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Sample records for bridgman method

  1. Crystal growth of PbFCl by modified Bridgman method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianming; Shen, Dingzhong; Mao, Rihua; Ren, Guohao; Yin, Zhiwen

    2003-04-01

    Lead fluoride chloride (PbFCl) crystal was grown by modified Bridgman method. The result of X-ray powder diffraction pattern (XRD) was well accordant with the data of JCPDS card. The transmittance spectrum was first reported without absorption band from 270 to 800 nm. Three emission bands were first observed at room temperature when excited by ultraviolet light.

  2. Growth of lead molybdate crystals by vertical Bridgman method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hongbing Chen; Congxin Ge; Rongsheng Li; Jinhao Wang; Changgen Wu; Xianling Zeng

    2005-10-01

    The growth of PbMoO4 crystals by the modified Bridgman method has been reported in this paper. The feed material with strict stoichiometric composition is desirable for the Bridgman growth of the crystals. The continuous composition change of the melts during growth can be avoided because the volatilization of melts is limited by sealed platinum crucibles. By means of the optimum growth parameters such as the growth rate of < 1.2 mm/h and the temperature gradient of 20 ∼ 40°C/cm across the solid–liquid interface under the furnace temperature of 1140 ∼ 1200°C, large size crystals with high optical uniformity were grown successfully. The distribution of Pb and Mo concentration along the growth axis was measured by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The single crystallinity of the grown sample was evaluated by the double-crystal X-ray rocking curve. The transmission spectra were measured in the range of 300–800 nm at room temperature.

  3. Growth of Bi-2212 single crystals by a horizontal Bridgman method using different oxygen pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, M.; Makino, T.; Nakabayashi, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tottori University, Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan); Tanaka, H. [Yonago National College of Technology, 4448 Hikona Yonago, Tottori 683-8502 (Japan); Kinoshita, K., E-mail: kinoshita@ele.tottori-u.ac.j [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tottori University, Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan); Kishida, S. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tottori University, Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    We compared the crystallinity of the Bi-2212 single crystals grown by the horizontal Bridgman (HB) method with those grown by the vertical Bridgman (VB) method in terms of resistivity, rho. It was clarified that crystals far inside the ingot grown by HB method showed the equivalent crystallinity to crystals grown by VB method, whereas crystals near the surface of the ingot grown by HB method showed the similar crystallinity to crystals grown by TSFZ method, which is sensitive to the growth atmosphere.

  4. Bridgman`s concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    In 1956 P.W. Bridgman published a letter to the editor in the Journal of Applied Physics reporting results of electrical resistance measurements on iron under static high pressure. The work was undertaken to verify the existence of a polymorphic phase transition at 130 kbar (13 GPa) reported in the same journal and year by the Los Alamos authors, Bancroft, Peterson and Minshall for high pressure, shock-compression loading. In his letter, Bridgman reported that he failed to find any evidence for the transition. Further, he raised some fundamental concerns as to the state of knowledge of shock-compression processes in solids. Later it was determined that Bridgman`s static pressure scale was in error, and the shock observations became the basis for calibration of pressure values in static high pressure apparatuses. In spite of the error in pressure scales, Bridgman`s concerns on descriptions of shock-compression processes were perceptive and have provided the basis for subsequent fundamental studies of shock-compressed solids. The present paper, written in response to receipt of the 1993 American Physical Society Shock-Compression Science Award, provides a brief contemporary assessment of those shock-compression issues which were the basis of Bridgman`s 1956 concerns.

  5. Bridgman's concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, R. A.

    1993-07-01

    In 1956 P.W. Bridgman published a letter to the editor in the Journal of Applied Physics reporting results of electrical resistance measurements on iron under static high pressure. The work was undertaken to verify the existence of a polymorphic phase transition at 130 kbar (13 GPa) reported in the same journal and year by the Los Alamos authors, Bancroft, Peterson and Minshall for high pressure, shock-compression loading. In his letter, Bridgman reported that he failed to find any evidence for the transition. Further, he raised some fundamental concerns as to the state of knowledge of shock-compression processes in solids. Later it was determined that Bridgman's static pressure scale was in error, and the shock observations became the basis for calibration of pressure values in static high pressure apparatuses. In spite of the error in pressure scales, Bridgman's concerns on descriptions of shock-compression processes were perceptive and have provided the basis for subsequent fundamental studies of shock-compressed solids. The present paper, written in response to receipt of the 1993 American Physical Society Shock-Compression Science Award, provides a brief contemporary assessment of those shock-compression issues which were the basis of Bridgman's 1956 concerns.

  6. Microstructural Characterization of CdZnTe(CZT) Crystal Ingot Grown by Bridgman Method at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyu Hong; Kim, Han Soo; Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Young Soo; Choi, Hyo Jeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te crystal is an important wide band-gap IIVI compound semiconductor which is one of the most attractive radiation materials for room temperature detector, especially for gamma rays. However, the electrical and radiation detection properties of CZT crystal vary widely. They have been attributed to several metallurgical defects such as dislocation, grain- and twin-boundary, Cd vacancy, and secondary phase (Te inclusion and precipitation, etc.). They act as trapping sites of carriers, and significantly degrade the detector's performance. To reduce these defects, doping elements such as Indium is applied. That method compensates Cd vacancies. In this study, 1 inch-diameter In-doped CdZnTe ingots were grown by Vertical Bridgman Method. We conducted several microstructural analyses such as Xray diffraction, edge-pit density (EPD), and ICP-MS analysis

  7. Gap energy studied by optical transmittance in lead iodide monocrystals grown by Bridgman's Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veissid N.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The bandgap energy as a function of temperature has been determined for lead iodide. The monocrystal was obtained in a vacuum sealed quartz ampoule inside a vertical furnace by Bridgman's method. The optical transmittance measurement enables to evaluate the values of Eg. By a fitting procedure of Eg as a function of temperature is possible to extract the parameters that govern its behavior. The variation of Eg with temperature was determined as: Eg(T = Eg(0 - aT2/(a + T, with: Eg(0 = (2.435 ± 0.008 eV, a = (8.7 ± 1.3 x 10-4 eV/K and a = (192 ± 90 K. The bandgap energy of lead iodide at room temperature was found to be 2.277 ± 0.007 eV.

  8. Growth and Optical Spectra of Zn:Er:LiNbO3 Crystals Using Bridgman Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The growth of LiNbO3 single crystal with Er3 + and Zn2 + co-doped using Bridgman method and its characteristicabsorption spectra and fluorescence spectra were reported. Large-size crystals initially containing Zn2+ (3%) and Er3+diffraction and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to characterize the crystals. The results indicate that the con-centration of Er3 + ions in crystals, their absorption intensity, and their fluorescence intensity decrease from the bottom to thetop in the crystals. However, for the upper part of the crystal, the up-conversion fluorescence intensity is higher than that ofthe lower part excited by an 800 or 970 nm pump. The effects of the crystal lattice, their structural defect and their effectivesegregation of Er3 + ions were discussed with respect to the variations of the up-conversion fluorescence intensity.

  9. Electrical and Optical Properties of Bulk ZnO Single Crystal Grown by Flux Bridgman Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-Hua; XU Jia-Yue; JIN Min; SHEN Hui; LI Xiao-Min

    2006-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) single crystals are grown by the modified vertical Bridgman method using a PbF2 flux. Themaximum size of the as-grown ZnO crystal is about φ25 mm× 5mm. The transmittance of the as-grown ZnOcrystal is more than 70% in the range of 600-800nm and the optical band gap is estimated to be 3.21 eV. Thephotoluminescence spectrum indicates that the as-grown ZnO crystal has a very low concentration of nativedefects and is much closed to its stoichiometry. The electrical measurement exhibits that the ZnO crystal haslow electrical resistivity of 0.02394Ωcm-1 and a high carrier concentration of 2.10 × 1018 cm-3

  10. Superheating Suppresses Structural Disorder in Layered BiI3 Semiconductors Grown by the Bridgman Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, Paul M.; Sulekar, Soumitra; Yeo, Shinyoung; Baciak, James E.; Bliss, Mary; Nino, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    The susceptibility of layered structures to stacking faults is a problem in some of the more attractive semiconductor materials for ambient-temperature radiation detectors. In the work presented here, Bridgman-grown BiI3 layered single crystals are investigated to understand and eliminate this structural disorder, which reduces radiation detector performance. The use of superheating gradients has been shown to improve crystal quality in non-layered semiconductor crystals; thus the technique was here explored to improve the growth of BiI3. When investigating the homogeneity of non-superheated crystals, highly geometric void defects were found to populate the bulk of the crystals. Applying a superheating gradient to the melt prior to crystal growth improved structural quality and decreased defect density from the order of 4600 voids per cm3 to 300 voids per cm3. Corresponding moderate improvements to electronic properties also resulted from the superheat gradient method of crystal growth. Comparative measurements through infrared microscopy, etch-pit density, x-ray rocking curves, and sheet resistivity readings show that superheat gradients in BiI3 growth led to higher quality crystals.

  11. Superheating suppresses structural disorder in layered BiI3 semiconductors grown by the Bridgman method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Paul M.; Sulekar, Soumitra; Yeo, Shinyoung; Baciak, J. E.; Bliss, Mary; Nino, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    The susceptibility of layered structures to stacking faults is a problem in some of the more attractive semiconductor materials for ambient-temperature radiation detectors. In this work, Bridgman-grown BiI3 layered single crystals are investigated to understand and eliminate structural disorder, which reduces radiation detector performance. The use of superheating gradients has been shown by others to improve crystal quality in non-layered semiconductor crystals (Rudolph et al., 1996) [26]; thus the technique was explored to improve the growth of BiI3. When investigating the homogeneity of non-superheated crystals, highly geometric void defects were found to populate the bulk of the crystals. Applying a superheating gradient to the melt prior to crystal growth improved structural quality and decreased defect density from the order of 4600 voids per cm3 to 300 voids per cm3. Corresponding moderate improvements to electronic properties also resulted from the superheat gradient method of crystal growth. Comparative measurements through infrared microscopy, etch-pit density, X-ray rocking curves, and sheet resistivity readings show that superheat gradients in BiI3 growth led to higher quality crystals.

  12. Bulk crystal growth of Mg{sub 2}Si by the vertical Bridgman method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, M.; Iida, T.; Noda, M.; Endo, T.; Takanashi, Y

    2004-08-02

    Mg{sub 2}Si were grown by the vertical Bridgman (VB) method in crucibles made of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) pyrolytic graphite (PG) in order to minimize the reaction and sticking of molten Mg-Si during growth. Congruent crystallization was derived from a stoichiometric melt of Mg{sub 2}Si, and incongruent crystallization was derived from nonstoichiometric melts having Mg/Si ratios of 85:15, 70:30 and 60:40. Grown samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and electron-probe microanalysis, and their power factors were calculated from the Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivities measured from room temperature to 773 K. The grown crystals were single-crystal-like and had high Seebeck coefficients at the temperatures from 500 to 773 K. A sample derived from a stoichiometric melt had a Seebeck coefficient of -470 {mu}V/K and the highest power factor, 7.8x10{sup -6} W/cm K{sup 2} at 373 K, was calculated for the sample derived from a melt with an Mg/Si ratio of 70:30.

  13. Properties of Dy 3+-doped PbWO 4 single crystal grown by modified Bridgman method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanlin; Zhu, Wenliang; Feng, Xiqi; Duan, Yong; Man, Zhenyong

    2003-01-01

    Undoped and Dy 3+-doped PbWO 4 single crystals were grown in the same condition by modified Bridgman method. Optical transmittance, X-ray excited luminescence, excitation and emission under UV light, thermoluminescence glow curves and X-ray pulsed excited decays were investigated on Dy 3+:PWO for the first time. Dy 3+-doping has a positive effect similar to that of rare-earth ions La 3+ and Gd 3+, such as improvement of transmittance in the wavelength region of scintillation emission (350-450 nm), compensation of trapping centers that is reflected in the thermoluminescence characteristics and suppression of slow decay component in luminescence kinetics. Analysis of luminescence spectra indicates that energy transfer could take place from the PbWO 4 host to the Dy 3+ ions, followed by characteristic emission line assigned to transition from 4F 9/2 of Dy 3+ ion to lower lying states on basis of the energy level scheme. A tentative concept of energy transfer mechanism is proposed in this paper.

  14. Convection of tin in a Bridgman system. II - An electrochemical method for detecting flow regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, B.; Fripp, A. L.; Debnam, W. J., Jr.; Woodell, G. A.; Anderson, T. J.; Narayanan, R.

    1992-01-01

    An ampoule was designed in order to obtain local flow behavior of the flow fields for convection of tin in a vertical Bridgman configuration. Multiple electrochemical cells were located along the periphery of the ampoule. Oxygen was titrated into the ampoule at one of the cell locations using a potentiostat and the concentration of oxygen was monitored at the other cell locations by operating the cells in a galvanic mode. Onset of oscillations were detected by means of thermocouples. We conclude that the flows are generally three dimensional for an aspect ratio of 5. Results on oscillations concurred with those of earlier workers. Suggestions for improved designs were made.

  15. Crystal growth by Bridgman and Czochralski method of the ferromagnetic quantum critical material YbNi4P2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliemt, K.; Krellner, C.

    2016-09-01

    The tetragonal YbNi4P2 is one of the rare examples of compounds that allow the investigation of a ferromagnetic quantum critical point. We report in detail on two different methods which have been used to grow YbNi4P2 single crystals from a self-flux. The first, a modified Bridgman method, using a closed crucible system yields needle-shaped single crystals oriented along the [001]-direction. The second method, the Czochralski growth from a levitating melt, yields large single crystals which can be cut in any desired orientation. With this crucible-free method, samples without flux inclusions and a resistivity ratio at 1.8 K of RR1.8K = 17 have been grown.

  16. Directional solidification of Zn-Al-Cu eutectic alloy by the vertical Bridgman method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büyük U.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of growth rate and temperature gradient on microstructure and mechanical properties of Zn-7wt.%Al-4wt.%Cu eutectic alloy has been investigated. Alloys prepared under steady-state conditions by vacuumed hot filing furnace. Then, the alloys were directionally solidified upward with different growth rates (V=11.62-230.77 mm/s at a constant temperature gradient (G=7.17 K/mm and with different temperature gradients (G=7.17-11.04 K/mm at a constant growth rate (V=11.62 mm/s by a Bridgman furnace. The microstructures were observed to be lamellae of Zn, Al and broken lamellae CuZn4 phases from quenched samples. The values of eutectic spacing, microhardness and ultimate tensile strength of alloys were measured. The dependency of the microstructure and mechanical properties on growth rate and temperature gradient were investigated using regression analysis.

  17. Growth of Nd3+ doped LiNbO3 crystals using Bridgman method and its spectral properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jinhao Wang; Yueping Zhang; Haiping Xia; Jiawei Sheng

    2009-04-01

    The growth of Nd3+ doped lithium niobate crystals using Bridgman method has been reported in this paper. By means of the optimum conditions such as proper feed materials, sealed platinum crucibles, growth rate of 1–1.5 mm/h and temperature gradient of 30–35°C/cm across the solid–liquid interface under the furnace temperature of 1300°C, single crystals containing Nd3+ ion with 0.54 mol% concentration were obtained. X-ray diffraction and ICP–AES were used to characterize the crystals and its composition. The absorption, emission and fluorescence lifetime are also measured. Based on the Judd–Ofelt theory, we obtained the optical parameters of the crystal such as the luminescent quantum efficiency, the radioactive lifetimes, the branching ratios and the emission cross-section.

  18. High-Performance Doped Strontium Iodide Crystal Growth Using a Modified Bridgman Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Emmanuel

    dipole-allowed and thus are about 106 times stronger than the more frequently observed 4f-4f transition in the trivalent rare earth ions. Ce3+, Nd3+ and Pr3+ have been investigated for fast response applications while Ce3+, Eu 2+, and Yb2+ stand out as the most promising activators offering high light yield, and high energy resolution. Using a modified Bridgman growth technique we have grown crystals with a low energy resolution of 2.6% at 662 keV, which is lower than the previous 2.8% reported for SrI2:Eu 2+. The modified technique (called so for its vertical crystal growth orientation) is necessary due to the anisotropic thermal expansion coefficient of Strontium Iodide. The problem plaguing the growth of the crystal is spontaneous cracking, which usually appear during cooling in the bulk. With the use of a zone separating shield, one can achieve more control of the temperature gradient between the two zones without compromising the actual temperature of the two zones. Additionally the use of codopants, in particular divalent magnesium improved the crystalline quality by acting as a gathering for iodine ions, which led to reduction of defect density.

  19. Model-free kinetic analysis of Sr2FeMoO6 re-crystallization process used for double-perovskite monocrystals grown by Bridgman method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartha, Cristina; Plapcianu, Carmen; Palade, Petru; Vizman, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis routes for polycrystalline bulk Sr2FeMoO6 (SFMO), offer various possibilities, but in all the cases it is difficult to obtain a single phase of this compound. A new challenge in the field is to achieve mono-crystals using different growing routes and the Bridgman method represents one of them. In order to establish the optimal conditions of mono-crystals growing process, a complex thermal investigation of bulk double perovskite has been performed. Differential thermal analysis investigation in argon inert atmosphere, starting from room temperature up to 1650°C provided information about melting and re-crystallization temperature range. Both, the activation energy of Sr2FeMoO6 re-crystallization process and the re-crystallization mechanism were comparatively analyzed by two free-model estimations (Friedman and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall analysis). The resulted data are very important in order to set up the heating program of Bridgman furnace.

  20. Single crystal growth of Sn0.97Ag0.03Se by a novel horizontal Bridgman method and its thermoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Min; Shao, Hezhu; Hu, Haoyang; Li, Debo; Xu, Jingtao; Liu, Guoqiang; Shen, Hui; Xu, Jiayue; Jiang, Haochuan; Jiang, Jun

    2017-02-01

    SnSe-based single crystal has attracted much attention due to its outstanding thermoelectric behaviors, however, the fabrication of large size crystal seems difficult as it is very easy to cleavage during crystal growth. In this work, a novel horizontal Bridgman method was employed to produce SnSe crystal with 3 mol% Ag substitute for Sn. The Sn0.97Ag0.03Se raw material was in-situ synthesized in the horizontal Bridgman furnace and the crystal was grown in a PBN crucible. B2O3 encapsulant was used to prevent Se volatilization. The as-grown Sn0.97Ag0.03Se crystal was about 105 g in weight and a 25 mm×20 mm×15 mm single crystal was obtained. The density of the single crystal of 6.178 g/cm3 close to the theoretical value was measured. X-ray powder diffraction measurement indicated Sn0.97Ag0.03Se single crystal had orthorhombic Pnma structure at room temperature. The thermoelectric properties along a axis were analyzed and the Figure-of-merit, ZT=0.95 was obtained at 793 K mainly due to the low thermal conductivity near the Pnma-Cmcm phase transition temperature.

  1. Influence of gravitational and vibrational convection on the heat- and mass transfer in the melt during crystal growing by Bridgman and floating zone methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Oleg

    2016-07-01

    Space materials science is one of the priorities of different national and international space programs. The physical processes of heat and mass transfer in microgravity (including effect of g-jitter) is far from complete clarity, especially for important practical technology for producing crystals from the melt. The idea of the impact on crystallizing melt by low frequency vibration includes not only the possibility to suppress unwanted microaccelerations, but also to actively influence the structure of the crystallization front. This approach is one of the most effective ways to influence the quality of materials produced in flight conditions. The subject of this work is the effect of vibrations on the thermal and hydrodynamic processes during crystal growth using Bridgman and floating zone techniques, which have the greatest prospect of practical application in space. In the present approach we consider the gravitational convection, Marangoni convection, as well as the effect of vibration on the melt for some special cases. The results of simulation were compared with some experimental data obtained by the authors using a transparent model substance - succinonitrile (Bridgman method), and silicon (floating zone method). Substances used, process parameters and characteristics of the experimental units correspond the equipment developed for onboard research and serve as a basis for selecting optimum conditions vibration exposure as a factor affecting the solidification pattern. The direction of imposing vibrations coincides with the axis of the crystal, the frequency is presented by the harmonic law, and the force of gravity was varied by changing its absolute value. Mathematical model considered axisymmetric approximation of joint convective-conductive energy transfer in the system crystal - melt. Upon application of low-frequency oscillations of small amplitude along the axis of growing it was found the suppression of the secondary vortex flows near the

  2. On the effect of thermodiffusion on solute segregation during the growth of semiconductor materials by the vertical Bridgman method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sassi, Mokhtar; Kaddeche, Slim; Lappa, Marcello; Millet, Séverine; Henry, Daniel; Ben Hadid, Hamda

    2017-01-01

    The effect of thermodiffusion on dopant distribution in the melt and in the grown crystal is investigated numerically for a vertical Bridgman configuration for situations of pure thermal convection corresponding to dilute alloys. The dopant distribution is shown to be significantly affected by the Soret parameter value. The sensitivity of the system to a variety of parameters, including the Grashof number and the so-called furnace residence time, i.e. the time during which the crucible is maintained in the furnace before initiating the solidification process, is assessed by means of parametric simulations. Moreover, the results indicate that variations in the sign of the Soret parameter can lead to diametrically opposite behaviors, while an increase in the intensity of the thermal convection generally leads to a mitigation of the effects induced by thermodiffusion. On the basis of the numerical results some useful criteria are drawn which could help crystal growers to discern the complex interrelations among the various parameters under one's control (that are not independent of one another) and to elaborate rational guidelines relating to strategies to be used to improve the quality of the resulting crystals.

  3. High compositional homogeneity of CdTexSe1−x crystals grown by the Bridgman method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. N. Roy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We obtained high-quality CdTexSe1−x (CdTeSe crystals from ingots grown by the vertical Bridgman technique. The compositional uniformity of the ingots was evaluated by X-ray fluorescence at BNL’s National Synchrotron Light Source X27A beam line. The compositional homogeneity was highly uniform throughout the ingot, and the effective segregation coefficient of Se was ∼1.0. This high uniformity offers potential opportunity to enhance the yield of the materials for both infrared substrate and radiation-detector applications, so greatly lowering the cost of production and also offering us the prospect to grow large-diameter ingots for use as large-area substrates and for producing higher efficiency gamma-ray detectors. The concentration of secondary phases was found to be much lower, by eight- to ten fold compared to that of conventional CdxZn1−xTe (CdZnTe or CZT.

  4. Bridgman's concern (shock compression science)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, R. A.

    1994-07-01

    In 1956 P. W. Bridgman published a letter to the editor in the Journal of Applied Physics reporting results of electrical resistance measurements on iron under static high pressure. The work was undertaken to verify the existence of a polymorphic phase transition at 130 kbar (13 GPa) reported in the same journal and year by the Los Alamos authors, Bancroft, Peterson, and Minshall for high pressure, shock-compression loading. In his letter, Bridgman reported that he failed to find any evidence for the transition. Further, he raised some fundamental concerns as to the state of knowledge of shock-compression processes in solids. Later it was determined that Bridgman's static pressure scale was in error, and the shock observations became the basis for calibration of pressure values in static high pressure apparatuses. In spite of the error in pressure scales, Bridgman's concerns on descriptions of shock-compression processes were perceptive and have provided the basis for subsequent fundamental studies of shock-compressed solids. The present paper, written in response to receipt of the 1993 American Physical Society Shock-Compression Science Award, provides a brief contemporary assessment of those shock-compression issues which were the basis of Bridgman's 1956 concerns.

  5. Bridgman growth of bismuth tellurite crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anhua Wu; Jiayue Xu; Guoxing Qian; Baoliang Lu; Zengwei Ge; Linyao Tang; Xianjun Wu

    2005-10-01

    The photorefractive crystal, Bi2TeO5, was grown by the modified Bridgman method for the first time. High purity Bi2O3 and TeO2 were used as starting materials and were mixed thoroughly with molar ratio of Bi2O3/TeO2 = 1 : 1. Platinum crucible was fabricated with a seed well of 10 mm in diameter and several folds were pressed so that the spontaneous nuclei could be eliminated through competition. The crucible was sealed during the growth so that the evaporation of TeO2 was controlled effectively. By optimizing growth parameters, transparent and crack-free Bi2TeO5 crystal up to 25 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length was grown successfully.

  6. Structural, thermal, laser damage, photoconductivity, NLO and mechanical properties of modified vertical Bridgman method grown AgGa0.5In0.5Se2 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-08-01

    AgGa0.5In0.5Se2 single crystal was grown using modified vertical Bridgman method. The structural perfection of the AgGa0.5In0.5Se2 single crystal has been analyzed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve measurements. The structural and compositional uniformities of AgGa0.5In0.5Se2 were studied using Raman scattering spectroscopy at room temperature. The FWHM of the Γ1 (W1) and Γ5L (Γ15) measured at different regions of the crystal confirms that the composition throughout its length is fairly uniform. Thermal properties of the as-grown crystal, including specific heat, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity have been investigated. The multiple shot surface laser damage threshold value was measured using Nd:YAG laser. Photoconductivity measurements with different temperatures have confirmed the positive photoconducting behavior. Second harmonic generation (SHG) on powder samples has been measured using the Kurtz and Perry technique and the results display that AgGa0.5In0.5Se2 is a phase-matchable NLO material. The hardness behavior has been measured using Vickers micro hardness measurement and the indentation size effect has been observed. The classical Meyer's law, propositional resistance model and modified propositional resistance model have been used to analyse the micro hardness behavior.

  7. Testing and Further Development of Improved Etches and Etching Methods for the Analysis of Bridgman Grown Semiconductor Crystals with an Emphasis on Lead-Tin-Telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Patrick G.

    1998-01-01

    The goals outlined for the research project for this year have been completed, and the following supporting documentation is attached: 1. A copy of the proposal outlining the principal goals: (a) Improve the characterization of semiconductor crystals through new etches and etching procedures. (b) Developed a novel voltammetric method to characterize semiconductor crystals as a result of searching for improved etches for lead-tin-telluride. (c) Presented paper at ACCG- 10. (d) Prepared manuscripts for publication. Completed additional testing suggested by reviewers and re-submitted manuscripts. (e) Worked with an undergraduate student on this project to provide her an opportunity to have a significant research experience prior to graduation. 2. In addition to the anticipated goals the following were also accomplished: (a) Submitted the newly developed procedures for consideration as a patent or a NASA Tech Brief. (b) Submitted a paper for presentation at the forthcoming ICCG- 12 conference. 3. A copy of the final draft of the publication as submitted to the editors of the Journal of Crystal Growth.

  8. Optimization of control parameters of CdZnTe ACRT-Bridgman single crystal growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    [1]Kennedey, J. J., Amirtharaj, P. M., Boyd, P. R. Et al., Growth and characterization of Cd1-xZnxTe and Hg1-yZnyTe, J. Cryst. Growth, 1988, 86: 93-99.[2]Tanaka, A., Masa, Y., Seto, S. et al., Zinc and selenium co-doped CdTe substrates lattice matched to HgCdTe, J. Cryst. Growth, 1989, 94: 166-170.[3]Sen, S., Stanard, J. E., Developments in the bulk growth of Cd1-xZnxTe for substrates, Prog. Crystal Growth and Charact., 1994, 29: 253-273.[4]Azoulay, M., Rotter, S., Gafni, G. et al., Zinc segregation in CdZnTe grown under Cd/Zn partial pressure control, J. Cryst. Growth, 1992, 117: 276-280.[5]Lee, T. S., Lee, S. B., Kim, J. M. et al., Vertical Bridgman techniques to homogenize zinc composition of CdZnTe substrates, J. Electronic Materials, 1995, 24: 1057-1059.[6]Mühlberg, M., Rudolph, P., Genzel, C. Et al., Crystalline and chemical quality of CdTe and Cd1-xZnxTe grown by the Bridgman method in low temperature gradients, J. Cryst. Growth, 1990, 101: 275-280.[7]Cheuvart, P., El-Hanani, U., Schneider, D. et al., CdTe and CdZnTe crystal growth by horizontal Bridgman technique, J. Cryst. Growth, 1990, 101: 270-274.[8]Lu, Y. C., Shiau, J. J., Fiegelson, R. S. et al., Effect of vibrational stirring on the quality of Bridgman-grown CdTe, J. Cryst. Growth, 1990, 102: 807-813.[9]Butler, J. F., Doty, F. P., Apotovsky, B. Et al., γ-ray and X-ray detectors manufactured from Cd1-xZnxTe grown by a high-pressure Bridgman method, Mater. Sci. & Eng. B, 1993, 16: 291-295.[10]Capper, P., The role of accelerated crucible rotation in the growth of Hg1-xCdxTe and CdTe/CdZnTe, Prog. Crystal Growth and Charact., 1994, 28: 1-55.[11]Schulz-Dubois, E. O., Accelerated crucible rotation: hydrodynamics and stirring effect, J. Cryst. Growth, 1971, 12: 81-87.[12]Capper, P., Gosney, J. J. G., Jones, C. L. et al., Fluid flows in tall narrow containers by ACRT, Journal of Electronic Materials, 1986 15(6): 361-370.[13]Distanov, V. E., Kirdyashkin, A

  9. Chaotic asymmetric convection in the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, H.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Convection was observed in naphthalene in a vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger arrangement. Differing from the assumptions of the theorists, the flow was neither steady nor axi-symmetric because of the heating and cooling conditions employed. It is suggested that such irregular convection may be common and cause compositional striations and azimuthal composition variations.

  10. Bridgman growth and defects of Nd3+ : Sr3Ga2Ge4O14 laser crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jiaxuan Ding; Anhua Wu; Jiayue Xu

    2004-08-01

    Nd3+ : Sr3Ga2Ge4O14 crystals have been grown by the modified Bridgman method. The growth defects, such as striations, scattering particles and dislocations were investigated. Some featherlike striations were observed in as-grown crystals. EPMA analysis suggested that these inclusions were caused by the segregation of Nd2O3 from the melt. Chemical etching results showed that the dislocation density was in the range of 103 ∼ 105/cm2.

  11. Optimization of control parameters of CdZnTe ACRT-Bridgman single crystal growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Juncheng

    2004-01-01

    The CdZnTe vertical Bridgman single crystal process with accelerated crucible rotation technique (ACRT) has been simulated. Effects have been investigated of the ACRT wave parameters on the solid-liquid interface concavity and the solute segregation of the crystal. The results show that ACRT can result in the increase of both the solid-liquid interface concavity and the temperature gradient of the melt in the front of the solid-liquid interface, of which the magnitude varies from small to many times when the ACRT wave parameters change. Of the ACRT wave parameters, the increase of the crucible maximum rotation rate can hardly improve the radial solute segregation of the crystal, but the variation of the crucible acceleration time, the keep time at the maximum rotation rate, and the crucible deceleration time can affect the solute segregation of the single crystal extraordinarily. With suitable wave parameters, ACRT greatly decreases the radial solute segregation of the crystal, and even makes it disappear completely. However, it increases both the axial solute segregation and the radial one notably with bad wave parameters. An excellent single crystal could be gotten, of which a majority part is with no segregation, with ACRT-Bridgman method by adjusting both the ACRT wave parameters and the crystal growth control parameters, such as the initial temperature of the melt, the temperature gradient, and the crucible withdrawal rate, etc.

  12. Shape Evolution of Detached Bridgman Crystals Grown in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.

    2015-01-01

    A theory describing the shape evolution of detached Bridgman crystals in microgravity has been developed. A starting crystal of initial radius r0 will evolve to one of the following states: Stable detached gap; Attachment to the crucible wall; Meniscus collapse. Only crystals where alpha plus omega is great than 180 degrees will achieve stable detached growth in microgravity. Results of the crystal shape evolution theory are consistent with predictions of the dynamic stability of crystallization (Tatarchenko, Shaped Crystal Growth, Kluwer, 1993). Tests of transient crystal evolution are planned for ICESAGE, a series of Ge and GeSi crystal growth experiments planned to be conducted on the International Space Station (ISS).

  13. Characterization of the Bridgman crystal growth process by radiographic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fripp, Archibald L.; Debnam, W. J.; Woodell, G. W.; Berry, R. F.; Simchick, R. T.; Sorokach, S. K.; Barber, P. G.

    1991-01-01

    Elemental (Ge) and alloy (PbSnTe) crystal growth that is monitored via radiography to reveal both the interface position and the shape in real time is discussed for both seeded and unseeded growth. It is concluded that the interface position and the actual growth rate of a Bridgman grown crystal is dependent on the growth conditions. The actual growth rate which is a strong function of the degree of supercooling exceeded the pull rate by a factor of greater than two. The interface shape changed from concave to flat to convex during the growth.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Rotating Vertical Bridgman Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nouri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is proposed a numerical parametric study of heat and mass transfer in a rotating vertical cylinder during the solidification of a binary metallic alloy. The aim of this paper is to present an enthalpy formulation based on the fixed grid methodology for the numerical solution of convective-diffusion during the phase change in the case of the steady crucible rotation. The extended Darcy model including the time derivative and Coriolis terms was applied as momentum equation. It was found that the buoyancy driven flow and solute distribution can be affected significantly by the rotating cylinder. The problem is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the conservation laws of energy and solute. The resulting system was discretized by the control volume method and solved by the SIMPLER algorithm proposed by Patankar. A computer code was developed and validated by comparison with previous studies. It can be observed that the forced convection introduced by rotation, dramatically changes the flow and solute distribution at the interface (liquid-mushy zone. The effect of Reynolds number on the Nusselt number, flow and solute distribution is presented and discussed.

  15. Estimation of the curvature of the solid liquid interface during Bridgman crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Catherine; Duffar, Thierry; Garandet, Jean-Paul

    1998-11-01

    An approximate solution for the solid/liquid interface curvature due to the crucible effect in crystal growth is derived from simple heat flux considerations. The numerical modelling of the problem carried out with the help of the finite element code FIDAP supports the predictions of our analytical expression and allows to identify its range of validity. Experimental interface curvatures, measured in gallium antimonide samples grown by the vertical Bridgman method, are seen to compare satisfactorily to analytical and numerical results. Other literature data are also in fair agreement with the predictions of our models in the case where the amount of heat carried by the crucible is small compared to the overall heat flux.

  16. Thermal kinetic and dielectric parameters of acenaphthene crystal grown by vertical Bridgman technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppusamy, S.; Dinesh Babu, K.; Nirmal Kumar, V.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2016-05-01

    The bulk acenaphthene crystal was grown in a single-wall ampoule by vertical Bridgman technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the orthorhombic crystal system of title compound with space group Pcm21. Thermal behavior of compound was studied using thermogravimetry—differential scanning calorimetry analysis. Thermal kinetic parameters like activation energy, frequency factor, Avrami exponent, reaction rate and degree of conversion were calculated using Kissingers and Ozawa methods under non-isothermal condition for acenaphthene crystal and reported for the first time. The calculated thermal kinetic parameters are presented. Dielectric studies were performed to calculate the dielectric parameters such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss, AC conductivity, and activation energy from Arrhenius plot.

  17. Control of fluid flow during Bridgman crystal growth using low-frequency vibrational stirring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilski, Kevin Thomas

    The goal of this research program was to develop an in depth understanding of a promising new method for stirring crystal growth melts called coupled vibrational stirring (CVS). CVS is a mixing technique that can be used in sealed systems and produces rapid mixing through vortex flows. Under normal operating conditions, CVS uses low-frequency vibrations to move the growth crucible along a circular path, producing a surface wave and convection in the melt. This research focused on the application of CVS to the vertical Bridgman technique. CVS generated flows were directly studied using a physical modeling system containing water/glycerin solutions. Sodium nitrate was chosen as a model growth system because the growth process could be directly observed using a transparent furnace. Lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMNT) was chosen as the third system because of its potential application for high performance solid state transducers and actuators. In this study, the critical parameters for controlling CVS flows in cylindrical Bridgman systems were established. One of the most important results obtained was the dependence of an axial velocity gradient on the vibrational frequency. By changing the frequency, the intensity of fluid flow at a given depth can be easily manipulated. The intensity of CVS flows near the crystal-melt interface was found to be important. When flow intensity near the interface increased during growth, large growth rate fluctuations and significant changes in interface shape were observed. To eliminate such fluctuations, a constant flow rate near the crystal-melt interface was maintained by decreasing the vibrational frequency. A continuous frequency ramp was found to be essential to grow crystals of good quality under strong CVS flows. CVS generated flows were also useful in controlling the shape of the growth interface. In the sodium nitrate system without stirring, high growth rates produced a very concave interface. By adjusting the flow

  18. Existence and Stability of Menisci in Detached Bridgman Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.

    2011-01-01

    Detached growth, also referred to as dewetted growth, is a Bridgman crystal growth process in which the melt is in contact with the crucible wall but the crystal is not. A meniscus bridges the gap between the top of the crystal and the crucible wall. The Young-Laplace capillary equation was used to calculate the crystal radii of detached states as a function of the pressure differential across the meniscus. The detached states depend on the contact angle of the melt with the crucible wall, the growth angle of the melt with respect to the solidifying crystal, and the Bond number. A static stability analysis was performed on the calculated detached states. The stability criterion was the sign of the second variation of the potential energy upon admissible meniscus shape perturbations. The conditions considered corresponded to the growth of Ge and InSb, in both terrestrial and microgravity conditions. Stability was found to depend significantly on whether the interior surface was considered to be microscopically rough or smooth, corresponding to pinned or unpinned states. It was also found that all meniscus shapes which are single-valued functions of the radius are statically stable in a microgravity environment.

  19. Preliminary study of non-isothermal phase change phenomena in vertical Bridgman crystal growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jie; LU WenQiang

    2007-01-01

    Axisymmetric dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRBEM) with augmented items is extended to simulate the heat and mass transfer problems in the vertical Bridgman method (VBM) crystal growth of HgCdTe and CdZnTe. Axial solute concentration redistribution of three regions numerically reappears, and the influence of the pulling rate of the ampoule on it is further studied. Secondly, one dimensional transient phase change phenomena is studied, and non-isothermal phase change phenomena is obtained from the initial transient region through the steady growth region to the final transient region. Thirdly, the two-dimensional axisymmetric phase change interface position, interfacial shape and the temperature field of the melt and the crystal are numerically captured under the condition to arrive at the steady state with zero pulling rate of the ampoule. Finally, the study of transient axisymmetric non-isothermal phase change phenomena is stressed and the results are compared with those in isothermal phase change. The influence of the pulling rate on non-isothermal phase change phenomena is revealed.

  20. Thermal analysis of the vertical bridgman semiconductor crystal growth technique. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The quality of semiconductor crystals grown by the vertical Bridgman technique is strongly influenced by the axial and radial variations of temperature within the charge. The relationship between the thermal parameters of the vertical Bridgman system and the thermal behavior of the charge are examined. Thermal models are developed which are capable of producing results expressable in analytical form and which can be used without recourse to extensive computer work for the preliminary thermal design of vertical Bridgman crystal growth systems. These models include the effects of thermal coupling between the furnace and the charge, charge translation rate, charge diameter, thickness and thermal conductivity of the confining crucible, thermal conductivity change and liberation of latent heat at the growth interface, and infinite charge length. The hot and cold zone regions, considered to be at spatially uniform temperatures, are separated by a gradient control region which provides added thermal design flexibility for controlling the temperature variations near the growth interface.

  1. Translation effects on vertical Bridgman growth and optical, mechanical and surface analysis of 2-phenylphenol single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhasivam, S.; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana

    2016-05-01

    2-phenylphenol optical crystals were grown in cone ampoules using vertical Bridgman technique. Single crystal of 2-phenylphenol with 150 mm length has been grown. The inclination on the conical part of the ampoule reduces the growth defects in the 2-phenylphenol single crystal. The lattice parameters and structure studied using single crystal X-ray diffraction method. 2-phenylphenol single crystal belongs to orthorhombic space group Fdd2. The micro translation rate affects crystal growth of 2-phenylphenol crystal was studied. The translation rate dependent defects present in the crystal were investigated by transmittance, indentation and etching characterizations. The dislocation induced indentation crack lengths variations were studied. Etch pits and striations observed for the selective etchants furnish significant information on growth aspects and degree of defect present in the crystal.

  2. Magnesium single crystals for biomedical applications grown in vertical Bridgman apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Pravahan; Joshi, Madhura; Chaswal, Vibhor; Zhang, Guangqi; Rosenbaum, Leonard A.; Dowling, Kevin; Decker, Paul; Shanov, Vesselin

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes successful efforts to design, build, test, and utilize a single crystal apparatus using the Bridgman approach for directional solidification. The created instrument has been successfully tested to grow magnesium single crystals from melt. Preliminary mechanical tests carried out on these single crystals indicate unique and promising properties, which can be harnessed for biomedical applications.

  3. Dopant segregation during vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger growth with melt stabilization by strong axial magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiesen, D. H.; Wargo, M. J.; Motakef, S.; Carlson, D. J.; Nakos, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    Ga-doped germanium was grown in a vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger system with melt stabilization by axial magnetic fields of 30 kG. It was found that radial segregation of gallium is negligible and that the initial transient of axial macro-segregation is in apparent compliance with the theory of diffusion controlled plane front solidification.

  4. The Science of Detached Bridgman Growth and Solutocapillary Convection in Solid Solution Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szofran, F. R.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.; Croell, A.; Dold, P.

    2001-01-01

    Bridgman and Float-zone crystal growth experiments are planned for NASA's First Materials Science Research Rack using the European Space Agency's Materials Science Laboratory with the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and Float Zone Furnace with Rotating Magnetic Field (FMF) inserts, respectively. Samples will include germanium and germanium-silicon alloys with up to 10 atomic percent silicon. The Bridgman part of the investigation includes detached growth samples and so there will be a solid-liquid-gas tri-junction in those experiments just as there will be in all float-zone experiments. There are other similarities as well as significant differences between the types of growth that will be discussed. The presentation will call attention to the reasons that experiments in microgravity will provide information unattainable from Earth-based experiments.

  5. Modeling of thermosolutal convection during Bridgman solidification of semiconductor alloys in relation with experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelian, Carmen; Duffar, Thierry

    2004-05-01

    Thermosolutal convection during vertical Bridgman directional solidification of Ga 1- xIn xSb alloys has been studied by numerical simulation. The transient analysis of heat, momentum and species transport has been performed by using the finite element code FIDAP ®. In the case of vertical Bridgman configuration, the thermal convection is driven by the radial temperature gradients. The solute (InSb) rejected at the solid-liquid interface, which is heavier than the GaSb component, damps the thermally driven convection. The solutal effect on the melt convection has been analyzed for low ( x=0.01) and high ( x=0.1) doped Ga 1- xIn xSb alloys. It is found that the damping effect is negligible for Ga 0.99In 0.01Sb alloy grown at low pulling rates ( V= 1 μm/s ), but cannot be neglected if the pulling rate is increased. In the case of concentrated alloys, the low level of convection intensity leads to an increase of radial segregation and interface curvature during the whole growth process as also shown by experiments. The effect of solutal buoyancy force on the melt convection is analyzed for the horizontal Bridgman configuration under microgravity conditions. An inverse but lower solutal effect on the melt convection, as compared with vertical Bridgman arrangement, is observed. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data, and show that convective transport can be observed even for low (2×10 -6g0) residual gravity levels.

  6. Quality control on pre-serial Bridgman production of PbWO{sub 4} scintillating crystals by means of photoelasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, D., E-mail: d.rinaldi@univpm.i [Dipartimento di Fisica e Ingegneria dei Materiali e del Territorio, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); INFN section of Perugia (Italy); Ciriaco, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Ingegneria dei Materiali e del Territorio, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Lebeau, M. [CERN PH department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Paone, N. [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2010-04-11

    Residual internal stresses in PbWO{sub 4} (PWO) scintillating crystals grown by Bridgman method have been systematically studied. Residual stresses induced during growth play an important role in production yield. Cracking probability during mechanical processing as well as stable mechanical properties in finished crystal are closely related to internal stress levels. A regular production of good-quality crystals requires a fast and easy feed-back on growth parameters. Samples from a pre-serial production were analyzed in order to give the producer a quality feed-back for process optimization. By means of photoelasticity, we measured residual stress distribution in several sections along the growth axis and for typical positions in every section. The stress analysis revealed defects occurring during the crystallization process, attributed to dislocations, lattice disorientation and poly-crystallinity. This work had been prompted by the need for quality monitoring of a pre-serial production of PWO for the CMS experiment at CERN's LHC. Mapping stress levels inside the ingot volume and proposing a synthetic parameter to be used as a quality indicator, the resulting analysis should contribute to parameter optimization and improve the growth performance. The proposed method may be useful in conventional crystal production.

  7. Electrical properties of Au/CdZnTe/Au detectors grown by the boron oxide encapsulated Vertical Bridgman technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turturici, A.A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy); Abbene, L., E-mail: leonardo.abbene@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy); Gerardi, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy); Benassi, G. [due2lab s.r.l., Via Paolo Borsellino 2, Scandiano, 42019 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Bettelli, M.; Calestani, D. [IMEM/CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, Parma 43100 (Italy); Zambelli, N. [due2lab s.r.l., Via Paolo Borsellino 2, Scandiano, 42019 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Raso, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy); Zappettini, A. [IMEM/CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, Parma 43100 (Italy); Principato, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy)

    2016-09-11

    In this work we report on the results of electrical characterization of new CdZnTe detectors grown by the Boron oxide encapsulated Vertical Bridgman technique (B-VB), currently produced at IMEM-CNR (Parma, Italy). The detectors, with gold electroless contacts, have different thicknesses (1 and 2.5 mm) and the same electrode layout, characterized by a central anode surrounded by a guard-ring electrode. Investigations on the charge transport mechanisms and the electrical contact properties, through the modeling of the measured current–voltage (I–V) curves, were performed. Generally, the detectors are characterized by low leakage currents at high bias voltages even at room temperature: 34 nA/cm{sup 2} (T=25 °C) at 10,000 V/cm, making them very attractive for high flux X-ray measurements, where high bias voltage operation is required. The Au/CdZnTe barrier heights of the devices were estimated by using the interfacial layer-thermionic-diffusion (ITD) model in the reverse bias voltage range. Comparisons with CdZnTe detectors, grown by Traveling Heater Method (THM) and characterized by the same electrode layout, deposition technique and resistivity, were also performed.

  8. Growth and characterization of butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate single crystal by vertical Bridgman technique for third order nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivazhagan, T.; Siva Bala Solanki, S.; Rajesh, Narayana Perumal

    2017-02-01

    The butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate single crystal has been grown by vertical Bridgman technique using single wall ampoule. The cell parameters of the grown crystal are verified by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The functional groups of the grown crystal were identified by Fourier transform infrared analysis. The melting, decomposition and crystallization point of the compound are determined by thermo gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetric analysis. The mechanical properties of the grown crystal has been analyzed by Vickers microhardness method. The optical behavior of the grown crystal has been observed by UV-vis-NIR transmission spectroscopic analysis which shows that the lower cut-off wavelength lying at 293 nm and found that the energy band gap value is 4.05 eV. The blue light emission of the crystal was identified by photoluminescence studies. The positive third order nonlinear optical parameters like nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption co-efficient (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ3) of the grown crystal was calculated by Z-scan studies. The positive sign of nonlinear refractive index (n2) indicates that the crystal exhibits self focusing optical nonlinearity. The crystal exhibits good optical power limiting behavior.

  9. Melt Motion Due to Peltier Marking During Bridgman Crystal Growth with an Axial Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, C. C.; Walker, John S.; Szofran, Frank R.; Motakef, Shariar

    2000-01-01

    This paper treats a liquid-metal flow inside an electrically insulating cylinder with electrically conducting solids above and below the liquid region. There is a uniform axial magnetic field, and there is an electric current through the liquid and both solids. Since the lower liquid-solid interface is concave into the solid and since the liquid is a better electrical conductor than the adjacent solid, the electric current is locally concentrated near the centerline. The return to a uniform current distribution involves a radial electric current which interacts with the axial magnetic field to drive an azimuthal flow. The axial variation of the centrifugal force due to the azimuthal velocity drives a meridional circulation with radial and axial velocities. This problem models the effects of Peltier marking during the vertical Bridgman growth of semiconductor crystals with an externally applied magnetic field, where the meridional circulation due to the Peltier Current may produce important mixing in the molten semiconductor.

  10. Determination of the Peltier coefficient for gallium arsenide in a vertical Bridgman furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegel, Michaela E. K.; Matthiesen, David H.

    2011-10-01

    The Peltier coefficient for gallium arsenide solid in contact with its melt was experimentally determined. Selenium doped gallium arsenide samples were hermetically sealed in a fused quartz ampoule and processed in a vertical Bridgman furnace. During the translation period seven sequences of current-on and current-off periods were processed into the solidifying crystal. An axial slice was mechanochemically polished and then etched. Photomicrographs of the slice were taken with differential interference contrast microscopy and were used to measure the thickness of the current-on and current-off layers. These results were used to calculate growth rates from which the Peltier coefficient was calculated. An average value of 0.107±0.015 V was determined. The values calculated from the different sequences were in excellent agreement with each other even though the sequences had different current densities, current-on durations, and current-on to current-off ratios.

  11. Bridgman Growth of Germanium and Germanium-Silicon Crystals under Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croell, A.; Hess, A.; Zaehringer, J.; Sorgenfrei, T.; Egorov, A.; Senchenkov, A.; Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Four different Bridgman growth experiments on Ge:Ga and Ge(sub x)Si(sub 1-x) were performed under microgravity during the FOTON M4 flight in fall 2014 as joint German-Russian experiments. The experiments were also part of the RDGS/ICESAGE project(s) of ESA/NASA on detached growth of Ge and Ge-Si. Three experiments on Ge:Ga investigated different heat and mass transport regimes, i.e. mostly diffusive conditions, flows driven by a rotating magnetic field, and flows driven by vibration. The fourth experiment on Ge(sub 0.98)Si(0.02) investigated detached growth. All four experiments were successful and yielded crystals. Both the Ge-Si experiment and two of the Ge:Ga experiments showed stable detachment from the ampoule wall, although this was not planned for the latter two experiments. The influence of the rotating magnetic field as well as of the vibration was pronounced in the case of the microgram experiments, but dominated by buoyancy convection under 1g.

  12. Modeling effects of solute concentration in Bridgman growth of cadmium zinc telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelian, Carmen; Duffar, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    Numerical modeling is used to investigate the effect of solute concentration on the melt convection and interface shape in Bridgman growth of Cd1-x Znx Te (CZT). The numerical analysis is compared to experimental growth in cylindrical ampoules having a conical tip performed by Komar et al. (2001) [15]. In these experiments, the solidification process occurs at slow growth rate (V = 2 ṡ10-7 m / s) in a thermal field characterized by a vertical gradient GT = 20 K / cm at the growth interface. The computations performed by accounting the solutal effect show a progressive damping of the melt convection due to the depleted Zn at the growth interface. The computed shape of the crystallization front is in agreement with the experimental measurement showing a convex-concave shape for the growth through the conical part of the ampoule and a concave shape of the interface in the cylindrical region. The distribution of Zn is nearly uniform over the crystal length except for the end part of the ingots. The anomalous zinc segregation observed in some experiments is explained by introducing the hypothesis of incomplete charge mixing during the homogenization time which precedes the growth process. When the crystallization is started in ampoules having a very sharp conical tip, the heavy CdTe is accumulated at the bottom part of the melt, giving rise to anomalous segregation patterns, featuring very low zinc concentration in the ingots during the first stage of the solidification.

  13. Characteristics evaluation of stilbene single crystal grown by vertical bridgman technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Kwang Ho

    2012-02-15

    As the nature of organic scintillator, stilbene single crystal's decay time is only a couple of nano seconds, which makes it suitable for fast neutron detection. However, the entire amount of stilbene single crystal being used relies on import currently. As the necessity of fast neutron detection equipment such as KSTAR and Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor system increases, the goal is to have our own domestic technology through the growth of stilbene single crystal. The emission wavelength of grown stilbene single crystal is confirmed, and the property of grown stilbene single crystal is assessed compared to commercial stilbene (Ukraine ISMA research center) through gamma ray and neutron tests. In this research, we have grown stilbenes through Bridgman technique, and obtained three stilbenes out of two amples. (Two ones of {Phi} 30 mm x 15 mm, and {Phi} 40 mm x 17 mm from the first ample, and size of {Phi} 25 mm x 13 mm from the other) The grown stilbene's emission wavelength and inherent property of stilbene are confirmed. As the result of gamma ray test, we have confirmed linearity of grown stilbene's scintillator, and the relative light yield ratio is proven 101% efficiency to reference stilbene. Neutron detection efficiency of the three stilbenes amounts to 80% of reference stilbene, and FOM of them is 108% efficiency to reference stilbene's one. Although Ukraine ISMA research center still holds a dominant position with world-class efficiency and performance of its stilbene, we expect to produce a better stilbene with our domestic technology development. Through this, fast neutron detection technique can be obtained, which opens up an opportunity to be used not only in neutron monitoring system in nuclear fusion reactor, but also in alternative measurement technique as the unit price of He-3 increases recently

  14. Growth of LaBr_3:Ce~(3+) Single Crystal by Vertical Bridgman Process in Nonvacuum Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbing Chen; Changyong Zhou; Peizhi Yang; Jinhao Wang

    2009-01-01

    The growth of LaBr_3:Ce~(3+) crystal by the vertical Bridgman process in a nonvacuum atmosphere was reported. According to the dehydration procedure of LaBr_3·7H_2O and CeBr_3·7H_2O investigated by differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetry (DTA/TG), anhydrous LaBr_3 and CeBr_3 were prepared by heating LaBr_3·7H_2O and CeBr_3·7H_2O at 240-260℃ for 5-6 h in dried HBr atmosphere. Using the feed materials prepared from the anhydrous lanthanon bromides, a 0.5 mole fraction Ce~(3+) doped LaBr_3 crystal with size ofφ25 mm×50 mm had been grown by vertical Bridgman process successfully. By sealing the feed material in a platinum crucible, the crystal could be grown in a nonvacuum atmosphere as the oxidization and volatilization of the melt could be avoided. The crystal was grown with the optimum conditions such as a growth rate of 0.5-1.0 mm/h and a temperature gradient of around 30℃/cm across solid-liquid interface under a furnace temperature of 850-880℃. The crystal was characterized by DTA/TG, X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical transmission, photoluminescence and X-ray stimulated luminescence measurement. The Bridgman process was confirmed to be promising for growing transparent LaBr_3:Ce~(3+) crystal with high optical quality.

  15. A Successful Synthesis of the CoCrFeNiAl0.3 Single-Crystal, High-Entropy Alloy by Bridgman Solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, S. G.; Zhang, S. F.; Gao, M. C.; Liaw, P. K.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-08-22

    For the first time, a face-centered-cubic, single-crystal CoCrFeNiAl{sub 0.3} (designated as Al0.3), high-entropy alloy (HEA) was successfully synthesized by the Bridgman solidification (BS) method, at an extremely low withdrawal velocity through a constant temperature gradient, for which it underwent two BS steps. Specially, at the first BS step, the alloy sample underwent several morphological transitions accompanying the crystal growth from the melt. This microstructure evolves from as-cast dendrites, to equiaxed grains, and then to columnar crystals, and last to the single crystal. In particular, at the equiaxed-grain region, some visible annealing twins were observed, which indicates a low stacking fault energy of the Al0.3 alloy. Although a body-centered- cubic CoCrFeNiAl (Al1) HEA was also prepared under the same conditions, only a single columnar-crystal structure with instinctively preferential crystallographic orientations was obtained by the same procedure. A similar morphological transition from dendrites to equiaxed grains occurred at the equiaxed-grain region in Al1 alloy, but the annealing twins were not observed probably because a higher Al addition leads to a higher stacking fault energy for this alloy.

  16. Bridgman growth of concentrated GaInSb alloys with improved compositional uniformity under alternating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelian, Carmen; Delannoy, Yves; Fautrelle, Yves; Duffar, Thierry

    2005-02-01

    Vertical Bridgman crystal growth of concentrated GaInSb alloys is in general difficult because of large chemical segregations which occur during the solidification process. From experimental works and numerical simulations, it is found that the melt convection is damped by the accumulation of the heavy InSb solute rejected at the interface. This leads to a significant increase of the interface curvature and radial segregations in the case of GaInSb crystals (10% and 20% In concentration). By using alternating magnetic fields produced by a coil placed around the crucible, the level of the convection can be increased in order to obtain a good mixing of the solute near the solid-liquid interface and to avoid the large chemical segregations. Numerical simulation is used in order to compute the magnetic field parameters, and for the optimization of the coil dimensions and position related to the solid-liquid interface. In order to solve simultaneously the electromagnetic and thermo-hydrodynamic problem, including species transport, a self-developed module which is able to solve the magnetic induction equation, has been introduced in the FIDAP commercial code. From the simulation, it is found that the coil position related to the interface has a significant influence on the electromagnetically induced flow. Based on these simulations, an optimal Bridgman configuration equipped with an electromagnetic coil is proposed in order to mix the solute near the interface and to avoid the excessive increase of chemical segregations and interface curvatures.

  17. Studies on the growth, structural, optical, mechanical properties of 8-hydroxyquinoline single crystal by vertical Bridgman technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, SP. [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India); Babu, R. Ramesh, E-mail: rampap2k@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India); Velusamy, P.; Ramamurthi, K. [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Growth of bulk single crystal of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) by vertical Bridgman technique for the first time. {yields} The crystalline perfection is reasonably good. {yields} The photoluminescence spectrum shows that the material is suitable for blue light emission. -- Abstract: Single crystal of organic nonlinear optical material, 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) of dimension 52 mm (length) x 12 mm (dia.) was grown from melt using vertical Bridgman technique. The crystal system of the material was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal was examined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction study. Low angular spread around 400'' of the diffraction curve and the low full width half maximum values show that the crystalline perfection is reasonably good. The recorded photoluminescence spectrum shows that the material is suitable for blue light emission. Optical transmittance for the UV and visible region was measured and mechanical strength was estimated from Vicker's microhardness test along the growth face of the grown crystal.

  18. Effect of Elevated Pressure on the Heat Transfer and Power Requirements During Bridgman Growth of PMN-PT Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bune, Andris; Ostrogorsky, Aleksandar; Marin, Carlos; Nicoara, Irina; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Performance of the furnace during Bridgman growth of the lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate crystal (PMN-PT) is analyzed. PMN-PT is electrostrictive ceramic that has near ideal strain-voltage function. Furthermore piezoelectric (2000 to 2300 pC/N) and coupling (92 to 95%) constants are exceptionally good. Due to these properties PMN-PT has wide range of applications - from sonars to transducers in a high precision optical systems. In this research first attempt to crystallize PMN-PT in a Mellen type vertical Bridgman furnace was not successful, as melting temperature of precursor materials was not achieved. At this point choice was between building a new more powerful facility or finding ways to enhance performance of the existing furnace. Besides adjusting power supply to the individual heating elements, redesigning ampoule holding cartridge and improving furnace insulation one more radical improvement was proposed. The entire furnace was placed into the high pressure chamber. Further experiments confirmed that temperature inside the furnace was increased sufficiently to melt precursor materials to obtain PMN-PT. Numerical modeling is undertaken to find limitations of this technique and to predict temperature distribution inside the ampoule. It is of interest also to account for main factors contributing to a higher temperatures achieved in the furnace under the higher pressure (up to 10 atm.). Numerical model of the furnace is based on general purpose finite - element code FIDAP and on previous efforts to model Bridgman type furnace with multiply heaters. In order to account for all heat transfer mechanism involved - conduction, convection and radiation - different parts of the furnace are modeled in accordance with expected dominant mode of heat transfer - conduction in the solid parts, conduction and radiation in the ampoule, gas convection and conduction in the furnace openings complemented with wall-to-wall radiation. Because of these complicating factors

  19. Studies on bulk growth, structural and microstructural characterization of 4-aminobenzophenone single crystal grown from vertical Bridgman technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S P Prabhakaran; R Ramesh Babu; G Bhagavannarayana; K Ramamurthi

    2014-02-01

    Bulk single crystal of 4-aminobenzophenone with a size of 25 mm dia. and 35 mm length has been grown by vertical Bridgman technique. The crystal system of the grown crystal was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystalline perfection was analysed by high resolution X-ray diffraction studies. Chemical etching was carried out for the first time in 4-aminobenzophenone single crystal to study the defects presented in the grown crystal and the growth mechanism involved. Several organic etchants were employed with different etching time to select suitable etchant for studying dislocation pattern and other structural defects existing in the grown crystal. Etch patterns such as spirals and striations observed for the selective etchants provide considerable information on growth mechanism of the crystal.

  20. Numerical modeling of radiative heat transfer in Bridgman solidification of semi-transparent BaF 2 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelian, C.

    2007-08-01

    The radiative heat transfer during Bridgman solidification of semi-transparent barium fluoride (BaF 2) crystals is numerically investigated by using the commercial software FIDAP. This code uses the P-1 approximation for the participating media modeling. The thermal field and the solid-liquid interface shape are computed for an opaque melt-crystal sample, a semi-transparent grey sample and a semi-transparent non-grey sample. The transient numerical analysis of the latent heat influence on the interface deflection shows a significant effect on the interface shape. In the case of an opaque sample, this effect is huge because of the small thermal conductivity of the BaF 2 melt. The interface curvature is drastically reduced when the latent heat is taken into account, and the growth front, which has a convex shape, becomes flat when the growth rate increases. The latent heat effect is reduced in the case of the participating BaF 2 sample because the effective thermal conductivity of the melt is augmented by the internal radiative heat transfer. The internal radiative effect is small at low solidified fractions but becomes significant when the crystal length increases, leading to a more curved interface. When the growth rates are greater than a critical value, the interface becomes concave and a destabilization of the growth process can occur. These results are in agreement with previous experimental measurements of the interface curvature and analytical investigations of the factors affecting the interface deflection.

  1. ZnO/CdS/CuGa{sub X}In{sub 1-X}Se{sub 2} photovoltaic cells fabricated on Bridgman grown substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, W.W.; Shih, I. [Department of Electrical Engineering, McGill University, 3480 University Street, Montreal (Canada)

    1999-01-01

    ZnO/CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} and ZnO/CdS/Cu(Ga,In)Se{sub 2} PV cells were fabricated on Bridgman grown substrates. Conversion efficiencies exceeding 10% were attained without using AR coating. By employing an improved CdS deposition process, PV cells with open circuit voltages comparable to thin films cells were obtained. The present result on a ZnO/CdS/CuGa{sub 0.45}In{sub 0.55}Se{sub 2} cell represents a significant improvement for cells fabricated on Cu(Ga,In)Se{sub 2} mixed bulk crystals

  2. Ultrasonic time-of-flight monitoring of the position of the liquid/solid interface during the Bridgman growth of germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John N.; Lam, Alex; Schleich, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    Ultrasound has been used to track the movement of the solid/liquid interface during the vertical Bridgman growth of germanium. Digitally processed data representing the received ultrasonic signal indicated a time lag prior to crystal growth, and showed a growth rate close to the pulling rate of the furnace. No effect of the ultrasonic energy on the growth of the crystal or on the formation of defects was observed. The interface was located to within 0.3 mm in the presence of substantial temperature gradients. An extension of the work presented could lead to a tomographic reconstruction of the interface shape.

  3. Chemical etching of a GaSb crystal incorporated with Mn grown by the Bridgman method under microgravity conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiaofeng; Chen Nuofu; Wu Jinliang; Zhang Xiulan; Chai Chunlin; Yu Yude

    2009-01-01

    uring crystal growth can be reflected by the observations of etch pit distribution and other structural defects. Suggestions for improving the space experiment to improve the quality of the crystal are given.

  4. Convection of tin in a Bridgman system. I - Flow characterization by effective diffusivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, B.; Narayanan, R.; Anderson, T. J.; Fripp, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical titration method was used to investigate the dynamic states in a cylindrical layer of convecting tin. The liquid tin was contained in a cell, with curved boundaries made of quartz and flat boundaries made of a solid state electrolyte - yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The electrolyte acted as a window through which a trace amount of oxygen could be pumped in or out by the application of a constant voltage. The concentration at the YSZ interface was monitored by operating the electrochemical cell in the galvanic mode. Experimentally determined effective diffusivities of oxygen were compared with the molecular diffusivity. Dynamic states in the convective flow were thus inferred. Temperature measurements were simultaneously made in order to identify the onset of oscillations from a steady convective regime. The experiments were conducted for two different aspect ratios for various imposed temperature gradients and two different orientations with respect to gravity. Transcritical states were identified and comparison to two-dimensional numerical models were made.

  5. Three-dimensional heat transfer effects during the growth of LiCaAlF 6 in a modified Bridgman furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Simon; Derby, Jeffrey J.; Atherton, L. Jeffrey; Roberts, David H.; Vital, Russel L.

    1993-09-01

    A novel process modification, the simultaneous growth of three cylindrical Cr:LiCaAlf 6 (Cr:LiCAF) crystals grown from a common seed in a vertical Bridgman furnace of rectangular cross section, is assessed using computational modeling. The analysis employs the FIDAP finite-element package and accounts for three-dimensional, steady-state, conductive heat transfer throughout the system. The induction heating system is rigorously simulated via solution of Maxwell's equations. The implementation of realistic thermal boundary conditions and furnace details is shown to be important. Furnace design features are assessed through calculations, and simulations indicate expected growth conditions to be favorable. In addition, the validity of using ampoules containing "dummy" charges for experimental furnace characterization measurements is examined through test computations.

  6. Bridgman Growth and Platinum-related Defects of Bi12SiO20 Crystals%Bi12SiO20晶体下降法生长及Pt包裹缺陷研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱琼; 徐家跃; 范世(马岂)

    2004-01-01

    采用改进的坩埚下降法成功生长了硅酸铋Bi12SiO20(BSO) 单晶,探讨了工艺参数对晶体生长的影响. 用电子探针方法研究了硅酸铋晶体中的铂金包裹体及其相关缺陷. 铂金包裹物的尺寸一般在30 μm~5 mm之间. 包裹物经常导致晶体开裂,使成品率大为降低. 铂坩埚中的杂质是导致坩埚受侵蚀的主要原因,通过延长铂坩埚熔炼时间和适当降低晶体生长炉温,可明显减少铂包裹体及其相关缺陷. 通过优化生长工艺,获得了尺寸为50 mm×35 mm×35 mm的优质BSO单晶.%Bismuth silicon oxide Bi12SiO20(BSO) single crystals were grown by the modified vertical Bridgman method. The growth conditions were discussed and the platinum-related defects were investigated by means of Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA). Pt inclusions with a dimension of 30 μm~5 mm were observed in as-grown BSO crystals. The inclusions usually coexisted with cracking, which caused low yield of BSO crystals. The Pt-related inclusions were attributed to the impurities in Pt crucible. Two approaches were employed to reduce Pt-related defects: prolonging melting time during purifying Pt crucible and lowering the furnace temperature during the growth. High quality BSO crystals up to 50 mm×35 mm×35 mm were grown reproducibly.

  7. Synthesis, growth and characterization of organic nonlinear optical single crystal 1,3-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (BMP) by vertical Bridgman technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, K.; Kalainathan, S.

    2017-03-01

    An organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material 1,3-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (BMP) single crystal has been successfully grown by vertical Bridgman stockbarger technique (VBT) using single wall ampoule. The grown crystal was subjected to single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis (SXRD) to confirm the cell parameters and powder X-ray diffraction analysis (PXRD) to confirm the crystallinity. FTIR analyses were carried to identify the functional groups. The UV-Vis spectrum of BMP showed the lower optical cut off at 435 nm and is transparent in the visible region. The mechanical property of the titled crystal is analyzed by using microhardness measurements. Laser damage threshold energy was determined using Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm). The photoconductivity study of BMP reveals the positive photoconducting nature. The NLO property of the grown crystal confirmed by Kurtz and Perry powder technique and the SHG efficiency of the grown crystal was obtained to be 1.04 times greater than Urea. Z-scan studies calculated the third order nonlinear optical parameters like refractive index (n2), the absorption coefficient (β) and third order susceptibility (χ3).

  8. The effect of heating power on impurity formation and transport during the holding phase in a Bridgman furnace for directional solidification of multi-crystalline silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Kjerstin; Lindholm, Dag; M`Hamdi, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    Oxygen and carbon are the most common impurities in multi-crystalline silicon. The general mechanism for formation and transport of O and C in the solidification furnace is as follows: oxygen from the silica crucible comes into the melt and combines with a silicon atom and evaporates at the gas/melt interface in the form of silicon oxide (SiO). Argon inert gas, injected into the furnace chamber, carries the SiO to the hot graphite fixtures, where it reacts with carbon to form carbon monoxide (CO) and silicon carbide (SiC). CO is carried by the gas to the melt free surface, where it dissociates into carbon and oxygen. Finally, during solidification oxygen and carbon are incorporated into the crystal. A global furnace model accounting for heat transfer, melt flow, gas flow and impurity transport has been applied to investigate the oxygen and carbon formation and transport in a vertical Bridgman furnace during the holding phase when the furnace is at its hottest. A case study is performed to investigate the effect of the applied heating power on the carbon and oxygen concentrations in the melt prior to solidification.

  9. X-ray response of CdZnTe detectors grown by the vertical Bridgman technique: Energy, temperature and high flux effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbene, L.; Gerardi, G.; Turturici, A. A.; Raso, G.; Benassi, G.; Bettelli, M.; Zambelli, N.; Zappettini, A.; Principato, F.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, CdZnTe (CZT) is one of the key materials for the development of room temperature X-ray and gamma ray detectors and great efforts have been made on both the device and the crystal growth technologies. In this work, we present the results of spectroscopic investigations on new boron oxide encapsulated vertical Bridgman (B-VB) grown CZT detectors, recently developed at IMEM-CNR Parma, Italy. Several detectors, with the same electrode layout (gold electroless contacts) and different thicknesses (1 and 2.5 mm), were realized: the cathode is a planar electrode covering the detector surface (4.1×4.1 mm2), while the anode is a central electrode (2×2 mm2) surrounded by a guard-ring electrode. The detectors are characterized by electron mobility-lifetime product (μeτe) values ranging between 0.6 and 1·10-3 cm2/V and by low leakage currents at room temperature and at high bias voltages (38 nA/cm2 at 10000 V/cm). The spectroscopic response of the detectors to monochromatic X-ray and gamma ray sources (109Cd, 241Am and 57Co), at different temperatures and fluxes (up to 1 Mcps), was measured taking into account the mitigation of the effects of incomplete charge collection, pile-up and high flux radiation induced polarization phenomena. A custom-designed digital readout electronics, developed at DiFC of University of Palermo (Italy), able to perform a fine pulse shape and height analysis even at high fluxes, was used. At low rates (200 cps) and at room temperature (T=25 °C), the detectors exhibit an energy resolution FWHM around 4% at 59.5 keV, for comparison an energy resolution of 3% was measured with Al/CdTe/Pt detectors by using the same electronics (A250F/NF charge sensitive preamplifier, Amptek, USA; nominal ENC of 100 electrons RMS). At high rates (750 kcps), energy resolution values of 7% and 9% were measured, with throughputs of 2% and 60% respectively. No radiation polarization phenomena were observed at room temperature up to 1 Mcps (241Am source, 60 ke

  10. Quality assessment of layer-structured semiconductor single crystals by nuclear quadruple resonance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samila, Andriy; Khandozhko, Alexander; Lastivka, Galina; Politansky, Leonid; Khandozhko, Victor

    2015-11-01

    A method for quality assessment of layer-structured semiconductor single crystals (InSe, GaSe, GaS) grown in evacuated ampoules by the Bridgman technique is proposed. For this purpose, nuclear quadruple resonance method with a consecutive scanning of the entire sample volume and evaluation of crystal perfection by the resulting spectra is used. Effective interaction between high-frequency field and crystal and, accordingly, restriction of scanning area of sample under study is provided with the use of a two-way saddle-shaped coil for a nuclear quadruple resonance spectrometer.

  11. An analysis of point defects induced by In, Al, Ni, and Sn dopants in Bridgman-grown CdZnTe detectors and their influence on trapping of charge carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, R.; Roy, U. N.; James, R. B.

    2017-03-01

    In this research, we studied point defects induced in Bridgman-grown CdZnTe detectors doped with Indium (In), Aluminium (Al), Nickel (Ni), and Tin (Sn). Point defects associated with different dopants were observed, and these defects were analyzed in detail for their contributions to electron/hole (e/h) trapping. We also explored the correlations between the nature and abundance of the point defects with their influence on the resistivity, electron mobility-lifetime (μτe) product, and electron trapping time. We used current-deep level transient spectroscopy to determine the energy, capture cross-section, and concentration of each trap. Furthermore, we used the data to determine the trapping and de-trapping times for the charge carriers. In In-doped CdZnTe detectors, uncompensated Cd vacancies (VCd-) were identified as a dominant trap. The VCd- were almost compensated in detectors doped with Al, Ni, and Sn, in addition to co-doping with In. Dominant traps related to the dopant were found at Ev + 0.36 eV and Ev + 1.1 eV, Ec + 76 meV and Ev + 0.61 eV, Ev + 36 meV and Ev + 0.86 eV, Ev + 0.52 eV and Ec + 0.83 eV in CZT:In, CZT:In + Al, CZT:In + Ni, and CZT:In + Sn, respectively. Results indicate that the addition of other dopants with In affects the type, nature, concentration (Nt), and capture cross-section (σ) and hence trapping (tt) and de-trapping (tdt) times. The dopant-induced traps, their corresponding concentrations, and charge capture cross-section play an important role in the performance of radiation detectors, especially for devices that rely solely on electron transport.

  12. High pressure effect on MoS2 and MoSe2 single crystals grown by CVT method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhavi Dave; Rajiv Vaidya; S G Patel; A R Jani

    2004-04-01

    Single crystals of MoS2 and MoSe2 were grown by chemical vapour transport method using iodine as a transporting agent and characterized by optical microscopy, energy dispersive analysis (EDAX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Hall mobility at room temperature. The variation of electrical resistance under pressure was monitored in a Bridgman anvil set-up up to 6.5 GPa to identify occurrence of any structural transition. MoS2 and MoSe2 do not undergo any structural transitions under pressure.

  13. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  14. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ZrO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization method in aqueous electrolyte containing (NH42SO4 and NH4F. The morphology and structure of nanotube arrays were characterized through scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectra analysis. The zirconia nanotube arrays were used as catalyst in esterification reaction. The effects of calcination temperature and electrolyte concentration on catalytic esterification activity have been investigated in detail. Experiments indicate that nanotube arrays have highest catalytic activity when the concentration of (NH42SO4 is 1 mol/L, the concentration of NH4F is 1 wt%, and the calcination temperature is 400°C. Esterification reaction yield of as much as 97% could be obtained under optimal conditions.

  15. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gnatov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently repair and recovery vehicle body operations become more and more popular. A special place here is taken by equipment that provides performance of given repair operations. The most interesting things are methods for recovery of car body panels that allow the straightening without disassembling of car body panels and damaging of existing protective coating. Now, there are several technologies for repair and recovery of car body panels without their disassembly and dismantling. The most perspective is magnetic-pulse technology of external noncontact straightening. Basics of magnetic-pulse attraction, both ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic thin-walled sheet metal, are explored. Inductor system calculation models of magnetic-pulse straightening tools are presented. Final analytical expressions for excited efforts calculation in the tools under consideration are introduced. According to the obtained analytical expressions, numerical evaluations of excited forces were executed. The volumetric epures of the attractive force radial distributions for different types of inductors were built. The practical testing of magnetic-pulse straightening with research tools is given. Using the results of the calculations we can create effective tools for an external magnetic-pulse straightening of car body panels.

  16. A Chebyshev Collocation Method for Moving Boundaries, Heat Transfer, and Convection During Directional Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Alexander, J. I. D.; Ouazzani, J.

    1994-01-01

    Free and moving boundary problems require the simultaneous solution of unknown field variables and the boundaries of the domains on which these variables are defined. There are many technologically important processes that lead to moving boundary problems associated with fluid surfaces and solid-fluid boundaries. These include crystal growth, metal alloy and glass solidification, melting and name propagation. The directional solidification of semi-conductor crystals by the Bridgman-Stockbarger method is a typical example of such a complex process. A numerical model of this growth method must solve the appropriate heat, mass and momentum transfer equations and determine the location of the melt-solid interface. In this work, a Chebyshev pseudospectra collocation method is adapted to the problem of directional solidification. Implementation involves a solution algorithm that combines domain decomposition, finite-difference preconditioned conjugate minimum residual method and a Picard type iterative scheme.

  17. Physical properties of Bi doped CdTe thin films grown by the CSVT method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Galan, O.; Sastre-Hernandez, J.; Cruz-Gandarilla, F.; Aguilar-Hernandez, J.; Contreras-Puente, G.; Tufino-Velazquez, M. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Marin, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 11500 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Saucedo, E.; Ruiz, C.M.; Bermudez, V. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-09-22

    A study of the physical properties of CdTe thin films doped with Bi is presented. CdTe:Bi thin films were deposited by the close space vapor transport (CSVT) technique using powdered CdTe:Bi crystals grown by the vertical Bridgman method. CdTe:Bi crystals were obtained with nominal Bi doping concentrations varying in the 1x10{sup 17}-8x10{sup 18}cm{sup -3} range. The physical properties of CdTe:Bi thin films were studied performing photoluminescence, X-ray, SEM, photoacoustic spectroscopy and resistivity measurements. We observed a decrease of the resistivity values of CdTe:Bi films with the Bi content as low as 6x10{sup 5}{omega}-cm for Bi concentrations of 8x10{sup 18}cm{sup -3}. These are meaningful results for CdTe-based solar cells. (author)

  18. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E.; James, Ralph B.

    2010-07-20

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  19. Synthesizing the Y-123/Y-211 composite by the PVA method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serradilla, I.G; Capdevila, X.G.; Espiell, F. [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica i Metallurgia, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Calleja, A; Segarra, M. [DIOPMA, S.L., Barcelona (Spain); Mendoza, E.; Teva, J.; Granados, X.; Obradors, X. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2002-04-01

    A polymerized organic-inorganic synthesis of a mixture containing 69% Y-123, 30% Y-211, 1% CeO{sub 2} in weight has been studied with the aid of polyvinylic alcohol (PVA). The advantages of this method are (a) avoidance of extensive and repetitive firing steps and (b) no need for mechanical mixing of components. By heating the solution of stoichiometric quantities of the nitrate salts, a viscous gel is obtained which turns into an aerogel by subsequent heating. The resulting aerogel was calcined in a single step and the powder was used to prepare Y-123/Y-211 composite monodomain rods by the vertical Bridgman solidification technique. Characterization of both powders and grown monodomains have been performed. Fine and dispersed Y-211 phase distribution was successfully achieved. Finally, magnetic measurements were performed by SQUID magnetometry. (author)

  20. Growth and fabrication method of CdTe and its performance as a radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyojeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeong-eup (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Manhee; Kim, Hansoo; Kim, Youngsoo; Ha, Jangho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeong-eup (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Jong-Seo [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    A CdTe crystal ingot doped with 2000 ppm of Cl was grown by using the low-pressure Bridgman (LPB) method at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). A Semiconductor detector as a radiation detection sensor with a size of 7 (W) x 6.5 (D) x 2 (H) mm{sup 3} was fabricated from the CdTe ingot. In addition, the properties of the CdTe sample were observed through four kinds of experiments to analyze its performance. The resistivity was obtained as 1.41 x 10{sup 10} Ωcm by using a Keithley 6517A high-precision electrometer. The mobility-life time products for electrons and holes were 3.137 x 10{sup -}'4 cm{sup 2}/V and 4.868 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/V, respectively. Finally, we achieved a 16.8% energy resolution at 59.5 keV for the {sup 241}Am gamma-ray source. The CdTe semiconductor detector grown at KAERI has a performance good enough to detect low-energy gamma-rays.

  1. Corrosion Behavior of Bi2Te3-Based Thermoelectric Materials Fabricated by Melting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Hitoshi; Yagasaki, Takayoshi

    2016-11-01

    Bi2Te3-based compounds are used practically as thermoelectric cooling materials. Bi2Te3-Sb2Te3 or Bi2Te3-Bi2Se3 pseudobinary system compounds are usually applied as p- or n-type material, respectively. Atmospheric water may condense on the surface of thermoelectric materials constituting Peltier modules, depending on their operating environment. Very few studies on the corrosion resistance of Bi2Te3-based compounds have been reported in literature. Moreover, the detailed corrosion behavior of Bi2Te3-based compounds remains unclear. In this study, the corrosion behavior of cleavage planes of Bi2Te3-based compounds fabricated by a melting method has been investigated. Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3, and Bi2Se3 were prepared by the vertical Bridgman method, respectively. Their electrochemical properties evaluated at room temperature by cyclic voltammetry in a standard three-electrode cell with naturally aerated 0.6 mass% or 3.0 mass% NaCl solution as working electrolyte. The c-planes of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 exhibited similar corrosion potential. The corrosion potential of c-plane of Bi2Se3 was more cathodic compared with that of the telluride. The passive current density of the Bi2Te3-based compounds was single or double digit lower than that of stainless steel. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results for the electrolyte after testing indicated the possibility that a corrosion product diffuses to the environment including NaCl for Sb2Te3 and Bi2Se3.

  2. Composition variations induced by g-jitter in Bridgman growth of Sn Bi alloys in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garandet, J. P.; Alexander, J. I. D.; Corre, S.; Favier, J. J.

    2001-08-01

    This work is a detailed analysis of the experimental data on g-jitter effects on solute segregation during directional solidification of tinbismuth alloys. The experiments were carried out under microgravity conditions within the framework of the MEPHISTO programme. The MEPHISTO data from the USMP-3 space flight mission represented the first quantitative data on g-jitter effects on a directional solidification experiment that were obtained under well-defined conditions The growth conditions and the results of previous numerical simulations are briefly recalled, along with the predictions of an analytical model for both the g-jitter induced composition variations and the time necessary to get back to steady state conditions. The feasibility of various mitigation strategies, aiming at counterbalancing the deleterious effect of the g-jitters is also discussed. It is concluded that the ability of numerical modelling to provide reliable predictions of g-jitter effects for the interpretation and planning of future space experiments is still limited by a lack of well-documented experimental results that can be used for verification.

  3. Vortex methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chorin, A.J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible inviscid flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus, if the vorticity is known at time t=0, one can find the flow at a later time by simply following the vorticity. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that follows vorticity. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (blobs) and those whose analysis contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Blob methods started in the 1930`s.

  4. Mining Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Shik; Lee, Kyung Woon; Kim, Oak Hwan; Kim, Dae Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the coal mines against oil and gas through cost reduction, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. To find fields requiring improvements most, the technologies using in Tae Bak Colliery which was selected one of long running mines were investigated and analyzed. The mining method appeared the field needing improvements most to reduce the production cost. The present method, so-called inseam roadway caving method presently is using to extract the steep and thick seam. However, this method has several drawbacks. To solve the problems, two mining methods are suggested for a long term and short term method respectively. Inseam roadway caving method with long-hole blasting method is a variety of the present inseam roadway caving method modified by replacing timber sets with steel arch sets and the shovel loaders with chain conveyors. And long hole blasting is introduced to promote caving. And pillar caving method with chock supports method uses chock supports setting in the cross-cut from the hanging wall to the footwall. Two single chain conveyors are needed. One is installed in front of chock supports to clear coal from the cutting face. The other is installed behind the supports to transport caved coal from behind. This method is superior to the previous one in terms of safety from water-inrushes, production rate and productivity. The only drawback is that it needs more investment. (author). 14 tabs., 34 figs.

  5. Projection Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens; Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin

    1999-01-01

    When trying to solve a DAE problem of high index with more traditional methods, it often causes instability in some of the variables, and finally leads to breakdown of convergence and integration of the solution. This is nicely shown in [ESF98, p. 152 ff.].This chapter will introduce projection...... methods as a way of handling these special problems. It is assumed that we have methods for solving normal ODE systems and index-1 systems....

  6. Computing methods

    CERN Document Server

    Berezin, I S

    1965-01-01

    Computing Methods, Volume 2 is a five-chapter text that presents the numerical methods of solving sets of several mathematical equations. This volume includes computation sets of linear algebraic equations, high degree equations and transcendental equations, numerical methods of finding eigenvalues, and approximate methods of solving ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations and integral equations.The book is intended as a text-book for students in mechanical mathematical and physics-mathematical faculties specializing in computer mathematics and persons interested in the

  7. Method 59

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, G.

    1994-01-01

    OCDE/GD(94)41. Er supplerende rapport til rapport: The OECD Workshop on Methods for Monitoring Organisms in the Environment, Ottawa 14-17 September 1992. Environment Monograph 90.......OCDE/GD(94)41. Er supplerende rapport til rapport: The OECD Workshop on Methods for Monitoring Organisms in the Environment, Ottawa 14-17 September 1992. Environment Monograph 90....

  8. Method Mixins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2005-01-01

    , where traditional invocation is optimized for as-is reuse of existing behavior. Tight coupling reduces flexibility, and traditional invocation tightly couples transfer of information and transfer of control. Method mixins decouple these two kinds of transfer, thereby opening the doors for new kinds......The world of programming has been conquered by the procedure call mechanism, including object-oriented method invocation which is a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior...

  9. Method Mixins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2002-01-01

    invocation is optimized for as-is reuse of existing behavior. Tight coupling reduces flexibility, and traditional invocation tightly couples transfer of information and transfer of control. Method mixins decouple these two kinds of transfer, thereby opening the doors for new kinds of abstraction and reuse......The procedure call mechanism has conquered the world of programming, with object-oriented method invocation being a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior, where traditional...

  10. Dosimetry methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.;

    2003-01-01

    Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application.......Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application....

  11. Ensemble Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been

  12. Statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Szulc, Stefan

    1965-01-01

    Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then

  13. Spectral Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Jie; Wang, Li-Lian

    2011-01-01

    Along with finite differences and finite elements, spectral methods are one of the three main methodologies for solving partial differential equations on computers. This book provides a detailed presentation of basic spectral algorithms, as well as a systematical presentation of basic convergence theory and error analysis for spectral methods. Readers of this book will be exposed to a unified framework for designing and analyzing spectral algorithms for a variety of problems, including in particular high-order differential equations and problems in unbounded domains. The book contains a large

  14. Statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, Rudolf J; Wilson, William J

    2010-01-01

    Statistical Methods, 3e provides students with a working introduction to statistical methods offering a wide range of applications that emphasize the quantitative skills useful across many academic disciplines. This text takes a classic approach emphasizing concepts and techniques for working out problems and intepreting results. The book includes research projects, real-world case studies, numerous examples and data exercises organized by level of difficulty. This text requires that a student be familiar with algebra. New to this edition: NEW expansion of exercises a

  15. Characterization methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, J.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Methods discussed in this compilation of notes and diagrams are Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and other surface analysis techniques (auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and scanning tunnelling microscopy). A comparative evaluation of different techniques is performed. In-vacuo and in-situ analyses are described.

  16. Radiofluorination method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A method of conducting radiofluorination of a substrate, comprising the steps of: (a) contacting an aqueous solution of [18F] fluoride with a polymer supported phosphazene base for sufficient time for trapping of [18F] fluoride on the polymer supported phosphazene base; and (b) contacting...

  17. Digital Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.

    2013-01-01

    In Digital Methods, Richard Rogers proposes a methodological outlook for social and cultural scholarly research on the Web that seeks to move Internet research beyond the study of online culture. It is not a toolkit for Internet research, or operating instructions for a software package; it deals wi

  18. Numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlquist, Germund

    2003-01-01

    ""Substantial, detailed and rigorous . . . readers for whom the book is intended are admirably served."" - MathSciNet (Mathematical Reviews on the Web), American Mathematical Society.Practical text strikes fine balance between students' requirements for theoretical treatment and needs of practitioners, with best methods for large- and small-scale computing. Prerequisites are minimal (calculus, linear algebra, and preferably some acquaintance with computer programming). Text includes many worked examples, problems, and an extensive bibliography.

  19. Fluid mechanics and mass transfer in melt crystal growth: Analysis of the floating zone and vertical Bridgman processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    This research program focuses on analysis of the transport mechanisms in solidification processes, especially one of interest to the Microgravity Sciences and Applications Program of NASA. Research during the last year has focused on analysis of the dynamics of the floating zone process for growth of small-scale crystals, on studies of the effect of applied magnetic fields on convection and solute segregation in directional solidification, and on the dynamics of microscopic cell formation in two-dimensional solidification of binary alloys. Significant findings are given.

  20. Birth Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods Birth control methods > A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Birth control methods Birth control (contraception) is any method, medicine, ...

  1. The clinical method and the scientific method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arteaga Herrera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the chapter dedicated to the scientific method and the clinical method in the authors’ Handbook “Teaching of Clinics”. Philosophycal principles of the scientific method and its stages are presented as well as the clinical method as a scientific one and its stages. A relationship between the clinical method and the medical record is established, the role of technology in the clinical method is stated and the most frequent mistakes when applying it in clinical practice are provided. Finally, the teaching of the clinical method and the appropriate settings to do it are discussed.

  2. Primary and secondary dendrite spacing of Ni-based superalloy single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLOBODANKA KOSTIC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ni-based superalloy single crystals were grown by different methods (gradient method and Bridgman technique with spontaneous nucleation and with seed. In all crystal growth experiments using the Bridgman technique, the temperature gradient along the vertical furnace axes was constant (G = 33.5 °C/cm. The obtained single crystals were cut, mechanical and chemical polished, and chemically etched. Using a metallographic microscope, the spacing of the primary and secondary dendrites was investigated. The dendrite arm spacing (DAS was determined using a Quantimet 500 MC. The obtained results are discussed and compared with published data.

  3. An Inexact Halley's Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An inexact Halley's method-Halley-PCG(preconditioned conjugate gradient) method is proposed for solving the systems of linear equations for improved Halley method either by Cholesky factorization exactly or by preconditioned conjugate gradient method approximately. The convergence result is given and the efficiency of the method compared to the improved Halley's method is shown.

  4. Low Melt Height Solidification of Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montakhab, Mehdi; Bacak, Mert; Balikci, Ercan

    2016-06-01

    Effect of a reduced melt height in the directional solidification of a superalloy has been investigated by two methods: vertical Bridgman (VB) and vertical Bridgman with a submerged baffle (VBSB). The latter is a relatively new technique and provides a reduced melt height ahead of the solidifying interface. A low melt height leads to a larger primary dendrite arm spacing but a lower mushy length, melt-back transition length, and porosity. The VBSB technique yields up to 38 pct reduction in the porosity. This may improve a component's mechanical strength especially in a creep-fatigue type dynamic loading.

  5. Fabrication and Test of Pixelated CZT Detectors with Different Pixel Pitches and Thicknesses

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Q.; Garson, A.; Dowkontt, P.; Martin, J.; Beilicke, M; Jung, I.; Groza, M.; A. Burger; De Geronimo, G.; Krawczynski, H.; .

    2008-01-01

    The main methods grown Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) crystals with high yield and excellent homogeneity are Modified Horizontal Bridgman (MHB) and High Pressure Bridgman (HPB) processes, respectively. In this contribution, the readout system based on two 32-channel NCI-ASICs for pixellated CZT detector arrays has been developed and tested. The CZT detectors supplied by Orbotech (MHB) and eV products (HPB) are tested by NCI-ASIC readout system. The CZT detectors have an array of 8x8 or 11x11 pi...

  6. Mathematical Modeling of Binary Alloy Solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Černý

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Te is simulated. Moving boundary conditions for temperatures are taken into account, which makes it possible to simulate the Bridgman method of crystal growth for instance. The computational experiments reveal a qualitative agreement of the numerically simulated and experimentally measured concentration fields. The influence of principal parameters of Bridgman growth and of the accuracy of material parameters is studied as well. Concerning the material parameters, the liquid/solid thermal conductivity ratio at the melting temperature is found to be the most important because it can affect the shape of the phase interface significantly, and therefore the temperature and concentration fields as well.

  7. From Method to Post Method: A Panacea!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masouleh, Nima Shakouri

    2012-01-01

    The foundation of language teaching has undergone many changes. The rise and fall of language teaching methods depends upon a variety of factors extrinsic to a method itself and often reflects the influence of profit-seekers and promoters, as well as the forces of the intellectual marketplace. There was always a source of contention among people…

  8. Meshless Methods Coupled with Other Numerical Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.T.GU; G.R.LIU

    2005-01-01

    Meshless or mesh-free (or shorten as MFree) methods have been proposed and achieved remarkable progress over the past few years. The idea of combining MFree methods with other existing numerical techniques such as the finite element method (FEM) and the boundary element method (BEM), is naturally of great interest in many practical applications. However, the shape functions used in some MFree methods do not have the Kronecker delta function property. In order to satisfy the combined conditions of displacement compatibility, two numerical techniques, using the hybrid displacement shape function and the modified variational form, are developed and discussed in this paper. In the first technique, the original MFree shape functions are modified to the hybrid forms that possess the Kronecker delta function property. In the second technique, the displacement compatibility is satisfied via a modified variational form based on the Lagrange multiplier method. Formulations of several coupled methods are presented. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present coupling methods.

  9. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve...

  10. The Multidimensional WKB Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Stephen K.; Noid, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a new method for determining the eigenvalues of the Schroedinger equation when the potential energy function does not have a simple form. Describes the mathematical methods and provides an application. Lists limitations to the method. (MVL)

  11. ANALYSIS OF MULTISCALE METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-nan E; Ping-bing Ming

    2004-01-01

    The heterogeneous multiscale method gives a general framework for the analysis of multiscale methods. In this paper, we demonstrate this by applying this framework to two canonical problems: The elliptic problem with multiscale coefficients and the quasicontinuum method.

  12. Simplifications of CQC method and CCQC method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ruifang; Zhou Xiyuan

    2007-01-01

    The response-spectrum mode superposition method is widely used for seismic response analyses of linear systems. In using this method, the complete quadratic combination (CQC) is adopted for classically damped linear systems and the complex complete quadratic combination (CCQC) formula is adopted for non-classically damped linear systems.However, in both cases, the calculation of seismic response analyses is very time consuming. In this paper, the variation of the modal correlation coefficients of displacement, velocity and displacement-velocity with frequency and damping ratios of two modes of interest are studied, Moreover, the calculation errors generated by using CQC and square-root-of-the-sum-of-the-squares (SRSS) methods (or CCQC and CSRSS methods) for different damping combinations are compared. In these analyses,some boundary lines for classically and non-classically damped systems are plotted to distinguish the allowed minimum frequency ratio at given geometric mean of the damping ratios of both modes if their relativity is neglected. Furthermore,the simplified method, which is a special mode quadratic combination method considering only relativity of adjacent modes in CQC method and named simplified CQC or partial quadratic combination (PQC) method for classically damped linear system, is proposed to improve computational efficiency, and the criterion for determination of how many correlated modes should be adopted is proposed. Similarly, the simplified CCQC or complex partial quadratic combination (CPQC) method for the non-classically damped linear system and the corresponding criterion are also deduced. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the applicability, computational accuracy and efficiency of the PQC and CPQC methods.

  13. Simulations using meshfree methods

    CERN Document Server

    P, Kirana Kumara

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, attempt is made to solve a few problems using the Polynomial Point Collocation Method (PPCM), the Radial Point Collocation Method (RPCM), Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), and the Finite Point Method (FPM). A few observations on the accuracy of these methods are recorded. All the simulations in this paper are three dimensional linear elastostatic simulations, without accounting for body forces.

  14. Numerical Methods for Multilattices

    CERN Document Server

    Abdulle, Assyr; Shapeev, Alexander V

    2011-01-01

    Among the efficient numerical methods based on atomistic models, the quasicontinuum (QC) method has attracted growing interest in recent years. The QC method was first developed for crystalline materials with Bravais lattice and was later extended to multilattices (Tadmor et al, 1999). Another existing numerical approach to modeling multilattices is homogenization. In the present paper we review the existing numerical methods for multilattices and propose another concurrent macro-to-micro method in the homogenization framework. We give a unified mathematical formulation of the new and the existing methods and show their equivalence. We then consider extensions of the proposed method to time-dependent problems and to random materials.

  15. Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Research activities on inflow turbulence generation methods have been vigorous over the past quarter century, accompanying advances in eddy-resolving computations of spatially developing turbulent flows with direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation (LES), and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes–LES. The weak recycling method, rooted in scaling arguments on the canonical incompressible boundary layer, has been applied to supersonic boundary layer, rough surface boundary layer, and microscale urban canopy LES coupled with mesoscale numerical weather forecasting. Synthetic methods, originating from analytical approximation to homogeneous isotropic turbulence, have branched out into several robust methods, including the synthetic random Fourier method, synthetic digital filtering method, synthetic coherent eddy method, and synthetic volume forcing method. This article reviews major progress in inflow turbulence generation methods with an emphasis on fundamental ideas, key milestones, representative applications, and critical issues. Directions for future research in the field are also highlighted.

  16. Advanced differential quadrature methods

    CERN Document Server

    Zong, Zhi

    2009-01-01

    Modern Tools to Perform Numerical DifferentiationThe original direct differential quadrature (DQ) method has been known to fail for problems with strong nonlinearity and material discontinuity as well as for problems involving singularity, irregularity, and multiple scales. But now researchers in applied mathematics, computational mechanics, and engineering have developed a range of innovative DQ-based methods to overcome these shortcomings. Advanced Differential Quadrature Methods explores new DQ methods and uses these methods to solve problems beyond the capabilities of the direct DQ method.After a basic introduction to the direct DQ method, the book presents a number of DQ methods, including complex DQ, triangular DQ, multi-scale DQ, variable order DQ, multi-domain DQ, and localized DQ. It also provides a mathematical compendium that summarizes Gauss elimination, the Runge-Kutta method, complex analysis, and more. The final chapter contains three codes written in the FORTRAN language, enabling readers to q...

  17. Applied Bayesian Hierarchical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Congdon, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian methods facilitate the analysis of complex models and data structures. Emphasizing data applications, alternative modeling specifications, and computer implementation, this book provides a practical overview of methods for Bayesian analysis of hierarchical models.

  18. Dissolution Methods Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For a drug product that does not have a dissolution test method in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the FDA Dissolution Methods Database provides information on...

  19. Dissolution Methods Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For a drug product that does not have a dissolution test method in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the FDA Dissolution Methods Database provides information...

  20. Simulated floating zone method

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Ryo; Kato, Yasuyuki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the simulated floating zone (SFZ) method that is an efficient simulation technique to obtain thermal equilibrium states, especially useful when domain formation prevents the system from reaching a spatially-uniform stable state. In the SFZ method, the system is heated up locally, and the heated region is steadily shifted, similar to the floating zone method for growing a single crystal with less lattice defect and impurity in experiments. We demonstrate that the SFZ method...

  1. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  2. Geobacteraceae strains and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana

    2015-07-07

    Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.

  3. Mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  4. Mimetic discretization methods

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, Jose E

    2013-01-01

    To help solve physical and engineering problems, mimetic or compatible algebraic discretization methods employ discrete constructs to mimic the continuous identities and theorems found in vector calculus. Mimetic Discretization Methods focuses on the recent mimetic discretization method co-developed by the first author. Based on the Castillo-Grone operators, this simple mimetic discretization method is invariably valid for spatial dimensions no greater than three. The book also presents a numerical method for obtaining corresponding discrete operators that mimic the continuum differential and

  5. The Generalized Sturmian Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil

    2011-01-01

    generations of researchers were left to work out how to achieve this ambitious goal for molecular systems of ever-increasing size. This book focuses on non-mainstream methods to solve the molecular electronic Schrödinger equation. Each method is based on a set of core ideas and this volume aims to explain...... these ideas clearly so that they become more accessible. By bringing together these non-standard methods, the book intends to inspire graduate students, postdoctoral researchers and academics to think of novel approaches. Is there a method out there that we have not thought of yet? Can we design a new method...

  6. Numerical methods using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    Numerical Methods with MATLAB provides a highly-practical reference work to assist anyone working with numerical methods. A wide range of techniques are introduced, their merits discussed and fully working MATLAB code samples supplied to demonstrate how they can be coded and applied. Numerical methods have wide applicability across many scientific, mathematical, and engineering disciplines and are most often employed in situations where working out an exact answer to the problem by another method is impractical. Numerical Methods with MATLAB presents each topic in a concise and readable

  7. Design Methods in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Elgaard; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2010-01-01

    The paper challenges the dominant and widespread view that a good design method will guarantee a systematic approach as well as certain results. First, it explores the substantial differences between on the one hand the conception of methods implied in Pahl & Beitz’s widely recognized text book...... subject to change; The goals of methods are less stable than assumed. The paper finally suggests that ethnomethodology and similar approaches direct our attention to the fact that method use is always a situated and socially interactive affair. It is crucial to attend to these dimensions of method use...... on engineering design, and on the other hand the understanding of method use, which has emerged from micro-sociological studies of practice (ethnomethodology). Second, it reviews a number of case studies conducted by engineering students, who were instructed to investigate the actual use of design methods...

  8. Methods of Software Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Gurin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the problem of software verification (SW. Methods of software verification designed to check the software for compliance with the stated requirements such as correctness, system security and system adaptability to small changes in the environment, portability and compatibility, etc. These are various methods both by the operation process and by the way of achieving result. The article describes the static and dynamic methods of software verification and paid attention to the method of symbolic execution. In its review of static analysis are discussed and described the deductive method, and methods for testing the model. A relevant issue of the pros and cons of a particular method is emphasized. The article considers classification of test techniques for each method. In this paper we present and analyze the characteristics and mechanisms of the static analysis of dependencies, as well as their views, which can reduce the number of false positives in situations where the current state of the program combines two or more states obtained both in different paths of execution and in working with multiple object values. Dependences connect various types of software objects: single variables, the elements of composite variables (structure fields, array elements, the size of the heap areas, the length of lines, the number of initialized array elements in the verification code using static methods. The article pays attention to the identification of dependencies within the framework of the abstract interpretation, as well as gives an overview and analysis of the inference tools.Methods of dynamic analysis such as testing, monitoring and profiling are presented and analyzed. Also some kinds of tools are considered which can be applied to the software when using the methods of dynamic analysis. Based on the work a conclusion is drawn, which describes the most relevant problems of analysis techniques, methods of their solutions and

  9. Performative Schizoid Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    A performative schizoid method is developed as a method contribution to performance as research. The method is inspired by contemporary research in the human and social sciences urging experimentation and researcher engagement with creative and artistic practice. In the article, the method...... is presented and an example is provided of a first exploratory engagement with it. The method is used in a specific project Becoming Iris, making inquiry into arts-based knowledge creation during a three month visiting scholarship at a small, independent visual art academy. Using the performative schizoid...... method in Becoming Iris results in four audio-visual and performance-based productions, centered on an emergent theme of the scholartist as a bird in borrowed feathers. Interestingly, the moral lesson of the fable about the vain jackdaw, who dresses in borrowed peacock feathers and becomes a castout...

  10. Phenomenographic Research Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem ÇEKMEZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenography, an approach to educational research, emerged from the studies carried out by Ference Marton and his colleagues at the University of Göteborg, Sweden, in the early 1970s. Phenomenography is the empirical study of the different ways in which people experience, perceive, apprehend, understand, conceptualize various phenomena in the world around them. Not only this method has been used much in educational researches in Turkey, but also the books about research methods do not provide detailed information about this method in details. This study explains the aim, characteristics, historical background and how to ensure the generalization, validity and reliability of phenomenographic research outcomes, besides mentions to the studies in which phenomenographic research method was used. In addition, the differences and similarities between this method and methods similar to phenomenology are explained.

  11. Exoplanet Detection Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Jason T

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews various methods of detecting planetary companions to stars from an observational perspective, focusing on radial velocities, astrometry, direct imaging, transits, and gravitational microlensing. For each method, this chapter first derives or summarizes the basic observable phenomena that are used to infer the ex- istence of planetary companions, as well as the physical properties of the planets and host stars that can be derived from the measurement of these signals. This chapter then outlines the general experimental requirements to robustly detect the signals us- ing each method, by comparing their magnitude to the typical sources of measurement uncertainty. This chapter goes on to compare the various methods to each other by outlining the regions of planet and host star parameter space where each method is most sensitive, stressing the complementarity of the ensemble of the methods at our disposal. Finally, there is a brief review of the history of the young exoplanet field, from the f...

  12. The Box Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...... description of this momentum flow. The Box Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  13. The Schwinger Variational Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Winifred M.

    1995-01-01

    Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. For collisional problems they can be grouped into two types: those based on the Schroedinger equation and those based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions.

  14. Applied iterative methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hageman, Louis A

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text examines the practical use of iterative methods in solving large, sparse systems of linear algebraic equations and in resolving multidimensional boundary-value problems. Assuming minimal mathematical background, it profiles the relative merits of several general iterative procedures. Topics include polynomial acceleration of basic iterative methods, Chebyshev and conjugate gradient acceleration procedures applicable to partitioning the linear system into a "red/black" block form, adaptive computational algorithms for the successive overrelaxation (SOR) method, and comp

  15. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing q

  16. METHOD FOR MAKING CHEESE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for making Cheddar type and Continental type cheese with an adjunct culture comprising a Lactobacillus helveticus strain.......The present invention relates to a method for making Cheddar type and Continental type cheese with an adjunct culture comprising a Lactobacillus helveticus strain....

  17. Research Methods in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…

  18. Improved nonlinear prediction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi

    2014-06-01

    The analysis and prediction of time series data have been addressed by researchers. Many techniques have been developed to be applied in various areas, such as weather forecasting, financial markets and hydrological phenomena involving data that are contaminated by noise. Therefore, various techniques to improve the method have been introduced to analyze and predict time series data. In respect of the importance of analysis and the accuracy of the prediction result, a study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the improved nonlinear prediction method for data that contain noise. The improved nonlinear prediction method involves the formation of composite serial data based on the successive differences of the time series. Then, the phase space reconstruction was performed on the composite data (one-dimensional) to reconstruct a number of space dimensions. Finally the local linear approximation method was employed to make a prediction based on the phase space. This improved method was tested with data series Logistics that contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of noise. The results show that by using the improved method, the predictions were found to be in close agreement with the observed ones. The correlation coefficient was close to one when the improved method was applied on data with up to 10% noise. Thus, an improvement to analyze data with noise without involving any noise reduction method was introduced to predict the time series data.

  19. Data center cooling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Dang, Hien P.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-08-11

    A method aspect for removing heat from a data center may use liquid coolant cooled without vapor compression refrigeration on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack. The method may also include regulating liquid coolant flow to the data center through a range of liquid coolant flow values with a controller-apparatus based upon information technology equipment temperature threshold of the data center.

  20. Methods for data classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, George; Lilburn, Timothy G.

    2011-10-11

    The present invention provides methods for classifying data and uncovering and correcting annotation errors. In particular, the present invention provides a self-organizing, self-correcting algorithm for use in classifying data. Additionally, the present invention provides a method for classifying biological taxa.

  1. Method of forming nanodielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN

    2014-01-07

    A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.

  2. Soybean allergen detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona H; Holzhauser, Thomas; Bisson, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy...

  3. The Method of Archimedes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grande, John

    1993-01-01

    Describes the method that Archimedes utilized to calculate the volumes of spheres and other solids. The method found the volume of a sphere by comparing the mass of parallel slices of a sphere and a cone with that of a cylinder of known mass. (MDH)

  4. DISCOURSE ON METHODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOUCHER, JOHN G.

    THE AUTHOR STATES THAT BEFORE PRESENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS CAN BE DISCUSSED INTELLIGENTLY, THE RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS WHICH HAS INFLUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT OF THESE METHODS MUST BE CONSIDERED. MANY FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS WERE BEGINNING TO FEEL COMFORTABLE WITH THE AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH WHEN NOAM CHOMSKY, IN HIS 1966…

  5. Noise-Measuring Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test....

  6. Engaging with mobile methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2014-01-01

    This chapter showcases how mobile methods are more than calibrated techniques awaiting application by tourism researchers, but productive in the enactment of the mobile (Law and Urry, 2004). Drawing upon recent findings deriving from a PhD course on mobility and mobile methods it reveals...... the conceptual ambiguousness of the term ‘mobile methods’. In order to explore this ambiguousness the chapter provides a number of examples deriving from tourism research, to explore how mobile methods are always entangled in ideologies, predispositions, conventions and practice-realities. Accordingly......, the engagements with methods are acknowledged to be always political and contextual, reminding us to avoid essentialist discussions regarding research methods. Finally, the chapter draws on recent fieldwork to extend developments in mobilities-oriented tourism research, by employing auto-ethnography to call...

  7. Methods in Modern Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nölting, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and 267 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 2nd edition: • Illustrates the high-resolution methods for ultrashort-living protei...

  8. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette;

    2008-01-01

    research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development......The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...

  9. Adaptive method of lines

    CERN Document Server

    Saucez, Ph

    2001-01-01

    The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...

  10. Methods for age estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sümeyra Demirkıran

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Concept of age estimation plays an important role on both civil law and regulation of criminal behaviors. In forensic medicine, age estimation is practiced for individual requests as well for request of the court. In this study it is aimed to compile the methods of age estimation and to make recommendations for the solution of the problems encountered. In radiological method the epiphyseal lines of the bones and views of the teeth are used. In order to estimate the age by comparing bone radiographs; Greulich-Pyle Atlas (GPA, Tanner-Whitehouse Atlas (TWA and “Adli Tıpta Yaş Tayini (ATYT” books are used. Bone age is found to be 2 years older averagely than chronologic age, especially in puberty, according to the forensic age estimations described in the ATYT book. For the age estimation with teeth, Demirjian method is used. In time different methods are developed by modifying Demirjian method. However no accurate method was found. Histopathological studies are done on bone marrow cellularity and dermis cells. No correlation was found between histopathoogical findings and choronologic age. Important ethical and legal issues are brought with current age estimation methods especially in teenage period. Therefore it is required to prepare atlases of bone age compatible with our society by collecting the findings of the studies in Turkey. Another recommendation could be to pay attention to the courts of age raising trials of teenage women and give special emphasis on birth and population records

  11. STATISTICAL METHODS IN HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have given a critical analysis of statistical models and methods for processing text information in historical records to establish the times when there were certain events, ie, to build science-based chronology. There are three main kinds of sources of knowledge of ancient history: ancient texts, the remains of material culture and traditions. The specific date of the extracted by archaeologists objects in most cases can not be found. The group of Academician A.T. Fomenko has developed and applied new statistical methods for analysis of historical texts (Chronicle, based on the intensive use of computer technology. Two major scientific results were: the majority of historical records that we know now, are duplicated (in particular, chronicles, describing the so-called "Ancient Rome" and "Middle Ages", talking about the same events; the known historical chronicles tell us about real events, separated from the present time for not more than 1000 years. It was found that chronicles describing the history of "ancient times" and "Middle Ages" and the chronicle of Chinese history and the history of various European countries do not talk about different, but about the same events. We have the attempt of a new dating of historical events and restoring the true history of human society based on new data. From the standpoint of statistical methods of historical records and images of their fragments – they are special cases of non-numeric objects of nature. Therefore, developed by the group of A.T. Fomenko computer-statistical methods are the part of non-numerical statistics. We have considered some methods of statistical analysis of chronicles applied by the group of A.T. Fomenko: correlation method of maximums; dynasties method; the method of attenuation frequency; questionnaire method codes. New chronology allows us to understand much of the battle of ideas in modern science and mass consciousness. It becomes clear the root cause of cautious

  12. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature......The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...

  13. Methods in Bioengineering

    CERN Document Server

    Jayaraman, Arul

    2009-01-01

    This volume provides a detailed look at the two main aspects of systems biology: the design of sophisticated experimental methods and the development of complex models to analyze the data. Focusing on methods that are being used to solve current problems in biomedical science and engineering, this comprehensive, richly illustrated resource shows you how to design of state-of-the art methods for analyzing biological systems, implement experimental approaches for investigating cellular behavior in health and disease, use algorithms and modeling techniques for quantitatively describing biomedical

  14. Methods in mummy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Many mummy studies focus on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced 3-dimensional visualisations, and endoscopic techniques, as well as minima......Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Many mummy studies focus on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced 3-dimensional visualisations, and endoscopic techniques, as well...... as minimally-destructive chemical, physical and biological methods for, e.g., stable isotopes, trace metals and DNA....

  15. The Prescribed Velocity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The- velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...... description of this momentum flow. The Prescribed Velocity Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points close to the opening and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  16. Montessori Method and ICTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Drigas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article bridges the gap between the Montessori Method and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in contemporary education. It reviews recent research works which recall the Montessori philosophy, principles and didactical tools applying to today’s computers and supporting technologies in children’s learning process. This article reviews how important the stimulation of human senses in the learning process is, as well as the development of Montessori materials using the body and the hand in particular, all according to the Montessori Method along with recent researches over ICTs. Montessori Method within information society age acquires new perspectives, new functionality and new efficacy.

  17. Modern diffraction methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mittemeijer, E J

    2013-01-01

    The role of diffraction methods for the solid-state sciences has been pivotal to determining the (micro)structure of a material. Particularly, the expanding activities in materials science have led to the development of new methods for analysis by diffraction. This book offers an authoritative overview of the new developments in the field of analysis of matter by (in particular X-ray, electron and neutron) diffraction. It is composed of chapters written by leading experts on 'modern diffraction methods'. The focus in the various chapters of this book is on the current forefront of research on

  18. Numerical methods using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Lindfield, George

    2012-01-01

    Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of useful and important numerical algorithms that can be implemented into MATLAB for a graphical interpretation to help researchers analyze a particular outcome. Many worked examples are given together with exercises and solutions to illustrate how numerical methods can be used to study problems that have applications in the biosciences, chaos, optimization, engineering and science across the board. Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of use

  19. Generalized subspace correction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolm, P. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Arbenz, P.; Gander, W. [Eidgenoessiche Technische Hochschule, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    A fundamental problem in scientific computing is the solution of large sparse systems of linear equations. Often these systems arise from the discretization of differential equations by finite difference, finite volume or finite element methods. Iterative methods exploiting these sparse structures have proven to be very effective on conventional computers for a wide area of applications. Due to the rapid development and increasing demand for the large computing powers of parallel computers, it has become important to design iterative methods specialized for these new architectures.

  20. Methods for euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Byer, Owen; Smeltzer, Deirdre L

    2010-01-01

    Euclidean plane geometry is one of the oldest and most beautiful topics in mathematics. Instead of carefully building geometries from axiom sets, this book uses a wealth of methods to solve problems in Euclidean geometry. Many of these methods arose where existing techniques proved inadequate. In several cases, the new ideas used in solving specific problems later developed into independent areas of mathematics. This book is primarily a geometry textbook, but studying geometry in this way will also develop students' appreciation of the subject and of mathematics as a whole. For instance, despite the fact that the analytic method has been part of mathematics for four centuries, it is rarely a tool a student considers using when faced with a geometry problem. Methods for Euclidean Geometry explores the application of a broad range of mathematical topics to the solution of Euclidean problems.

  1. Fashion, Mediations & Method Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille

    of handling multiple, fluid realities with multiple, fluid methods. Empirically, the paper works with mediation in fashion - that is efforts the active shaping of relations between producer and consumer through communication, marketing and PR. Fashion mediation is by no means simple, but organise complex...... Modern. New York, Harvester-Wheatsheaf. Law, J. (2004). After Method - mess in social science research. London and New York, Routledge......., it is an important ambition of this paper to go into a methodological discussion of how "that which effectively happens" can be approached. To this end, the paper will combine Hennion's term of the "mediator" with John Laws methodological term of "method assemblages". Method assemblages is a suggested as a way...

  2. Iii. Sleep assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is a complex phenomenon that could be understood and assessed at many levels. Sleep could be described at the behavioral level (relative lack of movements and awareness and responsiveness) and at the brain level (based on EEG activity). Sleep could be characterized by its duration, by its distribution during the 24-hr day period, and by its quality (e.g., consolidated versus fragmented). Different methods have been developed to assess various aspects of sleep. This chapter covers the most established and common methods used to assess sleep in infants and children. These methods include polysomnography, videosomnography, actigraphy, direct observations, sleep diaries, and questionnaires. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are highlighted.

  3. Methods in Modern Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nölting, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and about 270 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers, and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 3rd edition: Introduces rapid partial protein ladder sequencing - an important...

  4. Compressive Spectral Renormalization Method

    CERN Document Server

    Bayindir, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a novel numerical scheme for finding the sparse self-localized states of a nonlinear system of equations with missing spectral data is introduced. As in the Petviashivili's and the spectral renormalization method, the governing equation is transformed into Fourier domain, but the iterations are performed for far fewer number of spectral components (M) than classical versions of the these methods with higher number of spectral components (N). After the converge criteria is achieved for M components, N component signal is reconstructed from M components by using the l1 minimization technique of the compressive sampling. This method can be named as compressive spectral renormalization (CSRM) method. The main advantage of the CSRM is that, it is capable of finding the sparse self-localized states of the evolution equation(s) with many spectral data missing.

  5. Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezina, M; Falgout, R; MacLachlan, S; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J

    2004-04-09

    Our ability to simulate physical processes numerically is constrained by our ability to solve the resulting linear systems, prompting substantial research into the development of multiscale iterative methods capable of solving these linear systems with an optimal amount of effort. Overcoming the limitations of geometric multigrid methods to simple geometries and differential equations, algebraic multigrid methods construct the multigrid hierarchy based only on the given matrix. While this allows for efficient black-box solution of the linear systems associated with discretizations of many elliptic differential equations, it also results in a lack of robustness due to assumptions made on the near-null spaces of these matrices. This paper introduces an extension to algebraic multigrid methods that removes the need to make such assumptions by utilizing an adaptive process. The principles which guide the adaptivity are highlighted, as well as their application to algebraic multigrid solution of certain symmetric positive-definite linear systems.

  6. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2004-01-01

    Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve better prediction accuracy than any of the individual models could on their own. The basic goal when designing an ensemble is the same as when establishing a committee of people: each member of the committee should be as competent as possible, but the members should be complementary to one another. If the members are not complementary, Le., if they always agree, then the committee is unnecessary---any one member is sufficient. If the members are complementary, then when one or a few members make an error, the probability is high that the remaining members can correct this error. Research in ensemble methods has largely revolved around designing ensembles consisting of competent yet complementary models.

  7. Concrete compositions and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Irvin; Lee, Patricia Tung; Patterson, Joshua

    2015-06-23

    Provided herein are compositions, methods, and systems for cementitious compositions containing calcium carbonate compositions and aggregate. The compositions find use in a variety of applications, including use in a variety of building materials and building applications.

  8. Method of treating depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, Fritz

    2013-04-09

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  9. On Danish Legal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2014-01-01

    On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...

  10. Method of treating depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Fritz [East Patchogue, NY

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  11. Bidirectional beam propagation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarski, P.; Lagasse, P. E.

    1988-05-01

    A bidirectional extension of the beam propagation method (BPM) to optical waveguides with a longitudinal discontinuity is presented. The algorithm is verified by computing a reflection of the TE(0) mode from a semiconductor laser facet. The bidirectional BPM is applicable to other configurations such as totally reflecting waveguide mirrors, an abruption transition in a waveguide, or a waveguide with many discontinuities generating multiple reflections. The method can also be adapted to TM polarization.

  12. Monte Carlo methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bardenet, R.

    2012-01-01

    ISBN:978-2-7598-1032-1; International audience; Bayesian inference often requires integrating some function with respect to a posterior distribution. Monte Carlo methods are sampling algorithms that allow to compute these integrals numerically when they are not analytically tractable. We review here the basic principles and the most common Monte Carlo algorithms, among which rejection sampling, importance sampling and Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) methods. We give intuition on the theoretic...

  13. Methods for polymer synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Simoneau, Christopher A.; Keefe, William D.; Conuel, Jeff R.

    2016-12-06

    The present invention provides methods for reducing induction periods in epoxide-CO.sub.2 copolymerizations. In certain embodiments, the methods include the step of contacting an epoxide with CO.sub.2 in the presence of two catalysts: an epoxide hydrolysis catalyst and an epoxide CO.sub.2 copolymerization catalyst. In another aspect, the invention provides catalyst compositions comprising a mixture of an epoxide hydrolysis catalyst and an epoxide CO.sub.2 copolymerization catalyst.

  14. Painful Bile Extraction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It was only in the past 20 years that countries in Asia began to search for an alternative to protect moon bears from being killed for their bile and other body parts. In the early 1980s, a new method of extracting bile from living bears was developed in North Korea. In 1983, Chinese scientists imported this technique from North Korea. According to the Animals Asia Foundation, the most original method of bile extraction is to embed a latex catheter, a narrow rubber

  15. Multicriteria identification sets method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenev, G. K.

    2016-11-01

    A multicriteria identification and prediction method for mathematical models of simulation type in the case of several identification criteria (error functions) is proposed. The necessity of the multicriteria formulation arises, for example, when one needs to take into account errors of completely different origins (not reducible to a single characteristic) or when there is no information on the class of noise in the data to be analyzed. An identification sets method is described based on the approximation and visualization of the multidimensional graph of the identification error function and sets of suboptimal parameters. This method allows for additional advantages of the multicriteria approach, namely, the construction and visual analysis of the frontier and the effective identification set (frontier and the Pareto set for identification criteria), various representations of the sets of Pareto effective and subeffective parameter combinations, and the corresponding predictive trajectory tubes. The approximation is based on the deep holes method, which yields metric ɛ-coverings with nearly optimal properties, and on multiphase approximation methods for the Edgeworth-Pareto hull. The visualization relies on the approach of interactive decision maps. With the use of the multicriteria method, multiple-choice solutions of identification and prediction problems can be produced and justified by analyzing the stability of the optimal solution not only with respect to the parameters (robustness with respect to data) but also with respect to the chosen set of identification criteria (robustness with respect to the given collection of functionals).

  16. [Unproven methods in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallut, O; Guex, P; Barrelet, L

    1984-09-08

    As in some other chronic diseases (rheumatism, multiple sclerosis, etc.), unproven methods of diagnosis and treatment have long been current in cancer. Since 1960 the American Cancer Society has published an abundant literature on these "unproven methods", which serves as a basis for a historical review: some substances (Krebiozen, Laetrile) have enjoyed tremendous if shortlived success. The present trend is back to nature and "mild medicine". The proponents of this so-called natural medicine are often disciples of a pseudoscientific religion using irrational arguments. Direct attacks on these erroneous theories and their public refutation fail to convince the adepts, who trust in these methods and are not amenable to a scientific approach. Study of their psychological motivations reveals that in fact they seek something more reassuring than plain medical explanation which is aware of its limits. They feel reassured by theories which often bear some resemblance to the old popular medicine. To protect patients against these dangerous methods and all the disillusionment they entail, the Swiss Society of Oncology and the Swiss Cancer League have decided to gather information and draw up a descriptive list of the commonest unproven methods in Switzerland (our File No. 2, "Total anti-cancer cure", is given as an example). The files are published in French, German and English and are available to physicians, nursing teams, and also patients who wish to have more objective information on these methods.

  17. [Barrier methods of contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, A; Edelman, D A

    1982-01-01

    Vaginal methods of contraception were the earliest types used and some references to them date back to antiquity. Most of the vaginal contraceptive agents identified by the ancient Greeks, Indians, Japanese, and Chinese have been found in modern laboratory tests to have spermicidal properties, but it is doubtful that the methods were fully reliable or were used by many people. During the 19th century the condom, vaginal spermicides, and diaphragm became available. The development of nonoxynol-9 and other nonirritating but effective spermicidal agents improved vaginal contraceptives greatly by the 1950s, but starting in the 1960s newer methods began to replace the vaginal methods. Interest in barrier methods has been reawakened somewhat by concern about the health effects of hormonal methods. At present all barrier methods leave something to be desired. Failure rates of 3-30% for barrier methods in general have been estimated, but the higher rates are believed due to incorrect or inconsistent use. Theoretical failure rates of condoms and diaphragms have been estimated at 3/100 women-years, but in actual use failure rates may reach 15 for condoms and 13 for diaphragms used with spermicides. Use-effectiveness rates are greatly influenced by motivation. For a variety of reasons, the acceptability of barrier methods is low, especially in developing countries. New developments in spermicidal agents include sperm inhibitors, which impede the fertilizing capacity of sperm rather than attempting a spermicidal effect; a number of such agents have been studied and have proven more effective in animal tests than conventional spermicides. Neosampoon, a new spermicidal foam, has attracted an increasing number of users, especially in developing countries. A new condom, made of thin polymers and containing a standard dose of nonoxynol-9, has been designed to dissolve in the vaginal fluid. Further studies are needed of its acceptability, efficacy, and side effects before it becomes

  18. The lod score method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J P; Saccone, N L; Corbett, J

    2001-01-01

    The lod score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential, so that pedigrees or lod curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders, where the maximum lod score (MLS) statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional lod score approach but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the lod score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.

  19. New oligosaccharyltransferase assay method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, Daisuke; Yamada, Masaki; Igura, Mayumi; Kamishikiryo, Jun; Maenaka, Katsumi

    2007-11-01

    We developed a new in vitro assay for oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), which catalyzes the transfer of preassembled oligosaccharides on lipid carriers onto asparagine residues in polypeptide chains. The asparagine residues reside in the sequon, Asn-X-Thr/Ser, where X can be any amino acid residue except Pro. We demonstrate the potency of our assay using the OST from yeast. In our method, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is used to separate the glycopeptide products from the peptide substrates. The substrate peptide is fluorescently labeled and the formation of glycopeptides is analyzed by fluorescence gel imaging. Two in vitro OST assay methods are now widely used, but both the methods depend on previous knowledge of the oligosaccharide moiety: One method uses lectin binding as the separation mechanism and the other method uses biosynthetically or chemoenzymatically synthesized lipid-linked oligosaccharides as donors. N-linked protein glycosylation is found in all three domains of life, but little is known about the N-glycosylation in Archaea. Thus, our new assay, which does not require a priori knowledge of the oligosaccharides, will be useful in such cases. Indeed, we have detected the OST activity in the membrane fraction from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus.

  20. Methods for Neutron Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhouse, Bertram N.

    1961-01-09

    The appropriate theories and the general philosophy of methods of measurement and treatment of data neutron spectrometry are discussed. Methods of analysis of results for liquids using the Van Hove formulation, and for crystals using the Born-von Karman theory, are reviewed. The most useful of the available methods of measurement are considered to be the crystal spectrometer methods and the pulsed monoenergetic beam/time-of-flight method. Pulsed-beam spectrometers have the advantage of higher counting rates than crystal spectrometers, especially in view of the fact that simultaneous measurements in several counters at different angles of scattering are possible in pulsed-beam spectrometers. The crystal spectrometer permits several valuable new types of specialized experiments to be performed, especially energy distribution measurements at constant momentum transfer. The Chalk River triple-axis crystal-spectrometer is discussed, with reference to its use in making the specialized experiments. The Chalk River rotating crystal (pulsed-beam) spectrometer is described, and a comparison of this type instrument with other pulsed-beam spectrometers is made. A partial outline of the theory of operation of rotating-crystal spectrometers is presented. The use of quartz-crystal filters for fast neutron elimination and for order elimination is discussed. (auth)

  1. Method of treating wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, J.A.; Lasater, R.M.

    1966-11-22

    Chemical compositions and methods are provided for treating underground formations to render their surfaces water-repellent or preferentially oil-wettable. Previous methods have provided only temporary water-repellency because they do not actually act chemically with the reservoir rock. This improvement is obtained by using a treating agent which does not form a precipitate upon hydrolysis with water, such as a liquid organo-halogen- silane or its ester. A water-soluble anhydrous solvent which is nonreactive with the silane is used as a carrier. This method may be used for treating non-oil-bearing aquifers for increasing the flow rate of water, such as in water supply wells, or in water input rate, such as in water disposal wells. (10 claims)

  2. Geostatistical Methods in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adéla Volfová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Geostatistics is a scientific field which provides methods for processing spatial data.  In our project, geostatistics is used as a tool for describing spatial continuity and making predictions of some natural phenomena. An open source statistical project called R is used for all calculations. Listeners will be provided with a brief introduction to R and its geostatistical packages and basic principles of kriging and cokriging methods. Heavy mathematical background is omitted due to its complexity. In the second part of the presentation, several examples are shown of how to make a prediction in the whole area of interest where observations were made in just a few points. Results of these methods are compared.

  3. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... statebased on an idealized mechanical model to be adapted to the original limit state by the model correction factor. Reliable approximations are obtained by iterative use of gradient information on the original limit state function analogously to previous response surface approaches. However, the strength...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...

  4. Sampling system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2017-03-07

    In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. In various examples, the clamp is external to the tubing bundle or integral with the tubing bundle. According to one method, a tubing bundle and wireline are deployed together and the tubing bundle periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit. In a specific example, one or more clamps are used to connect the first and/or second conduits to an external wireline.

  5. Robust iterative methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saadd, Y.

    1994-12-31

    In spite of the tremendous progress achieved in recent years in the general area of iterative solution techniques, there are still a few obstacles to the acceptance of iterative methods in a number of applications. These applications give rise to very indefinite or highly ill-conditioned non Hermitian matrices. Trying to solve these systems with the simple-minded standard preconditioned Krylov subspace methods can be a frustrating experience. With the mathematical and physical models becoming more sophisticated, the typical linear systems which we encounter today are far more difficult to solve than those of just a few years ago. This trend is likely to accentuate. This workshop will discuss (1) these applications and the types of problems that they give rise to; and (2) recent progress in solving these problems with iterative methods. The workshop will end with a hopefully stimulating panel discussion with the speakers.

  6. Cytoskeleton - Methods and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytoskeleton - Methods and ProtocolsSecond edition, 2010; Ray H. Gavin (Ed; Springer Protocols methods in molecular biology, vol. 586 Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA; Pages: 390; €95.44; ISBN: 978-1-60761-375-6Ray H. Gavin, from the Brooklyn College of The City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY, USA, wrote a few line as preface of this book. This is quite understandable: there is not a great need of words when there are facts that sustain and favour the dissemination of a cultural product. This is the case of the second edition of Cytoskeleton - Methods and Protocols, which appears just ten years after the first edition...

  7. Nonparametric statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hollander, Myles; Chicken, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition"This book should be an essential part of the personal library of every practicing statistician."-Technometrics  Thoroughly revised and updated, the new edition of Nonparametric Statistical Methods includes additional modern topics and procedures, more practical data sets, and new problems from real-life situations. The book continues to emphasize the importance of nonparametric methods as a significant branch of modern statistics and equips readers with the conceptual and technical skills necessary to select and apply the appropriate procedures for any given sit

  8. Practical methods of optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, R

    2013-01-01

    Fully describes optimization methods that are currently most valuable in solving real-life problems. Since optimization has applications in almost every branch of science and technology, the text emphasizes their practical aspects in conjunction with the heuristics useful in making them perform more reliably and efficiently. To this end, it presents comparative numerical studies to give readers a feel for possibile applications and to illustrate the problems in assessing evidence. Also provides theoretical background which provides insights into how methods are derived. This edition offers rev

  9. Method through motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary scenography often consists of video-projected motion graphics. The field is lacking in academic methods and rigour: descriptions and models relevant for the creation as well as in the analysis of existing works. In order to understand the phenomenon of motion graphics in a scenographic...... construction as a support to working systematically practice-led research project. The design model is being developed through design laboratories and workshops with students and professionals who provide feedback that lead to incremental improvements. Working with this model construction-as-method reveals...

  10. Unorthodox theoretical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedd, Sean [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The use of the ReaxFF force field to correlate with NMR mobilities of amine catalytic substituents on a mesoporous silica nanosphere surface is considered. The interfacing of the ReaxFF force field within the Surface Integrated Molecular Orbital/Molecular Mechanics (SIMOMM) method, in order to replicate earlier SIMOMM published data and to compare with the ReaxFF data, is discussed. The development of a new correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA) is presented, which incorporates the completely renormalized coupled cluster method with singles, doubles and non-iterative triples corrections towards the determination of heats of formations and reaction pathways which contain biradical species.

  11. Tautomerism methods and theories

    CERN Document Server

    Antonov, Liudmil

    2013-01-01

    Covering the gap between basic textbooks and over-specialized scientific publications, this is the first reference available to describe this interdisciplinary topic for PhD students and scientists starting in the field. The result is an introductory description providing suitable practical examples of the basic methods used to study tautomeric processes, as well as the theories describing the tautomerism and proton transfer phenomena. It also includes different spectroscopic methods for examining tautomerism, such as UV-VIs, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and NMR spectrosc

  12. Dynamic encryption method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of transmitting a data set using encryption, wherein the method comprises the steps of: selecting a first encryption technique, wherein said first encryption technique comprises a first encryption algorithm for encrypting plain data into cipher data, and a first decryption...... algorithm for on provision of a specific key, decrypting cipher data and reproduce plain data; encrypting the first data package comprising plain data, using a first encryption program implementing the first encryption algorithm of said first encryption technique, creating a first encrypted data package...

  13. Essential numerical computer methods

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    The use of computers and computational methods has become ubiquitous in biological and biomedical research. During the last 2 decades most basic algorithms have not changed, but what has is the huge increase in computer speed and ease of use, along with the corresponding orders of magnitude decrease in cost. A general perception exists that the only applications of computers and computer methods in biological and biomedical research are either basic statistical analysis or the searching of DNA sequence data bases. While these are important applications they only scratch the surface

  14. Apoptosis - Methods and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis - Methods and ProtocolsSecond edition, 2009; Peter Erhardt and Ambrus Toth (Eds; Springer Protocols - Methods in molecular biology, vol. 559; Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA; Pages: 400; €88.35; ISBN: 978-1-60327-016-8The editors rightly begin the preface telling us that: “The ability to detect and quantify apoptosis, to understand its biochemistry and to identify its regulatory genes and proteins is crucial to biomedical research”. Nowadays this is a grounding concept of biology and medicine. What is particularly remarkable...

  15. METHOD OF ROLLING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.S.

    1959-08-01

    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.

  16. Methods of Multivariate Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rencher, Alvin C

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book is a systematic, well-written, well-organized text on multivariate analysis packed with intuition and insight . . . There is much practical wisdom in this book that is hard to find elsewhere."-IIE Transactions Filled with new and timely content, Methods of Multivariate Analysis, Third Edition provides examples and exercises based on more than sixty real data sets from a wide variety of scientific fields. It takes a "methods" approach to the subject, placing an emphasis on how students and practitioners can employ multivariate analysis in real-life sit

  17. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  18. Exploring Monte Carlo methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, William L

    2012-01-01

    Exploring Monte Carlo Methods is a basic text that describes the numerical methods that have come to be known as "Monte Carlo." The book treats the subject generically through the first eight chapters and, thus, should be of use to anyone who wants to learn to use Monte Carlo. The next two chapters focus on applications in nuclear engineering, which are illustrative of uses in other fields. Five appendices are included, which provide useful information on probability distributions, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes for radiation transport, and other matters. The famous "Buffon's needle proble

  19. Splines and variational methods

    CERN Document Server

    Prenter, P M

    2008-01-01

    One of the clearest available introductions to variational methods, this text requires only a minimal background in calculus and linear algebra. Its self-contained treatment explains the application of theoretic notions to the kinds of physical problems that engineers regularly encounter. The text's first half concerns approximation theoretic notions, exploring the theory and computation of one- and two-dimensional polynomial and other spline functions. Later chapters examine variational methods in the solution of operator equations, focusing on boundary value problems in one and two dimension

  20. Analogue computing methods

    CERN Document Server

    Welbourne, D

    1965-01-01

    Analogue Computing Methods presents the field of analogue computation and simulation in a compact and convenient form, providing an outline of models and analogues that have been produced to solve physical problems for the engineer and how to use and program the electronic analogue computer. This book consists of six chapters. The first chapter provides an introduction to analogue computation and discusses certain mathematical techniques. The electronic equipment of an analogue computer is covered in Chapter 2, while its use to solve simple problems, including the method of scaling is elaborat

  1. Molecular methods for biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Ferrera, Isabel

    2014-08-30

    This chapter deals with both classical and modern molecular methods that can be useful for the identification of microorganisms, elucidation and comparison of microbial communities, and investigation of their diversity and functions. The most important and critical steps necessary for all molecular methods is DNA isolation from microbial communities and environmental samples; these are discussed in the first part. The second part provides an overview over DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and DNA sequencing methods. Protocols and analysis software as well as potential pitfalls associated with application of these methods are discussed. Community fingerprinting analyses that can be used to compare multiple microbial communities are discussed in the third part. This part focuses on Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Automated rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) methods. In addition, classical and next-generation metagenomics methods are presented. These are limited to bacterial artificial chromosome and Fosmid libraries and Sanger and next-generation 454 sequencing, as these methods are currently the most frequently used in research. Isolation of nucleic acids: This chapter discusses, the most important and critical steps necessary for all molecular methods is DNA isolation from microbial communities and environmental samples. Nucleic acid isolation methods generally include three steps: cell lysis, removal of unwanted substances, and a final step of DNA purification and recovery. The first critical step is the cell lysis, which can be achieved by enzymatic or mechanical procedures. Removal of proteins, polysaccharides and other unwanted substances is likewise important to avoid their interference in subsequent analyses. Phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol is commonly used to recover DNA, since it separates nucleic acids into an aqueous phase and precipitates proteins and

  2. Method for forming ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  3. A method for sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for sintering, comprising in the following order the steps of: providing a body in the green state or in the pre-sintered state on a support; providing a load on at least one spacer on the support such that the load is located above said body in the green...

  4. Truth and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenbrock, Reed Way

    1995-01-01

    Examines literary theory's displacing of "method" in the New Historicist criticism. Argues that Stephen Greenblatt and Lee Paterson imply that no objective historical truth is possible and as a result do not give methodology its due weight in their criticism. Questions the theory of "truth" advanced in this vein of literary…

  5. Research Methods in Sociolinguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…

  6. Photothermal methods in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John C.

    2000-10-01

    Photothermal imaging and spectroscopy are being applied to a variety of medical problems for diagnosis and therapy. This paper reviews some aspects of this field including the opportunities presented by non-optical sources and by use of detection methods targeted to the application.

  7. Biomass treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  8. Sampling system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.

  9. Performative Schizoid Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    method in Becoming Iris results in four audio-visual and performance-based productions, centered on an emergent theme of the scholartist as a bird in borrowed feathers. Interestingly, the moral lesson of the fable about the vain jackdaw, who dresses in borrowed peacock feathers and becomes a castout...

  10. Quality of regularization methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, J.

    1998-01-01

    The solution of ill-posed problems is non-trivial in the sense that frequently applied methods like least-squares fail. The ill-posedness of the problem is refiected by very small changes in the input data which may result in very large changes in the output data. Hence, some sort of stabilization o

  11. Software specification methods

    CERN Document Server

    Habrias, Henri

    2010-01-01

    This title provides a clear overview of the main methods, and has a practical focus that allows the reader to apply their knowledge to real-life situations. The following are just some of the techniques covered: UML, Z, TLA+, SAZ, B, OMT, VHDL, Estelle, SDL and LOTOS.

  12. The Effective Equation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuksin, Sergei; Maiocchi, Alberto

    In this chapter we present a general method of constructing the effective equation which describes the behavior of small-amplitude solutions for a nonlinear PDE in finite volume, provided that the linear part of the equation is a hamiltonian system with a pure imaginary discrete spectrum. The effective equation is obtained by retaining only the resonant terms of the nonlinearity (which may be hamiltonian, or may be not); the assertion that it describes the limiting behavior of small-amplitude solutions is a rigorous mathematical theorem. In particular, the method applies to the three- and four-wave systems. We demonstrate that different possible types of energy transport are covered by this method, depending on whether the set of resonances splits into finite clusters (this happens, e.g. in case of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation), or is connected (this happens, e.g. in the case of the NLS equation if the space-dimension is at least two). For equations of the first type the energy transition to high frequencies does not hold, while for equations of the second type it may take place. Our method applies to various weakly nonlinear wave systems, appearing in plasma, meteorology and oceanography.

  13. Modern Reduction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Pher G

    2008-01-01

    With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.

  14. Methods of materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jesper; Matthiesen, Noomi

    2016-01-01

    , and the method of participant observation is suggested as a viable approach to achieve this end. An empirical example of how authority is produced in a parent-teacher conference, not only through language but also through material objects and embodied being, is then presented. The article concludes by suggesting...

  15. Convergence of Arnoldi method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevanlinna, O. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1994-12-31

    This note summarizes some results on (a monitored version of) the Arnoldi method in Hilbert spaces. The interest in working in infinite dimensional spaces comes partly from the fact that only then can one have meaningful asymptotical statements (which hopefully give some light to the convergence of Arnoldi in large dimensional problems with iteration indices far less than the dimension).

  16. The Method of "Currere."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, William Frederick

    In this presentation the author paints a conceptual portrait of his evolving relationships to his formal studies and thereby describes a method by which educators can reconceptualize the meaning of curriculum. By taking oneself and one's existential experience as a data source and using the psychoanalytical technique of free association, one can…

  17. Analysis of numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacson, Eugene

    1994-01-01

    This excellent text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students covers norms, numerical solution of linear systems and matrix factoring, iterative solutions of nonlinear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, polynomial approximation, and other topics. It offers a careful analysis and stresses techniques for developing new methods, plus many examples and problems. 1966 edition.

  18. Ergonomics research methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  19. Methods Evolved by Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Montessori's idea of the child's nature and the teacher's perceptiveness begins with amazing simplicity, and when she speaks of "methods evolved," she is unveiling a methodological system for observation. She begins with the early childhood explosion into writing, which is a familiar child phenomenon that Montessori has written about…

  20. Progress in variational methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The International Conference on Variational Methods (ICVAM) was held from May 20th to 26th in 2007 at the Chern Institute of Mathematics, Nankai University, Tianjin, China. Twenty eight invited speakers from ten countries and areas worldwide gave their lectures at the conference.

  1. communication method and apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a non-lingual communication method and apparatus, wherein a physical or physiological signal consciously created by a first subject (1) is detected and converted into a transmitted output signal presented to a second subject (7) in order to communicate information...

  2. METHOD OF CENTRIFUGE OPERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K.

    1960-05-10

    A method of isotope separation is described in which two streams are flowed axially of, and countercurrently through, a cylindrical centrifuge bowl. Under the influence of a centrifugal field, the light fraction is concentrated in a stream flowing through the central portion of the bowl, whereas the heavy fraction is concentrated in a stream at the periphery thereof.

  3. Making Methods Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1980-01-01

    Methodological paradigms in evaluation research are discussed. This article is a response to the attacks on paradigmatic perspectives made by Reichardt and Cook in the opening chapter of their edited book, "Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Evaluation Research." (Author/GK)

  4. Photovoltaic device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.

    2015-11-24

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  5. Water-budget methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    A water budget is an accounting of water movement into and out of, and storage change within, some control volume. Universal and adaptable are adjectives that reflect key features of water-budget methods for estimating recharge. The universal concept of mass conservation of water implies that water-budget methods are applicable over any space and time scales (Healy et al., 2007). The water budget of a soil column in a laboratory can be studied at scales of millimeters and seconds. A water-budget equation is also an integral component of atmospheric general circulation models used to predict global climates over periods of decades or more. Water-budget equations can be easily customized by adding or removing terms to accurately portray the peculiarities of any hydrologic system. The equations are generally not bound by assumptions on mechanisms by which water moves into, through, and out of the control volume of interest. So water-budget methods can be used to estimate both diffuse and focused recharge, and recharge estimates are unaffected by phenomena such as preferential flow paths within the unsaturated zone. Water-budget methods represent the largest class of techniques for estimating recharge. Most hydrologic models are derived from a water-budget equation and can therefore be classified as water-budget models. It is not feasible to address all water-budget methods in a single chapter. This chapter is limited to discussion of the “residual” water-budget approach, whereby all variables in a water-budget equation, except for recharge, are independently measured or estimated and recharge is set equal to the residual. This chapter is closely linked with Chapter 3, on modeling methods, because the equations presented here form the basis of many models and because models are often used to estimate individual components in water-budget studies. Water budgets for streams and other surface-water bodies are addressed in Chapter 4. The use of soil-water budgets and

  6. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  7. INNOVATIVE SALES METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana L. IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Companies operating in a global economy that is constantly changing and developming, especially during the financial crisis and political instability. It is necessary to adapt and develop sales methods in such environment. For large companies who base their activity on sales it has become a necessity to learn different types of sales approaches because their knowledge enables them to grow the number of customers and therefore the sales and the turnover. This paper aims to exame the most effective sales methods used on the highly sensitive economic and social environment – the insurance market. In the field of insurances, the sales process is even more important because sellers need to sell an intangible product that may materialize in the future, but there is no certainty.

  8. Nanoscale waveguiding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Jean; Lin, Lih Y

    2007-05-01

    While 32 nm lithography technology is on the horizon for integrated circuit (IC) fabrication, matching the pace for miniaturization with optics has been hampered by the diffraction limit. However, development of nanoscale components and guiding methods is burgeoning through advances in fabrication techniques and materials processing. As waveguiding presents the fundamental issue and cornerstone for ultra-high density photonic ICs, we examine the current state of methods in the field. Namely, plasmonic, metal slot and negative dielectric based waveguides as well as a few sub-micrometer techniques such as nanoribbons, high-index contrast and photonic crystals waveguides are investigated in terms of construction, transmission, and limitations. Furthermore, we discuss in detail quantum dot (QD) arrays as a gain-enabled and flexible means to transmit energy through straight paths and sharp bends. Modeling, fabrication and test results are provided and show that the QD waveguide may be effective as an alternate means to transfer light on sub-diffraction dimensions.

  9. Developments in Surrogating Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans van Dormolen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I would like to talk about the developments in surrogating methods for preservation. My main focus will be on the technical aspects of preservation surrogates. This means that I will tell you something about my job as Quality Manager Microfilming for the Netherlands’ national preservation program, Metamorfoze, which is coordinated by the National Library. I am responsible for the quality of the preservation microfilms, which are produced for Metamorfoze. Firstly, I will elaborate on developments in preservation methods in relation to the following subjects: · Preservation microfilms · Scanning of preservation microfilms · Preservation scanning · Computer Output Microfilm. In the closing paragraphs of this paper, I would like to tell you something about the methylene blue test. This is an important test for long-term storage of preservation microfilms. Also, I will give you a brief report on the Cellulose Acetate Microfilm Conference that was held in the British Library in London, May 2005.

  10. Methods for forming particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  11. by Lifting Line Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia Dumitrescu

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The vortex model of propellers is modified and applied to the high-speed horizontal axis turbines. The turbine blades are replaced by lifting lines and trailing vortices which shed along the blade span. The model is not a free wake model, but it is still a nonlinear one which should be solved iteratively. In addition to the regular case where the trailing vortices are constrained to distribute along a helical surface, another version, where each trailing vortex sheding from the blade grows as a free helical vortex line, is also included. Performance parameters are calculated by application of the Biot-Savart law along with the Kutta-Joukowski theorem. Predictions are, shown to compare favorably with existing numerical data from more involved free wake methods, but require less computational effort. Thereby, the present method may be a very useful tool for calculating the aerodynamic loads on horizontal-axis wind turbine blades.

  12. Glycoconjugates and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn C. (Albany, CA); Yarema, Kevin J. (Albany, CA); Mahal; Lara K. (Berkeley, CA)

    2008-04-01

    Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

  13. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  14. The Montessori Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathleen Haskins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Maria Montessori provided the world with a powerful philosophy and practice for the advancement of humanity: change how we educate children and we change the world. She understood two things very clearly: One, that we can build a better world, a more just and peaceful place, when we educate for the realization of the individual and collective human potential; and two, that the only way to create an educational system that will that will serve this end is to scrap the current system entirely and replace it with a completely new system. She gave us a system through which to accomplish that goal: The Montessori Method. The following is a personal and professional account of the Montessori Method of educating children.

  15. Method card design dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölfel, Christiane; Merritt, T.

    2013-01-01

    . The card-based tools are explained in terms of five design dimensions including the intended purpose and scope of use, duration of use, methodology, customization, and formal/material qualities. Our analysis suggests three design patterns or archetypes for existing card-based design method tools...... and highlights unexplored areas in the design space. The paper concludes with recommendations for the future development of card-based methods for the field of interaction design.......There are many examples of cards used to assist or provide structure to the design process, yet there has not been a thorough articulation of the strengths and weaknesses of the various examples. We review eighteen card-based design tools in order to understand how they might benefit designers...

  16. THE ACTION RESEARCH METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GEORGIEVSKI

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The effort in this work to elaborate an action research method as a central research problem considering the recent contemporary sociological and educa­tional literature. The author begins with the statement that the method is a complex notion, composed of three main components: approach to the research problem, data gathering procedures and data analysis procedures. This point of view is further applied and elaborated in the author's text, emphasizing the action research characteristics: interruption with the positive tradition in social research and the divided of the objective and subjective, application of the qualitative data. The sub­stantial difference between the action research in regard with the other kinds of research, is not only in getting to new knowledge's, but also in problem solving or a change in the situation in a concrete social context.

  17. in the DSMC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong-Zhi Chen

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Plücker coordinates representation is used to formulate the ruled surface and the molecular path for pumping speed performance evaluation of a molecular vacuum pump. The ruled surface represented by the Pliicker coordinates is used to develop a criterion for when gas molecules hit the pump surface wall. The criterion is applied to analyze the flow rate of a new developed vacuum pump in transition regimes by using the DSMC (Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method. When a molecule flies in a neutral electrical field its path is a straight line. If the molecular path and the generators of a ruled surface are both represented by the Pliicker coordinates, the position of the molecular hit on the wall can be verified by the reciprocal condition of the lines. The Plücker coordinates representation is quite convenient in the DSMC method for this three-dimensional molecular flow simulation.

  18. Die singulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  19. Jet vortex methods

    CERN Document Server

    Holm, Darryl D

    2015-01-01

    Vortex blob methods are typically characterized by a regularization length scale, below which the the dynamics are trivial for isolated blobs. In this article we will find that the dynamics need not be trivial if one is willing to consider distributional derivatives of Dirac delta functionals as valid vorticity distributions. More specifically, a new singular vortex theory is presented for regularised Euler fluid equations of ideal incompressible flow in the plane. We determine the conditions under which such regularised Euler fluid equations may admit vorticity singularities which are stronger than delta functions, e.g., derivatives of delta functions. We also characterise the Hamiltonian dynamics of the higher-order singular vortices. Applications to the design of numerical meth- ods similar to vortex blob methods are also discussed. Such findings shed light onto the rich dynamics which occur below the regularization length scale and enlighten our perspective on the multiscale aspects of regularized fluid m...

  20. Mitosis Methods & Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitosis Methods & Protocols Andrew D. McAinsh (Edt Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA Series: Springer Protocols Methods in Molecular Biology, Volume 545, 2009 ISBN: 978-1-60327-992-5   It is quite clear from the contents of this book that the remarkably fascinating phenomenon of mitosis (that captured, and still is capturing, the attention of entire generations of scientists is still open to research. This is mainly due to our lack of knowledge of so many multifaced events of this extraordinarly complex process. The reader giving a glace through the Contents and Contributors sections is speechless: All of the first-class models (i.e., budding yeast, Caenorabditis, Drosophila, Xenopus and Human are presented..... 

  1. Statistical Methods for Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Feigelson, Eric D

    2012-01-01

    This review outlines concepts of mathematical statistics, elements of probability theory, hypothesis tests and point estimation for use in the analysis of modern astronomical data. Least squares, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches to statistical inference are treated. Resampling methods, particularly the bootstrap, provide valuable procedures when distributions functions of statistics are not known. Several approaches to model selection and good- ness of fit are considered. Applied statistics relevant to astronomical research are briefly discussed: nonparametric methods for use when little is known about the behavior of the astronomical populations or processes; data smoothing with kernel density estimation and nonparametric regression; unsupervised clustering and supervised classification procedures for multivariate problems; survival analysis for astronomical datasets with nondetections; time- and frequency-domain times series analysis for light curves; and spatial statistics to interpret the spati...

  2. Methods in Bioengineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rege, Kaushal

    2009-01-01

    Filling a critical gap in the current literature, this new resource presents practical, step-by-step methods to help you synthesize, characterize, biofunctionalize and apply the nanomaterial that is most suitable for handling a given nanoscale bioengineering problem. Written and presented by leading scientists and engineers in their respective fields, the authors offer a clear and detailed understanding of how to carry out nanoparticle functionalization with biomolecules (including enzymes), nanoparticle analysis and characterization, in vitro evaluation of nanoparticles using different cell l

  3. Methods of celestial mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Brouwer, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Methods of Celestial Mechanics provides a comprehensive background of celestial mechanics for practical applications. Celestial mechanics is the branch of astronomy that is devoted to the motions of celestial bodies. This book is composed of 17 chapters, and begins with the concept of elliptic motion and its expansion. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other aspects of celestial mechanics, including gravity, numerical integration of orbit, stellar aberration, lunar theory, and celestial coordinates. Considerable chapters explore the principles and application of various mathematical metho

  4. Method for detecting biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Jun

    2008-08-12

    A method for detecting and measuring the concentration of biomolecules in solution, utilizing a conducting electrode in contact with a solution containing target biomolecules, with a film with controllable pore size distribution characteristics applied to at least one surface of the conducting electrode. The film is functionalized with probe molecules that chemically interact with the target biomolecules at the film surface, blocking indicator molecules present in solution from diffusing from the solution to the electrode, thereby changing the electrochemical response of the electrode

  5. Electron cryomicroscopy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, V M

    2001-10-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy methods comprise a rapidly expanding field providing insights into the structure and function of biological macromolecules and their supramolecular assemblies. The 3.8 A resolution structure of the membrane protein aquaporin, a view of the herpesvirus capsid at 8.5 A and the 10 A resolution structure of the spliceosomal U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex are three outstanding examples emphasizing the versatility of this technique.

  6. Nearshore Pipeline Installation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    179. 5. Aldridge, R. G., and Bomba , J. G., "Deep Water Pipelines - Interdependence of Design and Construction", ASCE Paper. 6. American Society Civil...October 13, 1967. 24. Bomba , J. G. and Seeds, K. J., "Pipelining in 600 feet of water .... A Case Study of Washington Natural Gas Company’s Puget Sound...Crossing", Offshore Technology Conference, paper OTC 1188, 1970. 25. Bomba , J., "Submarine Pipe Construction Methods", Petroleum Engineer, Vol. 32

  7. Geometrical method of decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, C.

    2012-12-01

    The computation of tunes and matched beam distributions are essential steps in the analysis of circular accelerators. If certain symmetries—like midplane symmetry—are present, then it is possible to treat the betatron motion in the horizontal, the vertical plane, and (under certain circumstances) the longitudinal motion separately using the well-known Courant-Snyder theory, or to apply transformations that have been described previously as, for instance, the method of Teng and Edwards. In a preceding paper, it has been shown that this method requires a modification for the treatment of isochronous cyclotrons with non-negligible space charge forces. Unfortunately, the modification was numerically not as stable as desired and it was still unclear, if the extension would work for all conceivable cases. Hence, a systematic derivation of a more general treatment seemed advisable. In a second paper, the author suggested the use of real Dirac matrices as basic tools for coupled linear optics and gave a straightforward recipe to decouple positive definite Hamiltonians with imaginary eigenvalues. In this article this method is generalized and simplified in order to formulate a straightforward method to decouple Hamiltonian matrices with eigenvalues on the real and the imaginary axis. The decoupling of symplectic matrices which are exponentials of such Hamiltonian matrices can be deduced from this in a few steps. It is shown that this algebraic decoupling is closely related to a geometric “decoupling” by the orthogonalization of the vectors E→, B→, and P→, which were introduced with the so-called “electromechanical equivalence.” A mathematical analysis of the problem can be traced down to the task of finding a structure-preserving block diagonalization of symplectic or Hamiltonian matrices. Structure preservation means in this context that the (sequence of) transformations must be symplectic and hence canonical. When used iteratively, the decoupling

  8. MIXED METHOD RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrizal Masrizal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed Method Research adalah metode penelitian yang diaplikasikan bila peneliti memiliki pertanyaan yang perlu diuji dari segi outcomes dan prosesnya, serta menyangkut kombinasi antara metode kuantitatif dan kualitatif dalam satu penelitian. Karena berfokus pada outcomes dan proses, maka desain MMR biasa digunakan dalam penelitian evaluasi program. Namun sekarang, MMR sudah sering digunakan untuk ilmu-ilmu sosial, seperti: konseling, psikologi social manajemen, dan pengorganisasian perilaku.

  9. MIXED METHOD RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Masrizal Masrizal

    2012-01-01

    Mixed Method Research adalah metode penelitian yang diaplikasikan bila peneliti memiliki pertanyaan yang perlu diuji dari segi outcomes dan prosesnya, serta menyangkut kombinasi antara metode kuantitatif dan kualitatif dalam satu penelitian. Karena berfokus pada outcomes dan proses, maka desain MMR biasa digunakan dalam penelitian evaluasi program. Namun sekarang, MMR sudah sering digunakan untuk ilmu-ilmu sosial, seperti: konseling, psikologi social manajemen, dan pengorganisasian perilaku.

  10. Polymer compositions and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Willkomm, Wayne R.

    2016-09-27

    The present invention encompasses polyurethane compositions comprising aliphatic polycarbonate chains. In one aspect, the present invention encompasses polyurethane foams, thermoplastics and elastomers derived from aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and polyisocyanates wherein the polyol chains contain a primary repeating unit having a structure: ##STR00001## In another aspect, the invention provides articles comprising the inventive foam and elastomer compositions as well as methods of making such compositions.

  11. Montessori Method and ICTs

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Drigas; Eugenia Gkeka

    2016-01-01

    This article bridges the gap between the Montessori Method and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in contemporary education. It reviews recent research works which recall the Montessori philosophy, principles and didactical tools applying to today’s computers and supporting technologies in children’s learning process. This article reviews how important the stimulation of human senses in the learning process is, as well as the development of Montessori materials using the body a...

  12. Methods in Bioengineering

    CERN Document Server

    Zahn, Jeffrey D

    2009-01-01

    This unique volume presents leading-edge microfluidics methods used to handle, manipulate, and analyze cells, particles, and biological components (e.g., proteins and DNA) for microdiagnostics. The authors offer clear and detailed guidance on microfabrication techniques utilized to create microfluidic devices and on-chip flow control and mixing Microsystems, protein and DNA handling devices for electrophoretic and isoelectric separations in microchromatography columns, microfluidic manipulations of droplets via electrowetting and particles via dielectrophoresis for separations and chemical rea

  13. Chromosome doubling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  14. Method of infusion extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  15. Situational method engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson-Sellers, Brian; Ågerfalk, Pär J; Rossi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    While previously available methodologies for software ? like those published in the early days of object technology ? claimed to be appropriate for every conceivable project, situational method engineering (SME) acknowledges that most projects typically have individual characteristics and situations. Thus, finding the most effective methodology for a particular project needs specific tailoring to that situation. Such a tailored software development methodology needs to take into account all the bits and pieces needed for an organization to develop software, including the software process, the

  16. Method for scavenging mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2009-01-20

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  17. Method for making nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongyou; Wu, Huimeng

    2013-06-04

    A method of making a nanostructure by preparing a face centered cubic-ordered metal nanoparticle film from metal nanoparticles, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, exerting a hydrostatic pressure upon the film at pressures of several gigapascals, followed by applying a non-hydrostatic stress perpendicularly at a pressure greater than approximately 10 GPA to form an array of nanowires with individual nanowires having a relatively uniform length, average diameter and density.

  18. Bering Mission Navigation Method

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    "Bering", after the name of the famous Danish explorer, is a near Earth object (NEO) and main belt asteroids mapping mission envisaged by a consortium of Danish universities and research institutes. To achieve the ambitious goals set forth by this mission, while containing the costs and risks, "Bering" sports several new technological enhancements and advanced instruments under development at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The autonomous on-board orbit determination method is part...

  19. Generalized Agile Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Bahlerao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Agile cost estimation process always possesses research prospects due to lack of algorithmic approaches for estimating cost, size and duration. Existing algorithmic approach i.e. Constructive Agile Estimation Algorithm (CAEA is an iterative estimation method that incorporates various vital factors affecting the estimates of the project. This method has lots of advantages but at the same time has some limitations also. These limitations may due to some factors such as number of vital factors and uncertainty involved in agile projects etc. However, a generalized agile estimation may generate realistic estimates and eliminates the need of experts. In this paper, we have proposed iterative Generalized Estimation Method (GEM and presented algorithm based on it for agile with case studies. GEM  based algorithm various project domain classes and vital factors with prioritization level. Further, it incorporates uncertainty factor to quantify the risk of project for estimating cost, size and duration. It also provides flexibility to project managers for deciding on number of vital factors, uncertainty level and project domains thereby maintaining the agility.

  20. Validation of analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Rius, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we shall discuss the concept of method validation, describe the various elements and explain its close relationship with fitness for purpose. Method validation is based on the assumption that a series of requirements are fulfilled and we shall explain how these requirements are selected, the way in which evidence is supplied and what work has to be carried out in the laboratory. The basic principles of method validation and the different ways to validate a methodology, by inter-laboratory comparison or performing an in-house validation, are also described.En este artículo se discute el concepto de validación del método, se describen los elementos que la componen y se explica la fuerte relación entre la validación y las características de ajuste. El método de validación se basa en el cumplimiento de una serie de requerimientos, se explica como seleccionar esos requerimientos, la forma en que se suministran evidencias, y que trabajo se debe llevar a cabo en el laboratorio. También se describen, los principios básicos del método de validación y los diferentes caminos para validar una metodología, tanto en la comparación entre laboratorios o como cuando se lleva a cabo una validación dentro del laboratorio.

  1. Multigrid methods III

    CERN Document Server

    Trottenberg, U; Third European Conference on Multigrid Methods

    1991-01-01

    These proceedings contain a selection of papers presented at the Third European Conference on Multigrid Methods which was held in Bonn on October 1-4, 1990. Following conferences in 1981 and 1985, a platform for the presentation of new Multigrid results was provided for a third time. Multigrid methods no longer have problems being accepted by numerical analysts and users of numerical methods; on the contrary, they have been further developed in such a successful way that they have penetrated a variety of new fields of application. The high number of 154 participants from 18 countries and 76 presented papers show the need to continue the series of the European Multigrid Conferences. The papers of this volume give a survey on the current Multigrid situation; in particular, they correspond to those fields where new developments can be observed. For example, se­ veral papers study the appropriate treatment of time dependent problems. Improvements can also be noticed in the Multigrid approach for semiconductor eq...

  2. Stochastic Methods in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki

    1987-01-01

    The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis­ cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto­ chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap­ plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...

  3. ARK methods: some recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Nicolette

    2005-03-01

    Almost Runge-Kutta methods are a sub-class of the family of methods known as general linear methods, used for solving ordinary differential equations. They combine many of the favourable properties of traditional Runge-Kutta methods with some additional advantages. We will introduce these methods, concentrating on methods of order four, and present some recent results.

  4. The data embedding method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandford, M.T. II; Bradley, J.N.; Handel, T.G.

    1996-06-01

    Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in Microsoft{reg_sign} bitmap (.BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed {open_quote}steganography.{close_quote} Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or {open_quote}lossy{close_quote} compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is in data an analysis algorithm.

  5. Data embedding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Maxwell T., II; Bradley, Jonathan N.; Handel, Theodore G.

    1996-01-01

    Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in MicrosoftTM bitmap (BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed `steganography.' Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or `lossy' compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is derived from the original host data by an analysis algorithm.

  6. Electrical estimating methods

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pico, Wayne J

    2014-01-01

    Simplify the estimating process with the latest data, materials, and practices Electrical Estimating Methods, Fourth Edition is a comprehensive guide to estimating electrical costs, with data provided by leading construction database RS Means. The book covers the materials and processes encountered by the modern contractor, and provides all the information professionals need to make the most precise estimate. The fourth edition has been updated to reflect the changing materials, techniques, and practices in the field, and provides the most recent Means cost data available. The complexity of el

  7. Methods of graded rings

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasescu, Constantin

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this book, graded algebra, has developed in the past decade to a vast subject with new applications in noncommutative geometry and physics. Classical aspects relating to group actions and gradings have been complemented by new insights stemming from Hopf algebra theory. Old and new methods are presented in full detail and in a self-contained way. Graduate students as well as researchers in algebra, geometry, will find in this book a useful toolbox. Exercises, with hints for solution, provide a direct link to recent research publications. The book is suitable for courses on Master level or textbook for seminars.

  8. Interior-point methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potra, Florian A.; Wright, Stephen J.

    2000-12-01

    The modern era of interior-point methods dates to 1984, when Karmarkar proposed his algorithm for linear programming. In the years since then, algorithms and software for linear programming have become quite sophisticated, while extensions to more general classes of problems, such as convex quadratic programming, semi-definite programming, and nonconvex and nonlinear problems, have reached varying levels of maturity. We review some of the key developments in the area, including comments on both the complexity theory and practical algorithms for linear programming, semi-definite programming, monotone linear complementarity, and convex programming over sets that can be characterized by self-concordant barrier functions.

  9. Methods in Bioengineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nahmias, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Offering a practical look into the field, this volume presents the science behind microscale device design and the engineering of its fabrication. Supported with dozens of full-color illustrations, this book offers you clear, step-by-step methods for the cell capture from whole blood, high-throughput study of transcriptional dynamics in living cells, temporal control of cell-cell interaction, nanoscale measurements of cellular forces, immobilizing living c. elegans, optical and electrical on-chip cell sorting and human-on-chip modeling of drug metabolism.

  10. Mathematical methods for physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Arfken, George B

    1985-01-01

    Mathematical Methods for Physicists, Third Edition provides an advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate study in physical science, focusing on the mathematics of theoretical physics. This edition includes sections on the non-Cartesian tensors, dispersion theory, first-order differential equations, numerical application of Chebyshev polynomials, the fast Fourier transform, and transfer functions. Many of the physical examples provided in this book, which are used to illustrate the applications of mathematics, are taken from the fields of electromagnetic theory and quantum mechanics. The He

  11. Object oriented methods

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Ian

    1994-01-01

    This book is a revision of Ian Graham's successful survey of the whole area of object technology. It covers object- oriented programming, object-oriented design, object- oriented analysis, object-oriented databases and treats several related technologies. New to this edition are more applications of object-oriented methods and more coverage of object-oriented database products available. Graham has also doubled the design and analysis material that examines over 60 different approaches - making this the most comprehensive book on the market. Also new is the foreword by Grady Booch.

  12. Hydraulic mining method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  13. Method of joining ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Brimhall, John L.

    2000-01-01

    According to the method of the present invention, joining a first bi-element carbide to a second bi-element carbide, has the steps of: (a) forming a bond agent containing a metal carbide and silicon; (b) placing the bond agent between the first and second bi-element carbides to form a pre-assembly; and (c) pressing and heating the pre-assembly in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature effective to induce a displacement reaction creating a metal silicon phase bonding the first and second bi-element carbides.

  14. ZIRCONIUM PHOSPHATE ADSORPTION METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.S.; Schubert, J.; Boyd, G.E.

    1958-11-01

    A method is presented for separating plutonium values from fission product values in aqueous acidic solution. This is accomplished by flowing the solutlon containing such values through a bed of zirconium orthophosphate. Any fission products adsorbed can subsequently be eluted by washing the column with a solution of 2N HNO/sub 3/ and O.lN H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. Plutonium values may subsequently be desorbed by contacting the column with a solution of 7N HNO/sub 3/ .

  15. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  16. Interval methods: An introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenie, L.E.K.; Kreinovich, V.; Madsen, Kaj

    2006-01-01

    This chapter contains selected papers presented at the Minisymposium on Interval Methods of the PARA'04 Workshop '' State-of-the-Art in Scientific Computing ''. The emphasis of the workshop was on high-performance computing (HPC). The ongoing development of ever more advanced computers provides....... An important characteristic of the computer performance in scientific computing is the accuracy of the Computation results. Often, we can estimate this accuracy by using traditional statistical techniques. However, in many practical situations, we do not know the probability distributions of different...... '' techniques, and the applications of these techniques to various problems of scientific computing....

  17. Introduction to Numerical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoonover, Joseph A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-14

    These are slides for a lecture for the Parallel Computing Summer Research Internship at the National Security Education Center. This gives an introduction to numerical methods. Repetitive algorithms are used to obtain approximate solutions to mathematical problems, using sorting, searching, root finding, optimization, interpolation, extrapolation, least squares regresion, Eigenvalue problems, ordinary differential equations, and partial differential equations. Many equations are shown. Discretizations allow us to approximate solutions to mathematical models of physical systems using a repetitive algorithm and introduce errors that can lead to numerical instabilities if we are not careful.

  18. Formal Methods in Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Serna A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of formal methods in industry has progressed extensively over the past decade and the results are promising. But despite these achievements and it have been documented in numerous studies, it is still very common the skepticism about its usefulness and applicability. The goal of this paper is to show that its evolution over the past decade exceeds all previous processes and each time they do a better job to satisfy industrial needs. This is achieved by the description of some experiments and the result of various applications in industry and through an analyzing of the needs of companies that must be satisfy the research community in this field.

  19. Methods of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Reiss, Howard

    1997-01-01

    Since there is no shortage of excellent general books on elementary thermodynamics, this book takes a different approach, focusing attention on the problem areas of understanding of concept and especially on the overwhelming but usually hidden role of ""constraints"" in thermodynamics, as well as on the lucid exposition of the significance, construction, and use (in the case of arbitrary systems) of the thermodynamic potential. It will be especially useful as an auxiliary text to be used along with any standard treatment.Unlike some texts, Methods of Thermodynamics does not use statistical m

  20. Calcium measurement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rightly stressed by prof. Wolfgang Walz in the Preface to the series Neuromethods series, the “careful application of methods is probably the most important step in the process of scientific inquiry”. Thus, I strongly suggest to all those interested in calcium signaling and especially to the new-comers in the hot topic of neuroscience (which has so much space even in science-society debate for its implications in legal issues and in the judge-decision process to take profit from this so well edited book. I am saying this since prof. Verkhratsky and prof. Petersen......

  1. Heat flow control and segregation in directional solidification: Development of an experimental and theoretical basis for Bridgman-type growth experiments in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    Within the framework of the proposed research, emphasis was placed on application of magnetic fields to semiconductor growth systems. It was found that magnetic fields up to 3 kGauss do not affect the growth behavior nor the macro-segregation behavior in the system Ge(Ga). Applied fields are found to significantlty alter the radial dopant distribution, which is attributed to alterations in the spatial orientation of convective cells. Increasing the magnetic field to 30 kGauss is found to have a fundamental effect on dopant segregation. Emphasis is also placed on the potential of KC-135 flights for preliminary studies on the effects of reduced gravity environments on the wetting behavior of semiconductor systems in growth configuration. The limited number of experiments conducted does not allow any conclusions on the merits of KC-135 flights for semiconductor processing research.

  2. Recombinant methods and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roizman, B.; Post, L.E.

    1988-09-06

    This patent describes a method for stably effecting the insertion or deletion of a selected DNA sequence at a specific site in a viral genome. The method consists of: (1) isolating from the genome a linear DNA fragment comprising both (a) the specific site determined for insertion or deletion of selected DNA sequence and (b) flanking DNA sequences normally preceding and following the site; (2) preparing first and second altered genome fragments from the fragment isolated in step (1). (a) the first altered fragment comprising the fragment comprising a thymidine kinase gene in a position intermediate the ends of the fragment, and (b) the second altered fragment comprising the fragment having the selected DNA sequence inserted therein or deleted therefrom; (3) contacting the genome with the first altered fragment under conditions permitting recombination at sites of DNA sequence homology, selecting for a recombinant genome comprising the thymidine kinase gene, and isolating the recombinant genome; and (4) contacting the recombinant genome isolated in step (3) with the second altered fragment under conditions permitting recombination at sites of DNA sequence homology, selecting for a recombinant genome lacking the thymidine kinase gene, and isolating the recombinant genome product.

  3. Research methods in information

    CERN Document Server

    Pickard, Alison Jane

    2013-01-01

    The long-awaited 2nd edition of this best-selling research methods handbook is fully updated and includes brand new coverage of online research methods and techniques, mixed methodology and qualitative analysis. There is an entire chapter contributed by Professor Julie McLeod, Sue Childs and Elizabeth Lomas focusing on research data management, applying evidence from the recent JISC funded 'DATUM' project. The first to focus entirely on the needs of the information and communications community, it guides the would-be researcher through the variety of possibilities open to them under the heading "research" and provides students with the confidence to embark on their dissertations. The focus here is on the 'doing' and although the philosophy and theory of research is explored to provide context, this is essentially a practical exploration of the whole research process with each chapter fully supported by examples and exercises tried and tested over a whole teaching career. The book will take readers through eac...

  4. Nanoscale waveguiding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chia-Jean

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWhile 32 nm lithography technology is on the horizon for integrated circuit (IC fabrication, matching the pace for miniaturization with optics has been hampered by the diffraction limit. However, development of nanoscale components and guiding methods is burgeoning through advances in fabrication techniques and materials processing. As waveguiding presents the fundamental issue and cornerstone for ultra-high density photonic ICs, we examine the current state of methods in the field. Namely, plasmonic, metal slot and negative dielectric based waveguides as well as a few sub-micrometer techniques such as nanoribbons, high-index contrast and photonic crystals waveguides are investigated in terms of construction, transmission, and limitations. Furthermore, we discuss in detail quantum dot (QD arrays as a gain-enabled and flexible means to transmit energy through straight paths and sharp bends. Modeling, fabrication and test results are provided and show that the QD waveguide may be effective as an alternate means to transfer light on sub-diffraction dimensions.

  5. Methods of Endotoxin Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenqiong; Ding, Xianting

    2015-08-01

    Endotoxin, present in the outer membrane of all gram-negative bacteria, can pose serious risks to human health, from irreversible shock to death. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive, accurate, and rapid methods for its detection. The rabbit pyrogen test is the first standard technique for endotoxin detection and, nowadays, has been replaced by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test, which is the most popular detection technique for endotoxin. With in-depth understanding of endotoxin, biosensors based on endotoxin-sensing components are promising alternatives to pursue in developing low-cost, easy-operation, and fast-response endotoxin detection techniques. This article summarizes the recent advances of endotoxin detection methods with a particular emphasis on optical and electrochemical biosensors based on various sensing elements ranging from nature biomolecules to artificial materials. As the research and technological revolution continues, the highly integrated and miniaturized commercial devices for sensitively and reliably detecting endotoxin will provide a wide range of applications in people's daily life.

  6. Epitope prediction methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karosiene, Edita

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a crucial role in adaptive immunity by sampling peptides from self and non-self proteins to be recognised by the immune system. MHC molecules present peptides on cell surfaces for recognition by CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes that can initiate...... immune responses. Therefore, it is of great importance to be able to identify peptides that bind to MHC molecules, in order to understand the nature of immune responses and discover T cell epitopes useful for designing new vaccines and immunotherapies. MHC molecules in humans, referred to as human...... on machine learning techniques. Several MHC class I binding prediction algorithms have been developed and due to their high accuracy they are used by many immunologists to facilitate the conventional experimental process of epitope discovery. However, the accuracy of these methods depends on data defining...

  7. METHOD OF RECOVERING THORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R.W.

    1957-12-10

    A method is described for recovering thorium from impurities found in a slag containing thorium and said impurities, comprising leaching a composition containing thorium with water, removing the water solution, treating the residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting its acidity to 1 to 3 normal, adding oxalic acid, and thereafter separating the precipitated thorium oxalate digesting the residue from the hydrochloric acid treatment with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide at an elevated temperature, removing said solution and treating the insoluble residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting the acidity of this solution to 1 to 3 normal, adding nitric acid to oxidize the iron present, adding oxalic acid and thereafter separating the thorium oxalate thus precipitated.

  8. Method for radioactivity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbarger, C. John; Cowder, Leo R.

    1976-10-26

    The disclosure relates to a method for analyzing uranium and/or thorium contents of liquid effluents preferably utilizing a sample containing counting chamber. Basically, 185.7-keV gamma rays following .sup.235 U alpha decay to .sup.231 Th which indicate .sup.235 U content and a 63-keV gamma ray doublet found in the nucleus of .sup.234 Pa, a granddaughter of .sup.238 U, are monitored and the ratio thereof taken to derive uranium content and isotopic enrichment .sup.235 U/.sup.235 U + .sup.238 U) in the liquid effluent. Thorium content is determined by monitoring the intensity of 238-keV gamma rays from the nucleus of .sup.212 Bi in the decay chain of .sup.232 Th.

  9. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  10. Geophysical Methods: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A.; Goldstein, N. E.; Lee, K. H.; Majer, E. L.; Morrison, H. F.; Myer, L.

    1992-01-01

    Geophysics is expected to have a major role in lunar resource assessment when manned systems return to the Moon. Geophysical measurements made from a lunar rover will contribute to a number of key studies: estimating regolith thickness, detection of possible large-diameter lava tubes within maria basalts, detection of possible subsurface ice in polar regions, detection of conductive minerals that formed directly from a melt (orthomagmatic sulfides of Cu, Ni, Co), and mapping lunar geology beneath the regolith. The techniques that can be used are dictated both by objectives and by our abilities to adapt current technology to lunar conditions. Instrument size, weight, power requirements, and freedom from orientation errors are factors we have considered. Among the geophysical methods we believe to be appropriate for a lunar resource assessment are magnetics, including gradiometry, time-domain magnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, seismic reflection, and gravimetry.

  11. Dominant modal decomposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombovari, Zoltan

    2017-03-01

    The paper deals with the automatic decomposition of experimental frequency response functions (FRF's) of mechanical structures. The decomposition of FRF's is based on the Green function representation of free vibratory systems. After the determination of the impulse dynamic subspace, the system matrix is formulated and the poles are calculated directly. By means of the corresponding eigenvectors, the contribution of each element of the impulse dynamic subspace is determined and the sufficient decomposition of the corresponding FRF is carried out. With the presented dominant modal decomposition (DMD) method, the mode shapes, the modal participation vectors and the modal scaling factors are identified using the decomposed FRF's. Analytical example is presented along with experimental case studies taken from machine tool industry.

  12. A Pluralistic, Longitudinal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Winie; Marroun, Sana; Young, Louise

    2017-01-01

    There is recognition in business markets of the need for connected relationships to enable the survival and growth of firms. Finding new ways to collaborate enables firms to better seek opportunities and challenges and enhance network capability. However the traditional methods used to research...... the development of network collaboration can be limited in the insights they provide as they often focus on single interviews in a single time perspective and/or are analyzed for content in a single way. The study presented here highlights the insights that can emerge from more pluralistic data collection...... on relationship and network assessments was measured by analysis of both the workshops’ discourse and by comparison of reflective interviews with participants before and after each workshop. Collective and comparative lexicographic (i.e. semantic) analysis was used to ascertain participants’ perceptions...

  13. Cyclostationarity theory and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Leśkow, Jacek; Napolitano, Antonio; Sanchez-Ramirez, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade the research in signal analysis was dominated by models that encompass nonstationarity as an important feature. This book presents the results of a workshop held in Grodek—Poland in February 2013 which was dedicated to the investigation of cyclostationary signals. Its main objective is to highlight the strong interactions between theory and applications of cyclostationary signals with the use of modern statistical tools. An important application of cyclostationary signals is the analysis of mechanical signals generated by a vibrating mechanism. Cyclostationary models are very important to perform basic operations on signals in both time and frequency domains. One of the fundamental problems in diagnosis of rotating machine is the identification of significant modulating frequencies that contribute to the cyclostationary nature of the signals. The book shows that there are modern tools available for analyzing cyclostationary signals without the assumption of gaussianity. Those methods are...

  14. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Laura J.; Bray, Lane A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  15. Microencapsulation system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.

  16. Unconventional methods for clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyrba, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Cluster analysis or clustering is a task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense or another) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). It is the main task of exploratory data mining and a common technique for statistical data analysis used in many fields, including machine learning, pattern recognition, image analysis, information retrieval, and bioinformatics. The topic of this paper is one of the modern methods of clustering namely SOM (Self Organising Map). The paper describes the theory needed to understand the principle of clustering and descriptions of algorithm used with clustering in our experiments.

  17. Floating Silicon Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerman, Peter

    2013-12-21

    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  18. New methods in cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, V J; Kearney, L

    1994-06-01

    Developments in the technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) now permit hybridization of sequences ranging from 1 kb to whole genomes. The technique can be used in applications from coarse mapping of whole chromosomes to high-resolution analysis of extended strands of DNA. The complexity, and hence the coverage, of 'paints' prepared by amplification is being improved to the extent that such methods are used in cloning strategies for the generation of region-specific probes. Interphase analysis and comparative genomic hybridization are becoming important tools in cancer cytogenetics, and the potential for routine analysis of fetal cells obtained from maternal blood may provide a fresh approach to prenatal cytogenetic screening. Functional studies of gene activity and nuclear organization are now also possible.

  19. Extending the MINLO method

    CERN Document Server

    Frederix, Rikkert

    2015-01-01

    We consider improving POWHEG+MINLO simulations, so as to also render them NLO accurate in the description of observables receiving contributions from events with lower parton multiplicity than present in their underlying NLO calculation. On a conceptual level we follow the strategy of the so-called MINLO' programs. Whereas the existing MINLO' framework requires explicit analytic input from higher order resummation, here we derive an effective numerical approximation to these ingredients, by imposing unitarity. This offers a way of extending the MINLO' method to more complex processes, complementary to the known route which uses explicit computations of high-accuracy resummation inputs. Specifically, we have focused on Higgs-plus-two-jet production (HJJ) and related processes. We also consider how one can cover three units of multiplicity at NLO accuracy, i.e. we consider how the HJJ-MINLO simulation may yield NLO accuracy for inclusive H, HJ, and HJJ quantities. We perform a feasibility study assessing the po...

  20. Data mining methods

    CERN Document Server

    Chattamvelli, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    DATA MINING METHODS, Second Edition discusses both theoretical foundation and practical applications of datamining in a web field including banking, e-commerce, medicine, engineering and management. This book starts byintroducing data and information, basic data type, data category and applications of data mining. The second chapterbriefly reviews data visualization technology and importance in data mining. Fundamentals of probability and statisticsare discussed in chapter 3, and novel algorithm for sample covariants are derived. The next two chapters give an indepthand useful discussion of data warehousing and OLAP. Decision trees are clearly explained and a new tabularmethod for decision tree building is discussed. The chapter on association rules discusses popular algorithms andcompares various algorithms in summary table form. An interesting application of genetic algorithm is introduced inthe next chapter. Foundations of neural networks are built from scratch and the back propagation algorithm is derived...

  1. Methods for RNA Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Signe

    While increasing evidence appoints diverse types of RNA as key players in the regulatory networks underlying cellular differentiation and metabolism, the potential functions of thousands of conserved RNA structures encoded in mammalian genomes remain to be determined. Since the functions of most...... RNAs rely on interactions with proteins, the establishment of protein-binding profiles is essential for the characterization of RNAs. Aiming to facilitate RNA analysis, this thesis introduces proteomics- as well as transcriptomics-based methods for the functional characterization of RNA. First, RNA......-protein pulldown combined with mass spectrometry analysis is applied for in vivo as well as in vitro identification of RNA-binding proteins, the latter succeeding in verifying known RNA-protein interactions. Secondly, acknowledging the significance of flexible promoter usage for the diversification...

  2. Remanufacturability and Assessment Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Sheng; CUI Pei-zhi; YAO Ju-kun

    2004-01-01

    Remanufacturing represents the combination of "three Rs" (reduce, reuse, recycle) into a single activity, which restores a wide variety of worn-out, discarded durable products to like-new condition, prolonging theit useful life,protecting the environment. The application of surface engineering has promoted the development of remanufacturing.Remanufacturing is an environmentally and economically sound way to achieve many of the goals of sustainable development. Through developing study of product design for remanufacturing, it can promote the surface technologies application in the remanufacturing, and markedly enhance the efficiency of remanufacturing. This paper gives some relative concepts about product design for remanufacturing, such as remanufacturability, and brings forward the remanufacturability research contents and assessment method of used product.

  3. Mathematical methods in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a careful selection of the contributions presented at the Mathematical Methods in Engineering (MME10) International Symposium, held at the Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra- Engineering Institute of Coimbra (IPC/ISEC), Portugal, October 21-24, 2010. The volume discusses recent developments about theoretical and applied mathematics toward the solution of engineering problems, thus covering a wide range of topics, such as:  Automatic Control, Autonomous Systems, Computer Science, Dynamical Systems and Control,  Electronics, Finance and Economics, Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Fractional Mathematics, Fractional Transforms and Their Applications,  Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Image and Signal Analysis, Image Processing, Mechanics, Mechatronics, Motor Control and Human Movement Analysis, Nonlinear Dynamics, Partial Differential Equations, Robotics, Acoustics, Vibration and Control, and Wavelets.

  4. Remanufacturability and Assessment Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUSheng; CUIPei-zhi; YAOJu-kun

    2004-01-01

    Remanufacturing represents the combination of "three Rs" (reduce, reuse, recycle) into a single activity, which restores a wide variety of worn-out, discarded durable products to like-new condition, prolonging their useful life, protecting the environment. The application of surface engineering has promoted the development of remanufacturing. Remanufacturing is an environmentally and economically sound way to achieve many of the goals of sustainable development. Through developing study of product design for remanufacturing, it can promote the surface technologies application in the remanufacturing, and markedly enhance the efficiency of remanufacturing. This paper gives some relative concepts about product design for remanufacturing, such as remanufacturability, and brings forward the remanufacturability research contents and assessment method of used product.

  5. Gas centrifuge purge method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurich, Gordon R.

    1976-01-01

    1. In a method of separating isotopes in a high speed gas centrifuge wherein a vertically oriented cylindrical rotor bowl is adapted to rotate about its axis within an evacuated chamber, and wherein an annular molecular pump having an intake end and a discharge end encircles the uppermost portion of said rotor bowl, said molecular pump being attached along its periphery in a leak-tight manner to said evacuated chamber, and wherein end cap closure means are affixed to the upper end of said rotor bowl, and a process gas withdrawal and insertion system enters said bowl through said end cap closure means, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and end cap defining an upper zone at the discharge end of said molecular pump, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and rotor bowl defining a lower annular zone at the intake end of said molecular pump, a method for removing gases from said upper and lower zones during centrifuge operation with a minimum loss of process gas from said rotor bowl, comprising, in combination: continuously measuring the pressure in said upper zone, pumping gas from said lower zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a first preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a second preselected value, said first preselected value being greater than said second preselected value, and continuously pumping gas from said upper zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a third preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a fourth preselected value, said third preselected value being greater than said first, second and fourth preselected values.

  6. Characterization Methods of Encapsulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibing; Law, Daniel; Lian, Guoping

    , reliable methods which can be used to characterize these properties of encapsulates are vital. In this chapter, the state-of-art of these methods, their principles and applications, and release mechanisms are described as follows.

  7. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  8. Comparative law as method and the method of comparative law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.C.; Adams, M.; Heirbaut, D.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses both the justificatory role of comparative law within legal research (comparative law as method) and the method of comparative law itself. In this connection two questions will be answered: 1. Is comparative law a method, or a set of methods, for legal research? 2. Does compar

  9. Conference on Logical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Remmel, Jeffrey; Shore, Richard; Sweedler, Moss; Progress in Computer Science and Applied Logic

    1993-01-01

    The twenty-six papers in this volume reflect the wide and still expanding range of Anil Nerode's work. A conference on Logical Methods was held in honor of Nerode's sixtieth birthday (4 June 1992) at the Mathematical Sciences Institute, Cornell University, 1-3 June 1992. Some of the conference papers are here, but others are from students, co-workers and other colleagues. The intention of the conference was to look forward, and to see the directions currently being pursued, in the development of work by, or with, Nerode. Here is a brief summary of the contents of this book. We give a retrospective view of Nerode's work. A number of specific areas are readily discerned: recursive equivalence types, recursive algebra and model theory, the theory of Turing degrees and r.e. sets, polynomial-time computability and computer science. Nerode began with automata theory and has also taken a keen interest in the history of mathematics. All these areas are represented. The one area missing is Nerode's applied mathematica...

  10. Production Methods for Hyaluronan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen G. Boeriu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronan is a polysaccharide with multiple functions in the human body being involved in creating flexible and protective layers in tissues and in many signalling pathways during embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation, and cancer. Hyaluronan is an important component of active pharmaceutical ingredients for treatment of, for example, arthritis and osteoarthritis, and its commercial value far exceeds that of other microbial extracellular polysaccharides. Traditionally hyaluronan is extracted from animal waste which is a well-established process now. However, biotechnological synthesis of biopolymers provides a wealth of new possibilities. Therefore, genetic/metabolic engineering has been applied in the area of tailor-made hyaluronan synthesis. Another approach is the controlled artificial (in vitro synthesis of hyaluronan by enzymes. Advantage of using microbial and enzymatic synthesis for hyaluronan production is the simpler downstream processing and a reduced risk of viral contamination. In this paper an overview of the different methods used to produce hyaluronan is presented. Emphasis is on the advancements made in the field of the synthesis of bioengineered hyaluronan.

  11. Statistical methods for forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Bovas

    2009-01-01

    The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists."This book, it must be said, lives up to the words on its advertising cover: ''Bridging the gap between introductory, descriptive approaches and highly advanced theoretical treatises, it provides a practical, intermediate level discussion of a variety of forecasting tools, and explains how they relate to one another, both in theory and practice.'' It does just that!"-Journal of the Royal Statistical Society"A well-written work that deals with statistical methods and models that can be used to produce short-term forecasts, this book has wide-ranging applications. It could be used in the context of a study of regression, forecasting, and time series ...

  12. Acoustic data transmission method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, A.

    1991-09-17

    This patent describes a method for transmitting time line data through a drillstring having drill pipe sections connected end-to-end by joints from a first location below the surface of the earth to a second location at or near the surface of the earth, the length and cross-sectional area of the drill pipe sections being different from the length and cross-sectional area of the joints. It comprises generating acoustic data signals having a single frequency content in at least one passband of the drillstring; transmitting the data signals through the drillstring from either the first location to the second location or from the second location to the first location during a time period prior to the onset of reflective interference caused by the data signals reflecting from along the length of the drillstring, the time period being equal to or less than the time for the data signals to travel three lengths of the drillstring; stopping the transmission of data signals at the onset of the reflective interference and allowing the acoustic signals to substantially attenuate; and detecting the data signals at the respective first or second location.

  13. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.W. Kugel; D. Spong; R. Majeski; M. Zarnstorff

    2003-02-28

    The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral-beam injection, and radio-frequency. Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The plan is to provide 3 MW of 50 keV balanced neutral-beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 msec for initial experiments, and to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. Subsequent upgrades will add 3 MW of neutral-beam injection. This Chapter discusses the NCSX neutral-beam injection requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M (Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification) neutral-beam injection system. In addition, estimations are given for beam-heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size an d magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam-injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of radio-frequency heating by mode-conversion ion-Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron-cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the radio-frequency system lend themselves to current drive, so that if current drive became desirable for any reason only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The radio-frequency system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly ion-Bernstein-wave-generated sheared flows.

  14. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, H. W.; Spong, D.; Majeski, R.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2008-01-18

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possiblyIBW-generated sheared flows.

  15. A method cache for Patmos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degasperi, Philipp; Hepp, Stefan; Puffitsch, Wolfgang;

    2014-01-01

    For real-time systems we need time-predictable processors. This paper presents a method cache as a time-predictable solution for instruction caching. The method cache caches whole methods (or functions) and simplifies worst-case execution time analysis. We have integrated the method cache...

  16. 40 years of formal methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; Havelund, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    In this "40 years of formal methods" essay we shall first delineate, Sect. 1, what we mean by method, formal method, computer science, computing science, software engineering, and model-oriented and algebraic methods. Based on this, we shall characterize a spectrum from specification......-oriented methods to analysis-oriented methods. Then, Sect. 2, we shall provide a "survey": which are the 'prerequisite works' that have enabled formal methods, Sect. 2.1, and which are, to us, the, by now, classical 'formal methods', Sect. 2.2. We then ask ourselves the question: have formal methods for software...... development, in the sense of this paper been successful? Our answer is, regretfully, no! We motivate this answer, in Sect. 3.2, by discussing eight obstacles or hindrances to the proper integration of formal methods in university research and education as well as in industry practice. This "looking back...

  17. Explorative methods in linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2004-01-01

    The author has developed the H-method of mathematical modeling that builds up the model by parts, where each part is optimized with respect to prediction. Besides providing with better predictions than traditional methods, these methods provide with graphic procedures for analyzing different...... features in data. These graphic methods extend the well-known methods and results of Principal Component Analysis to any linear model. Here the graphic procedures are applied to linear regression and Ridge Regression....

  18. Method Points: towards a metric for method complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham McLeod

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available A metric for method complexity is proposed as an aid to choosing between competing methods, as well as in validating the effects of method integration or the products of method engineering work. It is based upon a generic method representation model previously developed by the author and adaptation of concepts used in the popular Function Point metric for system size. The proposed technique is illustrated by comparing two popular I.E. deliverables with counterparts in the object oriented Unified Modeling Language (UML. The paper recommends ways to improve the practical adoption of new methods.

  19. NEW ACCELERATION METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1984-07-01

    But a glance at the Livingston chart, Fig. 1, of accelerator particle energy as a function of time shows that the energy has steadily, exponentially, increased. Equally significant is the fact that this increase is the envelope of diverse technologies. If one is to stay on, or even near, the Livingston curve in future years then new acceleration techniques need to be developed. What are the new acceleration methods? In these two lectures I would like to sketch some of these new ideas. I am well aware that they will probably not result in high energy accelerators within this or the next decade, but conversely, it is likely that these ideas will form the basis for the accelerators of the next century. Anyway, the ideas are stimulating and suffice to show that accelerator physicists are not just 'engineers', but genuine scientists deserving to be welcomed into the company of high energy physicists. I believe that outsiders will find this field surprisingly fertile and, certainly fun. To put it more personally, I very much enjoy working in this field and lecturing on it. There are a number of review articles which should be consulted for references to the original literature. In addition there are three books on the subject. Given this material, I feel free to not completely reference the material in the remainder of this article; consultation of the review articles and books will be adequate as an introduction to the literature for references abound (hundreds are given). At last, by way of introduction, I should like to quote from the end of Ref. 2 for I think the remarks made there are most germane. Remember that the talk was addressed to accelerator physicists: 'Finally, it is often said, I think by physicists who are not well-informed, that accelerator builders have used up their capital and now are bereft of ideas, and as a result, high energy physics will eventually--rather soon, in fact--come to a halt. After all, one can't build too many

  20. Solidification of Anisotropic Semiconductor Tellurium Samples in Microgravity and Their Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfeniev, R. V.; Farbshtein, I. I.; Yakimov, S. V.; Shalimov, V. P.; Turchaninov, A. M.

    A research program was partly completed to determine the influence of microgravity on the crystallization and electrical properties of tellurium, as a semiconductor with both anisotropic crystal lattice and energy spectrum. Three different tellurium samples were solidified in space by a modified Bridgman method in the Crystallizator ChSK-1 furnace aboard the MIR space station. The variation of the crystal structure, charge carrier concentration and mobility along the sample length was investigated and compared with material solidified on earth. The lowest impurity and defect concentrations were obtained in partially melted single crystals resolidified by the Bridgman method. The distribution of electric active and neutral defects along the samples with a concentration as small as 10 -5 at% were measured by a galvanomagnetic method at low temperatures. Some peculiarities of the remelting process connected with microgravity were observed.

  1. Dianhydrides, polyimides, methods of making each, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xiaohua

    2015-01-08

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for an aromatic dianhydride, a method of making an aromatic dianhydride, an aromatic dianhydride-based polyimide, a method of making an aromatic dianhydride-based polyimide, and the like.

  2. Alternative methods in toxicology: pre-validated and validated methods

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The development of alternative methods to animal experimentation has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years. Today, in vitro and in silico methods have an important role in the hazard identification and assessment of toxicology profile of compounds. Advanced alternative methods and their combinations are also used for safety assessment of final products. Several alternative methods, which were scientifically validated and accepted by competent regulatory bodies, can be used for regulatory ...

  3. Multiple Methods: Research Methods in Education Projects at NSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Larry E.

    2005-01-01

    Projects on science and mathematics education research supported by the National Science Foundation (US government) rarely employ a single method of study. Studies of educational practices that use experimental design are very rare. The most common research method is the case study method and the second most common is some form of experimental…

  4. Catalysts, methods of making catalysts, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Renard, Laetitia

    2014-03-06

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for catalysts, methods of making catalysts, methods of using catalysts, and the like. In an embodiment, the method of making the catalysts can be performed in a single step with a metal nanoparticle precursor and a metal oxide precursor, where a separate stabilizing agent is not needed.

  5. Stated preference methods using R

    CERN Document Server

    Aizaki, Hideo; Sato, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Stated Preference Methods Using R explains how to use stated preference (SP) methods, which are a family of survey methods, to measure people's preferences based on decision making in hypothetical choice situations. Along with giving introductory explanations of the methods, the book collates information on existing R functions and packages as well as those prepared by the authors. It focuses on core SP methods, including contingent valuation (CV), discrete choice experiments (DCEs), and best-worst scaling (BWS). Several example data sets illustrate empirical applications of each method with R

  6. Blindman-Walking Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunming Li

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimization methods are all implemented with the hypothesis of unknowing the mathematic express of objective objection. Using the human analogy innovative method, the one-dimension blind-walking optimal method is proposed in this paper. The theory and the algorithm of this method includes halving, doubling, reversing probing step and verifying the applicability condition. Double-step is available to make current point moving to the extremum point. Half-step is available to accelerate convergence. In order to improve the optimization, the applicability condition decides whether update current point or not. The operation process, algorithmic flow chart and characteristic analysis of the method were given. Two optimization problems with unimodal or multimodal objective function were solved by the proposed method respectively. The simulation result shows that the proposed method is better than the ordinary method. The proposed method has the merit of rapid convergence, little calculation capacity, wide applicable range, etc. Taking the method as innovative kernel, the random research method, feasible direction method and complex shape method were improved. Taking the innovative content of this paper as innovative kernel, a monograph was published. The other innovations of the monograph are listed, such as applied algorithm of Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT qualifications on judging the restriction extremum point, the design step of computing software, the complementarity and derivation of Powell criterion, the method of keeping the complex shape not to deduce dimension and the analysis of gradual optimization characteristic, the reinforced wall of inner point punish function method, the analysis of problem with constrained monstrosity extremum point, the improvement of Newton method and the validation of optimization idea of blind walking repeatedly, the explanation of later-day optimization method, the conformity of seeking algorithm needing the

  7. Numerical Methods for Stochastic Computations A Spectral Method Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Xiu, Dongbin

    2010-01-01

    The first graduate-level textbook to focus on fundamental aspects of numerical methods for stochastic computations, this book describes the class of numerical methods based on generalized polynomial chaos (gPC). These fast, efficient, and accurate methods are an extension of the classical spectral methods of high-dimensional random spaces. Designed to simulate complex systems subject to random inputs, these methods are widely used in many areas of computer science and engineering. The book introduces polynomial approximation theory and probability theory; describes the basic theory of gPC meth

  8. Operator theory and numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, H; Suzuki, T

    2001-01-01

    In accordance with the developments in computation, theoretical studies on numerical schemes are now fruitful and highly needed. In 1991 an article on the finite element method applied to evolutionary problems was published. Following the method, basically this book studies various schemes from operator theoretical points of view. Many parts are devoted to the finite element method, but other schemes and problems (charge simulation method, domain decomposition method, nonlinear problems, and so forth) are also discussed, motivated by the observation that practically useful schemes have fine mathematical structures and the converses are also true. This book has the following chapters: 1. Boundary Value Problems and FEM. 2. Semigroup Theory and FEM. 3. Evolution Equations and FEM. 4. Other Methods in Time Discretization. 5. Other Methods in Space Discretization. 6. Nonlinear Problems. 7. Domain Decomposition Method.

  9. Analytic Methods in Investigative Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, David E.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests an alternative proof by analytic methods, which is more accessible than rigorous proof based on Euclid's Elements, in which students need only apply standard methods of trigonometry to the data without introducing new points or lines. (KHR)

  10. Mixed methods research for TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, James; Farr, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Defining and discussing the relevance of theoretical and practical issues involved in mixed methods research. Covering the basics of research methodology, this textbook shows you how to choose and combine quantitative and qualitative research methods to b

  11. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007555.htm Birth control - slow release methods To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain birth control methods contain man-made forms of hormones. These ...

  12. International Conference eXtended Discretization MethodS

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuti, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This book gathers selected contributions on emerging research work presented at the International Conference eXtended Discretization MethodS (X-DMS), held in Ferrara in September 2015. It highlights the most relevant advances made at the international level in the context of expanding classical discretization methods, like finite elements, to the numerical analysis of a variety of physical problems. The improvements are intended to achieve higher computational efficiency and to account for special features of the solution directly in the approximation space and/or in the discretization procedure. The methods described include, among others, partition of unity methods (meshfree, XFEM, GFEM), virtual element methods, fictitious domain methods, and special techniques for static and evolving interfaces. The uniting feature of all contributions is the direct link between computational methodologies and their application to different engineering areas.

  13. SYMPLECTIC RK METHODS AND SYMPLECTIC PRK METHODS WITH REAL EIGENVALUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-yu Liu; Geng Sun

    2004-01-01

    Properties of symplectic Runge-Kutta (RK) methods and symplectic partitioned RungeKutta (PRK) methods with real eigenvalues are discussed in this paper. It is shown that an s stage such method can't reach order more than s + 1. Particularly, we prove that no symplectic RK method with real eigenvalues exists in stage s of order s + 1 when s is even. But an example constructed by using the W-transformation shows that PRK method of this type does not necessarily meet this order barrier. Another useful way other than W-transformation to construct symplectic PRK method with real eigenvalues is then presented. Finally, a class of efficient symplectic methods is recommended.

  14. Mining method selection by integrated AHP and PROMETHEE method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovic, Dejan; Nikolic, Djordje; Ilic, Ivana

    2012-03-01

    Selecting the best mining method among many alternatives is a multicriteria decision making problem. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the implementation of an integrated approach that employs AHP and PROMETHEE together for selecting the most suitable mining method for the "Coka Marin" underground mine in Serbia. The related problem includes five possible mining methods and eleven criteria to evaluate them. Criteria are accurately chosen in order to cover the most important parameters that impact on the mining method selection, such as geological and geotechnical properties, economic parameters and geographical factors. The AHP is used to analyze the structure of the mining method selection problem and to determine weights of the criteria, and PROMETHEE method is used to obtain the final ranking and to make a sensitivity analysis by changing the weights. The results have shown that the proposed integrated method can be successfully used in solving mining engineering problems.

  15. Alternative methods in toxicology: pre-validated and validated methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandárová, Helena; Letašiová, Silvia

    2011-09-01

    The development of alternative methods to animal experimentation has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years. Today, in vitro and in silico methods have an important role in the hazard identification and assessment of toxicology profile of compounds. Advanced alternative methods and their combinations are also used for safety assessment of final products. Several alternative methods, which were scientifically validated and accepted by competent regulatory bodies, can be used for regulatory toxicology purposes, thus reducing or fully replacing living animals in toxicology experimentation. The acceptance of the alternative methods as valuable tools of modern toxicology has been recognized by regulators, including OECD, FDA and EPA.This paper provides a brief overview of the topic "alternative methods in toxicology" and focuses on pre-validated and validated alternative methods and their position in the modern toxicology.

  16. Physics-compatible numerical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Koren; Abgrall, Remi; Pavel, Bochev; Jason, Frank; Blair, Perrot

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Physics-compatible numerical methods are methods that aim to preserve key mathematical and physical properties of continuum physics models in their finite-dimensional algebraic representations. They include methods which preserve properties such as energy, monotonicity, maximum principles, symmetries, and involutions of the continuum models. Examples are mimetic methods for spatial discretizations, variational and geometric integrators, conservative finite-volume and f...

  17. Methods for Equating Mental Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    1983) compared conventional and IRT methods for equating the Test of English as a Foreign Language ( TOEFL ) after chaining. Three conventional and...three IRT equating methods were examined in this study; two sections of TOEFL were each (separately) equated. The IRT methods included the following: (a...group. A separate base form was established for each of the six equating methods. Instead of equating the base-form TOEFL to itself, the last (eighth

  18. Probabilistic methods for rotordynamics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Torng, T. Y.; Millwater, H. R.; Fossum, A. F.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of the methods and a computer program to compute the probability of instability of dynamic systems that can be represented by a system of second-order ordinary linear differential equations. Two instability criteria based upon the eigenvalues or Routh-Hurwitz test functions are investigated. Computational methods based on a fast probability integration concept and an efficient adaptive importance sampling method are proposed to perform efficient probabilistic analysis. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the methods.

  19. Activity based costing (ABC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Saveta Tudorache

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the need and advantages are presented of using the Activity BasedCosting method, need arising from the need of solving the information pertinence issue. This issue has occurreddue to the limitation of classic methods in this field, limitation also reflected by the disadvantages ofsuch classic methods in establishing complete costs.

  20. Reduced basis heterogeneous multiscale methods

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulle, Assyr

    2015-01-01

    Numerical methods for partial differential equations with multiple scales that combine numerical homogenization methods with reduced order modeling techniques are discussed. These numerical methods can be applied to a variety of problems including multiscale nonlinear elliptic and parabolic problems or Stokes flow in heterogenenous media.

  1. Another Form for LAMBDA Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yangmei; LIU Jingnan

    2003-01-01

    The LAMBDA methodthat was proposed by Teunissen is introduced. Then, on the basis of both the back-sequential conditional LS technique and the upper-triangular Cholesky decomposition, another form for LAMBDA method is proposed.This new form for LAMBDA method has the same principle and calculation speed as the traditional LAMBDA method.

  2. Method for alignment of microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardslee, Joseph A.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Sadtler, Bryce

    2017-01-24

    A method of aligning microwires includes modifying the microwires so they are more responsive to a magnetic field. The method also includes using a magnetic field so as to magnetically align the microwires. The method can further include capturing the microwires in a solid support structure that retains the longitudinal alignment of the microwires when the magnetic field is not applied to the microwires.

  3. Multistep method for controlling chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starobinets, Igor M.; Pikovsky, Arkady S.

    1993-10-01

    We present a multistep control method where the trajectory on a chaotic attractor is directed by small perturbations towards a chosen fixed point. The method gives a significant reduction of the chaotic transient preceding the controlled motion as compared with the Ott-Grebogi-Yorke method. Transition from local to global control, when chaotic transients disappear, is discussed.

  4. Formal Methods in Knowledge Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, van F.A.H.; Fensel, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a general discussion of the role of formal methods in Knowledge Engineering. We give an historical account of the development of the field of Knowledge Engineering towards the use of formal methods. Subsequently, we discuss the pro's and cons of formal methods. We do this by summ

  5. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Bertulani, C A; Mukhamedzhanov, A; Kadyrov, A S; Kruppa, A; Pang, D Y

    2015-01-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions.

  6. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition as

  7. Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.

    1999-02-08

    This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

  8. 40 years of formal methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; Havelund, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    -oriented methods to analysis-oriented methods. Then, Sect. 2, we shall provide a "survey": which are the 'prerequisite works' that have enabled formal methods, Sect. 2.1, and which are, to us, the, by now, classical 'formal methods', Sect. 2.2. We then ask ourselves the question: have formal methods for software......" is complemented, in Sect. 3.4, by a "looking forward" at some promising developments-besides the alleviation of the (eighth or more) hindrances! © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland....

  9. Mixed Method Research: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Mahboob HOSSAIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a general overview of mixed method research. In mixed method, the researchers combine both qualitative and quantitative approaches in a single research project. The article first attempts to define mixed method research. Then it gives a comparison of qualitative and quantitative approaches. It also introduces the well-known controversy among the researchers: which of these approaches is superior? By explaining this controversy, the article identifies the need for mixed method research. Lastly, the article describes the process of mixed method research.

  10. Overview of paint removal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terry

    1995-04-01

    With the introduction of strict environmental regulations governing the use and disposal of methylene chloride and phenols, major components of chemical paint strippers, there have been many new environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal developed. The new methods developed for removing coatings from aircraft and aircraft components include: mechanical methods using abrasive media such as plastic, wheat starch, walnut shells, ice and dry ice, environmentally safe chemical strippers and paint softeners, and optical methods such as lasers and flash lamps. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages, and some have unique applications. For example, mechanical and abrasive methods can damage sensitive surfaces such as composite materials and strict control of blast parameters and conditions are required. Optical methods can be slow, leaving paint residues, and chemical methods may not remove all of the coating or require special coating formulations to be effective. As an introduction to environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal, this paper is an overview of the various methods available. The purpose of this overview is to introduce the various paint removal methods available.

  11. Method of making alkyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Brian

    2010-09-14

    Methods of making alkyl esters are described herein. The methods are capable of using raw, unprocessed, low-cost feedstocks and waste grease. Generally, the method involves converting a glyceride source to a fatty acid composition and esterifying the fatty acid composition to make alkyl esters. In an embodiment, a method of making alkyl esters comprises providing a glyceride source. The method further comprises converting the glyceride source to a fatty acid composition comprising free fatty acids and less than about 1% glyceride by mass. Moreover, the method comprises esterifying the fatty acid composition in the presence of a solid acid catalyst at a temperature ranging firm about 70.degree. C. to about 120.degree. C. to produce alkyl esters, such that at least 85% of the free fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters. The method also incorporates the use of packed bed reactors for glyceride conversion and/or fatty acid esterification to make alkyl esters.

  12. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  13. Compositions, antibodies, asthma diagnosis methods, and methods for preparing antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hongjun; Zangar, Richard C.

    2017-01-17

    Methods for preparing an antibody are provided with the method including incorporating 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid into a protein to form an antigen, immunizing a mammalian host with the antigen, and recovering an antibody having an affinity for the antigen from the host. Antibodies having a binding affinity for a monohalotyrosine are provided as well as composition comprising an antibody bound with monohalotyrosine. Compositions comprising a protein having a 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid moiety are also provided. Methods for evaluating the severity of asthma are provide with the methods including analyzing sputum of a patient using an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of antibody bound to protein. Methods for determining eosinophil activity in bodily fluid are also provided with the methods including exposing bodily fluid to an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of bound antibody to determine the eosinophil activity.

  14. User interface inspection methods a user-centered design method

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Chauncey

    2014-01-01

    User Interface Inspection Methods succinctly covers five inspection methods: heuristic evaluation, perspective-based user interface inspection, cognitive walkthrough, pluralistic walkthrough, and formal usability inspections. Heuristic evaluation is perhaps the best-known inspection method, requiring a group of evaluators to review a product against a set of general principles. The perspective-based user interface inspection is based on the principle that different perspectives will find different problems in a user interface. In the related persona-based inspection, colleagues assume the

  15. The Monte Carlo method the method of statistical trials

    CERN Document Server

    Shreider, YuA

    1966-01-01

    The Monte Carlo Method: The Method of Statistical Trials is a systematic account of the fundamental concepts and techniques of the Monte Carlo method, together with its range of applications. Some of these applications include the computation of definite integrals, neutron physics, and in the investigation of servicing processes. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an overview of the basic features of the Monte Carlo method and typical examples of its application to simple problems in computational mathematics. The next chapter examines the computation of multi-dimensio

  16. From the scientific method to the clinical method: theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Hernández Hernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific method is a general method composed of several stages necessary for the development of any scientific research. It is the focus to approach reality and to study natural phenomenon, reality itself and thoughts in order to find their essence and interrelationships. The clinical method is the particular application of the scientific method and in the present economic conditions its use is crucial because of the advantages that it reports from this point of view, as well as for the wellbeing of the patient.

  17. Cristallochimie et luminescence de quelques oxydes et fluorures de l'indium

    OpenAIRE

    Gaewdang, Thitinai

    1993-01-01

    With the prospect of application for the detection of low energy solar neutrinos the crystal chemistry and optical properties of some oxides and fluorides of indium have been investigated. Single crystals of the selected compounds have been prepared by several appropriate methods, i.e. flux growth, chemical vapor transport or Bridgman. The crystal structure determinations and luminescence studies were performed either on powders or on single crystals. The intrinsic luminescence of In2TiO5, In...

  18. Single-Crystal Bismuth Iodide Gamma-Ray Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    grow high quality Bib single crystals (> 1 cm3 in volume) via a high temperature modified Bridgman crystal growth technique. We will then test and...methods to improve Bib crystals. Finally, test structures will be designed and their performance will be assessed using a variety of small, calibrated...characteristics of the test structures (basic material properties for Bib ). While the main objectives of the project have not changed, more emphasis is

  19. Grain size effect on the thermal-induced martensitic transformation in polycrystalline Cu-based shape memory alloys

    OpenAIRE

    la Roca, Paulo Matías; Isola, Lucio Manuel; Sobrero, Cesar Enrique; Vermaut, P.; Malarria, Jorge Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In Cu-based SMA alloys, the grain size (d) effect on the martensitic transformation temperature was investigated for a wide range of d. Specimens were prepared by different heat treatments in order to create a range of grain sizes, from about 500 nm (ribbons and tapes obtained by rapid solidification techniques) up to 6 mm diameter single-crystals (grown by the Bridgman method). Information obtained from the literature was also included in the set of analyzed experimental data. The reduction ...

  20. Efficient and accurate fragmentation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Spencer R; Bertoni, Colleen; Brorsen, Kurt R; Gordon, Mark S

    2014-09-16

    Conspectus Three novel fragmentation methods that are available in the electronic structure program GAMESS (general atomic and molecular electronic structure system) are discussed in this Account. The fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method can be combined with any electronic structure method to perform accurate calculations on large molecular species with no reliance on capping atoms or empirical parameters. The FMO method is highly scalable and can take advantage of massively parallel computer systems. For example, the method has been shown to scale nearly linearly on up to 131 000 processor cores for calculations on large water clusters. There have been many applications of the FMO method to large molecular clusters, to biomolecules (e.g., proteins), and to materials that are used as heterogeneous catalysts. The effective fragment potential (EFP) method is a model potential approach that is fully derived from first principles and has no empirically fitted parameters. Consequently, an EFP can be generated for any molecule by a simple preparatory GAMESS calculation. The EFP method provides accurate descriptions of all types of intermolecular interactions, including Coulombic interactions, polarization/induction, exchange repulsion, dispersion, and charge transfer. The EFP method has been applied successfully to the study of liquid water, π-stacking in substituted benzenes and in DNA base pairs, solvent effects on positive and negative ions, electronic spectra and dynamics, non-adiabatic phenomena in electronic excited states, and nonlinear excited state properties. The effective fragment molecular orbital (EFMO) method is a merger of the FMO and EFP methods, in which interfragment interactions are described by the EFP potential, rather than the less accurate electrostatic potential. The use of EFP in this manner facilitates the use of a smaller value for the distance cut-off (Rcut). Rcut determines the distance at which EFP interactions replace fully quantum

  1. Analytical Method Development & Validation for Related Substances Method of Busulfan Injection by Ion Chromatography Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rewaria S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new simple, accurate, precise and reproducible Ion chromatography method has been developed forthe estimation of Methane sulfonic acid in Busulfan injectable dosage. The method which is developedis also validated in complete compliance with the current regulatory guidelines by using well developedanalytical method validation techniques and tools which comprises with the analytical method validationparameters like Linearity, LOD and LOQ determination, Accuracy, Method precision, Specificity,System suitability, Robustness, Ruggedness etc. by adopting the current method the linearity obtained isnear to 0.999 and thus this shows that the method is capable to give a good detector response, therecovery calculated was within the range of 85% to 115% of the specification limits.

  2. Numerical methods for phase retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Osherovich, Eliyahu

    2012-01-01

    In this work we consider the problem of reconstruction of a signal from the magnitude of its Fourier transform, also known as phase retrieval. The problem arises in many areas of astronomy, crystallography, optics, and coherent diffraction imaging (CDI). Our main goal is to develop an efficient reconstruction method based on continuous optimization techniques. Unlike current reconstruction methods, which are based on alternating projections, our approach leads to a much faster and more robust method. However, all previous attempts to employ continuous optimization methods, such as Newton-type algorithms, to the phase retrieval problem failed. In this work we provide an explanation for this failure, and based on this explanation we devise a sufficient condition that allows development of new reconstruction methods---approximately known Fourier phase. We demonstrate that a rough (up to $\\pi/2$ radians) Fourier phase estimate practically guarantees successful reconstruction by any reasonable method. We also pres...

  3. The Plastic Tension Field Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    . The emphasis is attached to the presentation of a design method based on the diagonal tension field theory. Also, how to determine the load-carrying capacity of a given steel plate girder with transverse web stiffeners, is briefly presented. The load-carrying capacity may be predicted by applying both...... method. The method is based on the theory of plasticity and is analogous to the so-called diagonal compression field method developed for reinforced concrete beams with transverse stirrups, which is adopted in the common European concrete code (Eurocode 2). Many other theories have been developed......, but the method presented differs from these theories by incorporating the strength of the transverse stiffeners and by the assumption that the tensile bands may pass the transverse stiffeners, which often is observed in tests. Other methods have only dealt with a single web field between two stiffeners...

  4. "Phenomenology" and qualitative research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Y

    1994-01-01

    Phenomenology is generally based on phenomenological tradition from Husserl to Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. As philosophical stances provide the assumptions in research methods, different philosophical stances produce different methods. However, the term "phenomenology" is used in various ways without the definition being given, such as phenomenological approach, phenomenological method, phenomenological research, etc. The term "phenomenology" is sometimes used as a paradigm and it is sometimes even viewed as synonymous with qualitative methods. As a result, the term "phenomenology" leads to conceptual confusions in qualitative research methods. The purpose of this paper is to examine the term "phenomenology" and explore philosophical assumptions, and discuss the relationship between philosophical stance and phenomenology as a qualitative research method in nursing.

  5. Negotiating a Systems Development Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Hedström, Karin

    Systems development methods (or methods) are often applied in tailored version to fit the actual situation. Method tailoring is in most the existing literature viewed as either (a) a highly rational process with the method engineer as the driver where the project members are passive information providers or (b) an unstructured process where the systems developer makes individual choices, a selection process without any driver. The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate that important design decisions during method tailoring are made by project members through negotiation. The study has been carried out using the perspective of actor-network theory. Our narratives depict method tailoring as more complex than (a) and (b) show the driver role rotates between the project members, and design decisions are based on influences from several project members. However, these design decisions are not consensus decisions.

  6. Monte Carlo methods for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadiku, Matthew NO

    2009-01-01

    Until now, novices had to painstakingly dig through the literature to discover how to use Monte Carlo techniques for solving electromagnetic problems. Written by one of the foremost researchers in the field, Monte Carlo Methods for Electromagnetics provides a solid understanding of these methods and their applications in electromagnetic computation. Including much of his own work, the author brings together essential information from several different publications.Using a simple, clear writing style, the author begins with a historical background and review of electromagnetic theory. After addressing probability and statistics, he introduces the finite difference method as well as the fixed and floating random walk Monte Carlo methods. The text then applies the Exodus method to Laplace's and Poisson's equations and presents Monte Carlo techniques for handing Neumann problems. It also deals with whole field computation using the Markov chain, applies Monte Carlo methods to time-varying diffusion problems, and ...

  7. Methods of rock burst prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genkin, V.A.; Minin, Yu.Ya.; Morozov, G.D.; Proskuryakov, V.M.; Cmirnov, V.A.

    1979-07-01

    Some methods of predicting rock bursts in underground coal and iron ore mines are evaluated: using BP-18 indenters and the MGD indenter with automatic recording; seismic method consisting in measuring the speed of shock waves travelling through various layers (apparatus SB-20 is designed for use in coal mines); electrometric method (measuring resistance between two electrodes when electric currents flow through coal and rocks). The design of the AEhSSh-1 measuring instrument, used in the electrometric method in coal mines is also described. Each of the methods is described and mathematical fomulae used as their theoretical basis are presented. The calculating process is explained and brief information on the design and use of the measuring instrument is given. The methods are evaluated from the viewpoint of precision. (In Russian)

  8. Microencapsulation and Electrostatic Processing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods are provided for forming spherical multilamellar microcapsules having alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic liquid layers, surrounded by flexible, semi-permeable hydrophobic or hydrophilic outer membranes which can be tailored specifically to control the diffusion rate. The methods of the invention rely on low shear mixing and liquid-liquid diffusion process and are particularly well suited for forming microcapsules containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. These methods can be carried out in the absence of gravity and do not rely on density-driven phase separation, mechanical mixing or solvent evaporation phases. The methods include the process of forming, washing and filtering microcapsules. In addition, the methods contemplate coating microcapsules with ancillary coatings using an electrostatic field and free fluid electrophoresis of the microcapsules. The microcapsules produced by such methods are particularly useful in the delivery of pharmaceutical compositions.

  9. Reflexive Learning through Visual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    What. This chapter concerns how visual methods and visual materials can support visually oriented, collaborative, and creative learning processes in education. The focus is on facilitation (guiding, teaching) with visual methods in learning processes that are designerly or involve design. Visual...... methods are exemplified through two university classroom cases about collaborative idea generation processes. The visual methods and materials in the cases are photo elicitation using photo cards, and modeling with LEGO Serious Play sets. Why. The goal is to encourage the reader, whether student...... or professional, to facilitate with visual methods in a critical, reflective, and experimental way. The chapter offers recommendations for facilitating with visual methods to support playful, emergent designerly processes. The chapter also has a critical, situated perspective. Where. This chapter offers case...

  10. Shuttle onboard IMU alignment methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The current approach to the shuttle IMU alignment is based solely on the Apollo Deterministic Method. This method is simple, fast, reliable and provides an accurate estimate for the present cluster to mean of 1,950 transformation matrix. If four or more star sightings are available, the application of least squares analysis can be utilized. The least squares method offers the next level of sophistication to the IMU alignment solution. The least squares method studied shows that a more accurate estimate for the misalignment angles is computed, and the IMU drift rates are a free by-product of the analysis. Core storage requirements are considerably more; estimated 20 to 30 times the core required for the Apollo Deterministic Method. The least squares method offers an intermediate solution utilizing as much data that is available without a complete statistical analysis as in Kalman filtering.

  11. Automated methods of corrosion measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Reeve, John Ch

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of corrosion rates and other parameters connected with corrosion processes are important, first as indicators of the corrosion resistance of metallic materials and second because such measurements are based on general and fundamental physical, chemical, and electrochemical relations....... Hence improvements and innovations in methods applied in corrosion research are likeliy to benefit basic disciplines as well. A method for corrosion measurements can only provide reliable data if the beckground of the method is fully understood. Failure of a method to give correct data indicates a need...... to revise assumptions regarding the basis of the method, which sometimes leads to the discovery of as-yet unnoticed phenomena. The present selection of automated methods for corrosion measurements is not motivated simply by the fact that a certain measurement can be performed automatically. Automation...

  12. Mixed methods in gerontological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happ, Mary Beth

    2009-04-01

    This article distinguishes between parallel and integrated mixed methods research approaches. Barriers to integrated mixed methods approaches in gerontological research are discussed and critiqued. The author presents examples of mixed methods gerontological research to highlight approaches to data integration at the levels of data analysis, interpretation, and research reporting. As a summary of the methodological literature, four basic levels of mixed methods data combination are proposed. Opportunities for mixing qualitative and quantitative data are explored using contemporary examples from published studies. Data transformation and visual display, judiciously applied, are proposed as pathways to fuller mixed methods data integration and analysis. Finally, practical strategies for mixing qualitative and quantitative data types are explicated, as gerontological research moves beyond parallel mixed methods approaches to achieve data integration.

  13. A Moral Method? Thoughts on Cultivating Empathy through Method Acting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verducci, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Using Nel Noddings ethic of Care, contends that this model of empathy has elements in common with the type of empathy method actors employ. Discusses the agreements between Caring's empathy and dramatic empathy focusing on three skills method actors use and the three differences that possess moral implications. (CMK)

  14. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  15. Sur Quatre Methodes Audio-Visuelles (On Four Audiovisual Methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porquier, Remy; Vives, Robert

    1974-01-01

    This is a critical examination of four audiovisual methods for the teaching of French as a Foreign Language. The methods have as a common basis the interrelationship of image, dialogue, situation, and give grammar priority over vocabulary. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  16. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  17. Regression methods for medical research

    CERN Document Server

    Tai, Bee Choo

    2013-01-01

    Regression Methods for Medical Research provides medical researchers with the skills they need to critically read and interpret research using more advanced statistical methods. The statistical requirements of interpreting and publishing in medical journals, together with rapid changes in science and technology, increasingly demands an understanding of more complex and sophisticated analytic procedures.The text explains the application of statistical models to a wide variety of practical medical investigative studies and clinical trials. Regression methods are used to appropriately answer the

  18. Local method for detecting communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrow, James P.; Bollt, Erik M.

    2005-10-01

    We propose a method of community detection that is computationally inexpensive and possesses physical significance to a member of a social network. This method is unlike many divisive and agglomerative techniques and is local in the sense that a community can be detected within a network without requiring knowledge of the entire network. A global application of this method is also introduced. Several artificial and real-world networks, including the famous Zachary karate club, are analyzed.

  19. A Voltage Quality Detection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wei, Mu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage quality detection method based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique. The technique can detect the voltage magnitude and phase angle of each individual phase under both normal and fault power system conditions. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate various...... power quality disturbances, such as interruptions, sags and imbalances. Simulation studies have been performed. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated under the simulated typical power disturbances....

  20. Bayesian Methods for Statistical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Puza, Borek

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian methods for statistical analysis is a book on statistical methods for analysing a wide variety of data. The book consists of 12 chapters, starting with basic concepts and covering numerous topics, including Bayesian estimation, decision theory, prediction, hypothesis testing, hierarchical models, Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, finite population inference, biased sampling and nonignorable nonresponse. The book contains many exercises, all with worked solutions, including complete c...

  1. Chebyshev and Fourier spectral methods

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, John P

    2001-01-01

    Completely revised text focuses on use of spectral methods to solve boundary value, eigenvalue, and time-dependent problems, but also covers Hermite, Laguerre, rational Chebyshev, sinc, and spherical harmonic functions, as well as cardinal functions, linear eigenvalue problems, matrix-solving methods, coordinate transformations, methods for unbounded intervals, spherical and cylindrical geometry, and much more. 7 Appendices. Glossary. Bibliography. Index. Over 160 text figures.

  2. Mixed Method Research: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Dewan Mahboob

    2012-01-01

    This article gives a general overview of mixed method research. In mixed method, the researchers combine both qualitative and quantitative approaches in a single research project. The article first attempts to define mixed method research. Then it gives a comparison of qualitative and quantitative approaches. It also introduces the well-known controversy among the researchers: which of these approaches is superior? By explaining this controversy, the article identifies the need for mixed meth...

  3. Transport methods for energetic particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuHong-Lu; YangChui-Hsu

    1997-01-01

    In order to estimate radiation risk assessment for astronaut's radiation safety in space activities.transport codes for high energy particles have been created.Two of the transport methods,perturbation and Green function methods,for high energy particles are reviewed in this paper,and some of the calculated results with the perturbation method are presented.Finally,the low energy transport in the regard of the biological effects by low energy ions in also briefly discussed.

  4. Entropy-based benchmarking methods

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We argue that benchmarking sign-volatile series should be based on the principle of movement and sign preservation, which states that a bench-marked series should reproduce the movement and signs in the original series. We show that the widely used variants of Denton (1971) method and the growth preservation method of Causey and Trager (1981) may violate this principle, while its requirements are explicitly taken into account in the pro-posed entropy-based benchmarking methods. Our illustrati...

  5. Methods for Precise Submesh Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Morgenstern

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe and compare several recently proposed algorithms for precise submesh allocation in a two-dimensional mesh connected system. The methods surveyed include various frame sliding strategies, the maximum boundary value heuristic, and interval set scan techniques. In addition, a new enhancement to the interval set scan method is described. This enhancement results in an algorithm that has better allocation and run-time performance under a FCFS scheduling policy than any of the other proposed methods. We present results drawn from an extensive simulation study to illustrate the relative efficiency of the various methods.

  6. Methods for Predicting Stock Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia García

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review on methods that have been used in the last two decades to predict Stock Market Indexes. Methods studied range from those enabling to grab the linear characteristics present in the stock market indexes, going through those that focus on non-linear features and finally hybrid methods that are more robust, since they capture linear and non-linear features. In addition, this research includes methods that use macroeconomic variables to predict indexes from different stock exchanges around the world.

  7. Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effective, temporary method of contraception. Emergency Contraception: Emergency contraceptive pills or a copper IUD after unprotected intercourse substantially reduces risk of pregnancy. Adapted from World Health Organization (WHO) ...

  8. Metathesis catalysts and methods thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, Richard Royce; Yuan, Jian

    2016-04-19

    The present application provides, among other things, novel compounds for metathesis reactions, and methods for preparing and using provided compounds. In some embodiments, the present invention provides compounds having the structure of formula I or II. In some embodiments, the present invention provides methods for preparing a compound of formula I or II. In some embodiments, the present invention provides methods for using a provided compound. In some embodiments, a provided compound is useful for stereoselective ring-opening metathesis polymerization. In some embodiments, a provided metathesis method provides cis and/or isotactic polymers.

  9. Comparison of photopeak integration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, G.

    1990-12-01

    Several methods for the calculation of gamma-ray photopeak areas have been compared for the case of a small peak on a high Compton background. 980 similar spectra were accumulated with a germanium detector using a weak 137Cs source to produce a peak at 662 keV on a Compton background generated by a 60Co source. A computer program was written to calculate the area of the 662 keV peak using the total- and partial-peak-area methods, a modification of Sterlinski's method, Loska's method and least-squares fitting of Gaussian peak shapes with linear and quadratic background. The precision attained was highly dependent on the number of channels used to estimate the background, and the best precision, about 9.5%, was obtained with the partial-peak-area method, the modified Sterlinski method and least-squares fitting with variable peak position, fixed peak width and linear background. The methods were also evaluated for their sensitivity to uncertainty in the peak centroid position. Considering precision, ease of use, reliability and universal applicability, the total-peak-area method using several channels for background estimation and the least-squares-fitting method are recommended.

  10. Comparison of photopeak integration methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, G. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Energy Engineering Inst.)

    1990-12-20

    Several methods for the calculation of gamma-ray photopeak areas have been compared for the case of a small peak on a high Compton background. 980 similar spectra were accumulated with a germanium detector using a weak {sup 137}Cs source to produce a peak at 662 keV on a Compton background generated by a {sup 60}Co source. A computer program was written to calculate the area of the 662 keV peak using the total- and partial-peak-area methods, a modification of Sterlinski's method, Loska's method and least-squares fitting of Gaussian peak shapes with linear and quadratic background. The precision attained was highly dependent on the number of channels used to estimate the background, and the best precision, about 9.5%, was obtained with the partial-peak-area method, the modified Sterlinski method and least-squares fitting with variable peak position, fixed peak width and linear background. The methods were also evaluated for their sensitivity to uncertainty in the peak centroid position. Considering precision, ease of use, reliability and universal applicability, the total-peak-area method using several channels for background estimation and the least-squares-fitting method are recommended. (orig.).

  11. Quantitative vs qualitative research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, M; Sinha, L; Biswas, M; Charles, M; Arora, N K

    2000-05-01

    Quantitative methods have been widely used because of the fact that things that can be measured or counted gain scientific credibility over the unmeasurable. But the extent of biological abnormality, severity, consequences and the impact of illness cannot be satisfactorily captured and answered by the quantitative research alone. In such situations qualitative methods take a holistic perspective preserving the complexities of human behavior by addressing the "why" and "how" questions. In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both the methods and also that a balanced mix of both qualitative as well as quantitative methods yield the most valid and reliable results.

  12. Optimization of Medical Teaching Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the goal of medical education, medicine and adapt to changes in the way doctors work, with the rapid medical teaching methods of modern science and technology must be reformed. Based on the current status of teaching in medical colleges method to analyze the formation and development of medical teaching methods, characteristics, about how to achieve optimal medical teaching methods for medical education teachers and management workers comprehensive and thorough change teaching ideas and teaching concepts provide a theoretical basis.

  13. Methods for Obfuscating Java Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Buzatu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Java programs distributed through internet are suffering of problems like reverse engineering, algorithms theft and unauthorized functional changes. The reason for this issue is that the bytecode from Java class file holds enough information to be decompiled into source code that resembles the original. In this paper, I discuss some practical obfuscation methods that make difficult the understanding of the decompiled programs. The methods analyzed are: lexical obfuscation, data obfuscation, control flow obfuscation, obfuscation methods that make use of the discrepancy between bytecode and source code. In order to evaluate the usefulness of these methods, some metrics will be described.

  14. Methods in Logic Based Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    1999-01-01

    Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC-design met......Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...

  15. Fabrication and Test of Pixelated CZT Detectors with Different Pixel Pitches and Thicknesses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Q; Dowkontt, P; Martín, J; Beilicke, M; Jung, I; Groza, M; Bürger, A; De Geronimo, G; Krawczynski, H

    2008-01-01

    The main methods grown Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) crystals with high yield and excellent homogeneity are Modified Horizontal Bridgman (MHB) and High Pressure Bridgman (HPB) processes, respectively. In this contribution, the readout system based on two 32-channel NCI-ASICs for pixellated CZT detector arrays has been developed and tested. The CZT detectors supplied by Orbotech (MHB) and eV products (HPB) are tested by NCI-ASIC readout system. The CZT detectors have an array of 8x8 or 11x11 pixel anodes fabricated on the anode surface with the area up to 2 cm x2 cm and the thickness of CZT detectors ranges from 0.5 cm to 1 cm. Energy spectra resolution and electron mobility-lifetime products of 8x8 pixels CZT detector with different thicknesses have been investigated.

  16. Influence of Impurities on the Radiation Response of the TlBr Semiconductor Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Alves dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two commercially available TlBr salts were used as the raw material for crystal growths to be used as radiation detectors. Previously, TlBr salts were purified once, twice, and three times by the repeated Bridgman method. The purification efficiency was evaluated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS, after each purification process. A compartmental model was proposed to fit the impurity concentration as a function of the repetition number of the Bridgman growths, as well as determine the segregation coefficients of impurities in the crystals. The crystalline structure, the stoichiometry, and the surface morphology of the crystals were evaluated, systematically, for the crystals grown with different purification numbers. To evaluate the crystal as a radiation semiconductor detector, measurements of its resistivity and gamma-ray spectroscopy were carried out, using 241Am and 133Ba sources. A significant improvement of the radiation response was observed in function of the crystal purity.

  17. Statistical Methods for Evolutionary Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, A. W. F.

    2009-01-01

    In 1963 and 1964, L. L. Cavalli-Sforza and A. W. F. Edwards introduced novel methods for computing evolutionary trees from genetical data, initially for human populations from blood-group gene frequencies. The most important development was their introduction of statistical methods of estimation applied to stochastic models of evolution.

  18. Method selection in adaptation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, Saskia Elisabeth; Loon-Steensma, van Jantsje Mintsje; Oost, Albert Peter

    2016-01-01

    Many methods are available to support adaptation planning. Yet there is little guidance on their selection. A recently developed diagnostic framework offers a structured set of criteria to choose research methods for specific adaptation questions. It has been derived from science-driven cases mos

  19. Electrochemical method for transferring graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present application discloses a method for separating a graphene-support layer laminate from a conducting substrate-graphene-support layer laminate, using a gentle, controllable electrochemical method. In this way, substrates which are fragile, expensive or difficult to manufacture can be used...

  20. Methods of synthesizing thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Wei-Shu; Wang, Hengzhi; Wang, Hui; Yu, Bo; Chen, Gang

    2016-04-05

    Methods for synthesis of thermoelectric materials are disclosed. In some embodiments, a method of fabricating a thermoelectric material includes generating a plurality of nanoparticles from a starting material comprising one or more chalcogens and one or more transition metals; and consolidating the nanoparticles under elevated pressure and temperature, wherein the nanoparticles are heated and cooled at a controlled rate.

  1. Preparation methods of alginate nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paques, J.P.; Linden, van der E.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews available methods for the formation of alginate nano-aggregates, nanocapsules and nanospheres. Primarily, alginate nanoparticles are being prepared by two methods. In the “complexation method”, complex formation on the interface of an oil droplet is used to form alginate nanocap

  2. Recent Progress of Thioester Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction The availability of site-specifically modified peptides is of vitalimportance for biochemical and biophysical studies. Biological methods, such as expression using bacteria, are useful. They are, however, not always applicable to the synthesis of peptides with sitespecific modifications. Chemical methods can be viable alternatives to those biological approaches.

  3. Looking back: the Delft method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkink, H.

    2007-01-01

    One of the more unexpected innovations to come out of Delft is an unconventional method for teaching a second language. Developed 25 years ago by the applied linguistics section, the Delft method has proved highly effective, provided, that is, the students do their homework. You learn a language by

  4. Fluorescence nanoscopy. Methods and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Requejo-Isidro, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence nanoscopy refers to the experimental techniques and analytical methods used for fluorescence imaging at a resolution higher than conventional, diffraction-limited, microscopy. This review explains the concepts behind fluorescence nanoscopy and focuses on the latest and promising developments in acquisition techniques, labelling strategies to obtain highly detailed super-resolved images and in the quantitative methods to extract meaningful information from them.

  5. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  6. The mGPC method:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    2009-01-01

    We adapt concepts from matched filtering to propose a method for generating rapidly reconfigurable multiple beams. As a phase-only spatially filtering extension of the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) technique, the proposed method coined mGPC can yield dynamically reconfigurable optical beam arr...... arrays with high light efficiency for optical manipulation, high-speed sorting and other parallel spatial light applications [1]....

  7. Bioluminescence methods for enzymatic determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, William D.; Denton, Mark S.; Dinsmore, Stanley R.

    1982-01-01

    An enzymatic method for continuous, on-line and rapid detection of diagnostically useful biomarkers, which are symptomatic of disease or trauma-related tissue damage, is disclosed. The method is characterized by operability on authentic samples of complex biological fluids which contain the biomarkers.

  8. Laboratory method used for bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, M. Leslie; Taylor, Robert T.

    2000-01-01

    An improved method for in situ microbial filter bioremediation having increasingly operational longevity of an in situ microbial filter emplaced into an aquifer. A method for generating a microbial filter of sufficient catalytic density and thickness, which has increased replenishment interval, improved bacteria attachment and detachment characteristics and the endogenous stability under in situ conditions. A system for in situ field water remediation.

  9. Forecasting Using Random Subspace Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Boot (Tom); D. Nibbering (Didier)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractRandom subspace methods are a novel approach to obtain accurate forecasts in high-dimensional regression settings. We provide a theoretical justification of the use of random subspace methods and show their usefulness when forecasting monthly macroeconomic variables. We focus on two appr

  10. Method of making optoelectric devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A method of preparing an optoelectric device, comprising: (a) providing a substrate on which is formed a first electrode layer; (b) forming an electron transport layer according to the following method: i) forming a film of a coating ink comprising zinc acetate in aqueous solution; ii) drying...

  11. Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…

  12. Psychological Autopsies: Methods and Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskow, Jan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses methodological and ethical issues pertaining to "psychological autopsy," an interview method for reconstruction of suicidal death through interviews with survivors, based on application of method to three studies of suicides and review of other investigations. Emphasizes consideration of integrity of deceased, integrity and health of…

  13. Statistical methods for evolutionary trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A W F

    2009-09-01

    In 1963 and 1964, L. L. Cavalli-Sforza and A. W. F. Edwards introduced novel methods for computing evolutionary trees from genetical data, initially for human populations from blood-group gene frequencies. The most important development was their introduction of statistical methods of estimation applied to stochastic models of evolution.

  14. Formal Methods: Practice and Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodcock, Jim; Larsen, Peter Gorm; Bicarregui, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Formal methods use mathematical models for analysis and verification at any part of the program life-cycle. We describe the state of the art in the industrial use of formal methods, concentrating on their increasing use at the earlier stages of specification and design. We do this by reporting on...

  15. Comparison between parallel transfer matrix method and admittance sum method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdière, Kévin; Panneton, Raymond; Elkoun, Saïd; Dupont, Thomas; Leclaire, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    A transfer matrix method to predict absorption coefficient and transmission loss of parallel assemblies of materials which can be expressed by a 2 × 2 transfer matrix was published recently. However, the usual method based on the sum of admittances is largely used to predict also surface admittance of parallel assemblies. This paper aims to highlight differences between both methods through three examples on a parallel assembly backed by (1) a rigid wall, (2) an air cavity, and (3) an anechoic termination.

  16. Transformation method and wave control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zheng; Hu, Jin; Hu, Geng-Kai

    2010-12-01

    Transformation method provides an efficient way to control wave propagation by materials. The transformed relations for field and material during a transformation are essential to fulfill this method. We propose a systematic method to derive the transformed relations for a general physic process, the constraint conditions are obtained by considering geometrical and physical constraint during a mapping. The proposed method is applied to Navier's equation for elastodynamics, Helmholtz's equation for acoustic wave and Maxwell's equation for electromagnetic wave, the corresponding transformed relations are derived, which can be used in the framework of transformation method for wave control. We show that contrary to electromagnetic wave, the transformed relations are not uniquely determined for elastic wave and acoustic wave, so we have a freedom to choose them differently. Using the obtained transformed relations, we also provide some examples for device design, a concentrator for elastic wave, devices for illusion acoustic and illusion optics are conceived and validated by numerical simulations.

  17. Meshless Methods in Solid Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Youping; Eskandarian, Azim

    2006-01-01

    Finite element method has been the dominant technique in computational mechanics in the past decades, and it has made significant contributions to the developments in engineering and science. Nevertheless, finite element method is not well suited to problems having severe mesh distortion owing to extremely large deformations of materials, encountering moving discontinuities such as crack propagation along arbitrary and complex paths, involving considerable meshing and re-meshing in structural optimization problems, or having multidomain of influence in multi-phenomenon physical problems. It is impossible to completely overcome those mesh-related difficulties by a mesh-based method. The highly structured nature of finite element approximations imposes severe penalties in the solutions of those problems. Distinguishing with finite element, finite difference and finite volume methods, meshless method discretizes the continuum body only with a set of nodal points and the approximation is constructed entirely in t...

  18. Approximation methods in probability theory

    CERN Document Server

    Čekanavičius, Vydas

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a wide range of well-known and less common methods used for estimating the accuracy of probabilistic approximations, including the Esseen type inversion formulas, the Stein method as well as the methods of convolutions and triangle function. Emphasising the correct usage of the methods presented, each step required for the proofs is examined in detail. As a result, this textbook provides valuable tools for proving approximation theorems. While Approximation Methods in Probability Theory will appeal to everyone interested in limit theorems of probability theory, the book is particularly aimed at graduate students who have completed a standard intermediate course in probability theory. Furthermore, experienced researchers wanting to enlarge their toolkit will also find this book useful.

  19. Creativity Methods in Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The field of interaction design encompasses a variety of methods for fostering innovation and creativity. In this paper, we present a selection of such methods that scaffold ideation and concept development in the early phases of design. As a conceptual frame for discussing these methods, we...... introduce four aspects that are particularly salient in the field of interaction design: tradition and transcendence, convergence and divergence, degree of structure, and sources of inspiration. We then outline how the methods relate to each of these aspects. The paper contributes to design practitioners...... by providing an overview of the methods and insights into when and how they may be employed to foster creativity and innovation in the design process; with regards to design research, the main contribution of the paper lies in the establishment and discussion of the four aspects as a frame for analyzing...

  20. Teaching methods: Tradition and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikandrov, Nikolai D.

    1990-06-01

    It has always been difficult to distinguish between tradition and innovation in teaching methods, not least because of the absence of clear-cut criteria. Definitions of teaching methods are also loose rather than binding. Nevertheless a trend towards active participation by studients is noticeable and very often taken as marking `progressive' teaching. Starting from the basic relationship of method and objective, an attempt is made to further relate cognitive activity of students to specific levels of achievement which are considered as teaching objectives. It is suggested, too, that a loose notion of method can for practical purposes be replaced by a more reliable notion of teaching text whether presented orally or given in written form. Then the problem of innovation in teaching methods can be stated a bit more precisely as that of creating a good teaching text. Some suggestions of how this can be achieved are discussed.

  1. 3C DUCT DESIGN METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-RueiShiu; Feng-ChuOu; Sih-LiChen

    2002-01-01

    A new 3C duct design method is proposed for designing a high quality, energy-efficiency cost-effective air duct system. It not only considers the demand of volume flow rate, but also takes into consideration a number of issues including system pressure balance, noise, vibration, space limitation and total system cost. This new method comprises three major calculation procedures:initial computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided simulation (CAS) and correction processes (CP). An example is presented in this study to understand the characteristics of 3C method. It shows that 3C duct design method provides a simple computation procedure for an optimum air duct system. It also shortens the design schedule, prevents human calculation errors, and reduces the dependence on designer experience. In addition to apply in a new duct system design, 3C duct design method is also a powerful design tool for the expansion of an existing duct system.

  2. Radioreceptor assay method for insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, K.F.; Wood, R.J. (Bureau of Drug Research, Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Health Protection Branch)

    1984-01-01

    A sensitive practical radioreceptor assay method for pharmaceutical insulin products has been developed with partially purified rat liver plasma membranes and the optimal conditions under which the best overall assay performance is obtainable have been defined. Intra- and inter-assay variations of the method averaged 7.3 and 12.2% of the man, respectively, when expressed as the coefficient of variation. Potency estimates of an insulin product obtained with the proposed method correlated well with those determined by the mouse convulsion bioassay method. Liver membranes prepared according to the method could be stored for up to ten weeks at 4/sup 0/C and for 6 months or more at -18/sup 0/C without losing insulin-binding ability.

  3. Inverse methods for radiation transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Keith C.

    Implicit optimization methods for solving the inverse transport problems of interface location identification, source isotope weight fraction identification, shield material identification, and material mass density identification are explored. Among these optimization methods are the Schwinger inverse method, Levenberg-Marquardt method, and evolutionary algorithms. Inverse problems are studied in one-dimensional spherical and two-dimensional cylindrical geometries. The scalar fluxes of unscattered gamma-ray lines, leakages of neutron-induced gamma-ray lines, and/or neutron multiplication in the system are assumed to be measured. Each optimization method is studied on numerical test problems in which the measured data is simulated using the same deterministic transport code used in the optimization process (assuming perfectly consistent measurements) and using a Monte Carlo code (assuming less-consistent, more realistic measurements). The Schwinger inverse method and Levenberg-Marquardt methods are found to be successful for problems with relatively few (i.e. 4 or fewer) unknown parameters, with the former being the best for unknown isotope problems and the latter being more adept at interface location, unknown material mass density, and mixed parameter problems. A study of a variety of evolutionary algorithms indicates that the differential evolution method is the best for inverse transport problems, and outperforms the Levenberg-Marquardt method on problems with large numbers of unknowns. An algorithm created by combining different variants of the differential evolution method is shown to be highly successful on spherical problems with unscattered gamma-ray lines, while a basic differential evolution approach is more useful for problems with scattering and in cylindrical geometries. A hybrid differential evolution/Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm also was found to show promise for fast and robust solution of inverse problems.

  4. Enhancing the (MSLDIP) image steganographic method (ESLDIP method)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddik Saad, Al-hussien

    2011-10-01

    Message transmissions over the Internet still have data security problem. Therefore, secure and secret communication methods are needed for transmitting messages over the Internet. Cryptography scrambles the message so that it cannot be understood. However, it makes the message suspicious enough to attract eavesdropper's attention. Steganography hides the secret message within other innocuous-looking cover files (i.e. images, music and video files) so that it cannot be observed [1].The term steganography originates from the Greek root words "steganos'' and "graphein'' which literally mean "covered writing''. It is defined as the science that involves communicating secret data in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio text and video files [3].Steganographic techniques allow one party to communicate information to another without a third party even knowing that the communication is occurring. The ways to deliver these "secret messages" vary greatly [3].Our proposed method called Enhanced SLDIP (ESLDIP). In which the maximmum hiding capacity (MHC) of proposed ESLDIP method is higher than the previously proposed MSLDIP methods and the PSNR of the ESLDIP method is higher than the MSLDIP PSNR values', which means that the image quality of the ESLDIP method will be better than MSLDIP method and the maximmum hiding capacity (MHC) also improved. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In section 2, steganography has been discussed; lingo, carriers and types. In section 3, related works are introduced. In section 4, the proposed method will be discussed in details. In section 5, the simulation results are given and Section 6 concludes the paper.

  5. A Natural Method for Family Planning: Lactational Amenorrhea Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Senturk Erenel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Use of an family planning method during the postpartum period is important both to space births, and to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Under-utilization of family planning services during this period not only leads to adverse conditions caused by excessive fertility, but also has negative effects on both maternal and infant health. Women are in close contact with health care providers before, during, and after childbirth, when they are most likely to be impressed by the services they receive. Effective provision of health care services in these periods is therefore of great importance. Literature indicates high rates of success and compliance with family planning services provided during these periods. Many women neglect to use a modern contraceptive method in the postpartum period believing that breastfeeding alone ensures sufficient protection against pregnancy. Indeed, breastfeeding can be 98% effective as a contraceptive method; however, this is only true if certain criteria are observed. There are three basic criteria for the lactational amenorrhea method to be effective: the baby must be less than six months old, must be exclusively or almost exclusively breast-fed, and the mother must not be menstruating. In a conference held in Bellago in August 1988 by the World Health Organization and other international agencies, a consensus was developed for effective use of lactational amenorrhea method, and it was agreed to adopt breastfeeding as a potential family planning method in maternal and child health programs. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(4.000: 383-390

  6. Statistical methods in language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Steven

    2011-05-01

    The term statistical methods here refers to a methodology that has been dominant in computational linguistics since about 1990. It is characterized by the use of stochastic models, substantial data sets, machine learning, and rigorous experimental evaluation. The shift to statistical methods in computational linguistics parallels a movement in artificial intelligence more broadly. Statistical methods have so thoroughly permeated computational linguistics that almost all work in the field draws on them in some way. There has, however, been little penetration of the methods into general linguistics. The methods themselves are largely borrowed from machine learning and information theory. We limit attention to that which has direct applicability to language processing, though the methods are quite general and have many nonlinguistic applications. Not every use of statistics in language processing falls under statistical methods as we use the term. Standard hypothesis testing and experimental design, for example, are not covered in this article. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 315-322 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.111 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  7. Piecewise-adaptive decomposition methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, J.I. [Room I-320-D, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Malaga, Plaza El Ejido, s/n, 29013 Malaga (Spain)], E-mail: jirs@lcc.uma.es

    2009-05-30

    Piecewise-adaptive decomposition methods are developed for the solution of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. These methods are based on some theorems that show that Adomian's decomposition method is a homotopy perturbation technique and coincides with Taylor's series expansions for autonomous ordinary differential equations. Piecewise-decomposition methods provide series solutions in intervals which are subject to continuity conditions at the end points of each interval, and their adaption is based on the use of either a fixed number of approximants and a variable step size, a variable number of approximants and a fixed step size or a variable number of approximants and a variable step size. It is shown that the appearance of noise terms in the decomposition method is related to both the differential equation and the manner in which the homotopy parameter is introduced, especially for the Lane-Emden equation. It is also shown that, in order to avoid the use of numerical quadrature, there is a simple way of introducing the homotopy parameter in the two first-order ordinary differential equations that correspond to the second-order Thomas-Fermi equation. It is also shown that the piecewise homotopy perturbation methods presented here provide more accurate results than a modified Adomian decomposition technique which makes use of Pade approximants and the homotopy analysis method, for the Thomas-Fermi equation.

  8. Integral equation methods for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Volakis, John

    2012-01-01

    This text/reference is a detailed look at the development and use of integral equation methods for electromagnetic analysis, specifically for antennas and radar scattering. Developers and practitioners will appreciate the broad-based approach to understanding and utilizing integral equation methods and the unique coverage of historical developments that led to the current state-of-the-art. In contrast to existing books, Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetics lays the groundwork in the initial chapters so students and basic users can solve simple problems and work their way up to the mo

  9. A method of phenomenological interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    In this article I propose a method of interviewing for descriptive phenomenological research that offers an explicit, theoretically based approach for researchers. My approach enables application of descriptive phenomenology as a total method for research, and not one just focused on data analysis. This structured phenomenological approach to interviewing applies questions based on themes of experience contextualization, apprehending the phenomenon and its clarification. The method of questioning employs descriptive and structural questioning as well as novel use of imaginative variation to explore experience. The approach will help researchers understand how to undertake descriptive phenomenological research interviews.

  10. Lectures on the coupling method

    CERN Document Server

    Lindvall, Torgny

    2002-01-01

    An important tool in probability theory and its applications, the coupling method is primarily used in estimates of total variation distances. The method also works well in establishing inequalities, and it has proven highly successful in the study of Markov and renewal process asymptotics. This text represents a detailed, comprehensive examination of the method and its broad variety of applications. Readers progress from simple to advanced topics, with end-of-discussion notes that reinforce the preceding material. Topics include renewal theory, Markov chains, Poisson approximation, ergodicity

  11. Manufacturing method of photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Tae Ho; Ahn, Jin Ho; Biswas, Rana; Constant, Kristen P.; Ho, Kai-Ming; Lee, Jae-Hwang

    2013-01-29

    A manufacturing method of a photonic crystal is provided. In the method, a high-refractive-index material is conformally deposited on an exposed portion of a periodic template composed of a low-refractive-index material by an atomic layer deposition process so that a difference in refractive indices or dielectric constants between the template and adjacent air becomes greater, which makes it possible to form a three-dimensional photonic crystal having a superior photonic bandgap. Herein, the three-dimensional structure may be prepared by a layer-by-layer method.

  12. SIMULATION OF THE COMBINED METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Levin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available DDoS attacks have become one of the most dangerous issues in the Internet today. Because of theseattacks, legitimate users can not access the resources they need. In [1] authors proposeda combined method for tracing and blocking the sources of DDoS-attacks. The essence of the method isthat each router marks the network packet that passes through it using a random hash function from theset. At the receiving side this information is stored and used to filter unwanted traffic and traceback thesource of distributed attack. This article describes the simulation and its results of the combined method.

  13. Statistical methods for physical science

    CERN Document Server

    Stanford, John L

    1994-01-01

    This volume of Methods of Experimental Physics provides an extensive introduction to probability and statistics in many areas of the physical sciences, with an emphasis on the emerging area of spatial statistics. The scope of topics covered is wide-ranging-the text discusses a variety of the most commonly used classical methods and addresses newer methods that are applicable or potentially important. The chapter authors motivate readers with their insightful discussions, augmenting their material withKey Features* Examines basic probability, including coverage of standard distributions, time s

  14. Methods of statistical model estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Hilbe, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Methods of Statistical Model Estimation examines the most important and popular methods used to estimate parameters for statistical models and provide informative model summary statistics. Designed for R users, the book is also ideal for anyone wanting to better understand the algorithms used for statistical model fitting. The text presents algorithms for the estimation of a variety of regression procedures using maximum likelihood estimation, iteratively reweighted least squares regression, the EM algorithm, and MCMC sampling. Fully developed, working R code is constructed for each method. Th

  15. New methods of concurrent checking

    CERN Document Server

    Goessel, Michael; Sogomonyan, Egor; Marienfeld, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Written by a team of two leading experts and two very successful young former PhD students, New Methods of Concurrent Checking describes new methods of concurrent checking, such as partial duplication, use of output dependencies, complementary circuits, self-dual parity, self-dual duplication and others. A special chapter demonstrates how the new general methods of concurrent checking can be more specifically applied to regular structures to obtain optimum results. This is exemplified for all types of adders up to 64 bits with a level of detail never before presented in the literature. The cle

  16. Deconvolution Method for TOFD Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Heum; Kim, Sun Hyoung; Kong, Yong Hae [Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Weon Heum [Acohlap, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    Time of flight diffraction(TOFD) method is used in nondestructive tests of piping and pressure vessels because of its advantages over a pulse echo technique: its speed, objectivity, repeatability and its insensitivity to specimen surface conditions and discontinuity orientation. But it is the one of weak points in TOFD method that it has the dead zone in sub-surface resolution induced by lateral waves. We solved the dead-zone problem near the sub-surface by using the deconvolution method and the developed ultrasonic testing system showed high performance

  17. A Tutorial on Heuristic Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Werra, D. de; Silver, E.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper we define a heuristic method as a procedure for solving a well-defined mathematical problem by an intuitive approach in which the structure of the problem can be interpreted and exploited intelligently to obtain a reasonable solution. Issues discussed include: (i) the measurement...... of the quality of a heuristic method, (ii) different types of heuristic procedures, (iii) the interactive role of human beings and (iv) factors that may influence the choice or testing of heuristic methods. A large number of references are included....

  18. User-centered agile method

    CERN Document Server

    Deuff, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Agile development methods began to emerge around 20 years ago. However, it was not until the early 2000s that they began to be widely used in industry. This growth was often due to the advent of Internet services requiring faster cycles of development in order to heighten the rate at which an ever-greater number of functionalities were made available. In parallel, user-centered design (UCD) methods were also becoming more and more widely used: hence, user-centered design and agile methods were bound to cross paths, at least in the telecoms industry! During this period, in the field of telec

  19. Ensemble Methods Foundations and Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zhi-Hua

    2012-01-01

    An up-to-date, self-contained introduction to a state-of-the-art machine learning approach, Ensemble Methods: Foundations and Algorithms shows how these accurate methods are used in real-world tasks. It gives you the necessary groundwork to carry out further research in this evolving field. After presenting background and terminology, the book covers the main algorithms and theories, including Boosting, Bagging, Random Forest, averaging and voting schemes, the Stacking method, mixture of experts, and diversity measures. It also discusses multiclass extension, noise tolerance, error-ambiguity a

  20. Nonparametric statistical methods using R

    CERN Document Server

    Kloke, John

    2014-01-01

    A Practical Guide to Implementing Nonparametric and Rank-Based ProceduresNonparametric Statistical Methods Using R covers traditional nonparametric methods and rank-based analyses, including estimation and inference for models ranging from simple location models to general linear and nonlinear models for uncorrelated and correlated responses. The authors emphasize applications and statistical computation. They illustrate the methods with many real and simulated data examples using R, including the packages Rfit and npsm.The book first gives an overview of the R language and basic statistical c

  1. Terrorism Financing Methods: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Freeman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available How do terrorists move money?  This article examines six of the most widely used methods: cash couriers, informal transfer systems (e.g. hawala, money service businesses, formal banking, false trade invoicing, and high value commodities.  When terrorists move money, they choose methods that take into account issues of: volume, risk, convenience, simplicity, costs, and speed. This article analyzes the methods according to these issues. It draws on multiple cases and examples, including the most recent cases of Hezbollah’s and al Shabaab’s use of money service businesses, and many others.

  2. Introduction to precise numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Aberth, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Precise numerical analysis may be defined as the study of computer methods for solving mathematical problems either exactly or to prescribed accuracy. This book explains how precise numerical analysis is constructed. The book also provides exercises which illustrate points from the text and references for the methods presented. All disc-based content for this title is now available on the Web. · Clearer, simpler descriptions and explanations ofthe various numerical methods· Two new types of numerical problems; accurately solving partial differential equations with the included software and computing line integrals in the complex plane.

  3. User-Centered Agile Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    With the introduction and popularization of Agile methods of software development, existing relationships and working agreements between user experience groups and developers are being disrupted. Agile methods introduce new concepts: the Product Owner, the Customer (but not the user), short iterations, User Stories. Where do UX professionals fit in this new world? Agile methods also bring a new mindset -- no big design, no specifications, minimal planning -- which conflict with the needs of UX design. This lecture discusses the key elements of Agile for the UX community and describes strategie

  4. Probabilistic methods in combinatorial analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sachkov, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    This 1997 work explores the role of probabilistic methods for solving combinatorial problems. These methods not only provide the means of efficiently using such notions as characteristic and generating functions, the moment method and so on but also let us use the powerful technique of limit theorems. The basic objects under investigation are nonnegative matrices, partitions and mappings of finite sets, with special emphasis on permutations and graphs, and equivalence classes specified on sequences of finite length consisting of elements of partially ordered sets; these specify the probabilist

  5. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  6. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  7. Machine learning methods for planning

    CERN Document Server

    Minton, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Machine Learning Methods for Planning provides information pertinent to learning methods for planning and scheduling. This book covers a wide variety of learning methods and learning architectures, including analogical, case-based, decision-tree, explanation-based, and reinforcement learning.Organized into 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of planning and scheduling and describes some representative learning systems that have been developed for these tasks. This text then describes a learning apprentice for calendar management. Other chapters consider the problem of temporal credi

  8. Bayesian Methods and Universal Darwinism

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, John

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian methods since the time of Laplace have been understood by their practitioners as closely aligned to the scientific method. Indeed a recent champion of Bayesian methods, E. T. Jaynes, titled his textbook on the subject Probability Theory: the Logic of Science. Many philosophers of science including Karl Popper and Donald Campbell have interpreted the evolution of Science as a Darwinian process consisting of a 'copy with selective retention' algorithm abstracted from Darwin's theory of Natural Selection. Arguments are presented for an isomorphism between Bayesian Methods and Darwinian processes. Universal Darwinism, as the term has been developed by Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett and Susan Blackmore, is the collection of scientific theories which explain the creation and evolution of their subject matter as due to the operation of Darwinian processes. These subject matters span the fields of atomic physics, chemistry, biology and the social sciences. The principle of Maximum Entropy states that system...

  9. Homogenization method for elastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifrt F.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we study the homogenization method and its potential for research of some phenomenons connected with periodic elastic materials. This method will be applied on partial differential equations that describe the deformation of a periodic composite material. The next part of the paper will deal with applications of the homogenization method. The importance of the method will be discussed more detailed for the exploration of the so called bandgaps. Bandgap is a phenomenon which may appear during vibrations of some periodically heterogeneous materials. This phenomenon is not only observable during vibrations for the aforementioned materials, but we may also observe similar effects by propagation of electromagnetic waves of heterogeneous dielectric medias.

  10. Tree Formation Using Coordinate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Choudhary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are introducing a new method of tree formation, we propose a coordinate based method by which we can store and access tree structures. As we know in NLP, parsing is the most important module. The output of this module is generally parsed trees. Currently, TAG (Tree Adjoining Grammar is widely used grammar due to its linguistic and formal nature. It is simply tree generating system. The unit structure used in TAG is structured trees. So we used our new method to store trees where we worked on English to Hindi language. We worked on different sentences from English to Hindi, our method is the easiest way to manipulate tree. We have implemented within small corpus and for finite number of structures and further can be extended in future.

  11. Methods Courses and Student Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Donald E.

    1977-01-01

    Presents findings of a study conducted to determine the organization and characteristics of methods courses and student teaching in business education in the Mountain-Plains Region of the National Business Education Association. Recommendations are also provided. (TA)

  12. Semiclassical Methods in Chemical Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William H.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the role of semiclassical theory in chemical physics both as a computational method and conceptual framework for interpreting quantum mechanical experiments and calculations. Topics covered include energy wells and eigenvalues, scattering, statistical mechanics and electronically nonadiabiatic processes. (JM)

  13. EPA Method 1682: Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 1682 describes procedures for analysis of solid samples (biosolids) and may be adapted for assessment of water, liquid, particulate and aerosol samples contaminated with Salmonella spp. using culture and immunoassay.

  14. A new vehicle detection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebbara Khalid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new vehicle detection method from images acquired by cameras embedded in a moving vehicle. Given the sequence of images, the proposed algorithms should detect out all cars in realtime. Related to the driving direction, the cars can be classified into two types. Cars drive in the same direction as the intelligent vehicle (IV and cars drive in the opposite direction. Due to the distinct features of these two types, we suggest to achieve this method in two main steps. The first one detects all obstacles from images using the so-called association combined with corner detector. The second step is applied to validate each vehicle using AdaBoost classifier. The new method has been applied to different images data and the experimental results validate the efficacy of our method.

  15. Methods for treating lignocellulosic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Robert; Gregoire, Claire; Travisano, Philip; Madsen, Lee; Matis, Neta; Har-Tal, Yael; Eliahu, Shay; Lawson, James Alan; Lapidot, Noa; Eyal, Aharon M.; Bauer, Timothy Allen; Sade, Hagit; McWilliams, Paul; Zviely, Michael; Carden, Adam

    2016-11-15

    The present invention relates to methods of processing lignocellulosic material to obtain hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose and other high-value products. Also provided are hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose, and other high-value products.

  16. Graph modeling systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neergaard, Mike

    2015-10-13

    An apparatus and a method for vulnerability and reliability modeling are provided. The method generally includes constructing a graph model of a physical network using a computer, the graph model including a plurality of terminating vertices to represent nodes in the physical network, a plurality of edges to represent transmission paths in the physical network, and a non-terminating vertex to represent a non-nodal vulnerability along a transmission path in the physical network. The method additionally includes evaluating the vulnerability and reliability of the physical network using the constructed graph model, wherein the vulnerability and reliability evaluation includes a determination of whether each terminating and non-terminating vertex represents a critical point of failure. The method can be utilized to evaluate wide variety of networks, including power grid infrastructures, communication network topologies, and fluid distribution systems.

  17. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined and furt......This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...

  18. Methods for Analyzing Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1989-01-01

    The governing equations for a general network are first set up and then reformulated in terms of matrices. This is developed to show that the choice of model for the flow equations is essential for the behavior of the iterative method used to solve the problem. It is shown that it is better...... to formulate the flow equations in terms of pipe discharges than in terms of energy heads. The behavior of some iterative methods is compared in the initial phase with large errors. It is explained why the linear theory method oscillates when the iteration gets close to the solution, and it is further...... demonstrated that this method offers good starting values for a Newton-Raphson iteration....

  19. Method for controlling powertrain pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Karl Andrew; Spohn, Brian L; Demirovic, Besim; Martini, Ryan D; Miller, Jean Marie

    2013-10-22

    A method of controlling a pump supplying a fluid to a transmission includes sensing a requested power and an excess power for a powertrain. The requested power substantially meets the needs of the powertrain, while the excess power is not part of the requested power. The method includes sensing a triggering condition in response to the ability to convert the excess power into heat in the transmission, and determining that an operating temperature of the transmission is below a maximum. The method also includes determining a calibrated baseline and a dissipation command for the pump. The calibrated baseline command is configured to supply the fluid based upon the requested power, and the dissipation command is configured to supply additional fluid and consume the excess power with the pump. The method operates the pump at a combined command, which is equal to the calibrated baseline command plus the dissipation command.

  20. Functional methods in differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hokkanen, Veli-Matti

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, functional methods have become central to the study of theoretical and applied mathematical problems. As demonstrated in this Research Note, functional methods can not only provide more generality, but they can also unify results and techniques and lead to better results than those obtained by classical methods. Presenting entirely original results, the authors use functional methods to explore a broad range of elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic boundary value problems and various classes of abstract differential and integral equations. They show that while it is crucial to choose an appropriate functional framework, this approach can lead to mathematical models that better describe concrete physical phenomena. In particular, they reach a concordance between the physical sense and the mathematical sense for the solutions of some special models. Beyond its importance as a survey of the primary techniques used in the area, the results illuminated in this volume will prove valuable in a wealth ...

  1. Propagating Class and Method Combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a mixin based class and method combination mechanism with block structure propagation. Traditionally, mixins can be composed to form new classes, possibly merging the implementations of methods (as in CLOS). In our approach, a class or method combination operation may cause any...... number of implicit combinations. For example, it is possible to specify separate aspects of a family of classes, and then combine several aspects into a full-fledged class family. The combination expressions would explicitly combine whole-family aspects, and by propagation implicitly combine the aspects...... for each member of the class family, and again by propagation implicitly compose each method from its aspects. As opposed to CLOS, this is type-checked statically; and as opposed to other systems for advanced class combination/ merging/weaving, it is integrated directly in the language, ensuring a clear...

  2. Tourism research and audio methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2016-01-01

    • Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences.......• Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences....

  3. The Gravisphere Method Algorithm Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Rosaev, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    The action sphere method program is written. The initial conditions set at pericenter of planetocentric orbits. When action sphere radius is reached, the heliocentric orbit is calculated and data redirected to numeric integration program. The method is useful for capture and collision problem investigation. The very preliminary numeric results were obtained and discussed. A manifold in orbital elements space, leads to temporary capture about 50 year (4 Jupiter revolutions), was found.

  4. New methods for creating superoscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Leilee; Kempf, Achim

    2016-12-01

    Superoscillating functions, i.e. functions that locally oscillate at a rate faster than their highest Fourier component, are of interest for applications from fundamental physics to engineering. Here, we develop a new method which allows one to construct superoscillations of arbitrarily high frequency and arbitrarily long duration in a computationally efficient way. We also present a method for constructing non-singular Schrödinger potentials whose ground state is a superoscillating wave function.

  5. Novel methods for tendon investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, M; Langberg, H; Bojsen-Møller, J;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Tendon structures have been studied for decades, but over the last decade, methodological development and renewed interest for metabolic, circulatory and tissue protein turnover in tendon tissue has resulted in a rising amount of investigations. METHOD: This paper will detail the various...... modern investigative techniques available to study tendons. RESULTS: There are a variety of investigative methods available to study the correlations between mechanics and biology in tendons. CONCLUSION: The available methodologies not only allow for potential insight into physiological...

  6. System and method for authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerksen, Gary L.; Miller, Seth A.

    2015-12-29

    Described are methods and systems for determining authenticity. For example, the method may include providing an object of authentication, capturing characteristic data from the object of authentication, deriving authentication data from the characteristic data of the object of authentication, and comparing the authentication data with an electronic database comprising reference authentication data to provide an authenticity score for the object of authentication. The reference authentication data may correspond to one or more reference objects of authentication other than the object of authentication.

  7. New disinfection and sterilization methods.

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    New disinfection methods include a persistent antimicrobial coating that can be applied to inanimate and animate objects (Surfacine), a high-level disinfectant with reduced exposure time (ortho-phthalaldehyde), and an antimicrobial agent that can be applied to animate and inanimate objects (superoxidized water). New sterilization methods include a chemical sterilization process for endoscopes that integrates cleaning (Endoclens), a rapid (4-hour) readout biological indicator for ethylene oxid...

  8. Analytic Methods for Cosmological Likelihoods

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, A. N.; Kitching, T. D.

    2010-01-01

    We present general, analytic methods for Cosmological likelihood analysis and solve the "many-parameters" problem in Cosmology. Maxima are found by Newton's Method, while marginalization over nuisance parameters, and parameter errors and covariances are estimated by analytic marginalization of an arbitrary likelihood function with flat or Gaussian priors. We show that information about remaining parameters is preserved by marginalization. Marginalizing over all parameters, we find an analytic...

  9. [Isaac Newton's Anguli Contactus method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzycki, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the geometrical method for calculating the curvature of a class of curves from the third Book of Isaac Newton's Principia. The method involves any curve which is generated from an elementary curve (actually from any curve whose curvature we known of) by means of transformation increasing the polar angular coordinate in a constant ratio, but unchanging the polar radial angular coordinate.

  10. Euler/Navier-Stokes Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, Tom; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Implicit methods have been the workhorse for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations for the last 25 years. The ground breaking work of Dr. Joe Steger in implementing such techniques in practical Euler and Navier-Stokes codes provided the basis for all the success in this area. This presentation will highlight his contribution and technical excellence in the area of implicit methods for CFD.

  11. A nonperturbative method for QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Jora, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Based on specific properties of the partition function and of the quantum correlators we derive the exact form of the beta function in the background gauge field method for QCD with an arbitrary number of flavors. The all order beta function we obtain through this method has only the first two orders coefficients different than zero and thus is equivalent to the 't Hooft scheme.

  12. Information System Quality Assessment Methods

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores challenging topic of information system quality assessment and mainly process assessment. In this work the term Information System Quality is defined as well as different approaches in a quality definition for different domains of information systems are outlined. Main methods of process assessment are overviewed and their relationships are described. Process assessment methods are divided into two categories: ISO standards and best practices. The main objective of this w...

  13. Combinatorial methods with computer applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Jonathan L

    2007-01-01

    Combinatorial Methods with Computer Applications provides in-depth coverage of recurrences, generating functions, partitions, and permutations, along with some of the most interesting graph and network topics, design constructions, and finite geometries. Requiring only a foundation in discrete mathematics, it can serve as the textbook in a combinatorial methods course or in a combined graph theory and combinatorics course.After an introduction to combinatorics, the book explores six systematic approaches within a comprehensive framework: sequences, solving recurrences, evaluating summation exp

  14. Critical review on biofilm methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azeredo, Joana; F. Azevedo, Nuno; Briandet, Romain

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms are widespread in nature and constitute an important strategy implemented by microorganisms to survive in sometimes harsh environmental conditions. They can be beneficial or have a negative impact particularly when formed in industrial settings or on medical devices. As such, research in...... and limitations of several methods. Accordingly, this review aims at helping scientists in finding the most appropriate and up-to-date methods to study their biofilms....

  15. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Nechitaeva Valentina Anatol'evna; Bogomolova Irina Olegovna; Shaykhetdinova Yuliya Aleksandrovna; Daminova Yuliya Farikhovna

    2014-01-01

    The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of d...

  16. Decomposition methods in turbulence research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruba Václav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we have the dynamical velocity vector field of turbulent flow at our disposal coming thanks advances of either mathematical simulation (DNS or of experiment (time-resolved PIV. Unfortunately there is no standard method for analysis of such data describing complicated extended dynamical systems, which is characterized by excessive number of degrees of freedom. An overview of candidate methods convenient to spatiotemporal analysis for such systems is to be presented. Special attention will be paid to energetic methods including Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD in regular and snapshot variants as well as the Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition (BOD for joint space-time analysis. Then, stability analysis using Principal Oscillation Patterns (POPs will be introduced. Finally, the Independent Component Analysis (ICA method will be proposed for detection of coherent structures in turbulent flow-field defined by time-dependent velocity vector field. Principle and some practical aspects of the methods are to be shown. Special attention is to be paid to physical interpretation of outputs of the methods listed above.

  17. SWOT ANALYSIS ON SAMPLING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIS ANCA OANA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Our article aims to study audit sampling in audit of financial statements. As an audit technique largely used, in both its statistical and nonstatistical form, the method is very important for auditors. It should be applied correctly for a fair view of financial statements, to satisfy the needs of all financial users. In order to be applied correctly the method must be understood by all its users and mainly by auditors. Otherwise the risk of not applying it correctly would cause loose of reputation and discredit, litigations and even prison. Since there is not a unitary practice and methodology for applying the technique, the risk of incorrectly applying it is pretty high. The SWOT analysis is a technique used that shows the advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities. We applied SWOT analysis in studying the sampling method, from the perspective of three players: the audit company, the audited entity and users of financial statements. The study shows that by applying the sampling method the audit company and the audited entity both save time, effort and money. The disadvantages of the method are difficulty in applying and understanding its insight. Being largely used as an audit method and being a factor of a correct audit opinion, the sampling method’s advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities must be understood by auditors.

  18. Manifold methods for methane combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Pope, S.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Great progresses have been made in combustion research, especially, the computation of laminar flames and the probability density function (PDF) method in turbulent combustion. For one-dimensional laminar flames, by considering the transport mechanism, the detailed chemical kinetic mechanism and the interactions between these two basic processes, today it is a routine matter to calculate flame velocities, extinction, ignition, temperature, and species distributions from the governing equations. Results are in good agreement with those obtained for experiments. However, for turbulent combustion, because of the complexities of turbulent flow, chemical reactions, and the interaction between them, in the foreseeable future, it is impossible to calculate the combustion flow field by directly integrating the basic governing equations. So averaging and modeling are necessary in turbulent combustion studies. Averaging, on one hand, simplifies turbulent combustion calculations, on the other hand, it introduces the infamous closure problems, especially the closure problem with chemical reaction terms. Since in PDF calculations of turbulent combustion, the averages of the chemical reaction terms can be calculated, PDF methods overcome the closure problem with the reaction terms. It has been shown that the PDF method is a most promising method to calculate turbulent combustion. PDF methods have been successfully employed to calculate laboratory turbulent flames: they can predict phenomena such as super equilibrium radical levels, and local extinction. Because of these advantages, PDF methods are becoming used increasingly in industry combustor codes.

  19. New numerical analysis method in computational mechanics: composite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new type of FEM, called CEM (composite element method), is proposed to solve the static and dynamic problems of engineering structures with high accuracy and efficiency. The core of this method is to define two sets of coordinate systems for DOF's description after discretizing the structure, i.e. the nodal coordinate system UFEM(ξ) for employing the conventional FEM, and the field coordinate system UCT(ξ) for utilizing classical theory. Then, coupling these two sets of functional expressions could obtain the composite displacement field U(ξ) of CEM. The computations of the stiffness and mass matrices can follow the conventional procedure of FEM. Since the CEM inherents some good properties of the conventional FEM and classical analytical method, it has the powerful versatility to various complex geometric shapes and excellent approximation. Many examples are presented to demonstrate the ability of CEM.

  20. New numerical analysis method in computational mechanics: composite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾攀

    2000-01-01

    A new type of FEM, called CEM (composite element method), is proposed to solve the static and dynamic problems of engineering structures with high accuracy and efficiency. The core of this method is to define two sets of coordinate systems for DOF’ s description after discretizing the structure, i.e. the nodal coordinate system UFEM(ζ) for employing the conventional FEM, and the field coordinate system UCT(ζ) for utilizing classical theory. Then, coupling these two sets of functional expressions could obtain the composite displacement field U(ζ) of CEM. The computations of the stiffness and mass matrices can follow the conventional procedure of FEM. Since the CEM inherents some good properties of the conventional FEM and classical analytical method, it has the powerful versatility to various complex geometric shapes and excellent approximation. Many examples are presented to demonstrate the ability of CEM.

  1. Adaptive Integral Method for Higher Order Method of Moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The adaptive integral method (AIM) is combined with the higher order method of moments (MoM) to solve integral equations. The technique takes advantage of the low computational complexity and memory requirements of the AIM and the reduced number of unknowns and higher order convergence of higher...... order basis functions. The classical AIM is appropriately modified to allow larger discretization elements and, consequently, higher basis function expansion orders. Numerical examples based on the higher order hierarchical Legendre basis functions show the advantages of the proposed technique over...... the classical AIM based on low-order basis functions in terms of memory and computational time....

  2. Improved Method for Lacosamide Synthesis with Chemoenzymatic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-yuan; XU Li-sheng; LIU Jun-zhong; ZHANG Hong-juan; GAO Ji; LIU Qian; JIAO Qing-cai

    2012-01-01

    Lacosamide was prepared by chemical method coupled with enzymatic method.N-Acetyl-D,L-3-methoxy-alanine,derived from D,L-3-methoxy-alanine,was used in the resolution process catalyzed by immobilized Escherichia coli cells with aminoacylase(EC3.5.1.14) activity.N-Acetyl-D-3-methoxy-alanine and L-3-methoxy-alanine were obtained from the resolution system.Lacosamide was synthesized by the amidation of N-acetyl-D-3-methoxy-alanine with benzylamine.

  3. A new method for orbit determination: Unit vector method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a method of orbit determination is presented according to the principle of unit vector method (UVM). The model and arithmetic are improved and it not only suits initial orbit determination with short arc data, it also suits orbit improvement with data longer. It is also suitable for orbit of any eccentricity and any inclination. It omits most partial derivatives of all the elements which must be calculated in classical differential orbit improvement (DOI), so, it is more efficient than DOI, and the accuracy of orbit determination and convergence of algorithm are also improved appreciably.

  4. Compressor instability with integral methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Y.K. Eddie [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Liu, Ningyu [Singapore National Univ. (Singapore). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    ''Compressor Instability with Integral Methods'' is a book, to bring together the quick integral approaches and advances in the field for the prediction of stall and surge problem in compressor. This book is useful for people involved in the flow analysis, design and testing of rotating machinery. For students, it can be used as a specialized topic of senior undergraduate or graduate study. The book can also be served as a self-study material to those who keen to acquire this knowledge. In brief, this book focuses on the numerical/computational analysis for the effect of distorted inlet flow propagation on the rotating stall and surge in axial compressors. It gains insight into the basic phenomena controlling these flow instabilities, and reveals the influence of inlet parameters on rotating stall and surge. The book starts from the confirmation and application of Kim et al's integral method and then follows by a development to this method through the proposing and applying a critical distortion line. This line is applied successfully on the stall prediction of in-flight compressor due to flaming of refueling leakage near inlet, a typical real and interesting example of compressor stall and surge operation. Further, after a parametric study on the integral method and the distorted flow field of compressor using Taguchi method, a novel integral method is formulated using more appropriate and practical airfoil characteristics, with a less assumptions needed for derivation. Finally, as an extended work, the famous Greitzer's instability flow model, the well-known B-parameter model applied for analyzing the stall and surge characteristics, is studied parametrically using Taguchi method. (orig.)

  5. Methods for Melting Temperature Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qi-Jun

    Melting temperature calculation has important applications in the theoretical study of phase diagrams and computational materials screenings. In this thesis, we present two new methods, i.e., the improved Widom's particle insertion method and the small-cell coexistence method, which we developed in order to capture melting temperatures both accurately and quickly. We propose a scheme that drastically improves the efficiency of Widom's particle insertion method by efficiently sampling cavities while calculating the integrals providing the chemical potentials of a physical system. This idea enables us to calculate chemical potentials of liquids directly from first-principles without the help of any reference system, which is necessary in the commonly used thermodynamic integration method. As an example, we apply our scheme, combined with the density functional formalism, to the calculation of the chemical potential of liquid copper. The calculated chemical potential is further used to locate the melting temperature. The calculated results closely agree with experiments. We propose the small-cell coexistence method based on the statistical analysis of small-size coexistence MD simulations. It eliminates the risk of a metastable superheated solid in the fast-heating method, while also significantly reducing the computer cost relative to the traditional large-scale coexistence method. Using empirical potentials, we validate the method and systematically study the finite-size effect on the calculated melting points. The method converges to the exact result in the limit of a large system size. An accuracy within 100 K in melting temperature is usually achieved when the simulation contains more than 100 atoms. DFT examples of Tantalum, high-pressure Sodium, and ionic material NaCl are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and flexibility of the method in its practical applications. The method serves as a promising approach for large-scale automated material screening in which

  6. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  7. Qualitative research as methodical hermeneutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, David L

    2012-09-01

    The proportion of publications of qualitative research in mainstream psychology journals is small. Thus, in terms of this important criterion, despite its recent rapid growth, qualitative research is marginalized in psychology. The author suggests that contributing to this situation is the lack of a coherent and unifying methodology of qualitative research methods that elucidates their credibility. He groups the many qualitative research methods into 3 main kinds, then applies to them 4 propositions offered as such a methodology: (1) Qualitative research is hermeneutical, entailing application of the method of the hermeneutic circle to text about experience and/or action. (2) Implicit in the use of the hermeneutic circle method is the activity of educing and articulating the meaning of text, an activity that modifies and interacts with C. S. Peirce's (1965, 1966) logical operations of abduction, theorematic deduction, and induction. (3) The cycling of these 4 moments enables demonstration, achieved rhetorically, of the validity of the understandings resulting from the exegesis of the text under study. (4) This demonstrative rhetoric is enhanced when researchers disclose reflexively those aspects of their perspectives they judge to have most relevant bearing on their understandings. The author compares abduction as formulated here with other recent uptakes of it. As an installment on the generality of the methodology, he explores its fit with the descriptive phenomenological psychological method, conversation analysis, and thematic analysis.

  8. THE METHODS OF CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Merzlikin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods of choledocholithiasis treatment, which are currently used in clinics of the Russian Federa-tion, has been presented. The problems of diagnosis and treatment of gallstones (GSD in individuals of different age groups are spotlighted. In the study of treatment of cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis, including arising complications, it can be concluded that so far the ideal method of treatment of this pa-thology has not been found. Up to now, the majority of doctor’s main treatment is surgical removal of gall stones by some method or other.This article also considers a conservative approach (drug: antispasmodics (selective and nonselective, and non-pharmacological: treatment, diet, describes the criteria and assessment of the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions that help in the question of further treatment: the continuation of drug therapy or assignment of surgical treatment. Invasive techniques that are covered in the article, namely, a tech-nique of remote and endoscopic lithotripsy, are high-tech and in demand at the moment, which, along with high efficiency removal of a stone, reduced the number and severity of postoperative complications. Additionally, in the analysis of the features of a particular method of treatment, advantages and disadvantages of different treatment methods are described, indications and contraindications (absolute and relative together with complications, possible outcomes, and further prognosis are high-lighted. 

  9. Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, Richard B.; Ogot, Madara

    1998-01-01

    The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.

  10. Method for dense packing discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, Yoav; Elser, Veit; Gravel, Simon

    2010-11-01

    The problem of packing a system of particles as densely as possible is foundational in the field of discrete geometry and is a powerful model in the material and biological sciences. As packing problems retreat from the reach of solution by analytic constructions, the importance of an efficient numerical method for conducting de novo (from-scratch) searches for dense packings becomes crucial. In this paper, we use the divide and concur framework to develop a general search method for the solution of periodic constraint problems, and we apply it to the discovery of dense periodic packings. An important feature of the method is the integration of the unit-cell parameters with the other packing variables in the definition of the configuration space. The method we present led to previously reported improvements in the densest-known tetrahedron packing. Here, we use the method to reproduce the densest-known lattice sphere packings and the best-known lattice kissing arrangements in up to 14 and 11 dimensions, respectively, providing numerical evidence for their optimality. For nonspherical particles, we report a dense packing of regular four-dimensional simplices with density ϕ=128/219≈0.5845 and with a similar structure to the densest-known tetrahedron packing.

  11. Methods Data Qualification Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Sam Alessi; Tami Grimmett; Leng Vang; Dave McGrath

    2010-09-01

    The overall goal of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) is to maintain data provenance for all NGNP data including the Methods component of NGNP data. Multiple means are available to access data stored in NDMAS. A web portal environment allows users to access data, view the results of qualification tests and view graphs and charts of various attributes of the data. NDMAS also has methods for the management of the data output from VHTR simulation models and data generated from experiments designed to verify and validate the simulation codes. These simulation models represent the outcome of mathematical representation of VHTR components and systems. The methods data management approaches described herein will handle data that arise from experiment, simulation, and external sources for the main purpose of facilitating parameter estimation and model verification and validation (V&V). A model integration environment entitled ModelCenter is used to automate the storing of data from simulation model runs to the NDMAS repository. This approach does not adversely change the why computational scientists conduct their work. The method is to be used mainly to store the results of model runs that need to be preserved for auditing purposes or for display to the NDMAS web portal. This interim report demonstrates the currently development of NDMAS for Methods data and discusses data and its qualification that is currently part of NDMAS.

  12. Distance sampling methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buckland, S T; Marques, T A; Oedekoven, C S

    2015-01-01

    In this book, the authors cover the basic methods and advances within distance sampling that are most valuable to practitioners and in ecology more broadly. This is the fourth book dedicated to distance sampling. In the decade since the last book published, there have been a number of new developments. The intervening years have also shown which advances are of most use. This self-contained book covers topics from the previous publications, while also including recent developments in method, software and application. Distance sampling refers to a suite of methods, including line and point transect sampling, in which animal density or abundance is estimated from a sample of distances to detected individuals. The book illustrates these methods through case studies; data sets and computer code are supplied to readers through the book’s accompanying website.  Some of the case studies use the software Distance, while others use R code. The book is in three parts.  The first part addresses basic methods, the ...

  13. Kernel current source density method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potworowski, Jan; Jakuczun, Wit; Lȩski, Szymon; Wójcik, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Local field potentials (LFP), the low-frequency part of extracellular electrical recordings, are a measure of the neural activity reflecting dendritic processing of synaptic inputs to neuronal populations. To localize synaptic dynamics, it is convenient, whenever possible, to estimate the density of transmembrane current sources (CSD) generating the LFP. In this work, we propose a new framework, the kernel current source density method (kCSD), for nonparametric estimation of CSD from LFP recorded from arbitrarily distributed electrodes using kernel methods. We test specific implementations of this framework on model data measured with one-, two-, and three-dimensional multielectrode setups. We compare these methods with the traditional approach through numerical approximation of the Laplacian and with the recently developed inverse current source density methods (iCSD). We show that iCSD is a special case of kCSD. The proposed method opens up new experimental possibilities for CSD analysis from existing or new recordings on arbitrarily distributed electrodes (not necessarily on a grid), which can be obtained in extracellular recordings of single unit activity with multiple electrodes.

  14. Beyond Statistical Methods – Compendium of Statistical Methods for Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Vozár

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Book Review: HENDL, J. Přehled statistických metod: Analýza a metaanalýza dat (Overview of Statistical Methods: Data Analysis and Metaanalysis. 4th extended edition. Prague: Portál, 2012. ISBN 978-80-262-0200-4.

  15. Scalable fast multipole methods for vortex element methods

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Qi

    2012-11-01

    We use a particle-based method to simulate incompressible flows, where the Fast Multipole Method (FMM) is used to accelerate the calculation of particle interactions. The most time-consuming kernelsâ\\'the Biot-Savart equation and stretching term of the vorticity equationâ\\'are mathematically reformulated so that only two Laplace scalar potentials are used instead of six, while automatically ensuring divergence-free far-field computation. Based on this formulation, and on our previous work for a scalar heterogeneous FMM algorithm, we develop a new FMM-based vortex method capable of simulating general flows including turbulence on heterogeneous architectures, which distributes the work between multi-core CPUs and GPUs to best utilize the hardware resources and achieve excellent scalability. The algorithm also uses new data structures which can dynamically manage inter-node communication and load balance efficiently but with only a small parallel construction overhead. This algorithm can scale to large-sized clusters showing both strong and weak scalability. Careful error and timing trade-off analysis are also performed for the cutoff functions induced by the vortex particle method. Our implementation can perform one time step of the velocity+stretching for one billion particles on 32 nodes in 55.9 seconds, which yields 49.12 Tflop/s. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. The Objective Borderline Method: A Probabilistic Method for Standard Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulruf, Boaz; Poole, Phillippa; Jones, Philip; Wilkinson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    A new probability-based standard setting technique, the Objective Borderline Method (OBM), was introduced recently. This was based on a mathematical model of how test scores relate to student ability. The present study refined the model and tested it using 2500 simulated data-sets. The OBM was feasible to use. On average, the OBM performed well…

  17. Combining building thermal simulation methods and LCA methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Frank; Hansen, Klaus; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2008-01-01

    Thsi paper describes recent efforts made by the Danish Building Research Institute regarding the integration of a life cycle assessment (LCA) method into a whole building hygro-thermal simulation tool. The motivation for the work is that the increased requirements to the energy performance...

  18. METHODS IN THE POST-METHODS ERA. REPORT ON AN INTERNATIONAL SURVEY ON LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Do methods still have a place in 21" century language teaching? To answer this question, an international survey was conducted in the surnmer of 1999. A sample of 800 language teachers world-wide randomly drawn from 17,800 TESOLers were each given a 2-page survey. The return rate was 58.5% with the actual usable data set of448, which was analyzed by using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Among the ten commonly recognized teaching methods surveyed, both the Communicative Language Teaching Approach and an eclectic method seem to have the highest rate in familiarity, preference, and use. But when multiple factors, such as teaching contexts, instructional settings, learners' proficiency levels, class size, teaching experience and educational backgrounds of the teachers, and the status of being a native or nonnative English speaking professional were taken into consideration, various patterns and themes emerged. One interesting finding is that Grammar Translation is still used in EFL contexts, in larger classes, and with learners at low proficiency levels, though the ratio between the actual use of this method and teachers' preference does not match. Based on the results of the survey, a new theoretical framework is proposed to conceptualize language teaching methods in the post-methods era.

  19. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vijay; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony; Bauldreay, Joanna M.

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  20. Critical review on biofilm methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Joana; Azevedo, Nuno F; Briandet, Romain; Cerca, Nuno; Coenye, Tom; Costa, Ana Rita; Desvaux, Mickaël; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Hébraud, Michel; Jaglic, Zoran; Kačániová, Miroslava; Knøchel, Susanne; Lourenço, Anália; Mergulhão, Filipe; Meyer, Rikke Louise; Nychas, George; Simões, Manuel; Tresse, Odile; Sternberg, Claus

    2017-05-01

    Biofilms are widespread in nature and constitute an important strategy implemented by microorganisms to survive in sometimes harsh environmental conditions. They can be beneficial or have a negative impact particularly when formed in industrial settings or on medical devices. As such, research into the formation and elimination of biofilms is important for many disciplines. Several new methodologies have been recently developed for, or adapted to, biofilm studies that have contributed to deeper knowledge on biofilm physiology, structure and composition. In this review, traditional and cutting-edge methods to study biofilm biomass, viability, structure, composition and physiology are addressed. Moreover, as there is a lack of consensus among the diversity of techniques used to grow and study biofilms. This review intends to remedy this, by giving a critical perspective, highlighting the advantages and limitations of several methods. Accordingly, this review aims at helping scientists in finding the most appropriate and up-to-date methods to study their biofilms.