WorldWideScience

Sample records for briefing document cardiovascular

  1. Stroke Briefing: Technical Documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland

    2012-01-01

    A stroke happens when blood flow to a part of the brain is interrupted by a blocked or burst blood vessel. A lack of blood supply can damage brain cells and affect body functions. IPH has systematically estimated and forecast the prevalence of stroke on the island of Ireland. This document details the methods used to calculate these estimates and forecasts. Technical documentation      

  2. Hypertension Briefing: Technical documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland

    2012-01-01

    Blood pressure is the force exerted on artery walls as the heart pumps blood through the body. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, occurs when blood pressure is constantly higher than the pressure needed to carry blood through the body. This document details how the IPH uses a systematic and consistent method to produce prevalence data for hypertension on the island of Ireland.

  3. Biofield therapies in cardiovascular disease management: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joel G; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2011-01-01

    Though there have been advances over the last 30 years in the therapeutic approaches to cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart disease and stroke remain the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Many medical therapies for CVD are associated with a number of side effects, often leading patients to seek non-pharmacological treatments to complement standard care. Referred to as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), these therapies consist of a heterogeneous group of modalities used in addition to conventional health care. Biofield therapies exist within this CAM domain and involve the direction of healing energy to facilitate general health and well-being by modifying the energy field. What follows is a brief overview of three biofield therapies developed or used within the field of nursing (Therapeutic Touch, Reiki, and Healing Touch), surveying the use of these interventions for individuals with CVD, and outcomes that may impact CVD risk factors and health-related quality of life.

  4. Biofield therapies in cardiovascular disease management: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joel G; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2011-01-01

    Though there have been advances over the last 30 years in the therapeutic approaches to cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart disease and stroke remain the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Many medical therapies for CVD are associated with a number of side effects, often leading patients to seek non-pharmacological treatments to complement standard care. Referred to as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), these therapies consist of a heterogeneous group of modalities used in addition to conventional health care. Biofield therapies exist within this CAM domain and involve the direction of healing energy to facilitate general health and well-being by modifying the energy field. What follows is a brief overview of three biofield therapies developed or used within the field of nursing (Therapeutic Touch, Reiki, and Healing Touch), surveying the use of these interventions for individuals with CVD, and outcomes that may impact CVD risk factors and health-related quality of life. PMID:21697661

  5. Cardiovascular disease documentation and counseling in electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaeyong; Huerta, Timothy R; Ford, Eric W

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between clinical reminders generated by electronic medical record (EMR) systems and providers giving prevention counseling to patients at-risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data were extracted from the 2012 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). Results indicate that the providers routinely using clinical reminders are significantly more likely to document height and weight data to determine risk and provide the recommended counseling to patients that merit the intervention. The findings are important for policymakers and managers that have been promoting the adoption of more sophisticated EMR decision support functionalities across the care delivery spectrum. In particular, the ability to intervene prior to negative health events is an important feature of the movement to improve care quality and reduce costs. PMID:27002255

  6. Consensus document regarding cardiovascular safety at sports arenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borjesson, Mats; Serratosa, Luis; Carre, Francois;

    2011-01-01

    Mass gathering events in sports arenas create challenges regarding the cardiovascular safety of both athletes and spectators. A comprehensive medical action plan, to ensure properly applied cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and wide availability and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs......), is essential to improving survival from sudden cardiac arrest at sporting events. This paper outlines minimum standards for cardiovascular care to assist in the planning of mass gathering sports events across Europe with the intention of local adaptation at individual sports arenas, to ensure the full...

  7. [Dyslipidemias: a pending challenge in cardiovascular prevention. Consensus document from CEIPC/SEA Committee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Lobos Bejarano, José María; Millán Núñez-Cortés, Jesús; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Guijarro Herráiz, Carlos; de Pablo Zarzosa, Carmen; Pedro-Botet Montoya, Juan; Santiago Nocito, Ana de

    2011-06-11

    In Spain, where cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death, hypercholesterolemia, one of the most prevalent risk factors in adults, is poorly controlled. Dyslipidemia should not be approached in isolation, but in the context of overall cardiovascular risk (CVR). Measurement of CVR facilitates decision making, but should not be the only tool nor should it take the place of clinical judgment, given the limitations of the available calculation methods. This document, prepared by the Interdisciplinary Spanish Committee on Cardiovascular Prevention, at the proposal of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis, reviews the cardiovascular prevention activities of the regional health authorities, scientific societies and medical professionals. An initiation of a national strategy on cardiovascular prevention is proposed based on lifestyle modification (healthy diet, physical activity and smoking cessation) through actions in different settings. At the population level, regulation of food advertising, elimination of trans fats and reduction of added sugar are feasible and cost-effective interventions to help control dyslipidemias and reduce CVR. In the health setting, it is proposed to facilitate the application of guidelines, improve training for medical professionals, and include CVR assessment among the quality indicators. Scientific societies should collaborate with the health authorities and contribute to the generation and transmission of knowledge. Finally, it is in the hands of professionals to apply the concept of CVR, promote healthy lifestyles, and make efficient use of available pharmacological treatments.

  8. The Lightning Heart: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Cardiovascular Complications of Lightning Injury

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, William F; Simpson, Christopher S.; Redfearn, Damian P; Abdollah, Hoshiar; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Lightning strike is a rare natural phenomenon, which carries a risk of dramatic medical complications to multiple organ systems and a high risk of fatality. The known complications include but are not limited to: myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, cardiac contusion, stroke, cutaneous burns, respiratory disorders, neurological disorders, acute kidney injury and death. We report a case of a healthy young man who suffered a lightning injury and discuss the cardiovascular complications of lightni...

  9. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in patients undergoing CABG: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Yaribeygi

    2014-11-01

    Methods: The present study is a descriptive, cross-sectional survey on 1592 patients which suffered coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG from May 2009 to May 2013 in Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran. Before surgery, all patients were carefully assessed and typical and atypical cardiovascular risk factors were determined and the desired data were collected. Results: More than 70.8% of subjects were men and 29.2% were women. Average age of all patients was 60.39±7.5 years and the mean weight was 73.91±6.3 kg. Typical risk factors including: smoking, plasma cholesterol level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and family history of cardiac problems, were common in these patients. Forty seven percent of patients had diabetes mellitus, 79.4% had hypercholesterolemia, 34.3% had a smoking history, 64.5% had hypertension and 44.2% of patients had a family history of cardiovascular disease. Among atypical risk factors, various types of angina (chest pain had high prevalence (88.8% of all. Also, mean body mass index (BMI were higher than normal (27.46±2.1 which showed the incidence of obesity among these patients. But, other atypical risk factors did not have high incidence. Conclusion: We demonstrated that typical and well known risk factors have also high prevalence in CABG patients. Our results indicates that we can recognize high risk persons with continuous and accurate screening as a safe and inexpensive preventive tool. This can be done in both apparently healthy subjects and in cardiovascular patients. We can prevent the occurrence of severe degrees of atherosclerosis and also CABG. So the cost and performing surgeries will be decreased.

  10. Evaluation of a Web-Based E-Learning Platform for Brief Motivational Interviewing by Nurses in Cardiovascular Care: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossette, Sylvie; Heppell, Sonia; Boyer, Louise; Mailhot, Tanya; Simard, Marie-Josée; Tanguay, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    Background Brief motivational interviewing (MI) can contribute to reductions in morbidity and mortality related to coronary artery disease, through health behavior change. Brief MI, unlike more intensive interventions, was proposed to meet the needs of clinicians with little spare time. While the provision of face-to-face brief MI training on a large scale is complicated, Web-based e-learning is promising because of the flexibility it offers. Objective The primary objective of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based e-learning platform for brief MI (MOTIV@CŒUR), which was evaluated by nurses in cardiovascular care. The secondary objective was to assess the preliminary effect of the training on nurses’ perceived brief MI skills and self-reported clinical use of brief MI. Methods We conducted a single-group, pre-post pilot study involving nurses working in a coronary care unit to evaluate MOTIV@CŒUR, which is a Web-based e-learning platform for brief MI, consisting of two sessions lasting 30 and 20 minutes. MOTIV@CŒUR covers 4 real-life clinical situations through role-modeling videos showing nurse-client interactions. A brief introduction to MI is followed by role playing, during which a nurse practitioner evaluates clients’ motivation to change and intervenes according to the principles of brief MI. The clinical situations target smoking, medication adherence, physical activity, and diet. Nurses were asked to complete both Web-based training sessions asynchronously within 20 days, which allowed assessment of the feasibility of the intervention. Data regarding acceptability and preliminary effects (perceived skills in brief MI, and self-reported clinical use of conviction and confidence interventions) were self-assessed through Web-based questionnaires 30 days (±5 days) after the first session. Results We enrolled 27 women and 4 men (mean age 37, SD 9 years) in March 2016. Of the 31 participants, 24 (77%, 95% CI 63%

  11. Consensus document regarding cardiovascular safety at sports arenas: position stand from the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (EACPR), section of Sports Cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borjesson, M.; Serratosa, L.; Carre, F.; Corrado, D.; Drezner, J.; Dugmore, D.L.; Heidbuchel, H.H.; Mellwig, K.P.; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, N.M.; Papadakis, M.; Rasmusen, H.; Sharma, S.; Solberg, E.E.; Buuren, F. van; Pelliccia, A.

    2011-01-01

    Mass gathering events in sports arenas create challenges regarding the cardiovascular safety of both athletes and spectators. A comprehensive medical action plan, to ensure properly applied cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and wide availability and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), is e

  12. [ANMCO/ISS/AMD/ANCE/ARCA/FADOI/ GICR-IACPR/SICI-GISE/SIBioC/SIC/SICOA/ SID/SIF/SIMEU/SIMG/SIMI/SISA Consensus document. Hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular risk: diagnostic and therapeutic pathways in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulizia, Michele Massimo; Colivicchi, Furio; Ricciardi, Gualtiero; Giampaoli, Simona; Maggioni, Aldo Pietro; Averna, Maurizio; Graziani, Maria Stella; Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Mugelli, Alessandro; Rossi, Francesco; Medea, Gerardo; Parretti, Damiano; Abrignani, Maurizio Giuseppe; Arca, Marcello; Filardi, Pasquale Perrone; Perticone, Francesco; Catapano, Alberico; Griffo, Raffaele; Nardi, Federico; Riccio, Carmine; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Scherillo, Marino; Musacchio, Nicoletta; Panno, Antonio Vittorio; Zito, Giovanni Battista; Campanini, Mauro; Bolognese, Leonardo; Faggiano, Pompilio Massimo; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Pusineri, Enrico; Ciaccio, Marcello; Bonora, Enzo; Cantelli Forti, Giorgio; Ruggieri, Maria Pia; Cricelli, Claudio; Romeo, Francesco; Ferrari, Roberto; Maseri, Attilio

    2016-06-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease still represents the leading cause of death in western countries. A wealth of scientific evidence demonstrates that increased blood cholesterol levels have a major impact on the outbreak and progression of atherosclerotic plaques. Moreover, several cholesterol-lowering pharmacological agents, including statins and ezetimibe, have proven effective in improving clinical outcomes. This document is focused on the clinical management of hypercholesterolemia and has been conceived by 16 Italian medical associations with the support of the Italian National Institute of Health. The authors have considered with particular attention the role of hypercholesterolemia in the genesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Besides, the implications of high cholesterol levels in the definition of the individual cardiovascular risk profile have been carefully analyzed, while all available therapeutic options for blood cholesterol reduction and cardiovascular risk mitigation have been considered. Finally, this document outlines the diagnostic and therapeutic pathways for the clinical management of patients with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27312138

  13. 2012 consensus document of the Italian Society of Hypertension (SIIA): strategies to improve blood pressure control in Italy: from global cardiovascular risk stratification to combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Massimo; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti; Ambrosioni, Ettore; Cottone, Santina; Cuspidi, Cesare; Borghi, Claudio; De Luca, Nicola; Fallo, Francesco; Ferri, Claudio; Morganti, Alberto; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Sarzani, Riccardo; Sechi, Leonardo; Virdis, Agostino; Tocci, Giuliano; Trimarco, Bruno; Filippi, Alessandro; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    Observational clinical studies have demonstrated that only 30-40% of patients with arterial hypertension achieve the recommended blood pressure goals (below 140/90 mmHg). In contrast, interventional trials consistently showed that it is possible to achieve effective blood pressure targets in about 70% of treated hypertensive patients with different cardiovascular risk profiles, especially through the use of rational, effective and well tolerated combination therapies. In order to bridge the gap between current and desired blood pressure control and to achieve more effective prevention of cardiovascular diseases, the Italian Society of Hypertension (SIIA) has developed an interventional strategy aimed at reaching nearly 70% of treated controlled hypertensive patients by 2015. This ambitious goal can be realistically achieved by a more rational use of modern tools and supports, and also through the use of combination therapy in hypertension in daily clinical practice, especially if this approach can be simplified into a single pill (fixed combination therapy), which is a therapeutic option now also available in Italy. Since about 70-80% of treated hypertensive patients require a combination therapy based on at least two classes of drugs in order to achieve the recommended blood pressure goals, it is of key importance to implement this strategy in routine clinical practice. Amongst the various combination therapies currently available for hypertension treatment and control, the use of those strategies based on drugs that antagonize the renin-angiotensin system, such as angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers) and ACE inhibitors, in combination with diuretics and/or calcium channel blockers, has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events and to improve patient compliance to treatment, resulting in a greater antihypertensive efficacy and better tolerability compared with monotherapy. The present document

  14. Potential Contribution of Work-Related Psychosocial Stress to the Development of Cardiovascular Disease and Type II Diabetes: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnak, Kristine M

    2014-01-01

    Two of the major causes of death worldwide are cardiovascular disease and Type II diabetes. Although death due to these diseases is assessed separately, the physiological process that is attributed to the development of cardiovascular disease can be linked to the development of Type II diabetes and the impact that this disease has on the cardiovascular system. Physiological, genetic, and personal factors contribute to the development of both these disorders. It has also been hypothesized that work-related stress may contribute to the development of Type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes some of the studies examining the role of work-related stress on the development of these chronic disorders. Because women may be more susceptible to the physiological effects of work-related stress, the papers cited in this review focus on studies that examined the difference in responses of men or women to work-related stress or on studies that focused on the effects of stress on women alone. Based on the papers summarized, it is concluded that (1) work-related stress may directly contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease by inducing increases in blood pressure and changes in heart rate that have negative consequences on functioning of the cardiovascular system; (2) workers reporting increased levels of stress may display an increased risk of Type II diabetes because they adopt poor health habits (ie, increased level of smoking, inactivity etc), which in turn contribute to the development of cardiovascular problems; and (3) women in high demand and low-control occupations report an increased level of stress at work, and thus may be at a greater risk of negative health consequences.

  15. Sexual counselling for individuals with cardiovascular disease and their partners: a consensus document from the American Heart Association and the ESC Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions (CCNAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Elaine E; Jaarsma, Tiny; Barnason, Susan A; Byrne, Molly; Doherty, Sally; Dougherty, Cynthia M; Fridlund, Bengt; Kautz, Donald D; Mårtensson, Jan; Mosack, Victoria; Moser, Debra K

    2013-11-01

    After a cardiovascular event, patients and their families often cope with numerous changes in their lives, including dealing with consequences of the disease or its treatment on their daily lives and functioning. Coping poorly with both physical and psychological challenges may lead to impaired quality of life. Sexuality is one aspect of quality of life that is important for many patients and partners that may be adversely affected by a cardiac event. The World Health Organization defines sexual health as '… a state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction or infirmity. Sexual health requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences ….'(1(p4)) The safety and timing of return to sexual activity after a cardiac event have been well addressed in an American Heart Association scientific statement, and decreased sexual activity among cardiac patients is frequently reported.(2) Rates of erectile dysfunction (ED) among men with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are twice as high as those in the general population, with similar rates of sexual dysfunction in females with CVD.(3) ED and vaginal dryness may also be presenting signs of heart disease and may appear 1-3 years before the onset of angina pectoris. Estimates reflect that only a small percentage of those with sexual dysfunction seek medical care;(4) therefore, routine assessment of sexual problems and sexual counselling may be of benefit as part of effective management by physicians, nurses, and other healthcare providers. PMID:23900695

  16. Brief overview of the creation of the synchrocyclotron at the hydrotechnical laboratory of the USSR Academy of Sciences and first results of physical studies: Review of archival documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, G. V.; Rusakovich, N. A.

    2012-07-01

    A review of the archive's documents on the main stages of the creation of the synchrocyclotron at the Hydrotechnical Laboratory (now known as the Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems) is presented. The review is based on minutes of the Special Committee and Scientific and Technical Council (NTS), which belongs to the First Chief Directorate (PGU) concerning the era of the Soviet atomic project (1945-1953). The analysis of these minutes has enabled us to prepare a chronicle of events that deal with the creation of the synchrocyclotron, as well as the discussion of the project and its place of construction, the research and development program, and so on. The minutes of two NTS meetings dated May 5 and 12, 1952 are devoted to discussing the results the research and development program in 1950-1951. The minutes of NTS meetings have not been published previously.

  17. Cardiovascular group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  18. Simulations of the Cardiovascular System Using the Cardiovascular Simulation Toolbox

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-León, Gabriela; Vílchez-Monge, Marta; Montero-Rodríguez, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    In the present document, six mathematical models of the cardiovascular system are studied and implemented in MATLAB R2013a using an updated version of the Cardiovascular Simulation Toolbox proposed by O. Barnea at the Tel-Aviv University. All the mathematical models are based on electrical lumped-parameter analogies. The results of the simulations are compared with a list of expected hemodynamic parameters and contrasted with laboratory values.

  19. UNESCO Policy Briefs on Early Childhood, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Early Childhood and Family Education Unit.

    This document consists of eight double-sided briefs addressing aspects of the field of early childhood education. Titles of the briefs are as follows: (1) "Early Childhood Care? Development? Education?," outlining the distinctions between these terms; (2) "Planning for Access: Develop a Data System First," highlighting Brazil's census to collect…

  20. Integrated Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Sawitzki, Günther

    2000-01-01

    An introduction to integrated documents in statistics. Integrated documents allow a seamless integration of interactive statistics and data analysis components in 'life' documents while keeping the full computational power needed for simulation or resampling.

  1. Documenting localities

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Richard J

    1996-01-01

    Now in paperback! Documenting Localities is the first effort to summarize the past decade of renewed discussion about archival appraisal theory and methodology and to provide a practical guide for the documentation of localities.This book discusses the continuing importance of the locality in American historical research and archival practice, traditional methods archivists have used to document localities, and case studies in documenting localities. These chapters draw on a wide range of writings from archivists, historians, material culture specialists, historic preservationists

  2. Termination Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  3. Cardiovascular physiology and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Narayana S; Svatikova, Anna; Somers, Virend K

    2003-05-01

    Sleep is a natural periodic suspension of consciousness during which processes of rest and restoration occur. The cognitive, reparative and regenerative accompaniments of sleep appear to be essential for maintenance of health and homeostasis. This brief overview will examine the cardiovascular responses to normal and disordered sleep, and their physiologic and pathologic implications. In the past, sleep was believed to be a passive state. The tableau of sleep as it unfolds is anything but a passive process. The brain's activity is as complex as wakefulness, never "resting" during sleep. Following the demise of the 'passive theory of sleep' (the reticular activating system is fatigued during the waking day and hence becomes inactive), there arose the 'active theory of sleep' (sleep is due to an active general inhibition of the brain) (1). Hess demonstrated the active nature of sleep in cats, inducing "physiological sleep" with electrical stimulation of the diencephalon (2). Classical experiments of transection of the cat brainstem (3) at midpontine level inhibited sleep completely, implying that centers below this level were involved in the induction of sleep (1, 4). For the first time, measurement of sleep depth without awakening the sleeper using the electroencephalogram (EEG) was demonstrated in animals by Caton and in humans, by Berger (1). This was soon followed by discovery of the rapid eye movement sleep periods (REM) by Aserinski and Kleitman (5), demonstration of periodical sleep cycles and their association with REM sleep (6, 7). Multiple studies and steady discoveries (4) made polysomnography, with its ability to perform simultaneous whole night recordings of EEG, electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOC), a major diagnostic tool in study of sleep disorders. This facility has been of further critical importance in allowing evaluation of the interaction between sleep and changes in hemodynamics and autonomic cardiovascular control. Consequently the

  4. Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Angela

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in Canadian women and men. In general, women present with a wider range of symptoms, are more likely to delay seeking medial care and are less likely to be investigated and treated with evidence-based medications, angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft than men. Key Findings In 1998, 78,964 Canadians died from CVD, almost half (39,197 were women. Acute myocardial infarction, which increases significantly after menopause, was the leading cause of death among women. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 21% of all hospital admissions for Canadian women over age 50 in 1999. Admissions to hospital for ischemic heart disease were more frequent for men, but the mean length of hospital stay was longer for women. Mean blood pressure increases with age in both men and women. After age 65, however, high blood pressure is more common among Canadian women. More than one-third of postmenopausal Canadian women have hypertension. Diabetes increases the mortality and morbidity associated with CVD in women more than it does in men. Depression also contributes to the incidence and recovery from CVD, particularly for women who experience twice the rate of depression as men. Data Gaps and Recommendations CVD needs to be recognized as a woman's health issue given Canadian mortality projections (particularly heart failure. Health professionals should be trained to screen, track, and address CVD risk factors among women, including hypertension, elevated lipid levels, smoking, physical inactivity, depression, diabetes and low socio-economic status.

  5. AREVA - 2012 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the person responsible for this Reference Document, of statutory auditors, and of a summary of financial information, this report address the different risk factors: risk management and coverage, legal risk, industrial and environmental risk, operational risk, risk related to major projects, liquidity and market risk, and other risks (related to political and economic conditions, to Group's structure, and to human resources). The next parts propose information about the issuer, a business overview (markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, customers and suppliers, group's strategy, operations), a brief presentation of the organizational structure, a presentation of properties, plants and equipment (principal sites, environmental issues which may affect these items), analysis and comments on the group's financial position and performance, a presentation of capital resources, a presentation of research and development activities (programs, patents and licenses), a brief description of financial objectives and profit forecasts or estimates, a presentation of administration, management and supervision bodies, a description of the operation of corporate bodies, an overview of personnel, of principal shareholders, and of transactions with related parties, a more detailed presentation of financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance. Addition information regarding share capital is given, as well as an indication of major contracts, third party information, available documents, and information on holdings

  6. Maury Documentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supporting documentation for the Maury Collection of marine observations. Includes explanations from Maury himself, as well as guides and descriptions by the U.S....

  7. DM Documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Sick, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    An overview of resources for the science community to learn about, and interact with, LSST Data Management. This talk highlights the LSST Community Forum, https://community.lsst.org, as well as Data Management Technical Notes and software documentation projects.

  8. Documenting Collective Development in Online Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Chrystal; Silverman, Jason

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors explored the question of collective understanding in online mathematics education settings and presented a brief overview of traditional methods for documenting norms and collective mathematical practices. A method for documenting collective development was proposed that builds on existing methods and frameworks yet is…

  9. The Problem with Briefs, in Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Carrie L.

    2013-01-01

    Policy briefs written by academics--the kind typically published in "Education Finance and Policy"--should be a crucial source of information for policy makers. Yet too frequently these briefs fail to garner the consideration they deserve. Their authors are too focused on the potential objections of their fellow academics, who are…

  10. Inclusivity, Gestalt Principles, and Plain Language in Document Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Turner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: Good design makes documents easier to use, helps documents stand out from other pieces of information, and lends credibility to document creators. Librarians across library types and departments provide instruction and training materials to co-workers and library users. For these materials to be readable and accessible, they must follow guidelines for usable document design. […

  11. A Case control study of cardiovascular disease and arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Millions of people are at risk from the adverse effects of waterborne arsenic. Although the cardiovascular effects of high exposures to arsenic have been well documented, few individual level prospective studies have assessed cardiovascular risk at moderate exposures....

  12. Cardiovascular MRI with ferumoxytol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, J P; Nguyen, K-L; Han, F; Zhou, Z; Salusky, I; Ayad, I; Hu, P

    2016-08-01

    The practice of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) has changed significantly in the span of a decade. Concerns regarding gadolinium (Gd)-associated nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in those with severely impaired renal function spurred developments in low-dose CEMRA and non-contrast MRA as well as efforts to seek alternative MR contrast agents. Originally developed for MR imaging use, ferumoxytol (an ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle), is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in adults with renal disease. Since its clinical availability in 2009, there has been rising interest in the scientific and clinical use of ferumoxytol as an MR contrast agent. The unique physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of ferumoxytol, including its long intravascular half-life and high r1 relaxivity, support a spectrum of MRI applications beyond the scope of Gd-based contrast agents. Moreover, whereas Gd is not found in biological systems, iron is essential for normal metabolism, and nutritional iron deficiency poses major public health challenges worldwide. Once the carbohydrate shell of ferumoxytol is degraded, the elemental iron at its core is incorporated into the reticuloendothelial system. These considerations position ferumoxytol as a potential game changer in the field of CEMRA and MRI. In this paper, we aim to summarise our experience with the cardiovascular applications of ferumoxytol and provide a brief synopsis of ongoing investigations on ferumoxytol-enhanced MR applications. PMID:27221526

  13. HEAT WAVES, AGING, AND HUMAN CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Kenney, W. Larry; Craighead, Daniel H.; Alexander, Lacy M.

    2014-01-01

    This brief review is based on a President’s Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2013. The purpose of this review is to assess the effects of climate change and consequent increases in environmental heat stress on the aging cardiovascular system. The earth’s average global temperature is slowly but consistently increasing, and along with mean temperature changes come increases in heat wave frequency and severity. Extreme passive thermal stress ...

  14. Performance Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with experts on performance documentation. Suggests that educators should strive to represent performance appraisal writing to students in a way that reflects the way it is perceived and evaluated in the workplace. Concludes that educators can enrich their pedagogy with practice by helping students understand the importance…

  15. Cardiovascular Update: Risk, Guidelines, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tamera

    2015-09-01

    This article provides an update of the current status of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the United States, including a brief review of the underlying pathophysiology and epidemiology. This article presents a discussion of the latest American Heart Association guidelines that introduce the concept of promoting ideal cardiovascular health, defined by seven identified metrics. Specific CVD risk factors and utilization of the 10-year CVD event prediction calculator are discussed. In addition, current management recommendations of health-related conditions that increase risk for CVD, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, are provided. Finally, a discussion of detailed evidence-based lifestyle recommendations to promote cardiovascular health and reduce CVD risks concludes the update. PMID:26156147

  16. Documenting Spreadsheets

    CERN Document Server

    Payette, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses spreadsheets documentation and new means to achieve this end by using Excel's built-in "Comment" function. By structuring comments, they can be used as an essential tool to fully explain spreadsheet. This will greatly facilitate spreadsheet change control, risk management and auditing. It will fill a crucial gap in corporate governance by adding essential information that can be managed in order to satisfy internal controls and accountability standards.

  17. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ Management- CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. Management - CB - MB - FB Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2007 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the nature of employment and ...

  18. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted.   CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat a...

  19. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the natur...

  20. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the natu...

  1. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ Management- CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. Management - CB - MB - FB Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2007 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the nature of em¬pl...

  2. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the na...

  3. Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindge, David

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

  4. Evaluating an implementation strategy in cardiovascular prevention to improve prescribing of statins in Germany: an intention to treat analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Heidemarie; Hirsch, Oliver; Kaufmann-Kolle, Petra; Krones, Tanja; Becker, Annette; Sönnichsen, Andreas C; Baum, Erika; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prescription of statins is an evidence-based treatment to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with elevated cardiovascular risk or with a cardiovascular disorder (CVD). In spite of this, many of these patients do not receive statins. METHODS: We evaluated the impact of a brief educational intervention in cardiovascular prevention in primary care physicians' prescribing behaviour regarding statins beyond their participation in a randomised controlled trial (...

  5. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Mar 23,2016 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  6. Cardiovascular manifestations of phaeochromocytoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prejbisz, A.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Eisenhofer, G.; Januszewicz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical expression of phaeochromocytoma may involve numerous cardiovascular manifestations, but usually presents as sustained or paroxysmal hypertension associated with other signs and symptoms of catecholamine excess. Most of the life-threatening cardiovascular manifestations of phaeochromocytoma,

  7. Cardiovascular Prevention of Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Monsuez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Midlife cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipemia, and an unhealthy lifestyle, have been linked to subsequent incidence, delay of onset, and progression rate of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Conversely, optimal treatment of cardiovascular risk factors prevents and slows down age-related cognitive disorders. The impact of antihypertensive therapy on cognitive outcome in patients with hypertension was assessed in large trials which demonstrated a reduction in progression of MRI white matter hyperintensities, in cognitive decline and in incidence of dementia. Large-scale database correlated statin use and reduction in the incidence of dementia, mainly in patients with documented atherosclerosis, but clinical trials failed to reach similar conclusions. Whether a multitargeted intervention would substantially improve protection, quality of life, and reduce medical cost expenditures in patients with lower risk profile has not been ascertained. This would require appropriately designed trials targeting large populations and focusing on cognitive decline as a primary outcome endpoint.

  8. Mechanisms Linking Red Blood Cell Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Mozos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, and targets for hemoglobin level should be established. Risk scores in several cardiovascular diseases should include red blood cell count and RDW. Complete blood count and hemorheological parameters represent useful, inexpensive, widely available tools for the management and prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, arrhythmias, and stroke. Hypoxia and iron accumulation cause the most important cardiovascular effects of sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Patients with congenital chronic hemolytic anemia undergoing splenectomy should be monitored, considering thromboembolic and cardiovascular risk.

  9. [Cardiovascular safety of antidiabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aline Roth, Pressl-Wenger; Jornayvaz, François R

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a high risk of micro- and macro-vascular complications. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death of diabetic patients. In this context, the search for molecules decreasing cardiovascular mortality makes sense. Until the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study published late 2015, showing a reduction of cardiovascular mortality of patients treated with empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, there was no molecule known to decrease cardiovascular mortality. The purpose of this article is to review the various existing antidiabetic molecules and their impact (positive/neutral/negative) on cardiovascular mortality. PMID:27487675

  10. Prescribing Brief Psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Schuyler, Dean

    2000-01-01

    Brief psychotherapy has demonstrated its effectiveness in treating emotional disorders and helping with problems that typically present to primary care physicians. Because practitioners receive little instruction about this treatment option and often have erroneous preconceived ideas about it, psychotherapy remains underprescribed. Effective brief therapy enables the patient to problem-solve, facilitates the relationship with the provider, and ultimately clarifies the patient's situation. Ref...

  11. Mississippi: State Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This brief is one in a series highlighting state policies, regulations, practices, laws, or other tools intended to create the necessary conditions for school and/or district turnaround. Each brief includes an overview of the relevant turnaround tool, its development process, its impact, and lessons learned that could assist other education…

  12. Summit documents; Documents du sommet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers three declarations about the non-proliferation of massive destruction weapons, made by the G8 organization participants during their last summit held in Evian (France): declaration about the enforcement and respect of the non-proliferation measures implemented by the IAEA and by the conventions for chemical and biological weapons; declaration about the protection of radioactive sources against diversion (regulatory control, inventory, control of sources export etc..); warranty about the security of radioactive sources (G8 approach, sustain of the IAEA action, sustain to the most vulnerable states, control mechanisms, political commitment of states, implementation of the recommendations of the international conference about the security and safety of radiation sources, held in Vienna (Austria) on March 2003. (J.S.)

  13. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the ICMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS Management – CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. Management – CB – MB – FB Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through Indico. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2008 Annual Reviews are posted in Indico. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral student upon completion of their theses.  Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the nature of employment and name of their first employer. The Notes, Conference Reports and Theses published si...

  14. Omega documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

  15. Omega documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos

  16. Autophagy in cardiovascular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Lavandero, Sergio; Chiong, Mario; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. As such, there is great interest in identifying novel mechanisms that govern the cardiovascular response to disease-related stress. First described in failing hearts, autophagy within the cardiovascular system has been widely characterized in cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. In all cases, a window of optimal autophagic activity appears to be critical to the mai...

  17. Cardiovascular molecular MR imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, H J; van der Meer, R. W.; Roos, A. (Anna); Bax, J J

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular molecular imaging is a rapidly evolving field of research, aiming to image and quantify molecular and cellular targets in vivo. MR imaging has some inherent properties that make it very suitable for cardiovascular molecular imaging. Until now, only a limited number of studies have been published on cardiovascular molecular imaging using MR imaging. Review In the current review, MR techniques that have already shown potential are discussed. Metabolic MR imaging can ...

  18. Medicaid Issue Briefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MS, in collaboration with Mathematica, has started the MAX Medicaid policy issue brief series, which highlights the essential role MAX data can play in analyzing...

  19. Cardiovascular-Active Venom Toxins: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello Horta, Carolina Campolina; Chatzaki, Maria; Rezende, Bruno Almeida; Magalhães, Bárbara de Freitas; Duarte, Clara Guerra; Felicori, Liza Figueiredo; Ribeiro Oliveira-Mendes, Bárbara Bruna; do Carmo, Anderson Oliveira; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2016-01-01

    Animal venoms are a mixture of bioactive compounds produced as weapons and used primarily to immobilize and kill preys. As a result of the high potency and specificity for various physiological targets, many toxins from animal venoms have emerged as possible drugs for the medication of diverse disorders, including cardiovascular diseases. Captopril, which inhibits the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), was the first successful venom-based drug and a notable example of rational drug design. Since captopril was developed, many studies have discovered novel bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) with actions on the cardiovascular system. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) have also been found in animal venoms and used as template to design new drugs with applications in cardiovascular diseases. Among the anti-arrhythmic peptides, GsMTx-4 was discovered to be a toxin that selectively inhibits the stretch-activated cation channels (SACs), which are involved in atrial fibrillation. The present review describes the main components isolated from animal venoms that act on the cardiovascular system and presents a brief summary of venomous animals and their venom apparatuses. PMID:26812904

  20. Heat waves, aging, and human cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, W Larry; Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-10-01

    This brief review is based on a President's Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2013. The purpose of this review was to assess the effects of climate change and consequent increases in environmental heat stress on the aging cardiovascular system. The earth's average global temperature is slowly but consistently increasing, and along with mean temperature changes come increases in heat wave frequency and severity. Extreme passive thermal stress resulting from prolonged elevations in ambient temperature and prolonged physical activity in hot environments creates a high demand on the left ventricle to pump blood to the skin to dissipate heat. Even healthy aging is accompanied by altered cardiovascular function, which limits the extent to which older individuals can maintain stroke volume, increase cardiac output, and increase skin blood flow when exposed to environmental extremes. In the elderly, the increased cardiovascular demand during heat waves is often fatal because of increased strain on an already compromised left ventricle. Not surprisingly, excess deaths during heat waves 1) occur predominantly in older individuals and 2) are overwhelmingly cardiovascular in origin. Increasing frequency and severity of heat waves coupled with a rapidly growing at-risk population dramatically increase the extent of future untoward health outcomes. PMID:24598696

  1. Periods of cardiovascular susceptibility to hypoxia in embryonic american alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Kevin B; Rhen, Turk; Eme, John; Kohl, Zachary F; Crossley, Janna; Elsey, Ruth M; Crossley, Dane A

    2016-06-01

    During embryonic development, environmental perturbations can affect organisms' developing phenotype, a process known as developmental plasticity. Resulting phenotypic changes can occur during discrete, critical windows of development. Critical windows are periods when developing embryos are most susceptible to these perturbations. We have previously documented that hypoxia reduces embryo size and increases relative heart mass in American alligator, and this study identified critical windows when hypoxia altered morphological, cardiovascular function and cardiac gene expression of alligator embryos. We hypothesized that incubation in hypoxia (10% O2) would increase relative cardiac size due to cardiac enlargement rather than suppression of somatic growth. We exposed alligator embryos to hypoxia during discrete incubation periods to target windows where the embryonic phenotype is altered. Hypoxia affected heart growth between 20 and 40% of embryonic incubation, whereas somatic growth was affected between 70 and 90% of incubation. Arterial pressure was depressed by hypoxic exposure during 50-70% of incubation, whereas heart rate was depressed in embryos exposed to hypoxia during a period spanning 70-90% of incubation. Expression of Vegf and PdgfB was increased in certain hypoxia-exposed embryo treatment groups, and hypoxia toward the end of incubation altered β-adrenergic tone for arterial pressure and heart rate. It is well known that hypoxia exposure can alter embryonic development, and in the present study, we have identified brief, discrete windows that alter the morphology, cardiovascular physiology, and gene expression in embryonic American alligator. PMID:27101296

  2. Arsenic and cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of epidemiologic, experimental and clinical evidence shows that arsenic may exert relevant cardiovascular effects with early damage such as endothelial dysfunction. Early biomarkers of cardiovascular damage together with markers of exposure, genetic and epigenetic effects, DNA damage, apoptosis, oxidative stress remain unexplored and a study is ongoing in Italy.

  3. Cardiovascular manifestations in hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Vairamani Kandan; Sathyamurthy P; Rajkumar M; Lavanya Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well known that thyroid hormone directly affects the heart and peripheral vascular system. In hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular manifestations are frequent findings. Atrial arrhythmias, limitations in exercise tolerance, and congestive heart failure were reported to occur more common in older patients as a result of hyperthyroidism. Cardiovascular signs of hyperthyroidism include tachycardia, widened pulse pressure, marked increase in cardiac output with impaired cardiovascula...

  4. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most importa

  5. Cardiovascular comorbiditiy in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurcharan Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis is also thought to predispose patients to other diseases with an inflammatory component, the most notable being cardiovascular and metabolic (cardiometabolite disorders. This concept is supported by studies showing that psoriasis is associated with cardiovascular risk factors like diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking and diseases including MI. Given the increased prevalence of cardiovascular co morbidities in patients, dermatologists treating psoriasis need to approach the disease as a potentially multisystem disorder and must alert these patients to the potentially negative effects of their disease.

  6. [Cardiovascular prevention - 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, András; Szabados, Eszter

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of premature death worldwide despite the fact that cardiovascular mortality decreased significantly in the last few decades in financially developed countries. This reduction is partly due to the modern medical and revascularisation treatments, and partly because of the effectiveness of prevention strategies such as lowering blood pressure and cholesterol level, as well as successful strategies against smoking. However, this positive trend is undermined by the striking growth in obesity and in type 2 diabetes mellitus, which could also be successfully controlled by lifestyle changes. This summary is based on an overview of the recent (2016) European Guideline for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases. Here the authors describe preventive strategies and goals to be achieved, the most important lifestyle suggestions, and the secondary prevention medical treatment for patients with already established cardiovascular disease. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(38), 1526-1531. PMID:27640620

  7. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Steven M; Rumsfeld, John S

    2015-10-01

    There is a wealth of evidence linking depression to increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and worse outcomes among patients with known CVD. In addition, there are safe and effective treatments for depression. Despite this, depression remains under-recognized and undertreated in patients at risk for or living with CVD. In this review, we first summarize the evidence linking depression to increased risk of CVD and worse patient outcomes. We then review the mechanisms by which depression may contribute to cardiovascular risk and poor cardiovascular outcomes. We then summarize prior studies of depression treatment on cardiovascular outcomes. Finally, we offer guidance in the identification and management of depression among CVD populations. Given that 1 in 4 CVD patients has concurrent depression, application of these best-practices will assist providers in achieving optimal outcomes for their CVD patients. PMID:25850976

  8. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloner, Robert A; Carson, Culley; Dobs, Adrian; Kopecky, Stephen; Mohler, Emile R

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone (T) is the principal male sex hormone. As men age, T levels typically fall. Symptoms of low T include decreased libido, vasomotor instability, and decreased bone mineral density. Other symptoms may include depression, fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and reduced muscle strength/mass. Epidemiology studies show that low levels of T are associated with more atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular events. However, treating hypogonadism in the aging male has resulted in discrepant results in regard to its effect on cardiovascular events. Emerging studies suggest that T may have a future role in treating heart failure, angina, and myocardial ischemia. A large, prospective, long-term study of T replacement, with a primary endpoint of a composite of adverse cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or cardiovascular death, is needed. The Food and Drug Administration recently put additional restrictions on T replacement therapy labeling and called for additional studies to determine its cardiac safety. PMID:26846952

  9. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  10. Sex differences in cardiovascular function during submaximal exercise in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Wheatley, Courtney M; Snyder, Eric M.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Olson, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Differences in cardiovascular function between sexes have been documented at rest and maximal exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the sex differences in cardiovascular function during submaximal constant-load exercise, which is not well understood. Thirty-one male and 33 female subjects completed nine minutes moderate and nine minutes vigorous intensity submaximal exercise (40 and 75% of peak watts determined by maximal exercise test). Measurements included: intra-arterial bloo...

  11. Informatics: A Brief Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shaoyi

    2003-01-01

    Provides a brief survey of informatics, defined as the application of information technology to various fields, with respect to its historical background, disciplinary identity, fundamental aspects, applications, and challenges. Highlights include biological, clinical, dental, environmental, geomatics, health, legal, management, medical, museum,…

  12. Research in Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journalism Quarterly, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Brief research reports discuss Latin America as seen on United States network television; television news coverage of federal regulatory agencies; community perceptions of media impressions; active television viewing and cultivation hypothesis; the impact of cable on traditional television news viewing; George Kibbe Turner; advertising; and…

  13. Research in Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journalism Quarterly, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Offers brief descriptions of research concerning (1) media bias toward business, (2) foreign affairs coverage in elite and mass periodicals, (3) how emphasis on people affects coverage of crime, (4) antisocial and prosocial behavior on prime-time television, (5) network news coverage of Iran, and (6) magazines' reporting on insects. (FL)

  14. Issue Brief on Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Division on Developmental Disabilities, Council for Exceptional Children (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    During the past year, the Diversity Committee of the Division of Developmental Disabilities (DDD) Board worked with the Board and the Issues Committee Chair to develop an issue brief addressing diversity, its impact on the membership and the wider community that is served by the work of DDD, resulting in recommendations that will influence policy…

  15. Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Children: Challenges and Opportunities for 2020 and Beyond: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Julia; Daniels, Stephen R; Hagberg, Nancy; Isasi, Carmen R; Kelly, Aaron S; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Pate, Russell R; Pratt, Charlotte; Shay, Christina M; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Urbina, Elaine; Van Horn, Linda V; Zachariah, Justin P

    2016-09-20

    This document provides a pediatric-focused companion to "Defining and Setting National Goals for Cardiovascular Health Promotion and Disease Reduction: The American Heart Association's Strategic Impact Goal Through 2020 and Beyond," focused on cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction in adults and children. The principles detailed in the document reflect the American Heart Association's new dynamic and proactive goal to promote cardiovascular health throughout the life course. The primary focus is on adult cardiovascular health and disease prevention, but critical to achievement of this goal is maintenance of ideal cardiovascular health from birth through childhood to young adulthood and beyond. Emphasis is placed on the fundamental principles and metrics that define cardiovascular health in children for the clinical or research setting, and a balanced and critical appraisal of the strengths and weaknesses of the cardiovascular health construct in children and adolescents is provided. Specifically, this document discusses 2 important factors: the promotion of ideal cardiovascular health in all children and the improvement of cardiovascular health metric scores in children currently classified as having poor or intermediate cardiovascular health. Other topics include the current status of cardiovascular health in US children, opportunities for the refinement of health metrics, improvement of health metric scores, and possibilities for promoting ideal cardiovascular health. Importantly, concerns about the suitability of using single thresholds to identify elevated cardiovascular risk throughout the childhood years and the limits of our current knowledge are noted, and suggestions for future directions and research are provided.

  16. Cybernetics of Brief Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Bradford P.; Ross, Jeffrey M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a cybernetic view of brief family therapy. Includes a historical discussion of the key ideas underlying brief family therapy, a cybernetic model of therapeutic change, and a clinical case for exemplification. (Author/JAC)

  17. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

  18. Inclusive Briefing and User Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    Briefing is not just about specifying needs as requirements but also about evaluating how well design proposals fulfil needs and aspirations. Furthermore, briefing is not only about building design. Briefing starts at the preproject stage to create a basis for the project decision and can include...

  19. Exploiting Document Level Semantics in Document Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rafi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Document clustering is an unsupervised machine learning method that separates a large subject heterogeneous collection (Corpus into smaller, more manageable, subject homogeneous collections (clusters. Traditional method of document clustering works around extracting textual features like: terms, sequences, and phrases from documents. These features are independent of each other and do not cater meaning behind these word in the clustering process. In order to perform semantic viable clustering, we believe that the problem of document clustering has two main components: (1 to represent the document in such a form that it inherently captures semantics of the text. This may also help to reduce dimensionality of the document and (2 to define a similarity measure based on the lexical, syntactic and semantic features such that it assigns higher numerical values to document pairs which have higher syntactic and semantic relationship. In this paper, we propose a representation of document by extracting three different types of features from a given document. These are lexical , syntactic and semantic features. A meta-descriptor for each document is proposed using these three features: first lexical, then syntactic and in the last semantic. A document to document similarity matrix is produced where each entry of this matrix contains a three value vector for each lexical , syntactic and semantic . The main contributions from this research are (i A document level descriptor using three different features for text like: lexical, syntactic and semantics. (ii we propose a similarity function using these three, and (iii we define a new candidate clustering algorithm using three component of similarity measure to guide the clustering process in a direction that produce more semantic rich clusters. We performed an extensive series of experiments on standard text mining data sets with external clustering evaluations like: FMeasure and Purity, and have obtained

  20. Generic safety documentation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ''core'' upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information

  1. Generic safety documentation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  2. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  3. My brief history

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    My Brief History recounts Stephen Hawking’s improbable journey, from his postwar London boyhood to his years of international acclaim and celebrity. Lavishly illustrated with rarely seen photographs, this concise, witty, and candid account introduces readers to a Hawking rarely glimpsed in previous books: the inquisitive schoolboy whose classmates nicknamed him Einstein; the jokester who once placed a bet with a colleague over the existence of a particular black hole; and the young husband and father struggling to gain a foothold in the world of physics and cosmology. Writing with characteristic humility and humor, Hawking opens up about the challenges that confronted him following his diagnosis of ALS at age twenty-one. Tracing his development as a thinker, he explains how the prospect of an early death urged him onward through numerous intellectual breakthroughs, and talks about the genesis of his masterpiece A Brief History of Time—one of the iconic books of the twentieth century.

  4. Strategic forces briefing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.; Chrzanowski, P.; May, M.; Nordyke, M.

    1989-04-06

    The Strategic Forces Briefing'' is our attempt, accomplished over the past several months, to outline and highlight the more significant strategic force issues that must be addressed in the near future. Some issues are recurrent: the need for an effective modernized Triad and a constant concern for force survivability. Some issues derive from arms control: the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (SALT) are sufficiently advanced to set broad numerical limits on forces, but not so constraining as to preclude choices among weapon systems and deployment modes. Finally, a new administration faced with serious budgetary problems must strive for the most effective strategic forces limited dollars can buy and support. A review of strategic forces logically begins with consideration of the missions the forces are charged with. We begin the briefing with a short review of targeting policy and implementation within the constraints of available unclassified information. We then review each element of the Triad with sections on SLBMs, ICBMs, and Air-Breathing (bomber and cruise missile) systems. A short section at the end deals with the potential impact of strategic defense on offensive force planning. We consider ABM, ASAT, and air defense; but we do not attempt to address the technical issues of strategic defense per se. The final section gives a brief overview of the tritium supply problem. We conclude with a summary of recommendations that emerge from our review. The results of calculation on the effectiveness of various weapon systems as a function of cost that are presented in the briefing are by Paul Chrzanowski.

  5. South American Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Herdy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this document, the Inter-American Committee of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, together with the South American Society of Cardiology, aimed to formulate strategies, measures, and actions for cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation (CVDPR. In the context of the implementation of a regional and national health policy in Latin American countries, the goal is to promote cardiovascular health and thereby decrease morbidity and mortality. The study group on Cardiopulmonary and Metabolic Rehabilitation from the Department of Exercise, Ergometry, and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology has created a committee of experts to review the Portuguese version of the guideline and adapt it to the national reality. The mission of this document is to help health professionals to adopt effective measures of CVDPR in the routine clinical practice. The publication of this document and its broad implementation will contribute to the goal of the World Health Organization (WHO, which is the reduction of worldwide cardiovascular mortality by 25% until 2025. The study group's priorities are the following: • Emphasize the important role of CVDPR as an instrument of secondary prevention with significant impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; • Join efforts for the knowledge on CVDPR, its dissemination, and adoption in most cardiovascular centers and institutes in South America, prioritizing the adoption of cardiovascular prevention methods that are comprehensive, practical, simple and which have a good cost/benefit ratio; • Improve the education of health professionals and patients with education programs on the importance of CVDPR services, which are directly targeted at the health system, clinical staff, patients, and community leaders, with the aim of decreasing the barriers to CVDPR implementation.

  6. [Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bauersachs, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the most frequent complications in pregnancies. Among them preexisting heart diseases including congenital heart disease, genetic cardiomyopathies, myocardial infarction and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathies display a special challenge for the mother and her physicians. Moreover, the incidence of cardiovascular disease induced by or associated with pregnancy, i.e. hypertensive disorders and peripartum cardiomyopathies, has increased over the past decades. In the present overview we explain why pregnancy is a stress model for the maternal heart and summarize the current knowledge on the influence of pregnancy on preexisting cardiomyopathies. We highlight recent advances in research with regard to hypertensive complications in pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Moreover, we summarize etiologies, risk factors, pathomechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, management and prognosis. Finally, interdisciplinarity between different clinical fields and basic science is a key requirement to avoid longterm damage to the cardiovascular system induced by pregnancy associated impacts and with this improve women's health in general. PMID:26800071

  7. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-01-01

    After the introduction of statins, clinical emphasis first focussed on LDL cholesterol-lowering, then on the potential for raising HDL cholesterol, with less focus on lowering triglycerides. However, the understanding from genetic studies and negative results from randomised trials that low HDL...... cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk...

  8. Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established...... resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described...

  9. Clocks and cardiovascular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Sarah C.; Haines, Philip; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks in central and peripheral tissues enable the temporal synchronization and organization of molecular and physiological processes of rhythmic animals, allowing optimum functioning of cells and organisms at the most appropriate time of day. Disruption of circadian rhythms, from external or internal forces, leads to widespread biological disruption and is postulated to underlie many human conditions, such as the incidence and timing of cardiovascular disease. Here, we describe in vivo and in vitro methodology relevant to studying the role of circadian rhythms in cardiovascular function and dysfunction PMID:25707279

  10. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2008-01-01

    and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed.  ...

  11. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2008-01-01

    and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed....

  12. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  13. [Cardiovascular complications of diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Yoshihiko

    2015-12-01

    Several lines of epidemical evidence have shown that type 2 diabetes is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). It has been shown that the risk of primary prevention of CVD in patients with diabetes is equal to that of the secondary prevention in general population. In this manuscript, recent reports on the cardiac tests to detect the cardiovascular lesions will be reviewed. The data suggest that MDCT is a promising test even in the patients with diabetes. Furthermore, recent evidence of the treatment of diabetes with insulin or the drugs available recently such as DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT-2 inhibitors will be reviewed. PMID:26666152

  14. Research in cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Deaton, Christi; Fitzsimmons, Donna;

    2014-01-01

    To deliver optimal patient care, evidence-based care is advocated and research is needed to support health care staff of all disciplines in deciding which options to use in their daily practice. Due to the increasing complexity of cardiac care across the life span of patients combined...... of the body of knowledge that is needed to further improve cardiovascular care. In this paper, knowledge gaps in current research related to cardiovascular patient care are identified, upcoming challenges are explored and recommendations for future research are given....

  15. Implementing No Child Left Behind in Three States. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, Brian M.; Epstein, Scott; Hamilton, Laura S.; Marsh, Julie A.; Robyn, Abby; McCombs, Jennifer Sloan; Russell, Jennifer; Naftel, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This research brief describes work done for RAND Education and documented in "Pain and Gain: Implementing No Child Left Behind in Three States, 2004-2006", Brian M. Stecher, Scott Epstein, Laura S. Hamilton, Julie A. Marsh, Abby Robyn, Jennifer Sloan McCombs, Jennifer Russell, and Scott Naftel." The three states discussed are: California, Georgia,…

  16. A Brief Introduction to Foreign Languages Education Policy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwen

    2012-01-01

    Based on a series of official published documents and relevant research reports, the paper make a brief introduction to foreign languages education policies in China, which included national English teaching guidance, national English language textbooks, national English curriculum standard and the massive English teachers training program, etc.…

  17. Information Brief on Green Power Marketing, 2nd Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweezey, B.; Houston, A.

    1998-02-01

    This document is the second in a series of information briefs on green power marketing activity in the United States. It includes descriptions of utility green pricing programs, green power marketing activity, retail access legislation and pilot programs, and other data and information supporting the development of green power markets.

  18. Towards the european strategy for particle physics : The briefing book

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akesson, T.; Aleksan, R.; Allanach, B.; Bertolucci, S.; Blondel, A.; Butterworth, J.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cervera, A.; de Naurois, M.; Desch, K.; Egede, U.; Heuer, R.; Hoecker, A.; Huber, P.; Jungmann, K.; Linde, F.; Lombardi, A.; Mangano, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Onderwater, G.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Peach, K.; Polosa, A.; Rondio, E.; Webber, B.; Weiglein, G.; Womersley, J.

    2007-01-01

    This document was prepared as part of the briefing material for the Workshop of the CERN Council Strategy Group, held in DESY Zeuthen from 2nd to 6th May 2006. It gives an overview of the physics issues and of the technological challenges that will shape the future of the field, and incorporates mat

  19. Towards document engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Quint, Vincent; Nanard, M.; André, Jacques

    1990-01-01

    This article compares methods and techniques used in software engineering with the ones used for handling electronic documents. It shows the common features in both domains, but also the differences and it proposes an approach which extends the field of document manipulation to document engineering. It shows also in what respect document engineering is different from software engineering. Therefore specific techniques must be developped for building integrated environments for document engine...

  20. [Cardiovascular alterations associated with doping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, D; Büttner, A

    2015-05-01

    Doping -the abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids in particular- is widespread in amateur and recreational sports and does not solely represent a problem of professional sports. Excessive overdose of anabolic steroids is well documented in bodybuilding or powerlifting leading to significant side effects. Cardiovascular damages are most relevant next to adverse endocrine effects.Clinical cases as well as forensic investigations of fatalities or steroid consumption in connection with trafficking of doping agents provide only anecdotal evidence of correlations between side effects and substance abuse. Analytical verification and self-declarations of steroid users have repeatedly confirmed the presumption of weekly dosages between 300 and 2000 mg, extra to the fact that co-administration of therapeutics to treat side-effects represent a routine procedure. Beside the most frequent use of medications used to treat erectile dysfunction or estrogenic side-effects, a substantial number of antihypertensive drugs of various classes, i.e. beta-blockers, diuretics, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, calcium channel blockers, as well as ACE inhibitors were recently confiscated in relevant doping cases. The presumptive correlation between misuse of anabolic steroids and self-treatment of cardiovascular side effects was explicitly confirmed by detailed user statements.Two representative fatalities of bodybuilders were introduced to outline characteristic, often lethal side effects of excessive steroid abuse. Moreover, illustrative autopsy findings of steroid acne, thrombotic occlusion of Ramus interventricularis anterior and signs of cardiac infarctions are presented.A potential steroid abuse should be carefully considered in cases of medical consultations of patients exhibiting apparent constitutional modifications and corresponding adverse effects. Moreover, common self-medications -as frequently applied by steroid consumers- should be taken into therapeutic considerations

  1. Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Nijhuis (Rogier)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWhereas secondary prevention of cardiovascular events through risk factor modification in patients with known coronary and carotid artery disease is recognised as cost-effective, CVD prevention by drug therapy in asymptomatic individuals has shown only modest benefits and to be relativel

  2. Gender and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Ruijter, Hester M.; Pasterkamp, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    More women than men die of cardiovascular disease (CVD) each year in every major developed country and most emerging economies. Nonetheless, CVD has often been considered as men’s disease due to the higher rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) of men at younger age. This has led to the underestimat

  3. Cardiovascular effects of gliptins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2013-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (commonly referred to as gliptins) are a novel class of oral antihyperglycaemic agents with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Preclinical data and mechanistic studies have indicated a possible beneficial action on blood vessels and the heart, via both glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-dependent and GLP-1-independent effects. DPP-4 inhibition increases the concentration of many peptides with potential vasoactive and cardioprotective effects. Clinically, DPP-4 inhibitors improve several risk factors in patients with T2DM. They improve blood glucose control (mainly by reducing postprandial glycaemia), are weight neutral (or even induce modest weight loss), lower blood pressure, improve postprandial lipaemia, reduce inflammatory markers, diminish oxidative stress, and improve endothelial function. Some positive effects on the heart have also been described in patients with ischaemic heart disease or congestive heart failure, although their clinical relevance requires further investigation. Post-hoc analyses of phase II-III, controlled trials suggest a possible cardioprotective effect with a trend for a lower incidence of major cardiovascular events with gliptins than with placebo or active agents. However, the actual relationship between DPP-4 inhibition and cardiovascular outcomes remains to be proven. Major prospective clinical trials with predefined cardiovascular outcomes and involving various DPP-4 inhibitors are now underway in patients with T2DM and a high-risk cardiovascular profile.

  4. Neuropeptides in cardiovascular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1984-12-01

    Neuropeptides can affect cardiovascular function in various ways. They can serve as cotransmitters in the autonomic nervous system; for example, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is released with acetylcholine and neuropeptide Y with norepinephrine from postganglionic neurons. Substance P and, presumably, other peptides can can affect cardiovascular function when released near blood vessels by antidromically conducted impulses in branches of stimulated sensory neurons. In the central nervous system, many different neuropeptides appear to function as transmitters or contransmittes in the neural pathways that regulate the cardiovascular system. In addition neuropeptides such as vasopressin and angiotensin II also circulate as hormones that are involved in cardiovascular control. Large doses of exogenous vasopressin are required to increase blood pressure in normal animals because the increase in total peripheral resistance produced by the hormones is accompanied by a decrease in cardiac output. However, studies with synthetic peptides that selectively antagonize the vasopressor action of vasopressin indicate that circulating vasopressin is important in maintaining blood pressure when animals are hypovolemic due to dehydration, haemorrhage or adrenocortical insufficiency. VIP dilates blood vessels and stimulates renin secretion by a direct action on the juxtaglomerular cells. Renin secretion is stimulated when the concentration of VIP in plasma exceeds 75 pmol/litre, and higher values are seen in a number of conditions. Neostigmine, a drug which increases the secretion of endogenous VIP, also increases renin secretion, and this increase is not blocked by renal denervation or propranolol. Thus, VIP may be a physiologically significant renin stimulating hormone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  6. Brief introduction to relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief, but rigorous and uncondensed, introduction to special relativity is given. The reader is assumed to be familiar with coordinate transformations in general and to have a reasonable grasp of advanced calculus and vector analysis. The subject is presented under the following topics: hypotheses underlying the Lorentz transformation, kinematics and algebraic properties of the Lorentz transformation, vectors and tensors in relativity, the electromagnetic field and Maxwell's equations, the dynamics of a particle and the Lorentz force equation, photons and relativistic optics, and applications of relativistic optics. 3 figures

  7. A Semi-Structured Document Model for Text Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建武; 陈晓鸥

    2002-01-01

    A semi-structured document has more structured information compared to anordinary document, and the relation among semi-structured documents can be fully utilized. Inorder to take advantage of the structure and link information in a semi-structured document forbetter mining, a structured link vector model (SLVM) is presented in this paper, where a vectorrepresents a document, and vectors' elements are determined by terms, document structure andneighboring documents. Text mining based on SLVM is described in the procedure of K-meansfor briefness and clarity: calculating document similarity and calculating cluster center. Theclustering based on SLVM performs significantly better than that based on a conventional vectorspace model in the experiments, and its F value increases from 0.65-0.73 to 0.82-0.86.

  8. Hypertriglyceridemia and Cardiovascular Diseases: Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seung Hwan; Stephen J Nicholls; Sakuma, Ichiro; Zhao, Dong; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2016-01-01

    Residual cardiovascular risk and failure of high density lipoprotein cholesterol raising treatment have refocused interest on targeting hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and remnant cholesterol have demonstrated to be important risk factors for cardiovascular disease; this has been demonstrated in experimental, genetic, and epidemiological studies. Fibrates can reduce cardiovascular event rates with or without statins. High dose omega-3 fatty acids co...

  9. Nonfasting hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J

    2009-01-01

    , total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 all associate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These new data open the possibility that nonfasting rather than fasting lipid profiles can be used for cardiovascular risk prediction. If implemented, this would...... of cardiovascular disease and early death....

  10. Registration document 2005; Document de reference 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This reference document of Gaz de France provides information and data on the Group activities in 2005: financial informations, business, activities, equipments factories and real estate, trade, capital, organization charts, employment, contracts and research programs. (A.L.B.)

  11. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the first of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 1 provides a general overview of key issues.

  12. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  13. Central neural control of the cardiovascular system: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampney, Roger A L

    2016-09-01

    This brief review, which is based on a lecture presented at the American Physiological Society Teaching Refresher Course on the Brain and Systems Control as part of the Experimental Biology meeting in 2015, aims to summarize current concepts of the principal mechanisms in the brain that regulate the autonomic outflow to the cardiovascular system. Such cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms do not operate in isolation but are closely coordinated with respiratory and other regulatory mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. The brain regulates the cardiovascular system by two general means: 1) feedforward regulation, often referred to as "central command," and 2) feedback or reflex regulation. In most situations (e.g., during exercise, defensive behavior, sleep, etc.), both of these general mechanisms contribute to overall cardiovascular homeostasis. The review first describes the mechanisms and central circuitry subserving the baroreceptor, chemoreceptor, and other reflexes that work together to regulate an appropriate level of blood pressure and blood oxygenation and then considers the brain mechanisms that defend the body against more complex environmental challenges, using dehydration and cold and heat stress as examples. The last section of the review considers the central mechanisms regulating cardiovascular function associated with different behaviors, with a specific focus on defensive behavior and exercise. PMID:27445275

  14. Attenuated Cardiovascular, Neuroendocrine, and Behavioral Responses After a Single Footshock in Central Amygdaloid Lesioned Male Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Bohus, B.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of bilateral electrolytical CEA lesioning on behavioral, cardiovascular and neuroendocrine changes has been studied in male Wistar rats before, during and shortly after a brief aversive stimulus of an unavoidable footshock. Blood samples were withdrawn via a permanent heart catheter. Lesi

  15. Enterprise Document Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The function of the operation is to provide e-Signature and document management support for Acquisition and Assisitance (A&A) documents including vouchers in...

  16. Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandner MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Grandner,1,2 Megan R Sands-Lincoln,3 Victoria M Pak,2,4 Sheila N Garland1,5 1Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 2Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 3Center for Evidence Based Medicine, Elsevier Inc, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 5Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA Abstract: Habitual sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic disease, via several mechanistic pathways, but few have been thoroughly explored. One hypothesis is that short and/or long sleep duration is associated with a proinflammatory state, which could increase risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This hypothesis has been largely explored in the context of experimental sleep deprivation studies which have attempted to demonstrate changes in proinflammatory markers following acute sleep loss in the laboratory. Despite the controlled environment available in these studies, samples tend to lack generalization to the population at large and acute sleep deprivation may not be a perfect analog for short sleep. To address these limitations, population based studies have explored associations between proinflammatory markers and habitual sleep duration. This review summarizes what is known from experimental and cross-sectional studies about the association between sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers. First, the association between sleep duration with both morbidity and mortality, with a focus on cardiovascular disease, is reviewed. Then, a brief review of the potential role of proinflammatory markers in cardiovascular disease is presented. The majority of this review details specific findings related to specific

  17. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaddha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine.

  18. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddha, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine. PMID:26170595

  19. Clinical document architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Kai

    2003-01-01

    The Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), a standard developed by the Health Level Seven organisation (HL7), is an ANSI approved document architecture for exchange of clinical information using XML. A CDA document is comprised of a header with associated vocabularies and a body containing the structural clinical information. PMID:15061557

  20. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  1. Prodrugs in Cardiovascular Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Tabrizian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Prodrugs are biologically inactive derivatives of an active drug intended to solve certain problems of the parent drug such as toxicity, instability, minimal solubility and non-targeting capabilities. The majority of drugs for cardiovascular diseases undergo firstpass metabolism, resulting in drug inactivation and generation of toxic metabolites, which makes them appealing targets for prodrug design. Since prodrugs undergo a chemical reaction to form the parent drug once inside the body, this makes them very effective in controlling the release of a variety of compounds to the targeted site. This review will provide the reader with an insight on the latest developments of prodrugs that are available for treating a variety of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we will focus on several drug delivery methodologies that have merged with the prodrug approach to provide enhanced target specificity and controlled drug release with minimal side effects.

  2. Cardiovascular and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year's cardiovascular section demonstrates a continued growth in the number of digests on cardivascular and general interventional topics and continued progress in MRI studies. The reader will also notice fewer digests on DSA and percutaneous stone removal compared with the 1985 and 1986 Year Books. While newer technology, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, has significantly reduced the number of percutaneous procedures for renal calculi, other interventional procedures, such as those involving fibrinolysis, are increasing by leaps and bounds. A number of digests on benign and malignant bile duct strictures continue to shed light on the management of these difficult cases. While abscess drainage is growing and well accepted by most surgeons, articles on esophageal dilatations seem to be declining in the radiology literature, probably on the basis of fewer operations being performed by us and more being performed by endoscopists. Digests on MRI in the cardiovascular system continue to report excellent images of the aorta and of congenital heart disease

  3. Migraine and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Bigal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Migraine, especially migraine with aura is an established risk factor for ischemic lesions of the brain. Recent evidence has also linked migraine with and without aura to a broader range of ischemic vascular disorders including angina, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, claudication and cardiovascular mortality. The topic is therefore of considerable interest. Accordingly, herein we review the association between migraine and cardiovascular disease. We start by briefly presenting diagnostic criteria for migraine and revising its pathophysiology. We follow by summarizing the evidence on the topic. We then briefly present the results of a recent meta-analysis. We close by highlighting results of a large epidemiological study conducted after the publication of the meta-analysis.

  4. Circulating endothelial cells in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Christopher J; Lip, Gregory Y H; Blann, Andrew D

    2006-10-17

    Quantification of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in peripheral blood is developing as a novel and reproducible method of assessing endothelial damage/dysfunction. The CECs are thought to be mature cells that have detached from the intimal monolayer in response to endothelial injury and are a different cell population to endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The EPCs are nonleukocytes derived from the bone marrow that are believed to have proliferative potential and may be important in vascular regeneration. Currently accepted methods of CEC quantification include the use of immunomagnetic bead separation (with cell counting under fluorescence microscopy) and flow cytometry. Several recent studies have shown increased numbers of CECs in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, such as unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and critical limb ischemia, but no change in stable intermittent claudication, essential hypertension, or atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, CEC quantification at 48 h after acute myocardial infarction has been shown to be an accurate predictor of major adverse coronary events and death at both 1 month and 1 year. This article presents an overview of the pathophysiology of CECs in the setting of cardiovascular disease and a brief comparison with EPCs. PMID:17045885

  5. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Khanicheh, Elham

    2009-01-01

    Although there have been significant improvements in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases they still remain the main cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Currently available diagnostic approaches may not be adequate to detect pathologic changes during the early disease stages, which may be valuable for risk stratification and also to assess a response to a therapy. Therefore molecular imaging techniques such as Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEU) molecular imaging to noninvasively i...

  6. Cocoa and cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    R. Corti; Flammer, A J; Hollenberg, N K; Lüscher, T F

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods and beverages reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Among many ingredients, cocoa might be an important mediator. Indeed, recent research demonstrates a beneficial effect of cocoa on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and vascular and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its benefits on cardiovascular health have been propo...

  7. Modelling cardiovascular disease prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Alimadad, Azadeh

    2012-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cardiovascular disease (CVD), which sits under the chronic disease umbrella, is the number one cause of death globally. Over time, we have witnessed different trends that have influenced the prevalence of CVD. One of the ways of decreasing CVD and its social costs and global fatalities is through influencing preventable CVD risk factors. Though many risk factors such as age and gender are not preventable, there are several effective behaviours...

  8. 17 CFR 9.23 - Answering brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answering brief. 9.23 Section... Appeals § 9.23 Answering brief. (a) Time for filing answering brief. Within thirty days after service of the appeal brief, the exchange must file with the Commission an answering brief. (b) Contents...

  9. 24 CFR 1720.615 - Reply brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reply brief. 1720.615 Section 1720... Proceedings Appeals § 1720.615 Reply brief. A brief in reply to an answering brief, limited to rebuttal of matters in the answering brief, may be filed and served by a party within 7 days after receipt of...

  10. Brief encounter networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kostakos, Vassilis; Penn, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Many complex human and natural phenomena can usefully be represented as networks describing the relationships between individuals. While these relationships are typically intermittent, previous research has used network representations that aggregate the relationships at discrete intervals. However, such an aggregation discards important temporal information, thus inhibiting our understanding of the networks dynamic behaviour and evolution. We have recorded patterns of human urban encounter using Bluetooth technology thus retaining the temporal properties of this network. Here we show how this temporal information influences the structural properties of the network. We show that the temporal properties of human urban encounter are scale-free, leading to an overwhelming proportion of brief encounters between individuals. While previous research has shown preferential attachment to result in scale-free connectivity in aggregated network data, we found that scale-free connectivity results from the temporal prope...

  11. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  12. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses two different Scheme documentation tools. The first is SchemeDoc, which is intended for documentation of the interfaces of Scheme libraries (APIs). The second is the Scheme Elucidator, which is for internal documentation of Scheme programs. Although the tools...... are separate and intended for different documentation purposes they are related to each other in several ways. Both tools are based on XML languages for tool setup and for documentation authoring. In addition, both tools rely on the LAML framework which---in a systematic way---makes an XML language available...

  13. Globalization, Work, and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Peter L; Dobson, Marnie; Landsbergis, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), a global epidemic, is responsible for about 30% of all deaths worldwide. While mortality rates from CVD have been mostly declining in the advanced industrialized nations, CVD risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, have been on the increase everywhere. Researchers investigating the social causes of CVD have produced a robust body of evidence documenting the relationships between the work environment and CVD, including through the mechanisms of psychosocial work stressors. We review the empirical evidence linking work, psychosocial stressors, and CVD. These work stressors can produce chronic biologic arousal and promote unhealthy behaviors and thus, increased CVD risk. We offer a theoretical model that illustrates how economic globalization influences the labor market and work organization in high-income countries, which, in turn, exacerbates job characteristics, such as demands, low job control, effort-reward imbalance, job insecurity, and long work hours. There is also a growing interest in "upstream" factors among work stress researchers, including precarious employment, downsizing/restructuring, privatization, and lean production. We conclude with suggestions for future epidemiologic research on the role of work in the development of CVD, as well as policy recommendations for prevention of work-related CVD.

  14. Globalization, Work, and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Peter L; Dobson, Marnie; Landsbergis, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), a global epidemic, is responsible for about 30% of all deaths worldwide. While mortality rates from CVD have been mostly declining in the advanced industrialized nations, CVD risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, have been on the increase everywhere. Researchers investigating the social causes of CVD have produced a robust body of evidence documenting the relationships between the work environment and CVD, including through the mechanisms of psychosocial work stressors. We review the empirical evidence linking work, psychosocial stressors, and CVD. These work stressors can produce chronic biologic arousal and promote unhealthy behaviors and thus, increased CVD risk. We offer a theoretical model that illustrates how economic globalization influences the labor market and work organization in high-income countries, which, in turn, exacerbates job characteristics, such as demands, low job control, effort-reward imbalance, job insecurity, and long work hours. There is also a growing interest in "upstream" factors among work stress researchers, including precarious employment, downsizing/restructuring, privatization, and lean production. We conclude with suggestions for future epidemiologic research on the role of work in the development of CVD, as well as policy recommendations for prevention of work-related CVD. PMID:27604540

  15. Pharmacogenomics in cardiovascular disorders: Steps in approaching personalized medicine in cardiovascular medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Barone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Barone, Shaymaa S Mousa, Shaker A MousaThe Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USAAbstract: Some of the most commonly prescribed medications are those for cardiovascular maladies. The beneficial effects of these medications have been well documented. However, there can be substantial variation in response to these medications among patients, which may be due to genetic variation. For this reason pharmacogenomic studies are emerging across all aspects of cardiovascular medicine. The goal of pharmacogenomics is to tailor treatment to an individual’s genetic makeup in order to improve the benefit-to-risk ratio. This review examines the potential pharmacogenomic parameters which may lead to a future of personalized medicine. For example, it has been found that patients with CYP2C9 and VKORC1 gene variations have a different response to warfarin. Other studies looking at β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, diuretics and statins have shown some results linking genetic variations to pharmacologic response. However these studies have not impacted clinical use yet, unlike warfarin findings, as the small retrospective studies need to be followed up by larger prospective studies for definitive results.Keywords: cardiovascular, pharmacogenomics, genetics, cardiovascular medicine, personalized medicine, polymorphism

  16. Flash fire and slow burn: women's cardiovascular reactivity and recovery following hostile and benevolent sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Kristen; Burgess, Kaleena D; Bosson, Jennifer K

    2015-04-01

    Women's cardiovascular responses to sexist treatment are documented, but researchers have yet to consider these responses separately as a function of sexism type (hostile vs. benevolent). This study demonstrates distinct effects of hostile and benevolent sexism for women's cardiovascular responses that indicate increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Female participants performed a demanding insight task after exposure to a male researcher who offered them a hostilely sexist, benevolently sexist, or nonsexist comment. Women displayed heightened cardiovascular reactivity (increases from baseline) during the task following hostile sexism, and they displayed impaired cardiovascular recovery (return to baseline after the task) following benevolent sexism. The effects seen in the hostile condition were mediated by self-reported anger. These findings indicate that women's affective responses to hostile and benevolent sexism differ but that exposure to both forms of sexism may have negative cardiovascular consequences. PMID:25844626

  17. Flash fire and slow burn: women's cardiovascular reactivity and recovery following hostile and benevolent sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Kristen; Burgess, Kaleena D; Bosson, Jennifer K

    2015-04-01

    Women's cardiovascular responses to sexist treatment are documented, but researchers have yet to consider these responses separately as a function of sexism type (hostile vs. benevolent). This study demonstrates distinct effects of hostile and benevolent sexism for women's cardiovascular responses that indicate increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Female participants performed a demanding insight task after exposure to a male researcher who offered them a hostilely sexist, benevolently sexist, or nonsexist comment. Women displayed heightened cardiovascular reactivity (increases from baseline) during the task following hostile sexism, and they displayed impaired cardiovascular recovery (return to baseline after the task) following benevolent sexism. The effects seen in the hostile condition were mediated by self-reported anger. These findings indicate that women's affective responses to hostile and benevolent sexism differ but that exposure to both forms of sexism may have negative cardiovascular consequences.

  18. YOGA IMPROVES CARDIOVASCULAR PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod P. Kadu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yoga in ancient technique practices by sage for a desirable and healthy life. Yogic exercise and Pranayam may modulate cardiovascular function. To assess the cardiovascular parameter in control and study group. We selected 90 healthy volunteers between age group 35 – 50 years and divided into two groups. i Study group – 45 ii Control group – 45. Control group was not doing any type of exercise or yoga during 1 yr of period whereas yoga group did yogic exercise for 1 yr under supervision of yoga expert. In both the group heart rate SBP and DBP evaluate at 0, 6 and 12 month period. In control group heart rate, SBP, and DBP showed no significant change at 0, 6, and 12 month reading, whereas study group (yoga 81.96±5.65 showed significant decreased heart rate From 81.96 ±5.65 to 75.60 ± 3.44 at 6 month and 73.75 ± 11.36 at 12 month (p<0.001 SBP decreased from 128 ± 7.66 to 120.97 ± 4.21 at 6 month and 120.48± 3.86 at 12 months (p<0.001. DBP showed significant decreased from 88.44 ± 5.25 to 80.53 ± 3.44 at 6 months and 80.53 ± 2.53 at 12months (p<0.001. Yogic exercise and Pranayam done regularly at long term improve cardiovascular efficiency.

  19. Traffic noise and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Selander, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Traffic noise is an increasing problem in urban areas worldwide, but health effects in relation to traffic noise exposure are not well understood. Several studies show that noise may give rise to acute stress reactions, possibly leading to cardiovascular effects, but the evidence is limited on cardiovascular risks associated with traffic noise exposure. Cardiovascular effects have been indicated for other environmental stressors such as occupational noise exposure and job ...

  20. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  1. Cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, D P; Sanidas, E A; Viniou, N A; Gennimata, V; Chantziara, V; Barbetseas, I; Makris, T K

    2015-02-01

    Inevitably, a small proportion of patients with systematic hypertension will develop hypertensive crisis at some point. Hypertensive crises can be divided into hypertensive emergency or hypertensive urgency according to the presence or lack of acute target organ damage. In this review, we discuss cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, aortic dissection, congestive heart failure, and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises, including those caused by cocaine use. Each presents in a unique fashion, although some hypertensive emergency patients report nonspecific symptoms. Treatment includes several effective and rapid-acting medications to safely reduce the blood pressure, protect remaining end-organ function, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications, and thereby improve patient outcomes.

  2. Periodontitis and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeftha, A; Holmes, H

    2013-03-01

    Periodontal medicine has been studied and reviewed extensively since its introduction to the dental fraternity. The association of periodontal disease with and its effects on the cardiovascular system are amongst the many topics explored. A summary of the research into these associations and the possible mechanisms of any relationship is presented. Although a link between these two chronic inflammatory diseases is evident, the very heterogeneity of the relevant studies has not provided evidence sufficient to support an actual causal relationship. More stringent epidemiologic and intervention studies are required. PMID:23951765

  3. Document control program (DCP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The management and control of classified and unclassified documents is tedious, time consuming, and error prone. DCP is a simple, inexpensive, but effective program for the Livermore Time Sharing System and is written in TRIX and TRIX AC. It is used to computerize the classified document control task with a completely self-contained program requiring essentially no modifications or programer support to implement or maintain. DCP provides a complete dialect to prepare interactively the input data, update the document master file, and interrogate and retrieve any information desired from the document file. 2 figures. (RWR)

  4. CAED Document Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compliance Assurance and Enforcement Division Document Repository (CAEDDOCRESP) provides internal and external access of Inspection Records, Enforcement Actions,...

  5. Health physics documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When dealing with radioactive material the health physicist receives innumerable papers and documents within the fields of researching, prosecuting, organizing and justifying radiation protection. Some of these papers are requested by the health physicist and some are required by law. The scope, quantity and deposit periods of the health physics documentation at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center are presented and rationalizing methods discussed. The aim of this documentation should be the application of physics to accident prevention, i.e. documentation should protect those concerned and not the health physicist. (H.K.)

  6. Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Csányi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the special issue “Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease” authors were invited to submit papers that investigate key questions in the field of cardiovascular free radical biology. The original research articles included in this issue provide important information regarding novel aspects of reactive oxygen species (ROS-mediated signaling, which have important implications in physiological and pathophysiological cardiovascular processes. The issue also included a number of review articles that highlight areas of intense research in the fields of free radical biology and cardiovascular medicine.

  7. Technical competence in cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography; Competencia tecnica em ressonancia e tomografia cardiovascular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Juliano Lara; Shiozaki, Afonso Akio; Azevedo Filho, Clerio Francisco de; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo; Pinto, Ibraim Marciarelli Francisco; Lopes, Marly Maria Uellendahl; Schvartzman, Paulo Roberto, E-mail: jlaraf@fcm.unicamp.br [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP/GERT) SP (Brazil). Grupo de Estudo em Ressonancia e Tomografia Cardiovascular

    2009-10-15

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography have evolved as very practical and useful techniques applied in clinical cardiology. Due to their rapid acceptance in the cardiology community and widespread use, training of both cardiologists and radiologists on this subspecialty has not been homogeneous so far. This in part explains significant differences observed in the diverse background found in today’s practicing physicians who execute these exams. In order to guide training facilities as well as both payers, contractors and general cardiologists ordering the exam, this document provides a minimum standard that should be accomplished by all physicians who pursue education in the field and for those who already practice in it. The clinical competences listed in this statement are by no means thorough but should be required by all those involved in cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography as the customary requirements for current and future practitioners. (author)

  8. Modelos de gestión documental en las agencias de publicidad

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos-Recio, Juan-Carlos; Sánchez-Vigil, Juan-Miguel; Olivera-Zaldua, María

    2010-01-01

    Advertising, one of the leading communications media today, requires special techniques for research and documentation without which its effectiveness could be questioned. A brief study is made of advertising documentation in Spain from the theoretical and practical points of view. Then, the models for document management used in the agencies are studied and explained, and a definition of what is understood to be advertising documentation is drawn up. In addition, the documentary elements tha...

  9. Sex differences in cardiovascular health: does sexism influence women's health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molix, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    This commentary provides a brief overview of theory and research that supports the idea that sexism may be related to the disproportionate negative cardiovascular health outcomes in women. It describes sexism as a stressor and outlines its association with a variety of health outcomes as evidence for why sex disparities should be examined within the context of pervasive inequities. To date, population-based studies have not explicitly examined the relationship between sexism and cardiovascular disease, but smaller studies have yielded fairly consistent results. It is suggested that future research should aim to examine the influence of 2 types of sexism (ie, hostile and benevolent) and that daily or within-day designs be used to assess cognitive, behavioral and physiological responses to everyday sexist experiences.

  10. Optimization in Cardiovascular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Alison L.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid mechanics plays a key role in the development, progression, and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Advances in imaging methods and patient-specific modeling now reveal increasingly detailed information about blood flow patterns in health and disease. Building on these tools, there is now an opportunity to couple blood flow simulation with optimization algorithms to improve the design of surgeries and devices, incorporating more information about the flow physics in the design process to augment current medical knowledge. In doing so, a major challenge is the need for efficient optimization tools that are appropriate for unsteady fluid mechanics problems, particularly for the optimization of complex patient-specific models in the presence of uncertainty. This article reviews the state of the art in optimization tools for virtual surgery, device design, and model parameter identification in cardiovascular flow and mechanobiology applications. In particular, it reviews trade-offs between traditional gradient-based methods and derivative-free approaches, as well as the need to incorporate uncertainties. Key future challenges are outlined, which extend to the incorporation of biological response and the customization of surgeries and devices for individual patients.

  11. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  12. Resveratrol and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs has stimulated research for substances that could improve cardiovascular health. Among them, resveratrol (RES, a polyphenolic compound notably present in grapes and red wine, has been involved in the “French paradox”. RES is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and for its ability to upregulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS. RES was able to scavenge •OH/O2•− and peroxyl radicals, which can limit the lipid peroxidation processes. Moreover, in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC under glucose-induced oxidative stress, RES restored the activity of dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH, an enzyme that degrades an endogenous inhibitor of eNOS named asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA. Thus, RES could improve •NO availability and decrease the endothelial dysfunction observed in diabetes. Preclinical studies have made it possible to identify molecular targets (SIRT-1, AMPK, Nrf2, NFκB…; however, there are limited human clinical trials, and difficulties in the interpretation of results arise from the use of high-dose RES supplements in research studies, whereas low RES concentrations are present in red wine. The discussions on potential beneficial effects of RES in CVDs (atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure should compare the results of preclinical studies with those of clinical trials.

  13. IDC System Specification Document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  14. INFCE plenary conference documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document consists of the reports to the First INFCE Plenary Conference (November 1978) by the Working Groups a Plenary Conference of its actions and decisions, the Communique of the Final INFCE Plenary Conference (February 1980), and a list of all documents in the IAEA depository for INFCE

  15. Enriching software architecture documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Anton; Avgeriou, Paris; Ven, Jan Salvador van der

    2009-01-01

    The effective documentation of Architectural Knowledge (AK) is one of the key factors in leveraging the paradigm shift toward sharing and reusing AK. However, current documentation approaches have severe shortcomings in capturing the knowledge of large and complex systems and subsequently facilitati

  16. NEMS integrating module documentation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-14

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system that produces a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand in the US energy markets. The model achieves a supply and demand balance in the end-use demand regions, defined as the nine Census Divisions, by solving for the prices of each energy type such that the quantities producers are willing to supply equal the quantities consumers wish to consume. The system reflects market economics, industry structure, and energy policies and regulations that influence market behavior. The NEMS Integrating Module is the central integrating component of a complex modeling system. As such, a thorough understanding of its role in the modeling process can only be achieved by placing it in the proper context with respect to the other modules. To that end, this document provides an overview of the complete NEMS model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  17. Neuroophthalmology A brief Vademecum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stunning, intricate interaction between the visual, vestibular and optomotor systems--each a miracle on its own--ensures maintenance of orientation in space as well as visual recognition and target selection despite a host of sensory conflicts and adversary disturbances. Their main goals are to keep a target of interest on the fovea by either maintaining or shifting the direction of gaze in order to produce an accurate internal representation of the visual surroundings, in particular the selected target, and to continuously mirror the spatial relationship between these various visual elements and the self. Not surprising, the implementation of this host of elaborate neural networks encompasses almost every part of the brain, including the brainstem, cerebellum, extrapyramidal system and many areas of the cerebral cortex. Thus far, these systems are among the best investigated in brain research; and enormous knowledge was amassed over the last century employing a variety of techniques, including single cell recordings, eye movement studies, functional imaging and neuropsychological observations. In addition, this prolific line of research has enlightened many fundamental principles of neural and neuronal processing, which have subsequently enriched other fields of brain research as well as computational neuroscience, e.g. the discovery of receptive fields, which have now become a ubiquitous concept in many other areas of neurophysiology. This (improperly) brief, fractional and undoubtedly biased Vademecum is meant to accompany the reader into this marvellous field of neurophysiology and neurology. In particular, it stresses the clinical application of its functional neuroanatomy at the bedside, which, in many respects, is superior to other means of investigating a patient

  18. CNEA's quality system documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: To obtain an effective and coherent documentation system suitable for CNEA's Quality Management Program, we decided to organize the CNEA's quality documentation with : a- Level 1. Quality manual. b- Level 2. Procedures. c-Level 3. Qualities plans. d- Level 4: Instructions. e- Level 5. Records and other documents. The objective of this work is to present a standardization of the documentation of the CNEA's quality system of facilities, laboratories, services, and R and D activities. Considering the diversity of criteria and formats for elaboration the documentation by different departments, and since ultimately each of them generally includes the same quality management policy, we proposed the elaboration of a system in order to improve the documentation, avoiding unnecessary time wasting and costs. This will aloud each sector to focus on their specific documentation. The quality manuals of the atomic centers fulfill the rule 3.6.1 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, and the Safety Series 50-C/SG-Q of the International Atomic Energy Agency. They are designed by groups of competent and highly trained people of different departments. The normative procedures are elaborated with the same methodology as the quality manuals. The quality plans which describe the organizational structure of working group and the appropriate documentation, will asses the quality manuals of facilities, laboratories, services, and research and development activities of atomic centers. The responsibilities for approval of the normative documentation are assigned to the management in charge of the administration of economic and human resources in order to fulfill the institutional objectives. Another improvement aimed to eliminate unnecessary invaluable processes is the inclusion of all quality system's normative documentation in the CNEA intranet. (author)

  19. READS: the rapid electronic assessment documentation system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Ann

    2012-12-13

    Patient documentation is time consuming and can detract from care. The authors report a novel computer programme that manipulates routinely collected information to quantify nursing workload, along with the reason for admission, functional status, estimates of in-hospital mortality and life expectancy. The programme stores information in a database, and produces a print-out in a situation\\/background\\/assessment\\/recommendation (SBAR) format. The average time taken to enter 629 patient encounters was 6.6 minutes. Pain was the most common presentation for low workload patients, while high workload patients often presented with altered mental status and reduced mobility. There was only a modest correlation between the risk of death and nursing workload. The programme measures nursing workload without further paperwork, and improves routine documentation with a legible brief report that is automatically generated. This report can be shared and provides data that is immediately available for day-to-day care, audit, quality control and service planning.

  20. Instruments for documentation of music therapy sessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    . Danish and Norwegian music therapist have collaborated on developing a one page sheet with a structured form where they after each music therapy session document their use of methods and techniques in individual music therapy with persons with dementia. With this instrument therapists have easy access......It is an important part of the clinical music therapy work to document the daily sessions. For the clinician it is necessary to have a brief overview of each session in order to assess the methods and the process, and not least to be able to give clear reports of these issues to other health care...... professionals at staff meetings, conferences, etc. For music therapists with many clients there is not time enough during a working day to provide comprehensive process descriptions in the music therapy log. Therefore instruments that help the clinician in reducing and structuring this information are needed...

  1. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2014-01-01

    The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace ...

  2. The nuclear materials control technology briefing book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

  3. 24 CFR 1720.610 - Answering brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answering brief. 1720.610 Section... Proceedings Appeals § 1720.610 Answering brief. Within 20 days after service of an appeal brief upon a party, such party may file an answering brief conforming to the requirements of § 1720.620....

  4. 17 CFR 171.26 - Answering brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answering brief. 171.26... Denial and Registration Actions § 171.26 Answering brief. (a) Time for filing answering brief. Within thirty days after service of the apeal brief, the National Futures Association shall file with...

  5. 37 CFR 41.71 - Rebuttal brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rebuttal brief. 41.71 Section... Rebuttal brief. (a) Within one month of the examiner's answer, any appellant may once file a rebuttal brief. (b)(1) The rebuttal brief of the owner may be directed to the examiner's answer and/or any...

  6. Spanish Language Briefs for Parents, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains six briefs developed specifically for Spanish-speaking parents of Mexican origin, and English translations of the briefs. In plain language, these briefs state what researchers and practitioners have learned about various ways parents can help their children do well in school. Titles of the briefs are (1) "Apoyando el…

  7. Cardiovascular involvement in patients affected by acromegaly: an appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Susanna; Paolillo, Stefania; Colao, Annamaria; Bossone, Eduardo; Cittadini, Antonio; Iudice, Francesco Lo; Parente, Antonio; Conte, Sirio; Rengo, Giuseppe; Leosco, Dario; Trimarco, Bruno; Filardi, Pasquale Perrone

    2013-09-01

    Cardiovascular complications are frequent in acromegalic patients. Several studies reported increased prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and early development of endothelial dysfunction and of structural vascular alterations, with subsequent increased risk of coronary artery disease. Furthermore, chronic exposure to high levels of GH and IGF-I leads to the development of the so called "acromegalic cardiomyopathy", characterized by concentric biventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction and, additionally, by progressive impairment of systolic performance leading to overt heart failure. Cardiac valvulopathies and arrhythmias have also been documented and may concur to the deterioration of cardiac function. Together with strict control of cardiovascular risk factors, early control of GH and IGF-I excess, by surgical or pharmacological therapy, has been reported to ameliorate cardiac and metabolic abnormalities, leading to a significant reduction of left ventricular hypertrophy and to a consistent improvement of cardiac performance.

  8. Metabolic Alterations and Cardiovascular Outcomes of Cortisol Excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivonello, Rosario; De Martino, Maria Cristina; Iacuaniello, Davide; Simeoli, Chiara; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Carlomagno, Francesco; De Leo, Monica; Cozzolino, Alessia; Colao, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a severe chronic and systemic condition caused by endogenous or exogenous excess of glucocorticoids, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Patients with active CS suffer from many metabolic alterations, including visceral obesity, systemic arterial hypertension, impairment of glucose metabolism and dyslipidemia. Additionally, in these patients several cardiovascular abnormalities, i.e. atherosclerosis, clotting disorders, left ventricular hypertrophy, concentric remodeling and diastolic dysfunction have been documented. These alterations, which persist even long after hypercortisolism remission, account for the increased cardiovascular risk and greatly contribute to the increased mortality observed in patients with CS. The current review aims to discuss the main adverse effects of CS on metabolism and cardiovascular risk, focusing on the active and remission phases of disease, and underlining the importance of long-term monitoring and treatment of these complications during active disease, as well as in the long-term follow-up after CS remission. PMID:27212264

  9. Osteoprotegerin and mortality in hemodialysis patients with cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Simon; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Flyvbjerg, Allan;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) have an increased mortality, mainly caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a glycoprotein involved in the regulation of the vascular calcification process. Previous studies have demonstrated that OPG is a progn......Abstract BACKGROUND: Patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) have an increased mortality, mainly caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a glycoprotein involved in the regulation of the vascular calcification process. Previous studies have demonstrated that OPG.......08; in the adjusted analyses, the p-value for trend was 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: In a high-risk population of hemodialysis patients with previously documented cardiovascular disease, a high level of OPG was an independent risk marker of all-cause mortality....

  10. Cardiovascular complications in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, G; Pivonello, R; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2004-09-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are increased in acromegaly. In fact, GH and IGF-I excess induces a specific cardiomyopathy. The early stage of acromegaly is characterized by the hyperkinetic syndrome (high heart rate and increased systolic output). Frequently, concentric biventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction occur in acromegaly, leading to an impaired systolic function ending in heart failure if the disease is untreated or unsuccessfully untreated. Besides, abnormalities of cardiac rhythm and of valves have been also described in acromegaly. The coexistence of other complications, such as arterial hypertension and diabetes, aggravates the acromegalic cardiomyopathy. The suppression of GH/IGF-I following an efficacious therapy could decrease left ventricular mass and improve cardiac function. In conclusion, a careful evaluation of cardiac function, morphology and activity seems to be mandatory in acromegaly.

  11. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  12. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...... of CVD compared to butter intake with an equal fat content. It was found that cheese intake lowered total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations and increased glucose concentrations when compared to butter. Additionally, butter intake resulted in higher...... total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol when compared to habitual diet whereas no difference was observed between cheese intake and habitual diet. Calcium has been suggested to increase fecal fat and bile acid excretions which could explain the lower cholesterol concentrations with cheese intake. Although...

  13. Risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Thomsen, Jan Lykke Scheel;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of antidiabetic drugs on the composite endpoint (CE) of ischemic heart disease, heart failure or stroke in DM patients. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study. Cases were DM patients who......% CI: 16.88-24.12), neuropathy (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.05-1.85) and peripheral artery disease (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69) increased the risk of CE. Biguanides (OR=0.62 95% CI; 0.54-0.71) and liraglutide (OR=0.48 95% CI; 0.38-0.62) significantly decreased the risk of CE as did statin treatment (OR=0.63, 95...

  14. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannucci E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Edoardo Mannucci,1 Stefano Giannini,2 Ilaria Dicembrini1 1Diabetes Agency, Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, 2Section of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence and Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with

  15. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Norbert

    2000-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Early detection of disease can often be used to improved outcomes, either through direct interventions (e.g. surgical corrections) or by causing the patient to modify his or her behavior (e.g. smoking cessation or dietary changes). Ideally, the detection process should be noninvasive (i.e. it should not be associated with significant risk). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) refers to the formation of images by localizing NMR signals, typically from protons in the body. As in other applications of NMR, a homogeneous static magnetic field ( ~0.5 to 4 T) is used to create ``longitudinal" magnetization. A magnetic field rotating at the Larmor frequency (proportional to the static field) excites spins, converting longitudinal magnetization to ``transverse" magnetization and generating a signal. Localization is performed using pulsed gradients in the static field. MRI can produce images of 2-D slices, 3-D volumes, time-resolved images of pseudo-periodic phenomena such as heart function, and even real-time imaging. It is also possible to acquire spatially localized NMR spectra. MRI has a number of advantages, but perhaps the most fundamental is the richness of the contrast mechanisms. Tissues can be differentiated by differences in proton density, NMR properties, and even flow or motion. We also have the ability to introduce substances that alter NMR signals. These contrast agents can be used to enhance vascular structures and measure perfusion. Cardiovascular MRI allows the reliable diagnosis of important conditions. It is possible to image the blood vessel tree, quantitate flow and perfusion, and image cardiac contraction. Fundamentally, the power of MRI as a diagnostic tool stems from the richness of the contrast mechanisms and the flexibility in control of imaging parameters.

  16. Integrated Criteria document Chlorophenols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff W; Bremmer HJ; Janus JA; Matthijsen AJCM; van Beelen P; van den Berg R; Bloemen HJT; Canton JH; Eerens HC; Hrubec J; Janssens H; Jumelet JC; Knaap AGAC; de Leeuw FAAM; van der Linden AMA; Loch JPG; van Loveren H; Peijnenburg WJGM; Piersma AH; Struijs J; Taalman RDFM; Theelen RMC; van der Velde JMA; Verburgh JJ; Versteegh JFM; van der Woerd KF

    1991-01-01

    Bij dit rapport behoort een bijlage onder hetzelfde nummer getiteld: "Integrated Criteria document Chlorophenols: Effects:" Auteurs : Janus JA
    Taalman RDFM; Theelen RMC en is de engelse editie van 710401003

  17. NCDC Archive Documentation Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Climatic Data Center Tape Deck Documentation library is a collection of over 400 manuals describing NCDC's digital holdings (both historic and...

  18. Registration document 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference document of Gaz de France provides information and data on the Group activities in 2005: financial informations, business, activities, equipments factories and real estate, trade, capital, organization charts, employment, contracts and research programs. (A.L.B.)

  19. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  20. Cardiovascular Disease in Women: Primary and Secondary Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghavi, Monika; Gulati, Martha

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease requires involvement of an extended health care team. Obstetricians and gynecologists are uniquely positioned within the health care system because they are often the primary or only contact women have with the system. This review article discusses initial assessment, treatment recommendations, and practical tips regarding primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women with a focus on coronary heart disease; discussion includes peripheral and cerebrovascular disease. PMID:27212092

  1. 2002 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  2. Documentation of spectrom-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPECTROM-32 is a finite element program for analyzing two-dimensional and axisymmetric inelastic thermomechanical problems related to the geological disposal of nuclear waste. The code is part of the SPECTROM series of special-purpose computer programs that are being developed by RE/SPEC Inc. to address many unique rock mechanics problems encountered in analyzing radioactive wastes stored in geologic formations. This document presents the theoretical basis for the mathematical models, the finite element formulation and solution procedure of the program, a description of the input data for the program, verification problems, and details about program support and continuing documentation. The computer code documentation is intended to satisfy the requirements and guidelines outlined in the document entitled Final Technical Position on Documentation of Computer Codes for High-Level Waste Management. The principle component models used in the program involve thermoelastic, thermoviscoelastic, thermoelastic-plastic, and thermoviscoplastic types of material behavior. Special material considerations provide for the incorporation of limited-tension material behavior and consideration of jointed material behavior. Numerous program options provide the capabilities for various boundary conditions, sliding interfaces, excavation, backfill, arbitrary initial stresses, multiple material domains, load incrementation, plotting database storage and access of results, and other features unique to the geologic disposal of radioactive wastes. Numerous verification problems that exercise many of the program options and illustrate the required data input and printed results are included in the documentation

  3. Documentation of spectrom-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPECTROM-32 is a finite element program for analyzing two-dimensional and axisymmetric inelastic thermomechanical problems related to the geological disposal of nuclear waste. The code is part of the SPECTROM series of special-purpose computer programs that are being developed by RE/SPEC Inc. to address many unique rock mechanics problems encountered in analyzing radioactive wastes stored in geologic formations. This document presents the theoretical basis for the mathematical models, the finite element formulation and solution procedure of the program, a description of the input data for the program, verification problems, and details about program support and continuing documentation. The computer code documentation is intended to satisfy the requirements and guidelines outlined in the document entitled Final Technical Position on Documentation of Computer Codes for High-Level Waste Management. The principal component models used in the program involve thermoelastic, thermoviscoelastic, thermoelastic-plastic, and thermoviscoplastic types of material behavior. Special material considerations provide for the incorporation of limited-tension material behavior and consideration of jointed material behavior. Numerous program options provide the capabilities for various boundary conditions, sliding interfaces, excavation, backfill, arbitrary initial stresses, multiple material domains, load incrementation, plotting database storage and access of results, and other features unique to the geologic disposal of radioactive wastes. Numerous verification problems that exercise many of the program options and illustrate the required data input and printed results are included in the documentation

  4. LCS Content Document Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

  5. Government Research and Development Summaries: Nuclear, Te, Ti Project Briefs. Monthly report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear, Te, Ti Project Briefs describe the status of all RandD programs submitted to the Power Information Center by the government sponsors in energy conversion from fission, fusion, and radioisotope power sources and other thermal systems that use thermionic systems. These briefs also follow related investigations of plasma dynamics. The document is not to be reproduced, in whole or in part, for dissemination outside your own organization nor may it be reproduced for advertising or sales promotion purposes

  6. Annotated bibliography National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents for Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following annotated bibliography lists documents prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE), and predecessor agencies, to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for activities and facilities at Sandia National Laboratories sites. For each NEPA document summary information and a brief discussion of content is provided. This information may be used to reduce the amount of time or cost associated with NEPA compliance for future Sandia National Laboratories projects. This summary may be used to identify model documents, documents to use as sources of information, or documents from which to tier additional NEPA documents

  7. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  8. Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CONTENT: We provide an overview of some of the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating lifespan and health, including mitochondria, telomeres, stem cells, sirtuins, Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1. We also provide future perspectives of lifespan and health, which are intimately linked fields. SUMMARY: Aging remains the biggest non-modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The biological, structural and mechanical changes in senescent cardiovascular system are thought to contribute in increasing incidence of cardiovascular disease in aging. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to such changes is therefore crucial for both prevention and development of treatment for cardiovascular diseases. KEYWORDS: cardiovascular aging, mitochondria, telomeres, sirtuin, stem cells.

  9. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  10. Nrf2 and cardiovascular defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Reuben

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E) 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis). The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Nrf2 and Cardiovascular Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Howden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis. The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable

  13. Geochemistry of water in relation to cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Relations between trace and major element chemistry of drinking water and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed and documented. Several aspects of the problem, related both to the pathway that drinking water takes to man and to its transit through man, are reviewed. Several steps in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease that could be affected by water factors were explored. There is little evidence bearing on the contribution from drinking water to human tissue levels of cadmium, chromium, or zinc. Copper and magnesium levels of tissues may be related to drinking water, but confirmatory evidence is needed. Lead levels in blood and other tissues are most certainly affected by lead levels in drinking water in areas where these levels are unusually elevated. There is little evidence that relatively low levels of lead are toxic to the cardiovascular system, except for the causation of cardiomyopathy. The protective action of selenium and zinc applies mainly to cadmium toxicity. The mode of the protective action of silicon, if any, is unclear at present. Some epidemiological associations between the cadmium level or cadmium:zinc ratio and cardiovascular disease have been reported, but are contradictory. Some epidemiological support exists for a protective effect by selenium; results for zinc are equivocal. Interactions within the human system involving calcium and selected trace elements might be very important for the cardiovascular system. Review of the epidemiological literature indicates that there may be a water factor associated with cardiovascular disease. Its effects, if any, must be very weak in comparison with the effects of known risk factors. The reported inverse relationship between mortality from cardiovascular diseases and hardness of local drinking water supplies appears to be considerably less distinctive in small regional studies. (ERB)

  14. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleg, Jerome L

    2016-01-01

    Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT). An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation.

  15. Lifestyle Intervention in Emerging Adulthood: A Brief Acceptance-based Behavioral Intervention with Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Spencer M.

    2015-01-01

    Across the U.S., obesity and overweight represent a rapidly growing public health concern that have been associated with expensive and debilitating outcomes such as depression, cancers, diabetes, and other metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and significant disruption in quality of life, in addition to the tremendous public health costs. The current study examined a brief, randomized-controlled trial of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) with overweight and obese young adults. ...

  16. Fish cardiovascular physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Johanna; Weber, E Scott; Marty, Gary D; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Fish patients with cardiovascular disorders present a challenge in terms of diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic options. Veterinarians can approach these cases in fish using methods similar to those employed for other companion animals. Clinicians who evaluate and treat fish in private, aquarium, zoologic, or aquaculture settings need to rely on sound clinical judgment after thorough historical and physical evaluation. Pharmacokinetic data and treatments specific to cardiovascular disease in fish are limited; thus, drug types and dosages used in fish are largely empiric. Fish cardiovascular anatomy, physiology, diagnostic evaluation, monitoring, common diseases, cardiac pathologic conditions, formulary options, and comprehensive references are presented with the goal of providing fish veterinarians with clinically relevant tools.

  17. Undergraduates' understanding of cardiovascular phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Joel A; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Modell, Harold I; Cliff, William; Horwitz, Barbara; McHale, Philip; Richardson, Daniel; Silverthorn, Dee; Williams, Stephen; Whitescarver, Shirley

    2002-12-01

    Undergraduates students in 12 courses at 8 different institutions were surveyed to determine the prevalence of 13 different misconceptions (conceptual difficulties) about cardiovascular function. The prevalence of these misconceptions ranged from 20 to 81% and, for each misconception, was consistent across the different student populations. We also obtained explanations for the students' answers either as free responses or with follow-up multiple-choice questions. These results suggest that students have a number of underlying conceptual difficulties about cardiovascular phenomena. One possible source of some misconceptions is the students' inability to apply simple general models to specific cardiovascular phenomena. Some implications of these results for teachers of physiology are discussed.

  18. Tea Polyphenols Regulate Key Mediators on Inflammatory Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-ichi Suzuki; Mitsuaki Isobe; Ryuichi Morishita; Ryozo Nagai

    2009-01-01

    Tea polyphenols known as catechins are key components with many biological functions, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anticarcinogenic effects. These effects are induced by the suppression of several inflammatory factors including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- B). While these characteristics of catechins have been well documented, actions of catechins as mediators on inflammation-related cardiovascular diseases have not yet been well investigated. In this article, we reviewed ...

  19. Neural and cardiovascular responses to emotional stress in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Jason R.; Durocher, John J.; Kern, Rosalie P.

    2008-01-01

    Sympathetic neural responses to mental stress are well documented but controversial, whereas sympathetic neural responses to emotional stress are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate neural and cardiovascular responses to emotional stress evoked by negative pictures and reexamine the relationship between muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and perceived stress. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), MSNA, and perceived stress levels were recorded in 18 men during...

  20. Securing XML Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Shoniregun

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available XML (extensible markup language is becoming the current standard for establishing interoperability on the Web. XML data are self-descriptive and syntax-extensible; this makes it very suitable for representation and exchange of semi-structured data, and allows users to define new elements for their specific applications. As a result, the number of documents incorporating this standard is continuously increasing over the Web. The processing of XML documents may require a traversal of all document structure and therefore, the cost could be very high. A strong demand for a means of efficient and effective XML processing has posed a new challenge for the database world. This paper discusses a fast and efficient indexing technique for XML documents, and introduces the XML graph numbering scheme. It can be used for indexing and securing graph structure of XML documents. This technique provides an efficient method to speed up XML data processing. Furthermore, the paper explores the classification of existing methods impact of query processing, and indexing.

  1. Liposomes for cardiovascular targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, Tatyana S; Hartner, William C; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2012-04-01

    Liposome-based pharmaceuticals used within the cardiovascular system are reviewed in this article. The delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents by plain liposomes and liposomes with surface-attached targeting antibodies or polyethylene glycol to prolong their circulation time and accumulation at vascular injuries, ischemic zones or sites of thrombi are also discussed. An overview of the advantages and disadvantages of liposome-mediated in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo targeting is presented, including discussion of the targeting of liposomes to pathological sites on the blood vessel wall and a description of liposomes that can be internalized by endothelial cells. Diagnostic liposomes used to target myocardial infarction and the relative importance of liposome size, targetability of immunoliposomes and prolonged circulation time on the efficiency of sealing hypoxia-induced plasma membrane damage to cardiocytes are discussed as a promising approach for therapy. The progress in the use of targeted liposomal plasmids for the transfection of hypoxic cardiomyocytes and myocardium is presented. Stent-mediated liposomal-based drug delivery is also reviewed briefly. PMID:22834079

  2. Beacons In Brief. P/PV In Brief. Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Susan; Farley, Chelsea

    2004-01-01

    This second issue in P/PV's "In Brief" series focuses on the San Francisco Beacon Initiative and P/PV's recently released evaluation results. The Beacon Initiative established after-school programs in eight public schools in low-income San Francisco neighborhoods. P/PV's 36-month evaluation examined key developmental and academic outcomes.…

  3. Segmentation of complex document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.

  4. La Documentation photographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Hamm

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La Documentation photographique, revue destinée aux enseignants et étudiants en histoire-géographie, place l’image au cœur de sa ligne éditoriale. Afin de suivre les évolutions actuelles de la géographie, la collection propose une iconographie de plus en plus diversifiée : cartes, photographies, mais aussi caricatures, une de journal ou publicité, toutes étant considérées comme un document géographique à part entière. Car l’image peut se faire synthèse ; elle peut au contraire montrer les différentes facettes d’un objet ; souvent elle permet d’incarner des phénomènes géographiques. Associées à d’autres documents, les images aident les enseignants à initier leurs élèves à des raisonnements géographiques complexes. Mais pour apprendre à les lire, il est fondamental de les contextualiser, de les commenter et d’interroger leur rapport au réel.The Documentation photographique, magazine dedicated to teachers and students in History - Geography, places the image at the heart of its editorial line. In order to follow the evolutions of Geography, the collection presents a more and more diversified iconography: maps, photographs, but also drawings or advertisements, all this documents being considered as geographical ones. Because image can be a synthesis; on the contrary it can present the different facets of a same object; often it enables to portray geographical phenomena. Related to other documents, images assist the teachers in the students’ initiation to complex geographical reasoning. But in order to learn how to read them, it is fundamental to contextualize them, comment them and question their relations with reality.

  5. Cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, K S; Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive neuropsychol...

  6. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 ... Your Heart Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Cold Weather Fitness Guide Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood ...

  7. Anxiety Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Christopher M; Daunis, Daniel J; Lokko, Hermioni N; Campbell, Kirsti A; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-11-01

    Anxiety and its associated disorders are common in patients with cardiovascular disease and may significantly influence cardiac health. Anxiety disorders are associated with the onset and progression of cardiac disease, and in many instances have been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including mortality. Both physiologic (autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, changes in platelet aggregation) and health behavior mechanisms may help to explain the relationships between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Given the associations between anxiety disorders and poor cardiac health, the timely and accurate identification and treatment of these conditions is of the utmost importance. Fortunately, pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions for the management of anxiety disorders are generally safe and effective. Further study is needed to determine whether interventions to treat anxiety disorders ultimately impact both psychiatric and cardiovascular health. PMID:27671918

  8. Customer Communication Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

  9. [Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Rubio, María Antonia; Tárraga López, Pedro Juan; Rodríguez Montes, José Antonio; Frías López, María del Carmen; Solera Albero, Juan; Bermejo López, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    Objetivos: Valorar si el hipotiroidismo subclínico puede comportarse como un factor de riesgo cardiovascular o un modificador del mismo, identificando variables epidemiológicas y riesgo cardiovascular estimado en una muestra de sujetos diagnosticados en la provincia de Albacete. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal realizado en Albacete durante la primera quincena de enero de 2012 en pacientes de ambos géneros con hipotiroidismo subclínico. Se analizaron las siguientes variables: glucemia basal, colesterol total, colesterol HDL, colesterol LDL, triglicéridos, TSH, T4, peso, talla, I.M.C., tensión arterial, antecedentes de patología cardiovascular, factores de riesgo cardiovascular y riesgo cardiovascular estimado. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 326 pacientes, con predominio femenino (79,2 %), menores de 65 años en el 78% y sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular en el 48,61%. La prevalencia de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular identificados fué: tabaquismo (33,2%), diabetes mellitus (24,9%), hipertensión arterial (23,4%), alteraciones lipídicas (28,9%) y fibrilación auricular (4,9 %). No se encontró asociación entre hipotiroidismo subclínico y la mayoría de los parámetros del perfil lipídico que condicionan un perfil pro-aterogénico, salvo con la hipertrigliceridemia. Asimismo, tampoco se constató asociación con riesgo cardiovascular aumentado. Conclusiones: El perfil del paciente con hipotiroidismo subclínico es una mujer de mediana edad sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular en la mitad de casos. Se ha encontrado relación entre hipotiroidismo subclínico e hipertrigliceridemia, pero no con el resto de parámetros del perfil lipídico, otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular o con aumento de dicho riesgo. Sin embargo, un 25% de diabéticos y un 22% de no diabéticos están en situación de riesgo cardiovascular moderado-alto.

  10. Targeting the aldosterone pathway in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Azizi, Michel; Bauersachs, Johann;

    2012-01-01

    Accumulated evidence has demonstrated that aldosterone is a key player in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Multiple clinical trials have documented that intervention in the aldosterone pathway can reduce blood pressure and lower albuminuria and improve outcome in patients with heart...... failure or myocardial infarction. Recent studies have unraveled details about the role of aldosterone at the cellular level in CV disease. The relative importance of glucocorticoids and aldosterone in terms of mineralocorticoid receptor activation is currently being debated. Also, studies are addressing...... which aldosterone modulator to use, which timing of treatment to aim for, and in which population to intervene. This review provides an overview of recent developments in the understanding of the role of aldosterone in CV disease, with particular reference to mechanisms and potential targets...

  11. Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Effects of New and Emerging Antidiabetic Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Balfour, Pelbreton C.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Ferdinand, Keith C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite remarkable declines in US cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality over the last several decades, the prevalence of risk factors such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension remains high, associated with increasing obesity rates. Although optimal glycemic control remains a primary focus to decrease the disease burden, the FDA has issued guidance recommendations for documenting cardiovascular disease-related safety with research trials on new antidiabetic agents with more demanding r...

  12. Microalbuminuria: a Cardiovascular Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    ERCAN, Ertuğrul

    2010-01-01

    Albumin is a protein which is charged negatively. By correcting for the daily excretion of creatinine, the albumin creatinin ratio implicates the daily excretion of albumin in spot urine. Albuminuria is a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and the general population. Urinary albumin excretion is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, even after adjustment for risk factors. Risk has been shown to increase continuously with inc...

  13. Serotonin receptors as cardiovascular targets

    OpenAIRE

    Villalón, Carlos; De Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod Ranjan

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSerotonin exerts complex effects in the cardiovascular system, including hypotension or hypertension, vasodilatation or vasoconstriction, and/or bradycardia or tachycardia; the eventual response depends primarily on the nature of the 5-HT receptors involved. In the light of current 5-HT receptor classification, the authors reanalyse the cardiovascular responses mediated by 5-HT receptors and discuss the established and potential therapeutic applications of 5-HT ligands in the trea...

  14. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  15. Estrogen Signaling and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen has pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system. The mechanisms by which estrogen confers these pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular function is under active investigation. Until a decade ago, all estrogen signaling was thought to occur by estrogen binding to nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ), which bind to DNA and function as ligand activated transcription factors. Estrogen binding to the receptor alters gene expression thereby altering cell function. In 2000 estrogen w...

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Meiliana; Andi Wijaya

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CONTENT: We provide an overview of...

  17. Stress and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Nobutaka

    2014-01-01

    Recent major advances in medical science have introduced a wide variety of treatments against atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular diseases, which has led to a significant reduction in mortality associated with these diseases. However, atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death. Furthermore, progress in medical science has demonstrated the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease to be complicated, with a wide variety of underlying factors. Among these factors, stress is thought to be pivotal. Several types of stress are involved in the development of cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress, mental stress, hemodynamic stress and social stress. Accumulating evidence indicates that traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and smoking, induce oxidative stress in the vasculature. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis, hypertension and remodeling of blood vessels. Meanwhile, mental stress is a well-known major contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular system is constantly exposed to hemodynamic stress by the blood flow and/or pulsation, and hemodynamic stress exerts profound effects on the biology of vascular cells and cardiomyocytes. In addition, social stress, such as that due to a lack of social support, poverty or living alone, has a negative impact on the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, there are interactions between mental, oxidative and hemodynamic stress. The production of reactive oxygen species is increased under high levels of mental stress in close association with oxidative stress. These stress responses and their interactions play central roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the pathophysiological and clinical implications of stress are discussed in this article.

  18. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Golbidi; Ismail Laher

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss...

  19. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, P E; Powell, J T

    2014-01-17

    Vitamin D plays a classical hormonal role in skeletal health by regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Vitamin D metabolites also have physiological functions in nonskeletal tissues, where local synthesis influences regulatory pathways via paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, binds to the vitamin D receptor that regulates numerous genes involved in fundamental processes of potential relevance to cardiovascular disease, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, membrane transport, matrix homeostasis, and cell adhesion. Vitamin D receptors have been found in all the major cardiovascular cell types including cardiomyocytes, arterial wall cells, and immune cells. Experimental studies have established a role for vitamin D metabolites in pathways that are integral to cardiovascular function and disease, including inflammation, thrombosis, and the renin-angiotensin system. Clinical studies have generally demonstrated an independent association between vitamin D deficiency and various manifestations of degenerative cardiovascular disease including vascular calcification. However, the role of vitamin D supplementation in the management of cardiovascular disease remains to be established. This review summarizes the clinical studies showing associations between vitamin D status and cardiovascular disease and the experimental studies that explore the mechanistic basis for these associations.

  20. Polyphenols: Benefits to the Cardiovascular System in Health and in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Khurana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of naturally occurring dietary polyphenols in promoting cardiovascular health and emphasized the significant role these compounds play in limiting the effects of cellular aging. Polyphenols such as resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, and curcumin have been acknowledged for having beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, while some have also been shown to be protective in aging. This review highlights the literature surrounding this topic on the prominently studied and documented polyphenols as pertaining to cardiovascular health and aging.

  1. QA programme documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with the following topics: The need for a documented Q.A. program; Establishing a Q.A. program; Q.A. activities; Fundamental policies; Q.A. policies; Quality objectives Q.A. manual. (orig./RW)

  2. Course documentation report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian; Bygholm, Ann; Walther, Tina Dyngby Lyng

    A documentation report on the three pedagogical courses developed during the MVU project period. The report describes the three processes taking departure in the structure and material avaiable at the virtual learning environment. Also the report describes the way the two of the courses developed...

  3. Extremely secure identification documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolk, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bell, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The technology developed in this project uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals or alter existing documents to allow their use by unauthorized individuals. This process can be used to produce many types of identification documents with much higher security than any currently in use. The system is demonstrated using a security badge as an example. This project focused on the technologies requiring development in order to make the approach viable with existing badge printing and laminating technologies. By far the most difficult was the image processing required to verify that the picture on the badge had not been altered. Another area that required considerable work was the high density printed data storage required to get sufficient data on the badge for verification of the picture. The image processing process was successfully tested, and recommendations are included to refine the badge system to ensure high reliability. A two dimensional data array suitable for printing the required data on the badge was proposed, but testing of the readability of the array had to be abandoned due to reallocation of the budgeted funds by the LDRD office.

  4. Integrated Criteria Document Arsenic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff W; Haring BJA; Hesse JM; Janus JA; Thomas R; van Beelen P; de Boer JLM; Boumans LJM; Buijsman E; Canton JH; Cremers PMA; van der Heijden CA; Knaap AGAC; Krajnc EI; Kramers PGN; Kreis IA; Kroese ED; Lebret E; Matthijsen AJCM; van de Meent D; van der Meulen A; Meulenbelt J; Taalman RDFM; Bijstra D; Bril J; Salomons W; van der Woerd KF

    1990-01-01

    Betreft de engelse editie van rapport 758701002. Bij dit rapport behoort een appendix ook met nummer 758701002 getiteld:"Integrated Criteria Document Arsenicum: Effects" Auteurs: Hesse JM;
    Janus JA;
    Krajnc EI;
    Kroese ED

  5. Extremely secure identification documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology developed in this project uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals or alter existing documents to allow their use by unauthorized individuals. This process can be used to produce many types of identification documents with much higher security than any currently in use. The system is demonstrated using a security badge as an example. This project focused on the technologies requiring development in order to make the approach viable with existing badge printing and laminating technologies. By far the most difficult was the image processing required to verify that the picture on the badge had not been altered. Another area that required considerable work was the high density printed data storage required to get sufficient data on the badge for verification of the picture. The image processing process was successfully tested, and recommendations are included to refine the badge system to ensure high reliability. A two dimensional data array suitable for printing the required data on the badge was proposed, but testing of the readability of the array had to be abandoned due to reallocation of the budgeted funds by the LDRD office

  6. Analysis of Design Documentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp

    1998-01-01

    has been established where we seek to identify useful design work patterns by retrospective analyses of documentation created during design projects. This paper describes the analysis method, a tentatively defined metric to evaluate identified work patterns, and presents results from the first...... analysis accomplished....

  7. Documentation of CORTAX

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Bettendorf; Albert Van der Horst

    2006-01-01

    CORTAX is applied in Bettendorf et al. (2006), a simulation study on the economic and welfare implications of reforms in corporate income taxation. This technical documentation of the model consists of the derivation and listing of the equations of the model and a justification of the calibration.

  8. Documentation of spectrom-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPECTROM-41 is a finite element heat transfer computer program developed to analyze thermal problems related to nuclear waste disposal. The code is part of the SPECTROM (Special Purpose Engineering Codes for Thermal/ROck Mechanics) series of special purpose finite element programs that are continually being developed by RE/SPEC Inc. (RSI) to address the many unique formations. This document presents the theoretical basis for the mathematical model, the finite element formulation of the program, and a description of the input data for the program, along with details about program support and continuing documentation. The documentation is intended to satisfy the requirements and guidelines outlined in NUREG-0856. The principal component model used in the programs based on Fourier's law of conductance. Numerous program options provide the capability of considering various boundary conditions, material stratification and anisotropy, and time-dependent heat generation that are characteristic of problems involving the disposal of nuclear waste in geologic formation. Numerous verification problems are included in the documentation in addition to highlights of past and ongoing verification and validation efforts. A typical repository problem is solving using SPECTROM-41 to demonstrate the use of the program in addressing problems related to the disposal of nuclear waste

  9. Public Health England Briefing Papers

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health England

    2013-01-01

    -Social and economic inequalities in diet and physical activity - Obesity and disability - adults - Obesity and alcohol - an overview - A simple guide to classifying body mass index in children - Knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating and physical activity - Brief intervetions for weight management - Data sources:environmental influences on physical activity and diet - Measuring diet and physical activity in weight management interventions - Obesity and Mental ...

  10. Brief Psychotherapy: The Multimodal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Arnold A.

    1989-01-01

    Outlines tenets of multimodal therapy (MMT) and argues for its cost-effective yet comprehensive value as a brief psychotherapy model. Describes MMT as an integrated, seven-modality model of personality and provides clinical examples of its use. Argues that MMT approach will be an important future alternative to more expensive, time-consuming, and…

  11. Childhood Obesity. Special Reference Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the problem of childhood obesity and how it can lead to obesity in the adult. Eighty-four abstracts are presented of studies on the identification, prevention, and treatment of obesity in children, focusing on diet and psychological attitudes. Subjects of the studies were children ranging in age from infancy through…

  12. Humans and Robots. Educational Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This brief discusses human movement and robotic human movement simulators. The activity for students in grades 5-12 provides a history of robotic movement and includes making an End Effector for the robotic arms used on the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS). (MVL)

  13. BRIEFING ABOUT SIMCORB BUSINESS PLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SIMCorB Business Plan was discussed at the ORD Infrastructure Meeting held on July 17, 2000 in Washington, D.C.The briefing explained the purpose of the Plan as a vehicle to provide a road map to attain the ORD science IM vision. The road map includes defined milestones, bu...

  14. Microarray, SAGE and their applications to cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The wealth of DNA data generated by the human genome project coupling with recently invented high-throughput gene expression profiling techniques has dramatically sped up the process for biomedical researchers on elucidating the role of genes in human diseases. One powerful method to reveal insight into gene functions is the systematic analysis of gene expression. Two popular high-throughput gene expression technologies, microarray and Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) are capable of producing large amounts of gene expression data with the potential of providing novel insights into fundamental disease processes, especially complex syndromes such as cardiovascular disease, whose etiologies are due to multiple genetic factors and their interplay with the environment. Microarray and SAGE have already been used to examine gene expression patterns of cell-culture, animal and human tissues models of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we will first give a brief introduction of microarray and SAGE technologies and point out their limitations. We will then discuss the major discoveries and the new biological insightsthat have emerged from their applications to cardiovascular diseases. Finally we will touch upon potential challenges and future developments in this area.

  15. Technical approach document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Technical approach document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs

  17. Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Health: Does Sexism Influence Women’s Health?

    OpenAIRE

    Molix, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This commentary provides a brief overview of theory and research that supports the idea that sexism may be related to the disproportionate negative cardiovascular health outcomes in women. It describes the sexism as a stressor and outlines its association with a variety of health outcomes as evidence for why sex disparities should be examined within the context of pervasive inequities. To date, population-based studies have not explicitly examined the relationship between sexism and CVD but s...

  18. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Hyperreactivity in Young Venezuelans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sady Montes Amador

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: cardiovascular hyperreactivity in young people has been associated with different risk factors and a family history of hypertension. Objective: to determine the association between a family history of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors with cardiovascular hyperreactivity. Method: a correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 77 young individuals aged 18 to 40 years from the Churuguara parish of the Falcon State in Venezuela. The variables were: age, sex, skin color, family history of hypertension, medical history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, salt intake, physical activity and body mass index. The diastolic and systolic blood pressure before and after the pressor response elicited by an isometric exercise were determined as hemodynamic variables. Results: thirteen percent of the participants developed vascular reactivity after the hand-held weight test. Cardiovascular hyperreactivity is three times higher in individuals with a family history of hypertension. Sixty percent of those with a body mass index greater than or equal to 27 kg/m2 are hyperreactive. There is a higher cardiovascular response to the hand-held weight test as the consumption of alcohol increases. Thirty three point three percent of the participants who smoke are hyperreactive. Conclusions: there is a significant association between a family history of hypertension, obesity, salt intake, alcohol consumption and vascular hyperreactivity.

  19. Long-term trends in cardiovascular disease mortality and association with respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, A J

    2016-03-01

    The recent decline in cardiovascular disease mortality in Western countries has been linked with changes in life style and treatment. This study considers periods of decline before effective medical interventions or knowledge about risk factors. Trends in annual age-standardized death rates from cerebrovascular disease, heart disease and circulatory disease, and all cardiovascular disease are reviewed for three phases, 1881-1916, 1920-1939, and 1940-2000. There was a consistent decline in the cerebrovascular disease death rate between 1891 and 2000, apart from brief increases after the two world wars. The heart disease and circulatory disease death rate was declining between 1891 and 1910 before cigarette smoking became prevalent. The early peak in cardiovascular mortality in 1891 coincided with an influenza pandemic and a peak in the death rate from bronchitis, pneumonia and influenza. There is also correspondence between short-term fluctuations in the death rates from these respiratory diseases and cardiovascular disease. This evidence of ecological association is consistent with the findings of many studies that seasonal influenza can trigger acute myocardial infarction and episodes of respiratory infection are followed by increased risk of cardiovascular events. Vaccination studies could provide more definitive evidence of the role in cardiovascular disease and mortality of influenza, other viruses, and common bacterial agents of respiratory infection. PMID:26243537

  20. Long-term trends in cardiovascular disease mortality and association with respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, A J

    2016-03-01

    The recent decline in cardiovascular disease mortality in Western countries has been linked with changes in life style and treatment. This study considers periods of decline before effective medical interventions or knowledge about risk factors. Trends in annual age-standardized death rates from cerebrovascular disease, heart disease and circulatory disease, and all cardiovascular disease are reviewed for three phases, 1881-1916, 1920-1939, and 1940-2000. There was a consistent decline in the cerebrovascular disease death rate between 1891 and 2000, apart from brief increases after the two world wars. The heart disease and circulatory disease death rate was declining between 1891 and 1910 before cigarette smoking became prevalent. The early peak in cardiovascular mortality in 1891 coincided with an influenza pandemic and a peak in the death rate from bronchitis, pneumonia and influenza. There is also correspondence between short-term fluctuations in the death rates from these respiratory diseases and cardiovascular disease. This evidence of ecological association is consistent with the findings of many studies that seasonal influenza can trigger acute myocardial infarction and episodes of respiratory infection are followed by increased risk of cardiovascular events. Vaccination studies could provide more definitive evidence of the role in cardiovascular disease and mortality of influenza, other viruses, and common bacterial agents of respiratory infection.

  1. Multi-service briefing on radioisotope systems for defense applications, briefing notes and supporting information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrett, J.H.; Tingey, G.L.

    1990-05-01

    A briefing on isotope systems technology and applications was held at the Pentagon on 9 May 1990, cosponsored by the Department of Defense and the Department of Energy. The objective was to provide isotope systems information to interested individuals and offices from the DOD and the Services, and then to discuss potential uses of this technology within the defense community. Presentations were given on the useful characteristics of radioactive decay, isotope sources, properties of specific isotopes, and details of isotope systems that have been deployed for terrestrial and space applications. Application areas covered included: electrical, thermal and mechanical energy conversion systems; radiation applications; and radioluminescent lights. Talks were also given on system licensing and approvals, and conclusions from the 1986 workshop on isotope systems applications. This document contains the meeting agenda, copies of the vu-graphs used in the presentations, face sheets given to meeting attendees, a list of attendees, and supplementary information requested during the meeting.

  2. The rat - Cardiovascular pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotomayor-Herazo Aristides

    2012-06-01

    locura inducida porlas sustancias, donde la culpa proyectada y la negación campean a la par dela visión del mundo degradado y alucinante como construcción alterna de larealidad del drogadicto.A falta de una vida plena llena de realizaciones, el vacío interno, los sentimientosde soledad, la futilidad mediatizada, la ausencia de un verdadero sentido de lavida, el existir solo por el principio del placer, constituyen modos de vida sinsignificado, donde comanda el cerebro del reptil que llevamos dentro, no digoque el de mamífero porque sería ofender a tan nobles animales.En el desarrollo de esta obra, y en la realidad, vemos como se encuentratrastocado, cuando no ausente, el sentido de lo espiritual. La incapacidad paraexperimentar el dolor del prójimo, posiblemente se deba a una falla del hazde neuronas conocidas como “neuronas espejo” descubiertas por el equipoinvestigador de la Universidad de Parma, liderado por Giacomo Rizzolatti en1996. El sistema de “neuronas espejo” permite hacer propias las acciones, sensaciones y emociones de los demás; sirve paraexplicar las bases neurobiológicas de la empatíay, su ausencia o daño, ayudaría a comprender lasbases del trastorno antisocial de la personalidado psicopatía. Grave patología caracterizadapor la imposibilidad del sujeto para vivenciarlos sentimientos de sus iguales, por lo mismo,son incapaces para sentir culpa o ansiedad, losque los lleva a una ausencia de moralidad y decapacidad para experimentar compasión por elotro, eso los convierte en depredadores de los herdemás.La droga prospera en estos individuosy daña las conexiones lógicas de sus funciones,socio-patizándolos aún más; así nos impresionaArístides, con unos personajes desalmados,afectados por este destructor flagelo. Esta esla saga en la que nos introduce con magistralhabilidad el autor.CHISTIAN AYOLA GÓMEZMédico Especialista en PsiquiatriaFARMACOLOGIA CARDIOVASCULAR:El conocimiento de la farmacología, ciencia vitalen la formaci

  3. Generating Multilingual Documents from a Knowledge Base The TECHDOC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Rösner, D; Stede, Manfred

    1994-01-01

    TECHDOC is an implemented system demonstrating the feasibility of generating multilingual technical documents on the basis of a language-independent knowledge base. Its application domain is user and maintenance instructions, which are produced from underlying plan structures representing the activities, the participating objects with their properties, relations, and so on. This paper gives a brief outline of the system architecture and discusses some recent developments in the project: the addition of actual event simulation in the KB, steps towards a document authoring tool, and a multimodal user interface. (slightly corrected version of a paper to appear in: COLING 94, Proceedings)

  4. Osteoporosis y enfermedad cardiovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarahí Mendoza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV y la osteoporosis son causas frecuentes de morbilidad en la población adulta, cuya frecuencia aumenta con la edad, por lo que al aumentar la expectativa de vida, constituyen importantes problemas de salud. El riesgo a padecer ambas patologías depende de factores de riesgo, y la prevención consiste en controlar los modificables. Las ECV y la osteoporosis presentan factores etiológicos comunes que involucran la biosíntesis del colesterol y la oxidación lipídica, cuya dilucidación representa una línea priorizada de investigación. El crecimiento y mantenimiento del esqueleto depende del equilibrio entre la formación y la resorción ósea a través de los procesos de modelado y remodelado óseo, controlados por células óseas (osteoblastos -OB-, osteoclastos -OC- y osteocitos, los OB son responsables de la formación ósea, los OC de la resorción ósea y los osteocitos de la red mecano sensorial. Entre los nexos de las ECV y la osteoporosis se encuentra el papel de la vía del mevalonato en la síntesis de colesterol y en la activación de OC, y el papel de los lípidos oxidados en el desarrollo de la aterosclerosis y en la transformación de las células precursoras de OB en adipocitos, disminuyendo la formación de OB activos y favoreciendo la osteoporosis. Ello justifica que sustancias hipolipemiantes y antioxidantes puedan ejercer efectos protectores sobre el hueso, y que la búsqueda de sustancias que actúen sobre ambos blancos sea un aspecto de interés en la prevención o el manejo de estas enfermedades.

  5. Standardization of engineering documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many interrelated activities involving a number of organizational units comprise the process for the design and construction of a nuclear steam supply steam (NSSS). In the application of a standard NSSS design, many activities are duplicated from project to project and form a standard process for the engineering. This standard process in turn lends itself to a system for standardizing the engineering documentation associated with a particular design application. For these varied activities to be carried out successfully, a strong network of communication is required not only within each design organization but also externally among the various participants: the owner, the NSSS supplier, the architect-engineer, the construction agency, equipment suppliers, and others. This paper discusses, from the viewpoint of a NSSS supplier's engineering organization, the role of standard engineering documents in the design process and communication network

  6. Musique et document sonore

    OpenAIRE

    Javault, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Tirée d'une thèse en musicologie et en esthétique, cette enquête est d'abord remarquable par sa façon d'établir des regroupements et de définir son chemin de réflexion. Pierre-Yves Macé, lui-même musicien, compositeur et praticien des archives phonographiques, trouve des transversales pour éclairer l'emploi du document sonore dans les musiques savantes et expérimentales (en écartant sciemment la pop) - document sonore envisagé comme Autre du musical et qui peut également être dit « le réel de...

  7. Areva - 2011 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having indicated the person responsible of this document and the legal account auditors, and provided some financial information, this document gives an overview of the different risk factors existing in the company: law risks, industrial and environmental risks, operational risks, risks related to large projects, market and liquidity risks. Then, after having recalled the history and evolution of the company and the evolution of its investments over the last five years, it proposes an overview of Areva's activities on the markets of nuclear energy and renewable energies, of its clients and suppliers, of its strategy, of the activities of its different departments. Other information are provided: company's flow chart, estate properties (plants, equipment), an analysis of its financial situation, its research and development policy, the present context, profit previsions or estimations, management organization and operation

  8. Nanomedicine: Addressing Cardiovascular Disease and Cardiovascular Tissue Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botchwey, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is becoming an increasingly significant problem. In attempts to overcome many of the traditional hurdles of cardiovascular disease treatment, therapeutic approaches have been gradually moving beyond an exclusive focus on orally delivered drugs towards the development of nanoscale applications. These technologies exploit molecular scale events to improve drug and gene delivery applications, enhance preventative medicine and diagnostic strategies, and create biomimicking substrates for vascular tissue engineering. As nanoscale treatments enter the arena of clinical medicine, new ways of thinking about and routes for applying nanomedicine to cardiovascular health issues are emerging. With focuses on drug delivery, gene therapy, and biomimetics, this article will provide a comprehensive review of various nanomedicine applications for combating atherosclerosis and for improving upon current vascular tissue engineering designs.

  9. Brief Counseling with Hispanic American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littrell, John M.; Cruz, Jeannette

    1998-01-01

    Hispanic-American college students (N=16) met with a Puerto-Rican counselor for two brief counseling sessions. Brief counseling was a viable and effective approach in helping the students reach their goals. Examined types of student concerns about, and student perceptions of, brief counseling. (Author)

  10. 17 CFR 171.25 - Appeal brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeal brief. 171.25 Section... Denial and Registration Actions § 171.25 Appeal brief. (a) Time to file. Any person who has filed a... appeal brief with the Proceedings Clerk within thirty days after service of the record by the...

  11. 17 CFR 9.22 - Appeal brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeal brief. 9.22 Section 9... Appeals § 9.22 Appeal brief. (a) Time to file. Any person who has filed a notice of appeal in accordance with the provisions of § 9.20 must perfect the appeal by filing an appeal brief with the...

  12. 37 CFR 41.41 - Reply brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reply brief. 41.41 Section 41... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Ex Parte Appeals § 41.41 Reply brief... file a reply brief to an examiner's answer within two months from the date of the examiner's answer....

  13. 37 CFR 41.37 - Appeal brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeal brief. 41.37 Section... brief. Link to an amendment published at 73 FR 32974, June 10, 2008. Per final rule published at 73 FR...) Appellant must file a brief under this section within two months from the date of filing the notice...

  14. 37 CFR 41.68 - Respondent's brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respondent's brief. 41.68... Respondent's brief. (a)(1) Respondent(s) in an appeal may once, within the time limit for filing set forth in... title. (2) The brief must be signed by the party, or the party's duly authorized attorney or agent,...

  15. 37 CFR 41.67 - Appellant's brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appellant's brief. 41.67... Appellant's brief. (a)(1) Appellant(s) may once, within time limits for filing set forth in § 41.66, file a... title. (2) The brief must be signed by the appellant, or the appellant's duly authorized attorney...

  16. SANSMIC design document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Paula D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) maintains an underground storage system consisting of caverns that were leached or solution mined in four salt domes located near the Gulf of Mexico in Texas and Louisiana. The SPR comprises more than 60 active caverns containing approximately 700 million barrels of crude oil. Sandia National Labo- ratories (SNL) is the geotechnical advisor to the SPR. As the most pressing need at the inception of the SPR was to create and fill storage volume with oil, the decision was made to leach the caverns and fill them simultaneously (leach-fill). Therefore, A.J. Russo developed SANSMIC in the early 1980s which allows for a transient oil-brine interface (OBI) making it possible to model leach-fill and withdrawal operations. As the majority of caverns are currently filled to storage capacity, the primary uses of SANSMIC at this time are related to the effects of small and large withdrawals, expansion of existing caverns, and projecting future pillar to diameter ratios. SANSMIC was identified by SNL as a priority candidate for qualification. This report continues the quality assurance (QA) process by documenting the "as built" mathematical and numerical models that comprise this document. The pro- gram flow is outlined and the models are discussed in detail. Code features that were added later or were not documented previously have been expounded. No changes in the code's physics have occurred since the original documentation (Russo, 1981, 1983) although recent experiments may yield improvements to the temperature and plume methods in the future.

  17. AREVA - 2013 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, as well as estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Description of major risks confronting the company; 5 - Information about the issuer; 6 - Business overview; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment; 9 - Situation and activities of the company and its subsidiaries; 10 - Capital resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 - Trend information; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Management and supervisory bodies; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of the management and supervisory bodies; 17 - Human resources information; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information; 22 - Major contracts; 23 - Third party information, statements by experts and declarations of interest; 24 - Documents on display; 25 - Information on holdings; Appendix 1: report of the supervisory board chairman on the preparation and organization of the board's activities and internal control procedures; Appendix 2: statutory auditors' reports; Appendix 3: environmental report; Appendix 4: non-financial reporting methodology and independent third-party report on social, environmental and societal data; Appendix 5: ordinary and extraordinary general shareholders' meeting; Appendix 6: values charter; Appendix 7: table of concordance of the management report; glossaries

  18. Content Documents Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

  19. From Fulltext Documents to Structured Citations CERN's automated Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Claivaz, J B; Robinson, N

    2001-01-01

    For many years, CERN has been collecting all High Energy Physics documents to make them easy to access to physics researchers. A repository of up to 170,000 electronic documents is available via the CERN Document Server [1], the main gateway to CERN's digital library. On top of the creation of this digital archive, the computing support has been looking towards possible improvements in order to ease the task of searching through and reading the articles kept. In addition to the acquisition, cataloguing and indexing of standard metadata, specific treatments have been applied to the data itself. In this paper, after a brief description of process applied to fulltext data, we shall focus on the specific work done within a collaboration between CERN, Geneva University and the University of Sunderland in order to successfully achieve the automated acquisition of structured citations from fulltext documents.

  20. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Grübler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown.

  1. [Iodine deficiency in cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, I; Magyari, M; Stief, L

    1998-08-30

    The thyroid hormone deficiency on cardiovascular function can be characterized with decreased myocardial contractility and increased peripheral vascular resistance as well as with the changes in lipid metabolism. 42 patients with cardiovascular disease (mean age 65 +/- 13 yr, 16 males) were investigated if iodine insufficiency can play a role as a risk factor for the cardiovascular diseases. The patients were divided in 5 subgroups on the ground of the presence of hypertension, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, coronary disfunction and arrhythmia. Urine iodine concentration (5.29 +/- 4.52 micrograms/dl) was detected with Sandell-Kolthoff colorimetric reaction. The most decreased urine iodine concentration was detected in the subgroups with arrhythmia and congestive heart failure (4.7 +/- 4.94 micrograms/dl and 4.9 +/- 4.81 micrograms/dl, respectively). An elevated TSH level was found by 3 patients (5.3 +/- 1.4 mlU/l). An elevation in lipid metabolism (cholesterol, triglyceride) associated with all subgroups without arrhythmia. In conclusion, the occurrence of iodine deficiency in cardiovascular disease is frequent. Iodine supplementation might prevent the worsing effect of iodine deficiency on cardiovascular disease.

  2. Exploring in vitro roles of siRNA in cardiovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu TANG; Yu-zhi GE; James Q YIN

    2007-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an adaptive defense mechanism through which double-stranded RNAs silence cognate genes in a sequence-specific manner. It has been employed widely as a powerful tool in functional genomics studies, target valida-tion and therapeutic product development. Similarly, the application of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) to the silencing of the disease-causing genes involved in cardiovascular diseases has made great progress. In this overview, we attempt to provide a brief outline of the current understanding of the mechanism of RNAi and its potential application to the cardiovascular system, with particular empha-sis on its ability to identify the pathophysiological function of genes related to several important cardiovascular disorders. The prospects of RNAi-based therapeutics, as well as the advantages and potential problems, are also discussed.

  3. A Brief History of Context

    CERN Document Server

    Wan, Kaiyu

    2009-01-01

    Context is a rich concept and is an elusive concept to define. The concept of context has been studied by philosophers, linguists, psychologists, and recently by computer scientists. Within each research community the term context was interpreted in a certain way that is well-suited for their goals, however no attempt was made to define context. In many areas of research in computer science, notably on web-based services, human-computer interaction (HCI), ubiquitous computing applications, and context-aware systems there is a need to provide a formal operational definition of context. In this brief survey an account of the early work on context, as well as the recent work on many working definitions of context, context modeling, and a formalization of context are given. An attempt is made to unify the different context models within the formalization. A brief commentary on the usefulness of the formalization in the development of context-aware and dependable systems is included.

  4. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy;

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control...... in the setting of diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The prevalence of confirmed CAN is around 20%, and increases up to 65% with age and diabetes duration. Established risk factors for CAN are glycaemic control in type 1 and a combination of hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and glycaemic control...... in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: 1. one abnormal cardio-vagal test identifies possible or early CAN; 2. at least two abnormal cardio-vagal tests...

  5. Brief Psychotherapy in Family Practice

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Peter J.; Brown, Alan

    1986-01-01

    A large number of patients with psychosocial or psychiatric disorders present to family physicians, and the family physician needs a model of psychotherapy with which to cope with their problems. A model of brief psychotherapy is presented which is time limited, goal directed and easy to learn. It consists of four facets drawn from established areas of psychotherapy: characteristics of the therapist; characteristics of the patient; Eriksonian developmental stages; and the process of therapy a...

  6. A brief history of videogames

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Belli; Cristian López

    2008-01-01

    The following text contains a brief journey through a short and yet intense adventure, the history of videogames. Since its beginnings in the 1950's decade to the present time, videogames have progressively changed from a hobby for ingeneering studens to the most powerfull leisure industry. In order to gain a better understanding of this phenomenon it is necessary to look over the path of its transformation from a retrospecive point of view. Such a look has necessarily t...

  7. YKL-40 - an emerging biomarker in cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathcke Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several inflammatory cytokines are involved in vascular inflammation resulting in endothelial dysfunction which is the earliest event in the atherosclerotic process leading to manifest cardiovascular disease. YKL-40 is an inflammatory glycoprotein involved in endothelial dysfunction by promoting chemotaxis, cell attachment and migration, reorganization and tissue remodelling as a response to endothelial damage. YKL-40 protein expression is seen in macrophages and smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic plaques with the highest expression seen in macrophages in the early lesion of atherosclerosis. Several studies demonstrate, that elevated serum YKL-levels are independently associated with the presence and extent of coronary artery disease and even higher YKL-40 levels are documented in patients with myocardial infarction. Moreover, elevated serum YKL-40 levels have also been found to be associated with all-cause as well as cardiovascular mortality. Finally, YKL-40 levels are elevated both in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, known to be at high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, when compared to non-diabetic persons. A positive association between elevated circulating YKL-40 levels and increasing levels of albuminuria have been described in patients with type 1 diabetes indicating a role of YKL-40 in the progressing vascular damage resulting in microvascular disease. This review describes the present knowledge about YKL-40 and discusses its relation to endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and diabetes and look ahead on future perspectives of YKL-40 research.

  8. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Supplemental Volume 2a, Sources and documentation appendices. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This large document provides a catalog of the location of large numbers of reports pertaining to the charge of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Research and is arranged as a series of appendices. Titles of the appendices are Appendix A- Records at the Washington National Records Center Reviewed in Whole or Part by DoD Personnel or Advisory Committee Staff; Appendix B- Brief Descriptions of Records Accessions in the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Research Document Collection; Appendix C- Bibliography of Secondary Sources Used by ACHRE; Appendix D- Brief Descriptions of Human Radiation Experiments Identified by ACHRE, and Indexes; Appendix E- Documents Cited in the ACHRE Final Report and other Separately Described Materials from the ACHRE Document Collection; Appendix F- Schedule of Advisory Committee Meetings and Meeting Documentation; and Appendix G- Technology Note

  9. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Supplemental Volume 2a, Sources and documentation appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This large document provides a catalog of the location of large numbers of reports pertaining to the charge of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Research and is arranged as a series of appendices. Titles of the appendices are Appendix A- Records at the Washington National Records Center Reviewed in Whole or Part by DoD Personnel or Advisory Committee Staff; Appendix B- Brief Descriptions of Records Accessions in the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Research Document Collection; Appendix C- Bibliography of Secondary Sources Used by ACHRE; Appendix D- Brief Descriptions of Human Radiation Experiments Identified by ACHRE, and Indexes; Appendix E- Documents Cited in the ACHRE Final Report and other Separately Described Materials from the ACHRE Document Collection; Appendix F- Schedule of Advisory Committee Meetings and Meeting Documentation; and Appendix G- Technology Note.

  10. Software design and documentation language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, H.

    1980-01-01

    Language supports design and documentation of complex software. Included are: design and documentation language for expressing design concepts; processor that produces intelligble documentation based on design specifications; and methodology for using language and processor to create well-structured top-down programs and documentation. Processor is written in SIMSCRIPT 11.5 programming language for use on UNIVAC, IBM, and CDC machines.

  11. SSC Safety Review Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toohig, T.E. [ed.

    1988-11-01

    The safety strategy of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Central Design Group (CDG) is to mitigate potential hazards to personnel, as far as possible, through appropriate measures in the design and engineering of the facility. The Safety Review Document identifies, on the basis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) and related studies, potential hazards inherent in the SSC project independent of its site. Mitigative measures in the design of facilities and in the structuring of laboratory operations are described for each of the hazards identified.

  12. Automatic generation of documents

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Gini; Jacopo Pasquini

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a natural interaction between Stata and markup languages. Stata’s programming and analysis features, together with the flexibility in output formatting of markup languages, allow generation and/or update of whole documents (reports, presentations on screen or web, etc.). Examples are given for both LaTeX and HTML. Stata’s commands are mainly dedicated to analysis of data on a computer screen and output of analysis stored in a log file available to researchers for later re...

  13. AREVA 2009 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. This information provides an adequate picture of the size of these markets and of the AREVA group's competitive position. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document and Attestation by the person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory and Deputy Auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risks: Risk management and coverage, Legal risk, Industrial and environmental risk, Operating risk, Risk related to major projects, Liquidity and market risk, Other risk; 5 - Information about the issuer: History and development, Investments; 6 - Business overview: Markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, AREVA customers and suppliers, Overview and strategy of the group, Business divisions, Discontinued operations: AREVA Transmission and Distribution; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment: Principal sites of the AREVA group, Environmental issues that may affect the issuer's; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance: Overview, Financial position, Cash flow, Statement of financial position, Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2009; 10 - Capital Resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 -trend information: Current situation, Financial objectives; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of corporate bodies; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties: French state, CEA, EDF group; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information: Share capital, Certificate of incorporation and by-laws; 22 - Major

  14. Regulatory guidance document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

  15. AREVA 2010 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the person responsible for this document, and of statutory auditors, this report proposes some selected financial information. Then, it addresses, presents and comments the different risk factors: risk management and coverage, legal risk, industrial and environmental risk, operational risk, risks related to major projects, liquidity and market risk, and other risk. Then, after a presentation of the issuer, it proposes a business overview (markets for nuclear and renewable energies, AREVA customers and suppliers, strategy, activities), a presentation of the organizational structure, a presentation of AREVA properties, plants and equipment (sites, environmental issues), an analysis and comment of the group's financial position and performance, a presentation of its capital resources, an overview of its research and development activities, programs, patents and licenses. It indicates profit forecast and estimates, presents the administrative, management and supervisory bodies, and compensation and benefits amounts, reports of the functioning of corporate bodies. It describes the human resource company policy, indicates the main shareholders and transactions with related parties. It proposes financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance. This document contains its French and its English versions

  16. Regulatory guidance document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM's evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7

  17. ExactPack Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Israel, Daniel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Doebling, Scott William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Woods, Charles Nathan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kaul, Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Walter, Jr., John William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rogers, Michael Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-09

    For code verification, one compares the code output against known exact solutions. There are many standard test problems used in this capacity, such as the Noh and Sedov problems. ExactPack is a utility that integrates many of these exact solution codes into a common API (application program interface), and can be used as a stand-alone code or as a python package. ExactPack consists of python driver scripts that access a library of exact solutions written in Fortran or Python. The spatial profiles of the relevant physical quantities, such as the density, fluid velocity, sound speed, or internal energy, are returned at a time specified by the user. The solution profiles can be viewed and examined by a command line interface or a graphical user interface, and a number of analysis tools and unit tests are also provided. We have documented the physics of each problem in the solution library, and provided complete documentation on how to extend the library to include additional exact solutions. ExactPack’s code architecture makes it easy to extend the solution-code library to include additional exact solutions in a robust, reliable, and maintainable manner.

  18. Creating Access to Opportunities for Youth in Transition from Foster Care. An AYPF Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Erin; Fryar, Garet

    2014-01-01

    What happens to youth in foster care when they turn 18? Many face unprecedented challenges like homelessness, lack of financial resources, difficulty accessing educational opportunities, and unemployment. In this issue brief, The American Youth Policy Forum (AYPF) document these challenges and opportunities in three distinct yet overlapping areas…

  19. Early Musical Training in Bel Canto Vocal Technique: A Brief History and Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Christine Wondolowski

    This paper offers a brief history and philosophy of the origins of bel canto vocal style and describes the pedagogical methods used to achieve bel canto ideals in singing. The document discusses the adoption and development of this technique and how it developed over long periods of preparation in the foregoing centuries before the Baroque era.…

  20. Preserving Knowledge: The Case for Alkaline Paper. ARL Briefing Package Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC.

    This briefing package consists of a compilation of over 15 papers, fact sheets, and other materials focusing on the use of acid-free papers in books and other publications. The document contains the following: Executive Summary and List of Contents; Some Frequently Asked Questions; "Paper Preservation in Library Collections: Basic Information.…

  1. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  2. Towards the European strategy for particle physics the Briefing Book

    CERN Document Server

    Åkesson, T; Allanach, Benjamin C; Bertolucci, S; Blondel, A; Butterworth, J; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cervera-Villanueva, Anselmo; Davidson, S; De Naurois, Mathieu; Desch, K; Egede, U; Glover, N; Heuer, R D; Huber, P; Höcker, A; Jungmann, K; Landua, Rolf; Le Goff, J M; Linde, Frank L; Lombardi, A; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Mezzetto, M; Onderwater, G; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Peach, Kenneth J; Polosa, A; Rondio, E; Webber, Bryan R; Weiglein, G; Womersley, J; Wurr, K

    2007-01-01

    This document was prepared as part of the briefing material for the Workshop of the CERN Council Strategy Group, held in DESY Zeuthen from 2nd to 6th May 2006. It gives an overview of the physics issues and of the technological challenges that will shape the future of the field, and incorporates material presented and discussed during the Symposium on the European Strategy for Particle Physics, held in Orsay from 30th January to 2nd February 2006, reflecting the various opinions of the European community as recorded in written submissions to the Strategy Group and in the discussions at the Symposium.

  3. Briefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Simpler forex rules According to the State Administration of Foreign Exchange,China began a trial program for simplifying the procedures for passing foreign currencies between banks and companies in the trading of goods.Effective from December 1,the new rules don’t require verification for information about prepayments for goods,payment cancellations or delays.

  4. Briefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    RMB trade The Bank of China has opened trading in the yuan currency to U.S.customers. The bank’s New York Branch now lets companies and individuals buy and sell the yuan through accounts with its U.S. branches,although U.S.businesses and individuals can also trade the currency through Western banks.The bank said it offers yuan savings,demand deposit and time deposit accounts to business customers in New York and Los Angeles. A savings account requires a minimum balance of the equivalent of $5,000.

  5. BRIEFS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    EIGHT FIELDS TO BE DEVELOPED Eight key fields to be preferentially developed in metallurgical industry are rare earth materials, composite materials, magnesium, aluminum and titanium alloy materials, high performance and low cost iron and steel materials, new dressing equipment and reagent, surface coated and plated materials, high efficient and safe production of coal and new architectural system. Key fields to realize industrialization are high purity rare earth oxides, high performance rare earth perm...

  6. Briefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    3 More competitive According to the Global Competitiveness Report 2011-12,China’s competitiveness ranking rose from 27th to 26th among 142 economies in the world this year, continuing to lead the way among large developing economies.The report said China is one of the world’s least indebted countries,boasts a savings rate of some 53 percent of GDP,and runs only moder ate budget deficits.However,China’s fairly poor results in the financial market development and technological readiness pillars pull down its overall competitiveness performance,said the report.

  7. Briefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@“The 4th national-& 11th South Central China young scientific researcher symposium on nuclear agricultural sciencee” was held in Zhangjiajie, Hunan on October 22,20O0. 53 representatives from home and abroad attended this symposium sponsored by Hunan Institute of Atomic Energy Application in Agriculture(HIAEAA). At the opening ceremony,HAAS and Zhongshan University, Guangdong, addressed congratuations on the symposium.

  8. Briefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Benefits for Africa China’s investments in Africa have brought multiple benefits to the continent, providing better livelihood,more development opportunities and more choices for local people,said Liu Guijin, China’s special envoy on African affairs,at the end of the three-day World Economic Forum on Africa.He said China’s investments cater to Africa’s needs for a

  9. Briefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Auto sales slows J.D.Power and Associates,a global marketing information services provider based in the United States,predicts that auto sales growth in the Chinese market which is expected to reach 30 percent in 2010,may slow to 10 percent in 2011, since the government has recognized troubles brought about by the rapid increase of automobiles on the street including traffic congestion,pollution and unrestrained expansion of production capacities.

  10. Briefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Corn-processing limit According to Chinese Agriculture Minister Han Changfu,China will curb the amount of corn used in producing industrial chemicals to reduce the increasing pressure on grain supplies. The minister said the government aims to contain further processing of corn in non-food and non-livestock industrial usage.

  11. Briefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Pollution saver Pilot programs promoting the use of controlled-release fertilizer have been expanded to more than 20 provinces in China,compared with five in 2008,said the National Agro-Tech Extension and Service Center(NAESC),a department under the Ministry of Agriculture.The move is aimed at reducing pollution caused by the excessive use of fertilizer to protect the environment and save energy,the NAESC said.NAESC also predicted the use of controlled-release fertilizer could help increase agricultural production by 5 to 10 percent on average.

  12. Briefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Baotou Will Be the Largest RE Metals Production Base in ChinaFrom "Baotou Special Electroanalysis Forum of Fluoride-salt System Rare Earth Oxide", which was held by Baotou Rare Earth Leading Group Office, the production of Nd metal in Baotou in 2003 was 2,800 tons, with market shares 28%, and that in 2004 was estimated at 4,000 tons,

  13. Comparative cardiovascular safety of dementia medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil L; Peterson, Eric D; Holm, Ellen;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark.......To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark....

  14. Down Syndrome: A Cardiovascular Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skillful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and…

  15. Iron deficiency and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Haehling, Stephan; Jankowska, Ewa A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency affects up to one-third of the world's population, and is particularly common in elderly individuals and those with certain chronic diseases. Iron excess can be detrimental in cardiovascular illness, and research has now also brought anaemia and iron deficiency into the focus of card

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  17. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  18. Cardiovascular physiology at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, T; Mellor, A

    2011-03-01

    The role of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygenated blood to the tissues and remove metabolic effluent. It is clear that this complex system will have to adapt to maintain oxygen deliver in the profound hypoxia of high altitude. The literature on the adaptation of both the systemic and pulmonary circulations to high altitude is reviewed.

  19. Serotonin receptors as cardiovascular targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Villalón (Carlos); P.A.M. de Vries (Peter); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSerotonin exerts complex effects in the cardiovascular system, including hypotension or hypertension, vasodilatation or vasoconstriction, and/or bradycardia or tachycardia; the eventual response depends primarily on the nature of the 5-HT receptors involved. In the light of current 5-HT

  20. Epac and the cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Martina; Sand, Carsten; Jakobs, Karl H.; Michel, Martin C.; Weernink, Paschal A. Oude

    2007-01-01

    Exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP (Epac) - a cyclic AMP-activated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras-like GTPases - has emerged as a novel mediator of pivotal processes in the cardiovascular system, including cellular calcium handling, hypertrophy, integrin-mediated cell adhesion, est

  1. Hedgehog morphogen in cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2006-01-01

    In this review, we focus on the basic biology of the important developmental Hedgehog ( Hh) protein family, its general function in development, pathway mechanisms, and gene discovery and nomenclature. Hh function in cardiovascular development and recent findings concerning Hh signaling in ischemia

  2. Women's cardiovascular health in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Sliwa, Karen

    2012-03-01

    The predominant pattern of cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa is that of poverty-related conditions (rheumatic heart valve disease, untreated congenital heart disease, tuberculous pericarditis) and diseases of unclear aetiology with a higher prevalence in this part of the world (peripartum cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis). However, the prevalence of the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and marked obesity is high in a number of sub-Saharan settings, although they vary considerably among countries, urban/rural locations and specific subpopulations. In urban settings, hypertensive heart disease with systolic and diastolic function contributes substantially to morbidity. Awareness of the general public and health workers about the burden of cardiovascular diseases in women must be increased, and risk factor control programmes must be included in the health research agenda on the African continent. Improvement in health services with coordination of maternal health services and non-communicable diseases is also needed. This review focuses on the current knowledge of cardiovascular healthcare of women in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly their propensity for various forms of heart disease, access to healthcare, treatment received within the respective healthcare system, response to therapy and mortality. It highlights the gaps in knowledge and the paucity of data in most of these aspects. PMID:22350029

  3. A model for educational simulation of infant cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Jane A; van Meurs, Willem L; Sá Couto, Carla D; Beneken, Jan E W; Graves, Shirley A

    2004-12-01

    Full-body patient simulators provide the technology and the environment necessary for excellent clinical education while eliminating risk to the patient. The extension of simulator-based training into management of basic and critical situations in complex patient populations is natural. We describe the derivation of an infant cardiovascular model through the redefinition of a complete set of parameters for an existing adult model. Specifically, we document a stepwise parameter estimation process, explicit simplifying assumptions, and sources for these parameters. The simulated vital signs are within the target hemodynamic variables, and the simulated systemic arterial pressure wave form and left ventricular pressure volume loop are realistic. The system reacts appropriately to blood loss, and incorporation of aortic stenosis is straightforward. This infant cardiovascular model can form the basis for screen-based educational simulations. The model is also an essential step in attaining a full-body, model-driven infant simulator.

  4. COCATS 4: Securing the Future of Cardiovascular Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shashank S; Julien, Howard M; Krim, Selim R; Ijioma, Nkechinyere N; Baron, Suzanne J; Rock, Andrea J; Siehr, Stephanie L; Cullen, Michael W

    2015-05-01

    The latest iteration of the Core Cardiology Training Statement (COCATS 4) [Corrected] provides a potentially transformative advancement in cardiovascular fellowship training intended, ultimately, to improve patient care. This review addressed 3 primary themes of COCATS 4 from the perspective of fellows-in-training: 1) the evolution of training requirements culminating in a competency-based curriculum; 2) the development of novel learning paradigms; and 3) the establishment of task forces in emerging areas of multimodality imaging and critical care cardiology. This document also examined several important challenges presented by COCATS 4. The proposed changes in COCATS 4 should not only enhance the training experience but also improve trainee satisfaction. Because it embraces continual transformation of training requirements to meet evolving clinical needs and public expectations, COCATS 4 will enrich the cardiovascular fellowship training experience for patients, programs, and fellows-in-training.

  5. Technical competence in cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography have evolved as very practical and useful techniques applied in clinical cardiology. Due to their rapid acceptance in the cardiology community and widespread use, training of both cardiologists and radiologists on this subspecialty has not been homogeneous so far. This in part explains significant differences observed in the diverse background found in today’s practicing physicians who execute these exams. In order to guide training facilities as well as both payers, contractors and general cardiologists ordering the exam, this document provides a minimum standard that should be accomplished by all physicians who pursue education in the field and for those who already practice in it. The clinical competences listed in this statement are by no means thorough but should be required by all those involved in cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography as the customary requirements for current and future practitioners. (author)

  6. Multilingual documentation and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Health care providers around the world have used classification systems for decades as a basis for documentation, communications, statistical reporting, reimbursement and research. In more recent years machine-readable medical terminologies have taken on greater importance with the adoption of electronic health records and the need for greater granularity of data in clinical systems. Use of a clinical terminology harmonised with classifications, implemented within a clinical information system, will enable the delivery of many patient health benefits including electronic clinical decision support, disease screening and enhanced patient safety. In order to be usable these systems must be translated into the language of use, without losing meaning. It is evident that today one system cannot meet all requirements which call for collaboration and harmonisation in order to achieve true interoperability on a multilingual basis.

  7. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section reprints a selection of recently published legislative texts and documents: - Russian Federation: Federal Law No.170 of 21 November 1995 on the use of atomic energy, Adopted by the State Duma on 20 October 1995; - Uruguay: Law No.19.056 On the Radiological Protection and Safety of Persons, Property and the Environment (4 January 2013); - Japan: Third Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (concerning Damages related to Rumour-Related Damage in the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishery and Food Industries), 30 January 2013; - France and the United States: Joint Statement on Liability for Nuclear Damage (Aug 2013); - Franco-Russian Nuclear Power Declaration (1 November 2013)

  8. Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Beng Yeap

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As men grow older, testosterone (T levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD.

  9. Human thermoregulation and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, José

    2012-03-01

    A key but little understood function of the cardiovascular system is to exchange heat between the internal body tissues, organs and the skin to maintain internal temperature within a narrow range in a variety of conditions that produce vast changes in external (exogenous) and/or internal (endogenous) thermal loads. Heat transfer via the flowing blood (i.e. vascular convective heat transfer) is the most important heat-exchange pathway inside the body. This pathway is particularly important when metabolic heat production increases many-fold during exercise. During exercise typical of many recreational and Olympic events, heat is transferred from the heat-producing contracting muscles to the skin surrounding the exercising limbs and to the normally less mobile body trunk and head via the circulating blood. Strikingly, a significant amount of heat produced by the contracting muscles is liberated from the skin of the exercising limbs. The local and central mechanisms regulating tissue temperature in the exercising limbs, body trunk and head are essential to avoid the deleterious consequences on human performance of either hyperthermia or hypothermia. This brief review focuses on recent literature addressing the following topics: (i) the dynamics of heat production in contracting skeletal muscle; (ii) the influence of exercise and environmental heat and cold stress on limb and systemic haemodynamics; and (iii) the impact of changes in muscle blood flow on heat exchange in human limbs. The paper highlights the need to investigate the responses and mechanisms of vascular convective heat exchange in exercising limbs to advance our understanding of local tissue temperature regulation during exercise and environmental stress. PMID:22227198

  10. Areva reference document 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains also information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; 2 - Information pertaining to the transaction (not applicable); 3 - General information on the company and its share capital: Information on Areva, Information on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; 4 - Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts 140 Principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and Development programs, Intellectual Property and Trademarks, Risk and insurance; 5 - Assets financial position financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, Human Resources report, Environmental report, Consolidated financial statements 2007, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, Annual financial statements 2007, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders of April 17, 2008; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2007, Outlook; Glossary; table of concordance

  11. Areva, reference document 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: - 1 Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; - 2 Information pertaining to the transaction (Not applicable); - 3 General information on the company and its share capital: Information on AREVA, on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; - 4 Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts, The principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and development programs, intellectual property and trademarks, Risk and insurance; - 5 Assets - Financial position - Financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, 2006 Human Resources Report, Environmental Report, Consolidated financial statements, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, AREVA SA financial statements, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate Governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Combined General Meeting of Shareholders of May 3, 2007; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2006, Outlook; 8 - Glossary; 9 - Table of concordance

  12. Cardiovascular Reactivity and its Association with the Risk of Cardiovascular Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Lisset León Regal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: there are no studies that confirm the association between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Objective: to determine the association between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and the risk of cardiovascular morbidity in normotensive individuals. Methods: a cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted. The universe consisted of the population aged 15 to 74 years in Cienfuegos municipality; the sample included 644 people. The variables were: sex, skin color, age, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, smoking, baseline systolic blood pressure, cardiovascular reactivity, and risk of cardiovascular morbidity. The risk of cardiovascular morbidity was calculated by applying the Framingham Risk Functions. The Pearson’s Chi-square test and the prevalence ratio were used with a 95 % confidence interval. The direction of the relationship between cardiovascular reactivity, age, and systolic blood pressure was analyzed considering the Eta value. Results: the prevalence of cardiovascular hyperreactivity was higher among people aged 65 to 74 years and males. A higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity was observed in cardiovascular hyperreactive individuals. There is an association between non-optimal systolic blood pressure, increasing age, and high risk of cardiovascular morbidity in cardiovascular hyperreactive people. Conclusions: the risk of cardiovascular morbidity is higher in cardiovascular hyperreactive individuals than in normoreactive people. Age and systolic blood pressure showed greater association with high risk of cardiovascular morbidity.

  13. Modelos experimentales de enfermedad cardiovascular Experimental models of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gil Hernández

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe los modelos experimentales de utilidad clínica en el estudio de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y hace énfasis en los modelos usados para determinar los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de la aterosclerosis, así como para evaluar los efectos de productos nutricionales y farmacológicos sobre el desarrollo de este proceso inflamatorio complejo común a muchas enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se revisan los modelos animales en los que se puede inducir aterosclerosis por cambios en la composición de la dieta y los modelos animales en los que la alteración de uno o más genes (animales knock-out y knock-in, o la incorporación de genes foráneos de otras especies, da lugar a la aparición de hiperlipidemia con riesgo asociado de aparición de enfermedad cardiovascular temprana. Por otra parte, se consideran algunas de las líneas celulares más utilizadas en el estudio de los mecanismos moleculares de la aterogénesis y de evaluación de sustancias con interés nutricional o farmacológico.The present work describes clinically useful experimental models for the study of cardiovascular disease and emphasites the models used to determine the pathophysiologic mechanisms of atherosclerosis, as well as to evaluate the effects of nutritional and pharmacological products on the development of this complex inflammatory process present in many cardiovascular diseases. Animal models in which ahterosclerosis may be induced by dietary changes are reviewed, as well as those in which modification in one or more genes (knock-out and knock-in animals, or the incorporation of foreign genes from other species lead to early cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, some of the cell lines most frequently used in studying molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis and assessment of substances with nutritional or pharmacological interest are considered.

  14. [Secondary nephrotic syndrome due to cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Tomoya; Takahashi, Fumihiko; Kikuchi, Kenjiro

    2004-10-01

    Cardiovascular diseases ralely evoke nephrotic syndrome. Especially hypertensive renal disease (nephroscrelosis) and renovascular hypertension occasionally may lead to nephrotic syndrome. We reported a case of nephrotic syndrome with renovascular hypertension successfully treated with candesartan. In eldery patients cardiovascular diseases are appeared. It is very important for clinicians to detect the mechanism of nephrotic syndrome caused by cardiovascular diseases. PMID:15500142

  15. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Marfan syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Dormand, Helen; Mohiaddin, Raad H

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an overview of Marfan syndrome with an emphasis on cardiovascular complications and cardiovascular imaging. Both pre- and post-operative imaging is addressed with an explanation of surgical management. All relevant imaging modalities are discussed with a particular focus on cardiovascular MR.

  16. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in systemic hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Maceira Alicia M; Mohiaddin Raad H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Systemic hypertension is a highly prevalent potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of underlying causes for hypertension, in assessing cardiovascular complications of hypertension, and in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease process. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides accurate and reproducible measures of ventricular volumes, mass, function and haemodynamics as well as uniquely allowing tissue char...

  17. Interassociation Consensus Statement on Cardiovascular Care of College Student-Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainline, Brian; Drezner, Jonathan; Baggish, Aaron; Harmon, Kimberly G; Emery, Michael S; Myerburg, Robert J; Sanchez, Eduardo; Molossi, Silvana; Parsons, John T; Thompson, Paul D

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular evaluation and care of college student-athletes is gaining increasing attention from both the public and medical communities. Emerging strategies include screening of the general athlete population, recommendations of permissible levels of participation by athletes with identified cardiovascular conditions, and preparation for responding to unanticipated cardiac events in athletic venues. The primary focus has been sudden cardiac death and the utility of screening with or without advanced cardiac screening. The National Collegiate Athletic Association convened a multidisciplinary task force to address cardiovascular concerns in collegiate student-athletes and to develop consensus for an interassociation statement. This document summarizes the task force deliberations and follow-up discussions, and includes available evidence on cardiovascular risk, pre-participation evaluation, and the recognition of and response to cardiac arrest. Future recommendations for cardiac research initiatives, education, and collaboration are also provided. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2016;doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.03.527.)

  18. Interassociation Consensus Statement on Cardiovascular Care of College Student-Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainline, Brian; Drezner, Jonathan A; Baggish, Aaron; Harmon, Kimberly G; Emery, Michael S; Myerburg, Robert J; Sanchez, Eduardo; Molossi, Silvana; Parsons, John T; Thompson, Paul D

    2016-06-28

    Cardiovascular evaluation and care of college student-athletes is gaining increasing attention from both the public and medical communities. Emerging strategies include screening of the general athlete population, recommendations of permissible levels of participation by athletes with identified cardiovascular conditions, and preparation for responding to unanticipated cardiac events in athletic venues. The primary focus has been sudden cardiac death and the utility of screening with or without advanced cardiac screening. The National Collegiate Athletic Association convened a multidisciplinary task force to address cardiovascular concerns in collegiate student-athletes and to develop consensus for an interassociation statement. This document summarizes the task force deliberations and follow-up discussions, and includes available evidence on cardiovascular risk, pre-participation evaluation, and the recognition of and response to cardiac arrest. Future recommendations for cardiac research initiatives, education, and collaboration are also provided.

  19. Users manual for doctext: Producing documentation from C source code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gropp, W.

    1995-03-01

    One of the major problems that software library writers face, particularly in a research environment, is the generation of documentation. Producing good, professional-quality documentation is tedious and time consuming. Often, no documentation is produced. For many users, however, much of the need for documentation may be satisfied by a brief description of the purpose and use of the routines and their arguments. Even for more complete, hand-generated documentation, this information provides a convenient starting point. We describe here a tool that may be used to generate documentation about programs written in the C language. It uses a structured comment convention that preserves the original C source code and does not require any additional files. The markup language is designed to be an almost invisible structured comment in the C source code, retaining readability in the original source. Documentation in a form suitable for the Unix man program (nroff), LaTeX, and the World Wide Web can be produced.

  20. The Hispanic paradox in cardiovascular disease and total mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Inojosa, Jose; Jean, Nathalie; Cortes-Bergoderi, Mery; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Health statistics and epidemiologic studies have shown that Hispanics live longer than Non Hispanic Whites, despite a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and an average low socioeconomic status, both strong predictors of CVD and mortality. This phenomenon has been dubbed "The Hispanic paradox" and has been demonstrated in old and contemporary cohorts. To date, no factor has been identified that could explain this phenomenon, but socio demographic factors, dietary intake and genetic predisposition have been proposed as possible explanations for the Hispanic paradox. As with the French paradox, where French were found to have a lower rate of coronary heart disease (CHD), helped to identify the role of the Mediterranean diet and wine consumption in the prevention of CHD, the Hispanic paradox could help identify protective factors against CHD. This article describes the current evidence supporting the existence of the Hispanic paradox and provides a brief review on the possible explanations.

  1. The role of histamine in the cardiovascular effects of atracurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adt, M; Baumert, J H; Reimann, H J

    1992-02-01

    We have investigated the effect of a bolus injection of atracurium 0.6 mg kg-1 on the cardiovascular system in 16 patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass surgery. H1- and H2-receptor antagonists were administered to eight patients before the neuromuscular blocker. A standard anaesthetic was used comprising fentanyl, flunitrazepam, etomidate and enflurane. After administration of atracurium, haemodynamic changes and plasma histamine concentrations were measured at frequent intervals. In the first group, who received only atracurium, a brief but marked decrease in SVR and MAP occurred, accompanied by an increase in Cl, together with a marked increase in plasma concentration of histamine. In the second group, who received H1- and H2-receptor block, there was no decrease in MAP and only a small increase in plasma histamine concentration. However, there were significant changes in SVR and Cl similar to those in atracurium group.

  2. Tracers and contrast agents in cardiovascular imaging: present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief article addresses the current status and future potential of nuclear medicine, X-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. The currently perceived advantages and disadvantages, as well as the possible future roles, of each of the modalities with regard to the evaluation of coronary artery disease are delineated. The certain advent of Mr and US myocardial contrast agents, combined with the inexorable pressures of health care reform, will alter the future usage patterns of all four modalities. Future debates about which modality should be used in which clinical situation will be based not on 'anatomy vs function', nor on the issues of cost effectiveness and patient outcomes

  3. Enhancing the crisis management briefing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel W; Volkmann, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The Crisis Management Briefing (CMB) is a powerful and versatile crisis intervention tool, effective within a wide variety of populations, settings, and critical incidents. Initially proposed by Everly (2000), the CMB uniquely fills the factual information void following a critical incident. Additionally, a CMB provides essential information on effective coping strategies and available helping resources, tailored to the specific incident(s). The authors expand on the original CMB construct using their combined field experience, offering recommendations on team composition, strategic planning factors, using CISDs vs. CMBs, and specific enhancements for the four phases. They conclude with examples of specific interventions across a variety of events to illustrate their recommendations.

  4. Mortality of mothers from cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following pregnancy complications in first delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob Alexander; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Lockwood, Charles J;

    2010-01-01

    The combined effects of preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, placental abruption and stillbirth on early maternal death from cardiovascular causes have not previously been described in a large cohort. We investigated the effects of pregnancy...... cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. We found that preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age were both associated with subsequent death of mothers from cardiovascular and non...... cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes, while hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are markers of early death of mothers from cardiovascular causes....

  5. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Silviera, D.J.

    1988-12-01

    The National Briefing Summaries is a compilation of publicly available information concerning the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management strategies and programs of 21 nations, including the United States and three international agencies that have publicized their activities in this field. It presents available highlight information with references that may be used by the reader for additional information. The information in this document is compiled primarily for use by the US Department of Energy and other US federal agencies and their contractors to provide summary information on radioactive waste management activities in other countries. This document provides an awareness to managers and technical staff of what is occurring in other countries with regard to strategies, activities, and facilities. The information may be useful in program planning to improve and benefit United States' programs through foreign information exchange. Benefits to foreign exchange may be derived through a number of exchange activities.

  6. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Bradley, D.J.; Fletcher, J.F.; Konzek, G.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Mitchell, S.J.; Molton, P.M.; Nightingale, R.E.

    1991-04-01

    Since 1976, the International Program Support Office (IPSO) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has collected and compiled publicly available information concerning foreign and international radioactive waste management programs. This National Briefing Summaries is a printout of an electronic database that has been compiled and is maintained by the IPSO staff. The database contains current information concerning the radioactive waste management programs (with supporting information on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle) of most of the nations (except eastern European countries) that now have or are contemplating nuclear power, and of the multinational agencies that are active in radioactive waste management. Information in this document is included for three additional countries (China, Mexico, and USSR) compared to the prior issue. The database and this document were developed in response to needs of the US Department of Energy.

  7. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1976, the International Program Support Office (IPSO) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has collected and compiled publicly available information concerning foreign and international radioactive waste management programs. This National Briefing Summaries is a printout of an electronic database that has been compiled and is maintained by the IPSO staff. The database contains current information concerning the radioactive waste management programs (with supporting information on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle) of most of the nations (except eastern European countries) that now have or are contemplating nuclear power, and of the multinational agencies that are active in radioactive waste management. Information in this document is included for three additional countries (China, Mexico, and USSR) compared to the prior issue. The database and this document were developed in response to needs of the US Department of Energy

  8. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Briefing Summaries is a compilation of publicly available information concerning the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management strategies and programs of 21 nations, including the United States and three international agencies that have publicized their activities in this field. It presents available highlight information with references that may be used by the reader for additional information. The information in this document is compiled primarily for use by the US Department of Energy and other US federal agencies and their contractors to provide summary information on radioactive waste management activities in other countries. This document provides an awareness to managers and technical staff of what is occurring in other countries with regard to strategies, activities, and facilities. The information may be useful in program planning to improve and benefit United States' programs through foreign information exchange. Benefits to foreign exchange may be derived through a number of exchange activities

  9. Advance Care Planning and Goals of Care Communication in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Disease and Multi-Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Hillary D; Sudore, Rebecca L

    2016-05-01

    This article provides an approach to advance care planning (ACP) and goals of care communication in older adults with cardiovascular disease and multi-morbidity. The goal of ACP is to ensure that the medical care patients receive is aligned with their values and preferences. In this article, the authors outline common benefits and challenges to ACP for older adults with cardiovascular disease and multimorbidity. Recognizing that these patients experience diverse disease trajectories and receive care in multiple health care settings, the authors provide practical steps for multidisciplinary teams to integrate ACP into brief clinic encounters.

  10. Toward Documentation of Program Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestdam, Thomas; Nørmark, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    The documentation of a program often falls behind the evolution of the program source files. When this happens it may be attractive to shift the documentation mode from updating the documentation to documenting the evolution of the program. This paper describes tools that support the documentation...... of program evolution. The tools are refinements of the Elucidative Programming tools, which in turn are inspired from Literate Programming tools. The version-aware Elucidative Programming tools are able to process a set of program source files in different versions together with unversioned documentation...... files. The paper introduces a set of fine grained program evolution steps, which are supported directly by the documentation tools. The automatic discovery of the fine grained program evolution steps makes up a platform for documenting coarse grained and more high-level program evolution steps...

  11. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Investment Treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the second of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 2 explains how investment treaties between states work to protect and promote foreign investment.

  12. Quantification of scientific output in cardiovascular medicine: A perspective based on global data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Rodriguez-Granillo (Gaston); A. Rodriguez (Alfredo Chapin); N. Bruining (Nico); J. Milei (José); J. Aoki (Jiro); K. Tsuchida (Keiichi); R. del Valle-Fernández (Raquel); C.A. Arampatzis (Chourmouzios); A.T.L. Ong (Andrew); P.A. Lemos Neto (Pedro); R. Ayala (Rosa); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); F. Saia (Francesco); M. Valgimigli (Marco); E.S. Regar (Eveline); E. McFadden (Eugene); G.G. Biondi-Zoccai (Giuseppe); E. Barbenza (Ezequiel); P. Schoenhagen (Paul); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAims: We sought to explore whether global and regional scientific output in cardiovascular medicine is associated with economic variables and follows the same trend as medicine and as science overall. Methods and results: We registered the number of documents, number of citations, citati

  13. Recommended HSE-7 documents hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report recommends a hierarchy of waste management documents at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or ''Laboratory''). The hierarchy addresses documents that are required to plan, implement, and document waste management programs at Los Alamos. These documents will enable the waste management group and the six sections contained within that group to satisfy requirements that are imposed upon them by the US Department of Energy (DOE), DOE Albuquerque Operations, US Environmental Protection Agency, various State of New Mexico agencies, and Laboratory management

  14. On classifying digital accounting documents

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Fong, Tsai

    2007-01-01

    Advances in computing and multimedia technologies allow many accounting documents to be digitized within little cost for effective storage and access. Moreover, the amount of accounting documents is increasing rapidly, this leads to the need of developing some mechanisms to effectively manage those (semi-structured) digital accounting documents for future accounting information systems (AIS). In general, accounting documents contains such as invoices, purchase orders, checks, photographs, cha...

  15. Language Documentation in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetto, Bruna; Rice, Keren

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the documentation of endangered languages has advanced greatly in the Americas. In this paper we survey the role that international funding programs have played in advancing documentation in this part of the world, with a particular focus on the growth of documentation in Brazil, and we examine some of the major opportunities…

  16. INFORMATION RETRIEVAL FOR SHORT DOCUMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Haoliang; Li Mu; Gao Jianfeng; Li Sheng

    2006-01-01

    The major problem of the most current approaches of information models lies in that individual words provide unreliable evidence about the content of the texts. When the document is short, e.g. only the abstract is available, the word-use variability problem will have substantial impact on the Information Retrieval (IR) performance. To solve the problem, a new technology to short document retrieval named Reference Document Model (RDM) is put forward in this letter. RDM gets the statistical semantic of the query/document by pseudo feedback both for the query and document from reference documents. The contributions of this model are three-fold: (1) Pseudo feedback both for the query and the document; (2) Building the query model and the document model from reference documents; (3) Flexible indexing units, which can be any linguistic elements such as documents, paragraphs, sentences, n-grams, term or character. For short document retrieval, RDM achieves significant improvements over the classical probabilistic models on the task of ad hoc retrieval on Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) test sets. Results also show that the shorter the document, the better the RDM performance.

  17. The Practicalities of Document Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Ian

    1993-01-01

    Describes steps involved in the conversion of source documents to scanned digital image format. Topics addressed include document preparation, including photographs and oversized material; indexing procedures, including automatic indexing possibilities; scanning documents, including resolution and throughput; quality control; backfile conversion;…

  18. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)

  19. Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dice la Ley de Hierro de la Epidemiología que todo el que nace muere. Por ello el fin de la Medicina no es evitar la muerte en sí, sino evitar las muertes, las enfermedades y el sufrimiento médicamente evitables.Al final, todos nuestros pacientes morirán – y nosotros mismos moriremos también, obviamente. “Los cuerpos encuentran una forma de morir” y si la causa no es el hambre ni la deshidratación, ni es congénita, ni infecciosa, ni por lesiones, ni por cáncer, ni por suicidio, tenemos que esperar que sea por ‘causa cardiovascular’, enfermedad pulmonar, insuficiencia renal o hepática, demencia u otras enfermedades degenerativas. Pero de algo tenemos que morir.Morir por causa cardiovascular ni es deshonroso, ni implica defectuosa atención clínica. Que la primera causa de muerte sea la cardiovascular no dice nada respecto a los cuidados clínicos, ni debería asustar.Sin embargo, son evitables muchas muertes de causa cardiovascular. Así, se puede evitar mucha mortalidad cardiovascular disminuyendo la desigualdad social, por ejemplo (con mejor re-distribución de la riqueza, mejor educación y demás. Los médicos saben que los factores adversos psicosociales asociados a la pertenencia a la clase baja responden del 35% del riesgo atribuible a la hipertensión en la incidencia del infarto de miocardio (en otra formulación, que pertenecer a la clase baja multiplica por 2,7 dicho riesgo1.También deberíamos saber que contra las muertes cardiovasculares no hay nada como las políticas de salud pública sobre el tabaquismo (restricciones de lugares en los que fumar, aumento del precio del tabaco, campañas de información, y demás.En lo clínico, las muertes cardiovasculares evitables se deben ver en perspectiva, según lo que se puede lograr2. Así, por 100.000 habitantes y año, el tratamiento con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (IECA en la insuficiencia cardíaca puede evitar 308 muertes; el consejo m

  20. Nuclear imaging of cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear imaging methods provide noninvasive indexes of myocardial function, perfusion, and metabolism and are well accepted in clinical cardiology. Advances in prevention and treatment of cardiac disease have resulted in decreasing cardiovascular mortality in industrialized nations. The improvement in therapeutic options has increased the demand for diagnostic tests that might guide clinical decision making. Information beyond the pure anatomic characterization of coronary stenoses is required. Nuclear imaging can be used for early detection and monitoring of the severity and extent of disease. The prognostic potential of such functional testing is being increasingly appreciated and used to guide therapy, thereby resulting in improvement of the quality and cost-effectiveness of the workup of patients with cardiovascular disease. Extensive clinical validation has resulted in growing acceptance of these techniques. Furthermore, ongoing improvement of imaging techniques and development of new radiopharmaceuticals will pave the way for disease-specific, molecular-targeted cardiac imaging in the future. (orig.)

  1. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    . The possible mechanisms that may be of importance include calcium, protein, fermentation and the fatty acid composition of cheese. Results from four prospective studies reported no association between cheese intake and CVD risk, whereas one reported an increased risk, two reported a decreased risk and one...... reported no association in men but a decreased risk in women. In addition, results from four intervention studies indicated no harmful effect on cholesterol concentrations when comparing fat intake from cheese with fat from butter. The underlying mechanisms for these findings still need to be elucidated.......Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  2. Chiral cardiovascular drugs: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Vasant V; Somberg, John C

    2005-01-01

    Stereochemistry in drug molecules is rapidly becoming an important aspect in drug research, design, and development. Recently, individual stereoisomers of drug molecules with asymmetric centers such as fexofenadine, cetirizine, verapamil, fluoxetine, levalbutarol, and amphetamine, for example, have been separated and developed as individual drugs. These stereoisomers have different therapeutic activity, and each isomer has contributed differently with respect to its formulation's pharmacologic activity, side effects, and toxicity. The present overview discusses chirality among a select group of cardiovascular drugs, their stereochemical synthesis/preparation, isolation techniques using chiral chromatography, methods for confirmation of their enantiomeric purity, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics. Chirality has been visualized as an important factor in cardiovascular research. It is also becoming evident in other areas of therapeutics.

  3. Cardiovascular Disease and Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the ce......Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones......, a progressively increased risk in people with different levels of reduced TSH to a physiologically 'dose-dependent' effect of thyroid hormones on the heart in overt hyperthyroidism. Heart failure represents an intriguing clinical situation in which triiodothyronine treatment might be beneficial. In conclusion...

  4. Cardiovascular stress of photochemotherapy (PUVA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciafone, R.A.; Rhodes, A.R.; Audley, M.; Freedberg, I.M.; Abelmann, W.H.

    1980-11-01

    The recently devised therapy for psoriasis and related skin diseases, consisting of long-wave ultraviolet light and oral 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA), was investigated for its cardiovascular effects. In seventeen patients, long-wave ultraviolet light therapy in a treatment enclosure (mean duration, 19.3 minutes) resulted in ambient temperatures of 39.2 degrees C +/- 2.1 degrees C (SD) and skin temperatures of 38.2 degrees C +/- 1.4 degrees C. In upright subjects, heart rate rose 30.8% to 114.4 +/- 25.2 beats per minute (bpm). Intensive room air conditioning, outside of the treatment enclosure, although significantly lowering skin and ambient temperatures, did not affect the heart rates significantly. PUVA therapy is associated with a definite cardiovascular stress when the box type of therapeutic unit is used. Possible modifications are discussed.

  5. Psychological hardiness predicts cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartone, Paul T; Valdes, James J; Sandvik, Asle

    2016-09-01

    Many, but not all people experience diminished health, performance and well-being as a function of exposure to stress. However, the underlying neurophysiological processes which characterize hardy or resilient people are not well understood. This study examines psychological hardiness and several indicators of cardiovascular health, including body mass index (BMI) and blood cholesterol markers in a sample of 338 middle-aged adults enrolled in a national security education program. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal that after controlling for the influence of age and sex, high hardiness is related to higher HDL - high density lipoprotein and less body fat (BMI). Lower hardiness is associated with greater total cholesterol to HDL ratio, a cardiovascular disease risk factor. These results suggest that psychological hardiness confers resilience in part through an influence on cholesterol production and metabolism. PMID:26652199

  6. Disparities in women's cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Jean C; Pettey, Christina M; Souder, Elaine; Rhoads, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women, and disparities affect the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of CVD for women. Biology, genetics, and race contribute to these disparities. Obstetric-gynecologic health care providers routinely encounter women who are at risk for developing CVD and are uniquely positioned as a point of access to intervene to improve/prevent CVD by assessing for risks and discussing healthy lifestyle changes during routine visits.

  7. Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Takehara, Naofumi

    2013-01-01

    A great numbers of cardiovascular disease patients all over the world are suffering in the poor outcomes. Under this situation, cardiac regeneration therapy to reorganize the postnatal heart that is defined as a terminal differentiated-organ is a very important theme and mission for human beings. However, the temporary success of several clinical trials using usual cell types with uncertain cell numbers has provided the transient effect of cell therapy to these patients. We therefore should r...

  8. Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    There is an enormous amount of literature on psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. This report reviews conceptual issues in defining stress and then explores the ramifications of stress in terms of the effects of acute versus long-term stressors on cardiac functioning. Examples of acute stressor studies are discussed in terms of disasters (earthquakes) and in the context of experimental stress physiology studies, which offer a more detailed perspective on underlying physiology. Stu...

  9. Perindopril for improving cardiovascular events

    OpenAIRE

    DiNicolantonio, James; O'Keefe, James

    2014-01-01

    James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USAIn a recent review in Vascular Health and Risk Management Wang et al state that “In mainly placebo-controlled cardiovascular (CV)-outcome studies in patients with hypertension, CV benefits with perindopril were associated with large reductions in BP.”1 However, perindopril in the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Ev...

  10. Cardiovascular Function in Pulmonary Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Visca; Marina Aiello; Alfredo Chetta

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias, have a strong influence on each other, and systemic inflammation has been considered as the main linkage between them. On the other hand, airflow limitation may markedly affect lung mechanics in terms of static and dynamic hyperinflation, especially in pulmonary emphysema, and they can in turn influence cardiac performance as well...

  11. Perindopril for improving cardiovascular events

    OpenAIRE

    DiNicolantonio JJ; O’Keefe JH

    2014-01-01

    James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USAIn a recent review in Vascular Health and Risk Management Wang et al state that “In mainly placebo-controlled cardiovascular (CV)-outcome studies in patients with hypertension, CV benefits with perindopril were associated with large reductions in BP.”1 However, perindopril in the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events With Perind...

  12. Genetic risks for cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zafarmand, M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the heart, brain, and peripheral circulation, is a major health problem world-wide. The development of atherosclerosis is a complex process, and several established risk factors are involved. Nevertheless, these established risk factors do not fully explain the occurrence of CVD and further insight is required in factors such as genetic determinants that may identify individuals at risk. In this thesis we worked on the genetic basis...

  13. Improving collaborative documentation in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Lassila-Perini, Kati

    2009-01-01

    Complete and up-to-date documentation is essential for efficient data analysis in a large and complex collaboration like CMS. Good documentation reduces the time spent in problem solving for users and software developers. The scientists in our research environment do not necessarily have the interests or skills of professional technical writers. This results in inconsistencies in the documentation. To improve the quality, we have started a multidisciplinary project involving CMS user support and expertise in technical communication from the University of Turku, Finland. In this paper, we present possible approaches to study the usability of the documentation, for instance, usability tests conducted recently for the CMS software and computing user documentation

  14. Repurposing of approved cardiovascular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Junichi; Konishi, Masaaki; Ebner, Nicole; Springer, Jochen

    2016-09-20

    Research and development of new drugs requires both long time and high costs, whereas safety and tolerability profiles make the success rate of approval very low. Drug repurposing, applying known drugs and compounds to new indications, has been noted recently as a cost-effective and time-unconsuming way in developing new drugs, because they have already been proven safe in humans. In this review, we discuss drug repurposing of approved cardiovascular drugs, such as aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, cardiac glycosides and statins. Regarding anti-tumor activities of these agents, a number of experimental studies have demonstrated promising pleiotropic properties, whereas all clinical trials have not shown expected results. In pathological conditions other than cancer, repurposing of cardiovascular drugs is also expanding. Numerous experimental studies have reported possibilities of drug repurposing in this field and some of them have been tried for new indications ('bench to bedside'), while unexpected results of clinical studies have given hints for drug repurposing and some unknown mechanisms of action have been demonstrated by experimental studies ('bedside to bench'). The future perspective of experimental and clinical studies using cardiovascular drugs are also discussed.

  15. Perindopril for improving cardiovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiNicolantonio JJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USAIn a recent review in Vascular Health and Risk Management Wang et al state that “In mainly placebo-controlled cardiovascular (CV-outcome studies in patients with hypertension, CV benefits with perindopril were associated with large reductions in BP.”1 However, perindopril in the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events With Perindopril in Stable Coronary Artery Disease (EUROPA study significantly reduced major cardiovascular events despite a small reduction (approximately 4 mmHg in systolic blood pressure from baseline.2,3 Additionally, the average baseline blood pressure in the EUROPA was just 137/82 mmHg, and in those without hypertension, perindopril still provided a 20% reduction in the combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrest.4,5 In fact, patients receiving perindopril with a baseline systolic blood pressure of <120 mmHg had the greatest reduction in the primary event.6 View original paper by Wang and colleagues. 

  16. Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysant, Steven G

    2015-09-01

    Coffee is the most widely consumed beverage worldwide and is only second to water drinking and is consumed by 83% of adults in the United States. The long-held controversy regarding the association of coffee consumption with an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and hypertension has been reversed by several recent prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses, which have demonstrated that coffee consumption is not associated with increased incidence of CVDs and hypertension and instead it could have a beneficial effect. To get a better understanding of the effects of coffee consumption on cardiovascular health, a Medline search of the English language literature was conducted from 2010 to early 2015 and 25 pertinent reports with information on the effects of coffee drinking, the incidence of CVDs, and hypertension and its mechanism of action were selected for inclusion in this commentary. These studies have shown either a neutral or beneficial effect of coffee on cardiovascular health. In conclusion, coffee is safe to drink by both normal subjects and by those with preexisting CVDs and hypertension.

  17. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome and cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgios; K; Andrikopoulos; Dimitrios; K; Alexopoulos; Sotirios; P; Gartaganis

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoexfoliation(PEX) syndrome is a well-recognized late-onset disease caused by a generalized fibrillopathy. It is linked to a broad spectrum of ocular complications including glaucoma and perioperative problems during cataract surgery. Apart from the long-known intraocular manifestations, PEX deposits have been found in a variety of extraocular locations and they appear to represent a systemic process associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity. However, as published results are inconsistent, the clinical significance of the extraocular PEX deposits remains controversial. Identification of PEX deposits in the heart and the vessel wall, epidemiologic studies, as well as, similarities in pathogenetic mechanisms have led to the hypothesis of a possible relation between fibrillar material and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggest that PEX syndrome is frequently linked to impaired heart and blood vessels function. Systemic and ocular blood flow changes, altered parasympathetic vascular control and baroreflex sensitivity, increased vascular resistance and decreased blood flow velocity, arterial endothelial dysfunction, high levels of plasma homocysteine and arterial hypertension have all been demonstrated in PEX subjects. Common features in the pathogenesis of both atherosclerosis and PEX, like oxidative stress and inflammation and a possible higher frequency of abdominal aorta aneurysm in PEX patients, could imply that these grey-white deposits and cardiovascular disorders are related or reflect different manifestations of the same process.

  18. Cardiovascular complications of radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, William; Shamsa, Kamran; Lee, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular sequelae of radiation exposure are an important cause of morbidity and mortality following radiation therapy for cancer, as well as after exposure to radiation after atomic bombs or nuclear accidents. In the United States, most of the data on radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) come from patients treated with radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease and breast cancer. Additionally, people exposed to radiation from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear accident have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The total dose of radiation, as well as the fractionation of the dose, plays an important role in the development of RIHD. All parts of the heart are affected, including the pericardium, vasculature, myocardium, valves, and conduction system. The mechanism of injury is complex, but one major mechanism is injury to endothelium in both the microvasculature and coronary arteries. This likely also contributes to damage and fibrosis within the myocardium. Additionally, various inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines contribute to injury. Diagnosis and treatment are not significantly different from those for conventional cardiovascular disease; however, screening for heart disease and lifelong cardiology follow-up is essential in patients with past radiation exposure. PMID:25290729

  19. Robotic technology in cardiovascular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatti, Johannes; Vetrovec, George; Riga, Celia; Wazni, Oussama; Stadler, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Robotic technology has been used in cardiovascular medicine since the late 1990s. Interventional cardiology, electrophysiology, endovascular surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and laparoscopic vascular surgery are all fields of application. Robotic devices enable endoscopic reconstructive surgery in narrow spaces and fast, very precise placement of catheters and devices in catheter-based interventions. In all robotic systems, the operator manipulates the robotic arms from a control station or console. In the field of cardiac surgery, mitral valve repair, CABG surgery, atrial septal defect repair, and myxoma resection can be achieved using robotic technology. Furthermore, vascular surgeons can perform a variety of robotically assisted operations to treat aortic, visceral, and peripheral artery disease. In electrophysiology, ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation can be carried out with robotic support. In the past few years, robotically assisted percutaneous coronary intervention and abdominal aortic endovascular surgery techniques have been developed. The basic feasibility and safety of robotic approaches in cardiovascular medicine has been demonstrated, but learning curves and the high costs associated with this technology have limited its widespread use. Nonetheless, increased procedural speed, accuracy, and reduced exposure to radiation and contrast agent in robotically assisted catheter-based interventions, as well as reduced surgical trauma and shortened patient recovery times after robotic cardiovascular surgery are promising achievements in the field. PMID:24663088

  20. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  1. Risco cardiovascular, efetividade e mortalidade Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality Riesgo cardiovascular, efectividad y mortalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A Lei de Ferro da Epidemiologia (Ley de Hierro de La Epidemiología diz que todos que nascem, morrem. Por isso, o propósito da Medicina não é evitar a morte por si só, mas evitar as mortes, as doenças e o sofrimento que podem ser medicamente evitáveis.

    No final, todos nossos pacientes morrerão – e nós também, obviamente, morreremos. “Os corpos encontram uma forma de morrer”, e se a causa não for por fome ou desidratação, por motivo congênito e infeccioso, por lesões, câncer ou suicídio, temos que esperar que seja por ‘motivo cardiovascular’, doença pulmonar, insuficiência renal ou hepática, demência ou outras doenças degenerativas. Mas temos que morrer por alguma coisa.

    Morrer por causa cardiovascular não é desonroso, nem refere-se à atenção clínica imperfeita. O fato de a primeira causa de morte ser a cardiovascular não tem nenhuma relação com os cuidados clínicos e nem deveria assustar.

    Entretanto, muitas das mortes por motivo cardiovascular poderiam ser evitadas. Assim, poder-se-ia evitar mortalidade cardiovascular, diminuindo a desigualdade social, por exemplo, com melhor redistribuição da riqueza, melhor educação etc. Os médicos sabem que os fatores adversos psicossociais associados ao fato de pertencer à classe baixa correspondem a 35% do risco atribuído à hipertensão na incidência do infarto do miocárdio (em outra hipótese, pertencer à classe baixa duplica 2,7 tal risco1.

    Também deve-se saber que, contra as mortes cardiovasculares, não há nada como as políticas de saúde pública quanto ao tabagismo (restrições dos lugares onde fumar, aumento do preço do tabaco, campanhas de informação, entre outras.

    Na parte clínica, as mortes cardiovasculares evitáveis devem ser vistas em perspectiva, de acordo com o que seja possível conseguir2. Portanto, por 100.000 habitantes ao ano, o tratamento com inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA

  2. [Inequities in cardiovascular diseases in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2013-01-01

    In high-income countries, social inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are well-documented. Although Latin America has a rich history of theory and conceptual discussion regarding social inequalities in health, empirical research has been more limited. In this commentary we summarize recent empirical work on social inequalities in CVD risk in Latin America, and highlight key research needs as well as implications for prevention. Although much remains unknown about the social patterning of CVD in Latin America, the limited studies to date indicate that inequalities in CVD risk vary across populations and markers of socioeconomic position, as well as disease risk marker. The strongest social inequalities are seen among women, and in urban areas, with regards to obesity, diabetes, and diet. Few studies, though, have been conducted in some parts of Latin America, including the countries of Central America and northern South America. Vital registration systems and nationally-representative risk factor surveys can be important sources of data, as long as information on socioeconomic indicators is collected. Longitudinal studies will also be important for investigating factors driving social inequalities. As policies and prevention strategies are put into place to reduce CVD in Latin America, they must also address factors generating social inequalities in CVD risk.

  3. A brief history of videogames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Belli

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The following text contains a brief journey through a short and yet intense adventure, the history of videogames. Since its beginnings in the 1950's decade to the present time, videogames have progressively changed from a hobby for ingeneering studens to the most powerfull leisure industry. In order to gain a better understanding of this phenomenon it is necessary to look over the path of its transformation from a retrospecive point of view. Such a look has necessarily to focus on those devices and games that had made a landmark in the history of videogames, taking them to their current position. Besides, it is crucial to address their implications in contemporary visual culture, along with current prejudices against them. This is a short account about a great history.

  4. Usability Briefing for hospital design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fronczek-Munter, Aneta

    This PhD thesis is a contribution to an ongoing debate in Denmark about improving the building design processes of complex buildings, especially in relation to the current hospital developments. It provides knowledge about capturing user needs and defines the process model for usability briefing...... for hospital architecture from a user perspective. The thesis is based on comprehensive literature studies, three main case studies at hospitals,numerous expert interviews and workshops. The research results generate a better understanding of how knowledge about user needs, acquired from workshops...... participatory design, where users are seen as partners and co-creators, and where innovation and design are not done ‘for’ users, but‘with‘ or ‘by’ users. Research results from the presented hospital cases demonstrate that user-driven innovation is possible even in the hierarchic and technically advanced...

  5. Anthropic Rock: a brief history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Cathcart

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Stone tool-making is a reductive process. Synthetic rock manufacturing, preeminently an additive process, will not for-ever be confined to only the Earth-biosphere. This brief focuses on humanity's ancient past, hodiernal and possible future even more massive than present-day creation of artificial rocks within our exploitable Solar System. It is mostly Earth-centric account that expands the factual generalities underlying the unique non-copyrighted systemic technogenic rock classification first publicly presented (to the American Geological Society during 2001, by its sole intellectual innovator, James Ross Underwood, Jr. His pioneering, unique exposition of an organization of this ever-increasingly important aspect of the Anthropic Rock story, spatially expansive material lithification, here is given an amplified discussion for the broader geo and space science social group-purpose of encouragement of a completer 21st Century treatment of Underwood's explicative subject-chart (Fig. 2.

  6. 19 CFR 207.23 - Prehearing brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prehearing brief. 207.23 Section 207.23 Customs... EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.23 Prehearing brief... days prior to the date of the hearing specified in the notice of scheduling, a prehearing...

  7. Brief Psychotherapy Methods in Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    After a concise overview of the technical characteristics that define brief psychotherapy, the current use and misuse of these methods in clinical research on the outcome and process of treatment is examined. Suggests that brief psychotherapy methods possess unique technical advantages to the researcher. (Author/BL)

  8. Job Briefs. Career Education Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC. European Area.

    The document contains 288 one-page job descriptions based on 1973 information for the following 11 career clusters: automotive technology, business/clerical/sales, computer technology, electricity/electronics, graphic communications, health/cosmetology, agriculture/conservation, artistic/literary/music, mechanical/transportation/construction,…

  9. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  10. Content accessibility of Web documents: Overview of concepts and needed standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, A.

    2006-01-01

    to broaden the scope to any type of user and any type of use case. The document provides an introduction to some required concepts and technical standards for designing accessible Web sites. A brief review of thelegal requirements in a few countries for Web accessibility complements the recommendations...

  11. First Steps to Endangered Language Documentation: The Kalasha Language, a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mela-Athanasopoulou, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The present paper based on extensive fieldwork D conducted on Kalasha, an endangered language spoken in the three small valleys in Chitral District of Northwestern Pakistan, exposes a spontaneous dialogue-based elicitation of linguistic material used for the description and documentation of the language. After a brief display of the basic typology…

  12. Automatic Multi Document Summarization Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogan J. Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Text summarization can be of different nature ranging from indicative summary that identifies the topics of the document to informative summary which is meant to represent the concise description of the original document, providing an idea of what the whole content of document is all about. Approach: Single document summary seems to capture both the information well but it has not been the case for multi document summary where the overall comprehensive quality in presenting informative summary often lacks. It is found that most of the existing methods tend to focus on sentence scoring and less consideration is given to the contextual information content in multiple documents. Results: In this study, some survey on multi document summarization approaches has been presented. We will direct our focus notably on four well known approaches to multi document summarization namely the feature based method, cluster based method, graph based method and knowledge based method. The general ideas behind these methods have been described. Conclusion: Besides the general idea and concept, we discuss the benefits and limitations concerning these methods. With the aim of enhancing multi document summarization, specifically news documents, a novel type of approach is outlined to be developed in the future, taking into account the generic components of a news story in order to generate a better summary.

  13. Impact of Pharmacists and Student Pharmacists in Educating and Screening Low-Income Women for Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie A. DiPietro, PharmD, MPH;Associate Professor of Pharmacy Practice; Kristen Finley Sobota, PharmD, BCPS; Martin R. Giannamore, PharmD, BCPS

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention on knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to increase awareness of risk factors among female patients of a community health center with an on-site 340B pharmacy.Methods: The program consisted of a 10-minute educational intervention and brief pre-test, post-test, and participant satisfaction survey. Adult female patients at the clinic for any provider visit or prescription fill were eligible to participate. Partici...

  14. Eventos cardiovasculares e risco adicional em idosos hipertensos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Fontes de Queiroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue investigar eventos cardiovasculares y riesgo adicional en fichas de ancianos hipertensos acompañados en una Unidad de Salud de la Familia en Natal/RN, Brasil. Estudio descriptivo y documental con desarrollo basado en 106 fichas del programa Hiperdia registrados de agosto a diciembre de 2012. Los resultados señalaron que 13,2% eran víctimas de accidente cerebrovascular, 10,37% de infarto agudo de miocardio y 8,4% de otras enfermedades coronarias. En la estratificación del riesgo cardiovascular, 68,86% no presentaron riesgo adicional, 31,11% fueron clasificados en baja a mucho alto riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular. Los resultados proporcionan la planificación de acciones para cuidar de ancianos hipertensos y son dignos reflejo para el ejercicio profesional de la enfermería, especialmente en relación con la reorganización del proceso de trabajo para evitar posibles eventos.

  15. 敦煌文献述略%Brief account of Dunhuang documents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李寻玉

    2011-01-01

    Dunhuang grottoes boasts of a long history in Buddhist grottoes of ancient China,with its statues and murals indicating the spread of Buddhist classics,sculpture art and the evolution of the content,imagesand artisitc style along with social changes.The abundance of Dunhuang scripture scrolls provides us with precious materials with its major connotations about religious culture and local chronicles of Buddhism,reflecting the political,economic and cultural outlook of the historical Dunhuang and entertaining us with direct and detailed data for research on history.%敦煌石窟在我国古代佛教石窟造像中历史悠久,其塑像、壁画展示出佛教经典的流布和造像艺术,随着社会变革在历史长河中的发展演变,反映出每个时期的内容和形象以及艺术风格均有所不同;大量写经卷子的内涵为我们提供了丰富珍贵的、以敦煌地区佛教为主的宗教文化史和地方志的资料,反映出敦煌当时的政治、经济、文化面貌,成为我们研究历史最直接、最详细的材料。

  16. Documentation of Cultural Heritage Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Grobovšek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The first and important phase of documentation of cultural heritage objects is to understand which objects need to be documented. The entire documentation process is determined by the characteristics and scope of the cultural heritage object. The next question to be considered is the expected outcome of the documentation process and the purpose for which it will be used. These two essential guidelines determine each stage of the documentation workflow: the choice of the most appropriate data capturing technology and data processing method, how detailed should the documentation be, what problems may occur, what the expected outcome is, what it will be used for, and the plan for storing data and results. Cultural heritage objects require diverse data capturing and data processing methods. It is important that even the first stages of raw data capturing are oriented towards the applicability of results. The selection of the appropriate working method can facilitate the data processing and the preparation of final documentation. Documentation of paintings requires different data capturing method than documentation of buildings or building areas. The purpose of documentation can also be the preservation of the contemporary cultural heritage to posterity or the basis for future projects and activities on threatened objects. Documentation procedures should be adapted to our needs and capabilities. Captured and unprocessed data are lost unless accompanied by additional analyses and interpretations. Information on tools, procedures and outcomes must be included into documentation. A thorough analysis of unprocessed but accessible documentation, if adequately stored and accompanied by additional information, enables us to gather useful data. In this way it is possible to upgrade the existing documentation and to avoid data duplication or unintentional misleading of users. The documentation should be archived safely and in a way to meet

  17. Document image analysis: A primer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rangachar Kasturi; Lawrence O’Gorman; Venu Govindaraju

    2002-02-01

    Document image analysis refers to algorithms and techniques that are applied to images of documents to obtain a computer-readable description from pixel data. A well-known document image analysis product is the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software that recognizes characters in a scanned document. OCR makes it possible for the user to edit or search the document’s contents. In this paper we briefly describe various components of a document analysis system. Many of these basic building blocks are found in most document analysis systems, irrespective of the particular domain or language to which they are applied. We hope that this paper will help the reader by providing the background necessary to understand the detailed descriptions of specific techniques presented in other papers in this issue.

  18. Pedagogical documentation: Preschool teachers’ perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović-Breneselović Dragana; Krnjaja Živka; Matović Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Educational policy shapes the positions of all stakeholders and their mutual relations in the system of preschool education through its attitude towards documentation. The attitude towards the function of pedagogical documentation in preschool education programmes reflects certain views on children, learning and nature of the programmes. Although contemporary approaches to preschool education emphasise the issue of documentation, this problem is dealt with partially and technically in o...

  19. Survey on Text Document Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    M.Thangamani; Dr.P.Thangaraj

    2010-01-01

    Document clustering is also referred as text clustering, and its concept is merely equal to data clustering. It is hardly difficult to find the selective information from an ‘N’number of series information, so that document clustering came into picture. Basically cluster means a group of similar data, document clustering means segregating the data into different groups of similar data. Clustering can be of mathematical, statistical or numerical domain. Clustering is a fundamental data analysi...

  20. EDF Group - 2010 Reference Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beside the accounts of EDF for 2008 and 2009, this voluminous document presents persons in charge, legal account auditors, and how risks are managed within the company. It gives an overview of EDF activities, of its organization, of its assets. It presents and discusses its financial situation and results, indicates the main contracts, and proposes other documents concerning the company. Many documents and reports are provided in appendix

  1. Document understanding for a broad class of documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Monz, Christof; Todoran, Leon; Worring, Marcel

    2002-01-01

    We present a document analysis system able to assign logical labels and extract the reading order in a broad set of documents. All information sources, from geometric features and spatial relations to the textual features and content are employed in the analysis. To deal effectively with these infor

  2. Positive Cardiovascular Health: A Timely Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarthe, Darwin R; Kubzansky, Laura D; Boehm, Julia K; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Berry, Jarett D; Seligman, Martin E P

    2016-08-23

    Two concepts, positive health and cardiovascular health, have emerged recently from the respective fields of positive psychology and preventive cardiology. These parallel constructs are converging to foster positive cardiovascular health and a growing collaboration between psychologists and cardiovascular scientists to achieve significant improvements in both individual and population cardiovascular health. We explore these 2 concepts and note close similarities in the measures that define them, the health states that they aim to produce, and their intended long-term clinical and public health outcomes. We especially examine subjective health assets, such as optimism, that are a core focus of positive psychology, but have largely been neglected in preventive cardiology. We identify research to date on positive cardiovascular health, discuss its strengths and limitations thus far, and outline directions for further engagement of cardiovascular scientists with colleagues in positive psychology to advance this new field.

  3. Positive Cardiovascular Health: A Timely Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarthe, Darwin R; Kubzansky, Laura D; Boehm, Julia K; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Berry, Jarett D; Seligman, Martin E P

    2016-08-23

    Two concepts, positive health and cardiovascular health, have emerged recently from the respective fields of positive psychology and preventive cardiology. These parallel constructs are converging to foster positive cardiovascular health and a growing collaboration between psychologists and cardiovascular scientists to achieve significant improvements in both individual and population cardiovascular health. We explore these 2 concepts and note close similarities in the measures that define them, the health states that they aim to produce, and their intended long-term clinical and public health outcomes. We especially examine subjective health assets, such as optimism, that are a core focus of positive psychology, but have largely been neglected in preventive cardiology. We identify research to date on positive cardiovascular health, discuss its strengths and limitations thus far, and outline directions for further engagement of cardiovascular scientists with colleagues in positive psychology to advance this new field. PMID:27539179

  4. A Short Survey of Document Structure Similarity Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttler, D

    2004-02-27

    This paper provides a brief survey of document structural similarity algorithms, including the optimal Tree Edit Distance algorithm and various approximation algorithms. The approximation algorithms include the simple weighted tag similarity algorithm, Fourier transforms of the structure, and a new application of the shingle technique to structural similarity. We show three surprising results. First, the Fourier transform technique proves to be the least accurate of any of approximation algorithms, while also being slowest. Second, optimal Tree Edit Distance algorithms may not be the best technique for clustering pages from different sites. Third, the simplest approximation to structure may be the most effective and efficient mechanism for many applications.

  5. Watermarking -- Paving the Way for Better Released Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Keith; Carole, Miller; Schwindt, Paul; Zimmerman, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    One of the biggest issues with regard to Released Documentation is making sure what you are looking at is. in fact. what you think it is. Is it Released or Not? Is it the Latest? How to be sure? In this brief session, we'll discuss the path Kennedy Space Center has taken in implementing Watermarking with ProductView . We'11 cover the premise, challenges, and implementation from our windchill 9.1 environment. Come join us and see if we can't save you some time and headaches in the long-run.

  6. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality after kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Stoumpos, Sokratis; Jardine, Alan G.; Mark, Patrick B.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) who would otherwise require dialysis. Patients with ESRD are at dramatically increased cardiovascular (CV) risk compared to the general population. As well as improving quality of life, successful transplantation accords major benefits by reducing cardiovascular risk in these patients. Worldwide, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death with a functioning graft and therefore is a ...

  7. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariaut, Romain

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews what is known about the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular diseases in the pet rabbit. Current knowledge is based on anecdotal reports, derived from research data using the rabbit as an animal model of human cardiovascular diseases, but most importantly canine and feline cardiology. It is likely that, as cardiovascular diseases are more often recognized, more specific information will soon become available for the treatment of the pet rabbit with cardiac disease.

  8. Reactive Oxygen Species in Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sugamura, Koichi; Keaney, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the ‘free-radical theory’ of disease, researchers have been trying to elucidate the role of oxidative stress from free radicals in cardiovascular disease. Considerable data indicate that ROS and oxidative stress are important features of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. However, blanket strategies with antioxidants to ameliorate cardiovascular disease have not generally yielded favorable results. However, our understanding...

  9. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Wang; Fei Lin; Li-li Guo; Xing-jiang Xiong; Xun Fan

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we sho...

  10. Cardiovascular responses to hypogravic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, H.

    1983-01-01

    The cardiovascular deconditioning observed during and after space flight is characterized in a review of human space and simulation studies and animal simulations. The various simulation techniques (horizontal bed rest, head-down tilt, and water immersion in man, and immobilization of animals) are examined, and sample results are presented in graphs. Countermeasures such as exercise regimens, fluid replacement, drugs, venous pooling, G-suits, oscillating beds, electrostimulation of muscles, lower-body negative pressure, body-surface cooling, and hypoxia are reviewed and found to be generally ineffective or unreliable. The need for future space experimentation in both humans and animals is indicated.

  11. Wnt signaling in cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinou, K; Christodoulides, C; Antoniades, C; Koutsilieris, M

    2012-12-01

    Wnt signaling pathways play a key role in cardiac development, angiogenesis, and cardiac hypertrophy; emerging evidence suggests that they are also involved in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Specifically, an important role for Wnts has been described in the regulation of endothelial inflammation, vascular calcification, and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Wnt signaling also induces monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and is crucial for the regulation of vascular smooth-muscle cell (VSMC) behavior. We discuss how the Wnt pathways are implicated in vascular biology and outline the role of Wnt signaling in atherosclerosis. Dissecting Wnt pathways involved in atherogenesis and cardiovascular disease may provide crucial insights into novel mechanisms with therapeutic potential for atherosclerosis.

  12. [Cognitive dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-08-01

    A multitude of modifiable risk factors during the median phase of life are often causative for cognitive dysfunction (CD) in old age. High evidence exists for cigarette smoking, diabetes, physical inactivity and sleeping disorders. Single large scale population based studies proof it for hypertension, hypercholesterinemia and depression, conflicting evidence exists for obesity and work stress. Little attention is paid to the close association between cardiovascular disease conditions and CD, particularly for atrial fibrillation, heart failure and for older patients with coronary heart disease. Undetected CD may be responsible for non-adherence and failure of self-care programs in chronic heart patients. PMID:27557067

  13. DCC Briefing Paper: Database archiving

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    In a computational context, data archiving refers to the storage of electronic documents, data sets, multimedia files, and so on, for a defined period of time. Database archiving is usually seen as a subset of data archiving. Database archiving focuses on archiving data that are maintained under the control of a database management system and structured under a database schema, e.g., a relational database. The primary goal of database archiving is to maintain access to data in case it is late...

  14. Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance guidelines for reporting cardiovascular magnetic resonance examinations

    OpenAIRE

    van Rossum Albert C; Raman Subha V; McConnell Michael V; Lawson Mark A; Higgins Charles B; Friedrich Matthias G; Bogaert Jan G; Bluemke David; Hundley W Gregory; Flamm Scott; Kramer Christopher M; Nagel Eike; Neubauer Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract These reporting guidelines are recommended by the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) to provide a framework for healthcare delivery systems to disseminate cardiac and vascular imaging findings related to the performance of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) examinations.

  15. [Future directions of cardiovascular surgery in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S S

    2016-08-01

    The cardiovascular surgery in China has achieved great progress both on scale and technology though development over the past thirty years. However, the technical predominance of cardiovascular surgery in therapies for some diseases has been weakened, along with developments of new drugs and interventional technology. Besides, the change of doctor-patient relationship result from internet medical information service and less attraction of cardiovascular surgery discipline to talents bring certain challenge to the development of cardiovascular surgery. Currently, cardiovascular surgeons should practice the "patient first" principle, carry out individual customized treatment and precision therapy, absorb the advantages of other subjects like intervention and imaging in order to achieve technological breakthroughs, create new treatment technologies and models with smaller trauma and better outcome, establish heart team to provide patient oriented treatment. Besides, cardiovascular surgeons should improve knowledge system by learning related technology and science, become hybrid doctors of research. Cardiovascular surgeons should pay high attention to critical effect of research on the disciplinary development, carry out question and demand oriented clinical studies, change the medical practice by virtue of research achievements, direct the treatment for cardiovascular diseases, and finally provide better health service and rebuild the predominance of cardiovascular surgery. PMID:27502127

  16. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  17. Biomechanical performance of new cardiovascular needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, J G; Ferguson, R E; Rodeheaver, G T; Edlich, R F

    2001-01-01

    Cardiovascular needles are now being manufactured from new stainless steel alloys containing high concentrations of nickel, Surgalloy and Ethalloy. The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical performance of a cardiovascular needle made of Surgalloy with a comparably sized needle made of Ethalloy. The parameters of biomechanical performance included sharpness, maintenance of sharpness, resistance to bending, and ductility. Because the biomechanical performance of these needles was remarkably similar, cardiovascular needles made of either the Surgalloy or Ethalloy alloys are recommended for cardiovascular surgery. PMID:11495105

  18. 2015 ACC Health Policy Statement on Cardiovascular Team-Based Care and the Role of Advanced Practice Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, John E; Handberg, Eileen M; Biga, Cathleen; Birtcher, Kim K; Bove, Alfred A; Casale, Paul N; Clark, Michael G; Garson, Arthur; Hines, Jerome L; Linderbaum, Jane A; Rodgers, George P; Shor, Robert A; Thourani, Vinod H; Wyman, Janet F

    2015-05-19

    The mission of the American College of Cardiology is "to transform cardiovascular care and improve heart health." Cardiovascular team-based care is a paradigm for practice that can transform care, improve heart health, and help meet the demands of the future. One strategic goal of the College is to help members successfully transition their clinical practices to the future, with all its complexity, challenges, and opportunities. The ACC's strategic plan is aligned with the triple aim of improved care, improved population health, and lower costs per capita. The traditional understanding of quality, access, and cost is that you cannot improve one component without diminishing the others. With cardiovascular team-based care, it is possible to achieve the triple aim of improving quality, access, and cost simultaneously to also improve cardiovascular health. Striving to serve the best interests of patients is the true north of our guiding principles. Cardiovascular team-based care is a model that can improve care coordination and communication and allow each team member to focus more on the quality of care. In addition, the cardiovascular team-based care model increases access to cardiovascular care and allows expansion of services to populations and geographic areas that are currently underserved. This document will increase awareness of the important components of cardiovascular team-based care and create an opportunity for more discussion about the most creative and effective means of implementing it. We hope that this document will stimulate further discussions and activities within the ACC and beyond about team-based care. We have identified areas that need improvement, specifically in APP education and state regulation. The document encourages the exploration of collaborative care models that should enable team members to optimize their education, training, experience, and talent. Improved team leadership, coordination, collaboration, engagement, and efficiency

  19. Magnetic fusion program summary document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlines the current and planned research, development, and commercialization (RD and C) activities of the Offic of Fusion Energy under the Assistant Secretary for Energy Technology, US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this document is to explain the Office of Fusion Energy's activities to Congress and its committees and to interested members of the public

  20. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there

  1. Document Organization Using Kohonen's Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Bote, Vicente P.; Moya Anegon, Felix de; Herrero Solana, Victor

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the classification of documents from bibliographic databases focuses on a method of vectorizing reference documents from LISA (Library and Information Science Abstracts) which permits their topological organization using Kohonen's algorithm. Analyzes possibilities of this type of neural network with respect to the development of…

  2. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A. [and others

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  3. Documentation: The Reggio Emilia Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.; Chard, Sylvia C.

    1997-01-01

    Notes the municipal preprimary schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy, are attracting worldwide attention for extensively documenting children's experience, memories, thoughts, and ideas. Suggest this type of documentation contributes to early-childhood-program quality by enhancing learning, taking children's ideas and work seriously, providing…

  4. Bulkloading and Maintaining XML Documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, A.R.; Kersten, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    The popularity of XML as a exchange and storage format brings about massive amounts of documents to be stored, maintained and analyzed -- a challenge that traditionally has been tackled with Database Management Systems (DBMS). To open up the content of XML documents to analysis with declarative quer

  5. Cancer Vaccines: A Brief Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sunil; Prendergast, George C

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine approaches for cancer differ from traditional vaccine approaches for infectious disease in tending to focus on clearing active disease rather than preventing disease. In this review, we provide a brief overview of different types of vaccines and adjuvants that have been investigated for the purpose of controlling cancer burdens in patients, some of which are approved for clinical use or in late-stage clinical trials, such as the personalized dendritic cell vaccine sipuleucel-T (Provenge) and the recombinant viral prostate cancer vaccine PSA-TRICOM (Prostvac-VF). Vaccines against human viruses implicated in the development and progression of certain cancers, such as human papillomavirus in cervical cancer, are not considered here. Cancers express "altered self" antigens that tend to induce weaker responses than the "foreign" antigens expressed by infectious agents. Thus, immune stimulants and adjuvant approaches have been explored widely. Vaccine types considered include autologous patient-derived immune cell vaccines, tumor antigen-expressing recombinant virus vaccines, peptide vaccines, DNA vaccines, and heterologous whole-cell vaccines derived from established human tumor cell lines. Opportunities to develop effective cancer vaccines may benefit from seminal recent advances in understanding how immunosuppressive barricades are erected by tumors to mediate immune escape. In particular, targeted ablation of these barricades with novel agents, such as the immune checkpoint drug ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) approved recently for clinical use, may offer significant leverage to vaccinologists seeking to control and prevent malignancy.

  6. Elliptic flow: a brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellings, Raimond

    2011-05-01

    One of the fundamental questions in the field of subatomic physics is the question of what happens to matter at extreme densities and temperatures as may have existed in the first microseconds after the Big Bang and exists, perhaps, in the core of dense neutron stars. The aim of heavy-ion physics is to collide nuclei at very high energies and thereby create such a state of matter in the laboratory. The experimental program began in the 1990s with collisions made available at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), and continued at the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) with the maximum center-of-mass energies of \\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 4.75 , 17.2 and 200 GeV, respectively. Collisions of heavy ions at the unprecedented energy of 2.76 TeV recently became available at the LHC collider at CERN. In this review, I give a brief introduction to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions and discuss the current status of elliptic flow measurements.

  7. NASA Tech Briefs, February 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Tech Briefs are short announcements of innovations originating from research and development activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. They emphasize information considered likely to be transferable across industrial, regional, or disciplinary lines and are issued to encourage commercial application. Topics covered include: Measuring Low Concentrations of Liquid Water in Soil; The Mars Science Laboratory Touchdown Test Facility; Non-Contact Measurement of Density and Thickness Variation in Dielectric Materials; Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer; InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers to 255 GHz; Combinatorial Generation of Test Suites; In-Phase Power-Combined Frequency Tripler at 300 GHz; Electronic System for Preventing Airport Runway Incursions; Smaller but Fully Functional Backshell for Cable Connector; Glove-Box or Desktop Virtual-Reality System; Composite Layer Manufacturing with Fewer Interruptions; Improved Photoresist Coating for Making CNT Field Emitters; A Simplified Diagnostic Method for Elastomer Bond Durability; Complex Multifunctional Polymer/Carbon-Nanotube Composites; Very High Output Thermoelectric Devices Based on ITO Nanocomposites; Reducing Unsteady Loads on a Piggyback Miniature Submarine; Ultrasonic/Sonic Anchor; Grooved Fuel Rings for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engines; Pulsed Operation of an Ion Accelerator; Autonomous Instrument Placement for Mars Exploration Rovers; Mission and Assets Database; TCP/IP Interface for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP); Trajectory Calculator for Finite-Radius Cutter on a Lathe; Integrated System Health Management Development Toolkit.

  8. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Foreign investment contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the fourth of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 4 sets out some of the ways in which foreign investment contracts can impact on sustainable development.

  9. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: International arbitration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the fifth of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 5 explains how international arbitration works to resolve disputes between foreign investors and host states, and outlines some of the problems associated with its use, from a sustainable development perspective.

  10. Iron deficiency and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Haehling, Stephan; Jankowska, Ewa A; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D

    2015-11-01

    Iron deficiency affects up to one-third of the world's population, and is particularly common in elderly individuals and those with certain chronic diseases. Iron excess can be detrimental in cardiovascular illness, and research has now also brought anaemia and iron deficiency into the focus of cardiovascular medicine. Data indicate that iron deficiency has detrimental effects in patients with coronary artery disease, heart failure (HF), and pulmonary hypertension, and possibly in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Around one-third of all patients with HF, and more than one-half of patients with pulmonary hypertension, are affected by iron deficiency. Patients with HF and iron deficiency have shown symptomatic improvements from intravenous iron administration, and some evidence suggests that these improvements occur irrespective of the presence of anaemia. Improved exercise capacity has been demonstrated after iron administration in patients with pulmonary hypertension. However, to avoid iron overload and T-cell activation, it seems that recipients of cardiac transplantations should not be treated with intravenous iron preparations.

  11. Enfermedad cardiovascular en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizzie M. Castillo S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica la enfermedad cardiovascular cobra en promedio 6 vidas por día, lo cual representa un aumento escalonado en los últimos años, debido en su mayoría a cambios en el estilo de vida del costarricense. Además, llama la atención, que factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular como son el fumado, obesidad infantil, alcoholismo, diabetes, dislipidemia e hipertensión han mostrado un incremento en su incidencia. Por lo tanto,se pretende realizar una revisión de los programas de detección y de atención temprana a nivel institucional, en lo que respecta a la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social como ente responsable de llevar a cabo los mismos. El adecuado conocimiento y uso de los programas pretende una disminución en la morbimortalidad de la misma,y su aplicación se hace obligatoria para el manejo de pacientes en atención primaria.

  12. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  13. Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders. PMID:26886465

  14. Unstructured Documents Categorization: A Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of communication is to transfer information from onecorner to another of the world. The information is basically stored in forms of documents or files created on the basis of requirements. So, the randomness of creation and storage makes them unstructured in nature. As a consequence, data retrieval and modification become hard nut to crack. The data, that is required frequently, should maintain certain pattern. Otherwise, problems like retrievingerroneous data or anomalies in modification or time consumption in retrieving process may hike. As every problem has its own solution, these unstructured documents have also given the solution named unstructured document categorization. That means, the collected unstructured documents will be categorized based on some given constraints. This paper is a review which deals with different techniques like text and data mining, genetic algorithm, lexicalchaining, binarization method to reach the fulfillment of desired unstructured document categorization appeared in the literature.

  15. The effects of ionizing radiation and review of the Young-Woollard document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of a document entitled 'The Health Dangers of Uranium Mining and Jurisdictional Questions' has been prepared. E.R. Young and R.F. Woollard submitted, in 1980, this document to the British Columbia Royal Commission of Inquiry, Health and Environmental Protection - Uranium Mining (INIS-mf--7757). When we reviewed the document it became clear that the views concerning effects of low-level radiation including alpha irradiation do not have scientific consensus. For this reason we have included a brief summary of conclusions produced by various international and national bodies on the effects of radiation on humans

  16. Association Between Leisure Time Physical Activity, Cardiopulmonary Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Workload at Work in Firefighters

    OpenAIRE

    Clare C. W. Yu; Au, Chun T.; Lee, Frank Y.F.; So, Raymond C.H.; Wong, John P.S.; Mak, Gary Y.K.; Chien, Eric P.; Alison M. McManus

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors are prevalent among firefighters in some developed countries. It is unclear whether physical activity and cardiopulmonary fitness reduce cardiovascular disease risk and the cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters. The present study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity, cardiopulmonary fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters i...

  17. Audit of Orthopaedic Surgical Documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fionn Coughlan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Royal College of Surgeons in England published guidelines in 2008 outlining the information that should be documented at each surgery. St. James’s Hospital uses a standard operation sheet for all surgical procedures and these were examined to assess documentation standards. Objectives. To retrospectively audit the hand written orthopaedic operative notes according to established guidelines. Methods. A total of 63 operation notes over seven months were audited in terms of date and time of surgery, surgeon, procedure, elective or emergency indication, operative diagnosis, incision details, signature, closure details, tourniquet time, postop instructions, complications, prosthesis, and serial numbers. Results. A consultant performed 71.4% of procedures; however, 85.7% of the operative notes were written by the registrar. The date and time of surgery, name of surgeon, procedure name, and signature were documented in all cases. The operative diagnosis and postoperative instructions were frequently not documented in the designated location. Incision details were included in 81.7% and prosthesis details in only 30% while the tourniquet time was not documented in any. Conclusion. Completion and documentation of operative procedures were excellent in some areas; improvement is needed in documenting tourniquet time, prosthesis and incision details, and the location of operative diagnosis and postoperative instructions.

  18. A Brief History of CME Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David; Richardson, Ian G.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2006-01-01

    We present here a brief summary of the rich heritage of observational and theoretical research leading to the development of our current understanding of the initiation, structure, and evolution of Coronal Mass Ejections.

  19. Brief Review on the Relevance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚腾龙; 阿勒腾

    2015-01-01

    Relevance theory has had an impact on the study in various disciplines including linguistics,literature and so on. This paper gives a brief review of the relevance theory and two principles of relevance.

  20. Systemic Therapy: A New Brief Intervention Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searight, H. Russell; Openlander, Patrick

    1984-01-01

    Describes a newly developing mode of problem-oriented brief therapy. The systemic therapy model emphasizes the interactional context of clients' problems and represents an efficient intervention paradigm. (Author/JAC)

  1. Cardiovascular effects of phentermine and topiramate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Jens; Astrup, Arne; Engeli, Stefan;

    2014-01-01

    . Cardiovascular data associated with long-term use of phentermine and topiramate extended-release indicate that this combination may be a safe and effective option for reducing weight in overweight/obese patients at low-to-intermediate cardiovascular risk.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms...

  2. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  3. Unmet needs for cardiovascular care in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Maharani

    Full Text Available In the past twenty years the heaviest burden of cardiovascular diseases has begun to shift from developed to developing countries. However, little is known about the real needs for cardiovascular care in these countries and how well those needs are being met. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and determinants of unmet needs for cardiovascular care based on objective assessment.Multilevel analysis is used to analyse the determinants of met needs and multilevel multiple imputation is applied to manage missing data. The 2008 Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS4 survey is the source of the household data used in this study, while district data is sourced from the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Finance. The data shows that nearly 70% of respondents with moderate to high cardiovascular risk failed to receive cardiovascular care. Higher income, possession of health insurance and residence in urban areas are significantly associated with met needs for cardiovascular care, while health facility density and physician density show no association with them.The prevalence of unmet needs for cardiovascular care is considerable in Indonesia. Inequality persists as a factor in meeting needs for cardiovascular care as the needs of people with higher incomes and those living in urban areas are more likely to be met. Alleviation of poverty, provision of health care insurance for the poor, and improvement in the quality of healthcare providers are recommended in order to meet this ever-increasing need.

  4. Coffee and cardiovascular risk; an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.A. Bak (Annette)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises several studies on the effect of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular risk in general, and the effect on serum lipids, blood pressure and selected hemostatic variables in particular. The association between coffee use and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality was

  5. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii...

  6. [OVERWEIGHT CAUSES A DECREASE STOCKS CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrostan, O V; Plyska, O I; Lazoryshunets, V V; Filimonova, N B

    2015-01-01

    Examined 117 students of the National Pedagogical Dragomanov University to assess body mass index and indicators of the functional state of the cardiovascular system. Was established that regulatory mechanisms in students with overweight and underweight are in a state of tension and functionalities of the cardiovascular system are reduced under normal conditions of learning.

  7. Serum triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boullart, I.; Graaf, J. de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the (path

  8. Genetic influences on cardiovascular stress reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Ting; Snieder, Harold; de Geus, Eco

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in the cardiovascular response to stress play a central role in the reactivity hypothesis linking frequent exposure to psychosocial stress to adverse outcomes in cardiovascular health. To assess the importance of genetic factors, a meta-analysis was performed on all published

  9. Preeclampsia : At risk for remote cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Zeeman, Gerda G.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that women with preeclampsia are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Population-based studies relate preeclampsia to an increased risk of later chronic hypertension (RR, 2.00 to 8.00) and cardiovascular morbidity/mortality (RR, 1.3 to 3.07

  10. 14 CFR 67.111 - Cardiovascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.111 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular...; (b) A person applying for first-class medical certification must demonstrate an absence of myocardial...) An electrocardiogram will satisfy a requirement of paragraph (b) of this section if it is dated...

  11. Cardiovascular death and manic-depressive psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, A; Juel, K; Vaeth, M

    2013-01-01

    In order to study if tricyclic antidepressant drugs (TCA) in therapeutic doses increase the risk of death due to cardiovascular causes, the relative mortality from cardiovascular diseases was studied in two large groups of first hospitalized manic-depressive patients, one from the TCA era, the ot...

  12. 14 CFR 67.211 - Cardiovascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.211 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular standards for a second-class medical certificate are no established medical history or clinical diagnosis...

  13. 14 CFR 67.311 - Cardiovascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.311 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular standards for a third-class airman medical certificate are no established medical history or...

  14. Cardiovascular Reactivity, Stress, and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jung eHuang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP. Combined stress (psychological and physical can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement. Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD.

  15. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Stefan; Verheyen, Nicolas; Grübler, Martin R; Tomaschitz, Andreas; März, Winfried

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D is a precursor of the steroid hormone calcitriol that is crucial for bone and mineral metabolism. Both the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the general population and the identification of the vitamin D receptor in the heart and blood vessels raised interest in the potential cardiovascular effects of vitamin D. Experimental studies have demonstrated various cardiovascular protective actions of vitamin D, but vitamin D intoxication in animals is known to induce vascular calcification. In meta-analyses of epidemiological studies, vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Findings from Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) do not indicate significant effects of a general vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. Previous RCTs, however, were not adequately designed to address extraskeletal events, and did not focus on vitamin D-deficient individuals. Therefore, currently available evidence does not support cardiovascular benefits or harms of vitamin D supplementation with the commonly used doses, and whether vitamin D has cardiovascular effects in individuals with overt vitamin D deficiency remains to be evaluated. Here, we provide an update on clinical studies on vitamin D and cardiovascular risk, discuss ongoing vitamin D research, and consider the management of vitamin D deficiency from a cardiovascular health perspective. PMID:27150190

  16. Cardiovascular issues in respiratory care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Michael R

    2005-11-01

    The hemodynamic effects of ventilation are complex but can be grouped under four clinically relevant concepts. First, spontaneous ventilation is exercise, and critically ill patients may not withstand the increased work of breathing. Initiation of mechanical ventilatory support will improve oxygen delivery to the remainder of the body by decreasing oxygen consumption. To the extent that mixed venous oxygen also increases, Pao(2) will increase without any improvement in gas exchange. Similarly, weaning from mechanical ventilatory support is a cardiovascular stress test. Patients who fail to wean also manifest cardiovascular insufficiency during the failed weaning attempts. Improving cardiovascular reserve or supplementing support with inotropic therapy may allow patients to wean from mechanical ventilation. Second, changes in lung volume alter autonomic tone and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and at high lung volumes compress the heart in the cardiac fossa. Hyperinflation increases PVR and pulmonary artery pressure, impeding right ventricular ejection. Decreases in lung volume induce alveolar collapse and hypoxia, stimulating an increased pulmonary vasomotor tone by the process of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Recruitment maneuvers, positive end-expiratory pressure, and continuous positive airway pressure may reverse hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and reduce pulmonary artery pressure. Third, spontaneous inspiration and spontaneous inspiratory efforts decrease intrathoracic pressure (ITP). Since diaphragmatic descent increases intra-abdominal pressure, these combined effects cause right atrial pressure inside the thorax to decrease but venous pressure in the abdomen to increase, markedly increasing the pressure gradient for systemic venous return. Furthermore, the greater the decrease in ITP, the greater the increase in left ventricular (LV) afterload for a constant arterial pressure. Mechanical ventilation, by abolishing the negative swings in ITP

  17. NASA Tech Briefs, February 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This issue contains the following briefs: (1) Optical Comb from a Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator for Spectroscopy and Astronomy Instruments Calibration (2) Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System (3) Nemesis Autonomous Test System (4) Mirror Metrology Using Nano-Probe Supports (5) Automated Lab-on-a-Chip Electrophoresis System (6) Techniques for Down-Sampling a Measured Surface Height Map for Model Validation (7) Multi-Component, Multi-Point Interferometric Rayleigh/Mie Doppler Velocimeter (8) Frequency to Voltage Converter Analog Front-End Prototype (9) Dust-Tolerant Intelligent Electrical Connection System (10) Gigabit Ethernet Asynchronous Clock Compensation FIFO (11) High-Speed, Multi-Channel Serial ADC LVDS Interface for Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA (12) Glovebox for GeoLab Subsystem in HDU1-PEM (13) Modified Process Reduces Porosity when Soldering in Reduced Gravity Environments (14) Use of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes for Covalent Attachment of Nanotubes to Silicon (15) Flexible Plug Repair for Shuttle Wing Leading Edge (16) Three Dimensionally Interlinked, Dense, Solid Form of Single-Walled CNT Ropes (17) Axel Robotic Platform for Crater and Extreme Terrain Exploration (18) Site Tamper and Material Plow Tool - STAMP (19) Magnetic Interface for Segmented Mirror Assembly (20) Transpiration-Cooled Spacecraft-Insulation-Repair Fasteners (21) Fluorescence-Based Sensor for Monitoring Activation of Lunar Dust (22) Aperture Ion Source (23) Virtual Ultrasound Guidance for Inexperienced Operators (24) Model-Based Fault Diagnosis: Performing Root Cause and Impact Analyses in Real Time (25) Interactive Schematic Integration Within the Propellant System Modeling Environment (26) Magnetic and Electric Field Polarizations of Oblique Magnetospheric Chorus Waves (27) Variable Sampling Mapping.

  18. Environmental actual situation in Guatemala. Executive brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this brief prepared by the Consejo Permanente de Cambio y Variabilidad Climatica the climate in Guatemala is described including the current situation on variation of rainy season, air humidity, influence of the Nino current. This brief was prepared in order to plan a strategy to be adopted by all the institutions that are involved in environmental issues and in this way to deal with the climate change and the impact of the different energy sources in the environment

  19. Working with Documents in Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DARDALA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using on a larger and larger scale the electronic documents within organizations and public institutions requires their storage and unitary exploitation by the means of databases. The purpose of this article is to present the way of loading, exploitation and visualization of documents in a database, taking as example the SGBD MSSQL Server. On the other hand, the modules for loading the documents in the database and for their visualization will be presented through code sequences written in C#. The interoperability between averages will be carried out by the means of ADO.NET technology of database access.

  20. Automatic Generation of Technical Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, E R; Levine, J; Reiter, Ehud; Mellish, Chris; Levine, John

    1994-01-01

    Natural-language generation (NLG) techniques can be used to automatically produce technical documentation from a domain knowledge base and linguistic and contextual models. We discuss this application of NLG technology from both a technical and a usefulness (costs and benefits) perspective. This discussion is based largely on our experiences with the IDAS documentation-generation project, and the reactions various interested people from industry have had to IDAS. We hope that this summary of our experiences with IDAS and the lessons we have learned from it will be beneficial for other researchers who wish to build technical-documentation generation systems.

  1. Grants Document-Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairell, Terri; Kreymer, Lev; Martin, Greg; Sheridan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The Grants Document-Generation System (GDGS) software allows the generation of official grants documents for distribution to the appropriate parties. The documents are created after the selection and entry of specific data elements and clauses. GDGS is written in Cold Fusion that resides on an SQL2000 database and is housed on-site at Goddard Space Flight Center. It includes access security written around GSFC's (Goddard Space Flight Center's) LIST system, and allows for the entry of Procurement Request information necessary for the generation of the resulting Grant Award.

  2. The cardiovascular effects of metformin: lost in translation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, N.P.; Tack, C.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In overweight patients with diabetes, treatment with metformin improves cardiovascular outcomes. This observation has fuelled the hypothesis that metformin has direct cardiovascular protective properties over and above glucose lowering. Here, we discuss the various cardiovascular

  3. Cardiovascular risk assessment in women - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P; Webb, C M; de Villiers, T J; Stevenson, J C; Panay, N; Baber, R J

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women. Although it is a disease of aging, vascular disease initiates much earlier in life. Thus, there is a need to be aware of the potential to prevent the development of the disease from an early age and continue this surveillance throughout life. The menopausal period and early menopause present an ideal opportunity to assess cardiovascular risk and plan accordingly. Generally in this period, women will be seen by primary health-care professionals and non-cardiovascular specialists. This review addresses female-specific risk factors that may contribute to the potential development of cardiovascular disease. It is important for all health-care professionals dealing with women in midlife and beyond to be cognisant of these risk factors and to initiate female-specific preventative measures or to refer to a cardiovascular specialist. PMID:27327421

  4. Maintained intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterson, I D; Finer, N; Coutinho, W;

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes trial showed that sibutramine produced greater mean weight loss than placebo but increased cardiovascular morbidity but not mortality. The relationship between 12-month weight loss and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes is explored. Methods: Overweight...... change to Month 12 was -4.18 kg (sibutramine) or -1.87 kg (placebo). Degree of weight loss during Lead-in Period or through Month 12 was associated with a progressive reduction in risk for the total population in primary outcome events and cardiovascular mortality over the 5-year assessment. Although...... more events occurred in the randomized sibutramine group, on an average, a modest weight loss of approximately 3 kg achieved in the Lead-in Period appeared to offset this increased event rate. Moderate weight loss (3-10 kg) reduced cardiovascular deaths in those with severe, moderate or mild...

  5. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA.

  6. Racism and cardiovascular disease: implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer; McGibbon, Elizabeth; Waldron, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    The social determinants of health (SDH) are recognized as a prominent influence on health outcomes across the lifespan. Racism is identified as a key SDH. In this article, the authors describe the concept of racism as an SDH, its impact in discriminatory actions and inactions, and the implications for cardiovascular nurses. Although research in Canada on the links among racism, stress, and cardiovascular disease is limited, there is growing evidence about the stress of racism and its long-term impact on cardiovascular health. The authors discuss how cardiovascular nursing could be enhanced through an understanding of racism-related stress, and race-based differences in cardiovascular care. The authors conclude with strategies for action to address this nursing concern.

  7. Role of Telomerase in the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Zurek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging is one major risk factor for the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and the development of atherosclerosis. One important enzyme known to be involved in aging processes is Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT. After the discovery of the enzyme in humans, TERT had initially only been attributed to germ line cells, stem cells and cancer cells. However, over the last few years it has become clear that TERT is also active in cells of the cardiovascular system including cardiac myocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. Interference with the activity of this enzyme greatly contributes to cardiovascular diseases. This review will summarize the findings on the role of TERT in cardiovascular cells. Moreover, recent findings concerning TERT in different mouse models with respect to cardiovascular diseases will be described. Finally, the extranuclear functions of TERT will be covered within this review.

  8. Defining, Achieving, and Maintaining Competence in Cardiovascular Training and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvin, Jeffrey T; Williams, Eric S

    2016-09-20

    Patients, hospitals, insurers, and the public rely on competent physicians. The definition and documentation of competency in cardiovascular training and practice continues to evolve. New tools, such as the American College of Cardiology's in-training examination, restructured Core Cardiovascular Training Statement, curricular and lifelong learning competencies, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestones help define competent trainees and practitioners, and level the playing field. The American Board of Internal Medicine's Maintenance of Certification program is undergoing critical review, and a common vision of its future form and role are not yet clear. This paper explores present-day cardiovascular competency components, assessment tools, and strategies, and identifies challenges for the future. PMID:27634126

  9. Polyphenols, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, Christy C; Rasmussen, Heather E

    2013-05-01

    Polyphenols are compounds found in foods such as tea, coffee, cocoa, olive oil, and red wine and have been studied to determine if their intake may modify cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Historically, biologic actions of polyphenols have been attributed to antioxidant activities, but recent evidence suggests that immunomodulatory and vasodilatory properties of polyphenols may also contribute to CVD risk reduction. These properties will be discussed, and recent epidemiological evidence and intervention trials will be reviewed. Further identification of polyphenols in foods and accurate assessment of exposures through measurement of biomarkers (i.e., polyphenol metabolites) could provide the needed impetus to examine the impact of polyphenol-rich foods on CVD intermediate outcomes (especially those signifying chronic inflammation) and hard endpoints among high risk patients. Although we have mechanistic insight into how polyphenols may function in CVD risk reduction, further research is needed before definitive recommendations for consumption can be made.

  10. Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Nyberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training leads to cardiovascular changes that markedly increase aerobic power and lead to improved endurance performance. The functionally most important adaptation is the improvement in maximal cardiac output which is the result of an enlargement in cardiac dimension, improved...... arteries is reduced, a factor contributing to increased arterial compliance. Endurance training may also induce alterations in the vasodilator capacity, although such adaptations are more pronounced in individuals with reduced vascular function. The microvascular net increases in size within the muscle...... allowing for an improved capacity for oxygen extraction by the muscle through a greater area for diffusion, a shorter diffusion distance, and a longer mean transit time for the erythrocyte to pass through the smallest blood vessels. The present article addresses the effect of endurance training on systemic...

  11. Polymers for Cardiovascular Stent Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Strohbach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymers have found widespread applications in cardiology, in particular in coronary vascular intervention as stent platforms (scaffolds and coating matrices for drug-eluting stents. Apart from permanent polymers, current research is focussing on biodegradable polymers. Since they degrade once their function is fulfilled, their use might contribute to the reduction of adverse events like in-stent restenosis, late stent-thrombosis, and hypersensitivity reactions. After reviewing current literature concerning polymers used for cardiovascular applications, this review deals with parameters of tissue and blood cell functions which should be considered to evaluate biocompatibility of stent polymers in order to enhance physiological appropriate properties. The properties of the substrate on which vascular cells are placed can have a large impact on cell morphology, differentiation, motility, and fate. Finally, methods to assess these parameters under physiological conditions will be summarized.

  12. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines. PMID:27029874

  13. Human and equine cardiovascular endocrinology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vekens, Nicky Van Der; Hunter, Ingrid; Gøtze, Jens Peter;

    2013-01-01

    prominent. In humans, troponins and natriuretic peptides are mostly used for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes and heart failure. These cardiac entities, however, are rare in horses. In this species, cardiac biomarkers are rather proposed for the assessment of valvular or myocardial disease...... important species differences, which can partly be explained by variations in physiology or pathophysiology. Most important are physiological differences in heart rate, cardiovascular response to exercise, food and water intake, and molecular elimination in plasma. Pathological differences are even more......Cardiac biomarkers such as troponins and natriuretic peptides are routinely used in human medicine for the evaluation of myocardial damage and heart failure. Recently, these markers have also been introduced in veterinary medicine. Comparison between human and equine cardiac biomarker studies show...

  14. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe;

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... and differences in incidence were assessed by Poisson regression and stratified by sex. Survival differences were assessed by Cox regression using all-cause and cause-specific mortality as outcome. Male refugees had significantly lower incidence of CVD (RR = 0.89; 95 % CI 0.85-0.93) and stroke (IRR = 0.62; 95...... significantly lower incidence of CVD, AMI and stroke. All-cause and cause-specific survival after CVD, AMI and stroke was similar or significantly better for migrants compared to Danish-born, regardless of type of migrant (refugee vs. family-reunified) or country of origin. Refugees are disadvantaged in terms...

  15. [Cardiovascular complications of hypertensive crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Ramírez-Arias, Erick; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    It is inexorable that a proportion of patients with systemic arterial hypertension will develop a hypertensive crisis at some point in their lives. The hypertensive crises can be divided in hypertensive patients with emergency or hypertensive emergency, according to the presence or absence of acute end-organ damage. In this review, we discuss the cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, congestive heart failure, aortic dissection and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises (those caused by cocaine use included). Each is presented in a unique way, although some patients with hypertensive emergency report non-specific symptoms. Treatment includes multiple medications for quick and effective action with security to reduce blood pressure, protect the function of organs remaining, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications and improve patient outcomes.

  16. Nonlinear dynamics of cardiovascular ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiogai, Y. [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Stefanovska, A. [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); McClintock, P.V.E. [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: p.v.e.mcclintock@lancaster.ac.uk

    2010-03-15

    The application of methods drawn from nonlinear and stochastic dynamics to the analysis of cardiovascular time series is reviewed, with particular reference to the identification of changes associated with ageing. The natural variability of the heart rate (HRV) is considered in detail, including the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) corresponding to modulation of the instantaneous cardiac frequency by the rhythm of respiration. HRV has been intensively studied using traditional spectral analyses, e.g. by Fourier transform or autoregressive methods, and, because of its complexity, has been used as a paradigm for testing several proposed new methods of complexity analysis. These methods are reviewed. The application of time-frequency methods to HRV is considered, including in particular the wavelet transform which can resolve the time-dependent spectral content of HRV. Attention is focused on the cardio-respiratory interaction by introduction of the respiratory frequency variability signal (RFV), which can be acquired simultaneously with HRV by use of a respiratory effort transducer. Current methods for the analysis of interacting oscillators are reviewed and applied to cardio-respiratory data, including those for the quantification of synchronization and direction of coupling. These reveal the effect of ageing on the cardio-respiratory interaction through changes in the mutual modulation of the instantaneous cardiac and respiratory frequencies. Analyses of blood flow signals recorded with laser Doppler flowmetry are reviewed and related to the current understanding of how endothelial-dependent oscillations evolve with age: the inner lining of the vessels (the endothelium) is shown to be of crucial importance to the emerging picture. It is concluded that analyses of the complex and nonlinear dynamics of the cardiovascular system can illuminate the mechanisms of blood circulation, and that the heart, the lungs and the vascular system function as a single entity in

  17. A brief simulation intervention increasing basic science and clinical knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheakley, Maria L.; Gilbert, Gregory E.; Leighton, Kim; Hall, Maureen; Callender, Diana; Pederson, David

    2016-01-01

    Background The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) is increasing clinical content on the Step 1 exam; thus, inclusion of clinical applications within the basic science curriculum is crucial. Including simulation activities during basic science years bridges the knowledge gap between basic science content and clinical application. Purpose To evaluate the effects of a one-off, 1-hour cardiovascular simulation intervention on a summative assessment after adjusting for relevant demographic and academic predictors. Methods This study was a non-randomized study using historical controls to evaluate curricular change. The control group received lecture (nl=515) and the intervention group received lecture plus a simulation exercise (nl+s=1,066). Assessment included summative exam questions (n=4) that were scored as pass/fail (≥75%). USMLE-style assessment questions were identical for both cohorts. Descriptive statistics for variables are presented and odds of passage calculated using logistic regression. Results Undergraduate grade point ratio, MCAT-BS, MCAT-PS, age, attendance at an academic review program, and gender were significant predictors of summative exam passage. Students receiving the intervention were significantly more likely to pass the summative exam than students receiving lecture only (P=0.0003). Discussion Simulation plus lecture increases short-term understanding as tested by a written exam. A longitudinal study is needed to assess the effect of a brief simulation intervention on long-term retention of clinical concepts in a basic science curriculum. PMID:27060102

  18. A brief simulation intervention increasing basic science and clinical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Sheakley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE is increasing clinical content on the Step 1 exam; thus, inclusion of clinical applications within the basic science curriculum is crucial. Including simulation activities during basic science years bridges the knowledge gap between basic science content and clinical application. Purpose: To evaluate the effects of a one-off, 1-hour cardiovascular simulation intervention on a summative assessment after adjusting for relevant demographic and academic predictors. Methods: This study was a non-randomized study using historical controls to evaluate curricular change. The control group received lecture (n l=515 and the intervention group received lecture plus a simulation exercise (nl+s=1,066. Assessment included summative exam questions (n=4 that were scored as pass/fail (≥75%. USMLE-style assessment questions were identical for both cohorts. Descriptive statistics for variables are presented and odds of passage calculated using logistic regression. Results: Undergraduate grade point ratio, MCAT-BS, MCAT-PS, age, attendance at an academic review program, and gender were significant predictors of summative exam passage. Students receiving the intervention were significantly more likely to pass the summative exam than students receiving lecture only (P=0.0003. Discussion: Simulation plus lecture increases short-term understanding as tested by a written exam. A longitudinal study is needed to assess the effect of a brief simulation intervention on long-term retention of clinical concepts in a basic science curriculum.

  19. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1989-12-01

    This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)

  20. Handwritten Document Editor: An Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Nalawade

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With advancement in new technologies many individuals are moving towards personalization of the same. The same idea inspired us to develop a system which can provide a personal touch to all our documents including both electronic and paper media. In this article we are proposing a novel idea for creating an edito r system which will take handwritten scanned document as the input, recognizes the characters from the document, then proceed with creating the font of recognized handwriting to allow user to edit the document. We have proposed use of genetic algorithm along with K-NN classifier for fast recognition of handwritten characters and use of marching squares algorithm for tracing contour points of characters to generate a handwritten font.

  1. Handwritten Document Editor: An Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Nalawade

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With advancement in new technologies many individuals are moving towards personalization of the same. The same idea inspired us to develop a system which can provide a personal touch to all our documents including both electronic and paper media. In this article we are proposing a novel idea for creating an editor system which will take handwritten scanned document as the input, recognizes the characters from the document, then proceed with creating the font of recognized handwriting to allow user to edit the document. We have proposed use of genetic algorithm along with K-NN classifier for fast recognition of handwritten characters and use of marching squares algorithm for tracing contour points of characters to generate a handwritten font.

  2. ENDF/B summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication provides a localized source of descriptions for the evaluations contained in the ENDF/B Library. The summary documentation presented is intended to be a more detailed description than the (File 1) comments contained in the computer readable data files, but not so detailed as the formal reports describing each ENDF/B evaluation. The summary documentations were written by the CSEWB (Cross Section Evaluation Working Group) evaluators and compiled by NNDC (National Nuclear Data Center). This edition includes documentation for materials found on ENDF/B Version V tapes 501 to 516 (General Purpose File) excluding tape 504. ENDF/B-V also includes tapes containing partial evaluations for the Special Purpose Actinide (521, 522), Dosimetry (531), Activation (532), Gas Production (533), and Fission Product (541-546) files. The materials found on these tapes are documented elsewhere. Some of the evaluation descriptions in this report contain cross sections or energy level information

  3. ENDF/B summary documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsey, R. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    This publication provides a localized source of descriptions for the evaluations contained in the ENDF/B Library. The summary documentation presented is intended to be a more detailed description than the (File 1) comments contained in the computer readable data files, but not so detailed as the formal reports describing each ENDF/B evaluation. The summary documentations were written by the CSEWB (Cross Section Evaluation Working Group) evaluators and compiled by NNDC (National Nuclear Data Center). This edition includes documentation for materials found on ENDF/B Version V tapes 501 to 516 (General Purpose File) excluding tape 504. ENDF/B-V also includes tapes containing partial evaluations for the Special Purpose Actinide (521, 522), Dosimetry (531), Activation (532), Gas Production (533), and Fission Product (541-546) files. The materials found on these tapes are documented elsewhere. Some of the evaluation descriptions in this report contain cross sections or energy level information. (RWR)

  4. RPP Environmental Permits & Related Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEXTER, M.L.

    2000-08-01

    This document contains the current list of environmental permits and related documentation for RPP facilities and activities. Copies of these permits and related approvals are maintained by RPP Environmental. In addition, Notices of Correction and Notices of Violation are issued by State and Federal Regulators which are tracked by RPP Environmental to resolve any recently identified deficiencies. A listing of these recent Notices is provided as an attachment to these documents. These permits, approval conditions, and recent regulatory agency notices, constitute an important element of the RPP Authorization Envelope. Permits are issued frequently and the reader is advised to check with RPP environmental for new permits or approval conditions. Interpretation of permit or approval conditions should be coordinated with RPP Environmental. This document will be updated on a quarterly basis.

  5. Non-cardiovascular findings in clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadimi Mahani, Maryam [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Morani, Ajaykumar C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Lu, Jimmy C.; Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Providence Hospital and Medical Centers, Department of Graduate Medical Education, Southfield, MI (United States); Jeph, Sunil [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Geisinger Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Danville, PA (United States); Agarwal, Prachi P. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-04-15

    With increasing use of pediatric cardiovascular MRI, it is important for all imagers to become familiar with the spectrum of non-cardiovascular imaging findings that can be encountered. This study aims to ascertain the prevalence and nature of these findings in pediatric cardiovascular MRIs performed at our institution. We retrospectively evaluated reports of all cardiovascular MRI studies performed at our institute from January 2008 to October 2012 in patients younger than18 years. Most studies (98%) were jointly interpreted by a pediatric cardiologist and a radiologist. We reviewed the electronic medical records of all cases with non-cardiovascular findings, defined as any imaging finding outside the cardiovascular system. Non-cardiovascular findings were classified into significant and non-significant, based on whether they were known at the time of imaging or they required additional workup or a change in management. In 849 consecutive studies (mean age 9.7 ± 6.3 years), 145 non-cardiovascular findings were found in 140 studies (16.5% of total studies). Overall, 51.0% (74/145) of non-cardiovascular findings were in the abdomen, 30.3% (44/145) were in the chest, and 18.6% (27/145) were in the spine. A total of 19 significant non-cardiovascular findings were observed in 19 studies in individual patients (2.2% of total studies, 47% male, mean age 5.9 ± 6.7 years). Significant non-cardiovascular findings included hepatic adenoma, arterially enhancing focal liver lesions, asplenia, solitary kidney, pelvicaliectasis, renal cystic diseases, gastric distention, adrenal hemorrhage, lung hypoplasia, air space disease, bronchial narrowing, pneumomediastinum and retained surgical sponge. Non-cardiovascular findings were seen in 16.5% of cardiovascular MRI studies in children, of which 2.2% were clinically significant findings. Prevalence and nature of these non-cardiovascular findings are different from those reported in adults. Attention to these findings is important

  6. Endangered Language Documentation and Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    D. Victoria Rau; Meng-Chien Yang; Maa-Neu Dong

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an on-going project on digital archiving Yami language documentation (http://www.hrelp.org/grants/projects/index.php?projid=60). We present a cross-disciplinary approach, involving computer science and applied linguistics, to document the Yami language and prepare teaching materials. Our discussion begins with an introduction to an integrated framework for archiving, processing and developing learning materials for Yami (Yang and Rau 2005), followe...

  7. Electronic circulation of accounting documents

    OpenAIRE

    Kremláčková, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes a circulation of accounting documents in an accounting entity, deals with legal requirements of the entire process and discusses it as a part of an internal control system of the entity. In connection with the theme of the work there are also defined legislative conditions for using information and communication technologies and introduced possibilities of involving these technologies in the process of processing of the accounting documents. Above all the electronic data...

  8. Archiving Government Documents using DSpace

    OpenAIRE

    Devakos, Rea

    2005-01-01

    Description: A collaborative multi-phased pilot to archive Canadian government documents using DSpace Participants: The Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL), a 20 member consortium, is working with municipalities, special and community college libraries. Objectives: To address long standing and widespread concerns about the rapid rate of disappearance of electronic government documents, as well as the desire for greater efficiencies possible through shared catalogu...

  9. Automatic Generation of Technical Documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Ehud; Mellish, Chris; Levine, John

    1994-01-01

    Natural-language generation (NLG) techniques can be used to automatically produce technical documentation from a domain knowledge base and linguistic and contextual models. We discuss this application of NLG technology from both a technical and a usefulness (costs and benefits) perspective. This discussion is based largely on our experiences with the IDAS documentation-generation project, and the reactions various interested people from industry have had to IDAS. We hope that this summary of ...

  10. 37 CFR 2.128 - Briefs at final hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Procedure in Inter Partes Proceedings § 2.128 Briefs at final hearing. (a)(1) The brief of the party in the position of plaintiff shall be due not... first brief. A reply brief by the party in the position of plaintiff, if filed, shall be due not...

  11. 22 CFR 1423.25 - Filing of brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Filing of brief. 1423.25 Section 1423.25 Foreign... PROCEEDINGS § 1423.25 Filing of brief. Any party desiring to submit a brief to the Administrative Law Judge... Judge, but not in excess of thirty (30) days from the close of the hearing. Copies of any brief shall...

  12. 29 CFR 458.86 - Filing of brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing of brief. 458.86 Section 458.86 Labor Regulations... OF CONDUCT Hearing and Related Matters § 458.86 Filing of brief. Any party desiring to submit a brief... Law Judge may grant a reasonable extension of time. Copies of such brief shall be served on all of...

  13. 76 FR 50715 - Briefing on Partner Vetting System Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Agency for International Development Briefing on Partner Vetting System Pilot Program... briefing. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of a briefing on the Partner Vetting System (PVS) pilot program. The objective of the briefing is to provide information about the PVS pilot program. Members of...

  14. Text documents as social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

    2012-03-01

    The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

  15. Document Analysis by Crosscount Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海琴; 戴汝为

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a new feature called crosscount for document analysis is introduced.The reature crosscount is a function of white line segment with its start on the edge of document images.It reflects not only the contour of image,but also the periodicity of white lines(background)and text lines in the document images.In complex printed-page layouts,there are different blocks such as textual,graphical,tabular,and so on.Of these blocks,textual ones have the most obvious periodicity with their homogeneous white lines arranged regularly.The important property of textual blocks can be extracted by crosscount functions.here the document layouts are classified into three classes on the basis of their physical structures.Then the definition and properties of the crosscount function are described.According to the classification of document layouts,the application of this new feature to different types of document images' analysis and understanding is discussed.

  16. Stress, depression and cardiovascular dysregulation: a review of neurobiological mechanisms and the integration of research from preclinical disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Angela J; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2009-01-01

    Bidirectional associations between mood disorders and cardiovascular diseases are extensively documented. However, the precise physiological and biochemical mechanisms that underlie such relationships are not well understood. This review focuses on the neurobiological processes and mediators that are common to both mood and cardiovascular disorders. The discussion places an emphasis on the role of exogenous stressors in addition to: (a) neuroendocrine and neurohumoral changes involving dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, (b) immune alterations including activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, (c) autonomic and cardiovascular dysregulation including increased sympathetic drive, withdrawal of parasympathetic tone, cardiac rate and rhythm disturbances, and altered baroreceptor reflex function, (d) central neurotransmitter system dysfunction involving the dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin systems, and (e) behavioral changes including fatigue and physical inactivity. The review also discusses experimental investigations using preclinical disease models to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the link between mood disorders and cardiovascular disease. These include: (a) the chronic mild stress model of depression, (b) a model of congestive heart failure, (c) a model of cardiovascular deconditioning, (d) pharmacological manipulations of body fluid and sodium balance, and (e) pharmacological manipulations of the central serotonergic system. In combination with an extensive human research literature, the investigation of mechanisms underlying mood and cardiovascular regulation using animal models will enhance understanding the association between depression and cardiovascular disease. This will ultimately promote the development of better treatments and interventions for individuals with co-morbid psychological and somatic pathologies.

  17. Cocoa, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Livia; Proietti, Ilenia; Di Agostino, Stefania; Martella, Letizia; Mai, Francesca; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide

    2015-11-18

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to this, cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavanols. Flavanols have been described to exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase, the increased availability of l-arginine, and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect by protecting against oxidative stress alterations and via decreased platelet aggregation, decreased lipid oxidation, and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a decrease of blood pressure and a favorable trend toward a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events. A 3 mmHg systolic blood pressure reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, focusing on putative mechanisms of action and "nutraceutical " viewpoints.

  18. The Role of DNA Methylation in Cardiovascular Risk and Disease: Methodological Aspects, Study Design, and Data Analysis for Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jia; Agha, Golareh; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that genetic, environmental, behavioral, and clinical factors contribute to cardiovascular disease development. How these risk factors interact at the cellular level to cause cardiovascular disease is not well known. Epigenetic epidemiology enables researchers to explore critical links between genomic coding, modifiable exposures, and manifestation of disease phenotype. One epigenetic link, DNA methylation, is potentially an important mechanism underlying these associations. In the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of epidemiological studies investigating cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in relation to DNA methylation, but many gaps remain in our understanding of the underlying cause and biological implications. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the biology and mechanisms of DNA methylation and its role in cardiovascular disease. In addition, we summarize the current evidence base in epigenetic epidemiology studies relevant to cardiovascular health and disease and discuss the limitations, challenges, and future directions of the field. Finally, we provide guidelines for well-designed epigenetic epidemiology studies, with particular focus on methodological aspects, study design, and analytical challenges. PMID:26837743

  19. Determinants of left ventricular mass in obesity; a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Kieran

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is linked to increased left ventricular mass, an independent predictor of mortality. As a result of this, understanding the determinants of left ventricular mass in the setting of obesity has both therapeutic and prognostic implications. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance our goal was to elucidate the main predictors of left ventricular mass in severely obese subjects free of additional cardiovascular risk factors. Methods 38 obese (BMI 37.8 ± 6.9 kg/m2 and 16 normal weight controls subjects, (BMI 21.7 ± 1.8 kg/m2, all without cardiovascular risk factors, underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to assess left ventricular mass, left ventricular volumes and visceral fat mass. Left ventricular mass was then compared to serum and anthropometric markers of obesity linked to left ventricular mass, i.e. height, age, blood pressure, total fat mass, visceral fat mass, lean mass, serum leptin and fasting insulin level. Results As expected, obesity was associated with significantly increased left ventricular mass (126 ± 27 vs 90 ± 20 g; p 2 = 0.77. Conclusion The left ventricular hypertrophic response to obesity in the absence of additional cardiovascular risk factors is mainly attributable to increases in lean body mass, LV stroke volume and visceral fat mass. In view of the well documented link between obesity, left ventricular hypertrophy and mortality, these findings have potentially important prognostic and therapeutic implications for primary and secondary prevention.

  20. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 1: Planning Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes the planning documents from the GCS project. Volume 1 contains five appendices: A. Plan for Software Aspects of Certification for the Guidance and Control Software Project; B. Software Development Standards for the Guidance and Control Software Project; C. Software Verification Plan for the Guidance and Control Software Project; D. Software Configuration Management Plan for the Guidance and Control Software Project; and E. Software Quality Assurance Activities.

  1. Modeling Documents with Event Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhui Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently deep learning has made great breakthroughs in visual and speech processing, mainly because it draws lessons from the hierarchical mode that brain deals with images and speech. In the field of NLP, a topic model is one of the important ways for modeling documents. Topic models are built on a generative model that clearly does not match the way humans write. In this paper, we propose Event Model, which is unsupervised and based on the language processing mechanism of neurolinguistics, to model documents. In Event Model, documents are descriptions of concrete or abstract events seen, heard, or sensed by people and words are objects in the events. Event Model has two stages: word learning and dimensionality reduction. Word learning is to learn semantics of words based on deep learning. Dimensionality reduction is the process that representing a document as a low dimensional vector by a linear mode that is completely different from topic models. Event Model achieves state-of-the-art results on document retrieval tasks.

  2. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in systemic hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maceira Alicia M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Systemic hypertension is a highly prevalent potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of underlying causes for hypertension, in assessing cardiovascular complications of hypertension, and in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease process. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR provides accurate and reproducible measures of ventricular volumes, mass, function and haemodynamics as well as uniquely allowing tissue characterization of diffuse and focal fibrosis. In addition, CMR is well suited for exclusion of common secondary causes for hypertension. We review the current and emerging clinical and research applications of CMR in hypertension.

  3. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered.

  4. Residual generator for cardiovascular anomalies detection

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using observer-based approaches for cardiovascular anomalies detection and isolation. We consider a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system that can be written in a form of nonlinear state-space representation. We show that residuals that are sensitive to variations in some cardiovascular parameters and to abnormal opening and closure of the valves, can be generated. Since the whole state is not easily available for measurement, we propose to associate the residual generator to a robust extended kalman filter. Numerical results performed on synthetic data are provided.

  5. Microalbuminuria, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    2000-01-01

    Microalbuminuria was originally considered to be an important new risk factor for diabetic nephropathy. More recently, it has been convincingly shown that microalbuminuria is also an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients. Even...... in the non-diabetic background population, microalbuminuria is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. What is the link between increased loss of albumin in urine and cardiovascular disease and mortality? As microalbuminuria is apparently associated with increased universal vascular sieving of albumin...

  6. Cardiovascular surgery in the elderly: an update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song WAN; Ahmed A. ARIFI; Calvin S. H. NG; Anthony P. C. YIM

    2005-01-01

    The aging of the population and improvements in outcomes after cardiovascular surgery have resulted in a worldwide growing demand of complex surgical intervention for elderly patients. We briefly review the up-to-date English-language literature with particular focus on cardiovascular surgery in elderly patients. With earlier referral, careful preoperative evaluation, strategic planning, and the continuing efforts in optimizing surgical techniques, operative mortality and morbidity following primary or reoperative coronary artery bypass grafting and valvular interventions are expected to fall in this high-risk patient subset. Importantly,accumulating evidence indicates that elderly patients may benefit from improved functional status and quality of life after cardiovascular surgical therapy

  7. Cardiovascular Dysfunction Following Burn Injury: What We Have Learned from Rat and Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Guillory, Ashley N.; Clayton, Robert P.; Herndon, David N; Finnerty, Celeste C.

    2016-01-01

    Severe burn profoundly affects organs both proximal and distal to the actual burn site. Cardiovascular dysfunction is a well-documented phenomenon that increases morbidity and mortality following a massive thermal trauma. Beginning immediately post-burn, during the ebb phase, cardiac function is severely depressed. By 48 h post-injury, cardiac function rebounds and the post-burn myocardium becomes tachycardic and hyperinflammatory. While current clinical trials are investigating a variety of ...

  8. Cardiovascular Impact of Eating Disorders in Adults: A Single Center Experience and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Rizwan Sardar; Andrea Greway; Michael DeAngelis; Erin O'Malley Tysko; Shawn Lehmann; Melinda Wohlstetter; Riti Patel

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders have multiple medical sequelae, including potentially life-threatening cardiovascular complications. This article describes our cardiology practice experience of treating adults with eating disorders in the outpatient setting and documents baseline cardiac findings in this complex patient population. We describe our findings in patients across the spectrum of eating disorders; past studies have generally focused on anorexia only. This article also includes a review of the cur...

  9. Associations between stress disorders and cardiovascular disease events in the Danish population

    OpenAIRE

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Svensson, Elisabeth; Ehrenstein, Vera; Lash, Timothy L; Milstein, Arnold; Adler, Nancy ,; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a well-documented risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it is unknown whether another common stress disorder—adjustment disorder—is also associated with an increased risk of CVD and whether gender modifies these associations. The aim of this study was to examine the overall and gender-stratified associations between PTSD and adjustment disorder and 4 CVD events. Design Prospective cohort study utilising Danish national regis...

  10. Sex differences in cardiovascular function during submaximal exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Courtney M; Snyder, Eric M; Johnson, Bruce D; Olson, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    Differences in cardiovascular function between sexes have been documented at rest and maximal exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the sex differences in cardiovascular function during submaximal constant-load exercise, which is not well understood. Thirty-one male and 33 female subjects completed nine minutes moderate and nine minutes vigorous intensity submaximal exercise (40 and 75% of peak watts determined by maximal exercise test). Measurements included: intra-arterial blood pressure (SBP and DBP), cardiac index (QI), heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2) and arterial catecholamines (epinephrine = EPI and norepinephrine = NE), and blood gases. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), stroke volume index (SVI), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), arterial oxygen content (CaO2), arterial to venous O2 difference (AVO2) and systemic oxygen transport (SOT) were calculated. At rest and during submaximal exercise QI, SVI, SBP, MAP, NE, CaO2, and SOT were lower in females compared to males. VO2, AVO2, EPI were lower in females throughout exercise. When corrected for wattage, females had a higher Q, HR, SV, VO2 and AVO2 despite lower energy expenditure and higher mechanical efficiency. This study demonstrates sex differences in the cardiovascular response to constant-load submaximal exercise. Specifically, females presented limitations in cardiac performance in which they are unable to compensate for reductions in stroke volume through increases in HR, potentially a consequence of a female's blunted sympathetic response and higher vasodilatory state. Females demonstrated greater cardiac work needed to meet the same external work demand, and relied on increased peripheral oxygen extraction, lower energy expenditure and improvements in mechanical efficiency as compensatory mechanisms. PMID:25191635

  11. Unesco Integrated Documentation Network; Computerized Documentation System (CDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Dept. of Documentation, Libraries, and Archives.

    Intended for use by the Computerized Documentation System (CDS), the Unesco version of ISIS (Integrated Set of Information Systems)--originally developed by the International Labour Organization--was developed in 1975 and named CDS/ISIS. This system has a comprehensive collection of programs for input, management, and output, running in batch or…

  12. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Magnetic fusion: Environmental Readiness Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental Readiness Documents are prepared periodically to review and evaluate the environmental status of an energy technology during the several phases of development of that technology. Through these documents, the Office of Environment within the Department of Energy provides an independent and objective assessment of the environmental risks and potential impacts associated with the progression of the technology to the next stage of development and with future extensive use of the technology. This Environmental Readiness Document was prepared to assist the Department of Energy in evaluating the readiness of magnetic fusion technology with respect to environmental issues. An effort has been made to identify potential environmental problems that may be encountered based upon current knowledge, proposed and possible new environmental regulations, and the uncertainties inherent in planned environmental research

  14. ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Maniyar

    2004-06-22

    The purpose of this revision of the System Description Document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical power system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience are design engineers. This type of SDD leads and follows the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. This SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system are obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway, 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher level requirements documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), the fire hazards analyses, and the preclosure safety analysis. The above mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD includes several appendices with supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists; and Appendix C is a list of system procedures.

  15. Cardiovascular Diseases in HIV-infected Subjects (HIV-HEART Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Detection of Frequency, Severity and Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With HIV-infection.; Effect on Cardiovascular Risk and Life Quality by Age, Gender, Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,; HIV-specific Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Medication, Antiretroviral Medication

  16. Electronic documents circulation in taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchev A.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific recommendations on electronic documents circulation’s introduction in the system of the taxation are developed. The model of the initial tax calculation is offered which in contrast to available one takes into account the specific of enterprise’s administrative business-processes and also the algorithm of tax-payer’s electronic authentication in global system of electronic government. This allows without additional costs to boost information streams’ quality on electronic documentation of tax calculations. This also allows avoiding documents’ doubling and their separate requisites in state database.

  17. WCATS: Waste Documentation, Course #8504

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Sandy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-14

    This course was developed for individuals at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) who characterize and document waste streams in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System (WCATS) according to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations, Department of Energy Orders, and other applicable criteria. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize how waste documentation enables LANL to characterize and classify hazardous waste for compliant treatment, storage, and disposal, identify the purpose of the waste stream profile (WSP), identify the agencies that provide guidance for waste management, and more.

  18. Testosterone deficiency and cardiovascular mortality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abraham Morgentaler

    2015-01-01

    New concerns have been raised regarding cardiovascular (CV) risks with testosterone (T) therapy (TTh). These concerns are based primarily on two widely reported retrospective studies. However, methodological flaws and data errors invalidate both studies as credible evidence of risk. One showed reduced adverse events by half in T‑treated men but reversed this result using an unproven statistical approach. The authors subsequently acknowledged serious data errors including nearly 10% contamination of the dataset by women. The second study mistakenly used the rate of T prescriptions written by healthcare providers to men with recent myocardial infarction (MI) as a proxy for the naturally occurring rate of MI. Numerous studies suggest T is beneficial, including decreased mortality in association with TTh, reduced MI rate with TTh in men with the greatest MI risk prognosis, and reduced CV and overall mortality with higher serum levels of endogenous T. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated benefits of TTh in men with coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. Improvement in CV risk factors such as fat mass and glycemic control have been repeatedly demonstrated in T‑deficient men treated with T. The current evidence does not support the belief that TTh is associated with increased CV risk or CV mortality. On the contrary, a wealth of evidence accumulated over several decades suggests that low serum T levels are associated with increased risk and that higher endogenous T, as well as TTh itself, appear to be beneficial for CV mortality and risk.

  19. Pomegranate for Your Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Aviram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate is a source of some very potent antioxidants (tannins, anthocyanins which are considered to be also potent anti-atherogenic agents. The combination of the above unique various types of pomegranate polyphenols provides a much wider spectrum of action against several types of free radicals. Indeed, pomegranate is superior in comparison to other antioxidants in protecting low-density lipoprotein (LDL, “the bad cholesterol” and high-density lipoprotein (HDL, “the good cholesterol” from oxidation, and as a result it attenuates atherosclerosis development and its consequent cardiovascular events. Pomegranate antioxidants are not free, but are attached to the pomegranate sugars, and hence were shown to be beneficial even in diabetic patients. Furthermore, pomegranate antioxidants are unique in their ability to increase the activity of the HDL-associated paraoxonase 1 (PON1, which breaks down harmful oxidized lipids in lipoproteins, in macrophages, and in atherosclerotic plaques. Finally, unique pomegranate antioxidants beneficially decrease blood pressure. All the above beneficial characteristics make the pomegranate a uniquely healthy fruit.

  20. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.