the well represented, ~80% are probably part of the Coma cluster based on their spectral energy distribution. They are relatively young (yo...

  10. Type-II surface brightness profiles in edge-on galaxies produced by flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlaff, Alejandro; Eliche-Moral, M. Carmen; Beckman, John; Font, Joan

    2016-06-01

    Previous numerical studies had apparently ruled out the possibility that flares in galaxy discs could give rise to the apparent breaks in their luminosity profiles when observed edge-on. However the studies have not, until now, analysed this hypothesis systematically using realistic models for the disc, the flare, and the bulge. We revisit this theme by analysing a series of models which sample a wide range of observationally based structural parameters for these three components. Using observational data, we have considered realistic distributions of bulge-to-disc ratios, morphological parameters of bulges and discs, vertical scale heights of discs and their radial gradients defining the flare for different morphological types and stellar mass bins. The surface brightness profiles for the face-on and edge-on views of each model were simulated to find out whether the flared disc produces a Type-II break in the disc profile when observed edge-on, and if so under what conditions. Contrary to previous claims, we find that discs with realistic flares can produce significant breaks in discs when observed edge-on. Specifically a flare with the parameters of that of the Milky Way would produce a significant break of the disc at a RbrkII of ~8.6 kpc if observed edge-on. Central bulges have no significant effects on the results. These simulations show that flared discs can explain the existence of many Type-II breaks observed in edge-on galaxies, in a range of galaxies with intermediate to low break strength values of -0.25

  11. Predictions for the Counts of Faint, High-Redshift Galaxies in the Mid-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Haiman, Z; Turner, E L; Haiman, Zoltan; Spergel, David N.; Turner, Edwin L.

    2003-01-01

    Deep mid-infrared (MIR) observations could reveal a population of faint, high-redshift (z>3) dusty starburst galaxies that are the progenitors of present-day spheroids or bulges, and are beyond the reach of current instruments. We utilize a semi-analytic galaxy formation scheme to find an extreme model for the MIR galaxy counts, designed to maximize the number of detectable sources down to a flux level of a few nJy. The model incorporates the formation of heavily dust-enshrouded stellar populations at high redshift, and is consistent with existing observations, including faint counts at 1.6um in the NICMOS Hubble Deep Field, and the upper limit on the extragalactic MIR background from TeV gamma rays. Our models predict upto 0.5 galaxies/sq.arcsec at the threshold of 100 nJy at 6um, with a comparable or larger surface density at longer MIR wavelengths. We conclude that a significant new population of high-redshift galaxies could be detected by the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and Next Generation S...

  12. Deep galaxy count predictions in the radio, infrared, and X-ray spectral bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyer, Marie-Agnes; Silk, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The existence of a dominant population of strongly evolving starburst sources at moderate redshift is a plausible explanation for the excess number of faint blue galaxies detected in deep sky surveys. Multiwavelength observations at faint magnitudes would allow the existence of such a population to be confirmed. We use observed luminosity correlations and physical properties of known starburst galaxies to predict their contribution to the deep radio, infrared, and X-ray counts, as well as to the diffuse extragalactic background radiation in these various spectral bands.

  13. A New Constraint on the Lyα Fraction of UV Very Bright Galaxies at Redshift 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Hisanori; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Dunlop, James S.; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Takata, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro; Naito, Yoshiaki; Furusawa, Junko; Ouchi, Masami; Nakata, Fumiaki; Yasuda, Naoki; Okura, Yuki; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Toru; Kajisawa, Masaru; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Le Fèvre, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    We study the extent to which very bright (-23.0\\lt {M}{UV}\\lt -21.75) Lyman-break-selected galaxies at redshifts z≃ 7 display detectable Lyα emission. To explore this issue, we obtained follow-up optical spectroscopy of 9 z≃ 7 galaxies from a parent sample of 24 z≃ 7 galaxy candidates selected from the 1.65 deg2 COSMOS-UltraVISTA and SXDS-UDS survey fields using the latest near-infrared public survey data, and new ultra-deep Subaru z‧-band imaging (which we also present and describe in this paper). Our spectroscopy yielded only one possible detection of Lyα at z = 7.168 with a rest-frame equivalent width {{EW}}0 = {3.7}-1.1+1.7 \\mathringA . The relative weakness of this line, combined with our failure to detect Lyα emission from the other spectroscopic targets, allows us to place a new upper limit on the prevalence of strong Lyα emission at these redshifts. For conservative calculation and to facilitate comparison with previous studies at lower redshifts, we derive a 1σ upper limit on the fraction of UV-bright galaxies at z≃ 7 that display {{EW}}0\\gt 50 \\mathringA , which we estimate to be \\lt 0.23. This result may indicate a weak trend where the fraction of strong Lyα emitters ceases to rise, and possibly falls between z ≃ 6 and z≃ 7. Our results also leave open the possibility that strong Lyα may still be more prevalent in the brightest galaxies in the reionization era than their fainter counterparts. A larger spectroscopic sample of galaxies is required to derive a more reliable constraint on the neutral hydrogen fraction at z∼ 7 based on the Lyα fraction in the bright galaxies.

  14. A study of active galactic nuclei in low surface brightness galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Mei; Wei-Min Yuan; Xiao-Bo Dong

    2009-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) have received little attention in previous studies. We present a detailed spectral analysis of 194 LSBGs from the Impey et al. (1996) APM LSBG sample which has been observed spec-troscopically by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 (SDSS DR5). Our elaborate spectral analysis enables us to carry out, for the first time, reliable spectral classification of nuclear processes in LSBGs based on the standard emission line diagnostic diagrams in a rigorous way. Star-forming galaxies are common, as found in about 52% of LSBGs. We find that, contrary to some previous claims, the fraction of galaxies that contain AGNs is significantly lower than that found in nearby normal galaxies of high surface brightness. This is qualitatively in line with the finding of Impey et al. This result holds true even within each morphological type from Sa to Sc. LSBGs that have larger central stellar ve-locity dispersions or larger physical sizes tend to have a higher chance of harboring an AGN. For three AGNs with broad emission lines, the black hole masses estimated from the emission lines are broadly consistent with the well known M-σ* relation established for normal galaxies and AGNs.

  15. THE AGN, STAR-FORMING, AND MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LUMINOUS IR-BRIGHT/OPTICALLY-FAINT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the active galactic nucleus (AGN), star-forming, and morphological properties of a sample of 13 MIR-luminous (f 24 ∼> 700 μJy) IR-bright/optically-faint galaxies (IRBGs, f24/f R ∼> 1000). While these z ∼ 2 sources were drawn from deep Chandra fields with >200 ks X-ray coverage, only seven are formally detected in the X-ray and four lack X-ray emission at even the 2σ level. Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) spectra, however, confirm that all of the sources are AGN-dominated in the mid-IR, although half have detectable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission responsible for ∼25% of their mid-infrared flux density. When combined with other samples, this indicates that at least 30%-40% of luminous IRBGs have star formation rates in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) range (∼100-2000 Msun yr-1). X-ray hardness ratios and MIR to X-ray luminosity ratios indicate that all members of the sample contain heavily X-ray obscured AGNs, 80% of which are candidates to be Compton thick. Furthermore, the mean X-ray luminosity of the sample, log L2-10keV(erg s-1) ∼44.6, indicates that these IRBGs are Type 2 QSOs, at least from the X-ray perspective. While those sources most heavily obscured in the X-ray are also those most likely to display strong silicate absorption in the mid-IR, silicate absorption does not always accompany X-ray obscuration. Finally, ∼70% of the IRBGs are merger candidates, a rate consistent with that of sub-mm galaxies (SMGs), although SMGs appear to be physically larger than IRBGs. These characteristics are consistent with the proposal that these objects represent a later, AGN-dominated, and more relaxed evolutionary stage following soon after the star-formation-dominated one represented by the SMGs.

  16. Star formation and the interstellar medium in low surface brightness galaxies; 2, Deep CO observations of low surface brightness disk galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    De Blok, W J G

    1998-01-01

    We present deep, pointed $^{12}$CO($J=2-1$) observations of three late-type LSB galaxies. The beam-size was small enough that we could probe different environments (\\HI maximum, \\HI mininum, star forming region) in these galaxies. No CO was found at any of the positions observed. We argue that the implied lack of molecular gas is real and not caused by conversion factor effects. The virtual absence of a molecular phase may explain the very low star formation rates in these galaxies.

  17. Populations of Bright X-ray Sources in the Starburst Galaxies NGC 4038/4039

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Wei Liu; Xiang-Dong Li

    2007-01-01

    Assuming a naive star formation history,we construct synthetic X-ray source populations.using a population synthesis code,for comparison with the observed X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of the interacting galaxies NGC 4038/4039.We have included highand intermediate-mass X-ray binaries.young rotation-powered pulsars and fallback disk-fed black holes in modeling the bright X-ray sources detected.We find that the majority of the X-ray sources are likely to be intermediate-mass X-ray binaries.but for typical binary evolution parameters.the predicted XLF seems to be steeper than observed.We note that the shape of the XLFs depends critically on the existence of XLF break for young populations.and suggest super-Eddington accretion luminosities or the existence of intermediate-mass black holes to account for the high luminosity end and the slope of the XLF in NGC 4038/4039.

  18. DETECTION OF AN ULTRA-BRIGHT SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY BEHIND THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takekoshi, Tatsuya; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Sorai, Kazuo; Habe, Asao [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Oogi, Taira [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Ezawa, Hajime; Komugi, Shinya; Mizuno, Norikazu; Muller, Erik; Kawamura, Akiko [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Oshima, Tai [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Scott, Kimberly S. [North American ALMA Science Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Austermann, Jason E. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Tosaki, Tomoka [Joetsu University of Education, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8512 (Japan); Onishi, Toshikazu [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, 599-8531 Osaka (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsuo, Hiroshi [Advanced Technology Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Aretxaga, Itziar [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), 72000 Puebla (Mexico); and others

    2013-09-10

    We report the discovery of a new ultra-bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG) behind the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). This SMG is detected as a 43.3 {+-} 8.4 mJy point source (MM J01071-7302, hereafter MMJ0107) in the 1.1 mm continuum survey of the SMC by AzTEC on the ASTE telescope. MMJ0107 is also detected in the radio (843 MHz), Herschel/SPIRE, Spitzer MIPS 24 {mu}m, all IRAC bands, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, and near-infrared (J, H, K{sub S} ). We find an optical (U, B, V) source, which might be the lensing object, at a distance of 1.''4 from near-infrared and IRAC sources. Photometric redshift estimates for the SMG using representative spectral energy distribution templates show the redshifts of 1.4-3.9. We estimate total far-infrared luminosity of (0.3-2.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} {mu}{sup -1} L{sub Sun} and a star formation rate of 5600-39, 000 {mu}{sup -1} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, where {mu} is the gravitational magnification factor. This apparent extreme star formation activity is likely explained by a highly magnified gravitational lens system.

  19. Detection of an ultra-bright submillimeter galaxy behind the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Takekoshi, Tatsuya; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Kohno, Kotaro; Oogi, Taira; Sorai, Kazuo; Habe, Asao; Ezawa, Hajime; Oshima, Tai; Scott, Kimberly S; Austermann, Jason E; Komugi, Shinya; Tosaki, Tomoka; Mizuno, Norikazu; Muller, Erik; Kawamura, Akiko; Onishi, Toshikazu; Fukui, Yasuo; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David H; Kawabe, Ryohei; Wilson, Grant W; Yun, Min S

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new ultra-bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG) behind the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). This SMG is detected as a 43.3+-8.4 mJy point source (MM J01071-7302, hereafter MMJ0107) in the 1.1 mm continuum survey of the SMC by AzTEC on the ASTE telescope. MMJ0107 is also detected in the radio (843 MHz), Herschel/SPIRE, Spitzer MIPS 24 {\\mu}m, all IRAC bands, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, and near-infrared (J, H, KS). We find an optical (U, B, V) source, which might be the lensing object, at a distance of 1.4 arcsec from near-infrared and IRAC sources. Photometric redshift estimates for the SMG using representative spectral energy distribution templates show the redshifts of 1.4-3.9. We estimate total far-infrared luminosity of (0.3-2.2)x10^14 {\\mu}^-1 L_sun and a star formation rate of 5600-39, 000 {\\mu}^-1 M_sun yr^-1, where {\\mu} is the gravitational magnification factor. This apparent extreme star formation activity is likely explained by a highly magnified gravitational lens sy...

  20. Type-II surface brightness profiles in edge-on galaxies produced by flares

    CERN Document Server

    Borlaff, Alejandro; Beckman, John; Font, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Previous numerical studies had apparently ruled out the possibility that flares in galaxy discs could give rise to the apparent breaks in their luminosity profiles when observed edge-on. However the studies have not, until now, analyzed this hypothesis systematically using realistic models for the disc, the flare, and the bulge. We revisit this theme by analyzing a series of models which sample a wide range of observationally based structural parameters for these three components. We have considered realistic distributions of bulge to disc ratios, morphological parameters of bulges and discs, vertical scale heights of discs and their radial gradients defining the flare for different morphological types and stellar mass bins, based on observations. The surface brightness profiles for the face-on and edge-on views of each model were simulated to find out whether the flared disc produces a Type-II break in the disc profile when observed edge-on, and if so under what conditions. Contrary to previous claims, we fi...

  1. DETECTION OF AN ULTRA-BRIGHT SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY BEHIND THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of a new ultra-bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG) behind the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). This SMG is detected as a 43.3 ± 8.4 mJy point source (MM J01071–7302, hereafter MMJ0107) in the 1.1 mm continuum survey of the SMC by AzTEC on the ASTE telescope. MMJ0107 is also detected in the radio (843 MHz), Herschel/SPIRE, Spitzer MIPS 24 μm, all IRAC bands, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, and near-infrared (J, H, KS ). We find an optical (U, B, V) source, which might be the lensing object, at a distance of 1.''4 from near-infrared and IRAC sources. Photometric redshift estimates for the SMG using representative spectral energy distribution templates show the redshifts of 1.4-3.9. We estimate total far-infrared luminosity of (0.3-2.2) × 1014 μ–1 L☉ and a star formation rate of 5600-39, 000 μ–1 M☉ yr–1, where μ is the gravitational magnification factor. This apparent extreme star formation activity is likely explained by a highly magnified gravitational lens system

  2. Discovery of an Extremely Bright Sub-Millimeter Galaxy at z=3.93

    CERN Document Server

    Lestrade, J -F; Salomé, P; Omont, A; Bertoldi, F; André, P; Schneider, N

    2010-01-01

    We have discovered serendipitously a rare, bright Sub-Millimeter Galaxy (SMG) of 30+/-2 mJy at lambda=1.2mm at the IRAM 30-meter radiotelescope. It is the brightest SMG at 1.2mm in the Northern Hemisphere, and among the brightest when the large South Pole Telescope survey at lambda=1.4mm is also considered. This SMG, MM18423+5938, has no known optical counterpart. We have found that its redshift is z=3.92960 +/- 0.00013 by searching for CO lines with the IRAM Eight MIxer Receiver (EMIR). In addition, by collecting all available photometric data in the far-infrared and radio to constrain its spectral energy distribution, we have found the exceptionnally high FIR luminosity 4.8 10^{14}/m Lo and mass 4.0 10^9/m Mo for its dust, even allowing for a magnification factor m of a probable gravitational lens. The corresponding star formation rate is extreme, 8.3 10^{4}/m Mo/yr, unless drastically reduced by m. The detection of 3 lines of the CO rotational ladder, and a significant upper limit for a fourth CO line, all...

  3. A comprehensive analysis of the hard X-ray spectra of bright Seyfert galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lubinski, P; Gibaud, L; Paltani, S; Papadakis, I E; Ricci, C; Soldi, S; Türler, M; Walter, R; Zdziarski, A A

    2016-01-01

    Hard X-ray spectra of 28 bright Seyfert galaxies observed with INTEGRAL were analyzed together with the X-ray spectra from XMM-Newton, Suzaku and RXTE. These broad-band data were fitted with a model assuming a thermal Comptonization as a primary continuum component. We tested several model options through a fitting of the Comptonized continuum accompanied by a complex absorption and a Compton reflection. Both the large data set used and the model space explored allowed us to accurately determine a mean temperature kTe of the electron plasma, the Compton parameter y and the Compton reflection strength R for the majority of objects in the sample. Our main finding is that a vast majority of the sample (20 objects) is characterized by kTe 200 keV. The median kTe for entire sample is 48(-14,+57) keV. The distribution of the y parameter is bimodal, with a broad component centered at ~0.8 and a narrow peak at ~1.1. A complex, dual absorber model improved the fit for all data sets, compared to a simple absorption mo...

  4. Spitzer/IRAC Imaging of Exceptionally Bright Cluster-Lensed Submillimeter Galaxies Discovered by the Herschel Lensing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Eiichi; Ebeling, Harald; Rawle, Timothy; Clement, Benjamin; Walth, Gregory; Pereira, Maria; Richard, Johan; Kneib, Jean-Paul

    2012-12-01

    Over the last few years, discoveries of exceptionally bright (e.g., observed S_peak > 100 mJy in the Herschel/SPIRE bands) gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) have generated great excitement. This is because these gravitationally lensed SMGs are so bright that they enable us to perform a variety of follow-up observations using a suite of observing facilities in the submillimeter, millimeter, and radio now available on the ground. Using Herschel, our team has been conducting a survey of such bright lensed galaxies in the fields of massive galaxy clusters: ``The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS)'' (PI: Egami; 419 hours). This large Herschel program targets a total of 581 X-ray/SZ-selected massive clusters, and is currently 80% complete. Cluster lenses are often more powerful than galaxy lenses, producing larger magnifications. For example, typical magnification factors for galaxy-lensed Herschel sources are x10 or less while cluster-lensed systems can often produce magnification factors of x20-30 and even above x100. Cluster lenses will therefore allow us to detect and study intrinsically less-luminous and/or more distant sources with the ability to provide a view of finer-scale (i.e., sub-kpc) structures. Here, we propose to conduct Spitzer/IRAC imaging of 56 bright lensed SMG candidates we have identified in the ~470 HLS cluster fields observed so far. The main scientific goal is twofold: (1) to locate the underlying stellar component, and (2) to study its properties (e.g., stellar mass, specific star-formation rate) by constraining the rest-frame near-infrared SED and comparing with the Herschel and other submillimeter/millimeter data (e.g., SMA, PdB, ALMA, etc.). These rare bright lensed SMGs will allow us to probe the population of heavily dust-obscured vigorously star-forming galaxies at high redshift (z>1), which is thought to play an important role in the cosmic star-formation history of the Universe and yet has been difficult to study due to the

  5. The properties of a large volume-limited sample of face-on low surface brightness disk galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Hu Zhong; Yan-Chun Liang; Feng-Shan Liu; Francois Hammer; Karen Disseau; Li-Cai Deng

    2012-01-01

    We select a large volume-limited sample of low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs,2021) to investigate in detail their statistical properties and their differences from high surface brightness galaxies (HSBGs,3639).The distributions of stellar masses of LSBGs and HSBGs are nearly the same and they have the same median values.Thus this volume-limited sample has good completeness and is further removed from the effect of stellar masses on their other properties when we compare LSBGs to HSBGs.We found that LSBGs tend to have lower stellar metallicities and lower effective dust attenuations,indicating that they have lower dust than HSBGs.The LSBGs have relatively higher stellar mass-to-light ratios,higher gas fractions,lower star forming rates (SFRs),and lower specific SFRs than HSBGs.Moreover,with the decreasing surface brightness,gas fraction increases,but the SFRs and specific SFRs decrease rapidly for the sample galaxies.This could mean that the star formation histories between LSBGs and HSBGs are different,and HSBGs may have stronger star forming activities than LSBGs.

  6. Relating basic properties of bright early-type dwarf galaxies to their location in Abell 901/902

    CERN Document Server

    Barazza, F D; Gray, M E; Jogee, S; Balogh, M; McIntosh, D H; Bacon, D; Barden, M; Bell, E F; Boehm, A; Caldwell, J A R; Haeussler, B; Heiderman, A; Heymans, C; van Kampen, K Jahnke E; Lane, K; Marinova, I; Meisenheimer, K; Peng, C Y; Sánchez, S F; Taylor, A; Wisotzki, L; Zheng, X

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the population of bright early-type dwarf galaxies in the multiple-cluster system Abell 901/902. We use data from the STAGES survey and COMBO-17 to investigate the relation between the color and structural properties of the dwarfs and their location in the cluster. The definition of the dwarf sample is based on the central surface brightness and includes galaxies in the luminosity range -16 >= M_B <~-19 mag. Using a fit to the color magnitude relation of the dwarfs, our sample is divided into a red and blue subsample. We find a color-density relation in the projected radial distribution of the dwarf sample: at the same luminosity dwarfs with redder colors are located closer to the cluster centers than their bluer counterparts. Furthermore, the redder dwarfs are on average more compact and rounder than the bluer dwarfs. These findings are consistent with theoretical expectations assuming that bright early-type dwarfs are the remnants of transformed late-type disk galaxies involving pro...

  7. HST photometry of dwarf elliptical galaxies in Coma, and an explanation for the alleged structural dichotomy between dwarf and bright elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, A W; Graham, Alister W.; Guzman, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    We have analyzed archival HST F606W images of 18 dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy candidates in the Coma Cluster. We model the full radial extent of their light- profiles by simultaneously fitting a PSF-convolved Sersic R^(1/n) model and, when necessary, either a central point-source or a central PSF-convolved Gaussian. The luminosities of the central component L_nuc scale with the host galaxy luminosity L_gal such that L_nuc = 10^(4.76 +/- 0.10) (L_gal/10^7)^(0.87 +/- 0.26). The underlying host galaxies display systematic departures from an exponential model that are correlated with the model-independent host galaxy luminosity and are not due to biasing from the nuclear component. The Pearson correlation coefficient between log(n) and central galaxy surface brightness mu_0 (excluding the flux from extraneous central components) is -0.83 at a significance level of 99.99%. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the logarithm of the Sersic index `n' and the host galaxy magnitude is -0.77 at a significance of 9...

  8. Star Counts in the Globular Cluster ω Centauri. I. Bright Stellar Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, V.; Calamida, A.; Bono, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Freyhammer, L. M.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Moroni, P. Prada; Monelli, M.; Corsi, C. E.; Nonino, M.; Buonanno, R.; Caputo, F.; Castellani, M.; Dall'Ora, M.; Del Principe, M.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pulone, L.; Vuerli, C.

    2007-07-01

    We present a photometric investigation on HB, RGB, and MSTO stars in ω Cen=NGC 5139. The center of the cluster was covered with a mosaic of F435W, F625W, and F658N band data collected with HST ACS. The outer reaches were covered with a mosaic of U-, B-, V-, and I-band data collected with the 2.2 m ESO/MPI telescope. The final catalog includes ~1.7 million stars. We identified more than 3200 likely HB stars, the largest sample ever collected in a globular cluster. We found that the HB morphology changes with the radial distance from the cluster center. The relative number of extreme HB stars decreases from ~30% to ~21% when moving from the center toward the outer reaches of the cluster, while the fraction of less hot HB stars increases from ~62% to ~72%. The comparison between theory and observations indicates that the empirical star counts of HB stars are on average larger (30%-40%) than predicted by canonical evolutionary models. Moreover, the rate of HB stars is ~43% larger than the MSTO rate. We also compared theory and observations by assuming a mix of stellar populations made with 70% of canonical He (Y=0.23) stars and 30% of He-enhanced (Y=0.33, 0.42) stars. We found that the observed RG/MSTO ratio agrees with the predicted lifetimes of He-mixed stellar populations. The discrepancy between theory and observations decreases by a factor of 2 when compared with rates predicted by canonical He content models, but still 15%-25% (Y=0.42) and 15%-20% (Y=0.33) higher than observed. Furthermore, the ratios between HB and MSTO star counts are ~24% (Y=0.42) and 30% (Y=0.33) larger than predicted lifetime ratios. During the revision of this manuscript, Vittorio Castellani passed away on 2006 May 19. His suggestions, ideas, and personality will be greatly missed. Based on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility and the Hubble Space Telescope Archive Facility.

  9. Another look at the size of the low-surface brightness galaxy VCC 1661 in the Virgo Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Andreas; Rich, R Michael; Longstaff, Francis A; Collins, Michelle L M; Janz, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    We present new wide-field images of the low-surface brightness Virgo Cluster dwarf galaxy VCC 1661. The extant literature lists a broad range of radii for this object, covering a factor of more than four, depending on the filters used and the details of the analyses. While some studies find a radius typical of other Virgo dwarfs and note the normality of this object, any larger spatial extent, taken at face value, would render this galaxy the largest dwarf in the Virgo Cluster samples. Confirmation of a large extent of dwarf galaxies has often led to the discovery of tidal tails and would then, also in VCC 1661, indicate a severe state of tidal disruption. Given the importance of galactic sizes for assessing tidal interactions of the satellites with their hosts, we thus combine our surface brightness profile with data from the literature to investigate further the nature of this galaxy. However, our new characteristic radius for VCC 1661 of $r_e=24.1$"$\\pm7.7$" and the previously noted smooth appearance of it...

  10. High redshift galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey: I. selection method and number counts based on redshift PDFs

    CERN Document Server

    Viironen, K; López-Sanjuan, C; Varela, J; Chaves-Montero, J; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D; Molino, A; Fernández-Soto, A; Ascaso, B; Cenarro, A J; Cerviño, M; Cepa, J; Ederoclite, A; Márquez, I; Masegosa, J; Moles, M; Oteo, I; Pović, M; Aguerri, J A L; Alfaro, E; Aparicio-Villegas, T; Benítez, N; Broadhurst, T; Cabrera-Caño, J; Castander, J F; Del Olmo, A; Delgado, R M González; Husillos, C; Infante, L; Martínez, V J; Perea, J; Prada, F; Quintana, J M

    2015-01-01

    Context. Most observational results on the high redshift restframe UV-bright galaxies are based on samples pinpointed using the so called dropout technique or Ly-alpha selection. However, the availability of multifilter data allows now replacing the dropout selections by direct methods based on photometric redshifts. In this paper we present the methodology to select and study the population of high redshift galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey data. Aims. Our aim is to develop a less biased methodology than the traditional dropout technique to study the high redshift galaxies in ALHAMBRA and other multifilter data. Thanks to the wide area ALHAMBRA covers, we especially aim at contributing in the study of the brightest, less frequent, high redshift galaxies. Methods. The methodology is based on redshift probability distribution functions (zPDFs). It is shown how a clean galaxy sample can be obtained by selecting the galaxies with high integrated probability of being within a given redshift interval. However, reach...

  11. Predictions for Ultra-Deep Radio Counts of Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mancuso, Claudia; Cai, Zhen-Yi; Negrello, Mattia; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Bressan, Alessandro; Bonato, Matteo; Perrotta, Francesca; Danese, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    We have worked out predictions for the radio counts of star-forming galaxies down to nJy levels, along with redshift distributions down to the detection limits of the phase 1 Square Kilometer Array MID telescope (SKA1-MID) and of its precursors. Such predictions were obtained by coupling epoch dependent star formation rate (SFR) functions with relations between SFR and radio (synchrotron and free-free) emission. The SFR functions were derived taking into account both the dust obscured and the unobscured star-formation, by combining far-infrared (FIR), ultra-violet (UV) and H_alpha luminosity functions up to high redshifts. We have also revisited the South Pole Telescope (SPT) counts of dusty galaxies at 95\\,GHz performing a detailed analysis of the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). Our results show that the deepest SKA1-MID surveys will detect high-z galaxies with SFRs two orders of magnitude lower compared to Herschel surveys. The highest redshift tails of the distributions at the detection limits of pla...

  12. Counting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许有国

    2005-01-01

    Most people began to count in tens because they had ten fingers on their hands. But in some countries, people counted on one hand and used the three parts of their four fingers. So they counted in twelves, not in tens.

  13. Extra-galactic background light measurements from the far-UV to the far-IR from deep ground and space-based galaxy counts

    CERN Document Server

    Driver, Simon P; Davies, Luke J; Robotham, Aaron S G; Wright, Angus H; Windhorst, Rogier A; Cohen, Seth; Emig, Kim; Jansen, Rolf A; Dunne, Loretta

    2016-01-01

    We combine wide and deep galaxy number-count data from GAMA, COSMOS/G10, HST ERS, HST UVUDF and various near-, mid- and far- IR datasets from ESO, Spitzer and Herschel. The combined data range from the far-UV (0.15microns) to far-IR (500microns), and in all cases the contribution to the integrated galaxy light (IGL) of successively fainter galaxies converges. Using a simple spline fit, we derive the IGL and the extrapolated-IGL in all bands. We argue undetected low surface brightness galaxies and intra-cluster/group light is modest, and that our extrapolated-IGL measurements are an accurate representation of the extra-galactic background light. Our data agree with most earlier IGL estimates and with direct measurements in the far-IR, but disagree strongly with direct estimates in the optical. Close agreement between our results and recent very high-energy experiments (H.E.S.S. and MAGIC), suggest that there may be an additional foreground affecting the direct estimates. The most likely culprit could be the ad...

  14. Extremely-bright submillimeter galaxies beyond the Lupus-I star-forming region

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Y; Shimajiri, Y; Tsukagoshi, T; Nakajima, Y; Oasa, Y; Wilner, D J; Chandler, C J; Saigo, K; Tomida, K; Yun, M S; Taniguchi, A; Kohno, K; Hatsukade, B; Aretxaga, I; Austermann, J E; Dickman, R; Ezawa, H; Goss, W M; Hayashi, M; Hughes, D H; Hiramatsu, M; Inutsuka, S; Ogasawara, R; Ohashi, N; Oshima, T; Scott, K S; Wilson, G W

    2015-01-01

    We report detections of two candidate distant submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), MM J154506.4$-$344318 and MM J154132.7$-$350320, which are discovered in the AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm survey toward the Lupus-I star-forming region. The two objects have 1.1 mm flux densities of 43.9 and 27.1 mJy, and have Herschel/SPIRE counterparts as well. The Submillimeter Array counterpart to the former SMG is identified at 890 $\\mu$m and 1.3 mm. Photometric redshift estimates using all available data from the mid-infrared to the radio suggest that the redshifts of the two SMGs are $z_{\\rm photo} \\simeq$ 4-5 and 3, respectively. Near-infrared objects are found very close to the SMGs and they are consistent with low-$z$ ellipticals, suggesting that the high apparent luminosities can be attributed to gravitational magnification. The cumulative number counts at $S_{\\rm 1.1mm} \\ge 25$ mJy, combined with other two 1.1-mm brightest sources, are $0.70 ^{+0.56}_{-0.34}$ deg$^{-2}$, which is consistent with a model prediction that accounts for ...

  15. The evolutionary status of high and extremely low surface brightness dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowiecki, Steven

    2015-07-01

    Studying dwarf galaxies can shed light on the original building blocks of galaxy formation. Most large galaxies are thought to be built up over billions of years through the collisions and mergers of smaller galaxies. The dwarf galaxies we see today are the evolved remnants of those building blocks, and by understanding their nature and evolution, we can study the raw ingredients of galaxy formation. Blue Compact Dwarf galaxies (BCDs) and Almost Dark galaxies are at opposite extremes of today's population of dwarf galaxies. BCDs are exceptionally compact and host very intense starbursts, while Almost Dark galaxies are much more diffuse and have weak stellar populations. This work studies the evolutionary context of BCDs by using deep, high-resolution images to study the detailed structure of their components, and by fitting our multi-wavelength observations with models to describe the properties of their stars, gas, and dust. BCDs appear to have exceptionally compact old stellar populations and unusually large star formation rates, when compared to typical dwarf galaxies. By contrast, the optically faint, gas-dominated Almost Dark galaxies have extremely low star formation rates and weak stellar populations. In particular, one of the Almost Darks studied in this work has very unusual properties and is in disagreement with widely-studied scaling relations for large samples of galaxies. It appears to have too little stellar mass, a distribution of HI that is too extended to be supported by its modest rotation, and the highest well-measured gas mass-to-light ratio ever observed. These two extreme classes may represent evolutionary stages that all galaxies pass through, and appear to be extreme ends of the broad continuum of dwarf galaxy properties. In order to use today's dwarf galaxies as windows into the building blocks of early galaxy formation, these unusual states and evolutionary pathways must be understood.

  16. Star formation and the interstellar medium in low surface brightness galaxies III. Why they are blue, thin and poor in molecular gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, JPE; de Blok, WJG

    1999-01-01

    We present N-body simulations of Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies and their Interstellar Medium to investigate the cause for their low star formation rates (SFR). Due to their massive halos, stellar disks of LSB galaxies are very stable and thin. Lack of dust makes the projected edge-on surface

  17. zCOSMOS-10k-bright spectroscopic sample. The bimodality in the galaxy stellar mass function : Exploring its evolution with redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozzetti, L.; Bolzonella, M.; Zucca, E.; Zamorani, G.; Lilly, S.; Renzini, A.; Moresco, M.; Mignoli, M.; Cassata, P.; Tasca, L.; Lamareille, F.; Maier, C.; Meneux, B.; Halliday, C.; Oesch, P.; Vergani, D.; Caputi, K.; Kovac, K.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; Iovino, A.; Peng, Y.; Carollo, M.; Contini, T.; P. Kneib, J.; Le F'evre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Coppa, G.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; F. Le Borgne, J.; Le Brun, V.; Pell`o, R.; Perez Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; D. Silverman, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tresse, L.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Guzzo, L.; M. Koekemoer, A.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; J. McCracken, H.; Memeo, P.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Scarlata, C.; Scoville, N.

    2010-01-01

    We present the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) to redshift z similar or equal to 1, based on the analysis of about 8500 galaxies with I <22.5 (AB mag) over 1.4 deg(2), which are part of the zCOSMOS-bright 10k spectroscopic sample. We investigate the total GSMF, as well as the contributions of ea

  18. A bright, spatially extended lensed galaxy at z = 1.7 behind the cluster RCS2 032727-132623

    CERN Document Server

    Wuyts, Eva; Gladders, Michael D; Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew B; Carrasco, Mauricio; Gilbank, David; Yee, H K C; Koester, Benjamin P; Muñoz, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    We present the discovery of an extremely bright and extended lensed source from the second Red Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS2). RCSGA 032727-132609 is spectroscopically confirmed as a giant arc and counter-image of a background galaxy at $z=1.701$, strongly-lensed by the foreground galaxy cluster RCS2 032727-132623 at $z=0.564$. The giant arc extends over $\\sim 38$\\,\\arcsec and has an integrated $g$-band magnitude of 19.15, making it $\\sim 20$ times larger and $\\sim 4$ times brighter than the prototypical lensed galaxy MS1512-cB58. This is the brightest distant lensed galaxy in the Universe known to date. Its location in the `redshift desert' provides unique opportunities to connect between the large samples of galaxies known at $z\\sim3$ and $z\\sim1$. We have collected photometry in 9 bands, ranging from $u$ to $K_s$, which densely sample the rest-frame UV and optical light, including the age-sensitive 4000\\AA\\ break. A lens model is constructed for the system, and results in a robust total magnification of $2...

  19. Investigating AGN black hole masses and the MBH-σe relation for low surface brightness galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, S.; Ramya, S.; Das, M.; George, K.; Sivarani, T.; Prabhu, T. P.

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the optical nuclear spectra from the active galactic nuclei (AGN) in a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we derived the virial black hole (BH) masses of 24 galaxies from their broad Hα parameters. We find that our estimates of nuclear BH masses lie in the range 105-107 M⊙, with a median mass of 5.62 × 106 M⊙. The bulge stellar velocity dispersion σe was determined from the underlying stellar spectra. We compared our results with the existing BH mass-velocity dispersion (MBH-σe) correlations and found that the majority of our sample lie in the low BH mass regime and below the MBH-σe correlation. We analysed the effects of any systematic bias in the MBH estimates, the effects of galaxy orientation in the measurement of σe and the increase of σe due to the presence of bars and found that these effects are insufficient to explain the observed offset in MBH-σe correlation. Thus, the LSB galaxies tend to have low-mass BHs which probably are not in co-evolution with the host galaxy bulges. A detailed study of the nature of the bulges and the role of dark matter in the growth of the BHs is needed to further understand the BH-bulge co-evolution in these poorly evolved and dark matter dominated systems.

  20. Sleeping Giants? - X-ray search for low-luminosity AGN candidates in nearby optically bright galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kalcheva, Ivayla E

    2014-01-01

    In this Master's project, the X-ray nuclear properties of a sample of bright nearby galaxies are explored. This is done by matching their comprehensive optical spectroscopic classification to the latest available XMM-Newton catalogue - 3XMM-DR4. The good coverage (approx. 38 per cent) ensures that a statistically representative sample is investigated. All nuclear and morphological subsets found within the original sample of 486 galaxies are encompassed, but early-type galaxies and galaxies with optical features characteristic for active galactic nuclei (AGN) are favoured. The results from the investigation of the properties of our cross-matched sample are overall consistent with the presence of a large fraction of X-ray - detected low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN). The X-ray - detected galaxies within our HII and transition-LINER subsets are of particular interest, as they could harbour LLAGN missed by optical spectroscopic selection. The properties of these nuclei are explored by X-ray spectral fitting of available...

  1. Galaxy halo truncation and Giant Arc Surface Brightness Reconstruction in the Cluster MACSJ1206.2-0847

    CERN Document Server

    Eichner, Thomas; Suyu, Sherry H; Halkola, Aleksi; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; Coe, Dan; Monna, Anna; Rosati, Piero; Grillo, Claudio; Balestra, Italo; Postman, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton; Zheng, Wei; H\\ost, Ole; Lemze, Doron; Broadhurst, Tom; Moustakas, Leonidas; Bradley, Larry; Molino, Alberto; Nonino, Mario; Mercurio, Amata; Scodeggio, Marco; Bartelmann, Matthias; Benitez, Narciso; Bouwens, Rychard; Donahue, Megan; Infante, Leopoldo; Jouvel, Stephanie; Kelson, Daniel; Lahav, Ofer; Medezinski, Elinor; Melchior, Peter; Merten, Julian; Riess, Adam

    2013-01-01

    In this work we analyze the mass distribution of MACSJ1206.2-0847, especially focusing on the halo properties of its cluster members. The cluster appears relaxed in its X-ray emission, but has significant amounts of intracluster light which is not centrally concentrated, suggesting that galaxy-scale interactions are still ongoing despite the overall relaxed state. The cluster lenses 12 background galaxies into multiple images and one galaxy at $z=1.033$ into a giant arc and its counterimage. The multiple image positions and the surface brightness distribution (SFB) of the arc which is bent around several cluster members are sensitive to the cluster galaxy halo properties. We model the cluster mass distribution with a NFW profile and the galaxy halos with two parameters for the mass normalization and extent of a reference halo assuming scalings with their observed NIR--light. We match the multiple image positions at an r.m.s. level of $0.85\\arcsec$ and can reconstruct the SFB distribution of the arc in several...

  2. Blending bias impacts the host halo masses derived from a cross-correlation analysis of bright sub-millimetre galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cowley, William I; Baugh, Carlton M; Cole, Shaun; Wilkinson, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Placing bright sub-millimetre galaxies (SMGs) within the broader context of galaxy formation and evolution requires accurate measurements of their clustering, which can constrain the masses of their host dark matter halos. Recent work has shown that the clustering measurements of these galaxies may be affected by a `blending bias,' which results in the angular correlation function of the sources extracted from single-dish imaging surveys being boosted relative to that of the underlying galaxies. This is due to confusion introduced by the coarse angular resolution of the single-dish telescope and could lead to the inferred halo masses being significantly overestimated. We investigate the extent to which this bias affects the measurement of the correlation function of SMGs when it is derived via a cross-correlation with a more abundant galaxy population. We find that the blending bias is essentially the same as in the auto-correlation case and conclude that the best way to reduce its effects is to calculate the...

  3. Structure and dynamics of galaxies with a low surface-brightness disc - II. Stellar populations of bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Morelli, L; Pizzella, A; Bontà, E Dalla; Coccato, L; Méndez-Abreu, J; Cesetti, M

    2012-01-01

    The radial profiles of the Hb, Mg, and Fe line-strength indices are presented for a sample of eight spiral galaxies with a low surface-brightness stellar disc and a bulge. The correlations between the central values of the line-strength indices and velocity dispersion are consistent to those known for early-type galaxies and bulges of high surface-brightness galaxies. The age, metallicity, and alpha/Fe enhancement of the stellar populations in the bulge-dominated region are obtained using stellar population models with variable element abundance ratios. Almost all the sample bulges are characterized by a young stellar population, on-going star formation, and a solar alpha/Fe enhancement. Their metallicity spans from high to sub-solar values. No significant gradient in age and alpha/Fe enhancement is measured, whereas only in a few cases a negative metallicity gradient is found. These properties suggest that a pure dissipative collapse is not able to explain formation of all the sample bulges and that other ph...

  4. Extremely Bright Submillimeter Galaxies beyond the Lupus-I Star-forming Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Y.; Kawabe, R.; Shimajiri, Y.; Tsukagoshi, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Oasa, Y.; Wilner, D. J.; Chandler, C. J.; Saigo, K.; Tomida, K.; Yun, M. S.; Taniguchi, A.; Kohno, K.; Hatsukade, B.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J. E.; Dickman, R.; Ezawa, H.; Goss, W. M.; Hayashi, M.; Hughes, D. H.; Hiramatsu, M.; Inutsuka, S.; Ogasawara, R.; Ohashi, N.; Oshima, T.; Scott, K. S.; Wilson, G. W.

    2015-08-01

    We report detections of two candidate distant submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), MM J154506.4‑344318 and MM J154132.7‑350320, which are discovered in the AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm survey toward the Lupus-I star-forming region. The two objects have 1.1 mm flux densities of 43.9 and 27.1 mJy, and have Herschel/SPIRE counterparts as well. The Submillimeter Array counterpart to the former SMG is identified at 890 μm and 1.3 mm. Photometric redshift estimates using all available data from the mid-infrared to the radio suggest that the redshifts of the two SMGs are {z}{photo}≃ 4–5 and 3, respectively. Near-infrared objects are found very close to the SMGs and they are consistent with low-z ellipticals, suggesting that the high apparent luminosities can be attributed to gravitational magnification. The cumulative number counts at {S}1.1{mm}≥slant 25 mJy, combined with the other two 1.1 mm brightest sources, are {0.70}-0.34+0.56 deg‑2, which is consistent with a model prediction that accounts for flux magnification due to strong gravitational lensing. Unexpectedly, a z\\gt 3 SMG and a Galactic dense starless core (e.g., a first hydrostatic core) could be similar in the mid-infrared to millimeter spectral energy distributions and spatial structures at least at ≳ 1\\prime\\prime . This indicates that it is necessary to distinguish the two possibilities by means of broadband photometry from the optical to centimeter and spectroscopy to determine the redshift, when a compact object is identified toward Galactic star-forming regions.

  5. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): The Bright Void Galaxy Population in the Optical and Mid-IR

    CERN Document Server

    Penny, S J; Pimbblet, K A; Cluver, M E; Croton, D J; Owers, M S; Lange, R; Alpaslan, M; Baldry, I; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Brough, S; Driver, S P; Holwerda, B W; Hopkins, A M; Jarrett, T H; Jones, D Heath; Kelvin, L S; Lara-Lopez, M A; Liske, J; Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Loveday, J; Meyer, M; Norberg, P; Robotham, A S G; Rodrigues, M

    2015-01-01

    We examine the properties of galaxies in the Galaxies and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey located in voids with radii $>10~h^{-1}$ Mpc. Utilising the GAMA equatorial survey, 592 void galaxies are identified out to z~0.1 brighter than $M_{r} = -18.4$, our magnitude completeness limit. Using the $W_{\\rm{H\\alpha}}$ vs. [NII]/H$\\alpha$ (WHAN) line strength diagnostic diagram, we classify their spectra as star forming, AGN, or dominated by old stellar populations. For objects more massive than $5\\times10^{9}$ M$_{\\odot}$, we identify a sample of 26 void galaxies with old stellar populations classed as passive and retired galaxies in the WHAN diagnostic diagram, else they lack any emission lines in their spectra. When matched to WISE mid-IR photometry, these passive and retired galaxies exhibit a range of mid-IR colour, with a number of void galaxies exhibiting [4.6]-[12] colours inconsistent with completely quenched stellar populations, with a similar spread in colour seen for a randomly drawn non-void comparison samp...

  6. Stealth Galaxies in the Halo of the Milky Way

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, James S.; Stewart, Kyle R; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tollerud, Erik J.; Wolf, Joe

    2009-01-01

    We predict that there is a population of low-luminosity dwarf galaxies orbiting within the halo of the Milky Way that have surface brightnesses low enough to have escaped detection in star-count surveys. The overall count of stealth galaxies is sensitive to the presence (or lack) of a low-mass threshold in galaxy formation. These systems have luminosities and stellar velocity dispersions that are similar to those of known ultrafaint dwarf galaxies but they have more extended stellar distribut...

  7. The behaviour of dark matter associated with 4 bright cluster galaxies in the 10kpc core of Abell 3827

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, Richard; Smit, Renske; Swinbank, Mark; Kitching, Thomas; Harvey, David; Jauzac, Mathilde; Israel, Holger; Clowe, Douglas; Edge, Alastair; Hilton, Matt; Jullo, Eric; Leonard, Adrienne; Liesenborgs, Jori; Merten, Julian; Mohammed, Irshad; Nagai, Daisuke; Richard, Johan; Robertson, Andrew; Saha, Prasenjit; Santana, Rebecca; Stott, John; Tittley, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy cluster Abell 3827 hosts the stellar remnants of four almost equally bright elliptical galaxies within a core of radius 10kpc. Such corrugation of the stellar distribution is very rare, and suggests recent formation by several simultaneous mergers. We map the distribution of associated dark matter, using new Hubble Space Telescope imaging and VLT/MUSE integral field spectroscopy of a gravitationally lensed system threaded through the cluster core. We find that each of the central galaxies retains a dark matter halo, but that (at least) one of these is spatially offset from its stars. The best-constrained offset is 1.62+/-0.48kpc, where the 68% confidence limit includes both statistical error and systematic biases in mass modelling. Such offsets are not seen in field galaxies, but are predicted during the long infall to a cluster, if dark matter self-interactions generate an extra drag force. With such a small physical separation, it is difficult to definitively rule out astrophysical effects operating ...

  8. Herschel and SCUBA-2 imaging and spectroscopy of a bright, lensed submillimetre galaxy at z = 2.3

    CERN Document Server

    Ivison, R J; Swinyard, B; Smail, Ian; Pearson, C P; Rigopoulou, D; Polehampton, E; Baluteau, J -P; Barlow, M J; Blain, A W; Bock, J; Clements, D L; Coppin, K; Cooray, A; Danielson, A; Dwek, E; Edge, A C; Franceschini, A; Fulton, T; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Isaak, K; Leeks, S; Lim, T; Naylor, D; Oliver, S J; Page, M J; Perez-Fournon, I; Rowan-Robinson, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Spencer, L; Valtchanov, I; Vigroux, L; Wright, G S

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the far-IR properties of the bright, lensed, z = 2.3, SMG, SMM J2135-0102, using new observations with Herschel, SCUBA-2 and the VLA. These data allow us to constrain the galaxy's SED and show that it has an intrinsic rest-frame 8-1000um luminosity, L(bol), of (2.3 +/- 0.2) x 10^12 L(sun) and a likely SFR of ~400 M(sun)/yr. The galaxy sits on the far-IR/radio correlation for far-IR-selected galaxies. At ~>70um, the SED can be described adequately by dust components with T(d) ~ 30 and 60K. Using SPIRE's Fourier Transform Spectrometer we report a detection of the [CII] 158um cooling line. If the [CII], CO and far-IR continuum arise in photo-dissociation regions, we derive a characteristic gas density, n ~ 10^3 cm^-3, and a far-UV radiation field, G_0, 10^3x stronger than the Milky Way. L([CII])/L(bol) is significantly higher than in local ULIRGs but similar to the values found in local star-forming galaxies and starburst nuclei. This is consistent with SMM J2135-0102 being powe...

  9. Low Surface Brightness Galaxies selected from the 40% sky area of the ALFALFA HI survey.I.Sample and statistical properties

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Wei; Lam, Man I; Zhu, Yinan; Lei, Fengjie; Zhou, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    The population of Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies is crucial for understanding the extremes of galaxy formation and evolution of the universe. As LSB galaxies are mostly rich in gas (HI), the alpha.40-SDSS DR7 sample is absolutely one of the best survey combinations to select a sample of them in the local Universe. Since the sky backgrounds are systematically overestimated for galaxy images by the SDSS photometric pipeline, particularly for luminous galaxies or galaxies with extended low surface brightness outskirts, in this paper, we above all estimated the sky backgrounds of SDSS images in the alpha.40-SDSS DR7 sample, using a precise method of sky subtraction. Once subtracting the sky background, we did surface photometry with the Kron elliptical aperture and fitted geometric parameters with an exponential profile model for each galaxy image. Basing on the photometric and geometric results, we further calculated the B-band central surface brightness, mu_{0}(B), for each galaxy and ultimately defined ...

  10. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: blank-field number counts of 450um-selected galaxies and their contribution to the cosmic infrared background

    CERN Document Server

    Geach, J E; Coppin, K E K; Dunlop, J S; Halpern, M; Smail, Ian; van der Werf, P; Serjeant, S; Farrah, D; Roseboom, I; Targett, T; Arumugam, V; Asboth, V; Blain, A; Chrysostomou, A; Clarke, C; Ivison, R J; Jones, S L; Karim, A; Mackenzie, T; Meijerink, R; Michalowski, M J; Scott, D; Simpson, J; Swinbank, A M; Alexander, D; Almaini, O; Aretxaga, I; Best, P; Chapman, S; Clements, D L; Conselice, C; Danielson, A L R; Eales, S; Edge, A C; Gibb, A; Hughes, D; Jenness, T; Knudsen, K K; Lacey, C; Marsden, G; McMahon, R; Oliver, S; Page, M J; Peacock, J A; Rigopoulou, D; Robson, E I; Spaans, M; Stevens, J; Webb, T M A; Willott, C; Wilson, C D; Zemcov, M

    2012-01-01

    The first deep blank-field 450um map (1-sigma~1.3mJy) from the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey (S2CLS), conducted with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) is presented. Our map covers 140 arcmin^2 of the COSMOS field, in the footprint of the HST CANDELS area. Using 60 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) detected at >3.75-sigma, we evaluate the number counts of 450um-selected galaxies with flux densities S_450>5mJy. The 8-arcsec JCMT beam and high sensitivity of SCUBA-2 now make it possible to directly resolve a larger fraction of the cosmic infrared background (CIB, peaking at ~200um) into the individual galaxies responsible for its emission than has previously been possible at this wavelength. At S_450>5mJy we resolve (7.4[+/-]0.7)x10^-2 MJy/sr of the CIB at 450um (equivalent to 16[+/-]7% of the absolute brightness measured by COBE at this wavelength) into point sources. A further ~40% of the CIB can be recovered through a statistical stack of 24um emitters in this field, indicating that the majority (~60%) o...

  11. Measurements of Extragalactic Background Light from the Far UV to the Far IR from Deep Ground- and Space-based Galaxy Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Simon P.; Andrews, Stephen K.; Davies, Luke J.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Wright, Angus H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Cohen, Seth; Emig, Kim; Jansen, Rolf A.; Dunne, Loretta

    2016-08-01

    We combine wide and deep galaxy number-count data from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly, COSMOS/G10, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Early Release Science, HST UVUDF, and various near-, mid-, and far-IR data sets from ESO, Spitzer, and Herschel. The combined data range from the far UV (0.15 μm) to far-IR (500 μm), and in all cases the contribution to the integrated galaxy light (IGL) of successively fainter galaxies converges. Using a simple spline fit, we derive the IGL and the extrapolated IGL in all bands. We argue that undetected low-surface-brightness galaxies and intracluster/group light are modest, and that our extrapolated-IGL measurements are an accurate representation of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Our data agree with most earlier IGL estimates and with direct measurements in the far IR, but disagree strongly with direct estimates in the optical. Close agreement between our results and recent very high-energy experiments (H.E.S.S. and MAGIC) suggests that there may be an additional foreground affecting the direct estimates. The most likely culprit could be the adopted model of zodiacal light. Finally we use a modified version of the two-component model to integrate the EBL and obtain measurements of the cosmic optical background (COB) and cosmic infrared background of {24}-4+4 nW m-2 sr-1 and {26}-5+5 nW m-2 sr-1 respectively (48%:52%). Over the next decade, upcoming space missions such as Euclid and the Wide Field Infrared Space Telescope will have the capacity to reduce the COB error to direct detection and measurement of the reionization field.

  12. High-J CO SLEDs in nearby infrared bright galaxies observed by Herschel-PACS

    CERN Document Server

    Mashian, N; Sternberg, A; Janssen, A; Hailey-Dunsheath, S; Fischer, J; Contursi, A; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E; Gracia-Carpio, J; Poglitsch, A; Veilleux, S; Davies, R; Genzel, R; Lutz, D; Tacconi, L; Verma, A; Weiß, A; Polisensky, E; Nikola, T

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection of far-infrared (FIR) CO rotational emission from nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) and starburst galaxies, as well as several merging systems and Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs). Using Herschel-PACS, we have detected transitions in the J$_{upp}$ = 14 - 20 range ($\\lambda \\sim$ 130 - 185 $\\mu$m, $\

  13. Evolution and constrains in the star formation histories of IR-bright star forming galaxies at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklias, Panos; Schaerer, Daniel; Elbaz, David

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and constraining the early cosmic star formation history of the Universe is a key question of galaxy evolution. A large fraction of star formation is dust obscured, so it is crucial to have access to the IR emission of galaxies to properly study them.Utilizing the multi-wavelength photometry from GOODS-Herschel, we perform SED fitting with different variable star formation histories (SFHs), which we constrain thanks to the observed IR luminosities, on a large sample of individually IR-detected sources from z~1 to 4. We explore how (and to which extent) constraining dust attenuation thanks to the IR luminosities allows to reduce the scatter (expected when using variable SFHs, in contrast to IR+UV standard calibrations) in physical properties and relations such as mass-SFR and the so-called star-forming Main Sequence (MS).Although limited at the high-z end, our analysis shows a change of trends in SFHs between low and high z, that follows the established cosmic SFR density, with galaxies found to prefer rising SFRs at z~3-4, and declining SFRs at z≤1. We show that a fraction of galaxies (~20%), mainly at z≤2, can have lower SFRs than IR-inferred, but still being compatible with the observations, indicative of being post-starbursts/undergoing quenching while bright in the IR, in agreement with theoretical work. The IR-constrained stellar population models we obtain also indicate that the two main modes of star formation - MS and starburst - evolve differently with time, with the former being mostly slow evolving and lying on the MS for long lasting periods, and the latter being very recent, rapidly increasing bursts (or on the decline, when belonging to the aforementioned "quenched" category). Finally, we illustrate how spectroscopic observation of nebular emission lines further enables as to constrain effectively the SFHs of galaxies.

  14. Extragalactic gamma radiation: Use of galaxy counts as a galactic tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    A derivation of the extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation with energies above 35 MeV was carried out using galaxy counts as a tracer of galactic matter. The extragalactic radiation has a differential photon number spectrum which may be expressed as a power law with index 2.35 (+0.4, -0.3) and an intensity above 35 MeV of (5.5 + or - 1.3) 0.00001 photons sq cm/s/ster, consistent with previous derivations. Use of a 1/sin of the absolute value of b expression of the galactic component produces a poorer fit, suggesting that the high-latitude galactic gamma-ray production may be dominated by cosmic ray interactions with matter rather than by Compton interactions of cosmic rays with photon fields.

  15. How to Identify and Separate Bright Galaxy Clusters from the Low-frequency Radio Sky?

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jingying; Gu, Junhua; An, Tao; Cui, Haijuan; Li, Jianxun; Zhang, Zhongli; Zheng, Qian; Wu, Xiang-Ping

    2010-01-01

    In this work we simulate the $50-200$ MHz radio sky that is constrained in the field of view ($5^{\\circ}$ radius) of the 21 Centimeter Array (21CMA), by carrying out Monte-Carlo simulations to model redshifted cosmological reionization signals and strong contaminating foregrounds, including emissions from our Galaxy, galaxy clusters, and extragalactic point sources. As an improvement of previous works, we consider in detail not only random variations of morphological and spectroscopic parameters within the ranges allowed by multi-band observations, but also evolution of radio halos in galaxy clusters, assuming that relativistic electrons are re-accelerated in the ICM in merger events and lose energy via both synchrotron emission and inverse Compton scattering with CMB photons. By introducing a new approach designed on the basis of independent component analysis (ICA) and wavelet detection algorithm, we prove that, with a cumulative observation of one month with the 21CMA array, about $80\\%$ of galaxy clusters...

  16. A Search for Low Surface Brightness Structure Around Compact Narrow Emission Line Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, E J; Bershady, M A; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Zee, Liese van; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2006-01-01

    As the most extreme members of the rapidly evolving faint blue galaxy population at intermediate redshift, the compact narrow emission line galaxies (CNELGs) are intrinsically luminous (-22 -18). Conversely, 15 are not blue enough to fade to low-luminosity dwarfs (M_B > -15.2). The majority of the CNELGs are consistent with progenitors of intermediate-luminosity dwarfs and low-luminosity spiral galaxies with small disks. CNELGs are a heterogeneous progenitor population with significant fractions (up to 44%) capable of fading into today's faint dwarfs (M_B > -15.2), while 15 to 85% may only experience an apparently extremely compact CNELG phase at intermediate redshift but remain more luminous galaxies at the present epoch.

  17. The Formation of Submillimetre-Bright Galaxies from Gas Infall over a Billion Years

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Desika; Feldmann, Robert; Robitaille, Thomas; Hopkins, Philip; Thompson, Robert; Hayward, Christopher; Ball, David; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Keres, Dusan

    2015-01-01

    Submillimetre-luminous galaxies at high-redshift are the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe, and are characterised by prodigious emission in the far-infrared at 850 microns (S850 > 5 mJy). They reside in halos ~ 10^13Msun, have low gas fractions compared to main sequence disks at a comparable redshift, trace complex environments, and are not easily observable at optical wavelengths. Their physical origin remains unclear. Simulations have been able to form galaxies with the requisite luminosities, but have otherwise been unable to simultaneously match the stellar masses, star formation rates, gas fractions and environments. Here we report a cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation that is able to form a submillimetre galaxy which simultaneously satisfies the broad range of observed physical constraints. We find that groups of galaxies residing in massive dark matter halos have rising star formation histories that peak at collective rates ~ 500-1000 Msun/yr at z=2-3, by wh...

  18. Investigating AGN Black Hole Masses and the M-$\\sigma_e$ relation for Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, Smitha; Das, Mousumi; George, Koshy; T, Sivarani; Prabhu, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the optical nuclear spectra from the active galactic nuclei (AGN) in a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we derived the virial black hole (BH) masses of 24 galaxies from their broad H$\\alpha$ parameters. We find that our estimates of nuclear BH masses lie in the range $10^{5}-10^{7}~M_{\\odot}$, with a median mass of 5.62 x 10$^{6}~M_{\\odot}$. The bulge stellar velocity dispersion $\\sigma_{e}$ was determined from the underlying stellar spectra. We compared our results with the existing BH mass - velocity dispersion ($M_{BH}-\\sigma_{e}$) correlations and found that the majority of our sample lie in the low BH mass regime and below the $M_{BH}-\\sigma_{e}$ correlation. We analysed the effects of any systematic bias in the M$_{BH}$ estimates, the effects of galaxy orientation in the measurement of $\\sigma_e$ and the increase of $\\sigma_e$ due to the presence of bars and found that these effects are insufficient to explain...

  19. 12CO, 13CO and C18O observations along the major axes of nearby bright infrared galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Qinghua; Zhang, Zhiyu; Xia, Xiaoyang

    2011-01-01

    We present simultaneous observations of CO,13CO and C18O J=1-0 emission in 11 nearby (cz<1000 km/s) bright infrared galaxies. Both 12CO and 13CO are detected in the centers of all galaxies, except for 13CO in NGC 3031. We have also detected C18O, CS J=2-1, and HCO+ J=1-0 emission in the nuclear regions of M82 and M51. These are the first systematical extragalactic detections of 12CO and its isotopes from the PMO 14m telescope. We have conducted half-beam spacing mapping of M82 over an area of 4'*2.5' and major axis mapping of NGC 3627, NGC 3628, NGC 4631, and M51. The radial distributions of 12CO and 13CO in NGC 3627, NGC 3628, and M51 can be well fitted by an exponential profile. The 12CO/13CO intensity ratio,R,decreases monotonically with galactocentric radius in all mapped sources. The average R in the center and disk of the galaxies are 9.9+/-3.0 and 5.6+/-1.9 respectively, much lower than the peculiar R(~24) found in the center of M82. The intensity ratios of 13CO/C18O, 13CO/HCO+ and 13CO/CS (either o...

  20. The Millennium Galaxy Catalogue: Star counts and the Structure of the Galactic Stellar Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Lemon, D; Liske, J; Driver, S; Horne, K; Lemon, David; Wyse, Rosemary F.G.; Liske, Jochen; Driver, Simon; Horne, Keith

    2004-01-01

    We derive a star catalogue generated from the images taken as part of the 37.5 sq. deg Millennium Galaxy Catalogue. These data, alone and together with colours gained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Early Data Release, allow the analysis of faint star counts (B(MGC) < 20) at high Galactic latitude (41 < b < 63), as a function of Galactic longitude (239 < l < 353). We focus here on the inner stellar halo, providing robust limits on the amplitude of substructure and on the large-scale flattening. In line with previous results, the thick disk, an old, intermediate-metallicity population, is clearly seen in the colour-magnitude diagram. We find that the Galactic stellar halo within ~10 kpc (the bulk of the stellar mass) is significantly flattened, with an axial ratio of (c/a) =0.56 +/- 0.01, again consistent with previous results. Our analysis using counts-in-cells, angular correlation functions and the Lee 2D statistic, confirms tidal debris from the Sagittarius dwarf but finds little evidence f...

  1. The Intrinsic Shapes of Low-Surface-Brightness Dwarf Irregular Galaxies and Comparison to Other Types of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sung, E C; Ryden, S; Patterson, J; Chun, M S; Kim, H I; Lee, W B; Sung, Eon-Chang; Han, Cheongho; Chun, Moon-Suk; Kim, Ho-Il; Lee, Woo-Baik

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we measure the ellipticities of 30 LSB dI galaxies and compare the ellipticity distribution with that of 80 dEs (Ryden & Terndrup 1994; Ryden et al. 1998) and 62 BCDs (Sung et al. 1998). We find that the ellipticity distribution of LSB dIs is very similar to that of BCDs, and marginally different from that of dEs. We then determine the distribution of intrinsic shapes of dI galaxies and compare to those of other type dwarf galaxies under various assumptions. First, we assume that LSB dIs are either all oblate or all prolate, and use non-parametric analysis to find the best-fitting distribution of intrinsic shapes. With this assumption, we find that the scarcity of nearly circular LSB dIs implies, at the 99% confidence level, that they cannot be a population of randomly oriented oblate or prolate objects. Next, we assume that dIs are triaxial, and use parametric analysis to find permissible distributions of intrinsic shapes. We find that if the intrinsic axis ratios, $\\beta$ and parameters f...

  2. Dynamical stability and environmental influences in low surface brightness disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihos, C.; McGaugh, S. S.; Blok, E. de

    1997-01-01

    Using analytic stability criteria we demonstrate that, because of their low surface mass density and large dark matter content, low surface brightness (LSB) disks are quite stable against the growth of global nonaxisymmetric modes such as bars. However, depending on their (poorly constrained) stella

  3. The luminosity function and surface brightness distribution of HI selected galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, MA; Briggs, FH; Sprayberry, D

    2001-01-01

    We measure the z = 0 B-band optical luminosity function (LF) for galaxies selected in a blind Hi survey. The total LF of the Hi selected sample is flat, with Schechter parameters M*= -19.38+(+1.02)(-0.62) + 5 log h(100) mag and alpha = -1.03(-0.15)(+0.25), in good agreement with LFs of optically sel

  4. Wide and deep near-UV (360nm) galaxy counts and the extragalactic background light with the Large Binocular Camera

    CERN Document Server

    Grazian, A; Giallongo, E; Gallozzi, S; Fontanot, F; Fontana, A; Testa, V; Ragazzoni, R; Baruffolo, A; Beccari, G; Diolaiti, E; Di Paola, A; Farinato, J; Gasparo, F; Gentile, G; Green, R; Hill, J; Kuhn, O; Pasian, F; Pedichini, F; Radovich, M; Smareglia, R; Speziali, R; Thompson, D; Wagner, R M

    2009-01-01

    Deep multicolour surveys are the main tool to explore the formation and evolution of the faint galaxies which are beyond the spectroscopic limit with the present technology. The photometric properties of these faint galaxies are usually compared with current renditions of semianalytical models to provide constraints on the fundamental physical processes involved in galaxy formation and evolution, namely the mass assembly and the star formation. Galaxy counts over large sky areas in the near-UV band are important because they are difficult to obtain given the low efficiency of near-UV instrumentation, even at 8m class telescopes. A large instrumental field of view helps in minimizing the biases due to the cosmic variance. We have obtained deep images in the 360nm U band provided by the blue channel of the Large Binocular Camera at the prime focus of the Large Binocular Telescope. We have derived over an area of ~0.4 sq. deg. the galaxy number counts down to U=27 in the Vega system (corresponding to U=27.86 in ...

  5. GALAXYCOUNT: a JAVA calculator of galaxy counts and variances in multiband wide-field surveys to 28 AB mag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, S. C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2007-05-01

    We provide a consistent framework for estimating galaxy counts and variances in wide-field images for a range of photometric bands. The variances include both Poissonian noise and variations due to large-scale structure. We demonstrate that our statistical theory is consistent with the counts in the deepest multiband surveys available. The statistical estimates depend on several observational parameters (e.g. seeing, signal-to-noise ratio), and include a sophisticated treatment of detection completeness. The JAVA calculator is freely available1 and offers the user the option to adopt our consistent framework or a different scheme. We also provide a summary table of statistical measures in the different bands for a range of different fields of view. Reliable estimation of the background counts has profound consequences in many areas of observational astronomy. We provide two such examples. One is from a recent study of the Sculptor galaxy NGC300 where stellar photometry has been used to demonstrate that the outer disc extends to 10 effective radii, far beyond what was thought possible for a normal low-luminosity spiral. We confirm this finding by a re-analysis of the background counts. Secondly, we determine the luminosity function of the galaxy cluster Abell 2734, both through spectroscopically determined cluster membership, and through statistical subtraction of the background galaxies using the calculator and offset fields. We demonstrate very good agreement, suggesting that expensive spectroscopic follow-up, or off-source observations, may often be bypassed via determination of the galaxy background with GALAXYCOUNT.

  6. Star formation in infrared bright and infrared faint starburst interacting galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Susan A.; Bushouse, Howard A.; Towns, John W.

    1990-01-01

    Short wavelength IUE spectra of Arp 248b and UGC 8315N are combined with optical spectra and interpreted using a combination of spectrum synthesis and spectral diagnostics to place constraints on the massive star populations of the central regions of these galaxies and to deduce information about the star formation histories in the last 10(exp 8) years. The authors find that both galaxies have substantial fractions of their optical light coming from massive stars and that Arp 248b may be dominated in the UV by WR stars. The UV spectra are dominated by radiation from evolved massive stars and the authors place and age on the burst in Arp 248b of a few tens of millions of years.

  7. Towards a more realistic population of bright spiral galaxies in cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumer, Michael; White, Simon D. M.; Naab, Thorsten; Scannapieco, Cecilia

    2013-10-01

    We present an update to the multiphase smoothed particle hydrodynamics galaxy formation code by Scannapieco et al. We include a more elaborate treatment of the production of metals, cooling rates based on individual element abundances and a scheme for the turbulent diffusion of metals. Our supernova feedback model now transfers energy to the interstellar medium (ISM) in kinetic and thermal form, and we include a prescription for the effects of radiation pressure from massive young stars on the ISM. We calibrate our new code on the well-studied Aquarius haloes and then use it to simulate a sample of 16 galaxies with halo masses between 1 × 1011 and 3 × 1012 M⊙. In general, the stellar masses of the sample agree well with the stellar mass to halo mass relation inferred from abundance matching techniques for redshifts z = 0-4. There is however a tendency to overproduce stars at z > 4 and to underproduce them at z metallicities at z = 0-3. Remaining discrepancies can be connected to deviations from predictions for star formation histories from abundance matching. At z = 0, the model galaxies show realistic morphologies, stellar surface density profiles, circular velocity curves and stellar metallicities, but overly flat metallicity gradients. 15 out of 16 of our galaxies contain disc components with kinematic disc fraction ranging between 15 and 65 per cent. The disc fraction depends on the time of the last destructive merger or misaligned infall event. Considering the remaining shortcomings of our simulations we conclude that even higher kinematic disc fractions may be possible for Λ cold dark matter haloes with quiet merger histories, such as the Aquarius haloes.

  8. Satellite abundances around bright isolated galaxies II: radial distribution and environmental effects

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenting; Henriques, Bruno M B; White, Simon D M

    2014-01-01

    We use the SDSS/DR8 galaxy sample to study the radial distribution of satellite galaxies around isolated primaries, comparing to semi-analytic models of galaxy formation based on the Millennium and Millennium-II simulations. SDSS satellites behave differently around high- and low-mass primaries: those orbiting objects with $M_*>10^{11}M_\\odot$ are mostly red and are less concentrated towards their host than the inferred dark matter halo, an effect that is very pronounced for the few blue satellites. On the other hand, less massive primaries have steeper satellite profiles that agree quite well with the expected dark matter distribution and are dominated by blue satellites, even in the inner regions where strong environmental effects are expected. In fact, such effects appear to be strong only for primaries with $M_* > 10^{11}M_\\odot$. This behaviour is not reproduced by current semi-analytic simulations, where satellite profiles always parallel those of the dark matter and satellite populations are predominan...

  9. CARMA Survey Toward Infrared-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING). III. The Dependence of Atomic and Molecular Gas Surface Densities on Galaxy Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Tony; Bolatto, Alberto D; Leroy, Adam K; Blitz, Leo; Rosolowsky, Erik; Bigiel, Frank; Fisher, David B; Ott, Jürgen; Rahman, Nurur; Vogel, Stuart N; Walter, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the correlation between CO and HI emission in 18 nearby galaxies from the CARMA Survey Toward IR-Bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) at sub-kpc and kpc scales. Our sample, spanning a wide range in stellar mass and metallicity, reveals evidence for a metallicity dependence of the HI column density measured in regions exhibiting CO emission. Such a dependence is predicted by the equilibrium model of McKee & Krumholz, which balances H_2 formation and dissociation. The observed HI column density is often smaller than predicted by the model, an effect we attribute to unresolved clumping, although values close to the model prediction are also seen. We do not observe HI column densities much larger than predicted, as might be expected were there a diffuse HI component that did not contribute to H_2 shielding. We also find that the H_2 column density inferred from CO correlates strongly with the stellar surface density, suggesting that the local supply of molecular gas is tightly regulated by the stella...

  10. Surface brightness profiles of blue compact dwarf galaxies in the GOODS-N and GOODS-S field

    CERN Document Server

    Lian, Jianhui; Jiang, Ning; Yan, Wei; Gao, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the structural properties of the underlying hosts of 34 blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies with deep near-infrared (NIR) photometry. The BCD sample is selected from the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey in the Great observatories origins Deep Survey North and South fields. We extract the surface brightness profile (SBP) in the optical F 435W and NIR F 160W bands. The SBPs of BCDs in the H band reach 26 mag arcsec^-2 at the 3\\sigma level, which is so far the deepest NIR imaging of BCDs. Then we fit the SBPs with one- and two- component Sersic models. About half of the BCDs favour the two-component model which significantly improves the fit quality. The effective radii of the underlying hosts of BCDs in the B band are smaller than those of early-type dwarfs (dEs) and dwarf irregulars at a fixed luminosity. This discrepancy is similar to findings in many previous works. However, the difference in structural parameters between BCDs and other dwarf galaxies seems to be less sig...

  11. Probing Very Bright-End of Galaxy Luminosity Function at z >~ 7 Using Hubble Space Telescope Pure Parallel Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Haojing; Zamojski, Michel A; Windhorst, Rogier A; McCarthy, Patrick J; Fan, Xiaohui; Röttgering, Huub J A; Koekemoer, Anton M; Robertson, Brant E; Davé, Romeel; Cai, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    We report the first results from the Hubble Infrared Pure Parallel Imaging Extragalactic Survey, which utilizes the pure parallel orbits of the Hubble Space Telescope to do deep imaging along a large number of random sightlines. To date, our analysis includes 26 widely separated fields observed by the Wide Field Camera 3, which amounts to 122.8 sq. arcmin in total area. We have found three bright Y098-dropouts, which are candidate galaxies at z >~ 7.4. One of these objects shows a peculiar indication of variability and its nature is uncertain. The other two objects are among the brightest candidate galaxies at these redshifts known to date (L>2L*). Such very luminous objects could be the progenitors of the high-mass LBGs observed at lower redshifts. While our sample is still limited in size, it is much less subject to the uncertainty caused by "cosmic variance" than other samples because it is derived using fields along many random sightlines. We find that the existence of the brightest candidate at z~7.4 is ...

  12. Hubble space telescope observations of the afterglow, supernova, and host galaxy associated with the extremely bright GRB 130427A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Fruchter, A. S.; Hounsell, R. A.; Graham, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Pian, E. [INAF, Trieste Astronomical Observatory, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Mazzali, P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2 Liverpool Science Park 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cano, Z. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [Science and Technology Office, ZP12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Pe' er, A. [Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Misra, K., E-mail: a.j.levan@warwick.ac.uk [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Manora Peak, Nainital-263 002 (India)

    2014-09-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 130427A. At z = 0.34, this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova (SN) and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E {sub iso} > 10{sup 54} erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated SN. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability, and invariant point-spread function of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host, and SN contributions to the observed light ∼17 rest-frame days after the burst, utilizing a host subtraction spectrum obtained one year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys grism observations show that the associated SN, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, v {sub ph} ∼ 15, 000 km s{sup –1}). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (v {sub ph} ∼ 30, 000 km s{sup –1}), but this SN is significantly fainter and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated ∼4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}), possibly interacting disk galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size, and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it, are also strikingly similar to those of GRB 980425/SN 1998bw. The similarity of the SNe and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests that broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  13. Hubble space telescope observations of the afterglow, supernova, and host galaxy associated with the extremely bright GRB 130427A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 130427A. At z = 0.34, this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova (SN) and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E iso > 1054 erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated SN. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability, and invariant point-spread function of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host, and SN contributions to the observed light ∼17 rest-frame days after the burst, utilizing a host subtraction spectrum obtained one year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys grism observations show that the associated SN, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, v ph ∼ 15, 000 km s–1). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (v ph ∼ 30, 000 km s–1), but this SN is significantly fainter and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated ∼4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 M ☉ yr–1), possibly interacting disk galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size, and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it, are also strikingly similar to those of GRB 980425/SN 1998bw. The similarity of the SNe and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests that broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Afterglow, Supernova and Host Galaxy Associated with the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, A.J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Fruchter, A. S.; Hjorth, J.; Pian, E.; Mazzali, P.; Hounsell, R. A.; Perley, D. A.; Cano, Z.; Graham, J.; Cenko, S. B.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pe'er, A.; Misra, K.; Wiersema, K.

    2014-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst, GRB 130427A. At z=0.34 this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E(sub iso) greater than 10(exp 54) erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated supernova. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability and and invariant PSF of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host and supernova contributions to the observed light approximately 17 rest-frame days after the burst utilising a host subtraction spectrum obtained 1 year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism observations show that the associated supernova, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, vph approximately 15,000 kilometers per second). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second), but SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second but this SN is significantly fainter, and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated approximately 4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 Solar Mass yr(exp-1)), possibly interacting disc galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it are also strikingly similar to those of GRB980425SN 1998bw. The similarity of supernovae and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  15. The trace of a substantial assembly of massive E-S0 galaxies at 0.8galaxy number counts

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    K-band galaxy number counts (GNCs) exhibit a slope change at K~17.5 mag not present in optical bands. To unveil the nature of this feature, we have derived the contribution of different galaxy types to the total K-band GNCs at 0.32 cannot predict the slope change, whereas those imposing a relatively late assembly on them (z<1.5) can reproduce it. The K-band GNCs by redshift bins and morphological types point to a progressively definitive build-up of ~50% of this galaxy population at 0.8

  16. The Detection of a Population of Submillimeter-Bright, Strongly-Lensed Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Negrello, Mattia; De Zotti, G; Cooray, A; Verma, A; Bock, J; Frayer, D T; Gurwell, M A; Omont, A; Neri, R; Dannerbauer, H; Leeuw, L L; Barton, E; Cooke, J; Kim, S; da Cunha, E; Rodighiero, G; Cox, P; Bonfield, D G; Jarvis, M J; Serjeant, S; Ivison, R J; Dye, S; Aretxaga, I; Hughes, D H; Ibar, E; Bertoldi, F; Valtchanov, I; Eales, S; Dunne, L; Driver, S P; Auld, R; Buttiglione, S; Cava, A; Grady, C A; Clements, D L; Dariush, A; Fritz, J; Hill, D; Hornbeck, J B; Kelvin, L; Lagache, G; Lopez-Caniego, M; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Maddox, S; Pascale, E; Pohlen, M; Rigby, E E; Robotham, A; Simpson, C; Smith, D J B; Temi, P; Thompson, M A; Woodgate, B E; York, D G; Aguirre, J E; Beelen, A; Blain, A; Baker, A J; Birkinshaw, M; Blundell, R; Bradford, C M; Burgarella, D; Danese, L; Dunlop, J S; Fleuren, S; Glenn, J; Harris, A I; Kamenetzky, J; Lupu, R E; Maddalena, R J; Madore, B F; Maloney, P R; Matsuhara, H; Michalowski, M J; Murphy, E J; Naylor, B J; Nguyen, H; Popescu, C; Rawlings, S; Rigopoulou, D; Scott, D; Scott, K S; Seibert, M; Smail, I; Tuffs, R J; Vieira, J D; van der Werf, P P; Zmuidzinas, J; 10.1126/science.1193420

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful astrophysical and cosmological probe and is particularly valuable at submillimeter wavelengths for the study of the statistical and individual properties of dusty starforming galaxies. However the identification of gravitational lenses is often time-intensive, involving the sifting of large volumes of imaging or spectroscopic data to find few candidates. We used early data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey to demonstrate that wide-area submillimeter surveys can simply and easily detect strong gravitational lensing events, with close to 100% efficiency.

  17. Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Selected from the 40% Sky Area of the ALFALFA H I Survey. I. Sample and Statistical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Wu, Hong; Lam, Man I.; Zhu, Yinan; Lei, Fengjie; Zhou, Zhimin

    2015-06-01

    The population of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies, which are objects with central surface brightnesses at least one magnitude fainter than the night sky, is crucial for understanding the extremes of galactic formation and evolution of the universe. As LSB galaxies are mostly rich in gas (H i), the α.40 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) sample is one of the best survey combinations to select a sample of them in the local universe. Since the sky backgrounds are systematically overestimated for galactic images by the SDSS photometric pipeline, particularly for luminous galaxies or galaxies with extended LSB outskirts, in this paper, we above all estimated the sky backgrounds of SDSS images accurately in both the g and r bands for each galaxy in the α.40 SDSS DR7 sample, using a precise method of sky subtraction. Once subtracting the sky background, we did surface photometry with the Kron elliptical aperture using the SExtractor software and fitted geometric parameters with an exponential profile model using the Galfit software for each galactic image in the α.40 SDSS DR7 sample. Based on the photometric and geometric results, we further calculated the B-band central surface brightness, {{μ }0}(B), for each galaxy and ultimately defined a sample of LSB galaxies consisting of 1129 galaxies with {{μ }0}(B) > 22.5 mag arcsec-2 and the axis ratio b/a > 0.3 from the 12,423 α.40 SDSS DR7 galaxies. This H i-selected sample of LSB galaxies is a relatively unbiased sample of gas-rich and disk-dominated LSB galaxies, which is complete both in H i observation and the optical magnitude within the limit of the SDSS DR7 photometric survey. This LSB galactic sample spans from 22.5 to 28.3 in {{μ }0}(B) with a fraction of 4% fainter than 25.0 mag arcsec-2 in B-band central surface brightness and distributes from -27.0 to -12.3 mag in absolute magnitude in the B band (M(B)), including the 43 faintest galaxies (M(B) > -17.3 mag). This sample is a blue LSB

  18. Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Selected from the 40% Sky Area of the ALFALFA H I Survey. I. Sample and Statistical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Wu, Hong; Lam, Man I.; Zhu, Yinan; Lei, Fengjie; Zhou, Zhimin

    2015-06-01

    The population of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies, which are objects with central surface brightnesses at least one magnitude fainter than the night sky, is crucial for understanding the extremes of galactic formation and evolution of the universe. As LSB galaxies are mostly rich in gas (H i), the α.40 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) sample is one of the best survey combinations to select a sample of them in the local universe. Since the sky backgrounds are systematically overestimated for galactic images by the SDSS photometric pipeline, particularly for luminous galaxies or galaxies with extended LSB outskirts, in this paper, we above all estimated the sky backgrounds of SDSS images accurately in both the g and r bands for each galaxy in the α.40 SDSS DR7 sample, using a precise method of sky subtraction. Once subtracting the sky background, we did surface photometry with the Kron elliptical aperture using the SExtractor software and fitted geometric parameters with an exponential profile model using the Galfit software for each galactic image in the α.40 SDSS DR7 sample. Based on the photometric and geometric results, we further calculated the B-band central surface brightness, {{μ }0}(B), for each galaxy and ultimately defined a sample of LSB galaxies consisting of 1129 galaxies with {{μ }0}(B) > 22.5 mag arcsec‑2 and the axis ratio b/a > 0.3 from the 12,423 α.40 SDSS DR7 galaxies. This H i-selected sample of LSB galaxies is a relatively unbiased sample of gas-rich and disk-dominated LSB galaxies, which is complete both in H i observation and the optical magnitude within the limit of the SDSS DR7 photometric survey. This LSB galactic sample spans from 22.5 to 28.3 in {{μ }0}(B) with a fraction of 4% fainter than 25.0 mag arcsec‑2 in B-band central surface brightness and distributes from ‑27.0 to ‑12.3 mag in absolute magnitude in the B band (M(B)), including the 43 faintest galaxies (M(B) > ‑17.3 mag). This sample is

  19. Constraining the Bright-end of the UV Luminosity Function for z ~ 7 - 9 Galaxies: results from CANDELS/GOODS-South

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenzoni, Silvio; Wilkins, Stephen M; Caruana, Joseph; Stanway, Elizabeth R; Jarvis, Matt J

    2012-01-01

    The recent Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared imaging with the Wide-Field Camera #3 (WFC3) of the GOODS-South field in the CANDELS program covering nearly 100arcmin^2, along with already existing Advanced Camera for Surveys optical data, makes possible the search for bright galaxy candidates at redshift z ~ 7 - 9 using the Lyman-break technique. We present the first analysis of z'-drop z ~ 7 candidate galaxies in this area, finding 19 objects. We also analyse Y-drops at z ~ 8, trebling the number of bright (H_AB < 27 mag) Y-drops from our previous work, and compare our results with those of other groups based on the same data. The bright high redshift galaxy candidates we find serve to better constrain the bright end of the luminosity function at those redshift, and may also be more amenable to spectroscopic confirmation than the fainter ones presented in various previous work on the smaller fields (the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and the WFC 3 Early Release Science observations). We also look at the agreeme...

  20. Digitized POSS-II: Galaxy Number Counts in Two Colors Over a Multi-Plate Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, N.; Djorgovski, S.; Fayyad, U.

    1993-05-01

    We have developed a software system for the reduction and analysis of the Palomar-STScI Digital Sky Survey (cf. B.A.A.S. 23, p. 1434, and B.A.A.S. 24, pp. 741, 750, and 1139). This system, named SKICAT, uses a number of image processing and machine-learning based modules, and conducts pipeline processing of the plate scans, from raw pixel measurement, object classification, photometric matching of multiple plate images, to high-level catalog database manipulation using an X-windows based GUI. We are now in the process of implementing a variety of tools for the scientific and multivariate statistical analysis of the object catalogs. We will present our initial results on galaxy and star counts in two colors (photographic J and F, calibrated to Gunn g and r bands), for a multi-plate region near the north Galactic pole, covering up to 5 Survey fields ( ~ 125 square degrees), and up to 11 Survey fields ( ~ 275 square degrees) in a single color. The data have been uniformly calibrated using CCD sequences and plate overlaps over the range 16 models. Acknowledgements: The POSS-II is partially funded by grants to Caltech from the Eastman Kodak Co., the National Geographic Society, the Samuel Oschin Foundation, the NSF grants AST 84-08225 and AST 87-19465, and the NASA grants NGL 05002140 and NAGW 1710. NW was supported in part by a NSF graduate fellowship and by IPAC. SD acknowledges a partial support from the NASA contract NAS5-31348, the NSF PYI award AST-9157412, the Caltech President's fund, and JPL. Work at JPL is performed under a contract with the NASA.

  1. Probing the evolution of early-type galaxies using multi-colour number counts and redshift distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Nakata, F; Doi, M; Kashikawa, N; Kawasaki, W; Komiyama, Yu; Okamura, S; Sekiguchi, M; Yagi, M; Yasuda, N; Nakata, Fumiaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Doi, Mamoru; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kawasaki, Wataru; Komiyama, Yutaka; Okamura, Sadanori; Sekiguchi, Maki; Yagi, Masafumi; Yasuda, Naoki

    1999-01-01

    We investigate pure luminosity evolution models for early-type (elliptical and S0) galaxies (i.e., no number density change or morphology transition), and examine whether these models are consistent with observed number counts in the B, I and K bands and redshift distributions of two samples of faint galaxies selected in the I and K bands. The models are characterized by the star formation time scale $\\tau_{SF}$ and the time $t_{gw}$ when galactic wind blows in addition to several other conventional parameters. We find the single-burst model ($\\tau_{SF}$=0.1 Gyr and $t_{gw}$=0.353 Gyr), which is known to reproduce the photometric properties of early-type galaxies in clusters, is inconsistent with redshift distributions of early-type galaxies in the field environment due to overpredictions of galaxies at $z\\gsim1.4$ even with strong extinction which is at work until $t_{gw}$. In order for dust extinction to be more effective, we change $\\tau_{SF}$ and $t_{gw}$ as free parameters, and find that models with $\\ta...

  2. Warm molecular gas temperature distribution in six local infrared bright Seyfert galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; van der Werf, Paul P; López, Javier Piqueras

    2014-01-01

    We simultaneously analyze the spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) of CO and H2 of six local luminous infrared (IR) Seyfert galaxies. For the CO SLEDs, we used new Herschel/SPIRE FTS data (from J=4-3 to J=13-12) and ground-based observations for the lower-J CO transitions. The H2 SLEDs were constructed using archival mid-IR Spitzer/IRS and near-IR VLT/SINFONI data for the rotational and ro-vibrational H2 transitions, respectively. In total, the SLEDs contain 26 transitions with upper level energies between 5 and 15000 K. A single, constant density, model (n$_{H_2}$ ~ 10$^{4.5-6}$ cm$^{-3}$) with a broken power-law temperature distribution reproduces well both the CO and H2 SLEDs. The power-law indices are $\\beta_1$ ~ 1-3 for warm molecular gas (20 K 100 K). We show that the steeper temperature distribution (higher $\\beta$) for hot molecular gas can be explained by shocks and photodissociation region (PDR) models, however, the exact $\\beta$ values are not reproduced by PDR or shock models alone and a co...

  3. SPECTROPOLARIMETRY WITH THE ALLEN TELESCOPE ARRAY: FARADAY ROTATION TOWARD BRIGHT POLARIZED RADIO GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have observed 37 bright, polarized radio sources with the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) to present a novel analysis of their Faraday rotation properties. Each source was observed during the commissioning phase with two to four 100 MHz bands at frequencies ranging from 1 to 2 GHz. These observations demonstrate how the continuous frequency coverage of the ATA's log-periodic receiver can be applied to the study of Faraday rotation measures (RMs). We use RM synthesis to show that wide-bandwidth data can find multiple RM components toward a single source. Roughly a quarter of the sources studied have extra RM components with high confidence (brighter than ∼40 mJy), when observing with an RM resolution of roughly 100 rad m-2. These extra components contribute 10%-70% of the total polarized flux. This is the first time multiple RM components have been identified in a large sample of point sources. For our observing configuration, these extra RM components bias the measurement of the peak RM by 10-15 rad m-2; more generally, the peak RM cannot be determined more precisely than the RM beam size. Comparing our 1-2 GHz RM spectra to Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) polarimetric maps shows that both techniques can identify complicated Faraday structures in the sources. However, the RM values and fractional polarization are generally smaller at lower frequencies than in the higher frequency VLBA maps. With a few exceptions, the RMs from this work are consistent with that of earlier, narrow-bandwidth, all-sky surveys. This work also describes the polarimetry calibration procedure and that on-axis ATA observations of linear polarization can be calibrated to an accuracy of 0.2% of Stokes I. Future research directions include studying the time-dependent RM structure in active galactic nuclei and enabling accurate, wide-area RM surveys to test models of Galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields.

  4. Galaxies in X-ray Selected Clusters and Groups in Dark Energy Survey Data: Stellar Mass Growth of Bright Central Galaxies Since z~1.2

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y; Mckay, T; Rooney, P; Evrard, A E; Romer, A K; Perfecto, R; Song, J; Desai, S; Mohr, J; Wilcox, H; Bermeo, A; Jeltema, T; Hollowood, D; Bacon, D; Capozzi, D; Collins, C; Das, R; Gerdes, D; Hennig, C; Hilton, M; Hoyle, B; Kay, S; Liddle, A; Mann, R G; Mehrtens, N; Nichol, R C; Papovich, C; Sahlén, M; Soares-Santos, M; Stott, J; Viana, P T; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F B; Banerji, M; Bauer, A H; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Rosell, A Carnero; Castander, F J; Diehl, H T; Doel, P; Cunha, C E; Eifler, T F; Neto, A Fausti; Fernandez, E; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gaztanaga, E; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Honscheid, K; James, D; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Maia, M A G; Makler, M; Marshall, J L; Martini, Paul; Miquel, R; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Roodman, A; Rykoff, E S; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla, I; Smith, R C; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Tucker, D; Vikram, V; Da Costa, L N

    2015-01-01

    Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) for a new sample of 106 X-Ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of Bright Central Galaxies (BCGs) since redshift 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation, $m_{*}\\propto(\\frac{M_{200}}{1.5\\times 10^{14}M_{\\odot}})^{0.24\\pm 0.08}(1+z)^{-0.19\\pm0.34}$, and compare the observed relation to the simulation prediction. We estimate the average growth rate since z = 1.0 for BCGs hosted by clusters of $M_{200, z}=10^{13.8}M_{\\odot}$, at $z=1.0$: $m_{*, BCG}$ appears to have grown by $0.13\\pm0.11$ dex, in tension at $\\sim 2.5 \\sigma$ significance level with the 0.4 dex growth rate expected in the simulation. We show that...

  5. Hubble Space Telescope observations of the afterglow, supernova and host galaxy associated with the extremely bright GRB 130427A

    CERN Document Server

    Levan, A J; Fruchter, A S; Hjorth, J; Pian, E; Mazzali, P; Perley, D A; Cano, Z; Graham, J; Hounsell, R A; Cenko, S B; Fynbo, J P U; Kouveliotou, C; Pe'er, A; Misra, K; Wiersema, K

    2013-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst, GRB 130427A. At z=0.34 this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E_iso >10^54 erg), much more luminous than almost all previous GRBs with spectroscopically associated supernovae. We use the combination of the image quality and UV capability of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host and supernova contributions to the observed light ~17 rest-frame days after the burst. We find that the burst originated ~4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 Msol/yr), possibly interacting disc galaxy. ACS grism observations show that the associated supernova, SN 2013cq, is well fit in the red by an SN 1998bw-like supernovae of similar luminosity and velocity (v~15,000 km/s). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (v~30,000 km/s), but this SN fai...

  6. An ultra-bright, dust-obscured, millimeter-galaxy beyond the Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56)

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, G W; Hughes, D; Ezawa, H; Austermann, J E; Doyle, S; Hernandez-Curiel, I; Kawabe, R; Kitayama, T; Kohno, K; Kuboi, A; Matsuo, H; Mauskopf, P D; Murakoshi, Y; Montana, A; Natarajan, P; Oshima, T; Ota, N; Perera, T; Rand, J; Scott, K S; Tanaka, K; Tsuboi, M; Williams, C C; Yun, M S

    2008-01-01

    Deep 1.1 mm continuum observations of the interacting galaxy-clusters 1E0657-56 (the Bullet Cluster) taken with the millimeter-wavelength camera AzTEC on the 10-m Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE), have revealed an extremely bright (S_1.1mm=15.9mJy) unresolved source. This source, MMJ065837-5557.0, lies close to a maximum in the density of underlying mass-distribution as traced by the weak-lensing analysis of Clowe et al. 2006, towards the larger of the two interacting clusters. A lensing-derived mass model for the Bullet Cluster shows a critical-line (caustic) of magnification very near the AzTEC source, likely providing a high boost (> 20) to its millimeter flux. We explore various scenarios to explain the colors, morphologies and positional offsets between the potential optical and IR counterparts, and their relationship with MMJ065837-5557.0. One interpretation is that MMJ065837-5557.0 is an individual distant LIRG, with multiple HST and Spitzer images due to the strong lensing by the Bull...

  7. CARMA Survey Toward Infrared-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) II: Molecular Gas Star Formation Law and Depletion Time Across the Blue Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Nurur; Xue, Rui; Wong, Tony; Leroy, Adam K; Walter, Fabian; Bigiel, Frank; Rosolowsky, Erik; Fisher, David B; Vogel, Stuart N; Blitz, Leo; West, Andrew A; Ott, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the relationship between molecular gas and current star formation rate surface density at sub-kpc and kpc scales in a sample of 14 nearby star-forming galaxies. Measuring the relationship in the bright, high molecular gas surface density ($\\Shtwo\\gtrsim$20 \\msunpc) regions of the disks to minimize the contribution from diffuse extended emission, we find an approximately linear relation between molecular gas and star formation rate surface density, $\

  8. The opacity of spiral galaxy disks. IV. Radial extinction profiles from counts of distant galaxies seen through foreground disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, BW; Gonzalez, RA; Allen, RJ; van der Kruit, PC

    2005-01-01

    Dust extinction can be determined from the number of distant field galaxies seen through a spiral disk. To calibrate this number for the crowding and confusion introduced by the foreground image, Gonzalez et al. and Holwerda et al. developed the Synthetic Field Method (SFM), which analyzes synthetic

  9. The detection of ultra-faint low surface brightness dwarf galaxies in the Virgo Cluster: a Probe of Dark Matter and Baryonic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Giallongo, E; Grazian, A; Fassbender, R; Fontana, A; Paris, D; Pentericci, L

    2015-01-01

    We have discovered 11 ultra-faint ($r\\lesssim 22.1$) low surface brightness (LSB, central surface brightness $23\\lesssim \\mu_r\\lesssim 26$) dwarf galaxy candidates in one deep Virgo field of just $576$ arcmin$^2$ obtained by the Large Binocular Camera (LBC) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Their association with the Virgo cluster is supported by their distinct position in the central surface brightness - total magnitude plane with respect to the background galaxies of similar total magnitude. They have typical absolute magnitudes and scale sizes, if at the distance of Virgo, in the range $-13\\lesssim M_r\\lesssim -9$ and $250\\lesssim r_s\\lesssim 850$ pc, respectively. Their colors are consistent with a gradually declining star formation history with a specific star formation rate of the order of $10^{-11}$ yr$^{-1}$, i.e. 10 times lower than that of main sequence star forming galaxies. They are older than the cluster formation age and appear regular in morphology. They represent the faintest extremes of...

  10. Spitzer bright, UltraVISTA faint sources in COSMOS: the contribution to the overall population of massive galaxies at z=3-7

    CERN Document Server

    Caputi, K I; Laigle, C; McCracken, H J; Fevre, O Le; Fynbo, J; Milvang-Jensen, B; Capak, P; Salvato, M; Taniguchi, Y

    2015-01-01

    We have analysed a sample of 574 Spitzer 4.5 micron-selected galaxies with [4.5]24 (AB) over the UltraVISTA ultra-deep COSMOS field. Our aim is to investigate whether these mid-IR bright, near-IR faint sources contribute significantly to the overall population of massive galaxies at redshifts z>=3. By performing a spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis using up to 30 photometric bands, we have determined that the redshift distribution of our sample peaks at redshifts z~2.5-3.0, and ~32% of the galaxies lie at z>=3. We have studied the contribution of these sources to the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) at high redshifts. We found that the [4.5]24 galaxies produce a negligible change to the GSMF previously determined for Ks~50% of the galaxies with stellar masses Mst>~6 x 10^10 Msun. We also constrained the GSMF at the highest-mass end (Mst>~2 x 10^11 Msun) at z>=5. From their presence at 5=

  11. The Tolman Surface Brightness Test for the Reality of the Expansion. III. HST Profile and Surface Brightness Data for Early-Type Galaxies in Three High-Redshift Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lubin, L M; Lubin, Lori M.; Sandage, Allan

    2001-01-01

    Photometric data for 34 early-type galaxies in the three high-redshift clusters Cl 1324+3011 (z = 0.76), Cl 1604+4304 (z = 0.90), and Cl 1604+4321 (z = 0.92), observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and with the Keck 10-meter telescopes by Oke, Postman & Lubin, are analyzed to obtain the photometric parameters of mean surface brightness, magnitudes for the growth curves, and angular radii at various Petrosian eta radii. The angular radii at eta = 1.3 mag for the program galaxies are all larger than 0.24". All of the galaxies are well resolved at this angular size using HST whose point-spread function is 0.05", half width at half maximum. The data for each of the program galaxies are listed at eta = 1.0, 1.3, 1.5, 1.7, and 2.0 mag. They are corrected by color equations and K terms for the effects of redshift to the rest-frame Cape/Cousins I for Cl 1324+3011 and Cl 1604+4304 and R for Cl 1604+4321. The K corrections are calculated from synthetic spectral energy distributions derived from evolving ste...

  12. The optical spectra of Spitzer 24 micron galaxies in the COSMOS field: II. Faint infrared sources in the zCOSMOS-bright 10k catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Caputi, K I; Aussel, H; Le Floc'h, E; Sanders, D; Maier, C; Frayer, D; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Kneib, J -P; Le Fèvre, O; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Scoville, N; Zamorani, G; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Bongiorno, A; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Ilbert, O; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Kartaltepe, J; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Mignoli, M; Peng, Y; Pérez-Montero, E; Ricciardelli, E; Salvato, M; Silverman, Joseph; Surace, J; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Capak, P; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Cimatti, A; Elvis, M; Hasinger, G; Koekemoer, A M; Leauthaud, A; MacCagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Oesch, P; Pellò, R; Porciani, C; Pozzetti, L; Scaramella, R; Scarlata, C; Schiminovich, D; Taniguchi, Y; Zamojski, M

    2009-01-01

    We have used the zCOSMOS-bright 10k sample to identify 3244 Spitzer/MIPS 24-micron-selected galaxies with 0.06< S(24um)< 0.50 mJy and I(AB)<22.5, over 1.5 deg^2 of the COSMOS field, and studied different spectral properties, depending on redshift. At 0.2galaxies at 0.2galaxies suggest that they might be star-formation/nuclear-activity composite systems. At 0.5galaxy metallicities for 301 galaxies: at least 12% of them are securely below the upper-branch mass-me...

  13. Atmospheric CO2 remote sensing system based on high brightness semiconductor lasers and single photon counting detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Serrano, Antonio; Vilera, Maria Fernanda; Esquivias, Ignacio; Faugeron, Mickael; Krakowski, Michel; van Dijk, Frédéric; Kochem, Gerd; Traub, Martin; Adamiec, Pawel; Barbero, Juan; Ai, Xiao; Rarity, John G.; Quatrevalet, Mathieu; Ehret, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    We propose an integrated path differential absorption lidar system based on all-semiconductor laser sources and single photon counting detection for column-averaged measurements of atmospheric CO2. The Random Modulated Continuous Wave (RM-CW) approach has been selected as the best suited to semiconductor lasers. In a RM-CW lidar, a pseudo random sequence is sent to the atmosphere and the received signal reflected from the target is correlated with the original sequence in order to retrieve the path length. The transmitter design is based on two monolithic Master Oscillator Power Amplifiers (MOPAs), providing the on-line and off-line wavelengths close to the selected absorption line around 1.57 µm. Each MOPA consists of a frequency stabilized distributed feedback master oscillator, a bent modulator section, and a tapered amplifier. This design allows the emitters to deliver high power and high quality laser beams with good spectral properties. An output power above 400 mW with a SMSR higher than 45 dB and modulation capability have been demonstrated. On the side of the receiver, our theoretical and experimental results indicate that the major noise contribution comes from the ambient light and detector noise. For this reason narrow band optical filters are required in the envisioned space-borne applications. In this contribution, we present the latest progresses regarding the design, modeling and characterization of the transmitter, the receiver, the frequency stabilization unit and the complete system.

  14. New insights to the photometric structure of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies from deep Near-Infrared studies I. Observations, surface photometry and decomposition of surface brightness profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Noeske, K G; Cairos, L M; Fricke, K J

    2003-01-01

    (shortened) We analyze deep Near Infrared (NIR) broad band images for a sample of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies (BCDs), allowing for the quantitative study of their extended stellar low-surface brightness (LSB) host galaxies. NIR surface brightness profiles (SBPs) of the LSB hosts agree at large galactocentric radii with those from optical studies. At small to intermediate radii, however, the NIR data reveal for more than half of our sample a significant flattening of the exponential SBP of the LSB host. Such SBPs ("type V" SBPs, Binggeli & Cameron 1991) have rarely been detected in LSB hosts of BCDs at optical wavelengths, where the relative flux contribution of the starburst is stronger than in the NIR and can hide such central intensity depressions of the LSB host. The structural properties, frequency and physical origin of type V LSB SBPs in BCDs and other dwarf galaxies have not yet been systematically studied. Nevertheless, their occurrence in a significant fraction of BCDs would impose important new ...

  15. Bright galaxies at z=9-11 from pure-parallel HST observations: Building a unique sample for JWST with Spitzer/IRAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Stephanie; Trenti, Michele; Bouwens, Rychard

    2016-08-01

    The combination of observations taken by Hubble and Spitzer revealed the unexpected presence of sources as bright as our own Milky Way as early as 400 Myr after the Big Bang, potentially highlighting a new highly efficient regime for star formation in L>L* galaxies at very early times. Yet, the sample of high-quality z>8 galaxies that have both HST and Spitzer/IRAC imaging is still very small, particularly at high luminosities. We propose here to remedy this situation and efficiently follow-up with Spitzer/IRAC the most promising z>8 sources from our Hubble Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) survey, which covers a footprint on the sky similar to CANDELS, provides a deeper search than ground-based surveys like UltraVISTA, and is robust against cosmic variance because of its 180 independent lines of sight. The proposed new 3.6 micron observations will continue the Spitzer cycle 12 BORG911 program and target 15 additional fields, leveraging over 300 new HST orbits (350 sqarcmin) to identify a final sample of about 5 to 10 bright galaxies at z >= 8.5. For optimal time use (just over 22 hours), our goal is to readily discriminate between z>8 sources (undetected or marginally detected in IRAC) and z~2 interlopers (strongly detected in IRAC) with just 1-2 hours per pointing. The high-quality candidates that we will identify with IRAC will be ideal targets for further studies to investigate the reionization state of the inter-galactic medium through near-IR Keck/VLT spectroscopy. They will also be uniquely suited to measurement of the redshift and stellar population properties through JWST/NIRSPEC observations, with the potential to elucidate how the first generations of stars are assembled in the earliest stages of the epoch of reionization.

  16. Hα Surface Brightness Profiles of Star-Forming Galaxies and Dependence on Halo Mass Using the HAGGIS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, S.; Wilman, D.; Erwin, P.; Koppenhöfer, J.; Gutierrez, L.; Beckman, J.; Saglia, R.; Bender, R.

    2014-03-01

    We present the first results from the Hα Galaxy Groups Imaging Survey (HAGGIS), a narrow-band imaging survey of SDSS groups at z Issac Newton Telescope (INT). In total, we observed 100 galaxy groups with a wide range of halo mass (1012 - 1014 M⊙) in pairs of narrow-band filters selected to get continuum subtracted rest-frame Hα images for each galaxy. The excellent data allows us to detect Hα down to the 10-18 ergs/s/cm2/arcsec2 level. Here, we examine the role played by halo mass and galaxy stellar mass in deciding the overall star formation activity in star forming disks by comparing stacked Hα profiles of galaxies in different halo mass and stellar mass bins. With this preliminary study, we have found that the star-formation activity in star-forming galaxies decreases in larger halos compared to the field galaxies. Using median equivalent width profiles, we can infer how environmental processes affect star-forming galaxies differently at different radii.

  17. The LBT Bootes Field Survey: I. The Rest-frame UV and Luminosity Functions and Clustering of Bright Lyman Break Galaxies at z~3

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian; Dey, Arjun; Green, Richard; Maiolino, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Dave, Romeel

    2013-01-01

    We present a deep LBT/LBC U-band imaging survey (9 deg2) covering the NOAO Bootes field. A total of 14,485 Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z~3 are selected, which are used to measure the rest-frame UV luminosity function (LF). The large sample size and survey area reduce the LF uncertainties due to Poisson statistics and cosmic variance by >3 compared to previous studies. At the bright end, the LF shows excess power compared to the best-fit Schechter function, which can be attributed to the contribution of $z\\sim3$ quasars. We compute the rest-frame near-infrared LF and stellar mass function (SMF) of z~3 LBGs based on the R-band and IRAC [4.5 micro m]-band flux relation. We investigate the evolution of the UV LFs and SMFs between z~7 and z~3, which supports a rising star formation history in the LBGs. We study the spatial correlation function of two bright LBG samples and estimate their average host halo mass. We find a tight relation between the host halo mass and the galaxy star formation rate (SFR),which fo...

  18. Faint Submillimeter Galaxies Revealed by Multifield Deep ALMA Observations: Number Counts, Spatial Clustering, and Dark Submillimeter Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Kurono, Yasutaka; Momose, Rieko

    2014-01-01

    We present the statistics of faint submillimeter/millimeter galaxies (SMGs) and serendipitous detections of submillimeter/millimeter emitters (SMEs) with no multi-wavelength continuum counterpart revealed by the deep ALMA observations. We identify faint SMGs with flux densities of 0.1-1.0 mJy in the deep Band 6 and Band 7 maps of 10 independent fields that reduce cosmic variance effects. The differential number counts at 1.2 mm are found to increase with decreasing flux density down to 0.1 mJy. Our number counts indicate that the faint (0.1-1.0 mJy, or SFR_IR ~ 30-300 Msun/yr) SMGs contribute nearly a half of the extragalactic background light (EBL), while the remaining half of the EBL is mostly contributed by very faint sources with flux densities of 1 mJy) SMGs, but comparable with abundant high-z star-forming populations such as sBzKs, LBGs, and LAEs. Finally, we report the serendipitous detections of SMEs with continuum counterparts neither in our 1.2 mm-band nor multi-wavelength images including ultra de...

  19. The bimodality of the 10k zCOSMOS-bright galaxies up to z ~ 1: a new statistical and portable classification based on the global optical galaxy properties

    CERN Document Server

    Coppa, G; Zamorani, G; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Pozzetti, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E; Cimatti, A; Lilly, S J; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Le Fèvre, O; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Mainieri, V; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Memeo, P; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Kneib, J -P; Knobel, C; Koekemoer, A M; Kovac, K; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Pellò, R; Peng, Y; Perez-Montero, E; Ricciardelli, E; Scarlata, C; Silverman, J D; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Capak, P; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Fumana, M; Guzzo, L; Leauthaud, A; Maccagni, D; Marinoni, C; Meneux, B; Oesch, P; Porciani, C; Scaramella, R; Scoville, N

    2010-01-01

    Our goal is to develop a new and reliable statistical method to classify galaxies from large surveys. We probe the reliability of the method by comparing it with a three-dimensional classification cube (Mignoli et al.~2009), using the same set of spectral, photometric and morphological parameters.We applied two different methods of classification to a sample of galaxies extracted from the zCOSMOS redshift survey, in the redshift range 0.5 0.5$, while galaxies with lower masses - of the order of $10^{10}$ Msun - are in transition at later epochs; galaxies with $M 5\\cdot 10^{10}$ Msun) mostly completed their transition before $z\\sim 1$.

  20. The faint galaxy contribution to the diffuse extragalactic background light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Shaun; Treyer, Marie-Agnes; Silk, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Models of the faint galaxy contribution to the diffuse extragalactic background light are presented, which are consistent with current data on faint galaxy number counts and redshifts. The autocorrelation function of surface brightness fluctuations in the extragalactic diffuse light is predicted, and the way in which these predictions depend on the cosmological model and assumptions of biasing is determined. It is confirmed that the recent deep infrared number counts are most compatible with a high density universe (Omega-0 is approximately equal to 1) and that the steep blue counts then require an extra population of rapidly evolving blue galaxies. The faintest presently detectable galaxies produce an interesting contribution to the extragalactic diffuse light, and still fainter galaxies may also produce a significant contribution. These faint galaxies still only produce a small fraction of the total optical diffuse background light, but on scales of a few arcminutes to a few degrees, they produce a substantial fraction of the fluctuations in the diffuse light.

  1. The UBVRI light curve behaviour of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 during the extraordinary maximum of the nuclear brightness in 1989-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulova, N. I.

    Observations were carried out with the 1.25 m telescope of Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, equipped with a Double Image Chopping Photometer--Polarimeter by Prof. V.Piirola from Helsinki University. This device allows to obtain simultaneous observations in 5 filters of Johnson's UBVRI system. Photometric errors were less than 0,m01, time resolution was about 3--4 min. Round diaphragms with diameters 20 and 15 arcseconds were used. During this extraordinary maximum the nuclear brightness in the U band increases on ~2m.0, while in the I band -- only on ~ 0m.7. All colour indices decreased: (U-B) from ~-0m.3 to ~-0m.8, (B-V) from ~0m.9 to ~0m.4, (V-I) from ~1m.3 to ~0m.9. The flux ascending in the blue spectral region was twice more than in the red one. The galaxy nucleus seems to be more and more "bluer", but some brightness and colour variations were observed during each of the 9 observational seasons, include local mimimums, flares and intranight variability. Colour--magnitude dependences were analyzed as well as two--colour diagrams. There were no differences between data obtained in 20" and 15" apertures. This fact means that we can see only fluxes from the galactic nucleus during the epoch of brightness maximum.

  2. THE DETECTION OF ULTRA-FAINT LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS DWARF GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER: A PROBE OF DARK MATTER AND BARYONIC PHYSICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Grazian, A.; Fassbender, R.; Fontana, A.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy)

    2015-11-01

    We have discovered 11 ultra-faint (r ≲ 22.1) low surface brightness (LSB, central surface brightness 23 ≲ μ{sub r} ≲ 26) dwarf galaxy candidates in one deep Virgo field of just 576 arcmin{sup 2} obtained by the Large Binocular Camera at the Large Binocular Telescope. Their association with the Virgo cluster is supported by their distinct position in the central surface brightness—total magnitude plane with respect to the background galaxies of similar total magnitude. They have typical absolute magnitudes and scale sizes, if at the distance of Virgo, in the range −13 ≲ M{sub r} ≲ −9 and 250 ≲ r{sub s} ≲ 850 pc, respectively. Their colors are consistent with a gradually declining star formation history with a specific star formation rate of the order of 10{sup −11} yr{sup −1}, i.e., 10 times lower than that of main sequence star-forming galaxies. They are older than the cluster formation age and appear to be regular in morphology. They represent the faintest extremes of the population of low luminosity LSB dwarfs that has recently been detected in wider surveys of the Virgo cluster. Thanks to the depth of our observations, we are able to extend the Virgo luminosity function down to M{sub r} ∼ −9.3 (corresponding to total masses M ∼ 10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙}), finding an average faint-end slope α ≃ −1.4. This relatively steep slope puts interesting constraints on the nature of the dark matter and, in particular, on warm dark matter (WDM) often invoked to solve the overprediction of the dwarf number density by the standard cold dark matter scenario. We derive a lower limit on the WDM particle mass >1.5 keV.

  3. CARMA SURVEY TOWARD INFRARED-BRIGHT NEARBY GALAXIES (STING). II. MOLECULAR GAS STAR FORMATION LAW AND DEPLETION TIME ACROSS THE BLUE SEQUENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Nurur; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Fisher, David B.; Vogel, Stuart N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Xue Rui; Wong, Tony [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institute fur Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Bigiel, Frank [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Universitaet Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Rosolowsky, Erik [I. K. Barber School of the Arts and Science, University of British-Columbia, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Blitz, Leo [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); West, Andrew A. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); Ott, Juergen, E-mail: nurur@astro.umd.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We present an analysis of the relationship between molecular gas and current star formation rate surface density at sub-kiloparsec and kiloparsec scales in a sample of 14 nearby star-forming galaxies. Measuring the relationship in the bright, high molecular gas surface density ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}}{approx}>20 M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}) regions of the disks to minimize the contribution from diffuse extended emission, we find an approximately linear relation between molecular gas and star formation rate surface density, N{sub mol} {approx} 0.96 {+-} 0.16, with a molecular gas depletion time, {tau}{sup mol}{sub dep} {approx} 2.30 {+-} 1.32 Gyr. We show that in the molecular regions of our galaxies there are no clear correlations between {tau}{sup mol}{sub dep} and the free-fall and effective Jeans dynamical times throughout the sample. We do not find strong trends in the power-law index of the spatially resolved molecular gas star formation law or the molecular gas depletion time across the range of galactic stellar masses sampled (M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 9.7}-10{sup 11.5} M{sub Sun }). There is a trend, however, in global measurements that is particularly marked for low-mass galaxies. We suggest that this trend is probably due to the low surface brightness CO J = 1-0, and it is likely associated with changes in CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor.

  4. The Detection of Ultra-faint Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster: A Probe of Dark Matter and Baryonic Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Grazian, A.; Fassbender, R.; Fontana, A.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.

    2015-11-01

    We have discovered 11 ultra-faint (r ≲ 22.1) low surface brightness (LSB, central surface brightness 23 ≲ μr ≲ 26) dwarf galaxy candidates in one deep Virgo field of just 576 arcmin2 obtained by the Large Binocular Camera at the Large Binocular Telescope. Their association with the Virgo cluster is supported by their distinct position in the central surface brightness—total magnitude plane with respect to the background galaxies of similar total magnitude. They have typical absolute magnitudes and scale sizes, if at the distance of Virgo, in the range -13 ≲ Mr ≲ -9 and 250 ≲ rs ≲ 850 pc, respectively. Their colors are consistent with a gradually declining star formation history with a specific star formation rate of the order of 10-11 yr-1, i.e., 10 times lower than that of main sequence star-forming galaxies. They are older than the cluster formation age and appear to be regular in morphology. They represent the faintest extremes of the population of low luminosity LSB dwarfs that has recently been detected in wider surveys of the Virgo cluster. Thanks to the depth of our observations, we are able to extend the Virgo luminosity function down to Mr ˜ -9.3 (corresponding to total masses M ˜ 107 M⊙), finding an average faint-end slope α ≃ -1.4. This relatively steep slope puts interesting constraints on the nature of the dark matter and, in particular, on warm dark matter (WDM) often invoked to solve the overprediction of the dwarf number density by the standard cold dark matter scenario. We derive a lower limit on the WDM particle mass >1.5 keV.

  5. Evidence for Ubiquitous, High-EW Nebular Emission in z~7 Galaxies: Towards a Clean Measurement of the Specific Star Formation Rate using a Sample of Bright, Magnified Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Smit, R; Labbe, I; Zheng, W; Bradley, L; Donahue, M; Lemze, D; Moustakas, J; Umetsu, K; Zitrin, A; Coe, D; Postman, M; Gonzalez, V; Bartelmann, M; Benitez, N; Broadhurst, T; Ford, H; Grillo, C; Infante, L; Jimenez-Teja, Y; Jouvel, S; Kelson, D D; Lahav, O; Maoz, D; Medezinski, E; Melchior, P; Meneghetti, M; Merten, J; Molino, A; Moustakas, L; Nonino, M; Rosati, P; Seitz, S

    2013-01-01

    Growing observational evidence now indicates that nebular line emission has a significant impact on the rest-frame optical fluxes of z~5-7 galaxies observed with Spitzer. This line emission makes z~5-7 galaxies appear more massive, with lower specific star formation rates. However, corrections for this line emission have been very difficult to perform reliably due to huge uncertainties on the overall strength of such emission at z>~5.5. Here, we present the most direct observational evidence yet for ubiquitous high-EW [OIII]+Hbeta line emission in Lyman-break galaxies at z~7, while also presenting a strategy for an improved measurement of the sSFR at z~7. We accomplish this through the selection of bright galaxies in the narrow redshift window z~6.6-7.0 where the IRAC 4.5 micron flux provides a clean measurement of the stellar continuum light. Observed 4.5 micron fluxes in this window contrast with the 3.6 micron fluxes which are contaminated by the prominent [OIII]+Hbeta lines. To ensure a high S/N for our I...

  6. H-Band dropouts in the deepest CANDELS field. A new population of bright massive galaxies at z >3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde Pampliega, B.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Domínguez Sánchez, H.; Esquej, P.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Barro, G.

    2015-05-01

    The recent increase in depth, spatial and wavelength coverage of extragalactic surveys has improved dramatically our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution and is revealing a new population of galaxies at high redshift. That is consistent with a downsizing (Cowie, L. L., Songaila, A., Hu, E. M., & Cohen, J. G. 1996, AJ, 112, 839; Heavens, A., Panter, B., Jiménez, R., & Dunlop, J. 2004, Nature, 428, 625; Juneau, S., et al. 2005, ApJ, 619, L135; Bauer, A. E., Drory, N., Hill, G. J., & Feulner, G. 2005, ApJ, 621, L89; Pérez-González et al. 2008, ApJ, 675, 234) scenario, which implies that the most massive galaxies formed early in the history of the universe and evolved quickly. Red color criteria and the analysis of deep mid-IR, has been proven to very useful to identify high-z extremely red galaxies as shown in (Caputi, K. et al. 2012, ApJ, 750, L20 and Huang, J.-S., Zheng, X. Z., Rigopoulou, D. et al., 2011, ApJ, 742, L13). We present our analysis of the deepest near-infrared (F160W/H-band from CANDELS) and mid-infrared (IRAC from GOODS) data taken by HST and Spitzer (in the GOODS fields) to select sources only detected by IRAC and with no CANDELS counterpart (i.e., H>27, [3.6]≤25). These H-Band dropouts constitute a previously unknown population of dust-enshrouded and/or quiescent massive red galaxies at z>3. Using the wealth of data available in the GOODS field, especially the SHARDS data, we characterize the properties of this population of red galaxies and discuss on its relevance for previous estimations of the stellar mass function at z=3-5, and the evolution of massive galaxies in the early Universe.

  7. {\\em Herschel}-ATLAS/GAMA: The Environmental Density of Far-Infrared Bright Galaxies at $z \\leq 0.5$

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, C S; Smith, D J B; Bonfield, D G; Hardcastle, M J; Stevens, J A; Bourne, N; Baes, M; Brough, S; Cava, A; Cooray, A; Dariush, A; De Zotti, G; Dunne, L; Eales, S; Hopwood, R; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Liske, J; Loveday, J; Maddox, S J; Negrello, M; Smith, M W L; Valiante, E

    2013-01-01

    We compare the environmental and star formation properties of far-infrared detected and non--far-infrared detected galaxies out to $z \\sim0.5$. Using optical spectroscopy and photometry from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), with far-infrared observations from the {\\em Herschel}-ATLAS Science Demonstration Phase (SDP), we apply the technique of Voronoi Tessellations to analyse the environmental densities of individual galaxies. Applying statistical analyses to colour, $r-$band magnitude and redshift-matched samples, we show there to be a significant difference at the 3.5$\\sigma$ level between the normalized environmental densities of these two populations. This is such that infrared emission (a tracer of star formation activity) favours underdense regions compared to those inhabited by exclusively optically observed galaxies selected to be of the same $r-$band magnitude, colour and redshift. Thus more highly star-forming galaxies are found to reside in the most underdens...

  8. Deep R-band counts of z~3 Lyman break galaxy candidates with the LBT

    CERN Document Server

    Boutsia, K; Giallongo, E; Castellano, M; Pentericci, L; Fontana, A; Fiore, F; Gallozzi, S; Cusano, F; Paris, D; Speziali, R; Testa, V

    2014-01-01

    Aims. We present a deep multiwavelength imaging survey (UGR) in 3 different fields, Q0933, Q1623, and COSMOS, for a total area of ~1500arcmin^2. The data were obtained with the Large Binocular Camera on the Large Binocular Telescope. Methods. To select our Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates, we adopted the well established and widely used color-selection criterion (U-G vs. G-R). One of the main advantages of our survey is that it has a wider dynamic color range for U-dropout selection than in previous studies. This allows us to fully exploit the depth of our R-band images, obtaining a robust sample with few interlopers. In addition, for 2 of our fields we have spectroscopic redshift information that is needed to better estimate the completeness of our sample and interloper fraction. Results. Our limiting magnitudes reach 27.0(AB) in the R band (5\\sigma) and 28.6(AB) in the U band (1\\sigma). This dataset was used to derive LBG candidates at z~3. We obtained a catalog with a total of 12264 sources down to the ...

  9. Bright [CII] and dust emission in three z>6.6 quasar host galaxies observed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Venemans, B P; Zschaechner, L; Decarli, R; De Rosa, G; Findlay, J R; McMahon, R G; Sutherland, W J

    2015-01-01

    We present ALMA detections of the [CII] 158 micron emission line and the underlying far-infrared continuum of three quasars at 6.6~6 quasar hosts correlate with the quasar's bolometric luminosity. In one quasar, the [CII] line is significantly redshifted by ~1700 km/s with respect to the MgII broad emission line. Comparing to values in the literature, we find that, on average, the MgII is blueshifted by 480 km/s (with a standard deviation of 630 km/s) with respect to the host galaxy redshift, i.e. one of our quasars is an extreme outlier. Through modeling we can rule out a flat rotation curve for our brightest [CII] emitter. Finally, we find that the ratio of black hole mass to host galaxy (dynamical) mass is higher by a factor 3-4 (with significant scatter) than local relations.

  10. Subaru high-$z$ exploration of low-luminosity quasars (SHELLQs). I. Discovery of 15 quasars and bright galaxies at $5.7 < z < 6.9$

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Strauss, Michael A; Nagao, Tohru; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Niida, Mana; Toba, Yoshiki; Akiyama, Masayuki; Asami, Naoko; Bosch, James; Foucaud, Sébastien; Furusawa, Hisanori; Goto, Tomotsugu; Gunn, James E; Harikane, Yuichi; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Kikuta, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lupton, Robert H; Minezaki, Takeo; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Murayama, Hitoshi; Nishizawa, Atsushi J; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Price, Paul A; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Silverman, John D; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Tait, Philip J; Takada, Masahiro; Takata, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tang, Ji-Jia; Utsumi, Yousuke

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of 15 quasars and bright galaxies at $5.7 < z < 6.9$. This is the initial result from the Subaru High-$z$ Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars (SHELLQs) project, which exploits the exquisite multi-band imaging data produced by the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Strategic Program survey. The candidate selection is performed by combining several photometric approaches including a Bayesian probabilistic algorithm to reject stars and dwarfs. The spectroscopic identification was carried out with the Gran Telescopio Canarias and the Subaru Telescope for the first 80 deg$^2$ of the survey footprint. The success rate of our photometric selection is quite high, approaching 100 % at the brighter magnitudes ($z_{\\rm AB} < 23.5$ mag). Our selection also recovered all the known high-$z$ quasars on the HSC images. Among the 15 discovered objects, six are likely quasars, while the other six with interstellar absorption lines and in some cases narrow emission lines are likely bright Lyman-br...

  11. Bright [CII] 158$\\mu$m emission in a quasar host galaxy at $z=6.54$

    CERN Document Server

    Bañados, E; Walter, F; Venemans, B P; Farina, E P; Fan, X

    2015-01-01

    The [CII] 158$\\mu$m fine-structure line is known to trace regions of active star formation and is the main coolant of the cold, neutral atomic medium. In this \\textit{Letter}, we report a strong detection of the [CII] line in the host galaxy of the brightest quasar known at $z>6.5$, the Pan-STARRS1 selected quasar PSO J036.5078+03.0498 (hereafter P036+03), using the IRAM NOEMA millimeter interferometer. Its [CII] and total far-infrared luminosities are $(5.8 \\pm 0.7) \\times 10^9 \\,L_\\odot$ and $(7.6\\pm1.5) \\times 10^{12}\\,L_\\odot$, respectively. This results in a $L_{[CII]} /L_{TIR}$ ratio of $\\sim 0.8\\times 10^{-3}$, which is at the high end for those found for active galaxies, though it is lower than the average found in typical main sequence galaxies at $z\\sim 0$. We also report a tentative additional line which we identify as a blended emission from the $3_{22} - 3_{13}$ and $5_{23} - 4_{32}$ H$_2$O transitions. If confirmed, this would be the most distant detection of water emission to date. P036+03 riva...

  12. Non-axisymmetric structure in the satellite dwarf galaxy NGC 2976: Implications for its dark/bright mass distribution and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, Octavio; Hernandez-Toledo, Hector; Cano, Mariana; Pichardo, Bárbara [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonóma de Mexico, A.P. 70-264, 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico); Puerari, Ivanio [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Optica y Electrónica, Calle Luis Enrique Erro 1, 72840 Sta. Maria Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Buta, Ronald [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Groess, Robert, E-mail: octavio@astro.unam.mx [School of Computational and Applied Mathematics, University of Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, WITS 2050 (South Africa)

    2014-02-01

    We present the result of an extensive search for non-axisymmetric structures in the dwarf satellite galaxy of M81, NGC 2976, using multiwavelength archival observations. The galaxy is known to present kinematic evidence for a bisymmetric distortion; however, the stellar bar presence is controversial. This controversy motivated the possible interpretation of NGC 2976 as presenting an elliptical disk triggered by a prolate dark matter halo. We applied diagnostics used in spiral galaxies in order to detect stellar bars or spiral arms. The m = 2 Fourier phase has a jump around 60 arcsec, consistent with a central bar and bisymmetric arms. The CO, 3.6 μm surface brightness, and the dust lanes are consistent with a gas-rich central bar and possibly with gaseous spiral arms. The bar-like feature is offset close to 20° from the disk position angle, in agreement with kinematic estimations. The kinematic jumps related to the dust lanes suggest that the bar perturbation in the disk kinematics is non-negligible and the reported non-circular motions, the central gas excess, and the nuclear X-ray source (active galactic nucleus/starburst) might be produced by the central bar. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of disks inside triaxial dark halos suggest that the two symmetric spots at 130 arcsec and the narrow arms may be produced by gas at turning points in an elliptical disk, or, alternatively, the potential ellipticity can be produced by a tidally induced strong stellar bar/arms; in both cases the rotation curve interpretation is, importantly, biased. The M81 group is a natural candidate to trigger the bisymmetric distortion and the related evolution as suggested by the H I tidal bridge detected by Chynoweth et al. We conclude that both mechanisms, the gas-rich bar and spiral arms triggered by the environment (tidal stirring) and primordial halo triaxiality, can explain most of the NGC 2976 non-circular motions, mass redistribution, and nuclear activity

  13. Non-Axisymmetric Structure in the Satellite Dwarf Galaxy NGC2976: Implications for its Dark/Bright Mass Distribution and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, O; Cano-Díaz, M; Puerari, I; Buta, R; Pichardo, B; Groess, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the result of an extensive search for non-axisymmetric structures in the dwarf satellite galaxy of M81: NGC 2976, using multiwavelength archival observations. The galaxy is known to present kinematic evidence for a bysimmetric distortion, anyhow the stellar bar presence is controversial, due to the possible interpretation of NGC 2976 presenting an elliptical disk triggered by a prolate dark matter halo. We applied diagnostics in order to detect stellar bars or spiral arms. The m=2 fourier phase has a jump around 60 arcsecs consistent with a central bar and bisymmetric arms. The CO, 3.6 $\\mu$ surface brightness and the dust lanes are consistent with a gas rich central bar and possibly with gaseous spiral arms. The kinematic jumps related with the dust lanes suggest that the bar perturbation in the disk kinematics is non-negligible and the reported non-circular motions, the central gas excess and the nuclear X-ray source (AGN/Starburst) might be produced by the central bar. SPH simulations of disks i...

  14. Discovery of Megaparsec-Scale, Low Surface Brightness Nonthermal Emission in Merging Galaxy Clusters using the Green Bank Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Farnsworth, Damon; Brown, Shea; Brunetti, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    We present results on 12 X-ray bright clusters observed at 1.4 GHz with the Green Bank Telescope. After subtraction of point sources, we reach a median (best) 1-sigma noise level of 0.01 (0.006) microJy/sq. arcsec, and find a significant excess of diffuse, low surface brightness emission in 11 of 12 clusters. We present initial 1.4 GHz Very Large Array results on Abell 2319. We find: (a) four new detections tentatively classified as two halos (A2065, A2069) and two relics (A2067, A2073); (b) the first detection of the radio halo in A2061 at 1.4 GHz, making it a possible ultra-steep spectrum halo (alpha ~ 1.8); (c) a ~2 Mpc radio halo in the sloshing, minor-merger cluster A2142; (d) a >2x increase of the giant radio halo extent and luminosity in A2319; (e) a ~7x increase to the integrated radio flux and >4x increase to the observed extent of the peripheral, polarized radio relic in A1367 to ~600 kpc; (f) significant excess emission of ambiguous nature in three clusters. Our radio halo detections agree with the...

  15. A 52 hours VLT/FORS2 spectrum of a bright z~7 HUDF galaxy: no Ly-alpha emission

    CERN Document Server

    Vanzella, E; Pentericci, L; Castellano, M; Grazian, A; Giavalisco, M; Nonino, M; Cristiani, S; Zamorani, G; Vignali, C

    2014-01-01

    We aim to determine the redshift of GDS-1408, the most solid z~7 galaxy candidate lying in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. We have used all the VLT spectra of GDS-1408 collected by us and two other groups with FORS2 at VLT in the last five years, for a total integration time of 52hr. The combined spectrum is the deepest ever obtained of a galaxy in the Reionization epoch. We do not detect any emission line or continuum over the whole wavelength range, up to 10100A. Based on an accurate set of simulations, we are able to put a stringent upper limit of f(Lya)<3x10^(-18) erg/s/cm2 at 3-9 sigma in the explored wavelength range, corresponding to a rest-frame equivalent width EW<9A. Combining this limit with the SED modelling we refine the redshift to be z=6.82+/- 0.1 (1-sigma). The same SED fitting indicates that GDS-1408 is relatively extinct (A1600~1) with a dust corrected star formation rate of ~ 20 Msol/yr. The comparison between the un-attenuated equivalent width predicted by the case-B recombination theor...

  16. Rapid and multi-band variability of the TeV-bright active nucleus of the galaxy IC 310

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Boller, A; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Tridon, D Borla; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Fidalgo, D Carreto; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Cossio, L; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; Mendez, C Delgado; De Lotto, B; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Farina, E; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadamek, A; Hadasch, D; Häfner, D; Herrero, A; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Knoetig, M L; Krähenbühl, T; Krause, J; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López-Coto, R; López, M; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Masbou, J; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moldón, J; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Partini, S; Persic, M; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Preziuso, S; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Storz, J; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Weitzel, Q; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Dauser, T; Fortin, P; Kadler, M; Krauß, F; Wilbert, S; Wilms, J; Dr-Karl-Remeis-Observatory,; Physics, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle; Bamberg, 96049; Germany,; Observatory, Fred Lawrence Whipple; Astrophysics, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for; Amado,; 85645, AZ; USA),

    2013-01-01

    Context. The galaxy IC 310 has recently been identified as a $\\gamma$-ray emitter by the Fermi-LAT and at very high energies by the MAGIC telescopes. Originally classified as a head-tail radio galaxy, the nature of this object is subject of controversy because its nucleus shows blazar-like behavior. Aims. In order to understand the nature of IC 310 and the origin of the VHE emission we studied the spectral and flux variability of IC 310 from the X-ray band to the VHE regime. Methods. The daily light curve of IC 310 above 300 GeV has been measured with MAGIC from 2009 October to 2010 February. Contemporaneous Fermi-LAT data (2008-2011) in the 10-500 GeV energy range were also analyzed. In X-ray, archival observations from 2003 to 2007 with XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Swift-XRT in the 0.5-10 keV band were studied. Results. Several flares with similar amplitude can be seen in the MAGIC light curve. Day to day flux variability is clearly present. The photon index between 120 GeV and 8 TeV is measured to be $\\Gamma=2...

  17. Can AGN and galaxy clusters explain the surface brightness fluctuations of the cosmic X-ray background?

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodzig, Alexander; Hütsi, Gert; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Fluctuations of the surface brightness of cosmic X-ray background (CXB) carry unique information about faint and low luminosity source populations, which is inaccessible for conventional large-scale structure (LSS) studies based on resolved sources. We used Chandra data of the XBOOTES field ($\\sim9\\,\\mathrm{deg^2}$) to conduct the most accurate measurement to date of the power spectrum of fluctuations of the unresolved CXB on the angular scales of $\\sim3\\,$arcsec $-$ $\\sim17\\,$arcmin. We find that at sub-arcmin angular scales, the power spectrum is consistent with the AGN shot noise, without much need for any significant contribution from their one-halo term. This is consistent with the theoretical expectation that low-luminosity AGN reside alone in their dark matter halos. However, at larger angular scales we detect a significant LSS signal above the AGN shot noise. Its power spectrum, obtained after subtracting the AGN shot noise, follows a power law with the slope of $-0.8\\pm0.1$ and its amplitude is much ...

  18. Detection of an ultra-bright submillimeter galaxy in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field using AzTEC/ASTE

    CERN Document Server

    Ikarashi, S; Aguirre, J E; Aretxaga, I; Arumugam, V; Austermann, J E; Bock, J J; Bradford, C M; Cirasuolo, M; Earle, L; Ezawa, H; Furusawa, H; Furusawa, J; Glenn, J; Hatsukade, B; Hughes, D H; Iono, D; Ivison, R J; Johnson, S; Kamenetzky, J; Kawabe, R; Lupu, R; Maloney, P; Matsuhara, H; Mauskopf, P D; Motohara, K; Murphy, E J; Nakajima, K; Nakanishi, K; Naylor, B J; Nguyen, H T; Perera, T A; Scott, K S; Takagi, T; Takata, T; Tamura, Y; Tanaka, K; Tsukagoshi, T; Wilner, D J; Wilson, G W; Yun, M S; Zmuidzinas, J

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of an extremely bright ($\\sim$34 mJy at 1100 $\\mu$m and $\\sim$73 mJy at 880 $\\mu$m) submillimeter galaxy (SMG), AzTEC-ASTE-SXDF1100.001 (hereafter referred to as SXDF1100.001), discovered in 1100 $\\mu$m observations of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field using AzTEC on ASTE. Subsequent CARMA 1300 $\\mu$m and SMA 880 $\\mu$m observations successfully pinpoint the location of SXDF1100.001 and suggest that it has two components, extended (FWHM of $\\sim$4^{\\prime\\prime}) and compact (unresolved) ones. Z-Spec on CSO has also been used to obtain a wide band spectrum from 190 to 308 GHz, although no significant emission/absorption lines are found. The derived upper limit to the line-to-continuum flux ratio is 0.1--0.3 (2 $\\sigma$) across the Z-Spec band. Based on the analysis of the derived spectral energy distribution from optical to radio wavelengths of possible counterparts near the SMA/CARMA peak position, we suggest that SXDF1100.001 is a lensed, optically dark SMG lying at $z \\sim 3.4$ behin...

  19. Galaxies in x-ray selected clusters and groups in Dark Energy Survey Data I: Stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies since Z similar to 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, C.; McKay, T.; Rooney, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Romer, A. K.; Perfecto, R.; Song, J; Desai, S.; Mohr, J. J.; Vikram, V.

    2016-01-10

    Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z similar to 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into an analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation, m(*) proportional to (M-200/1.5 x 10(14)M(circle dot))(0.24 +/- 0.08)(1+z)(-0.19 +/- 0.34), and compare the observed relation to the model prediction. We estimate the average growth rate since z = 1.0 for BCGs hosted by clusters of M-200,M-z = 10(13.8)M(circle dot); at z = 1.0: m(*, BCG) appears to have grown by 0.13 +/- 0.11 dex, in tension at the similar to 2.5 sigma significance level with the 0.40 dex growth rate expected from the semi-analytic model. We show that the build-up of extended intracluster light after z = 1.0 may alleviate this tension in BCG growth rates.

  20. Stealth Galaxies in the Halo of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Bullock, James S; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tollerud, Erik J

    2009-01-01

    We predict that there is a population of low-luminosity dwarf galaxies orbiting within the halo of the Milky Way that have surface brightnesses low enough to have escaped detection in star-count surveys. The overall count of stealth galaxies is sensitive to the presence (or lack) of a low-mass threshold in galaxy formation. These systems have luminosities and stellar velocity dispersions that are similar to those of known ultrafaint dwarf galaxies but they have more extended stellar distributions (half light radii greater than about 100 pc) because they inhabit dark subhalos that are slightly less massive than their higher surface brightness counterparts. As a result, the typical peak surface brightness is fainter than 30 mag per square arcsec. One implication is that the inferred common mass scale for Milky Way dwarfs may be an artifact of selection bias. If there is no sharp threshold in galaxy formation at low halo mass, then ultrafaint galaxies like Segue 1 represent the high-mass, early forming tail of a...

  1. Are LGRBs biased tracers of star formation? Clues from the host galaxies of the Swift/BAT6 complete sample of bright LGRBs. II: star formation rates and metallicities at z < 1

    CERN Document Server

    Japelj, J; Salvaterra, R; D'Avanzo, P; Mannucci, F; Fernandez-Soto, A; Boissier, S; Hunt, L K; Atek, H; Rodríguez-Muñoz, L; Scodeggio, M; Cristiani, S; Floc'h, E Le; Flores, H; Gallego, J; Ghirlanda, G; Gomboc, A; Hammer, F; Perley, D A; Pescalli, A; Petitjean, P; Puech, M; Rafelski, M; Tagliaferri, G

    2016-01-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) are associated with the deaths of massive stars and could thus be a potentially powerful tool to trace cosmic star formation. However, especially at low redshifts (z < 1.5) LGRBs seem to prefer particular types of environment. Our aim is to study the host galaxies of a complete sample of bright LGRBs to investigate the impact of the environment on GRB formation. We study host galaxy spectra of the Swift/BAT6 complete sample of 14 z < 1 bright LGRBs. We use the detected nebular emission lines to measure the dust extinction, star formation rate (SFR) and nebular metallicity (Z) of the hosts and supplement the data set with previously measured stellar masses M$_{\\star}$. The distributions of the obtained properties and their interrelations (e.g. mass-metallicity and SFR-M$_{\\star}$ relations) are compared to samples of field star-forming galaxies.We find that LGRB hosts at z < 1 have on average lower SFRs than if they were direct star-formation tracers. By directly comparin...

  2. H0LiCOW III. Quantifying the effect of mass along the line of sight to the gravitational lens HE 0435-1223 through weighted galaxy counts

    CERN Document Server

    Rusu, Cristian E; Sluse, Dominique; Hilbert, Stefan; Wong, Kenneth C; Huang, Kuang-Han; Suyu, Sherry H; Collett, Thomas E; Marshall, Philip J; Treu, Tommaso; Koopmans, Leon V E

    2016-01-01

    Based on spectroscopy and multiband wide-field observations of the gravitationally lensed quasar HE 0435-1223, we determine the probability distribution function of the external convergence $\\kappa_\\mathrm{ext}$ for this system. We measure the under/overdensity of the line of sight towards the lens system and compare it to the average line of sight throughout the universe, determined by using the CFHTLenS as a control field. Aiming to constrain $\\kappa_\\mathrm{ext}$ as tightly as possible, we determine under/overdensities using various combinations of relevant informative weighing schemes for the galaxy counts, such as projected distance to the lens, redshift, and stellar mass. We then convert the measured under/overdensities into a $\\kappa_\\mathrm{ext}$ distribution, using ray-tracing through the Millennium Simulation. We explore several limiting magnitudes and apertures, and account for systematic and statistical uncertainties relevant to the quality of the observational data, which we further test through ...

  3. HerMES: A search for high-redshift dusty galaxies in the HerMES Large Mode Survey - Catalogue, number counts and early results

    CERN Document Server

    Asboth, V; Sayers, J; Bethermin, M; Chapman, S C; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Dannerbauer, H; Farrah, D; Glenn, J; Golwala, S R; Halpern, M; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Maloney, P R; Marques-Chaves, R; Martinez-Navajas, P I; Oliver, S J; Perez-Fournon, I; Riechers, D A; Rowan-Robinson, M; Scott, Douglas; Siegel, S R; Vieira, J D; Viero, M; Wang, L; Wardlow, J; Wheeler, J

    2016-01-01

    Selecting sources with rising flux densities towards longer wavelengths from Herschel/SPIRE maps is an efficient way to produce a catalogue rich in high-redshift (z > 4) dusty star-forming galaxies. The effectiveness of this approach has already been confirmed by spectroscopic follow-up observations, but the previously available catalogues made this way are limited by small survey areas. Here we apply a map-based search method to 274 deg$^2$ of the HerMES Large Mode Survey (HeLMS) and create a catalogue of 477 objects with SPIRE flux densities $S_{500} > S_{350} >S_{250}$ and a 5 \\sigma cut-off $S_{500}$ > 52 mJy. From this catalogue we determine that the total number of these "red" sources is at least an order of magnitude higher than predicted by galaxy evolution models. These results are in agreement with previous findings in smaller HerMES fields; however, due to our significantly larger sample size we are also able to investigate the shape of the red source counts for the first time. We examine the 500 $...

  4. Constraints on photoionization feedback from number counts of ultra-faint high-redshift galaxies in the Frontier Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, M; Ferrara, A; Merlin, E; Fontana, A; Amorín, R; Grazian, A; Mármol-Queralto, E; Michałowski, M J; Mortlock, A; Paris, D; Parsa, S; Pilo, S; Santini, P

    2016-01-01

    We exploit a sample of ultra-faint high-redshift galaxies (demagnified HST $H_{160}$ magnitude $>30$) in the Frontier Fields clusters A2744 and M0416 to constrain a theoretical model for the UV luminosity function (LF) in the presence of photoionization feedback. The objects have been selected on the basis of accurate photometric redshifts computed from multi-band photometry including 7 HST bands and deep $K_s$ and IRAC observations. Magnification is computed on an object-by-object basis from all available lensing models of the two clusters. We take into account source detection completeness as a function of luminosity and size, magnification effects and systematics in the lens modeling of the clusters under investigation. We find that our sample of high-$z$ galaxies constrain the cut-off halo circular velocity below which star-formation is suppressed by photo-ionization feedback to $v_c^{\\rm cut} < 50$ km s$^{-1}$. This circular velocity corresponds to a halo mass of $\\approx5.6\\times10^9~M_\\odot$ and $\\a...

  5. Stealth Galaxies in the Halo of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, James S.; Stewart, Kyle R.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tollerud, Erik J.; Wolf, Joe

    2010-07-01

    We predict that there is a population of low-luminosity dwarf galaxies orbiting within the halo of the Milky Way (MW) that have surface brightnesses low enough to have escaped detection in star-count surveys. The overall count of stealth galaxies is sensitive to the presence (or lack) of a low-mass threshold in galaxy formation. These systems have luminosities and stellar velocity dispersions that are similar to those of known ultrafaint dwarf galaxies but they have more extended stellar distributions (half-light radii greater than about 100 pc) because they inhabit dark subhalos that are slightly less massive than their higher surface brightness counterparts. As a result, the typical peak surface brightness is fainter than 30 mag arcsec-2. One implication is that the inferred common mass scale for MW dwarfs may be an artifact of selection bias. If there is no sharp threshold in galaxy formation at low halo mass, then ultrafaint galaxies like Segue 1 represent the high-mass, early-forming tail of a much larger population of objects that could number in the hundreds and have typical peak circular velocities of about 8 km s-1 and masses within 300 pc of about 5 million solar masses. Alternatively, if we impose a low-mass threshold in galaxy formation in order to explain the unexpectedly high densities of the ultrafaint dwarfs, then we expect only a handful of stealth galaxies in the halo of the MW. A complete census of these objects will require deeper sky surveys, 30 m class follow-up telescopes, and more refined methods to identify extended, self-bound groupings of stars in the halo.

  6. A rare example of low surface-brightness radio lobes in a gas-rich early-type galaxy: the story of NGC 3998

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Bradley S; Oosterloo, Tom; Nyland, Kristina; Serra, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We study the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3998. This galaxy is known to host a low-power radio AGN with a kpc-size one-sided jet and a large, nearly polar HI disc. It is therefore a good system to study to understand the relation between the availability of cold-gas and the triggering of AGNs in galaxies. Our new WSRT data reveal two faint, S-shaped radio lobes extending out to $\\sim$10 kpc from the galaxy centre. Remarkably, we find that the inner HI disc warps back towards the stellar mid-plane in a way that mirrors the warping of the radio lobes. We suggest that the polar HI disc was accreted through a minor merger, and that the torques causing it to warp in the inner regions are also responsible for feeding the AGN. The "S" shape of the radio lobes would then be due to the radio jets adapting to the changing angular momentum of the accreted gas. The extended radio jets are likely poorly collimated, which would explain their quick fading and, therefore, their rarity in galaxies similar to NGC 3998. The fue...

  7. Measuring Structural Parameters Through Stacking Galaxy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yubin; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Peng; Wen, ZhangZheng; Guo, Kexin; An, FangXia

    2016-01-01

    It remains challenging to detect the low surface brightness structures of faint high-z galaxies, which is key to understanding the structural evolution of galaxies. The technique of image stacking allows us to measure the averaged light profile beneath the detection limit and probe the extended structure of a group of galaxies. We carry out simulations to examine the recovery of the averaged surface brightness profile through stacking model HST/ACS images of a set of galaxies as functions of Sersic index (n), effective radius (Re) and axis ratio (AR). The Sersic profile best fitting the radial profile of the stacked image is taken as the recovered profile, in comparison with the intrinsic mean profile of the model galaxies. Our results show that, in general, the structural parameters of the mean profile can be properly determined through stacking, although systematic biases need to be corrected when spreads of Re and AR are counted. We find that Sersic index is slightly overestimated and Re is underestimated ...

  8. A rare example of low surface-brightness radio lobes in a gas-rich early-type galaxy: the story of NGC 3998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Bradley S.; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Nyland, Kristina; Serra, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    We study the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3998. This galaxy is known to host a low-power radio AGN with a kpc-size one-sided jet and a large, nearly polar H i disc. It is therefore a good system to study to understand the relation between the availability of cold-gas and the triggering of AGNs in galaxies. Our new WSRT data reveal two faint, S-shaped radio lobes extending out to ~10 kpc from the galaxy centre. Remarkably, we find that the inner H i disc warps back towards the stellar mid-plane in a way that mirrors the warping of the radio lobes. We suggest that the polar H i disc was accreted through a minor merger, and that the torques causing it to warp in the inner regions are also responsible for feeding the AGN. The "S" shape of the radio lobes would then be due to the radio jets adapting to the changing angular momentum of the accreted gas. The extended radio jets are likely poorly collimated, which would explain their quick fading and, therefore, their rarity in galaxies similar to NGC 3998. The fuelling of the central super-massive black hole is likely occurring via "discrete events", suggested by the observed variability of the radio core and the extremely high core dominance, which we attribute to the formation and ejection of a new jet resulting from a recent fuelling event. The reduced radiocontinuum image and HI datacube (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/592/A94

  9. Gamma-ray detected radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Volker; Soldi, Simona; De Jong, Sandra; Kretschmer, Karsten; Savchenko, Volodymyr

    2016-07-01

    So far 15 radio galaxies have been detected in the gamma-ray domain by CGRO/EGRET and Fermi/LAT, with a few detections also in the VHE range. We search for distinguishing parameters and estimate the total number of gamma-ray emitting radio galaxies that are potentially detectable by Fermi/LAT. We use Fermi/LAT data in comparison with X-ray and hard X-ray data in order to constrain basic parameters such as the total power of the inverse Compton branch and the position of its peak. We search for possible correlations between the radio, UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray domain and derive the number counts distribution. We then compare their properties with those of the radio galaxies in the 3CRR and SMS4 catalogues. The data show no correlation between the peak of the inverse Compton emission and its luminosity. For the gamma-ray detected radio galaxies the luminosities in the various bands are correlated, except for the UV band, but there is no indication of a correlation of peak frequency or luminosity with the spectral slopes in the X-ray or gamma-ray band. The comparison with other bright radio galaxies shows that the gamma-ray detected objects are among those that have the largest X-ray but rather moderate radio fluxes. Their UV and X-ray luminosities are similar, but gamma-ray detected radio galaxies are predominantly of type FR-I, while the 3CRR sample contains mainly FR-II objects. The number counts of the so far gamma-ray detected radio galaxies shows a very shallow slope, indicating that potentially a fraction of radio galaxies has been missed so far or has not been identified as such, although the predicted number of 22 ± 7 is consistent with the observed 15 objects.

  10. The LBT Boötes Field Survey. I. The Rest-frame Ultraviolet and Near-infrared Luminosity Functions and Clustering of Bright Lyman Break Galaxies at Z ~ 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Fuyan; Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian; Dey, Arjun; Green, Richard F.; Maiolino, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Davé, Romeel

    2013-09-01

    We present a deep LBT/LBC U spec-band imaging survey (9 deg2) covering the NOAO Boötes field. A total of 14,485 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ~ 3 are selected, which are used to measure the rest-frame UV luminosity function (LF). The large sample size and survey area reduce the LF uncertainties due to Poisson statistics and cosmic variance by >=3 compared to previous studies. At the bright end, the LF shows excess power compared to the best-fit Schechter function, which can be attributed to the contribution of z ~ 3 quasars. We compute the rest-frame near-infrared LF and stellar mass function (SMF) of z ~ 3 LBGs based on the R-band and [4.5 μm]-band flux relation. We investigate the evolution of the UV LFs and SMFs between z ~ 7 and z ~ 3, which supports a rising star formation history in the LBGs. We study the spatial correlation function of two bright LBG samples and estimate their average host halo mass. We find a tight relation between the host halo mass and the galaxy star formation rate (SFR), which follows the trend predicted by the baryonic accretion rate onto the halo, suggesting that the star formation in LBGs is fueled by baryonic accretion through the cosmic web. By comparing the SFRs with the total baryonic accretion rates, we find that cosmic star formation efficiency is about 5%-20% and it does not evolve significantly with redshift, halo mass, or galaxy luminosity. Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are: The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University, and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University

  11. Powerful Activity in the Bright Ages. I. A Visible/IR Survey of High Redshift 3C Radio Galaxies and Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Hilbert, Bryan; Kotyla, JohnPaul; Tremblay, Grant R; Stanghellini, Carlo; Sparks, William B; Baum, Stefi A; Capetti, Alessandro; Macchetto, F Duccio; Miley, George K; O'Dea, Christopher P; Perlman, Eric S; Quillen, Alice C

    2016-01-01

    We present new rest frame UV and visible observations of 22 high-redshift (1 < z < 2.5) 3C radio galaxies and QSOs obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument. Using a custom data reduction strategy in order to assure the removal of cosmic rays, persistence signal, and other data artifacts, we have produced high-quality science-ready images of the targets and their local environments. We observe targets with regions of UV emission suggestive of active star formation. In addition, several targets exhibit highly distorted host galaxy morphologies in the rest frame visible images. Photometric analyses reveals that brighter QSOs tend to be generally redder than their dimmer counterparts. Using emission line fluxes from the literature, we estimate that emission line contamination is relatively small in the rest frame UV images for the QSOs. Using archival VLA data, we have also created radio map overlays for each of our targets, allowing for analysis of the optical ...

  12. SPIDER - VII. The Central Dark Matter Content of Bright Early-Type Galaxies: Benchmark Correlations with Mass, Structural Parameters and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, C; Napolitano, N R; de Carvalho, R R; Romanowsky, A J

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the central dark-matter (DM) content of $\\sim 4,500$ massive ($M_\\star \\gsim 10^{10} \\, M_\\odot$), low-redshift ($z<0.1$), early-type galaxies (ETGs), with high-quality $ugrizYJHK$ photometry and optical spectroscopy from SDSS and UKIDSS. We estimate the "central" fraction of DM within the $K$-band effective radius, \\Re. The main results of the present work are the following: (1) DM fractions increase systematically with both structural parameters (i.e. \\Re, and S\\'ersic index, $n$) and mass proxies (central velocity dispersion, stellar and dynamical mass), as in previous studies, and decrease with central stellar density. 2) All correlations involving DM fractions are caused by two fundamental ones with galaxy effective radius and central velocity dispersion. These correlations are independent of each other, so that ETGs populate a central-DM plane (DMP), i.e. a correlation among fraction of total-to-stellar mass, effective radius, and velocity dispersion, whose scatter along the total-to-stell...

  13. X-ray bright active galactic nuclei in massive galaxy clusters III: New insights into the triggering mechanisms of cluster AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Ehlert, S; Brandt, W N; Canning, R E A; Luo, B; Mantz, A; Morris, R G; von der Linden, A; Xue, Y Q

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a new analysis of the X-ray selected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) population in the vicinity of 135 of the most massive galaxy clusters in the redshift range of 0.2 < z < 0.9 observed with Chandra. With a sample of more than 11,000 X-ray point sources, we are able to measure, for the first time, evidence for evolution in the cluster AGN population beyond the expected evolution of field AGN. Our analysis shows that overall number density of cluster AGN scales with the cluster mass as $\\sim M_{500}^{-1.2}$. There is no evidence for the overall number density of cluster member X-ray AGN depending on the cluster redshift in a manner different than field AGN, nor there is any evidence that the spatial distribution of cluster AGN (given in units of the cluster overdensity radius r_500) strongly depends on the cluster mass or redshift. The $M^{-1.2 \\pm 0.7}$ scaling relation we measure is consistent with theoretical predictions of the galaxy merger rate in clusters, which is expected ...

  14. UV-bright nearby early type galaxies observed in the mid-infrared: evidence for a multi-stage formation history by way of WISE and GALEX imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Petty, S M; Jarrett, T H; Blain, A W; Farrah, D G; Rich, R M; Tsai, C -W; Benford, D J; Bridge, C R; Lake, S E; Masci, F J; Wright, E L

    2013-01-01

    In the local Universe, 10% of massive elliptical galaxies are observed to exhibit a peculiar property: a substantial excess of ultraviolet emission (UVX) over what is expected from their old, red stellar populations. Several origins for the UVX have been proposed, including a population of hot young stars, or a population of old, blue horizontal branch or extended horizontal branch (BHB or EHB) stars that have undergone substantial mass loss from their outer atmospheres. We explore the radial distribution of ultraviolet excess (UVX) in a selection of 49 nearby E/S0-type galaxies by measuring the extended photometry in the UV-midIR with GALEX, SDSS and WISE. We compare UV/optical and UV/mid-IR colors with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis with EHB models (Conroy & Gunn 2010). We find that combined WISE mid-IR and GALEX UV colors are more effective in distinguishing models than optical colors, and that the UV/mid-IR combination is sensitive to EHB fraction. There are strong color gradients with the ...

  15. The RSA survey of dwarf galaxies, 1: Optical photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, J. Patricia; Chaboyer, Brian

    1994-01-01

    We present detailed surface photometry, based on broad B-band charge coupled device (CCD) images, of about 80 dwarf galaxies. Our sample represents approximately 10% of all dwarf galaxies identified in the vicinity of Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxies on high resolution blue photographic plates, referred to as the RSA survey of dwarf galaxies. We derive global properties and radial surface brightness profiles, and examine the morphologies. The radial surface brightness profiles of dwarf galaxies, whether early or late type, display the same varieties in shape and complexity as those of classical giant galaxies. Only a few are well described by a pure r(exp 1/4) law. Exponential profiles prevail. Features typical of giant disk galaxies, such as exponential profiles with a central depression, lenses, and even, in one case (IC 2041), a relatively prominent bulge are also found in dwarf galaxies. Our data suggest that the central region evolves from being bulge-like, with an r(exp 1/4) law profile, in bright galaxies to a lens-like structure in dwarf galaxies. We prove detailed surface photometry to be a helpful if not always sufficient tool in investigating the structure of dwarf galaxies. In many cases kinematic information is needed to complete the picture. We find the shapes of the surface brightness profiles to be loosely associated with morphological type. Our sample contains several new galaxies with properties intermediate between those of giant and dwarf ellipticals (but no M32-like objects). This shows that such intermediate galaxies exist so that at least a fraction of early-type dwarf ellipticals is structurally related to early-type giants instead of belonging to a totally unrelated, disjunct family. This supports an origin of early-type dwarf galaxies as originally more massive systems that acquired their current morphology as a result of substantial, presumable supernova-driven, mass loss. On the other hand, several early-type dwarfs in our sample are

  16. Low surface brightness galaxies rotation curves in the low energy limit of $R^n$ gravity no need for dark matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, S; Troisi, A

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that the observed flatness of the rotation curves of spiral galaxies is not an evidence for the existence of dark matter haloes, but rather a signal of the breakdown of General Relativity. To this aim, we consider power - law fourth order theories of gravity obtained by replacing the scalar curvature $R$ with $f(R) = f_0 R^n$ in the gravity Lagrangian. We show that, in the low energy limit, the gravitational potential generated by a pointlike source may be written as $\\Phi(r) \\propto r^{-1} \\left [ 1 + (r/r_c)^{\\beta} \\right ]$ with $\\beta$ a function of the slope $n$ of the gravity Lagrangian and $r_c$ a scalelength depending on the gravitating system properties. In order to apply the model to realistic systems, we compute the modified potential and the rotation curve for spherically symmetric and for thin disk mass distributions. It turns out that the potential is still asymptotically decreasing, but the corrected rotation curve, although not flat, is higher than the Newtonian...

  17. Most Luminous z=9-10 Galaxies: A First Determination of the Bright End of the z~9 and z~10 UV Luminosity Functions using all five CANDELS Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwens, R J; Labbe, I; Illingworth, G D; Fazio, G; Coe, D; Holwerda, B; Smit, R; Stefanon, M; van Dokkum, P G; Trenti, M; Ashby, M; Huang, J; Spitler, L; Straatman, C; Bradley, L; Magee, D

    2015-01-01

    The deep, wide-area (900 arcmin**2) near-IR/WFC3/IR + Spitzer/IRAC observations over the CANDELS program represents a significant resource for constraining the bright end of the z~9 and z~10 luminosity functions (LFs) in the UV. We recently reported the discovery of 6 luminous z~9-10 candidates over the GOODS-North+South fields, but extending this search to the full CANDELS program was limited due to the lack of HST-depth 1.05-micron observations in the other 3 CANDELS fields. Here we attempt to significantly realize the potential of CANDELS for z=9-10 science by combining a search over all 5 fields with results from a new HST program (B9-CANDELS) designed to follow up the highest-probability z~9-10 galaxy candidates with observations at 1.05 microns. The targeted z~9-10 candidates are preselected by taking advantage of the full HST, Spitzer/IRAC S-CANDELS observations, and the deepest-available ground-based optical+near-IR observations. With our follow-up program now 91% complete, we identify 4 new high-prob...

  18. Surface Brightness Fluctuations as Stellar Population Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Blakeslee, John P

    2009-01-01

    Surface Brightness Fluctuations (SBF) can provide useful information about the unresolved stellar content of early-type galaxies and spiral bulges. The absolute SBF magnitude Mbar in a given passband depends on the properties of the stellar population and can be predicted by population synthesis models. SBF measurements in different bandpasses are sensitive to different evolutionary stages within the galaxy stellar population. Near-IR SBF magnitudes are sensitive to the evolution of stars wit...

  19. Spectral evolution of galaxies. III - Cosmological predictions for the Space Telescope faint object camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzual A., G.

    1983-10-01

    The galactic spectral evolutionary models of Bruzual A. (1981) are employed to estimate parameters which will be observable by the wide-field camera and faint-object camera of the Space Telescope. The capabilities and bandpasses of the instruments are reviewed, and the results are presented in tables and graphs. Parameters calculated include the amplitude of the Lyman discontinuity at 912 A, stellar and galaxy rest-frame colors, color evolution, two-color diagrams as a function of redshift, luminosity evolution, surface brightness profiles, galaxy counts, and color and redshift distributions. In general, it is predicted that the space measurements will follow the trends noted in round-based observations.

  20. Damped Lyman-Alpha Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Turnshek, D A; Lane, W; Monier, E M; Nestor, D; Bergeron, J; Briggs, F; Smette, A

    2000-01-01

    Some results from an imaging program to identify low-redshift (0.09galaxies are presented. The standard paradigm that was widely accepted a decade ago, that DLA galaxies are the progenitors of luminous disk galaxies, is now being seriously challenged. The indisputable conclusion from imaging studies at low redshift is that the morphological types of DLA galaxies are mixed and that they span a range in luminosities and surface brightnesses.

  1. The galaxy ancestor problem

    CERN Document Server

    Disney, Mike

    2011-01-01

    HST finds galaxies whose Tolman dimming should exceed 10 mag. Could evolution alone explain these as our ancestor galaxies? Or could they be representatives of quite a different dynasty whose descendants are no longer prominent today? We explore this latter hypothesis and argue that Surface Brightness Selection Effects naturally bring into focus quite different dynasties from different redshifts. Thus the HST z=7 galaxies could be examples of galaxies whose descendants are both too small and too choked with dust to be recognizable in our neighborhood easily today. Conversely the ancestors of the Milky Way and its obvious neighbors will have completely sunk below the sky at z>1.2 although their diffuse light could account for the missing Reionization flux. This Succeeding Prominent Dynasties Hypothesis (SPDH) fits the existing observations both naturally and well,including the bizarre distributions of galaxy surface brightnesses found in deep fields, the angular size ~ inverse (1+z) law,'Downsizing' which turn...

  2. H1 in RSA galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, OTTO-G.

    1993-01-01

    The original Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxy sample of almost 1300 galaxies has been augmented with further bright galaxies from the RSA appendix as well as newer galaxy catalogs. A complete and homogeneous, strictly magnitude-limited all-sky sample of 2345 galaxies brighter than 13.4 in apparent blue magnitude was formed. New 21 cm H1 line observations for more than 600 RSA galaxies have been combined with all previously available H1 data from the literature. This new extentise data act allows detailed tests of widely accepted 'standard' reduction and analysis techniques.

  3. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... goal is not to limit carbohydrates in the diet completely, but to make ... with diabetes can better control their blood sugar if they ...

  4. Cell counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, M C; Lawler, G

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents protocols for counting cells using either a hemacytometer or electronically using a Coulter counter. Cell counting with a hemacytometer permits effective discrimination of live from dead cells using trypan blue exclusion. In addition, the procedure is less subject to errors arising from cell clumping or size heterogeneity. Counting cells is more quickly and easily performed using an electronic counter, but live-dead discrimination is unreliable. Cell populations containing large numbers of dead cells and/or cell clumps are difficult to count accurately. In addition, electronic counting requires resetting of the instrument for cell populations of different sizes; heterogeneous populations can give rise to inaccurate counts, and resting and activated cells may require counting at separate settings. In general, electronic cell counting is best performed on fresh peripheral blood cells. PMID:18770655

  5. Seal Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Database of seal counts from aerial photography. Counts by image, site, species, and date are stored in the database along with information on entanglements and...

  6. ALMA spectroscopic survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Continuum number counts, resolved 1.2-mm extragalactic background, and properties of the faintest dusty star forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Aravena, Manuel; Walter, Fabian; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Bauer, Franz E; Carilli, Christopher; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Ivison, R J; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian R; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Assef, Roberto J; Bell, Eric; Bertoldi, Frank; Bacon, Roland; Bouwens, Rychard; Cortes, Paulo; Cox, Pierre; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Hodge, Jacqueline; Ibar, Eduardo; Inami, Hanae; Infante, Leopoldo; Karim, Alexander; Fèvre, Olivier Le; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kauzuaki; Popping, Gergö; Sheth, Kartik; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of a deep (1$\\sigma$=13 $\\mu$Jy) cosmological 1.2-mm continuum map based on ASPECS, the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. In the 1 arcmin$^2$ covered by ASPECS we detect nine sources at $>3.5\\sigma$ significance at 1.2-mm. Our ALMA--selected sample has a median redshift of $z=1.6\\pm0.4$, with only one galaxy detected at z$>$2 within the survey area. This value is significantly lower than that found in millimeter samples selected at a higher flux density cut-off and similar frequencies. Most galaxies have specific star formation rates similar to that of main sequence galaxies at the same epoch, and we find median values of stellar mass and star formation rates of $4.0\\times10^{10}\\ M_\\odot$ and $\\sim40~M_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$, respectively. Using the dust emission as a tracer for the ISM mass, we derive depletion times that are typically longer than 300 Myr, and we find molecular gas fractions ranging from $\\sim$0.1 to 1.0. As noted by previous studies, these values ar...

  7. Deep near-IR observations of the Chandra Deep Field and of the HDF-South - Color and Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Saracco, P; Cristiani, S; D'Odorico, S; Fontana, A; Iovino, A; Poli, F; Vanzella, E

    2001-01-01

    We present near-IR (J and Ks) number counts and colors of galaxies detected in deep VLT-ISAAC images centered on the Chandra Deep Field and Hubble Deep Field-South for a total area of 13.6 arcmin$^2$. The limiting surface brightness obtained is Ks$\\simeq$22.8 mag/arcsec$^2$ and J$\\simeq$24.5 (1$\\sigma$) on both fields. A d$log$N/dm relation with a slope of $\\sim0.34$ in J and $\\sim0.28$ in Ks is found in both fields with no evidence of decline near the magnitude limit. The median J-Ks color of galaxies becomes bluer at magnitudes fainter than Ks$\\sim18$, in agreement with the different number counts slope observed in the two bands. We find a fraction ($\\le5%$ of the total sample) of sources with color redder than J-Ks=2.3 at magnitudes Ks$>20$. Most of them appear as isolated sources, possibly elliptical or dusty starburst galaxies at redshift $z>2$. The comparison of the observed number counts with models shows that our J-band and Ks-band counts are consistent with the prediction of a model based on a small ...

  8. Neutral Hydrogen in Local Group Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grcevich, Jana

    The gas content of the faintest and lowest mass dwarf galaxies provide means to study the evolution of these unique objects. The evolutionary histories of low mass dwarf galaxies are interesting in their own right, but may also provide insight into fundamental cosmological problems. These include the nature of dark matter, the disagreement between the number of observed Local Group dwarf galaxies and that predicted by lambda cold dark matter models, and the discrepancy between the observed census of baryonic matter in the Milky Way's environment and theoretical predictions. This thesis explores these questions by studying the neutral hydrogen (HI) component of dwarf galaxies. First, limits on the HI mass of the ultra-faint dwarfs are presented, and the HI content of all Local Group dwarf galaxies is examined from an environmental standpoint. We find that those Local Group dwarfs within 270 kpc of a massive host galaxy are deficient in HI as compared to those at larger galactocentric distances. Ram-pressure arguments are invoked, which suggest halo densities greater than 2-3 x 10-4 cm-3 out to distances of at least 70 kpc, values which are consistent with theoretical models and suggest the halo may harbor a large fraction of the host galaxy's baryons. We also find that accounting for the incompleteness of the dwarf galaxy count, known dwarf galaxies whose gas has been removed could have provided at most 2.1 x 108 M⊙ of HI gas to the Milky Way. Second, we examine the possibility of discovering unknown gas-rich ultra-faint galaxies in the Local Group using HI. The GALFA-HI Survey catalog is searched for compact, isolated HI clouds which are most similar to the expected HI characteristics of low mass dwarf galaxies. Fifty-one Local Group dwarf galaxy candidates are identified through column density, brightness temperature, and kinematic selection criteria, and their properties are explored. Third, we present hydrodynamic simulations of dwarf galaxies experiencing a

  9. Counting cormorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Carss, David N; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon;

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on Cormorant population counts for both summer (i.e. breeding) and winter (i.e. migration, winter roosts) seasons. It also explains differences in the data collected from undertaking ‘day’ versus ‘roost’ counts, gives some definitions of the term ‘numbers’, and presents two...

  10. The AGN Population in Nearby Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filho, Mercedes; Barthel, Peter; Ho, Luis

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the incidence of black hole accretion-driven nuclear activity in nearby galaxies, we have compiled radio data for the LINERs, composite LINER,/Hn and Seyfert galaxies from a complete magnitude-limited sample of bright nearby galaxies (Palomar sample). Our results show an overal

  11. The Local Hole in the Galaxy Distribution Evidence from 2MASS

    CERN Document Server

    Frith, W J; Fong, R; Metcalfe, N; Shanks, T

    2003-01-01

    Using the bright galaxy counts from the 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) second incremental release, two techniques for probing large-scale structure at distances of ~150 h-1 Mpc are investigated. First, we study the counts from two sets of six 5 degree by ~80 degree strips in the two galactic caps. In the six southern strips a deficit of ~30% was found relative to a predicted homogeneous distribution at K~11. These strips were also in good agreement with a model incorporating the radial density function of the southern 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), which shows a deep underdensity between ~90 and 180 h-1 mpc. These results indicate a very large `local hole' in the Southern Galactic Cap (SGC) to >150 h-1 Mpc with a linear size across the sky of ~200 h-1 Mpc, but with a significantly lower mean underdensity of ~30% than that suggested by the bright APM SGC counts. The counts in the northern set of strips are low overall but indicate a more varied pattern. When all the available 2MASS data with |b|>30 were...

  12. Dynamical Friction in Cuspidal Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Arca-Sedda, M.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamical friction is the process responsible for matter transport toward the inner regions of galaxies in form of massive objects, like intermediate mass black holes, globular clusters and small satellite galaxies. While very bright galaxies show an almost flat luminosity profile in the inner region, fainter ones have, usually, a peaked, cuspidal, profile toward the center. This makes unreliable, in these cases, the use of the classic Chandrasekhar's formula for dynamical friction in its loc...

  13. Interpreting debris from satellite disruption in external galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnston, KV; Sackett, PD; Bullock, JS

    2001-01-01

    We examine the detectability and interpretation of debris trails caused by satellite disruption in external galaxies using semianalytic approximations for the dependence of streamer length, width, and surface brightness on satellite and primary galaxy characteristics. The semianalytic method is test

  14. Galaxies in the Early Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    and the increased precision of the redshifts allows a more detailed measurement of the scatter in the mass–size relation. The size evolution of massive, quiescent galaxies is modelled by a “dilution” scenario, in which progressively larger galaxies at later times are added to the population of denser galaxies...... analyses are biased towards the brightest galaxies at all times (as these are easier to observe and identify). A complementary method relies on the absorption imprint from neutral gas in galaxies, the so-called damped Ly absorbers (DLAs) seen towards distant bright objects. This thesis seeks to understand...... how the absorption selected galaxies relate to the emission selected galaxies by identifying the faint glow from the absorbing galaxies at redshift z 2. In Chapters 2 and 3, the emission properties of DLAs are studied in detail using state-of-the-art instrumentation. The specific DLA studied...

  15. Discovery of an ultra-diffuse galaxy in the Pisces-Perseus supercluster

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Delgado, David; Sharina, Margarita; Toloba, Elisa; Fliri, Jurgen; Beaton, Rachael; Valls-Gabaud, David; Karachentsev, Igor D; Chonis, Taylor S; Grebel, Eva K; Forbes, Duncan A; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Gallego-Laborda, J; Teuwen, Karel; Gomez-Flechoso, M A; Wang, Jie; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kaisin, Serafim; Ho, Nhung

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of DGSAT I, an ultra-diffuse, quenched galaxy located 10.4 degrees in projection from the Andromeda galaxy (M31). This low-surface brightness galaxy (mu_V = 24.8 mag/arcsec), found with a small amateur telescope, appears unresolved in sub-arcsecond archival Subaru/Suprime-Cam images, and hence has been missed by optical surveys relying on resolved star counts, in spite of its relatively large effective radius (R_e(V) = 12 arcsec) and proximity (15 arcmin) to the well-known dwarf spheroidal galaxy And II. Its red color (V-I = 1.0), shallow Sersic index (n_V=0.68), and the absence of detectable H-alpha emission are typical properties of dwarf spheroidal galaxies and suggest that it is mainly composed of old stars. Initially interpreted as an interesting case of an isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the local universe, our radial velocity measurement obtained with the BTA 6-meter telescope (V_h=5450 +/- 40 km/s) shows that this system is an M31-background galaxy associated with the filam...

  16. A bimodal model for the galaxy luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, R.; Silk, J.

    1988-01-01

    The galaxy luminosity function in the Virgo cluster has been recently found to show a clear separation between bright galaxies and dwarf galaxies. Here, consideration is given to the effect on the luminosity function of galaxy binding energy which allows gas to be retained and star formation to proceed over about 1 Gyr in massive galaxies, but implies wind-driven mass loss and inefficient star formation in dwarf galaxies.

  17. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  18. Star Counts and Galactic Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Cui-Hua; ZHOU Xu; MA Jun; CHEN Jian-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    @@ We use a model of the Galactic stellar distribution to analyse the BATC star count data toward two high Galactic latitude fields. Since star counts at high Galactic latitudes are not strongly related to the radial distribution,they are very suitable for the study of the vertical distribution of the Galaxy. The vertical density distribution of the stars shows the contribution of the thin disc, the thick disc and the stellar halo of the Galaxy. We give quantitative descriptions of these components in terms of exponential discs and a de Vaucouleurs halo. We find that the observed counts support an axial ratio of c/a ~ 0.5, implying a more flattened halo. We consider that it is possible that the halo has two subpopulations, i.e. a flattened inner halo and a spherical outer halo in the Milky Way.

  19. BLAST Observations of the South Ecliptic Pole field: Number Counts and Source Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Valiante, Elisabetta; Bock, James; Braglia, Filiberto; Chapin, Edward; Devlin, Mark Joseph; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter; Hughes, David; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Mauskopf, Philip; Netterfield, Calvin; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Scott, Kimberly; Semisch, Christopher; Stabenau, Hans; Thomas, Nicholas; Truch, Matthew; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory; Viero, Marco; Wiebe, Donald

    2010-01-01

    We present results from a survey carried out by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) on a 9 deg^2 field near the South Ecliptic Pole at 250, 350 and 500 {\\mu}m. The median 1{\\sigma} depths of the maps are 36.0, 26.4 and 18.4 mJy, respectively. We apply a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts and find that they are in agreement with other measurements made with the same instrument and with the more recent results from Herschel/SPIRE. Thanks to the large field observed, the new measurements give additional constraints on the bright end of the counts. We identify 132, 89 and 61 sources with S/N>4 at 250, 350, 500 {\\mu}m, respectively and provide a multi-wavelength combined catalog of 232 sources. The new BLAST maps and catalogs are available publicly at http://blastexperiment.info.

  20. The Quest for Dusty Primeval Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, C.; Lapi, A.; Danese, L.

    2016-06-01

    We exploit the continuity equation approach and the 'main sequence' star-formation timescales to show that the observed high abundance of galaxies with stellar masses ? a few >10^10 M_⊙ at redshift z >? 4 implies the existence of a galaxy population featuring large star formation rates (SFRs) ψ >? 10^2 M_⊙ yr^-1 in heavily dust-obscured conditions. These galaxies constitute the high-redshift counterparts of the dusty star-forming population already surveyed for zwork out specific predictions for the evolution of the corresponding stellar mass and SFR functions out to z ˜ 10, elucidating that the number density at z 30 M_⊙ yr^-1 cannot be estimated relying on the UV luminosity function alone, even when standard corrections for dust extinction based on the UV slope are applied. We compute the number counts and redshift distributions (including galaxy-scale gravitational lensing) of this galaxy population, and show that current data from AzTEC-LABOCA, SCUBA-2 and ALMA-SPT surveys are already digging into it. We substantiate how an observational strategy based on a color preselection in the far-IR or (sub-)mm band with Herschel and SCUBA-2, supplemented by photometric data via on-source observations with ALMA, can allow to reconstruct the bright end of the SFR functions out to z ? 8. In parallel, such a challenging task can be managed by exploiting current UV surveys in combination with (sub-)mm observations by ALMA and NIKA2 and/or radio observations by SKA and its precursors.

  1. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  2. DISCOVERY OF AN ULTRA-DIFFUSE GALAXY IN THE PISCES-PERSEUS SUPERCLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Delgado, David; Grebel, Eva K. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12–14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Läsker, Ronald [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sharina, Margarita; Karachentsev, Igor D. [Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Toloba, Elisa; Romanowsky, Aaron J. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Fliri, Jürgen [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Beaton, Rachael [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institutions for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Valls-Gabaud, David [LERMA, CNRS UMR 8112, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Avenue de l’Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Chonis, Taylor S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn VIC 3122 (Australia); Gallego-Laborda, J. [Fosca Nit Observatory, Montsec Astronomical Park, Ager (Spain); Teuwen, Karel [Remote Observatories Southern Alpes, Verclause (France); Gómez-Flechoso, M. A. [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada (Biomatemática), Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2016-04-15

    We report the discovery of DGSAT I, an ultra-diffuse, quenched galaxy located 10.°4 in projection from the Andromeda galaxy (M31). This low-surface brightness galaxy (μ{sub V} = 24.8 mag arcsec{sup −2}), found with a small amateur telescope, appears unresolved in sub-arcsecond archival Subaru/Suprime-Cam images, and hence has been missed by optical surveys relying on resolved star counts, in spite of its relatively large effective radius (R{sub e}(V) = 12″) and proximity (15′) to the well-known dwarf spheroidal galaxy And II. Its red color (V − I = 1.0), shallow Sérsic index (n{sub V} = 0.68), and the absence of detectable Hα emission are typical properties of dwarf spheroidal galaxies and suggest that it is mainly composed of old stars. Initially interpreted as an interesting case of an isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the local universe, our radial velocity measurement obtained with the BTA 6 m telescope (V{sub h} = 5450 ± 40 km s{sup −1}) shows that this system is an M31-background galaxy associated with the filament of the Pisces-Perseus supercluster. At the distance of this cluster (∼78 Mpc), DGSAT I would have an R{sub e} ∼ 4.7 kpc and M{sub V} ∼ −16.3. Its properties resemble those of the ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) recently discovered in the Coma cluster. DGSAT I is the first case of these rare UDGs found in this galaxy cluster. Unlike the UDGs associated with the Coma and Virgo clusters, DGSAT I is found in a much lower density environment, which provides a fresh constraint on the formation mechanisms for this intriguing class of galaxy.

  3. Hubble ultra deep field object surface brightness variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of adjacent pixel brightness variation in log scale was applied to ultra deep field objects captured by the Hubble telescope. The local surface brightness fluctuation has a Gaussian-like distribution implying a random accretion of material, with collisions, as a random-walk motion. The larger fluctuation of log brightness in the mid to outer regions of some galaxies is consistent with the presence of dark matter. The absence of such fluctuation enhancement in two i-drop candidates at z ∼ 3 may mean that some dark matter is the result of nucleosynthesis in the evolution process. Large fluctuation in the B+V bands in contrast to the i+z band near the center in an i-drop candidate at z ∼ 3 was interpreted to be an AGN center. The distribution average shifts towards zero for more spiral galaxies, signifying the use of local surface brightness fluctuation distribution as a morphology parameter

  4. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  5. How Do Galaxies Grow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    to the most massive galaxies belonging to clusters. "Most surprising is that in three of the four groups, the brightest galaxy also has a bright companion galaxy. These galaxy pairs are merging systems," says Tran. The brightest galaxy in each group can be ordered in a time sequence that shows how luminous galaxies continue to grow by merging until recently, that is, in the last 5 billion years. It appears that due to the most recent episode of this 'galactic cannibalism', the brightest galaxies became at least 50% more massive. This discovery provides unique and powerful validation of hierarchical formation as manifested in both galaxy and cluster assembly. "The stars in these galaxies are already old and so we must conclude that the recent merging did not produce a new generation of stars," concludes Tran. "Most of the stars in these galaxies were born at least 7 billion years ago." The team is composed of Kim-Vy H. Tran (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zürich, Switzerland), John Moustakas (New York University, USA), Anthony H. Gonzalez and Stefan J. Kautsch (University of Florida, Gainesville, USA), and Lei Bai and Dennis Zaritsky (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, USA). The results presented here are published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters: "The Late Stellar Assembly Of Massive Cluster Galaxies Via Major Merging", by Tran et al.

  6. Amazing Andromeda Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The many 'personalities' of our great galactic neighbor, the Andromeda galaxy, are exposed in this new composite image from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the Spitzer Space Telescope. The wide, ultraviolet eyes of Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveal Andromeda's 'fiery' nature -- hotter regions brimming with young and old stars. In contrast, Spitzer's super-sensitive infrared eyes show Andromeda's relatively 'cool' side, which includes embryonic stars hidden in their dusty cocoons. Galaxy Evolution Explorer detected young, hot, high-mass stars, which are represented in blue, while populations of relatively older stars are shown as green dots. The bright yellow spot at the galaxy's center depicts a particularly dense population of old stars. Swaths of red in the galaxy's disk indicate areas where Spitzer found cool, dusty regions where stars are forming. These stars are still shrouded by the cosmic clouds of dust and gas that collapsed to form them. Together, Galaxy Evolution Explorer and Spitzer complete the picture of Andromeda's swirling spiral arms. Hints of pinkish purple depict regions where the galaxy's populations of hot, high-mass stars and cooler, dust-enshrouded stars co-exist. Located 2.5 million light-years away, the Andromeda is our largest nearby galactic neighbor. The galaxy's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, our Milky Way galaxy's disk is about 100,000 light-years across. This image is a false color composite comprised of data from Galaxy Evolution Explorer's far-ultraviolet detector (blue), near-ultraviolet detector (green), and Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer at 24 microns (red).

  7. Counting Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  8. The Seyfert galaxy population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large sample of Seyfert galaxies, many of which are Markarian galaxies, has been observed with the WSRT in lambda 21 cm continuum radiation. The results are presented, and the number of radio detected Seyferts has now increased considerably. A number of accurate optical positions are given that were needed to identify radio sources with the Seyfert galaxies observed. Optical and radio luminosity functions of Seyfert galaxies are derived. The results are compared with such functions for other categories of objects that may be related to these galaxies. The discussions focus on the possible connections between normal galaxies, Seyferts, and optically selected quasars. Three investigations are reported on individual objects that are related to Seyfert galaxies. WSRT observations of four bright, optically selected quasars are presented. The identification of an X-ray discovered BL Lacertae object is discussed. Its radio emission is on a much lower level than for other BL Lacs. Perhaps it is a radio-quiet object in this class, suggesting a comparable difference in radio emission for BL Lacs as is known for quasars. Photo-electric photometry for the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1566 is reported. Besides a monitoring programme, multi-aperture photometry is described. (Auth.)

  9. Brightest Cluster Galaxy Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Luke; Haarsma, D. B.; Sebald, D. A.; ACCEPT Team

    2011-01-01

    Brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) play an important role in several fields of astronomical research. The literature includes many different methods and criteria for identifying the BCG in the cluster, such as choosing the brightest galaxy, the galaxy nearest the X-ray peak, or the galaxy with the most extended profile. Here we examine a sample of 75 clusters from the Archive of Chandra Cluster Entropy Profile Tables (ACCEPT) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), measuring masked magnitudes and profiles for BCG candidates in each cluster. We first identified galaxies by hand; in 15% of clusters at least one team member selected a different galaxy than the others.We also applied 6 other identification methods to the ACCEPT sample; in 30% of clusters at least one of these methods selected a different galaxy than the other methods. We then developed an algorithm that weighs brightness, profile, and proximity to the X-ray peak and centroid. This algorithm incorporates the advantages of by-hand identification (weighing multiple properties) and automated selection (repeatable and consistent). The BCG population chosen by the algorithm is more uniform in its properties than populations selected by other methods, particularly in the relation between absolute magnitude (a proxy for galaxy mass) and average gas temperature (a proxy for cluster mass). This work supported by a Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship and a Sid Jansma Summer Research Fellowship.

  10. Galaxy Strategy for LIGO-Virgo Gravitational Wave Counterpart Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrels, Neil; Kanner, Jonah; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Nissanke, Samaya; Singer, Leo P

    2015-01-01

    In this work we continue a line of inquiry begun in Kanner et al. which detailed a strategy for utilizing telescopes with narrow fields of view, such as the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT), to localize gravity wave (GW) triggers from LIGO/Virgo. If one considers the brightest galaxies that produce ~50% of the light, then the number of galaxies inside typical GW error boxes will be several tens. We have found that this result applies both in the early years of Advanced LIGO when the range is small and the error boxes large, and in the later years when the error boxes will be small and the range large. This strategy has the beneficial property of reducing the number of telescope pointings by a factor 10 to 100 compared with tiling the entire error box. Additional galaxy count reduction will come from a GW rapid distance estimate which will restrict the radial slice in search volume. Combining the bright galaxy strategy with a convolution based on anticipated GW localizations, we find that the searches can be restri...

  11. Sunspot Bright Points

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhary, Debi Prasad

    2010-01-01

    We used the flux calibrated images through the Broad Band Filter Imager and Stokes Polarimeter data obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope onboard the Hinode spacecraft to study the properties of bright points in and around the sunspots. The well isolated bright points were selected and classified as umbral dot, peripheral umbral dot, penumbral grains and G-band bright point depending on their location. Most of the bright points are smaller than about 150 km. The larger points are mostly associated with the penumbral features. The bright points are not uniformly distributed over the umbra but preferentially located around the penumbral boundary and in the fast decaying parts of umbra. The color temperature of the bright points, derived using the continuum irradiance, are in the range of 4600 K to 6600 K with cooler ones located in the umbra. The temperature increases as a function of distance from the center to outside. The G-band, CN-band and CaII H flux of the bright points as a function of their blue ba...

  12. The HSB/LSB Galaxies NGC 2403 and UGC 128

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, Marc; de Blok, Erwin

    1999-01-01

    We have decomposed the rotation curves of the high surface brightness (HSB) galaxy NGC2403 and the low surface brightness (LSB) system UGC128. Both galaxies have a similar baryon content and rotational velocities but have very different disk scale lengths and angular momentum contents. On a linear s

  13. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Bright Source List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Roger F.; Marshall, Herman L.; Antia, Behram; Christian, Carol A.; Dobson, Carl A.; Finley, David S.; Fruscione, Antonella; Girouard, Forrest R.; Hawkins, Isabel; Jelinsky, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Initial results from the analysis of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky survey (58-740 A) and deep survey (67-364 A) are presented through the EUVE Bright Source List (BSL). The BSL contains 356 confirmed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) point sources with supporting information, including positions, observed EUV count rates, and the identification of possible optical counterparts. One-hundred twenty-six sources have been detected longward of 200 A.

  14. How the extinction of extragalactic background light affects surface photometry of galaxies, groups and clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zackrisson, E.; Micheva, G.; Östlin, G.

    2009-08-01

    The faint regions of galaxies, groups and clusters hold important clues about how these objects formed, and surface photometry at optical and near-infrared wavelengths represents a powerful tool for studying such structures. Here, we identify a hitherto unrecognized problem with this technique, related to how the night sky flux is typically measured and subtracted from astronomical images. While most of the sky flux comes from regions between the observer and the target object, a small fraction - the extragalactic background light (EBL) - comes from behind. We argue that since this part of the sky flux can be subjected to extinction by dust present in the galaxy/group/cluster studied, standard reduction procedures may lead to a systematic oversubtraction of the EBL. Even very small amounts of extinction can lead to spurious features in radial surface brightness profiles and colour maps of extended objects. We assess the likely impact of this effect on a number of topics in extragalactic astronomy where very deep surface photometry is currently attempted, including studies of stellar haloes, starburst host galaxies, disc truncations and diffuse intragroup/intracluster light. We argue that EBL extinction may provide at least a partial explanation for the anomalously red colours reported for the haloes of disc galaxies and for the hosts of local starburst galaxies. EBL extinction effects also mimic truncations in discs with unusually high dust opacities, but are unlikely to be the cause of such features in general. Failure to account for EBL extinction can also give rise to a non-negligible underestimate of intragroup and intracluster light at the faintest surface brightness levels currently probed. Finally, we discuss how EBL extinction effects may be exploited to provide an independent constraint on the surface brightness of the EBL, using a combination of surface photometry and direct star counts.

  15. Early-type dwarf galaxies with multicomponent stellar structure: Are they remnants of disc galaxies strongly transformed by their environment?

    CERN Document Server

    Aguerri, J Alfonso L

    2016-01-01

    The surface brightness distribution of $\\sim$30-40$\\%$ of the early-type dwarf galaxies with $-18 \\leq M_{B} \\leq -15$ in the Virgo and the Coma clusters is fitted by models that include two structural components (S\\`ersic + exponential) as for bright disc galaxies.The goal of the present study is to determine whether early-type dwarf galaxies with a two-component stellar structure in the Virgo and the Coma clusters are low-luminosity copies of bright disc galaxies or are the remnants of bright galaxies strongly transformed by cluster environmental effects.I analysed the location of bright disc galaxies and early-type dwarfs in the $r_{b,e}/h$- $n$ plane. The location in this plane of the two-component dwarf galaxies was compared with the remnants of tidally disrupted disc galaxies reported by numerical simulations. Bright unbarred disc galaxies show a strong correlation in the $r_{b,e}/h$-$n$ plane. Galaxies with larger S\\`ersic shape parameters show a higher $r_{b,e}/h$ ratio. In contrast, two-component ear...

  16. Are long gamma-ray bursts biased tracers of star formation? Clues from the host galaxies of the Swift/BAT6 complete sample of bright LGRBs. II. Star formation rates and metallicities at z < 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japelj, J.; Vergani, S. D.; Salvaterra, R.; D'Avanzo, P.; Mannucci, F.; Fernandez-Soto, A.; Boissier, S.; Hunt, L. K.; Atek, H.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Cristiani, S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Flores, H.; Gallego, J.; Ghirlanda, G.; Gomboc, A.; Hammer, F.; Perley, D. A.; Pescalli, A.; Petitjean, P.; Puech, M.; Rafelski, M.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) are associated with the deaths of massive stars and might therefore be a potentially powerful tool for tracing cosmic star formation. However, especially at low redshifts (zextinction, star formation rate (SFR), and nebular metallicity (Z) of the hosts and supplemented the data set with previously measured stellar masses M⋆. The distributions of the obtained properties and their interrelations (e.g. mass-metallicity and SFR-M⋆ relations) are compared to samples of field star-forming galaxies. Results: We find that LGRB hosts at z< 1 have on average lower SFRs than if they were direct star formation tracers. By directly comparing metallicity distributions of LGRB hosts and star-forming galaxies, we find a good match between the two populations up to 12 +log ≤ft( frac{OHright)} 8.4-8.5, after which the paucity of metal-rich LGRB hosts becomes apparent. The LGRB host galaxies of our complete sample are consistent with the mass-metallicity relation at similar mean redshift and stellar masses. The cutoff against high metallicities (and high masses) can explain the low SFR values of LGRB hosts. We find a hint of an increased incidence of starburst galaxies in the Swift/BAT6 z< 1 sample with respect to that of a field star-forming population. Given that the SFRs are low on average, the latter is ascribed to low stellar masses. Nevertheless, the limits on the completeness and metallicity availability of current surveys, coupled with the limited number of LGRB host galaxies, prevents us from investigating more quantitatively whether the starburst incidence is such as expected after taking into account the high-metallicity aversion of LGRB host galaxies. Based on observations at ESO, Program IDs: 077.D-0425, 177.A-0591, 080.D-0526, 081.A-0856, 082.D-0276, 083.D-0069, 084.A-0303, 084.A-0260, 086.A-0644, 086.B-0954, 089.A-0868, 090.A-0760, 095.D-0560.The reduced spectra are available in the ESO archive as Phase 3 data products and in

  17. The high redshift galaxy population in hierarchical galaxy formation models

    CERN Document Server

    Kitzbichler, M G; Kitzbichler, Manfred G.; White, Simon D. M.

    2006-01-01

    We compare observations of the high redshift galaxy population to the predictions of the galaxy formation model of Croton et al. (2006). This model, implemented on the Millennium Simulation of the concordance LCDM cosmogony, introduces "radio mode" feedback from the central galaxies of groups and clusters in order to obtain quantitative agreement with the luminosity, colour, morphology and clustering properties of the low redshift galaxy population. Here we compare the predictions of this same model to the observed counts and redshift distributions of faint galaxies, as well as to their inferred luminosity and mass functions out to redshift 5. With the exception of the mass functions, all these properties are sensitive to modelling of dust obscuration. A simple but plausible treatment gives moderately good agreement with most of the data, although the predicted abundance of relatively massive (~M*) galaxies appears systematically high at high redshift, suggesting that such galaxies assemble earlier in this mo...

  18. Galaxy Strategy for Ligo-Virgo Gravitational Wave Counterpart Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.; Kanner, Jonah; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nissanke, Samaya; Singer, Leo P.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we continue a line of inquiry begun in Kanner et al. which detailed a strategy for utilizing telescopes with narrow fields of view, such as the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT), to localize gravity wave (GW) triggers from LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) / Virgo. If one considers the brightest galaxies that produce 50 percent of the light, then the number of galaxies inside typical GW error boxes will be several tens. We have found that this result applies both in the early years of Advanced LIGO when the range is small and the error boxes large, and in the later years when the error boxes will be small and the range large. This strategy has the beneficial property of reducing the number of telescope pointings by a factor 10 to 100 compared with tiling the entire error box. Additional galaxy count reduction will come from a GW rapid distance estimate which will restrict the radial slice in search volume. Combining the bright galaxy strategy with a convolution based on anticipated GW localizations, we find that the searches can be restricted to about 18 plus or minus 5 galaxies for 2015, about 23 plus or minus 4 for 2017, and about 11 plus or minus for 2020. This assumes a distance localization at the putative neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) merger range mu for each target year, and these totals are integrated out to the range. Integrating out to the horizon would roughly double the totals. For localizations with r (rotation) greatly less than mu the totals would decrease. The galaxy strategy we present in this work will enable numerous sensitive optical and X-ray telescopes with small fields of view to participate meaningfully in searches wherein the prospects for rapidly fading afterglow place a premium on a fast response time.

  19. Galaxy Strategy for LIGO-Virgo Gravitational Wave Counterpart Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.; Kanner, Jonah; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nissanke, Samaya; Singer, Leo P.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we continue a line of inquiry begun in Kanner et al. which detailed a strategy for utilizing telescopes with narrow fields of view, such as the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT), to localize gravitational wave (GW) triggers from LIGO/Virgo. If one considers the brightest galaxies that produce ˜50% of the light, then the number of galaxies inside typical GW error boxes will be several tens. We have found that this result applies both in the early years of Advanced LIGO when the range was small and the error boxes were large, and will apply in the later years when the error boxes will be small and the range will be large. This strategy has the beneficial property of reducing the number of telescope pointings by a factor of 10-100 compared with tiling the entire error box. Additional galaxy count reduction will come from a GW rapid distance estimate which will restrict the radial slice in search volume. Combining the bright galaxy strategy with a convolution based on anticipated GW localizations, we find that the searches can be restricted to about 18 ± 5 galaxies for 2015, about 23 ± 4 for 2017, and about 11 ± 2 for 2020. This assumes a distance localization at the putative neutron star-neutron star merger range μ for each target year, and these totals are integrated out to the range. Integrating out to the horizon would roughly double the totals. For localizations with r\\ll μ the totals would decrease. The galaxy strategy we present in this work will enable numerous sensitive optical and XRTs with small fields of view to participate meaningfully in searches wherein the prospects for rapidly fading afterglow place a premium on a fast response time.

  20. The colours of HII galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Telles, E; Telles, Eduardo; Terlevich, Roberto

    1995-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution CCD surface photometry study in the optical V, R and I filters of 15 HII galaxies from the Nordic Optical Telescope and the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope at Canary Islands. The colours of the starburst continuum and of the underlying galaxy are measured. The distribution of colours of the underlying galaxy in HII galaxies is similar to the colours of other late type low surface brightness galaxies which suggests a close kinship of these with the quiescent phases of HII galaxies. However, comparison with recent evolutionary population synthesis models show that the observational errors and the uncertainties in the models are still too large to put strict constraints on their past star formation history.

  1. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    bright active galaxies, often referred to as Active Galactic Nuclei, or AGN. Many astronomers think that all galaxies have central, supermassive black holes, yet only a small percent show activity. What is needed to power the AGN is fuel in the form of a nearby reservoir of gas and dust. Galaxy clusters contain hundreds to thousands of galaxies. They are the largest known structures in the universe and serve as a microcosm for the mechanics of the Universe at large. The galaxies in clusters are often old, reddish elliptically shaped galaxies, distinct from blue, spiral galaxies like our own. These old galaxies also do not have many young stars. The theory now in question is that as galaxies enter into clusters at high speeds, they are stripped of their interstellar gas, much as a strong wind strips leaves from a tree. Galaxies may also collide with one another and use up all of their gas in one huge burst of star formation triggered by this interaction. These processes remove most, if not all, of the gas that isn't locked up in stars. As they no longer have the raw material to form new stars, the stellar population slowly gets old and the Galaxy appears red. No gas is left to fuel an AGN. Previous surveys of galaxy clusters with optical telescopes have found that about only one percent of the galaxies in a cluster have AGN. This latest Chandra observation if typical, however, bumps the count up to about 5 percent. The team found six red galaxies with high X-ray activity during a nearly 14-hour Chandra observation of a galaxy cluster named Abell 2104, over 700 million light years from Earth. Based on previous optical surveys, only one was expected. "If we relied on optical data alone, we would have missed these hidden monsters," said co-author Dr. John Mulchaey. Only one of the six AGN, in fact, had the optical spectral properties typical of AGN activity. "The presence of these AGN indicate that supermassive black holes have somehow retained a fuel source, despite the

  2. Counting Possibilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tomasetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Williamson supports the thesis that every possible entity necessarily exists and so he needs to explain how a possible son of Wittgenstein’s, for example, exists in our world:he exists as a merely possible object (MPO, a pure locus of potential. Williamson presents a short argument for the existence of MPOs: how many knives can be made by fitting together two blades and two handles? Four: at the most two are concrete objects, the others being merely possible knives and merely possible objects. This paper defends the idea that one can avoid reference and ontological commitment to MPOs. My proposal is that MPOs can be dispensed with by using the notion of rules of knife-making. I first present a solution according to which we count lists of instructions - selected by the rules - describing physical combinations between components. This account, however, has its own difficulties and I eventually suggest that one can find a way out by admitting possible worlds, entities which are more commonly accepted - at least by philosophers - than MPOs. I maintain that, in answering Williamson’s questions, we count classes of physically possible worlds in which the same instance of a general rule is applied.

  3. The Spectroscopic Properties of Bright Extragalactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, M G

    2006-01-01

    The properties of bright extragalactic planetary nebulae are reviewed based upon the results of low and high resolution spectroscopy. It is argued that bright extragalactic planetary nebulae from galaxies (or subsystems) with and without star formation have different distributions of central star temperature and ionization structure. As regards the chemical compositions, oxygen and neon are generally found to be unchanged as a result of the evolution of the stellar progenitors. Nitrogen enrichment may occur as a result of the evolution of the progenitors of bright planetary nebulae in all stellar populations, though this enrichment may be (more) random in old stellar populations. Helium abundances appear to be influenced by the chemical evolution of the host galaxy, with planetary nebulae in dwarf spheroidals having systematically elevated abundances. Neither the age nor the metallicity of the progenitor stellar population has a strong effect upon the kinematics observed for nebular shells. Both the range of ...

  4. Surface photometry of new nearby dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Makarova, L N; Grebel, E K; Barsunova, O Y

    2002-01-01

    We present CCD surface photometry of 16 nearby dwarf galaxies, many of which were only recently discovered. Our sample comprises both isolated galaxies and galaxies that are members of nearby galaxy groups. The observations were obtained in the Johnson B and V bands (and in some cases in Kron-Cousins I). We derive surface brightness profiles, total magnitudes, and integrated colors. For the 11 galaxies in our sample with distance estimates the absolute B magnitudes lie in the range of -10>Mb>-13. The central surface brightness ranges from 22.5 to 27.0 mag/sq.arcsec. Most of the dwarf galaxies show exponential light profiles with or without a central light depression. Integrated radial color gradients, where present, appear to indicate a more centrally concentrated younger population and a more extended older population.

  5. Extragalactic millimeter-wave point-source catalog, number counts and statistics from 771 deg{sup 2} of the SPT-SZ survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocanu, L. M.; Crawford, T. M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Vieira, J. D. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Aravena, M. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura Santiago (Chile); Austermann, J. E.; Everett, W. B.; Halverson, N. W. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Béthermin, M. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bothwell, M. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); Cho, H.-M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); George, E. M., E-mail: lmocanu@uchicago.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2013-12-10

    We present a point-source catalog from 771 deg{sup 2} of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich survey at 95, 150, and 220 GHz. We detect 1545 sources above 4.5σ significance in at least one band. Based on their relative brightness between survey bands, we classify the sources into two populations, one dominated by synchrotron emission from active galactic nuclei, and one dominated by thermal emission from dust-enshrouded star-forming galaxies. We find 1238 synchrotron and 307 dusty sources. We cross-match all sources against external catalogs and find 189 unidentified synchrotron sources and 189 unidentified dusty sources. The dusty sources without counterparts are good candidates for high-redshift, strongly lensed submillimeter galaxies. We derive number counts for each population from 1 Jy down to roughly 11, 4, and 11 mJy at 95, 150, and 220 GHz. We compare these counts with galaxy population models and find that none of the models we consider for either population provide a good fit to the measured counts in all three bands. The disparities imply that these measurements will be an important input to the next generation of millimeter-wave extragalactic source population models.

  6. The Dragonfly Nearby Galaxies Survey. II. Ultra diffuse galaxies near the elliptical galaxy NGC 5485

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, Allison; Danieli, Shany; Abraham, Roberto; Zhang, Jielai; Karachentsev, I D; Makarova, L N

    2016-01-01

    We present the unexpected discovery of four ultra diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in a group environment. We recently identified seven extremely low surface brightness galaxies in the vicinity of the spiral galaxy M101, using data from the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. The galaxies have effective radii of $10"-38"$ and central surface brightnesses of $25.6-27.7$ mag arcsec$^{-2}$ in g-band. We subsequently obtained follow-up observations with $HST$ to constrain the distances to these galaxies. Four remain persistently unresolved even with the spatial resolution of $HST$/ACS, which implies distances of $D > 17.5$ Mpc. We show that the galaxies are most likely associated with a background group at $\\sim 27$ Mpc containing the massive ellipticals NGC 5485 and NGC 5473. At this distance, the galaxies have sizes of $2.6-4.9$ kpc, and are classified as UDGs, similar to the populations that have been revealed in clusters such as Coma, Virgo and Fornax, yet even more diffuse. The discovery of four UDGs in a galaxy group demonst...

  7. Joint Analysis of near-infrared properties and surface brightness fluctuations of LMC star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Raimondo, G

    2009-01-01

    Surface brightness fluctuations have been proved to be a very powerful technique to determine the distance and characterize the stellar content in extragalactic systems. Nevertheless, before facing the problem of stellar content in distant galaxies, we need to calibrate the method onto nearby well-known systems. In this paper we analyze the properties at $J$ and $K_s$ bands of a sample of 19 star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), for which accurate near-infrared (NIR) resolved star photometry, and integrated photometry are available. For the same sample, we derive the SBF measurements in $J$ and $K_s$-bands. We use the multi-purpose stellar population code \\emph{SPoT (Stellar POpulations Tools)} to simulate the color-magnitude diagram, stellar counts, integrated magnitudes, colors, and surface brightness fluctuations of each cluster. The present procedure allows us to estimate the age and metallicity of the clusters in a consistent way, and provides a new calibration of the empirical $s$-parameter...

  8. Ultra-diffuse Galaxies in Clusters and the Field: Masses and Stellar Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowsky, Aaron; Laine, Seppo; Krick, Jessica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Villaume, Alexa; Brodie, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) were recognized only last year as a novel class of galaxies, with luminosities like dwarfs but sizes like giants. Although some UDGs appear to be just unusually extended dwarfs, others show evidence of being very different and unexpected: their dark matter halos are overmassive by factors of ~10, with one UDG even being arguably a 'failed Milky Way.' These exotic galaxies might be a byproduct of environmental processes within galaxy clusters, but UDGs have also now been found in the field. It is crucial for understanding their origins to test if UDGs have the same properties in cluster and field environments. Here we propose studying the stellar populations (ages and metallicities) of seven UDGs using Spitzer/IRAC 3.6- and 4.5-micron imaging combined with optical photometry, along with mass estimation of three of the UDGs using HST/ACS imaging to provide globular cluster number counts and colors (proxies for halo mass). This ultra low surface brightness photometry in the near infrared, on an important new class of galaxies, could become a legacy result from the Spitzer mission.

  9. Extragalactic archeology with the GHOSTS Survey I. - Age-resolved disk structure of nearby low-mass galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Streich, David; Bailin, Jeremy; Bell, Eric F; Holwerda, Benne W; Minchev, Ivan; Monachesi, Antonela; Radburn-Smith, David J

    2016-01-01

    We study the individual evolution histories of three nearby low-mass edge-on galaxies (IC 5052, NGC4244, and NGC5023). Using resolved stellar populations, we constructed star count density maps for populations of different ages and analyzed the change of structural parameters with stellar age within each galaxy. We do not detect a separate thick disk in any of the three galaxies, even though our observations cover a wider range in equivalent surface brightness than any integrated light study. While scale heights increase with age, each population can be well described by a single disk. Two of the galaxies contain a very weak additional component, which we identify as the faint halo. The mass of these faint halos is lower than 1% of the mass of the disk. The three galaxies show low vertical heating rates, which are much lower than the heating rate of the Milky Way. This indicates that heating agents, such as giant molecular clouds and spiral structure, are weak in low-mass galaxies. All populations in the thre...

  10. SPECTROSCOPIC GRADIENTS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Buzzoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We review some relevant properties of the observed changes of H , Mg2, and Fei Lick indices across the surface of 25 bright elliptical galaxies. The impact of these spectroscopic gradients is brie y discussed, in the framework of the leading physical mechanisms that led to galaxy formation. In particular, three relevant evolutionary scenarios are sketched, each one able, in principle, to consistently match galaxy spectral properties and e ectively constrain the composing stellar populations in these systems.

  11. The Stability of Low Surface Brightness Disks Based on Multi-Wavelength Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    MacLachlan, John M; Wood, Kenneth; Gallagher, John S

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the structure and composition of the dusty interstellar medium (ISM) of low surface brightness (LSB) disk galaxies, we have used multiwavelength photometry to construct spectral energy distributions for three low-mass, edge-on LSB galaxies. We use Monte Carlo radiation transfer codes that include the effects of transiently heated small grains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules to model and interpret the data. We find that unlike the high surface brightness galaxies previously modeled, the dust disks appear to have scale heights equal to or exceeding their stellar scale heights. This result supports the findings of previous studies that low mass disk galaxies have dust scale heights comparable to their stellar scale heights and suggests that the cold ISM of low mass, LSB disk galaxies may be stable against fragmentation and gravitational collapse. This may help to explain the lack of observed dust lanes in edge-on LSB galaxies and their low current star formation rates.

  12. The rotation of Galaxy Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Tovmassian, Hrant M.

    2015-01-01

    The method for detection of the galaxy cluster rotation based on the study of distribution of member galaxies with velocities lower and higher of the cluster mean velocity over the cluster image is proposed. The search for rotation is made for flat clusters with $a/b>1.8$ and BMI type clusters which are expected to be rotating. For comparison there were studied also round clusters and clusters of NBMI type, the second by brightness galaxy in which does not differ significantly from the cluste...

  13. A Minimalist Feedback-Regulated Model for Galaxy Formation During the Epoch of Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Furlanetto, Steven; Mebane, Richard; Sun, Guochao

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared surveys have now determined the luminosity functions of galaxies at 610, but the bright galaxies accessible to observations decline much faster than the total. Deviations from our predictions would provide evidence for new astrophysics within the first generations of galaxies. We also provide predictions for galaxy measurements by future facilities, including JWST and WFIRST.

  14. Uv-bright Nearby Early-type Galaxies Observed in the Mid-infrared: Eidence for a Multi-stage Formation History by Way of WISE and GALEX Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, S. M.; Neill, J. D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Blain, A. W.; Farrah, D. G.; Rich, R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Benford, D. J.; Bridge, C. R.; Lake, S. E.; Masci, F. J.; Wright, E. L.

    2013-01-01

    In the local universe, 10% of massive elliptical galaxies are observed to exhibit a peculiar property: a substantial excess of ultraviolet emission than what is expected from their old, red stellar populations. Several origins for this ultraviolet excess (UVX) have been proposed including a population of hot young stars and a population of old, blue horizontal branch or extended horizontal branch (BHB or EHB) stars that have undergone substantial mass loss from their outer atmospheres. We explore the radial distribution of UVX in a selection of 49 nearby E/S0-type galaxies by measuring their extended photometry in the UV through mid-infrared (mid-IR) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We compare UV/optical and UV/mid-IR colors with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis models, which allow for the inclusion of EHB stars. We find that combined WISE mid-IR and GALEX UV colors are more effective in distinguishing models than optical colors, and that the UV/mid-IR combination is sensitive to the EHB fraction. There are strong color gradients, with the outer radii bluer than the inner half-light radii by approx.1 mag. This color difference is easily accounted for with an increase in the BHB fraction of 0.25 with radius. We estimated that the average ages for the inner and outer radii are 7.0 +/- 0.3 Gyr, and 6.2 +/- 0.2 Gyr, respectively, with the implication that the outer regions are likely to have formed approx. 1 Gyr after the inner regions. Additionally, we find that metallicity gradients are likely not a significant factor in the color difference. The separation of color between the inner and outer regions, which agrees with a specific stellar population difference (e.g., higher EHB populations), and the approx. 0.5-2 Gyr age difference suggests multi-stage formation. Our results are best explained by inside-out formation: rapid star formation within the core at early

  15. Slowly cooking galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Legrand, F

    1999-01-01

    Recent spectroscopic observations of IZw~18 have revealed homogeneous abundance throughout the galaxy and several observations of other starburst galaxies have shown no significant gradient or discontinuity in the abundance distributions within the HII regions. I thus concur with Tenorio-Tagle (1996) and Devost et al. (1997) that these observed abundance homogeneities cannot be produced by the material ejected from the stars formed in the current burst and result from a previous star formation episode. Metals ejected in the current burst of star formation remain most probably hidden in a hot phase and are undetectable using optical spectroscopy. Combining various observational facts, for instance the faint star formation rate observed in low surface brightness galaxies (van Zee et al., 1997), I propose that a low and continuous star formation rate occurring during quiescent phases between bursts is a non negligible source of new elements in the interstellar medium. Using a spectrophotometric and chemical evol...

  16. The Impact of Strong Gravitational Lensing on Observed Lyman-Break Galaxy Numbers at 4

    CERN Document Server

    Barone-Nugent, R L; Trenti, M; Treu, T; Oesch, P; Bouwens, R; Illingworth, G D; Schmidt, K B

    2015-01-01

    Detection of Lyman-Break Galaxies (LBGs) at high-redshift can be affected by gravitational lensing induced by foreground deflectors not only in galaxy clusters, but also in blank fields. We quantify the impact of strong magnification in the samples of $B$, $V$, $i$, $z$ $\\&$ $Y$ LBGs ($4\\lesssim z \\lesssim8$) observed in the XDF and GOODS/CANDELS fields, by investigating the proximity of dropouts to foreground objects. We find that $\\sim6\\%$ of bright LBGs ($m_{H_{160}}2$) by foreground objects. This fraction decreases from $\\sim 3.5\\%$ at $z\\sim6$ to $\\sim1.5\\%$ at $z\\sim4$. Since the observed fraction of strongly lensed galaxies is a function of the shape of the luminosity function (LF), it can be used to derive Schechter parameters, $\\alpha$ and $M_{\\star}$, independently from galaxy number counts. Our magnification bias analysis yields Schechter-function parameters in close agreement with those determined from galaxy counts albeit with larger uncertainties. Extrapolation of our analysis to $z\\gtrsim 8...

  17. Measuring cosmic velocities with 21cm intensity mapping and galaxy redshift survey cross-correlation dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of measuring the effects of peculiar velocities in large-scale structure using the dipole of the redshift-space cross-correlation function. We combine number counts of galaxies with brightness-temperature fluctuations from 21cm intensity mapping, demonstrating that the dipole may be measured at modest significance ($\\lesssim 2\\sigma$) by combining the upcoming radio survey CHIME with the future redshift surveys of DESI and Euclid. More significant measurements ($\\lesssim~10\\sigma$) will be possible by combining intensity maps from the SKA with these of DESI or Euclid, and an even higher significance measurement ($\\lesssim 100\\sigma$) may be made by combining observables completely internally to the SKA. We account for effects such as contamination by wide-angle terms, interferometer noise and beams in the intensity maps, non-linear enhancements to the power spectrum, stacking multiple populations, sensitivity to the magnification slope, and the possibility that number counts and...

  18. The brightness of colour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The perception of brightness depends on spatial context: the same stimulus can appear light or dark depending on what surrounds it. A less well-known but equally important contextual phenomenon is that the colour of a stimulus can also alter its brightness. Specifically, stimuli that are more saturated (i.e. purer in colour appear brighter than stimuli that are less saturated at the same luminance. Similarly, stimuli that are red or blue appear brighter than equiluminant yellow and green stimuli. This non-linear relationship between stimulus intensity and brightness, called the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (HK effect, was first described in the nineteenth century but has never been explained. Here, we take advantage of the relative simplicity of this 'illusion' to explain it and contextual effects more generally, by using a simple Bayesian ideal observer model of the human visual ecology. We also use fMRI brain scans to identify the neural correlates of brightness without changing the spatial context of the stimulus, which has complicated the interpretation of related fMRI studies. RESULTS: Rather than modelling human vision directly, we use a Bayesian ideal observer to model human visual ecology. We show that the HK effect is a result of encoding the non-linear statistical relationship between retinal images and natural scenes that would have been experienced by the human visual system in the past. We further show that the complexity of this relationship is due to the response functions of the cone photoreceptors, which themselves are thought to represent an efficient solution to encoding the statistics of images. Finally, we show that the locus of the response to the relationship between images and scenes lies in the primary visual cortex (V1, if not earlier in the visual system, since the brightness of colours (as opposed to their luminance accords with activity in V1 as measured with fMRI. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that perceptions

  19. Lopsidedness in dwarf irregular galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, A B; Almoznino, E; Van Zee, L; Salzer, J J; Heller, Ana B.; Brosch, Noah; Almoznino, Elchanan; Zee, Liese van; Salzer, John J.

    2000-01-01

    We quantify the amplitude of the lopsidedness, the azimuthal angular asymmetry index, and the concentration of star forming regions, as represented by the distribution of the H$\\alpha$ emission, in a sample of 78 late-type irregular galaxies. We bin the observed galaxies in two groups representing blue compact galaxies (BCDs) and low surface brightness dwarf galaxies (LSBs). The light distribution is analysed with a novel algorithm, which allows detection of details in the light distribution pattern. We find that while the asymmetry of the underlying continuum light, representing the older stellar generations, is relatively small, the H$\\alpha$ emission is very asymmetric and is correlated in position angle with the continuum light. We test a model of random star formation over the extent of a galaxy by simulating HII regions in artificial dwarf galaxies. The implication is that random star formation over the full extent of a galaxy may be generated in LSB dwarf-irregular galaxies but not in BCD galaxies.

  20. CA BrightStor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    CA推出的BrightStor系列存储管理解决方案已经成为企业电子商务体系架构管理战略中举足轻重的组成部分。BrightStor是一整套企业级的智能化存储管理解决方案,定位在存储硬件设备和上层应用之间,通过各种集成化的产品和工具为驻留在企业任何位置的数据提供全方位的、有效的存储管理和保护。

  1. Bright Economic Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Minqiu

    2004-01-01

    @@ India is expected to register an 8.2% growth rate for the 2003-04 fiscal year. The overall economic situation this year has been satisfactory despite the scaled down 6-6.5% growth rate for the new fiscal year due to oil price hikes, reduced monsoon volume and some 7% inflation. Judging from the following factors, bright prospects are in store for the country down the road.

  2. HerMES: deep number counts at 250, 350, and 500 microns in the COSMOS and GOODS-N fields and the build-up of the cosmic infrared background

    CERN Document Server

    Béthermin, M; Ilbert, O; Conley, A; Lagache, G; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Berta, S; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Casey, C M; Castro-Rodríguez, N; Cava, A; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Eales, S; Farrah, D; Franceschini, A; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Heinis, S; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Kartaltepe, J S; Levenson, L; Magdis, G; Marchetti, L; Marsden, G; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Pérez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rigopoulou, D; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Salvato, M; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Viero, M; Wang, L; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2012-01-01

    ABRIGED Herschel/SPIRE has provided confusion limited maps of deep fields at 250, 350, and 500um, as part of the HerMES survey. Due to confusion, only a small fraction of the Cosmic Infrared Background can be resolved into individually-detected sources. Our goal is to produce deep galaxy number counts and redshift distributions below the confusion limit, which we then use to place strong constraints on the origins of the cosmic infrared background and on models of galaxy evolution. We individually extracted the bright SPIRE with a method using the positions, the flux densities, and the redshifts of the 24um sources as a prior, and derived the number counts and redshift distributions of the bright SPIRE sources. For fainter SPIRE sources, we reconstructed the number counts and the redshift distribution below the confusion limit using the deep 24um catalogs associated with photometric redshift and information provided by the stacking of these sources into the deep SPIRE maps. Finally, by integrating all these c...

  3. The Bright SHARC Survey The Cluster Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Romer, A K; Holden, B P; Ulmer, M P; Pildis, R A; Merrelli, A J; Adami, C; Burke, D J; Collins, C A; Metevier, A J; Kron, Richard G; Commons, K

    1999-01-01

    We present the Bright SHARC (Serendipitous High-Redshift Archival ROSAT Cluster) Survey, which is an objective search for serendipitously detected extended X-ray sources in 460 deep ROSAT PSPC pointings. The Bright SHARC Survey covers an area of 178.6 sq.deg and has yielded 374 extended sources. We discuss the X-ray data reduction, the candidate selection and present results from our on-going optical follow-up campaign. The optical follow-up concentrates on the brightest 94 of the 374 extended sources and is now 97% complete. We have identified thirty-seven clusters of galaxies, for which we present redshifts and luminosities. The clusters span a redshift range of 0.0696Bright SHARC clusters have not been listed in any previously ...

  4. Stochastic 2-D Models of Galaxy Disk Evolution. The Galaxy M33

    OpenAIRE

    Mineikis, Tadas; Vansevičius, Vladas

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a fast numerical 2-D model of galaxy disk evolution (resolved along the galaxy radius and azimuth) by adopting a scheme of parameterized stochastic self-propagating star formation. We explore the parameter space of the model and demonstrate its capability to reproduce 1-D radial profiles of the galaxy M33: gas surface density, surface brightness in the i and GALEX FUV passbands, and metallicity.

  5. A pseudo-spectrum analysis of galaxy-galaxy lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikage, Chiaki; Oguri, Masamune

    2016-10-01

    We present the application of the pseudo-spectrum method to galaxy-galaxy lensing. We derive explicit expressions for the pseudo-spectrum analysis of the galaxy-shear cross-spectrum, which is the Fourier space counterpart of the stacked galaxy-galaxy lensing profile. The pseudo-spectrum method corrects observational issues such as the survey geometry, masks of bright stars and their spikes, and inhomogeneous noise, which distort the spectrum and also mix the E-mode and the B-mode signals. Using ray-tracing simulations in N-body simulations including realistic masks, we confirm that the pseudo-spectrum method successfully recovers the input galaxy-shear cross-spectrum. We also show that the galaxy-shear cross-spectrum has an excess covariance relative to the Gaussian covariance at small scales (k ≳ 1h Mpc-1) where the shot noise is dominated in the Gaussian approximation. We find that the excess is consistent with the expectation from the halo sample variance (HSV), which originates from the matter fluctuations at scales larger than the survey area. We apply the pseudo-spectrum method to the observational data of Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing survey shear catalogue and three different spectroscopic samples of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Luminous Red Galaxy, and Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey CMASS and LOWZ galaxies. The galaxy-shear cross-spectra are significantly detected at the level of 7-10σ using the analytic covariance with the HSV contribution included. We also confirm that the observed spectra are consistent with the halo model predictions with the halo occupation distribution parameters estimated from previous work. This work demonstrates the viability of galaxy-galaxy lensing analysis in the Fourier space.

  6. Likelihood Functions for Galaxy Cluster Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Holder, G

    2006-01-01

    Galaxy cluster surveys offer great promise for measuring cosmological parameters, but survey analysis methods have not been widely studied. Using methods developed decades ago for galaxy clustering studies, it is shown that nearly exact likelihood functions can be written down for galaxy cluster surveys. The sparse sampling of the density field by galaxy clusters allows simplifications that are not possible for galaxy surveys. An application to counts in cells is explicitly tested using cluster catalogs from numerical simulations and it is found that the calculated probability distributions are very accurate at masses above several times 10^{14}h^{-1} solar masses at z=0 and lower masses at higher redshift.

  7. The host galaxy/AGN connection in nearby early-type galaxies. Is there a miniature radio-galaxy in every "core" galaxy?

    OpenAIRE

    Balmaverde, B.; Capetti, A.

    2005-01-01

    This is the second of a series of three papers exploring the connection between the multiwavelength properties of AGN in nearby early-type galaxies and the characteristics of their hosts. In Capetti et al. (2005) we presented a study of the surface brightness profiles for the 65 objects with available archival HST images out of the 116 radio-detected galaxies. We classified early-type galaxies into ``core'' and ``power-law'' galaxies, discriminating on the basis of the slope of their nuclear ...

  8. Kinematic transitions and streams in galaxy halos

    CERN Document Server

    Romanowsky, A J; Brodie, J P; Foster, C; Forbes, D A; Lux, H; Martinez-Delgado, D; Strader, J; Zibetti, S

    2014-01-01

    The chemo-dynamics of galaxy halos beyond the Local Group may now be mapped out through the use of globular clusters and planetary nebulae as bright tracer objects, along with deep multi-slit spectroscopy of the integrated stellar light. We present results from surveying nearby early-type galaxies, including evidence for kinematically distinct halos that may reflect two-phase galaxy assembly. We also demonstrate the utility of the tracer approach in measuring the kinematics of stellar substructures around the Umbrella Galaxy, which allow us to reconstruct the progenitor properties and stream orbit.

  9. Galaxy Mergers and Dark Matter Halo Mergers in LCDM: Mass, Redshift, and Mass-Ratio Dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2009-08-03

    We employ a high-resolution LCDM N-body simulation to present merger rate predictions for dark matter halos and investigate how common merger-related observables for galaxies - such as close pair counts, starburst counts, and the morphologically disturbed fraction - likely scale with luminosity, stellar mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift from z = 0 to z = 4. We provide a simple 'universal' fitting formula that describes our derived merger rates for dark matter halos a function of dark halo mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift, and go on to predict galaxy merger rates using number density-matching to associate halos with galaxies. For example, we find that the instantaneous merger rate of m/M > 0.3 mass ratio events into typical L {approx}> fL{sub *} galaxies follows the simple relation dN/dt {approx_equal} 0.03(1+f)Gyr{sup -1} (1+z){sup 2.1}. Despite the rapid increase in merger rate with redshift, only a small fraction of > 0.4L{sub *} high-redshift galaxies ({approx} 3% at z = 2) should have experienced a major merger (m/M > 0.3) in the very recent past (t < 100 Myr). This suggests that short-lived, merger-induced bursts of star formation should not contribute significantly to the global star formation rate at early times, in agreement with observational indications. In contrast, a fairly high fraction ({approx} 20%) of those z = 2 galaxies should have experienced a morphologically transformative merger within a virial dynamical time. We compare our results to observational merger rate estimates from both morphological indicators and pair-fraction based determinations between z = 0-2 and show that they are consistent with our predictions. However, we emphasize that great care must be made in these comparisons because the predicted observables depend very sensitively on galaxy luminosity, redshift, overall mass ratio, and uncertain relaxation timescales for merger remnants. We show that the majority of bright galaxies at z = 3 should have undergone a

  10. The faintest star forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ranalli, P

    2003-01-01

    I briefly report on the X-ray detection of 10 radio sub-mJy sources in the 2 Ms Chandra observation of the Hubble Deep Field North region. These sources follow the same radio/X-ray luminosities relation which holds for nearby galaxies. Making use of this relation, X-ray number counts from star forming galaxies are predicted from the deep radio Log N-Log S's.

  11. Eosinophil count - absolute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  12. The Atlas3D project -- XXIX. The new look of early-type galaxies and surrounding fields disclosed by extremely deep optical images

    CERN Document Server

    Duc, Pierre-Alain; Karabal, Emin; Cappellari, Michele; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M; Michel-Dansac, Leo; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Paudel, Sanjaya; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Galactic archeology based on star counts is instrumental to reconstruct the past mass assembly of Local Group galaxies. The development of new observing techniques and data-reduction, coupled with the use of sensitive large field of view cameras, now allows us to pursue this technique in more distant galaxies exploiting their diffuse low surface brightness (LSB) light. As part of the Atlas3D project, we have obtained with the MegaCam camera at the Canada-France Hawaii Telescope extremely deep, multi--band, images of nearby early-type galaxies. We present here a catalog of 92 galaxies from the Atlas3D sample, that are located in low to medium density environments. The observing strategy and data reduction pipeline, that achieve a gain of several magnitudes in the limiting surface brightness with respect to classical imaging surveys, are presented. The size and depth of the survey is compared to other recent deep imaging projects. The paper highlights the capability of LSB--optimized surveys at detecting new pr...

  13. Star-Forming Galaxies at z~2 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Kong; Wei Zhang; Min Wang

    2008-01-01

    Using a simple color selection based on B-, z- and K-band photometry, BzK =(z - K)AB - (B - z)AB -0.2, we picked out 52 star-forming galaxies at 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 2.5(sBzKs) from a K-band selected sample (KVega < 22.0) in an area of ~ 5.5 arcmin2 of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF). We develop a new photometric redshift method, and the error in our photometric redshifts is less than 0.02(1 + z). From the photometric redshift distribution, we find the BzK color criterion can be used to select star-forming galaxies at 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 2.5 with KVega < 22.0. Down to KVega < 22.0, the number counts of sBzKs increase linearly with the K magnitude; the sBzKs are strongly clustered, and most of them have irregular morphologies on the ACS images. They have a median reddening of E(B -V) ~ 0.28, an average star formation rate of ~ 36 M⊙ yr-1 and a typical stellar mass of ~ 1010M⊙. The UV criterion for the galaxies at z~2 can select most of the faint sBzKs in the UDF, but it does not work well for bright, massive, highly-reddened, actively star-forming galaxies.

  14. A High Stellar Velocity Dispersion and ~100 Globular Clusters for the Ultra Diffuse Galaxy Dragonfly 44

    CERN Document Server

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Danieli, Shany; Merritt, Allison; Mowla, Lamiya; Romanowsky, Aaron; Zhang, Jielai

    2016-01-01

    Recently a population of large, very low surface brightness, spheroidal galaxies was identified in the Coma cluster. The apparent survival of these Ultra Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) in a rich cluster suggests that they have very high masses. Here we present the stellar kinematics of Dragonfly 44, one of the largest Coma UDGs, using a 33.5 hr integration with DEIMOS on the Keck II telescope. We find a velocity dispersion of 47 km/s, which implies a dynamical mass of M_dyn=0.7x10^10 M_sun within its deprojected half-light radius of r_1/2=4.6 kpc. The mass-to-light ratio is M/L=48 M_sun/L_sun, and the dark matter fraction is 98 percent within the half-light radius. The high mass of Dragonfly 44 is accompanied by a large globular cluster population. From deep Gemini imaging taken in 0.4" seeing we infer that Dragonfly 44 has 94 globular clusters, similar to the counts for other galaxies in this mass range. Our results add to other recent evidence that many UDGs are "failed" galaxies, with the sizes, dark matter conte...

  15. The intrinsic shape of galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-09-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 galaxies, we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026} in the SDSS r band. We also find that the distribution of minor to major axis ratio has a mean value of 0.267 ± 0.009, slightly larger than previous estimates mainly due to the lower extinction used; the same affects the circularity of galactic discs, which are found to be less round in shape than in previous studies, with a mean ellipticity of 0.215 ± 0.013. For elliptical galaxies, we find that the minor to major axis ratio, with a mean value of 0.584 ± 0.006, is larger than previous estimations due to the removal of spiral interlopers present in samples with morphological information from photometric profiles. These interlopers are removed when selecting ellipticals using Galaxy Zoo data. We find that the intrinsic shapes of galaxies and their dust extinction vary with absolute magnitude, colour and physical size. We find that bright elliptical galaxies are more spherical than faint ones, a trend that is also present with galaxy size, and that there is no dependence of elliptical galaxy shape with colour. For spiral galaxies, we find that the reddest ones have higher dust extinction as expected, due to the fact that this reddening is mainly due to dust. We also find that the thickness of discs increases with luminosity and size, and that brighter, smaller and redder galaxies have less round discs.

  16. Quantitative Brightness Analysis of Fluorescence Intensity Fluctuations in E. Coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho Hur

    Full Text Available The brightness measured by fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy specifies the average stoichiometry of a labeled protein in a sample. Here we extended brightness analysis, which has been mainly applied in eukaryotic cells, to prokaryotic cells with E. coli serving as a model system. The small size of the E. coli cell introduces unique challenges for applying brightness analysis that are addressed in this work. Photobleaching leads to a depletion of fluorophores and a reduction of the brightness of protein complexes. In addition, the E. coli cell and the point spread function of the instrument only partially overlap, which influences intensity fluctuations. To address these challenges we developed MSQ analysis, which is based on the mean Q-value of segmented photon count data, and combined it with the analysis of axial scans through the E. coli cell. The MSQ method recovers brightness, concentration, and diffusion time of soluble proteins in E. coli. We applied MSQ to measure the brightness of EGFP in E. coli and compared it to solution measurements. We further used MSQ analysis to determine the oligomeric state of nuclear transport factor 2 labeled with EGFP expressed in E. coli cells. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of quantifying the stoichiometry of proteins by brightness analysis in a prokaryotic cell.

  17. The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. III. The Three-Component Structure of Nearby Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Song; Peng, Chien Y; Li, Zhao-Yu; Barth, Aaron J

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by recent developments in our understanding of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies, we explore the detailed photometric structure of a representative sample of 94 bright, nearby elliptical galaxies, using high-quality optical images from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. The sample spans a range of environments and stellar masses, from M* = 10^{10.2} to 10^{12.0} solar mass. We exploit the unique capabilities of two-dimensional image decomposition to explore the possibility that local elliptical galaxies may contain photometrically distinct substructure that can shed light on their evolutionary history. Compared with the traditional one-dimensional approach, these two-dimensional models are capable of consistently recovering the surface brightness distribution and the systematic radial variation of geometric information at the same time. Contrary to conventional perception, we find that the global light distribution of the majority (>75%) of elliptical galaxies is not well described by ...

  18. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof-the-art...

  19. The ASAS-SN Bright Supernova Catalog $-$ II. 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Holoien, T W -S; Stanek, K Z; Kochanek, C S; Shappee, B J; Prieto, J L; Dong, Subo; Brimacombe, J; Bishop, D W; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Chen, Ping; Danilet, A B; Falco, E; Godoy-Rivera, D; Goss, N; Pojmanski, G; Simonian, G V; Skowron, D M; Thompson, Todd A; Woźniak, P R; Avíla, C G; Bock, G; Carballo, J -L G; Conseil, E; Contreras, C; Cruz, I; andújar, J M F; Guo, Zhen; Hsiao, E Y; Kiyota, S; Koff, R A; Krannich, G; Madore, B F; Marples, P; Masi, G; Morrell, N; Monard, L A G; Munoz-Mateos, J C; Nicholls, B; Nicolas, J; Wagner, R M; Wiethoff, W S

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript presents information for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) during 2015, its second full year of operations. The same information is presented for bright ($m_V\\leq17$), spectroscopically confirmed supernovae discovered by other sources in 2015. As with the first ASAS-SN bright supernova catalog, we also present redshifts and near-UV through IR magnitudes for all supernova host galaxies in both samples. Combined with our previous catalog, this work comprises a complete catalog of 455 supernovae from multiple professional and amateur sources, allowing for population studies that were previously impossible. This is the second of a series of yearly papers on bright supernovae and their hosts from the ASAS-SN team.

  20. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Lauren E.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Borish, H. Jacob; Burkhardt, Andrew; Firebaugh, Ariel; Hancock, Danielle; Rochford Hayes, Christian; Linden, Sean; Liss, Sandra; Matthews, Allison; Prager, Brian; Pryal, Matthew; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Troup, Nicholas William; Wenger, Trey

    2016-01-01

    We present updates from our seventh year of operation including new club content, continued assessments, and our fifth annual Star Party. Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in Central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts. Our primary focus is hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools. Each week, DSBK volunteers take the role of coaches to introduce astronomy-related concepts ranging from the Solar System to galaxies to astrobiology, and to lead students in interactive learning activities. Another hallmark of DSBK is hosting our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows.

  1. A pseudo-spectrum analysis of galaxy-galaxy lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Hikage, Chiaki

    2016-01-01

    We present the application of the pseudo-spectrum method to galaxy-galaxy lensing. We derive explicit expressions for the pseudo-spectrum analysis of the galaxy-shear cross spectrum, which is the Fourier space counterpart of the stacked galaxy-galaxy lensing profile. The pseudo-spectrum method corrects observational issues such as the survey geometry, masks of bright stars and their spikes, and inhomogeneous noise, which distort the spectrum and also mix the E-mode and the B-mode signals. Using ray-tracing simulations in N-body simulations including realistic masks, we confirm that the pseudo-spectrum method successfully recovers the input galaxy-shear cross spectrum. We also investigate the covariance of the galaxy-shear cross spectrum using the ray-tracing simulations to show that there is an excess covariance relative to the Gaussian covariance at small scales where the shot noise is dominated in the Gaussian approximation. We find that the excess of the covariance is consistent with the expectation from t...

  2. No Time for Dead Time: Timing Analysis of Bright Black Hole Binaries with NuSTAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bachetti; F.A. Harrison; R. Cook; J. Tomsick; C. Schmid; B.W. Grefenstette; D. Barret; S.E. Boggs; F.E. Christensen; W.W. Craig; A.C. Fabian; F. Fürst; P. Gandhi; C.J. Hailey; E. Kara; T.J. Maccarone; J.M. Miller; K. Pottschmidt; D. Stern; P. Uttley; D.J. Walton; J. Wilms; W.W. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Timing of high-count-rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time per

  3. Ring Around a Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Space Telescope Science Institute astronomers are giving the public chances to decide where to aim NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Guided by 8,000 Internet voters, Hubble has already been used to take a close-up, multi-color picture of the most popular object from a list of candidates, the extraordinary 'polar-ring' galaxy NGC 4650A. Located about 130 million light-years away, NGC 4650A is one of only 100 known polar-ring galaxies. Their unusual disk-ring structure is not yet understood fully. One possibility is that polar rings are the remnants of colossal collisions between two galaxies sometime in the distant past, probably at least 1 billion years ago. What is left of one galaxy has become the rotating inner disk of old red stars in the center. Meanwhile, another smaller galaxy which ventured too close was probably severely damaged or destroyed. The bright bluish clumps, which are especially prominent in the outer parts of the ring, are regions containing luminous young stars, examples of stellar rebirth from the remnants of an ancient galactic disaster. The polar ring appears to be highly distorted. No regular spiral pattern stands out in the main part of the ring, and the presence of young stars below the main ring on one side and above on the other shows that the ring is warped and does not lie in one plane. Determining the typical ages of the stars in the polar ring is an initial goal of our Polar Ring Science Team that can provide a clue to the evolution of this unusual galaxy. The HST exposures were acquired by the Hubble Heritage Team, consisting of Keith Noll, Howard Bond, Carol Christian, Jayanne English, Lisa Frattare, Forrest Hamilton, Anne Kinney and Zolt Levay, and guest collaborators Jay Gallagher (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Lynn Matthews (National Radio Astronomy Observatory-Charlottesville), and Linda Sparke (University of Wisconsin-Madison).

  4. Brightness and color of the integrated starlight at celestial, ecliptic and galactic poles

    CERN Document Server

    Nawar, S; Mikhail, J S; Morcos, A B

    2010-01-01

    From photoelectric observations of night sky brightness carried out at Abu-Simbel, Asaad et al. (1979) have obtained values of integrated starlight brightness at different Galactic latitudes. These data have been used in the present work to obtain the brightness and color of the integrated starlight at North and South Celestial, Ecliptic and Galactic Poles. The present values of the brightness are expressed in S10 units and mag/arcsec2. Our results have been compared with that obtained by other investigators using photometric and star counts techniques. The B-V and B-R have been calculated and the results are compared with that obtained by other investigators.

  5. Dark and visible matter in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploiting relevant information from the profiles of rotation curves, we calculate the dark-to-luminous mass ratio within the disc size for a sample of 43 spiral galaxies. The values we find, while proving the ubiquitous presence of dark matter, vary with luminosity. Faint and bright galaxies are found to be respectively halo- and disc-dominated in the disc regions. The luminosity sequence turns out to be a dark-to-luminous sequence. (author)

  6. The ATLAS3D project - XXIX. The new look of early-type galaxies and surrounding fields disclosed by extremely deep optical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Pierre-Alain; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Karabal, Emin; Cappellari, Michele; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Michel-Dansac, Leo; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Paudel, Sanjaya; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Galactic archaeology based on star counts is instrumental to reconstruct the past mass assembly of Local Group galaxies. The development of new observing techniques and data reduction, coupled with the use of sensitive large field of view cameras, now allows us to pursue this technique in more distant galaxies exploiting their diffuse low surface brightness (LSB) light. As part of the ATLAS3D project, we have obtained with the MegaCam camera at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope extremely deep, multiband images of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs). We present here a catalogue of 92 galaxies from the ATLAS3D sample, which are located in low- to medium-density environments. The observing strategy and data reduction pipeline, which achieve a gain of several magnitudes in the limiting surface brightness with respect to classical imaging surveys, are presented. The size and depth of the survey are compared to other recent deep imaging projects. The paper highlights the capability of LSB-optimized surveys at detecting new prominent structures that change the apparent morphology of galaxies. The intrinsic limitations of deep imaging observations are also discussed, among those, the contamination of the stellar haloes of galaxies by extended ghost reflections, and the cirrus emission from Galactic dust. The detection and systematic census of fine structures that trace the present and past mass assembly of ETGs are one of the prime goals of the project. We provide specific examples of each type of observed structures - tidal tails, stellar streams and shells - and explain how they were identified and classified. We give an overview of the initial results. The detailed statistical analysis will be presented in future papers.

  7. A Large-scale Shock Surrounding a Powerful Radio Galaxy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croston, J. H.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Mingo, B.; Evans, D. A.; Dicken, D.; Morganti, R.; Tadhunter, C. N.

    2011-01-01

    We report Chandra evidence for a 200 kpc scale shock in the cluster surrounding the powerful radio galaxy 3C 444. Our 20 ks observation allows us to identify a clear surface brightness drop around the outer edge of the radio galaxy, which is likely to correspond to a spheroidal shock propagating int

  8. The Magnitude-Size Relation of Galaxies out to $z\\sim {1}$

    CERN Document Server

    Simard, L C; Faber, S M; Sarajedini, V L; Vogt, N P; Phillips, A C; Gebhardt, K; Illingworth, G D; Wu, K L

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe (DEEP) survey, a sample of 190 field galaxies (I_{814} 0.7), a handful of luminous, high surface brightness galaxies appears that occupies a region of the magnitude-size plane rarely populated by local galaxies. Their wide range of colors and bulge fractions points to a variety of possible origins.

  9. The Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS) of Galaxies in Groups along the Cosmic Web. II. Galaxy Structural Measurements and the Concentration of Morphologically-Classified Satellites in Diverse Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Cibinel, A; Lilly, S J; Miniati, F; Silverman, J D; van Gorkom, J H; Cameron, E; Finoguenov, A; Norberg, P; Pipino, A; Rudick, C S; Lu, T; Peng, Y

    2012-01-01

    We present structural measurements of galaxies in the z~0.06 groups of the Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS), a program aimed at establishing how galaxy properties depend on four different environmental parameters. Galaxy structure is quantified both non-parametrically and parametrically, through modeling of the two-dimensional surface brightness profiles of the galaxies. Structural parameters are also derived for subgalactic components, i.e., bulges, disks and bars. We calibrate all structural measurements on a common grid, correcting for biases due to PSF and surface brightness effects as a function of galaxy size, magnitude, light concentration and ellipticity. We use the galaxy bulge-to-total ratios (B/T), in combination with the calibrated non-parametric structural estimators, to implement a quantitative morphological classification scheme that maximizes purity in the morphological classes. We focus on how the concentration (C) of satellite galaxies depends on galaxy mass for separate Hubble types, and o...

  10. ESO 603-G21: A strange polar-ring galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Reshetnikov, V. P.; Faundez-Abans, M.; Oliveira-Abans, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of B, V, R surface photometry of ESO603-G21 - a galaxy with a possible polar ring. The morphological and photometric features of this galaxy are discussed. The central round object of the galaxy is rather red and presents a nearly exponential surface brightness distribution. This central structure is surrounded by a blue warped ring or disk. The totality of the observed characteristics (optical and NIR colors, strong color gradients, HI and H_2 content, FIR luminosity a...

  11. Structure and stellar content of dwarf galaxies; IV, B and R photometry of dwarf galaxies in the CVnI cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Bremnes, T; Prugniel, P

    1999-01-01

    We have carried out CCD photometry in the Cousins B and R bands of 15 galaxies in the Canes Venatici I cloud. Total magnitudes, effective radii, effective surface brightnesses, as well as galaxy radii at various isophotal levels in both colors were determined. Best-fitting exponential parameters and color gradients are also given for these galaxies. The photometric parameters presented here will analyzed in a forthcoming paper, together with previously published data for nearby dwarf galaxies.

  12. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  13. Why Galaxies Care about AGB Stars. Modelling Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Maraston, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The Thermally-Pulsating Asymptotic Giant Branch (TP-AGB) phase of stellar evolution has received attention only recently in galaxy evolution, but is now an important player in our understanding of how galaxies form and evolve. Because it is a short but very luminous phase, bright in the near-IR where dust effects are small, the TP-AGB phase is a powerful tracer of intermediate-age stars in galaxies up to high redshift. The spectral signature of TP-AGB stars as defined by population synthesis models has been detected by the Spitzer Space Telescope in high-redshift galaxies, whose spectra show an amazing similarity to spectra of local stellar populations. Even accounting for the high uncertainty affecting the theoretical modelling of this phase, stellar population models including the TP-AGB have leveraged a better determination of galaxy ages and hence stellar masses, fundamental quantities for studying galaxy formation and evolution. They have also improved the results of semi-analytic models, which can bette...

  14. Stars, Galaxies and Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Das Gupta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief introduction to the basics of stars, galaxies and Quasi-stellar objects (QSOs. In stars, the central pressure and temperature must be high in order to halt the stellar gravitational collapse. High temperature leads to thermonuclear fusion in the stellar core, releasing thereby enormous amount of nuclear energy, making the star shine brilliantly. On the other hand, the QSOs are very bright nuclei lying in the centres of some galaxies. Many of these active galactic nuclei, which appear star-like when observed through a telescope and  whose power output are more than 1011 times that of the Sun, exhibit rapid time variability in their X-ray emissions.  Rapid variability along with the existence of a maximum speed limit, c, provide a strong argument in favour of a compact central engine model for QSOs in which a thick disc of hot gas going around a supermassive blackhole is what makes a QSO appear like a bright point source. Hence, unlike stars, QSOs are powered by gravitational potential energy.

  15. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.;

    2015-01-01

    We present CO(1-0) maps of 12 warm H-2-selected Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs), covering 14 individually imaged warm H2 bright galaxies, with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy. We found a variety of molecular gas distributions within the HCGs, including regularly rotating disks......, bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression...

  16. A LABOCA survey of submillimeter galaxies behind galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Daniel; Horellou, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    Context: Submillimeter galaxies are a population of dusty star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Measuring their properties will help relate them to other types of galaxies, both at high and low redshift. This is needed in order to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies. Aims: We use gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters to probe the faint and abundant submillimeter galaxy population down to a lower flux density level than what can be achieved in blank-field observations. Methods: We use the LABOCA bolometer camera on the APEX telescope to observe five cluster of galaxies at a wavelength of 870 micron. The final maps have an angular resolution of 27.5 arcsec and a point source noise level of 1.2-2.2 mJy. We model the mass distribution in the clusters as superpositions of spherical NFW halos and derive magnification maps that we use to calculate intrinsic flux densities as well as area-weighted number counts. We also use the positions of Spitzer MIPS 24 micron sources in four of the fields for ...

  17. Galaxy collisions as a mechanism of formation of ultra diffuse galaxies (UDG)

    CERN Document Server

    Baushev, Anton N

    2016-01-01

    We suggest a possible mechanism of ultra diffuse galaxy formation: the UDGs may occur as a result of a central collision of galaxies. If the galaxies are young and contain a lot of gas, the collision may kick all the gas off the systems and thus strongly suppress any farther star formation. As a result, the galaxies now have a very low surface brightness and other properties typical of the ultra diffuse galaxies. We use the Coma cluster (where numerous UDGs were recently discovered) to test the efficiency of the process. The mechanism works very well and can transform a significant fraction of the cluster population into ultra diffuse galaxies. The UDGs formed by the process concentrate towards the center of the cluster, and their globular cluster systems remain undamaged, in accordance with observational results. The projected density of UDGs on the cluster images may help us to recognize the mechanism of the UDG formation that realizes in reality.

  18. Higher Order Moments of the Angular Distribution of Galaxies from Early SDSS Data

    CERN Document Server

    Szapudi, I; Scoccimarro, R; Szalay, A S; Connolly, A J; Dodelson, S; Eisenstein, D J; Gunn, J E; Johnston, D; Kent, S; Loveday, J; Meiksin, A; Nichol, R C; Scranton, R; Stebbins, A; Vogeley, M S; Szapudi, Istv\\'an; Frieman, Joshua A.; Scoccimarro, Roman; Szalay, Alexander S.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Dodelson, Scott; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Gunn, James E.; Johnston, David; Kent, Stephen; Loveday, Jon; Meiksin, Avery; Nichol, Robert C.; Scranton, Ryan; Stebbins, Albert; Vogeley, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    We present initial results for counts in cells statistics of the angular distribution of galaxies in early data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We analyze a rectangular stripe $2.5^\\circ$ wide, covering approximately 160 sq. degrees, containing over $10^6$ galaxies in the apparent magnitude range $18 < r^\\prime < 22$, with areas of bad seeing, contamination from bright stars, ghosts, and high galactic extinction masked out. This survey region, which forms part of the SDSS Early Data Release, is the same as that for which two-point angular clustering statistics have recently been computed. The third and fourth moments of the cell counts, $s_3$ (skewness) and $s_4$ (kurtosis), constitute the most accurate measurements to date of these quantities (for $r^\\prime < 21$) over angular scales $0.015^\\circ-0.3^\\circ$. They display the approximate hierarchical scaling expected from non-linear structure formation models and are in reasonable agreement with the predictions of $\\Lambda$-dominated cold d...

  19. The Radio Luminosity Function of the NEP Distant Cluster Radio Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Branchesi, M; Fanti, C; Fanti, R; Perley, R

    2005-01-01

    A complete sample of 18 X-ray selected clusters of galaxies belonging to the ROSAT North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) survey has been observed with the Very Large Array at 1.4 GHz. These are the most distant clusters in the X-ray survey with redshift in the range 0.3 =0.17 mJy/beam, except for three sources, belonging to the same cluster, which have a higher peak brightness limit of 0.26 mJy/beam. The NEP field source counts are in good agreement with the source counts of a comparison survey, the VLA-VIRMOS deep field survey, indicating that the NEP sample is statistically complete. Thirty-two out of the 79 sources are within 0.2 Abell radii, twenty-two of them are considered cluster members based on spectroscopic redshifts or their optical magnitude and morphological classification. The cluster radio galaxies are used to construct the Radio Luminosity Function (RLF) of distant X-ray selected clusters. A comparison with two nearby cluster RLFs shows that the NEP RLF lies above the local ones, has a steeper slope at lo...

  20. Formaldehyde Densitometry of Starburst Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mangum, Jeffrey G; Menten, Karl M; Henkel, Christian

    2007-01-01

    With a goal toward deriving the physical conditions in external galaxies, we present a survey of the formaldehyde emission in a sample of starburst systems. By extending a technique used to derive the spatial density in star formation regions in our own Galaxy, we show how the relative intensity of the 1(10)-1(11) and 2(11)-2(12) K-doublet transitions of H2CO can provide an accurate densitometer for the active star formation environments found in starburst galaxies. Relying upon an assumed kinetic temperature and co-spatial emission and absorption from both H2CO transitions, our technique is applied to a sample of nineteen IR-bright galaxies which exhibit various forms of starburst activity. In the five galaxies of our sample where both H2CO transitions were detected we have derived spatial densities. We also use H2CO to estimate the dense gas mass in our starburst galaxy sample, finding similar mass estimates for the dense gas forming stars in these objects as derived using other dense gas tracers. A related...

  1. The Rotation of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovmassian, H. M.

    2015-09-01

    The method for detection of the galaxy cluster rotation based on the study of distribution of member galaxies with velocities lower and higher than the cluster mean velocity over the cluster image is proposed. The search for rotation is made for flat clusters with a/b > 1.8 and BMI type clusters which are expected to be rotating. For comparison there were studied also round clusters and clusters of NBMI type, the second by brightness galaxy, which does not differ significantly from the cluster cD galaxy. Seventeen out of studied 65 clusters are found to be rotating. It was found that the detection rate is sufficiently high for flat clusters, over 60%, and clusters of BMI type with dominant cD galaxy, ≈ 35% . The obtained results show that clusters were formed from the huge primordial gas clouds and preserved the rotation of the primordial clouds, unless they did not experience mergings with other clusters and groups of galaxies, as a result of which the rotation was prevented.

  2. The rotation of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Tovmassian, Hrant M

    2015-01-01

    The method for detection of the galaxy cluster rotation based on the study of distribution of member galaxies with velocities lower and higher of the cluster mean velocity over the cluster image is proposed. The search for rotation is made for flat clusters with $a/b>1.8$ and BMI type clusters which are expected to be rotating. For comparison there were studied also round clusters and clusters of NBMI type, the second by brightness galaxy in which does not differ significantly from the cluster cD galaxy. Seventeen out of studied 65 clusters are found to be rotating. It was found that the detection rate is sufficiently high for flat clusters, over 60\\%, and clusters of BMI type with dominant cD galaxy, ~ 35%. The obtained results show that clusters were formed from the huge primordial gas clouds and preserved the rotation of the primordial clouds, unless they did not have merging with other clusters and groups of galaxies, in the result of which the rotation has been prevented.

  3. Galaxies with conspicuous optical warps

    CERN Document Server

    Reshetnikov, Vladimir P; Moiseev, Alexei V; Kotov, Sergey S; Savchenko, Sergey S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present results of a photometric and kinematic study for a sample of 13 edge-on spiral galaxies with pronounced integral-shape warps of their stellar discs. The global structure of the galaxies is analyzed on the basis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging, in the g, r and i passbands. Spectroscopic observations are obtained with the 6-m Special Astrophysical Observatory telescope. In general, galaxies of the sample are typical bright spiral galaxies satisfying the Tully-Fisher relation. Most of the galaxies reside in dense spatial environments and, therefore, tidal encounters are the most probable mechanism for generating their stellar warps. We carried out a detailed analysis of the galaxies and their warps and obtained the following main results: (i) maximum angles of stellar warps in our sample are about 20{\\deg}; (ii) warps start, on average, between 2 and 3 exponential scale lengths of a disc; (iii) stronger warps start closer to the center, weak warps start farther; (iv) warp...

  4. First results from the Dragonfly Telephoto Array: the apparent lack of a stellar halo in the massive spiral galaxy M101

    CERN Document Server

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Merritt, Allison

    2014-01-01

    We use a new telescope concept, the Dragonfly Telephoto Array, to study the low surface brightness outskirts of the spiral galaxy M101. The radial surface brightness profile is measured down to mu_g ~ 32 mag/arcsec^2, a depth that approaches the sensitivity of star count studies in the Local Group. We convert surface brightness to surface mass density using the radial g-r color profile. The mass density profile shows no significant upturn at large radius and is well-approximated by a simple bulge + disk model out to R = 70 kpc, corresponding to 18 disk scale lengths. Fitting a bulge + disk + halo model we find that the best-fitting halo mass M_halo ~ 1.7 x 10^8 M_sun. The total stellar mass of M101 is M_tot,* ~ 5.3 x 10^10 Msun, and we infer that the halo mass fraction f_halo = M_halo / M_tot,* ~ 0.003. This mass fraction is lower than that of the Milky Way (f_halo ~ 0.02) and M31 (f_halo ~ 0.04). All three galaxies fall below the f_halo - M_tot,* relation predicted by recent cosmological simulations that tra...

  5. Observations of dark and luminous matter: the radial distribution of satellite galaxies around massive red galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tal, Tomer; van Dokkum, Pieter G

    2012-01-01

    We study the projected radial distribution of satellite galaxies around more than 28,000 Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) at z=0.34 and trace the gravitational potential of LRG groups in the range 725 kpc whereas baryons account for more than 50% of the mass at smaller radii. We calculate the total dark-to-baryonic mass ratio and show that it is consistent with measurements from weak lensing for environments dominated by massive early type galaxies. Finally, we divide the satellite galaxies in our sample into three luminosity bins and show that the satellite light profiles of all brightness levels are consistent with each other outside of roughly 25 kpc. At smaller radii we find evidence for a mild mass segregation with an increasing fraction of bright satellites close to the central LRG.

  6. The Kinematics in the Cores of Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaters, R. A.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Bershady, M. A.; Andersen, D. R.; Ryder, S. D.; Pisano, D. J.; Walker, M. A.; Freeman, K. C.

    2004-01-01

    Systematic effects on HI and Hα long-slit observations make a measurement of the inner slope of the dark matter density distribution difficult to determine. Halos with constant density cores and ones with r-1 profiles both appear consistent with the data, although constant density cores generally pr

  7. Dust reddening in star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Ting; Wang, Huiyuan; Zhou, Hongyan; Lu, HongLin; Dong, Xiaobo

    2011-01-01

    We present empirical relations between the global dust reddening and other physical galaxy properties including the Halpha luminosity, Halpha surface brightness, metallicity and axial ratio for star-forming disc galaxies. The study is based on a large sample of ~22 000 well-defined star-forming galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The reddening parameterized by color excess E(B-V) is derived from the Balmer decrement. Besides the dependency of reddening on Halpha luminosity / surface brightness and gas phase metallicity, it is also correlated with the galaxy inclination, in the sense that edge-on galaxies are more attenuated than face-on galaxies at a give intrinsic luminosity. In light of these correlations, we present the empirical formulae of E(B-V) as a function of these galaxy properties, with a scatter of only 0.07 mag. The empirical relation can be reproduced if most dust attenuation to the HII region is due to diffuse background dust distributing in a disc thicker than that of H...

  8. Star forming galaxies in the AKARI Deep Field South: identifications and SEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Pollo, A; Bienias, P; Shirahata, M; Matsuura, S; Kawada, M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the nature and properties of far-infrared (FIR) sources from the AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S), we performed an extensive search for the counterparts of 1000 ADF-S objects brighter than 0.0301 Jy in the WIDE-S (90 $\\mu$m) AKARI band in the public databases (NED and SIMBAD). We analyzed the properties of the resulting sample: statistic of the identified objects, number counts, redshift distribution and morphological types. We also made a crude analysis of the clustering properties of the sources and constructed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 47 selected objects with the best photometry. Among 1000 investigated ADF-S sources, 545 were identified at other wavelengths. From them, 518 are known galaxies, and 343 of them were not known previously as infra-red sources. We found redshifts of 48 extragalactic objects and morphological types of 77 galaxies. We conclude that the bright FIR point sources observed in the ADF-S are mostly nearby galaxies.Their properties are very similar to propert...

  9. Pan-STARRS1: Galaxy Clustering in the Small Area Survey 2

    CERN Document Server

    Farrow, Daniel J; Metcalfe, N; Draper, P W; Norberg, Peder; Foucaud, Sebastien; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K C; Kaiser, N; Kudritzki, R P; Magnier, E A; Price, P A; Tonry, J L; Waters, C

    2013-01-01

    The Pan-STARRS1 survey is currently obtaining imaging in 5 bands (grizy) for the $3\\pi$ steradian survey, one of the largest optical surveys ever conducted. The finished survey will have spatially varying depth, due to the survey strategy. This paper presents a method to correct galaxy number counts and galaxy clustering for this potential systematic based on a simplified signal to noise measurement. A star and galaxy separation method calibrated using realistic synthetic images is also presented, along with an approach to mask bright stars. By using our techniques on a ~69 sq. degree region of science verification data this paper shows PS1 measurements of the two point angular correlation function as a function of apparent magnitude agree with measurements from deeper, smaller surveys. Clustering measurements appear reliable down to a magnitude limit of rps<22.5. Additionally, stellar contamination and false detection issues are discussed and quantified. This work is the second of two papers which pave th...

  10. The Quest for Dusty Star-forming Galaxies at High Redshift z ≳ 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, C.; Lapi, A.; Shi, J.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Aversa, R.; Danese, L.

    2016-06-01

    We exploit the continuity equation approach and “main-sequence” star formation timescales to show that the observed high abundance of galaxies with stellar masses ≳ a few 1010 M ⊙ at redshift z ≳ 4 implies the existence of a galaxy population featuring large star formation rates (SFRs) ψ ≳ 102 M ⊙ yr-1 in heavily dust-obscured conditions. These galaxies constitute the high-redshift counterparts of the dusty star-forming population already surveyed for z ≲ 3 in the far-IR band by the Herschel Space Observatory. We work out specific predictions for the evolution of the corresponding stellar mass and SFR functions out to z ˜ 10, determining that the number density at z ≲ 8 for SFRs ψ ≳ 30 M ⊙ yr-1 cannot be estimated relying on the UV luminosity function alone, even when standard corrections for dust extinction based on the UV slope are applied. We compute the number counts and redshift distributions (including galaxy-scale gravitational lensing) of this galaxy population, and show that current data from the AzTEC-LABOCA, SCUBA-2, and ALMA-SPT surveys are already addressing it. We demonstrate how an observational strategy based on color preselection in the far-IR or (sub-)millimeter band with Herschel and SCUBA-2, supplemented by photometric data from on-source observations with ALMA, can allow us to reconstruct the bright end of the SFR functions out to z ≲ 8. In parallel, such a challenging task can be managed by exploiting current UV surveys in combination with (sub-)millimeter observations by ALMA and NIKA2 and/or radio observations by SKA and its precursors.

  11. Rotation Curves of Giant LSB Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickering, T. E.; Impey, C. D.; Navarro, J. F.; van Gorkom, J.; Bothun, G. D.

    1996-01-01

    We present optical and H I rotation curves of a sample of giant, low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies including the prototype, Malin 1. The rotation curves of these diffuse systems are expected to more faithfully reflect the structure of their dark matter halos due to the reduced contribution of th

  12. The history of mass assembly of faint red galaxies in 28 galaxy clusters since z=1.3

    CERN Document Server

    Andreon, S

    2007-01-01

    We measure the relative evolution of the number of bright and faint (as faint as 0.05 L*) red galaxies in a sample of 28 clusters, of which 16 are at 0.50<= z<=1.27, all observed through a pair of filters bracketing the 4000 Angstrom break rest-frame. The abundance of red galaxies, relative to bright ones, is constant over all the studied redshift range, 0bright and faint red galaxies as large as claimed in some past works. Faint red galaxies are largely assembled and in place at z=1.3 and their deficit does not depend on cluster mass, parametrized by velocity dispersion or X-ray luminosity. Our analysis, with respect to previous one, samples a wider redshift range, minimizes systematics and put a more attention to statistical issues, keeping at the same time a large number of clusters.

  13. Wide HI profile galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brosch, Noah; Zitrin, Adi

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the nature of objects in a complete sample of 28 galaxies selected from the first sky area fully covered by ALFALFA, being well-detected and having HI profiles wider than 550 km/s. The selection does not use brightness, morphology, or any other property derived from optical or other spectral bands. We investigate the degree of isolation, the morphology, and other properties gathered or derived from open data bases and show that some objects have wide HI profiles probably because they are disturbed or are interacting, or might be confused in the ALFALFA beam. We identify a sub-sample of 14 galaxies lacking immediate interacting neighbours and showing regular, symmetric, two-horned HI profiles that we propose as candidate high-mass disk systems (CHMDs). We measure the net-Halpha emission from the CHMDs and combine this with public multispectral data to model the global star formation (SF) properties of each galaxy. The Halpha observations show SFRs not higher than a few solar masses per year. Sim...

  14. PROFFIT: Analysis of X-ray surface-brightness profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Dominique

    2016-08-01

    PROFFIT analyzes X-ray surface-brightness profiles for data from any X-ray instrument. It can extract surface-brightness profiles in circular or elliptical annuli, using constant or logarithmic bin size, from the image centroid, the surface-brightness peak, or any user-given center, and provides surface-brightness profiles in any circular or elliptical sectors. It offers background map support to extract background profiles, can excise areas using SAO DS9-compatible (ascl:0003.002) region files to exclude point sources, provides fitting with a number of built-in models, including the popular beta model, double beta, cusp beta, power law, and projected broken power law, uses chi-squared or C statistic, and can fit on the surface-brightness or counts data. It has a command-line interface similar to HEASOFT’s XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) package, provides interactive help with a description of all the commands, and results can be saved in FITS, ROOT or TXT format.

  15. Using the Millennium II simulation to test CDM predictions for the structure of massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew P.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Wang, Jing; White, Simon D. M.

    2013-07-01

    We have combined the semi-analytic galaxy formation model of Guo et al. (2011) with a novel particle-tagging technique to predict galaxy surface brightness profiles in a representative sample of ~1900 massive dark matter haloes (1012-1014 M⊙) from the Millennium II ΛCDM N body simulation. We focus on the outer regions of galaxies and stars accreted in mergers. Our simulations cover scales from the stellar haloes of Milky Way-like galaxies to the `cD envelopes' of groups and clusters, and resolve low surface brightness substructure such as the tidal streams of dwarf galaxies. We find that the spatial distribution of stars in low surface brightness regions is tightly correlated with DM halo mass and that collisionless merging during the hierarchical assembly of galaxies largely determines the structure of spheroidal stellar components. Our ΛCDM model agrees well with the available data.

  16. The spatial distribution of dwarf galaxies in the CfA slice of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, Trinh X.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Schneider, Stephen E.

    1987-01-01

    A complete (with the the exception of one) redshift sample of 58 galaxies in the Nilson catalog classified as dwarf, irregular, or Magellanic irregular is used to investigate the large-scale clustering properties of these low-surface brightness galaxies in the CfA slice of the universe (alpha in the range of 8-17 h, delta in the range of 26.5-32.5 deg). It is found that the low-surface brightness dwarf galaxies also lie on the structures delineated by the high-surface brightness normal galaxies and that they do not fill in the voids. This is inconsistent with a class of biased galaxy formation theories which predict that dwarf galaxies should be present everywhere, including the voids.

  17. Outer Disk Star Formation in HI selected Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Meurer, Gerhardt

    2016-01-01

    The HI in galaxies often extends past their conventionally defined optical extent. I report results from our team which has been probing low intensity star formation in outer disks using imaging in H-alpha and ultraviolet. Using a sample of hundreds of HI selected galaxies, we confirm that outer disk HII regions and extended UV disks are common. Hence outer disks are not dormant but are dimly forming stars. Although the ultraviolet light in galaxies is more centrally concentrated than the HI, the UV/HI ratio (the Star Formation Efficiency) is nearly constant, with a slight dependency on surface brightness. This result is well accounted for in a model where disks maintain a constant stability parameter Q. This model also accounts for how the ISM and star formation are distributed in the bright parts of galaxies, and how HI appears to trace the distribution of dark matter in galaxy outskirts.

  18. The Hot Gas Halos of Galaxies in Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Jeltema, Tesla E; Mulchaey, John S

    2008-01-01

    We use Chandra observations of 13 nearby groups of galaxies to investigate the hot gas content of their member galaxies. We find that a large fraction of near-IR bright, early-type galaxies in groups have extended X-ray emission, indicating that they retain significant hot gas halos even in these dense environments. In particular, we detect hot gas halos in ~80% of L_K > L_star galaxies. We do not find a significant difference in the L_K-L_X relation for detected group and cluster early-type galaxies. However, we detect X-ray emission from a significantly higher fraction of galaxies brighter than L_star in groups compared to clusters, indicating that a larger fraction of galaxies in clusters experience significant stripping of their hot gas. In addition, group and cluster galaxies appear to be X-ray faint compared to field galaxies, though a Chandra based field sample is needed to confirm this result. The near-IR bright late-types galaxies in clusters and groups appear to follow the L_K-L_X relation for early...

  19. The Dwarf Galaxy Population in Nearby Groups. The data

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco, E R; Infante, L; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Oliveira, Claudia M. de; Infante, Leopoldo

    2006-01-01

    We used V and I CCD photometry to search for low-surface brightness dwarf galaxies (LSBD) in the central ( 22.5 V mag/arcsec^2, h > 1.5 arcsec, and diameters larger than 1.2 h^-1 kpc. Twenty of the eighty galaxies are extended LSB galaxies that were detected only on smoothed images, after masking all high surface brightness objects. The completeness in the detection is ~80% for galaxies with V<=20 and 22.5brightnesses. In this last bin, the completeness increases to ~80% when we search for galaxies in smoothed images instead. The detected LSBD galaxies are highly concentrated towards the center of the four groups in the inner 250 h^-1 kpc. The best fit power-law slope of the surface density distribution is, on average, beta ~ -1.5 (R < 250 h^-1 kpc), in agreement with the values found for satellites dwarfs around isolated E/S0 galaxies and in X-ray groups. The LSBD galaxies in the Mv-mu0 plane does not show a clear c...

  20. Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) Forward Brightness Temperature Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Peipmeier, Jeffrey; Kim, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The SMAP is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the US National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, Space Studies Board, National Academies Press, 2007) [1]. It is to measure the global soil moisture and freeze/thaw from space. One of the spaceborne instruments is an L-band radiometer with a shared single feedhorn and parabolic mesh reflector. While the radiometer measures the emission over a footprint of interest, unwanted emissions are also received by the antenna through the antenna sidelobes from the cosmic background and other error sources such as the Sun, the Moon and the galaxy. Their effects need to be considered accurately, and the analysis of the overall performance of the radiometer requires end-to-end performance simulation from Earth emission to antenna brightness temperature, such as the global simulation of L-band brightness temperature simulation over land and sea [2]. To assist with the SMAP radiometer level 1B algorithm development, the SMAP forward brightness temperature simulator is developed by adapting the Aquarius simulator [2] with necessary modifications. This poster presents the current status of the SMAP forward brightness simulator s development including incorporating the land microwave emission model and its input datasets, and a simplified atmospheric radiative transfer model. The latest simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the ability of supporting the SMAP L1B algorithm development.

  1. Exploring the Multi-Wavelength, Low Surface Brightness Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, R. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Gal, R. R.; Odewahn, S. C.

    1999-12-01

    Our current understanding of the low surface brightness universe is quite incomplete, not only in the optical, but also in other wavelength regimes. We have, therefore, begun an exploration of the multi-wavelength, low surface brightness universe. This project currently involves data from DPOSS (Digitized Palomar Optical Sky Survey), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey), IRAS (Infrared Astronomical Satellite), and several neutral hydrogen surveys. We present some initial results of this work as well as discuss the implications of this work on future virtual observatories. Our main scientific goals have been the search for low surface brightness galaxies, including local group dwarf spheroidals, and also optical counterparts to high velocity clouds. Our techniques are complimentary to normal data reduction pipeline techniques in that we focus on the diffuse emission that is ignored or removed by more traditional algorithms. This requires, of course, a spatial filtering which must account for objects of interest, in addition to observational artifacts (e.g.,\\ bright stellar halos). Finally, with this work, we are exploring the intersection of the catalog and image domains in order to maximize the scientific information we can extract from the federation of large survey data.

  2. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  3. Galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph; Dvorkin, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In Lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In Lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  4. Supernovae without host galaxy? - Hypervelocity stars in foreign galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zinn, Peter-Christian; Bomans, Dominik J

    2011-01-01

    Harvesting the SAI supernova catalog, we search for SNe that apparently do not occur within a distinct host galaxy but lie a great distance apart from their assigned host galaxy. Assuming two possible explanations for this host-lessness of a fraction of reported SNe, namely (i) a host galaxy which is too faint to be detected within the limits of currently available surveys or (ii) a hypervelocity star (HVS) as progenitor of the SN,we want to distinguish between these two cases. To do so, we use deep imaging to test explanation (i). If within our detection limit of 27 mag/arcsec^2, the central surface brightness of the faintest known LSB galaxy so far, no galaxy could be identified, we discard this explanation and regard the SN, after several other checks, to have had a hypervelocity star progenitor. Analyzing a selected subsample of five host-less SNe we find one, SN 2006bx in UGC5434, to be put in the hypervelocity progenitor category with a high probability, exhibiting a projected velocity of > 800 km/s. SN...

  5. A geometrical model for the catalogs of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenzo, Zaninetti

    2010-01-01

    The 3D network originated by the faces of irregular Poissonian Voronoi Polyhedrons may represent the backbone on which the galaxies are originated. As a consequence the spatial appearance of the catalogs of galaxies can be reproduced. The selected catalogs to simulate are the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies. In order to explain the number of observed galaxies for a given flux/magnitude as a function of the redshift, the photometric properties of the galaxies should be carefully examined from both the astronomical and theoretical point of view. The statistics of the Voronoi normalized volume is modeled by two distributions and the Eridanus super-void is identified as the largest volume belonging to the Voronoi Polyhedron. The behavior of the correlation function for galaxies is simulated by adopting the framework of thick faces of Voronoi Polyhedrons on short scales, while adopting standard arguments on large scales.

  6. Lyman Break Galaxies and Reionization of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Harford, A G; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2003-01-01

    We compare colors and luminosities of ``galaxies'' formed in a simulation of cosmological reionization with real ones. While the simulation suffers severely from a limitation of a small box size, simulated galaxies do appear as smaller cousins of the observed ones. They have similar colors and trace the same luminosity function as the real galaxies. They are also faring well in their abilities to reionize the universe. Star formation histories of simulated galaxies are diverse, and vary systematically with magnitude. The brightest galaxies at z=4 are indeed quite young, in accord with several observational studies. But these brightest galaxies are free riders - they contributed only about 25% to the reionization of the universe at z>6. Instead, the bulk of work was done by dimmer galaxies, those that fall within the 28bright ones.

  7. POSSIBLE SOURCES OF UV RADIATION IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have compiled a sample of 519 nearby (z < 0:13 elliptical galaxies, selected by matching the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX Medium Imaging Survey (MIS with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS Fourth Data Release (DR4. Our galaxies are bright, with r < 16:8 and have FUV (far ultraviolet an NUV (near ultraviolet emission. We build a UV Color Magnitude Relation (CMR using GALEX and SDSS photometric bands, and analyze the evolution of this CMR for these galaxies using stellar population synthesis models. We nd that these galaxies may have su ered a small amount of recent residual star formation (1{2% of the galaxy mass. Extreme Horizontal Branch (EHB stars can explain galaxies with 4 < NUV- r < 5:4.

  8. Three low surface brightness dwarfs discovered around NGC 4631

    OpenAIRE

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Bautzmann, Dirk; Neyer, Fabian; Polzl, Robert; Riepe, Peter; Zilch, Thorsten; Mattern, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of three low surface brightness companions to the spiral galaxy NGC 4631, made with small amateur telescopes. Assuming their distances to be 7.4 Mpc, the same as that of NGC 4631, the absolute magnitudes and linear diameters of the dwarfs are ranged within [-12.5, -9.6] mag and [4.7 - 1.3] kpc, respectively. These new three dwarfs, together with the discovered by us diffuse structure called "bridge", look like parts of a tidal filament directed towards NGC 4656 at tota...

  9. Molecular and atomic line surveys of galaxies I: the dense, star-forming phase as a beacon

    CERN Document Server

    Geach, James E

    2012-01-01

    We predict the space density of molecular gas reservoirs in the Universe, and place a lower limit on the number counts of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecular and [CII] atomic emission lines in blind redshift surveys in the submillimeter-centimeter spectral regime. Our model uses: (a) recently available HCN Spectral Line Energy Distributions (SLEDs) of local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs, L_IR>10^11 L_sun), (b) a value for epsilon=SFR/M_dense(H_2) provided by new developments in the study of star formation feedback on the interstellar medium and (c) a model for the evolution of the infrared luminosity density. Minimal 'emergent' CO SLEDs from the dense gas reservoirs expected in all star-forming systems in the Universe are then computed from the HCN SLEDs since warm, HCN-bright gas will necessarily be CO-bright, with the dense star-forming gas phase setting an obvious minimum to the total molecular gas mass of any star-forming galaxy. We include [CII] as the most important of the far-inf...

  10. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: stochastic relative biasing between galaxy populations

    CERN Document Server

    Wild, V; Lahav, O; Conway, E; Maddox, S; Baldry, I K; Baugh, C M; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bridges, T; Cannon, R; Cole, S; Colless, M; Collins, C; Couch, W; Dalton, G B; De Propris, R; Driver, S P; Efstathiou, G P; Ellis, Richard S; Frenk, C S; Glazebrook, K; Jackson, C; Lewis, I; Lumsden, S; Madgwick, D; Norberg, P; Peterson, B A; Sutherland, W; Taylor, K

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the clustering of galaxies depends on galaxy type. Such relative bias complicates the inference of cosmological parameters from galaxy redshift surveys, and is a challenge to theories of galaxy formation and evolution. In this paper we perform a joint counts-in-cells analysis on galaxies in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, classified by both colour and spectral type, eta, as early or late type galaxies. We fit three different models of relative bias to the joint probability distribution of the cell counts, assuming Poisson sampling of the galaxy density field. We investigate the nonlinearity and stochasticity of the relative bias, with cubical cells of side 10Mpc \\leq L \\leq 45Mpc (h=0.7). Exact linear bias is ruled out with high significance on all scales. Power law bias gives a better fit, but likelihood ratios prefer a bivariate lognormal distribution, with a non-zero `stochasticity' - i.e. scatter that may result from physical effects on galaxy formation other than those from the loca...

  11. Teradiode's high brightness semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Lochman, Bryan; Zhou, Wang; Cruz, Mike; Cook, Rob; Dugmore, Dan; Shattuck, Jeff; Tayebati, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    TeraDiode is manufacturing multi-kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers for industrial applications. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 4,680 W from a 100 μm core diameter, lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 3.5 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP multi-kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 4-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers. We have also demonstrated novel high peak power lasers and high brightness Mid-Infrared Lasers.

  12. Scale Length of Disk Galaxies in the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Fathi, Kambiz

    2011-01-01

    Disk scale length and central surface brightness for a sample of about 29955 bright disk galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey have been analysed. Cross correlation of the SDSS sample with the LEDA catalogue allowed us to investigate the variation of the scale lengths for different types of disk/spiral galaxies and present distributions and typical trends of scale lengths all the SDSS bands with linear relations that indicate the relation that connect scale lengths in one passband to another. We use the volume corrected results in the r-band and revisit the relation between these parameters and the galaxy morphology. The derived scale lengths presented here are representative for a typical galaxy mass of 10^10.8 solarmasses, and the RMS dispersion is larger for more massive galaxies. We analyse the scale-length-central disk brightness plane and further investigate the Freeman Law and confirm that it indeed defines an upper limit for disk central surface brightness in bright disks (r 6) have fainter centr...

  13. The host galaxy/AGN connection in nearby early-type galaxies. Is there a miniature radio-galaxy in every "core" galaxy?

    CERN Document Server

    Balmaverde, B

    2005-01-01

    This is the second of a series of three papers exploring the connection between the multiwavelength properties of AGN in nearby early-type galaxies and the characteristics of their hosts. In Capetti et al. (2005) we presented a study of the surface brightness profiles for the 65 objects with available archival HST images out of the 116 radio-detected galaxies. We classified early-type galaxies into ``core'' and ``power-law'' galaxies, discriminating on the basis of the slope of their nuclear brightness profiles. Here we focus on the 29 core galaxies (hereafter CoreG). We used HST and Chandra data to isolate their nuclear emission. The CoreG invariably host radio-loud nuclei, with an average radio-loudness parameter of Log R = 3.6. The optical and X-ray nuclear luminosities correlate with the radio-core power, smoothly extending the analogous correlations already found for low luminosity radio-galaxies. This supports the interpretation of a common non-thermal origin of the nuclear emission also for CoreG. The ...

  14. The broken hierarchy of galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, R G; Malbon, R; Helly, J C; Frenk, C S; Baugh, C M; Cole, S; Lacey, C G

    2005-01-01

    Recent observations of the distant Universe suggest that much of the stellar mass of bright galaxies was already in place at $z>1$. This presents a challenge for models of galaxy formation because massive halos are assembled late in hierarchical cosmologies such as cold dark matter (CDM). In this paper, we discuss a new implementation of the Durham semi-analytic model in which feedback due to active galactic nuclei (AGN) is assumed to quench cooling flows in massive halos. This mechanism naturally creates a break in the local galaxy luminosity function at bright magnitudes. The model is implemented within the Millennium N-body simulation; the accurate dark matter merger trees and large number of realizations of the galaxy formation process that the simulation provides results in highly accurate statistics. After adjusting the values of the physical parameters in the model by reference to the properties of local galaxies, we use it to investigate the evolution of the K-band luminosity and galaxy stellar mass f...

  15. Satellites and Haloes of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sales, Laura V; White, Simon D M; Navarro, Julio F

    2012-01-01

    We study the abundance of satellite galaxies as a function of primary stellar mass using the SDSS/DR7 spectroscopic catalogue. In contrast with previous studies, which focussed mainly on bright primaries, our central galaxies span a wide range of stellar mass, 10^7.5 < M_*^pri/M_sun < 10^11, from dwarfs to central cluster galaxies. Our analysis confirms that the average number of satellites around bright primaries, when expressed in terms of satellite-to-primary stellar mass ratio (m_*^sat/M_*^pri), is a strong function of M_*^pri. On the other hand, satellite abundance is largely independent of primary mass for dwarf primaries (M_*^pri<10^10 M_sun). These results are consistent with galaxy formation models in the LCDM scenario. We find excellent agreement between SDSS data and semi-analytic mock galaxy catalogues constructed from the Millennium-II Simulation. Satellite galaxies trace dark matter substructure in LCDM, so satellite abundance reflects the dependence on halo mass, M_200, of both substru...

  16. Galaxies The Long Wavelength View

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, J

    2000-01-01

    Far-infrared spectroscopy obtained with the ISO LWS has shown that there is strong variation (more than 2 orders of magnitude) in the [C II]/FIR ratios in galaxies extending from blue compact dwarfs, to normal and starburst galaxies, down to elliptical and ultraluminous galaxies (ULIGs). The variation in the relative [C II] 158 micron line strength has been attributed to low metallicity in blue compact dwarfs, high /n for normal galaxies and ULIGs, soft radiation fields in ellipticals, and extinction or enhanced abundance of dust in ionized regions in ULIGs. Full ISO/LWS far-infrared (43 - 197 micron) spectra of six nearby IR-bright galaxies reveal a dramatic progression of decreasing fine-structure line emission from ionized species to molecular (OH and H2O) absorption line dominated. The archetypical ULIG, Arp 220, lies at the absorption line dominated end of this sequence. For Arp 220, radiative transfer models indicate that it is optically thick in the FIR and that the water molecules observed in absorpti...

  17. Suzaku Discovery of a Slowly Varying Hard X-ray Continuum from the Type I Seyfert Galaxy NGC 3516

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, Hirofumi; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Shin'ya

    2014-01-01

    The bright type I Seyfert galaxy NGC 3516 was observed by {\\it Suzaku} twice, in 2005 October 12--15 and 2009 October 28--November 2, for a gross time coverage of 242 and 544 ksec and a net exposure of 134 and 255 ksec, respectively. The 2--10 keV luminosity was $2.8 \\times 10^{41}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in 2005, and $1.6 \\times 10^{41}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in 2009. The 1.4--1.7 keV and 2--10 keV count rates both exhibited peak-to-peak variations by a factor of $\\sim2$ in 2005, while $\\sim 4$ in 2009. In either observation, the 15--45 keV count rate was less variable. The 2--10 keV spectrum in 2005 was significantly more convex than that in 2009. Through a count-count-plot technique, the 2--45 keV signals in both data were successfully decomposed in a model-independent way into two distinct broadband components. One is a variable emission with a featureless spectral shape, and the other is a non-varying hard component accompanied by a prominent Fe-K emission line at 6.33 keV (6.40 keV in the rest frame). The former was fitte...

  18. KECK/LRIS SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF COMA CLUSTER DWARF GALAXY MEMBERSHIP ASSIGNMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck/LRIS multi-object spectroscopy has been carried out on 140 of some of the lowest and highest surface brightness faint (19 < R < 22) dwarf galaxy candidates in the core region of the Coma Cluster. These spectra are used to measure redshifts and establish membership for these faint dwarf populations. The primary goal of the low surface brightness sample is to test our ability to use morphological and surface brightness criteria to distinguish between Coma Cluster members and background galaxies using high resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys images. Candidates were rated as expected members, uncertain, or expected background. From 93 spectra, 51 dwarf galaxy members and 20 background galaxies are identified. Our morphological membership estimation success rate is ∼100% for objects expected to be members and better than ∼90% for galaxies expected to be in the background. We confirm that low surface brightness is a very good indicator of cluster membership. High surface brightness galaxies are almost always background with confusion arising only from the cases of the rare compact elliptical (cE) galaxies. The more problematic cases occur at intermediate surface brightness. Many of these galaxies are given uncertain membership ratings, and these were found to be members about half of the time. Including color information will improve membership determination but will fail for some of the same objects that are already misidentified when using only surface brightness and morphology criteria. cE galaxies with B-V colors ∼0.2 mag redward of the red sequence in particular require spectroscopic follow up. In a sample of 47 high surface brightness, ultracompact dwarf candidates, 19 objects have redshifts which place them in the Coma Cluster, while another 6 have questionable redshift measurements but may also prove to be members. Redshift measurements are presented and the use of indirect means for establishing cluster membership is

  19. The EUVE bright source list

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroozas, B.; Mcdonald, K.; Antia, B.; Mcdonald, J.; Wiercigroch, A.

    1993-01-01

    Initial results for bright extreme ultraviolet sources discovered during the EUVE all-sky and deep ecliptic surveys have been published as a Bright Source List (BSL) and released to the astronomical community with a recent NASA research announcement (NRA 93-OSS-02, Appendix F). This paper describes the data processing software, the EUVE survey data set, and the production of the BSL at the Center for EUV Astrophysics. The contents, format, and selection criteria for sources, the data processing strategy, some problems encountered, and a summary of the BSL results are presented.

  20. All things bright and beautiful

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Chloe

    2012-01-01

    'All Things Bright and Beautiful' was exhibited in 20/21 Visual Arts Centre, Scunthorpe, which is sited in a 'redundant' church. The fundamental question that the exhibition explored concerned the role of 'the animal' within contemporary art and within secular society, which in turn hoped to prompt reflections on our understanding of the place of 'the human' in the world and in nature. If there is no divine order, as posited by the hymn 'All Things Bright and Beautiful', where does this leave...

  1. Disk Galaxies and Galaxy Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Funes, J G

    2000-01-01

    The conference Galaxy Disks and Disk Galaxies, sponsored by the Vatican Observatory, was held in June 12-16, 2000 at the Pontifical Gregorian University, in Rome (Italy). The meeting hosted about 230 participants coming from 30 countries. The very full program consisted of 29 review papers, 34 invited talks, and more than 180 posters. The meeting covered topics regarding the structure, formation and evolution of galaxies with disks. Particular attention was dedicated to the stellar and gaseous disk of the Milky Way, the global characteristics of galaxy disks, their structure, morphology and dynamics, the gaseous components, star formation, and chemical evolution, the interactions, accretion, mergers and starbursts, the dark and luminous matter, the establishment of the scaling laws, and the formation and evolution of disk galaxies from a theoretical and observational point of view.

  2. Les galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Francoise

    2016-08-01

    Considerable progress has been made on galaxy formation and evolution in recent years, and new issues. The old Hubble classification according to the tuning fork of spirals, lenticulars and ellipticals, is still useful but has given place to the red sequence, the blue cloud and the green valley, showing a real bimodality of types between star forming galaxies (blue) and quenched ones (red). Large surveys have shown that stellar mass and environment density are the two main factors of the evolution from blue to red sequences. Evolution is followed directly with redshift through a look-back time of more than 12 billion years. The most distant galaxy at z=11. has already a stellar mass of a billion suns. In an apparent anti-hierarchical scenario, the most massive galaxies form stars early on, while essentially dwarf galaxies are actively star-formers now. This downsizing feature also applies to the growth of super-massive black holes at the heart of each bulgy galaxy. The feedback from active nuclei is essential to explain the distribution of mass in galaxies, and in particular to explain why the fraction of baryonic matter is so low, lower by more than a factor 5 than the baryonic fraction of the Universe. New instruments just entering in operation, like MUSE and ALMA, provide a new and rich data flow, which is developed in this series of articles.

  3. EcoCount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip P. Allen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Techniques that analyze biological remains from sediment sequences for environmental reconstructions are well established and widely used. Yet, identifying, counting, and recording biological evidence such as pollen grains remain a highly skilled, demanding, and time-consuming task. Standard procedure requires the classification and recording of between 300 and 500 pollen grains from each representative sample. Recording the data from a pollen count requires significant effort and focused resources from the palynologist. However, when an adaptation to the recording procedure is utilized, efficiency and time economy improve. We describe EcoCount, which represents a development in environmental data recording procedure. EcoCount is a voice activated fully customizable digital count sheet that allows the investigator to continuously interact with a field of view during the data recording. Continuous viewing allows the palynologist the opportunity to remain engaged with the essential task, identification, for longer, making pollen counting more efficient and economical. EcoCount is a versatile software package that can be used to record a variety of environmental evidence and can be installed onto different computer platforms, making the adoption by users and laboratories simple and inexpensive. The user-friendly format of EcoCount allows any novice to be competent and functional in a very short time.

  4. Counts-in-Cylinders in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with Comparisons to N-Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrier, Heather D.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; /UC, Irvine; Berrier, Joel C.; /Arkansas U.; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /Pittsburgh U.; Wechsler, Risa H. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2010-12-16

    Environmental statistics provide a necessary means of comparing the properties of galaxies in different environments and a vital test of models of galaxy formation within the prevailing, hierarchical cosmological model. We explore counts-in-cylinders, a common statistic defined as the number of companions of a particular galaxy found within a given projected radius and redshift interval. Galaxy distributions with the same two-point correlation functions do not necessarily have the same companion count distributions. We use this statistic to examine the environments of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 4. We also make preliminary comparisons to four models for the spatial distributions of galaxies, based on N-body simulations, and data from SDSS DR4 to study the utility of the counts-in-cylinders statistic. There is a very large scatter between the number of companions a galaxy has and the mass of its parent dark matter halo and the halo occupation, limiting the utility of this statistic for certain kinds of environmental studies. We also show that prevalent, empirical models of galaxy clustering that match observed two- and three-point clustering statistics well fail to reproduce some aspects of the observed distribution of counts-in-cylinders on 1, 3 and 6-h{sup -1}Mpc scales. All models that we explore underpredict the fraction of galaxies with few or no companions in 3 and 6-h{sup -1} Mpc cylinders. Roughly 7% of galaxies in the real universe are significantly more isolated within a 6 h{sup -1} Mpc cylinder than the galaxies in any of the models we use. Simple, phenomenological models that map galaxies to dark matter halos fail to reproduce high-order clustering statistics in low-density environments.

  5. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Sandra; Troup, Nicholas William; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Barcos-Munoz, Loreto D.; Beaton, Rachael; Bittle, Lauren; Borish, Henry J.; Burkhardt, Andrew; Corby, Joanna; Dean, Janice; Hancock, Danielle; King, Jennie; Prager, Brian; Romero, Charles; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Wenger, Trey; Zucker, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Now entering our sixth year of operation, Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts beyond Virginia's Standards of Learning. Our primary focus is hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools. Each week, DSBK volunteers take the role of coaches to introduce astronomy-related concepts ranging from the Solar System to galaxies to astrobiology, and to lead students in interactive learning activities. Another hallmark of DSBK is hosting our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows.DSBK has amassed over 15,000 contact hours since 2009 and we continue to broaden our impact. One important step we have taken in the past year is to establish a graduate student led assessment program to identify and implement directed learning goals for DSBK outreach. The collection of student workbooks, observations, and volunteer surveys indicates broad scale success for the program both in terms of student learning and their perception of science. The data also reveal opportunities to improve our organizational and educational practices to maximize student achievement and overall volunteer satisfaction for DSBK's future clubs and outreach endeavors.

  6. Antilensing: the bright side of voids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy; Bacon, David; Meures, Nikolai; Beynon, Emma

    2013-01-11

    More than half of the volume of our Universe is occupied by cosmic voids. The lensing magnification effect from those underdense regions is generally thought to give a small dimming contribution: objects on the far side of a void are supposed to be observed as slightly smaller than if the void were not there, which together with conservation of surface brightness implies net reduction in photons received. This is predicted by the usual weak lensing integral of the density contrast along the line of sight. We show that this standard effect is swamped at low redshifts by a relativistic Doppler term that is typically neglected. Contrary to the usual expectation, objects on the far side of a void are brighter than they would be otherwise. Thus the local dynamics of matter in and near the void is crucial and is only captured by the full relativistic lensing convergence. There are also significant nonlinear corrections to the relativistic linear theory, which we show actually underpredicts the effect. We use exact solutions to estimate that these can be more than 20% for deep voids. This remains an important source of systematic errors for weak lensing density reconstruction in galaxy surveys and for supernovae observations, and may be the cause of the reported extra scatter of field supernovae located on the edge of voids compared to those in clusters. PMID:23383886

  7. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies: Pseudobulge Growth and the Formation of Spheroidal Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kormendy, John

    2008-01-01

    Updating Kormendy & Kennicutt (2004, ARAA, 42, 603), we review internal secular evolution of galaxy disks. One consequence is the growth of pseudobulges that often are mistaken for true (merger-built) bulges. Many pseudobulges are recognizable as cold, rapidly rotating, disky structures. Bulges have Sersic function brightness profiles with index n > 2; most pseudobulges have n 150 km/s show no evidence for a classical bulge, while only 7 are ellipticals or have classical bulges. It is hard to understand how bulgeless galaxies could form as the quiescent tail of a distribution of merger histories. Our second theme is environmental secular evolution. We confirm that spheroidal galaxies have fundamental plane (FP) correlations that are almost perpendicular to those for bulges and ellipticals. Spheroidals are not dwarf ellipticals. Rather, their structural parameters are similar to those of late-type galaxies. We suggest that spheroidals are defunct late-type galaxies transformed by internal processes such a...

  8. High luminosity IRAS galaxies - I. The proportion of IRAS galaxies in interacting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report CCD imaging of a complete sample of 60 high-luminosity IRAS galaxies and of a control sample of 87 optically selected galaxies. The galaxies have been grouped in seven classes depending on the presence or absence of faint or bright, nearby or distant, companions, and signs of interaction or mergers such as tidal arms or disturbed structure. We find that 18±5 per cent of optically selected galaxies are in interacting or merging systems. The excess of interacting pairs over those which we would expect to find by chance is about 30 per cent. Many of the pairs are unresolved by the IRAS beam, but we demonstrate that this cannot explain the enhanced fraction of pairs. These results indicate that galaxy interaction is a common causal factor in luminous IR activity. (author)

  9. Properties of the Magellanic-type galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the photometric, kinematic, and dynamical properties of the Magellanic type galaxies are undertaken in order to ascertain the systematic properties of the late stages of spiral structure in the Hubble sequence. Statistical analysis of large optical and radio data sets, contained in the newly completed Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies, as well as a general survey of the largest Magellanic type galaxies on the Palomar and UK Schmidt Photographic Surveys, are used to determine properties such as mean color, frequency of bar formation, intrinsic shape, and the abundance of physically associated neighbor galaxies. Detailed photometric studies of a few select Magellanic galaxies are carried out using photographic and new-technology CCD area detectors. Studies of these same systems are conducted using the technique of Fabry-Perot interferometry in order to map the two dimensional ionized gas velocity fields. These galaxies are predominantly barred, with the center of the stellar bar often displaced from the photometric center of the galaxy disk. The dynamical consequences of such an asymmetric mass distribution are modeled using a simple prolate spheroid and exponential disk potential field and compared directly with observational data from the photometric and kinematic investigations. A systematic search is made for matter trapping and gas streaming motions caused by the bar and its associated stable Lagrangian points. Finally, a series of recent theoretical studies, as well as a set of original N-body numerical calculations, are used to explore the origin and dynamical evolution of these intriguing galaxies

  10. Star Formation in Nearby Isolated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Karachentsev, I D; Melnyk, O V; Courtois, H M

    2013-01-01

    We use the FUV fluxes measured with the GALEX to study the star formation properties of galaxies collected in the "Local Orphan Galaxies" catalog (LOG). Among 517 LOG galaxies having radial velocities V(LG) 15 degr, 428 objects have been detected in FUV. We briefly discuss some scaling relations between the specific star formation rate (SSFR) and stellar mass, HI-mass, morphology, and surface brightness of galaxies situated in extremely low density regions of the Local Supercluster. Our sample is populated with predominantly late-type, gas-rich objects with the median morphological type of Sdm. Only 5% of LOG galaxies are classified as early types: E, S0, S0/a, however, they systematically differ from normal E and S0 galaxies by lower luminosity and presence of gas and dust. We find that almost all galaxies in our sample have their SSFR below 0.4 [Gyr^{-1}]. This limit is also true even for a sample of 270 active star-burst Markarian galaxies situated in the same volume. The existence of such a quasi-Eddingt...

  11. Nuclear Activity in Circumnuclear Ring Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Aguero, M P; Dottori, H

    2016-01-01

    We have analyzed the frequency and properties of the nuclear activity in a sample of galaxies with circumnuclear rings and spirals (CNRs). This sample was compared with a control sample of galaxies with very similar global properties but without circumnuclear rings. We discuss the relevance of the results in regard to the AGN feeding processes and present the following results: (i) bright companion galaxies seem not to be important for the appearance of CNRs, which appear to be more related to intrinsic properties of the host galaxies or to minor merger processes; (ii) the proportion of strong bars in galaxies with an AGN and a CNR is somewhat higher than the expected ratio of strongly barred AGN galaxies from the results of Ho and co-workers; (iii) the incidence of Seyfert activity coeval with CNRs is clearly larger than the rate expected from the morphological distribution of the host galaxies; (iv) the rate of Sy 2 to Sy 1 type galaxies with CNRs is about three times larger than the expected ratio for gala...

  12. Imprint of inflation on galaxy shape correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Fabian; Chisari, Nora Elisa; Dvorkin, Cora

    2015-10-01

    We show that intrinsic (not lensing-induced) correlations between galaxy shapes offer a new probe of primordial non-Gaussianity and inflationary physics which is complementary to galaxy number counts. Specifically, intrinsic alignment correlations are sensitive to an anisotropic squeezed limit bispectrum of the primordial perturbations. Such a feature arises in solid inflation, as well as more broadly in the presence of light higher spin fields during inflation (as pointed out recently by Arkani-Hamed and Maldacena). We present a derivation of the all-sky two-point correlations of intrinsic shapes and number counts in the presence of non-Gaussianity with general angular dependence, and show that a quadrupolar (spin-2) anisotropy leads to the analog in galaxy shapes of the well-known scale-dependent bias induced in number counts by isotropic (spin-0) non-Gaussianity. Moreover, in the presence of non-zero anisotropic non-Gaussianity, the quadrupole of galaxy shapes becomes sensitive to far superhorizon modes. These effects come about because long-wavelength modes induce a local anisotropy in the initial power spectrum, with which galaxies will correlate. We forecast that future imaging surveys could provide constraints on the amplitude of anisotropic non-Gaussianity that are comparable to those from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). These are complementary as they probe different physical scales. The constraints, however, depend on the sensitivity of galaxy shapes to the initial conditions which we only roughly estimate from observed tidal alignments.

  13. Environments and Morphologies of Red Sequence Galaxies with Residual Star Formation in Massive Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Crossett, Jacob P; Stott, John P; Jones, D Heath

    2013-01-01

    We present a photometric investigation into recent star formation in galaxy clusters at z ~ 0.1. We use spectral energy distribution templates to quantify recent star formation in large X-ray selected clusters from the LARCS survey using matched GALEX NUV photometry. These clusters all have signs of red sequence galaxy recent star formation (as indicated by blue NUV-R colour), regardless of cluster morphology and size. A trend in environment is found for these galaxies, such that they prefer to occupy low density, high cluster radius environments. The morphology of these UV bright galaxies suggests that they are in fact red spirals, which we confirm with light curves and Galaxy Zoo voting percentages as morphological proxies. These UV bright galaxies are therefore seen to be either truncated spiral galaxies, caught by ram pressure in falling into the cluster, or high mass spirals, with the photometry dominated by the older stellar population.

  14. Photometric Redshifts of Submillimeter Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Sukanya; McKee, Christopher F; Lutz, Dieter; Berta, Stefano; Popesso, Paola; Pozzi, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    We use the photometric redshift method of Chakrabarti & McKee (2008) to infer photometric redshifts of submillimeter galaxies with far-IR (FIR) $\\it{Herschel}$ data obtained as part of the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) program. For the sample with spectroscopic redshifts, we demonstrate the validity of this method over a large range of redshifts ($ 4 \\ga z \\ga 0.3$) and luminosities, finding an average accuracy in $(1+z_{\\rm phot})/(1+z_{\\rm spec})$ of 10%. Thus, this method is more accurate than other FIR photometric redshift methods. This method is different from typical FIR photometric methods in deriving redshifts from the light-to-gas mass ($L/M$) ratio of infrared-bright galaxies inferred from the FIR spectral energy distribution (SED), rather than dust temperatures. Once the redshift is derived, we can determine physical properties of infrared bright galaxies, including the temperature variation within the dust envelope, luminosity, mass, and surface density. We use data from the GOODS-S field to c...

  15. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    Six bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  16. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): The unimodal nature of the dwarf galaxy population

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, Smriti; Driver, S; Kelvin, Lee S; Hopkins, A M; Baldry, I; Phillipps, S; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Brough, S; Loveday, J; Penny, Samantha J; Robotham, A S G

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we aim to (i) test the number of statistically distinct classes required to classify the local galaxy population, and, (ii) identify the differences in the physical and star formation properties of visually-distinct galaxies. To accomplish this, we analyse the structural parameters (effective radius r_e, effective surface brightness within r_e (mu_e), central surface brightness (mu_0), and S'ersic index (n)), obtained by fitting the light profile of 432 galaxies (0.002galaxies (irregulars, blue spheroids and low surface brightness galaxies) form a unimodal population in a parameter space mapped by mu_e, mu_0, n, r_e, SFR, sSFR, M*, M_{dust} and (g-i). The SFR and sSFR distribution of passively evolving ...

  17. No time for dead time: timing analysis of bright black hole binaries with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Harrison, Fiona A.; Cook, Rick;

    2015-01-01

    Timing of high-count-rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time ...... techniques. We apply this technique to NuSTAR observations of the black hole binaries GX 339-4, Cyg X-1, and GRS 1915+105....

  18. Sublattice Counting and Orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Hanany, Amihay; Reffert, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Abelian orbifolds of C^3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet Series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L^{aba} theories, and of C^4.

  19. Sublattice counting and orbifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanany, Amihay; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne

    2010-06-01

    Abelian orbifolds of mathbb{C}3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L aba theories, and of mathbb{C}4.

  20. A New Method for Calculating Counts in Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Szapudi, I

    1997-01-01

    In the near future a new generation of CCD based galaxy surveys will enable high precision determination of the N-point correlation functions. The resulting information will help to resolve the ambiguities associated with two-point correlation functions thus constraining theories of structure formation, biasing, and Gaussianity of initial conditions independently of the value of $\\Omega$. As one the most successful methods to extract the amplitude of higher order correlations is based on measuring the distribution of counts in cells, this work presents an advanced way of measuring it with unprecedented accuracy. Szapudi and Colombi (1996, hereafter \\cite{sc96}) identified the main sources of theoretical errors in extracting counts in cells from galaxy catalogs. One of these sources, termed as measurement error, stems from the fact that conventional methods use a finite number of sampling cells to estimate counts in cells. This effect can be circumvented by using an infinite number of cells. This paper present...

  1. Bright PanSTARRS Nuclear Transients – what are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smartt S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an initial analysis of 49 bright transients occurring in the nuclei of galaxies with no previous known Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN. They have been discovered as part of the PanSTARRs 3π survey, and followed up with the Liverpool Telescope. Based on colours, light curve shape, and a small number with optical spectra, these transients seem to fall into three groups. Red/fast transients are nuclear supernovae of various types. Some bright nuclear transients are blue and decay on a timescale of a few months; these may be candidates for tidal disruption events. However most of the events we have found are blue and are either still rising or decaying slowly, on a timescale of years; the few spectra we have show AGN at z ∼ 1. We argue that these transients are background AGN microlensed by stars in foreground galaxies by a factor 10–100. Monitoring such events gives us very promising prospects for measuring the structure of AGN and so testing current theories.

  2. Weak Lensing by Galaxy Troughs in DES Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruen, D. [Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany). et al.

    2015-09-29

    We measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. Furthermore, the prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. Finally, the lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  3. The brightness and spatial distributions of terrestrial radio sources

    CERN Document Server

    Offringa, A R; Zaroubi, S; Koopmans, L V E; Wijnholds, S J; Abdalla, F B; Brouw, W N; Ciardi, B; Iliev, I T; Harker, G J A; Mellema, G; Bernardi, G; Zarka, P; Ghosh, A; Alexov, A; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Beck, R; Bell, M E; Bell, M R; Bentum, M J; Best, P; Bîrzan, L; Breitling, F; Broderick, J; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; de Vos, M; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Fallows, R A; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Hassall, T E; Horneffer, A; Iacobelli, M; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Klijn, W; Kondratiev, V I; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; van Leeuwen, J; Loose, M; Maat, P; Macario, G; Mann, G; McKean, J P; Meulman, H; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Rafferty, D; Reich, W; van Nieuwpoort, R; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Sobey, C; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; ter Veen, S; Toribio, C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R J; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O

    2013-01-01

    Faint undetected sources of radio-frequency interference (RFI) might become visible in long radio observations when they are consistently present over time. Thereby, they might obstruct the detection of the weak astronomical signals of interest. This issue is especially important for Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) projects that try to detect the faint redshifted HI signals from the time of the earliest structures in the Universe. We explore the RFI situation at 30-163 MHz by studying brightness histograms of visibility data observed with LOFAR, similar to radio-source-count analyses that are used in cosmology. An empirical RFI distribution model is derived that allows the simulation of RFI in radio observations. The brightness histograms show an RFI distribution that follows a power-law distribution with an estimated exponent around -1.5. With several assumptions, this can be explained with a uniform distribution of terrestrial radio sources whose radiation follows existing propagation models. Extrapolation of t...

  4. A High Stellar Velocity Dispersion and ~100 Globular Clusters for the Ultra-diffuse Galaxy Dragonfly 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Abraham, Roberto; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Danieli, Shany; Merritt, Allison; Mowla, Lamiya; Romanowsky, Aaron; Zhang, Jielai

    2016-09-01

    Recently a population of large, very low surface brightness, spheroidal galaxies was identified in the Coma cluster. The apparent survival of these ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in a rich cluster suggests that they have very high masses. Here, we present the stellar kinematics of Dragonfly 44, one of the largest Coma UDGs, using a 33.5 hr integration with DEIMOS on the Keck II telescope. We find a velocity dispersion of σ ={47}-6+8 {km} {{{s}}}-1, which implies a dynamical mass of {M}{dyn}(\\lt {r}1/2)={0.7}-0.2+0.3× {10}10 {M}ȯ within its deprojected half-light radius of {r}1/2=4.6+/- 0.2 {kpc}. The mass-to-light ratio is M/{L}I(\\lt {r}1/2)={48}-14+21 {M}ȯ /{L}ȯ , and the dark matter fraction is 98% within {r}1/2. The high mass of Dragonfly 44 is accompanied by a large globular cluster population. From deep Gemini imaging taken in 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 4 seeing we infer that Dragonfly 44 has {94}-20+25 globular clusters, similar to the counts for other galaxies in this mass range. Our results add to other recent evidence that many UDGs are “failed” galaxies, with the sizes, dark matter content, and globular cluster systems of much more luminous objects. We estimate the total dark halo mass of Dragonfly 44 by comparing the amount of dark matter within r=4.6 {kpc} to enclosed mass profiles of NFW halos. The enclosed mass suggests a total mass of ˜ {10}12 {M}ȯ , similar to the mass of the Milky Way. The existence of nearly dark objects with this mass is unexpected, as galaxy formation is thought to be maximally efficient in this regime.

  5. A High Stellar Velocity Dispersion and ~100 Globular Clusters for the Ultra-diffuse Galaxy Dragonfly 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Abraham, Roberto; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Danieli, Shany; Merritt, Allison; Mowla, Lamiya; Romanowsky, Aaron; Zhang, Jielai

    2016-09-01

    Recently a population of large, very low surface brightness, spheroidal galaxies was identified in the Coma cluster. The apparent survival of these ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in a rich cluster suggests that they have very high masses. Here, we present the stellar kinematics of Dragonfly 44, one of the largest Coma UDGs, using a 33.5 hr integration with DEIMOS on the Keck II telescope. We find a velocity dispersion of σ ={47}-6+8 {km} {{{s}}}-1, which implies a dynamical mass of {M}{dyn}(\\lt {r}1/2)={0.7}-0.2+0.3× {10}10 {M}ȯ within its deprojected half-light radius of {r}1/2=4.6+/- 0.2 {kpc}. The mass-to-light ratio is M/{L}I(\\lt {r}1/2)={48}-14+21 {M}ȯ /{L}ȯ , and the dark matter fraction is 98% within {r}1/2. The high mass of Dragonfly 44 is accompanied by a large globular cluster population. From deep Gemini imaging taken in 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 4 seeing we infer that Dragonfly 44 has {94}-20+25 globular clusters, similar to the counts for other galaxies in this mass range. Our results add to other recent evidence that many UDGs are “failed” galaxies, with the sizes, dark matter content, and globular cluster systems of much more luminous objects. We estimate the total dark halo mass of Dragonfly 44 by comparing the amount of dark matter within r=4.6 {kpc} to enclosed mass profiles of NFW halos. The enclosed mass suggests a total mass of ∼ {10}12 {M}ȯ , similar to the mass of the Milky Way. The existence of nearly dark objects with this mass is unexpected, as galaxy formation is thought to be maximally efficient in this regime.

  6. A New Approach to Galaxy Morphology I. Analysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Early Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, R; Nair, P; Abraham, Roberto; Bergh, Sidney van den; Nair, Preethi

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present a new statistic for quantifying galaxy morphology based on measurements of the Gini coefficient of galaxy light distributions. This statistic is easy to measure and is commonly used in econometrics to measure how wealth is distributed in human populations. When applied to galaxy images, the Gini coefficient provides a quantitative measure of the inequality with which a galaxy's light is distributed amongst its constituent pixels. We measure the Gini coefficient of local galaxies in the Early Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and demonstrate that this quantity is closely correlated with measurements of central concentration, but with significant scatter. This scatter is almost entirely due to variations in the mean surface brightness of galaxies. By exploring the distribution of galaxies in the three-dimensional parameter space defined by the Gini coefficient, central concentration, and mean surface brightness, we show that all nearby galaxies lie on a well-defined two-dimen...

  7. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count...

  8. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  9. Calorie count - Alcoholic beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you drink. Cocktails mixed with soda, cream, or ice cream can have especially high calorie counts. If you ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  10. Counting Knights and Knaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  11. 1996 : Track Count Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge's Track Count Protocol is to provide an index to the population size of game animals inhabiting St. Vincent Island.

  12. Suzaku Discovery of a Slowly Varying Hard X-ray Continuum from the Type I Seyfert Galaxy NGC 3516

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Hirofumi; Makishima, Kazuo; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; YAMADA, SHIN'YA

    2014-01-01

    The bright type I Seyfert galaxy NGC 3516 was observed by {\\it Suzaku} twice, in 2005 October 12--15 and 2009 October 28--November 2, for a gross time coverage of 242 and 544 ksec and a net exposure of 134 and 255 ksec, respectively. The 2--10 keV luminosity was $2.8 \\times 10^{41}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in 2005, and $1.6 \\times 10^{41}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in 2009. The 1.4--1.7 keV and 2--10 keV count rates both exhibited peak-to-peak variations by a factor of $\\sim2$ in 2005, while $\\sim 4$ in 2009. In eit...

  13. Robust automatic photometry of local galaxies from SDSS Dissecting the color magnitude relation with color profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Consolandi, Guido; Fumagalli, Michele; Dotti, Massimo; Fossati, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic procedure to perform reliable photometry of galaxies on SDSS images. We selected a sample of 5853 galaxies in the Coma and Virgo superclusters. For each galaxy, we derive Petrosian g and i magnitudes, surface brightness profiles and color profiles. Unlike the SDSS pipeline, our procedure is not affected by the well known shredding problem and efficiently extracts Petrosian magnitudes for all galaxies. Hence we derived magnitudes even from the population of galaxies missed by the SDSS that represents 25% of all Local supercluster galaxies and ~95% of galaxies with g =0.35R{Pet})) zone, and (ii), we compute template color profiles, discussing the dependences of the templates on the galaxy masses and on their morphological type. The two analyses consistently lead to a picture where elliptical galaxies show no color gradients, irrespective of their masses. Spirals, instead, display a steeper gradient in their color profiles with increasing mass, consistently with the growing relevance of a...

  14. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: first 1000 galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, J. T.; Team, the SAMI Galaxy Survey

    2014-01-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey is an ongoing project to obtain integral field spectroscopic observations of ~3400 galaxies by mid-2016. Including the pilot survey, a total of ~1000 galaxies have been observed to date, making the SAMI Galaxy Survey the largest of its kind in existence. This unique dataset allows a wide range of investigations into different aspects of galaxy evolution. The first public data from the SAMI Galaxy Survey, consisting o...

  15. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J M [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); McDonald, G S [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Chamorro-Posada, P [Departmento de TeorIa de la Senal y Comunicaciones e IngenierIa Telematica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Campus Miguel Delibes s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2007-02-16

    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts.

  16. Searching for Evidence of Energetic Feedback in Distant Galaxies: A Galaxy Wide Outflow in a z~2 Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, D M; Smail, I; McDermid, R; Nesvadba, N

    2009-01-01

    Leading models of galaxy formation require large-scale energetic outflows to regulate the growth of distant galaxies and their central black holes. However, current observational support for this hypothesis at high redshift is mostly limited to rare z>2 radio galaxies. Here we present Gemini-North NIFS Intregral Field Unit (IFU) observations of the [OIII] emission from a z~2 ultraluminous infrared galaxy (L_IR>10^12 solar luminosities) with an optically identified Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). The spatial extent (~4-8 kpc) of the high velocity and broad [OIII] emission are consistent with that found in z>2 radio galaxies, indicating the presence of a large-scale energetic outflow in a galaxy population potentially orders of magnitude more common than distant radio galaxies. The low radio luminosity of this system indicates that radio-bright jets are unlikely to be responsible for driving the outflow. However, the estimated energy input required to produce the large-scale outflow signatures (of order ~10^59 e...

  17. GPM Intercalibrated Radiometer Brightness Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Chou, Joyce

    2013-04-01

    One of the keys to consistent precipitation retrieval from passive microwave radiometer measurements (whether imagers or sounders) is accurate, long-term consistent brightness temperature retrievals. This becomes doubly important when there measurements are taken from radiometers on multiple platforms, from multiple agencies, with many different purposes. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission addresses this issue directly with the production of intercalibrated brightness temperatures from all the partner satellites contributing to the GPM mission. These intercalibrated brightness temperatures are given the product designation: 1C within GPM. This paper will describe the GPM approach to intercalibration 1C products. The intercalibration and creation of the products uses a 5-step methodology: comparison of the partner standard products (either Tb or Ta) with the GPM reference standard; determination of adjustments that should be made to each product to create consistent brightness temperatures; re-orbitization of all orbits (in non-realtime) to be in the standard GPM south-south orbit; application of the adjustments to the partner provide 1B(or 1A) products; production of 1C products in HDF5 using a "standard" logical format for any radiometer regardless of its 1B format. This paper describes each of these steps and provides the background for them. It discusses in some detail the current 1C logical format and why this format facilitates use by downstream product algorithms and end-users. Most importantly it provides the analysis approach established by the GPM inter-calibration working group in establishing the adjustments to be made at the 1C level. Finally, using DMSP F16-18, it provides examples of the 1C products and discusses the adjustments that are made.

  18. Bright solitons from defocusing nonlinearities

    OpenAIRE

    Borovkova, Olga V.; Kartashov, Yaroslav; Torner Sabata, Lluís; Malomed, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    We report that defocusing cubic media with spatially inhomogeneous nonlinearity, whose strength increases rapidly enough toward the periphery, can support stable bright localized modes. Such nonlinearity landscapes give rise to a variety of stable solitons in all three dimensions, including one-dimensional fundamental and multihump states, two-dimensional vortex solitons with arbitrarily high topological charges, and fundamental solitons in three dimensions. Solitons maintain their coherence ...

  19. MgII Absorption through Intermediate Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, C W; Steidel, C C; Churchill, Christopher W.; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Steidel, Charles C.

    2005-01-01

    The current status and remaining questions of MgII absorbers are reviewed with an eye toward new results incorporating high quality Hubble Space Telescope images of the absorbing galaxies. In the end, we find that our current picture of extended gaseous regions around galaxies at earlier epochs is in need of some revision; MgII absorbing "halos" appear to be patchier and their geometry less regular than previously inferred. We also find that the so-called "weak" MgII absorbers are associated with normal galaxies over a wide range of impact parameters, suggesting that this class of absorber does not strictly select low surface brightness, dwarf galaxies, or IGM material. We emphasize the need for a complete survey of the galaxies in quasar fields, and the importance of obtaining rotation curves of confirmed absorbing galaxies.

  20. Searching the Sky for the Brightest Galaxies in the Distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Steven

    We propose to analyze a Spitzer/IRAC survey of nine independent sight-lines in the sky which have been identified to host plausible candidates for the brightest galaxies in the z > 9 universe. While the z > 9 universe is still a vast unknown, tremendous progress has been made with ultra-deep surveys such as the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. However, these data only constrain the faint-end of the rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function, while the bright-end is largely unconstrained. Attempts to search for bright z > 9 galaxies in the few well-studied deep fields have been met with discrepant results, dominated by cosmic variance uncertainties. We searched 80 fields from two Hubble Space Telescope pure parallel surveys for bright z > 9 galaxies, and found 16 candidates. However, the available imaging cannot discern between true z > 9 galaxies, and passive/dusty z~2.5 galaxies. The addition of IRAC imaging at 3.6um unambiguously breaks this degeneracy. Using a recently approved allocation of 77.2 hours of IRAC imaging over these nine fields, we will build the most robust sample of bright z > 9 galaxies. This dataset will place stringent constraints on the abundance of bright z~9 galaxies, robust against cosmic variance, which can be used to constrain the physics behind galaxy evolution in the distant universe. These observations will also roughly double the number of massive, UV bright galaxies at z=8, allowing us to increase the fidelity of the presently very rough z=8 stellar mass function. These observations highlight the remarkable utility of this 80cm telescope for studying galaxies at a time only 500 Myr removed from the Big Bang.

  1. The Ghosts of Galaxies: Tidal Debris in Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Gregg, M D; Gregg, Michael D.; West, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Gravitational interactions in rich clusters can strip material from the outer parts of galaxies or even completely disrupt entire systems, giving rise to large scale, low surface brightness ghostly features stretching across intergalactic space. The nearby Coma and Centaurus clusters both have striking examples of galaxy ghosts, in the form of 100 kpc-long plumes of intergalactic debris. By searching HST archival images, we have found numerous other examples of galaxy ghosts in rich clusters at low redshift, evidence that galaxy destruction and recycling are ubiquitous, important in cluster formation and evolution, and continue to mold clusters at the present epoch. Many ghosts appear in X-ray bright clusters, perhaps signaling a connection with energetic subcluster mergers. The fate of such material has important ramifications for cluster evolution. Our new HST WFPC2 V & I images of a portion of the Centaurus plume reveal that it contains an excess of discrete objects with -12 < M_v < -6, consisten...

  2. High brightness semiconductor lasers with reduced filamentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter.; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.;

    1999-01-01

    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in spectroscopy, fiber lasers, manufacturing and materials processing, medicine and free space communication or energy transfer. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that, because of COD, high power requires a large aperture...

  3. The ASAS-SN Bright Supernova Catalog I: 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoien, T. W.-S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Brimacombe, J.; Bersier, D.; Bishop, D. W.; Dong, Subo; Brown, J. S.; Danilet, A. B.; Simonian, G. V.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Falco, E.; Pojmanski, G.; Skowron, D. M.; Woźniak, P. R.; Ávila, C. G.; Conseil, E.; Contreras, C.; Cruz, I.; Fernández, J. M.; Koff, R. A.; Guo, Zhen; Herczeg, G. J.; Hissong, J.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Jose, J.; Kiyota, S.; Long, Feng; Monard, L. A. G.; Nicholls, B.; Nicolas, J.; Wiethoff, W. S.

    2016-09-01

    We present basic statistics for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) during its first year-and-a-half of operations, spanning 2013 and 2014. We also present the same information for all other bright (mV ≤ 17), spectroscopically confirmed supernovae discovered from 2014 May 1 through the end of 2014, providing a comparison to the ASAS-SN sample starting from the point where ASAS-SN became operational in both hemispheres. In addition, we present collected redshifts and near-UV through IR magnitudes, where available, for all host galaxies of the bright supernovae in both samples. This work represents a comprehensive catalog of bright supernovae and their hosts from multiple professional and amateur sources, allowing for population studies that were not previously possible because the all-sky emphasis of ASAS-SN redresses many previously existing biases. In particular, ASAS-SN systematically finds bright supernovae closer to the centers of host galaxies than either other professional surveys or amateurs, a remarkable result given ASAS-SN's poorer angular resolution. This is the first of a series of yearly papers on bright supernovae and their hosts that will be released by the ASAS-SN team.

  4. Characteristic Scales in Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Dekel, A

    2004-01-01

    Recent data, e.g. from SDSS and 2dF, reveal a robust bi-modality in the distribution of galaxy properties, with a characteristic transition scale at stellar mass M_*~3x10^{10} Msun (near L_*), corresponding to virial velocity V~100 km/s. Smaller galaxies tend to be blue disks of young populations. They define a "fundamental line" of decreasing surface brightness, metallicity and velocity with decreasing M_*, which extends to the smallest dwarf galaxies. Galaxies above the critical scale are dominated by red spheroids of old populations, with roughly constant high surface brightens and metallicity, and they tend to host AGNs. A minimum in the virial M/L is obtained at the same magic scale. This bi-modality can be the combined imprint of several different physical processes. On smaller scales, disks are built by cold flows, and supernova feedback is effective in regulating star formation. On larger scales, the infalling gas is heated by a virial shock and star formation can be suppressed by AGN feedback. Anothe...

  5. Dusty Galaxies at the Highest Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, David L.

    2015-08-01

    Galaxies with very high star formation rates are usually shrouded in substantial amounts of dust obscuration, making their discovery impossible through optical and/or near-IR observations. Observations in the far-IR/submm in contrast can identify such objects from their colours, allowing these rare objects to be followup up in detail. Herschel surveys have found a significant population of such objects at 4lensing for bright z>5 sources, and progress in the search for dusty star forming galaxies at still higher redshifts.

  6. Quiescent Compact Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift in the COSMOS Field. II. The Fundamental Plane of Massive Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Damjanov, Ivana; Geller, Margaret J.; Chilingarian, Igor

    2015-06-01

    We examine the relation between surface brightness, velocity dispersion, and size—the fundamental plane (FP)—for quiescent galaxies at intermediate redshifts in the COSMOS field. The COSMOS sample consists of ˜150 massive quiescent galaxies with an average velocity dispersion of σ ˜ 250 km s-1 and redshifts between 0.2 MCQ) COSMOS galaxies onto the local FP at z = 0. Therefore, evolution in size or velocity dispersion for MCQ galaxies since z ˜ 1 is constrained by the small scatter observed in the FP. We conclude that MCQ galaxies at z ≲ 1 are not a special class of objects but rather the tail of the mass and size distribution of the normal quiescent galaxy population.

  7. Environmental Effects on Satellite Galaxies: The Link Between Concentration, Size and Colour Profile

    CERN Document Server

    Weinmann, Simone M; Bosch, Frank C van den; Pasquali, Anna; McIntosh, Daniel H; Mo, Houjun; Yang, Xiaohu; Guo, Yicheng

    2008-01-01

    Using the SDSS DR4 group catalogue of Yang et al. (2007), we investigate sizes, concentrations, colour gradients and surface brightness profiles of central and satellite galaxies. We compare central and satellite galaxies at fixed stellar mass, in order to disentangle environmental from stellar mass dependencies. Early and late type galaxies are defined according to concentration. We find that at fixed stellar mass, late type satellite galaxies have smaller radii and larger concentrations than late type central galaxies. No such differences are found for early-type galaxies. We have also constructed surface brightness and colour profiles for the central and satellite galaxies in our sample. We find that late-type satellite galaxies have a lower surface brightness and redder colours than late-type central galaxies. We show that all observed differences between satellite and central galaxies can be explained by a simple fading model, in which the star formation in the disk decreases over timescales of 2-3 Gyr a...

  8. Predictions for the abundance and colours of galaxies in high redshift clusters in hierarchical models

    CERN Document Server

    Merson, Alexander I; Abdalla, Filipe B; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Lagos, Claudia del P; Mei, Simona

    2015-01-01

    High redshift galaxy clusters allow us to examine galaxy formation in extreme environments. Here we compile data for $z>1$ galaxy clusters to test the predictions from one of the latest semi-analytical models of galaxy formation. The model gives a good match to the slope and zero-point of the cluster red sequence. The model is able to match the cluster galaxy luminosity function at faint and bright magnitudes, but under-estimates the number of galaxies around the break in the luminosity function. We find that simply assuming a weaker dust attenuation improves the model predictions for the cluster galaxy luminosity function, but worsens the predictions for the red sequence at bright magnitudes. Examination of the properties of the bright cluster galaxies suggests that the default dust attenuation is very large due to these galaxies having large reservoirs of cold gas as well as small radii. We find that matching the luminosity function and colours of high redshift cluster galaxies, whilst remaining consistent ...

  9. MOLECULAR AND ATOMIC LINE SURVEYS OF GALAXIES. I. THE DENSE, STAR-FORMING GAS PHASE AS A BEACON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We predict the space density of molecular gas reservoirs in the universe and place a lower limit on the number counts of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecular, and [C II] atomic emission lines in blind redshift surveys in the submillimeter-centimeter spectral regime. Our model uses (1) recently available HCN spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) of local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, LIR > 1011 L☉), (2) a value for ε* = SFR/Mdense(H2) provided by new developments in the study of star formation feedback on the interstellar medium, and (3) a model for the evolution of the infrared luminosity density. Minimal 'emergent' CO SLEDs from the dense gas reservoirs expected in all star-forming systems in the universe are then computed from the HCN SLEDs since warm, HCN-bright gas will necessarily be CO-bright, with the dense star-forming gas phase setting an obvious minimum to the total molecular gas mass of any star-forming galaxy. We include [C II] as the most important of the far-infrared cooling lines. Optimal blind surveys with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) could potentially detect very distant (z ∼ 10-12) [C II] emitters in the ≥ULIRG galaxy class at a rate of ∼0.1-1 hr–1 (although this prediction is strongly dependent on the star formation and enrichment history at this early epoch), whereas the (high-frequency) Square Kilometer Array will be capable of blindly detecting z > 3 low-J CO emitters at a rate of ∼40-70 hr–1. The [C II] line holds special promise for detecting metal-poor systems with extensive reservoirs of CO-dark molecular gas where detection rates with ALMA can reach up to 2-7 hr–1 in Bands 4-6.

  10. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    bulges because the latter retain a `memory' of their disky origin. That is, they have one or more characteristics of disks: (1) flatter shapes than those of classical bulges, (2) correspondingly large ratios of ordered to random velocities, (3) small velocity dispersions with respect to the Faber-Jackson correlation between velocity dispersion and bulge luminosity, (4) spiral structure or nuclear bars in the `bulge' part of the light profile, (5) nearly exponential brightness profiles and (6) starbursts. So the cleanest examples of pseudobulges are recognisable. However, pseudo and classical bulges can coexist in the same galaxy. I review two important implications of secular evolution: (1) The existence of pseudobulges highlights a problem with our theory of galaxy formation by hierarchical clustering. We cannot explain galaxies that are completely bulgeless. Galaxy mergers are expected to happen often enough so that every giant galaxy should have a classical bulge. But we observe that bulgeless giant galaxies are common in field environments. We now realise that many dense centres of galaxies that we used to think are bulges were not made by mergers; they were grown out of disks. So the challenge gets more difficult. This is the biggest problem faced by our theory of galaxy formation. (2) Pseudobulges are observed to contain supermassive black holes (BHs), but they do not show the well-known, tight correlations between BH mass and the mass and velocity dispersion of the host bulge. This leads to the suggestion that there are two fundamentally different BH feeding processes. Rapid global inward gas transport in galaxy mergers leads to giant BHs that correlate with host ellipticals and classical bulges, whereas local and more stochastic feeding of small BHs in largely bulgeless galaxies evidently involves too little energy feedback to result in BH-host coevolution. It is an important success of the secular evolution picture that morphological differences can be used to

  11. High-brightness rf linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The issue of high brightness and its ramifications in linacs driven by radio-frequency fields is discussed. A history of the RF linacs is reviewed briefly. Some current applications are then examined that are driving progress in RF linacs. The physics affecting the brightness of RF linacs is then discussed, followed by the economic feasibility of higher brightness machines. (LEW)

  12. The Halos and Environments of Nearby Galaxies (HERON) Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Rich, R Michael; Bullock, James; Burkert, Andreas; Collins, Michelle; de Groot, Laura; Kennefick, Julia; Koch, Andreas; Longstaff, Francis; Sales, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We have used dedicated 0.7m telescopes in California and Israel to image the halos of ~200 galaxies in the Local Volume to 29 mag/sq arcsec, the sample mainly drawn from the 2MASS Large Galaxy Atlas (LGA). We supplement the LGA sample with dwarf galaxies and more distant giant ellipticals. Low surface brightness halos exceeding 50 kpc in diameter are found only in galaxies more luminous than L* and classic interaction signatures are relatively infrequent. Halo diameter is correlated with total galaxy luminosity. Extended low surface brightness halos are present even in galaxies as faint as M_V=-18. Edge-on galaxies with boxy bulges tend to lack extended spheroidal halos, while those with large classical bulges exhibit extended round halos, supporting the notions that boxy or barlike bulges originate from disks. Most face-on spiral galaxies present features that appear to be irregular extensions of spiral arms, although rare cases show smooth boundaries with no sign of star formation. Although we serendipitous...

  13. Looking Wider and Further: The Evolution of Galaxies Inside Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are rare objects in the universe, but on-going wide field optical surveys are identifying many thousands of them to redshift 1.0 and beyond. Using early data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and publicly released data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), this dissertation explores the evolution of cluster galaxies in the redshift range from 0 to 1.0. As it is common for deep wide field sky surveys like DES to struggle with galaxy detection efficiency at cluster core, the first component of this dissertation describes an efficient package that helps resolving the issue. The second part focuses on the formation of cluster galaxies. The study quantifies the growth of cluster bright central galaxies (BCGs), and argues for the importance of merging and intra-cluster light production during BCG evolution. An analysis of cluster red sequence galaxy luminosity function is also performed, demonstrating that the abundance of these galaxies is mildly dependent on cluster mass and redshift. The last component of the dissertation characterizes the properties of galaxy filaments to help understanding cluster environments

  14. Structures of Local Galaxies Compared to High Redshift Star-forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Petty, Sara M; Gallagher, John S; Gardner, Jonathan P; Lotz, Jennifer M; Mountain, C Matt; Smith, Linda J

    2009-01-01

    The rest-frame far-ultraviolet (FUV) morphologies of 8 nearby interacting and starburst galaxies (Arp 269, M 82, Mrk 8, NGC 520, NGC 1068, NGC 3079, NGC 3310, NGC 7673) are compared with 54 galaxies at z ~ 1.5 and 46 galaxies at z ~ 4 observed in the GOODS-ACS field. The nearby sample is artificially redshifted to z ~ 1.5 and 4. We compare the simulated galaxy morphologies to real z ~ 1.5 and 4 UV-bright galaxy morphologies. We calculate the Gini coefficient (G), the second-order moment of the brightest 20% of the galaxy's flux (M_20), and the Sersic index (n). We explore the use of nonparametric methods with 2D profile fitting and find the combination of M_20 with n an efficient method to classify galaxies as having merger, exponential disk, or bulge-like morphologies. When classified according to G and M_20, 20/30% of real/simulated galaxies at z ~ 1.5 and 37/12% at z ~ 4 have bulge-like morphologies. The rest have merger-like or intermediate distributions. Alternatively, when classified according to the Se...

  15. Evolution of Lyman-α Emitters, Lyman-break Galaxies and Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, M.; Umemura, M.

    2008-10-01

    High redshift Lyman-α emitters (LAEs) and Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) possibly provide a significant key for the embryology of galaxies. LBGs have been argued as candidate progenitors of present-day elliptical galaxies in terms of their observed properties. But, what evolutionary stages LBGs correspond to and how they are related to LAEs are still under debate. Here, we present an ultra-high-resolution hydrodynamic simulation of galaxy formation. We show that, at the earliest stages of less than 3×10^8 years, continual supernova explosions produce multitudinous hot bubbles and cooled HI shells in between. The HI shells radiate intense Lyman-α emission like LAEs. We found that the bubbly structures produced are quite similar to the observed features in the Lyman-α surface brightness distribution of the extended LAEs. After 10^9 years, the galaxy emission is dominated by stellar continuum, exhibiting an LBG-like spectrum. Also, we find that, as a result of purely dynamical evolution over 13 billion years, the properties of this galaxy match those of present-day elliptical galaxies well. It is implied that the major episode of star formation and chemical enrichment in elliptical galaxies is almost completed in the evolutionary path from LAEs to LBGs.

  16. The Optical Luminosity Function of Void Galaxies in the SDSS and ALFALFA Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Moorman, Crystal M; Hoyle, Fiona; Pan, Danny C; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We measure the r-band galaxy luminosity function (LF) across environments over the redshift range 0<$z$<0.107 using the SDSS. We divide our sample into galaxies residing in large scale voids (void galaxies) and those residing in denser regions (wall galaxies). The best fitting Schechter parameters for void galaxies are: log$\\Phi^*$= -3.40$\\pm$0.03 log(Mpc$^{-3}$), $M^*$= -19.88$\\pm$0.05, and $\\alpha$=-1.20$\\pm$0.02. For wall galaxies, the best fitting parameters are: log$\\Phi^*$=-2.86$\\pm$0.02 log(Mpc$^{-3}$), $M^*$=-20.80$\\pm$0.03, and $\\alpha$=-1.16$\\pm$0.01. We find a shift in the characteristic magnitude, $M^*$, towards fainter magnitudes for void galaxies and find no significant difference between the faint-end slopes of the void and wall galaxy LFs. We investigate how low surface brightness selections effects can affect the galaxy LF. To attempt to examine a sample of galaxies that is relatively free of surface brightness selection effects, we compute the optical galaxy LF of galaxies detected by ...

  17. S0 galaxies in Formax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedregal...[], A. G.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Merrifield, M. R.;

    2006-01-01

    Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1......Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1...

  18. The extended disc and halo of the Andromeda galaxy observed with Spitzer-IRAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei Ravandi, Masoud; Barmby, Pauline; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Laine, Seppo; Davidge, T. J.; Zhang, Jenna; Bianchi, Luciana; Babul, Arif; Chapman, S. C.

    2016-06-01

    We present the first results from an extended survey of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using 41.1 h of observations by Spitzer-IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 µm. This survey extends previous observations to the outer disc and halo, covering total lengths of 4.4° and 6.6° along the minor and major axes, respectively. We have produced surface brightness profiles by combining the integrated light from background-corrected maps with stellar counts from a new catalogue of point sources. Using auxiliary catalogues, we have carried out a statistical analysis in colour-magnitude space to discriminate M31 objects from foreground Milky Way stars and background galaxies. The catalogue includes 426 529 sources, of which 66 per cent have been assigned probability values to identify M31 objects with magnitude depths of [3.6] = 19.0 ± 0.2, [4.5] = 18.7 ± 0.2. We discuss applications of our data for constraining the stellar mass and characterizing point sources in the outer radii.

  19. The extended disc and halo of the Andromeda galaxy observed with Spitzer-IRAC

    CERN Document Server

    Ravandi, Masoud Rafiei; Ashby, Matthew L N; Laine, Seppo; Davidge, T J; Zhang, Jenna; Bianchi, Luciana; Babul, Arif; Chapman, S C

    2016-01-01

    We present the first results from an extended survey of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using 41.1 hours of observations by Spitzer-IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 \\mu m. This survey extends previous observations to the outer disc and halo, covering total lengths of 4$.\\!\\!^\\circ$4 and 6$.\\!\\!^\\circ$6 along the minor and major axes, respectively. We have produced surface brightness profiles by combining the integrated light from background-corrected maps with stellar counts from a new catalogue of point sources. Using auxiliary catalogues we have carried out a statistical analysis in colour-magnitude space to discriminate M31 objects from foreground Milky Way stars and background galaxies. The catalogue includes 426,529 sources, of which 66 per cent have been assigned probability values to identify M31 objects with magnitude depths of [3.6]$\\,=\\,$19.0$\\,\\pm\\,$0.2, [4.5]$\\,=\\,$18.7$\\,\\pm\\,$0.2. We discuss applications of our data for constraining the stellar mass and characterising point sources in the outer radii.

  20. Photon counting digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen

    2016-05-01

    Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.

  1. The nuclear ring in the unbarred galaxy NGC 278 : result of a minor merger?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapen, J. H.; Whyte, L. F.; Blok, W. J. G. de; Van der Hulst, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: We present fully sampled high angular resolution two-dimensional kinematics in the H alpha spectral line, optical and near-infrared imaging, as well as 21 cm atomic hydrogen data of the spiral galaxy NGC 278. This is a small non-barred galaxy, which has a bright star forming inner region o

  2. The Dependence of galaxy colors on luminosity and environment at z~0.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, H.K.C.; /Toronto U., Astron. Dept.; Hsieh, B.C.; /Taiwan, Natl. Central U. /Taipei, Inst. Astron. Astrophys.; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab; Gladders, M.D.; /Carnegie Inst.

    2005-08-01

    The authors analyze the B-R{sub c} colors of galaxies as functions of luminosity and local galaxy density using a large photometric redshift catalog based on the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey. They select two samples of galaxies with a magnitude limit of M{sub R{sub e}} < -18.5 and redshift ranges of 0.2 {le} z < 0.4 and 0.4 {le} x < 0.6 containing 10{sup 5} galaxies each. they model the color distributions of subsamples of galaxies and derive the red galaxy fraction and peak colors of red and blue galaxies as functions of galaxy luminosity and environment. The evolution of these relationships over the redshift range of x {approx} 0.5 to z {approx} 0.05 is analyzed in combination with published results from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. They find that there is a strong evolution in the restframe peak color of bright blue galaxies in that they become redder with decreasing redshift, while the colors of faint blue galaxies remain approximately constant. This effect supports the ''downsizing'' scenario of star formation in galaxies. While the general dependence of the galaxy color distributions on the environment is small, they find that the change of red galaxy fraction with epoch is a function of the local galaxy density, suggesting that the downsizing effect may operate with different timescales in regions of different galaxy densities.

  3. The Abundance of Distant and Extremely Red Galaxies: The Role of AGN Feedback in Hierarchical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Menci, N; Giallongo, E; Grazian, A; Salimbeni, S

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of AGN feedback associated to the bright QSO phase onto the color distribution of galaxies from z=0 up to z=4. To this aim, we insert a blast-wave model of AGN feedback in our semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, which includes the growth of supermassive black holes and the AGN activity triggered by interactions of the host galaxies. The AGN feedback is directly related to the impulsive, luminous quasar phase. We test our model by checking the consistency of its results against i) the QSO luminosity functions from z=0 to z=4; ii) the observed local relation between the black hole mass m_{BH} and the mass of the host galaxy. At low redshift the inclusion of AGN feedback enhances the number of red bright galaxies, so that the color distribution of M_r1.5) galaxies; at 0.52.5.

  4. Cusp-core dichotomy of elliptical galaxies: the role of thermal evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Nipoti, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    There are two families of luminous elliptical galaxies: cusp galaxies, with steep central surface-brightness profiles, and core galaxies, whose surface-brightness profiles have flat central cores. Thermal evaporation of accreted cold gas by the hot interstellar medium may be at the origin of this cusp-core dichotomy: in less massive (hot-gas poor) galaxies central cores are likely to be refilled by central starbursts following cold gas infall, while in more massive (hot-gas rich) galaxies most cold gas is eliminated and central cores survive. This scenario is consistent with the observation that cusp and core galaxies differ systematically in terms of optical luminosity, X-ray gas content, age of the central stellar population, and properties of the active galactic nucleus.

  5. The SAURON project - XIII. SAURON-GALEX study of early-type galaxies : the ultraviolet colour-magnitude relations and Fundamental Planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; van de Ven, Glenn; Peletier, Reynier F.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.

    2009-01-01

    We present Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) imaging of 34 nearby early-type galaxies from the SAURON representative sample of 48 E/S0 galaxies, all of which have ground-based optical imaging from the MDM Observatory. The surface brightness profiles of nine g

  6. The SAURON project - XIII. SAURON-GALEX study of early-type galaxies: the ultraviolet colour-magnitude relations and Fundamental Planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, Hyunjin; K. Yi, Sukyoung; Bureau, Martin; L. Davies, Roger; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; van de Ven, Glenn; Peletier, R.F.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; M. McDermid, Richard; Sarzi, Marc; C. E. van den Bosch, Remco

    2009-01-01

    We present Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) imaging of 34 nearby early-type galaxies from the SAURON representative sample of 48 E/S0 galaxies, all of which have ground-based optical imaging from the MDM Observatory. The surface brightness profiles of nine g

  7. Small-Scale Conformity of the Virgo Cluster Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hye-Ran; Jeong, Hyunjin; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the small-scale conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in the Virgo cluster. Cluster member galaxies are spectroscopically determined using the Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12). We find that the luminosity-weighted mean color of faint galaxies depends on the color of adjacent bright galaxy as well as on the cluster-scale environment (gravitational potential index). From this result for the entire area of the Virgo cluster, it is not distinguishable whether the small-scale conformity is genuine or is artificially produced due to cluster-scale variation of galaxy color. To disentangle this degeneracy, we divide the Virgo cluster area into three sub-areas so that the cluster-scale environmental dependence is minimized: A1 (central), A2 (intermediate) and A3 (outermost). We find conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions (color-color slope significance S ~ 2.73 sigma and cor...

  8. NGC 4262: a Virgo galaxy with an extended ultraviolet ring

    CERN Document Server

    Bettoni,; Buson,; M., L; Galletta,; G.,

    2010-01-01

    The Galaxy Ultraviolet Explorer (GALEX) satellite has recently shown the presence of an extended, outer ring studded with UV-bright knots surrounding the lenticular galaxy NGC 4262. Such a structure---not detected in the optical---is coupled with a ring of atomic (HI) gas. We want to show that both star-forming and HI rings surrounding this SB0 galaxy share the same radial distance from the galaxy center and spatial orientation. We want also to model the kinematics of the ring(s) and of the galaxy body. We make use of archive FUV and NUV GALEX data plus HI observations from the literature. We confirm that the UV-bright and atomic gas rings of NGC 4262 have the same extent and projected spatial orientation. Their kinematics is not coupled with that of the galaxy stars. It is possible that NGC 4262 has undergone a major gas stripping event in the past which gave origin to the present "necklace" of UV-bright knots.

  9. Rainflow counting revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  10. Counting rate logarithmic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the basic circuit and the design method for a multidecade logarithmic counting ratemeter. The method is based on the charging and discharging of several RC time constants. An F.E.T. switch is used and the drain current is converted into a proportional voltage by a current to voltage converter. The logarithmic linearity was estimated for 4 decades starting from 50 cps. This circuit can be used in several nuclear instruments like survey meters and counting systems. This circuits has been developed as part of campbell channel instrumentation. (author)

  11. High-brightness electron injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators and synchrotron light sources require pulse trains of high peak brightness and, in some applications, high-average power. Recent developments in the technology of photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for electron-linac injector applications offer promising advances over conventional electron injectors. Reduced emittance growth in high peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by using high field strengths and by linearizing the radial component of the cavity electric field at the expense of lower shunt impedance

  12. High brightness beams and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the present research on attaining intense bright electron beams. Thermionic systems are briefly covered. Recent and past results from the photoinjector programs are given. The performance advantages and difficulties presently faced by researchers using photoinjectors is discussed. The progress that has been made in photocathode materials, both in lifetime and quantum efficiency, is covered. Finally, a discussion of emittance measurements of photoinjector systems and how the measurement is complicated by the non-thermal nature of the electron beam is presented

  13. Deep multiband surface photometry on star forming galaxies: I. A sample of 24 blue compact galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Micheva, Genoveva; Bergvall, Nils; Zackrisson, Erik; Masegosa, Josefa; Marquez, Isabel; Marquart, Thomas; Durret, Florence

    2012-01-01

    [Abridged] We present deep optical and near-infrared UBVRIHKs imaging data for 24 blue compact galaxies (BCGs). The sample contains luminous dwarf and intermediate-mass BCGs which are predominantly metal-poor, although a few have near-solar metallicities. We have analyzed isophotal and elliptical integration surface brightness and color profiles, extremely deep (mu_B<29 mag arcsec^{-2}) contour maps and RGB images for each galaxy in the sample. The colors are compared to different spectral evolutionary models. We detect extremely extended low surface brightness (LSB) components dominant beyond the Holmberg radius as well as optical bridges between companion galaxies at the mu_V~28th mag arcsec^{-2} isophotal level. The central surface brightness mu_0 and scale length h_r are derived from two radial ranges typically assumed to be dominated by the underlying host galaxy. We find that mu_0 and h_r of the BCGs host deviate from those of dwarf ellipticals (dE) and dwarf irregulars (dI) solely due to a strong bu...

  14. Modeling the Newtonian dynamics for rotation curve analysis of thin-disk galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James Q. Feng; C. F. Gallo

    2011-01-01

    We present an efficient,robust computational method for modeling the Newtonian dynamics for rotation curve analysis of thin-disk galaxies.With appropriate mathematical treatments,the apparent numerical difficulties associated with singularities in computing elliptic integrals are completely removed.Using a boundary element discretization procedure,the governing equations are transformed into a linear algebra matrix equation that can be solved by straightforward Gauss elimination in one step without further iterations.The numerical code implemented according to our algorithm can accurately determine the surface mass density distribution in a disk galaxy from a measured rotation curve (or vice versa).For a disk galaxy with a typical fiat rotation curve,our modeling results show that the surface mass density monotonically decreases from the galactic center toward the periphery,according to Newtonian dynamics.In a large portion of the galaxy,the surface mass density follows an approximately exponential law of decay with respect to the galactic radial coordinate.Yet the radial scale length for the surface mass density seems to be generally larger than that of the measured brightness distribution,suggesting an increasing mass-to- light ratio with the radial distance in a disk galaxy.In a nondimensionalized form,our mathematical system contains a dimensionless parameter which we call the “galactic rotation number” that represents the gross ratio of centrifugal force and gravitational force.The value of this galactic rotation number is determined as part of the numerical solution.Through a systematic computational analysis,we have illustrated that the galactic rotation number remains within ±10% of 1.70 for a wide variety of rotation curves.This implies that the total mass in a disk galaxy is proportional to V(0)2 Rg,with V(0) denoting the characteristic rotation velocity (such as the “fiat” value in a typical rotation curve) and Rg the radius of the galactic

  15. What Counts as Prostitution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart P. Green

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available What counts, or should count, as prostitution? In the criminal law today, prostitution is understood to involve the provision of sexual services in exchange for money or other benefits. But what exactly is a ‘sexual service’? And what exactly is the nature of the required ‘exchange’? The key to answering these questions is to recognize that how we choose to define prostitution will inevitably depend on why we believe one or more aspects of prostitution are wrong or harmful, or should be criminalized or otherwise deterred, in the first place. These judgements, in turn, will often depend on an assessment of the contested empirical evidence on which they rest. This article describes a variety of real-world contexts in which the ‘what counts as prostitution’ question has arisen, surveys a range of leading rationales for deterring prostitution, and demonstrates how the answer to the definition question depends on the answer to the normative question. The article concludes with some preliminary thoughts on how analogous questions about what should count as sexual conduct arise in the context of consensual offences such as adultery and incest, as well as non-consensual offences such as sexual assault.

  16. What Counts as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  17. Galaxies in the Early Universe characterized in absorption and emission

    CERN Document Server

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how galaxies evolved from the early Universe through cosmic time is a fundamental part of modern astrophysics. In order to study this evolution it is important to sample the galaxies at various times in a consistent way through time. In regular luminosity selected samples, our analyses are biased towards the brightest galaxies at all times (as these are easier to observe and identify). A complementary method relies on the absorption imprint from neutral gas in galaxies, the so-called damped Ly-alpha absorbers (DLAs) seen towards distant bright objects. This thesis seeks to understand how the absorption selected galaxies relate to the emission selected galaxies by identifying the faint glow from the absorbing galaxies at redshift z~2. In the last Chapter, a study of the more evolved, massive galaxies is presented. These galaxies are observed to be a factor of 2 to 6 times smaller than local galaxies of similar masses. A new spectroscopically selected sample is presented and the increased precisio...

  18. Evolutionary phenomena in galaxies; Summer School, Puerto de la Cruz, Spain, July 4-15, 1988, Contributed Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, John E.; Pagel, Bernard E.

    1989-07-01

    Topics discussed in this symposium are on the Galaxy, the Magellanic Clouds, elliptical galaxies, the structure of spirals and galaxy interactions, and the gas and star formation in galaxies. Papers are presented on the Galactic evolution and the star counts in the Galaxy, the physical parameters of reflection nebulae in the Galaxy, chemical abundances in the LMC and SMC planetary nebulae, and the initial mass functions of Magellanic Cloud star clusters, the morphological properties of radio elliptical galaxies, and the synthetic integrated fluxes and colors for elliptical galaxies. Attention is also given to the magnetic fields in M31, NGC 7331, NGC 2841, NGC 6946, and our Galaxy, two high-velocity encounters of elliptical galaxies, evidence for high-velocity gas in giant H II regions, molecules in external galaxies, a photometric study of the double-ring structure of NGC 4736, and the chemical and dynamical evolution of galactic discs.

  19. The VIRMOS-VLT Deep Survey: the last 10 billion years of evolution of galaxy clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Pollo, A; Lefèvre, O; Meneux, B; Cappi, A; McCracken, H J; Iovino, A; Marinoni, C; Bottini, D; Garilli, B; Le Brun, V; MacCagni, D; Picat, J P; Scaramella, R; Scodeggio, M; Tresse, L; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Charlot, S; Ciliegi, P; Contini, T; Foucaud, S; Franzetti, P; Gavignaud, I; Ilbert, O; Marano, B; Mazure, A; Merighi, R; Paltani, S; Pellò, R; Pozzetti, L; Radovich, M; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E; Bondi, M; Bongiorno, A; Brinchmann, J; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; Lamareille, F; Mellier, Y; Merluzzi, P; Temporin, S; Vergani, D; Walcher, C J

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the evolution of clustering of galaxies in the Universe from the present epoch back to z ~ 2, using the first-epoch data from the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). We present the evolution of the projected two-point correlation function of galaxies for the global galaxy population, as well as its dependence on galaxy intrinsic luminosities and spectral types. While we do not find strong variations of the correlation function parameters with redshift for the global galaxy population, the clustering of objects with different intrinsic luminosities evolved significantly during last 8-10 billion years. Our findings indicate that bright galaxies in the past traced higher density peaks than they do now and that the shape of the correlation function of most luminous galaxies is different from observed for their local counterparts, which is a supporting evidence of a non-trivial evolution of the galaxy vs. dark matter bias.

  20. The same with less: The cosmic web of warm versus cold dark matter dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Darren S; Smith, Robert E; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Moore, Ben

    2014-01-01

    We explore fundamental properties of the distribution of low mass dark matter halos within the cosmic web using warm dark matter (WDM) and cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological simulations. Using self abundance-matched mock galaxy catalogs, we show that the distribution of dwarf galaxies in a WDM universe, wherein low mass halo formation is heavily suppressed, is nearly indistinguishable to that of a CDM universe whose low mass halos are not seen because galaxy formation is suppressed below some threshold halo mass. However, if the scatter between dwarf galaxy luminosity and halo properties is large enough, low mass CDM halos would sometimes host relatively bright galaxies thereby populating CDM voids with the occasional isolated galaxy and reducing the numbers of completely empty voids. Otherwise, without high mass to light scatter, all mock galaxy clustering statistics that we consider--the auto-correlation function, the numbers and radial profiles of satellites, the numbers of isolated galaxies, and the PDF ...