WorldWideScience

Sample records for bridging technology gaps

  1. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  2. Bridging the Gap from Networking Technologies to Applications: Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.; desJardins, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the Next Generation Internet (NGI) Federal program is threefold, encompassing development of networking technologies, high-performance network testbeds, and revolutionary applications. There have been notable advances in emerging network technologies and several nationwide testbeds have been established, but the integration of emerging technologies into applications is lagging. To help bridge this gap between developers of NGI networking technologies and developers of NGI applications, the NASA Research and Education Network (NREN) project hosted a two-day workshop at NASA Ames Research Center in August 1999. This paper presents a summary of the results of this workshop and also describes some of the challenges NREN is facing while incorporating new technologies into HPCC and other NASA applications. The workshop focused on three technologies - Quality of Service (QoS), advanced multicast, and security-and five major NGI application areas - telemedicine, digital earth, digital video, distributed data-intensive applications, and computational infrastructure applications. Network technology experts, application developers, and NGI testbed representatives came together at the workshop to promote cross-fertilization between the groups. Presentations on the first day, including an overview of the three technologies, application case studies and testbed status reports, laid the foundation for discussions on the second day. The objective of these latter discussions, held within smaller breakout groups, was to establish a coherent picture of the current status of the various pieces of each of the three technologies, to create a roadmap outlining future technology development, and to offer technological guidance to application developers. In this paper we first present a brief overview of the NGI applications that were represented at the workshop, focusing on the identification of technological advances that have successfully been incorporated in each

  3. Bridging the Gap: Self-Directed Staff Technology Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla L. Quinney

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduates, as members of the Millennial Generation, are proficient in Web 2.0 technology and expect to apply these technologies to their coursework—including scholarly research. To remain relevant, academic libraries need to provide the technology that student patrons expect, and academic librarians need to learn and use these technologies themselves. Because leaders at the Harold B. Lee Library of Brigham Young University (HBLL perceived a gap in technology use between students and their staff and faculty, they developed and implemented the Technology Challenge, a self-directed technology training program that rewarded employees for exploring technology daily. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Technology Challenge through an analysis of results of surveys given to participants before and after the Technology Challenge was implemented. The program will also be evaluated in terms of the adult learning theories of andragogy and selfdirected learning. HBLL found that a self-directed approach fosters technology skills that librarians need to best serve students. In addition, it promotes lifelong learning habits to keep abreast of emerging technologies. This paper offers some insights and methods that could be applied in other libraries, the most valuable of which is the use of self-directed and andragogical training methods to help academic libraries better integrate modern technologies.

  4. A Case Study in Effectively Bridging the Business Skills Gap for the Information Technology Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    A longitudinal study of information technology (IT) managers at a Fortune 200 company in the Southwest United States was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a training program at bridging the perceived business skills gap for IT employees. A needs assessment was carried out, resulting in a 4-module training program. The program was evaluated…

  5. Bridging interest, classification and technology gaps in the climate change regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, J.; Van der Werff, P.; Gagnon-Lebrun, F.; Van Dijk, I.; Verspeek, F.; Arkesteijn, E.; Van der Meer, J.

    2002-01-01

    The climate change regime is affected by a major credibility gap; there is a gap between what countries have been stating that they are willing to do and what they actually do. This is visible not just in the inability of the developed countries to stabilise their emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 as provided for in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), but by the general reluctance of all countries to ratify the Kyoto Protocol to the Convention (KPFCCC). This research postulates that this credibility gap is affected further by three other types of gaps: 1) the interest gap; 2) the classification gap; and 3) the technology gap. The purpose of this research is thus to identify ways and means to promote industrial transformation in developing countries as a method to address the climate change problem. The title of this project is: Bridging Gaps - Enhancing Domestic and International Technological Collaboration to Enable the Adoption of Climate Relevant Technologies and Practices (CT and Ps) and thereby Foster Participation and Implementation of the Climate Convention (FCCC) by Developing Countries (DCs). In order to enhance technology co-operation, we believe that graduation profiles are needed at the international level and stakeholder involvement at both the national and international levels. refs

  6. Bridging the Gap: Technology Trends and Use of Technology in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cher Ping; Zhao, Yong; Tondeur, Jo; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Considerable investment has been made to bring technology to schools and these investments have indeed resulted in many "success stories." However there are two significant gaps in educational uses of technology that must be addressed. The first is a usage gap. Compared to how and how much today's students use technology outside…

  7. Bridging the gap from research-to-high-technology ventures with experienced entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Murdock, Karen; Jensen, Monika Luniewska

    2015-01-01

    t: The paper outlines an initiative undertaken to increase the number of spin-outs from a research university. The Bridging the Gap (BtG) model takes a systematic approach to identify and match experienced external entrepreneurs at a very early stage in the technological development process...... with university researchers to improve the technology spin-out process. The experiences, market insight and network connections of experienced entrepreneurs when combine with technical knowledge and capabilities of the researchers create a strong resource base for start-ups. This strong resource base can shorten...

  8. Bridging a Cultural Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-01-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes--aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics--is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a…

  9. Bridging technology gaps in realizing goals towards peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, P.R.; Haldar, T.K.

    2009-01-01

    India is committed towards peaceful uses of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Power occupies its centre stage. In the nuclear fuel cycle, apart from the fuel material itself, the programme needs a host of other materials in specific physical and chemical form. In this context, Heavy Water Board, a constituent unit of DAE, initiated technology development campaigns centering around three broad areas, i.e Specialty chemicals like organo-phosphorus solvents; solvent extraction technology including suitable equipment for use as liquid-liquid contacting device; and stable isotope like Boron-10. In a short span of about 7 years, it has successfully developed, demonstrated and deployed these technologies. This article gives an overview of these activities and the strategy adopted towards bridging technology gaps in realizing goals towards peaceful uses of Nuclear Energy. (author)

  10. Bridge the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on photo projects organised for teenage refugees by the Society for Humanistic Photography (Berlin, Germany). These projects, named Bridge the Gap I (2015), and Bridge the Gap II (2016), were carried out in Berlin and brought together teenagers with refugee and German-majorit...... was produced – and sometimes not produced - within the projects. The importance of memory work in the context of refugee resettlement is often overlooked, but is particularly relevant when cultural encounters are organised in museums and exhibition galleries....

  11. Bridging the Gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Colin

    2009-01-01

    The political context of the conversion of the Historic Tramway Bridge, adjacent to Sandon Point in Bulli (NSW, Australia), and how this was exploited to serve predetermined ends, illustrates that technologies can be designed to have particular social (and political) effects. Through reflection on this relatively small engineering project, this…

  12. Bridging the Evaluation Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wouters

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul Wouters’ essay is concerned with bridging the gap between what we value in our academic work and how we are assessed in formal evaluation exercises. He reflects on the recent evaluation of his own center, and reminds us that it is productive to see evaluations not as the (obviously impossible attempt to produce a true representation of past work, but rather as the exploration and performance of “who one wants to be.” Reflecting on why STS should do more than just play along to survive in the indicator game, he suggests that our field should contribute to changing its very rules. In this endeavor, the attitude and sensibilities developed in our field may be more important than any specific theoretical concepts or methodologies.

  13. Strategic Business-IT alignment of application software packages: Bridging the Information Technology gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandi Kruger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An application software package implementation is a complex endeavour, and as such it requires the proper understanding, evaluation and redefining of the current business processes to ensure that the implementation delivers on the objectives set at the start of the project. Numerous factors exist that may contribute to the unsuccessful implementation of application software packages. However, the most significant contributor to the failure of an application software package implementation lies in the misalignment of the organisation’s business processes with the functionality of the application software package. Misalignment is attributed to a gap that exists between the business processes of an organisation and what functionality the application software package has to offer to translate the business processes of an organisation into digital form when implementing and configuring an application software package. This gap is commonly referred to as the information technology (IT gap. This study proposes to define and discuss the IT gap. Furthermore this study will make recommendations for aligning the business processes with the functionality of the application software package (addressing the IT gap. The end result of adopting these recommendations will be more successful application software package implementations.

  14. Bridging the terahertz gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Giles; Linfield, Edmund

    2004-01-01

    Over the last century or so, physicists and engineers have progressively explored and conquered the electromagnetic spectrum. Starting with visible light, we have encroached outwards, developing techniques for generating and detecting radiation at both higher and lower frequencies. And as each successive region of the spectrum has been colonized, we have developed technology to exploit the radiation found there. X-rays, for example, are routinely used to image hidden objects. Near-infrared radiation is used in fibre-optic communications and in compact-disc players, while microwaves are used to transmit signals from your mobile phone. But there is one part of the electromagnetic spectrum that has steadfastly resisted our advances. This is the terahertz region, which ranges from frequencies of about 300 GHz to 10 THz (10 x 10 sup 1 sup 2 Hz). This corresponds to wavelengths of between about 1 and 0.03 mm, and lies between the microwave and infrared regions of the spectrum. However, the difficulties involved in making suitably compact terahertz sources and detectors has meant that this region of the spectrum has only begun to be explored thoroughly over the last decade. A particularly intriguing feature of terahertz radiation is that the semiconductor devices that generate radiation at frequencies above and below this range operate in completely different ways. At lower frequencies, microwaves and millimetre- waves can be generated by 'electronic' devices such as those found in mobile phones. At higher frequencies, near-infrared and visible light are generated by 'optical' devices such as semiconductor laser diodes, in which electrons emit light when they jump across the semiconductor band gap. Unfortunately, neither electronic nor optical devices can conveniently be made to work in the terahertz region because the terahertz frequency range sits between the electronic and optical regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Developing a terahertz source is therefore a

  15. The need to bridge the gap between science and technology in energy for a sustainable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrita, Isabel; Bongardt, A; Gulyurtlu, I; Joyce, A.

    2007-07-01

    According to studies developed by Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC), the earth's temperature has been increasing and, although there is some degree of uncertainty, the human influence is believed to significantly contribute to this as a result of activities that lead to the release of greenhouse gases. The energy sector is considered as a significant share of the overall balance. In spite of efforts taken by various countries, the situation is that technology development has not responded to the challenge so rapidly as expected and fast enough to meet needs to diversify energy resources to substitute carbon intensive fossil fuels at competitive prices and, simultaneously, CO2 removal and storage still need to reach application phase, on a large scale. New paths and new approaches have to be considered. The paper assesses the need to bridge knowledge created by basic research with its application, taking technology development to deployment, and the specificity of one country, Portugal, on the path chosen to tackle this issue. (auth)

  16. Project LOCAL - Bridging The Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haven, Robert N.

    1975-01-01

    Project LOCAL, a not-for-profit regional consortium, offers a broad spectrum of in-service training courses tailored to meet the needs of educators in various disciplines and levels of experience. The purpose of these offerings is to bridge the communication gap between innovative centers in computer-oriented education and staff members in Boston…

  17. Talent Management: Bridging the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    culling continues at each grade. By this process, the model proposes to raise the talent distribution and level. Professional sports use this method... TALENT MANAGEMENT: BRIDGING THE GAP A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in...

  18. Bridging the Gap: Use of Spaceflight Technologies for Earth-Based Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinley, Alaina; Vidlak, Carissa; Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Spaceflight is colloquially deemed, the final frontier, or the last area which humans have not yet explored in great depth. While this is true, there are still many regions on Earth that remain isolated from the urban, socially and electronically connected world. Because travelling to space requires a great deal of foresight, engineers are required to think creatively in order to invent technologies that are durable enough to withstand the rigors of the unique and often treacherous environment of outer space. The innovations that are a result of spaceflight designs can often be applied to life on Earth, particularly in the rural, isolated communities found throughout the world. The NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) is a collaborative, virtual forum that connects businesses, non-profit organizations, academia, and government agencies to allow for better distribution of ideas and technology between these entities (http://www.nasa.gov/offices/NHHPC). There are many technologies that have been developed for spaceflight that can be readily applied to rural communities on Earth. For example, water filtration systems designed for spaceflight must be robust and easily repaired; therefore, a system with these qualifications may be used in rural areas on Earth. This particular initiative seeks to connect established, non-profit organizations working in isolated communities throughout the world with NASA technologies devised for spaceflight. These technologies could include water purification systems, solar power generators, or telemedicine techniques. Applying innovative, spaceflight technologies to isolated communities on Earth provides greater benefits from the same research dollars, thus fulfilling the Space Life Science motto at Johnson Space Center: Exploring Space and Enhancing Life. This paper will discuss this NHHPC global outreach initiative and give examples based on the recent work of the organization.

  19. Biotechnology and the developing world. Finding ways to bridge the agricultural technology gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platais, K W; Collinson, M P

    1992-03-01

    Biotechnology is a controversial subject that involves a range of scientific principles from basic tissue culture to genetic manipulation. Proponents include private sector capitalists, public sector researchers, and developing nation governments. Opponents include environmental organizations and social organizations involved in protecting the rights of developing nations. Biotechnology is being presented as the next step after the Green Revolution and the only way that the people of the developing world will be able to feed themselves in the next half century. Research by industrialized nations world wide total an estimated $11 billion with 66% being contributed by the private sector. Biotechnology represents somewhat of a dilemma. Since the majority of the work is being done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater than that of public welfare or safety. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is one public sector group that is concerned about this problem. The countries of the developing world fall into 2 categories in relation to use of biotechnology: (1) those that have the potential to adapt imported biotechnologies to local conditions; (2) those that have little or no applied research capacity to effectively use biotechnologies. Currently only Brazil, China, India, and Thailand belong in the 1st category, all other developing countries fall into the 2nd. CGIAR believes it can help in 2 ways: (1) it can provide a bridge for needed information and germplasm between developed and developing countries; (2) it can help to ensure that the agricultural needs of developing countries are not lost. In 1990 CGIAR's plant and animal biotechnology research totaled $14.5 million which was less than 5% of the total CGIAR budget. Networking and institutions building are areas that CGIAR focuses on in an attempt to increase its affect

  20. Bridging the gap: adapting advanced display technologies for use in hybrid control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokstad, Håkon [Inst. for Energy Technology, Halden (Norway); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), runs the OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP), featuring a state-of-the-art research simulator facility in Halden, Norway, called HAMMLAB. HAMMLAB serves two main purposes: the study of human behaviour in interaction with complex process systems; and the development, test and evaluation of prototype control centres and their individual systems. By studying operator performance in HAMMLAB and integrating the knowledge gained into new designs, the HRP contributes to improving operational safety, reliability, efficiency and productivity. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program has contracted IFE to assist DOE national laboratory staff at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in adapting HAMMLAB design concepts for the purpose of control room modernization at nuclear power plants in the U.S. In support of this effort, the DOE has built a simulator research facility at INL called the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). The HSSL is centered on control room modernization, in which industry provided plant instrumentation and controls are modified for upgrade opportunities. The HSSL houses the LWRS simulator, which is a reconfigurable full-scale and full-scope control room simulator. Consisting of 45 large touchscreens on 15 panels, the LWRS simulator is currently using this glass top technology to digitally represent and replicate the functionality of the analog I&C systems in existing control rooms. The LWRS simulator is reconfigurable in that different plant training simulator models obtained from the utilities can be run on the panels, and the panels can be physically moved and arranged to mimic the layout of those control rooms. The glass top technology and reconfigurability capabilities allow the LWRS simulator to be the research platform that is necessary to design, prototype, and validate human-system interface (HSI) technologies that can replace existing analog I&C. IFE has

  1. Bridging the gap: adapting advanced display technologies for use in hybrid control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokstad, Håkon; Boring, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), runs the OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP), featuring a state-of-the-art research simulator facility in Halden, Norway, called HAMMLAB. HAMMLAB serves two main purposes: the study of human behaviour in interaction with complex process systems; and the development, test and evaluation of prototype control centres and their individual systems. By studying operator performance in HAMMLAB and integrating the knowledge gained into new designs, the HRP contributes to improving operational safety, reliability, efficiency and productivity. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program has contracted IFE to assist DOE national laboratory staff at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in adapting HAMMLAB design concepts for the purpose of control room modernization at nuclear power plants in the U.S. In support of this effort, the DOE has built a simulator research facility at INL called the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). The HSSL is centered on control room modernization, in which industry provided plant instrumentation and controls are modified for upgrade opportunities. The HSSL houses the LWRS simulator, which is a reconfigurable full-scale and full-scope control room simulator. Consisting of 45 large touchscreens on 15 panels, the LWRS simulator is currently using this glass top technology to digitally represent and replicate the functionality of the analog I&C systems in existing control rooms. The LWRS simulator is reconfigurable in that different plant training simulator models obtained from the utilities can be run on the panels, and the panels can be physically moved and arranged to mimic the layout of those control rooms. The glass top technology and reconfigurability capabilities allow the LWRS simulator to be the research platform that is necessary to design, prototype, and validate human-system interface (HSI) technologies that can replace existing analog I&C. IFE

  2. Identifying Basic Factors for Communal Prosperity - Space Technologies are Bridging this Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2006-01-01

    There are many aspects, which are important for maintaining environmentally clean and safe conditions for a healthy and economically self-sufficient community. This problem was somewhat of a lesser concern in earlier days because many communities were small, isolated and solely dependent upon their owners or landlords. Due to an astronomical growth in human population within the last century, extensive use of combustion technologies, and changing environmental conditions has resulted in scarcity of natural resources. In reality, the societal sustainability issues are becoming much more acute and complex. Therefore, the researchers and social scientists are joining forces to address these topics and find solutions to many contentious areas such as public health and diseases, water resources, agriculture production, survivability during and after the natural disasters, energy needs and many others. Forthrightly speaking, there is no canned solution or a methodology to go about solving these issues since the magnitude and complexity of these issues are multi-dimensional and are further inter-locked with other areas. A common sense tells us that we need data, resources and technologies to begin addressing these problems. This is where space observations have provided us with tremendous information and opportunities, which are of great assets to the science, economist, and social scientists. This paper specifically addresses what are critical areas for a successful societal sustainability and growth; and how can we take advantage of multiple sensors and models already in existence. Increasing our knowledge of the home planet, via amplified set of observations, is certainly a right step in a right direction. Furthermore, this is a pre-requisite in understanding multiple hazard phenomena's. This paper further examines various space sensors and observing architectures that can be useful specifically in addressing some of these complex issues. The ultimate goal is to serve

  3. Bridge technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. As LANs have proliferated, new technologies and system concepts have come to the fore. One of the key issues is how to interconnect networks. One means of interconnection is to use a 'bridge'. Other competing technologies are repeaters, routers, and gateways. Bridges permit traffic isolation, connect network segments together and operate at the MAC layer. Further, because they operate at the MAC layer, they can handle a variety of protocols such as TCP/IP, SNA, and X.25. This report focuses on the specific technology of bridging two netw

  4. Bridging the gap between the technological singularity and mainstream medicine: highlighting a course on technology and the future of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solez, Kim; Bernier, Ashlyn; Crichton, Joel; Graves, Heather; Kuttikat, Preeti; Lockwood, Ross; Marovitz, William F; Monroe, Damon; Pallen, Mark; Pandya, Shawna; Pearce, David; Saleh, Abdullah; Sandhu, Neelam; Sergi, Consolato; Tuszynski, Jack; Waugh, Earle; White, Jonathan; Woodside, Michael; Wyndham, Roger; Zaiane, Osmar; Zakus, David

    2013-09-09

    The "technological singularity" is defined as that putative point in time forecasted to occur in the mid twenty-first century when machines will become smarter than humans, leading humans and machines to merge. It is hypothesized that this event will have a profound influence on medicine and population health. This work describes a new course on Technology and the Future of Medicine developed by a diverse, multi-disciplinary group of faculty members at a Canadian university. The course began as a continuous professional learning course and was later established as a recognized graduate course. We describe the philosophy of the course, the barriers encountered in course development, and some of the idiosyncratic solutions that were developed to overcome these, including the use of YouTube audience retention analytics. We hope that this report might provide a useful template for other institutions attempting to set up similar programs.

  5. Bridging the Gap: Pracademics in Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ann Marie; Fulda, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In his seminal work "Bridging the Gap: Theory and Practice in Foreign Policy", Alexander George (1993) lamented the great divide between academia and the foreign policymaking community, arguing that greater interaction between scholars and policymakers would produce better policy. We share George's belief that scholars and practitioners each have…

  6. Bridging the gap with flipped classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Topperzer, Martha

    Bridging the gap with flipped classroom Hanne Selberg, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Martha Topperzer, University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark Background and aims Consistent with the strategy of increasing digitization and learner-centred teaching models in the nurs......Bridging the gap with flipped classroom Hanne Selberg, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Martha Topperzer, University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark Background and aims Consistent with the strategy of increasing digitization and learner-centred teaching models...... in the nursing curriculum, we have reversed selected traditional lectures into simulation based teaching activities embedded in a ten week Pediatric Nursing module for third year nursing students. The current pilot study seeks to explore the impact on students’ learning and commitment when flipping the classroom...... the theoretical knowledge acquired during the course to their participation in the simulations. It is of pivotal importance that all students obtain hands-on experience during the sessions to reduce the theory-practice gap. The ongoing study has been pilot tested during three courses with participation of 90...

  7. Building that Bridge over the Skills Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Ramanathan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Employers worldwide are seeking and failing to find in new recruits many skills that are critical for success. Skills that enable employees to work as part of a team, communicate effectively, take decisions, lead, adapt to change and solve problems creatively are not often found in fresh graduates. Education does not impart these skills as efficiently as it does academic knowledge and subject-specific skills. A change in the pedagogy and content of education is required to bridge the increasing skills gap we face today. The World University Consortium has identified themes that must be part of our future education, and this article highlights methods and strategies that can implement these ideas.

  8. AI Tools Bridge Technology Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch-Hindin, Wendy

    1985-01-01

    This second part of a report on artificial intelligence focuses on the development of expert systems in a variety of applications, from engineering to science, and details expectations for implementation of these systems. (JN)

  9. Bridging the Gap Between the State and the People

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2008-04-09

    Apr 9, 2008 ... bridge this gap is misplaced because these reforms do not seek to change the nature of the African state. .... take the necessary steps to protect themselves from it where possible. Since state and society in Africa .... the state thus did not bridge the gap between it and the people; the state only strengthened ...

  10. Bridging the KAP-gap in global education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin de Wolf

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects on the workshop Bridging the KAP-gap in global education, which was part of the DEEEP-conference Global Justice through Global Citizenship. The objective of the workshop was, to learn about strategies to bridge the KAP (Knowledge, Attitude, Practice) -gap and to gain ideas how

  11. Six new projects will bridge gap between CERN and society

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Rassat, Knowledge Transfer Group

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge Transfer Fund awarded over six hundred thousand Swiss francs to six projects in 2016.   Computer racks at the CERN Data Centre, the heart of CERN’s entire scientific, administrative, and computing infrastructure. CERN has awarded funding to six new projects with the aim to bridge the gap between technology and society. Over 600,000 CHF (€ 542,766) of capital was granted through its competitive Knowledge Transfer Fund (KT Fund). The fund is issued as part of CERN’s goal to maximize its overall impact on society. The selected projects cover new applications for CERN technology in a broad range of fields beyond high-energy physics, ranging from cancer diagnostics and aerospace applications, to next-generation cloud computing, radiation safety, and digital preservation. The technologies were developed at CERN as part of the variety of high-energy physics needs, and arise from several research departments: Engineering, Information Technology, Be...

  12. Bridging the Engineering and Medicine Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, M.; Antonsen, E.

    2018-01-01

    A primary challenge NASA faces is communication between the disparate entities of engineers and human system experts in life sciences. Clear communication is critical for exploration mission success from the perspective of both risk analysis and data handling. The engineering community uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models to inform their own risk analysis and has extensive experience managing mission data, but does not always fully consider human systems integration (HSI). The medical community, as a part of HSI, has been working 1) to develop a suite of tools to express medical risk in quantitative terms that are relatable to the engineering approaches commonly in use, and 2) to manage and integrate HSI data with engineering data. This talk will review the development of the Integrated Medical Model as an early attempt to bridge the communication gap between the medical and engineering communities in the language of PRA. This will also address data communication between the two entities in the context of data management considerations of the Medical Data Architecture. Lessons learned from these processes will help identify important elements to consider in future communication and integration of these two groups.

  13. Bridging the Gap between Social Acceptance and Ethical Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taebi, Behnam

    2017-10-01

    New technology brings great benefits, but it can also create new and significant risks. When evaluating those risks in policymaking, there is a tendency to focus on social acceptance. By solely focusing on social acceptance, we could, however, overlook important ethical aspects of technological risk, particularly when we evaluate technologies with transnational and intergenerational risks. I argue that good governance of risky technology requires analyzing both social acceptance and ethical acceptability. Conceptually, these two notions are mostly complementary. Social acceptance studies are not capable of sufficiently capturing all the morally relevant features of risky technologies; ethical analyses do not typically include stakeholders' opinions, and they therefore lack the relevant empirical input for a thorough ethical evaluation. Only when carried out in conjunction are these two types of analysis relevant to national and international governance of risky technology. I discuss the Rawlsian wide reflective equilibrium as a method for marrying social acceptance and ethical acceptability. Although the rationale of my argument is broadly applicable, I will examine the case of multinational nuclear waste repositories in particular. This example will show how ethical issues may be overlooked if we focus only on social acceptance, and will provide a test case for demonstrating how the wide reflective equilibrium can help to bridge the proverbial acceptance-acceptability gap. © 2016 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Jejunum for bridging long-gap esophageal atresia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, Klaas (N) M. A.

    OBJECTIVE: Exploring pros and cons of bridging long-gap esophageal atresia with an orthotopic jejunal pedicle graft. Retrospective series of 19 patients. METHODS: From 1988 through 2005, 19 patients with long-gap esophageal atresia received a jejunal graft. Median age at reconstruction was 76 days.

  15. Bridging the gap: strategies to integrate classroom and clinical learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Lisa Sue; Robinia, Kristi

    2014-08-01

    Nursing students often feel their classroom (didactic) learning and clinical (practice) experiences are disconnected which can lead to a rejection of academe and dissatisfaction with the profession. This classroom/clinical divide may be exacerbated because of the increased use of part-time clinical faculty, who are often isolated from their didactic peers. If clinical faculty, either novice or experienced, are disconnected from didactic faculty, is it any wonder students feel their learning is fragmented? The purpose of this paper is to discuss strategies to help bridge the gap between didactic and clinical learning. Specific integration strategies for faculty are presented using examples from a baccalaureate adult nursing didactic course and its related clinical course. The role of a clinical coordinator in facilitating course integration and support for part-time clinical faculty is described. Ideas for using technology to enhance learning and suggestions to promote socialization to decrease faculty isolation are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bridging the gaps for global sustainable development: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Victor E; Jansson, Peter Mark

    2009-09-01

    Global human progress occurs in a complex web of interactions between society, technology and the environment as driven by governance and infrastructure management capacity among nations. In our globalizing world, this complex web of interactions over the last 200 years has resulted in the chronic widening of economic and political gaps between the haves and the have-nots with consequential global cultural and ecosystem challenges. At the bottom of these challenges is the issue of resource limitations on our finite planet with increasing population. The problem is further compounded by pleasure-driven and poverty-driven ecological depletion and pollution by the haves and the have-nots respectively. These challenges are explored in this paper as global sustainable development (SD) quantitatively; in order to assess the gaps that need to be bridged. Although there has been significant rhetoric on SD with very many qualitative definitions offered, very few quantitative definitions of SD exist. The few that do exist tend to measure SD in terms of social, energy, economic and environmental dimensions. In our research, we used several human survival, development, and progress variables to create an aggregate SD parameter that describes the capacity of nations in three dimensions: social sustainability, environmental sustainability and technological sustainability. Using our proposed quantitative definition of SD and data from relatively reputable secondary sources, 132 nations were ranked and compared. Our comparisons indicate a global hierarchy of needs among nations similar to Maslow's at the individual level. As in Maslow's hierarchy of needs, nations that are struggling to survive are less concerned with environmental sustainability than advanced and stable nations. Nations such as the United States, Canada, Finland, Norway and others have higher SD capacity, and thus, are higher on their hierarchy of needs than nations such as Nigeria, Vietnam, Mexico and other

  17. Science communication: Bridging the gap between theory and practise

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The 6th Public Communication of Science and Technology network conference will be held at CERN on 1-3 Febraury 2001. Scientists and communication professionals will analyse the state of the art of science communication and the new perception people have about science in the media from newspapers to the Web.   Will communication be able to bridge the gap between Science and Society? What is the impact of science communication on the public? How do novel means of communications change the perception of science for the general public? These and other interesting questions will be addressed at the 6th Public Communication of Science and Technology Meeting, to be held at CERN on 1-3 February 2001. More than 250 people from all over the world are expected to attend the conference which will be an important meeting place for communication professionals covering the social, political, technical and cultural aspects of science and technology communication. Georges Boixader after Gary Larsson. The conferenc...

  18. Bridging the gap between production and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Until the dramatic events of 1991, the Western World uranium market was virtually isolated from its Eastern Bloc counterpart. The subsequent breakdown of the barriers between the two markets has had profound consequences. In fact, it is forcing the industry to discard its earlier market projections and to develop a new understanding of changing market dynamics. One of these changes can be witnessed in the world's uranium production and consumption equation. A gap both wide and growing exists between uranium production and consumption in the Western World with annual production falling below consumption since 1983. The gap has increased from about 14 million lbs U3O8 equivalent in 1987 to over 58 million lbs in 1991. The consumption line represents annual uranium requirements of all nuclear reactors in the Western World. The number of reactors has increased from 303 reactors in 1987 to 351 in 1991

  19. Spirit of place: Bridging the 'epistemological gap'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nickola B. N.

    My work explores the psychological gap between humans and nature. Also how humanity is a parcel of nature and that the philosophy of spirit of place can create oneness through imagery, describing the landscape while also encompassing the 'larger frame' within the aesthetic. These transcendental moments connect with not only the landscape but to earth as a spiritual entity. My work is a response to the landscape and these moments.

  20. Bridging Implementation, Knowledge, and Ambition Gaps to Eliminate Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-22

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, director of CDC's Division of Tuberculosis Eliminatio,discusses bridging implementation, knowledge, and ambition gaps to eliminate tuberculosis.  Created: 2/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/2/2011.

  1. Don't Try to Bridge the Literacy Gap Alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ramón M.

    2015-01-01

    The author is a middle school principal who has spent a decade working on improving literacy among his largely socio-economically disadvantaged student body. Experience and research have shown, the author says, that a successful effort to bridge the literacy gap between children who live in poverty and middle-class students requires a concerted…

  2. Bridging the gap between ecology and spatial planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, P.; Vos, C.C.; Foppen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Landscapes are studied by pattern (the geographical approach) and by process (the ecological approach within landscape ecology). The future of landscape ecology depends on whether the two approaches can be integrated. We present an approach to bridge the gap between the many detailed process studies

  3. Collective Genius: Bridging the Gaps among Research, Innovation and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hair, Mary John

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on bridging the gaps among research, innovation, and practice. First, the author reflects on historical perspectives involving the use of research to improve education and serve the public good. Second, the author explores the current climate as reflected by three national reports highlighting future roles of…

  4. Bridging the Micro-Macro Gap in Population Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIDI, .

    2011-01-01

    MicMac - Bridging the micro-macro gap in population forecasting: a study funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme "Integrating and strengthening the European Research Area". In an ageing population, the demand for adequate health care services, pension systems and other

  5. Bridging the Gap between Concept and Reality in the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... program and suggests that the gap between goals anticipated during program conceptualization and goals attained after program implementation can be bridged by optimizing innovative health communications to the target audience and applying social marketing techniques to health care delivery in the affected zones.

  6. Bridging the Gap Between Stewards and Creators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert; Nolan, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    Many technology-intensive companies today depend on employees with specialized technical skills, and managers may not fully understand the work these employees do. Moreover, managers and technical employees may have very different worldviews, and their worldviews may conflict during the process...... of business innovation. After researching the movement of Internet and computing pioneers among various organizations during a period between the early 1960s and the mid-1990s, the authors identified two distinct personality types that are both vital to successful technological innovation--but whose mindsets...

  7. Bridging the Gap Between Stewards and Creators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert; Nolan, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    of business innovation. After researching the movement of Internet and computing pioneers among various organizations during a period between the early 1960s and the mid-1990s, the authors identified two distinct personality types that are both vital to successful technological innovation--but whose mindsets...

  8. Bridging communication gaps with High Fidelity prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramp, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    As computer technology becomes more and more integrated in our daily life, the interface moves from the screen back into our physical surroundings. Also, design teams become more and more complex regarding professions and the cultural backgrounds of the people participating. This poses great chal...

  9. Bridging communication gaps with High Fidelity prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramp, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    As computer technology becomes more and more integrated in our daily life, the interface moves from the screen back into our physical surroundings. Also, design teams become more and more complex regarding professions and the cultural backgrounds of the people participating. This poses great...

  10. Bridging the engineering gap: integrated systems thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintré, J. R.; Delfi, M.

    2017-09-01

    On visits to rural Indonesia it is apparent that the advances made possible by technical engineered solutions, are rarely at the same pace as the human captivation of technical development. This uneven pace has limited the application of labour-saving equipment and efficiency. It is suggested to be of primary importance to advance technical application skills among communities as part of the continuous advancement cycle in our human environment. A creative approach to inclusive technology and internal transfer of equipment knowledge in society, reduces barriers and could diminish structural or societal undesired situations. Earlier theoretical concepts provide us a lens for describing the practices of habitus, conceptualization of social capital and integrated systems thinking. The interrelationship and complexities in technical and social systems requires to be investigated. This paper aims to describe those, combined with technological applications in an empirical ethnographic approach. The study analyses the negotiations of community members with the available technology. It intends to foster a better understanding of the various cultural-economic values by exploring the systems thinking theory, with a focus on rice cultivation in Indonesia, Japan and Australia. This research suggests that cultural, economic and technical advances vary considerably and human expectations are strongly influenced by local culture.

  11. Telemedicine in education: bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Jesse; Berger, Ryan; Samra, Cynthia; Van Durme, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cost and inequitable access to quality healthcare, coupled with the merger of the information technology and health service sectors, has given rise to the modern field of telemedicine. Telemedicine, meaning medicine at a distance, allows us to transcend geographic and socioeconomic boundaries to deliver high quality care to remote and/or in-need patients. As technology becomes more affordable and a physician shortage looms, telemedicine is gaining attention as a possible solution to healthcare delivery. Simultaneously, telemedicine holds great promise with regard to medical education. Several studies integrating telemedicine in medical education have shown positive outcomes, demonstrating similar or greater efficacy compared with traditional educational methods with high student-reported enthusiasm. Other domestic and international telemedicine projects, largely spearheaded by universities, have also achieved great success. In a novel approach, by pairing medical schools with in-need partner communities, utilizing similar faculty resources as traditional learning methods with standardized patients, students can gain valuable experience and skills while serving actual patients. This progressive approach to medical education fosters collaboration, communication, longitudinal care and teaches students needed skills for their future practices as 21 st Century healthcare providers.

  12. Venture Creation Programs: Bridging Entrepreneurship Education and Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackéus, Martin; Williams Middleton, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how university-based entrepreneurship programs, incorporating real-life venture creation into educational design and delivery, can bridge the gap between entrepreneurship education and technology transfer within the university environment. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review…

  13. Bridging the gap: 1999 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In Canada and the United States Enbridge owns and operates the world's longest crude oil and liquid pipeline system. The company is Canada's largest natural gas distributor, providing gas to 1.5 million customers in Ontario, Quebec and in the State of New York. The company is also involved in the distribution of electricity, and it provides retail energy products and services to a growing number of Canadian and U. S. markets. This annual report provides highlights from the company's operations, financial statements and supporting documentation, management's discussion and notes on operations, a five-year consolidated review of performance highlights, and the usual shareholders information. In 1999 earnings applicable to common shareholders increased to a record 287.9 million dollars, or $ 1.91 per share. Earnings generated a 14.3 per cent return on common shareholders equity, up from 13.8 per cent in 1998. Pipeline capacity was strengthened through completion of a number of liquids pipeline expansions and extensions, including the System Expansion Program Phase II, Phase I of the Terrace expansion, the new Athabasca Pipeline and related tank terminal, the reversal of Line 9 to transport crude oil from Montreal to Sarnia, and extension of the United States system to deliver crude oil to a refinery in Toledo, Ohio. The gas distribution network was also expanded with the addition of 12 new communities and 58,000 new connections, and the gaining of the franchise to distribute natural gas in New Brunswick. In the international field, an interim facilities operating contract was negotiated in Venezuela. Retail products and services business became a fully unregulated component as a result of unbundling ancillary assets from the gas distribution utility. Plans have been announced to establish a shared services business unit to provide information technology, billing and management services to Enbridge' portfolio of energy distribution and services businesses in Central

  14. Bridging the Gap in Knowledge Transfer between Academia and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Rajat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper intends to identify the causes or gaps in transfer of managerial knowledge between academia and practitioners and to develop a framework that overcomes the gaps through knowledge management, information technology and human resource practices. The paper aims to suggest a strategic approach based on the knowledge transfer cycle.…

  15. Bridging the gap: from massive stars to supernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maund, Justyn R; Crowther, Paul A; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Langer, Norbert

    2017-10-28

    Almost since the beginning, massive stars and their resultant supernovae have played a crucial role in the Universe. These objects produce tremendous amounts of energy and new, heavy elements that enrich galaxies, encourage new stars to form and sculpt the shapes of galaxies that we see today. The end of millions of years of massive star evolution and the beginning of hundreds or thousands of years of supernova evolution are separated by a matter of a few seconds, in which some of the most extreme physics found in the Universe causes the explosive and terminal disruption of the star. Key questions remain unanswered in both the studies of how massive stars evolve and the behaviour of supernovae, and it appears the solutions may not lie on just one side of the explosion or the other or in just the domain of the stellar evolution or the supernova astrophysics communities. The need to view massive star evolution and supernovae as continuous phases in a single narrative motivated the Theo Murphy international scientific meeting 'Bridging the gap: from massive stars to supernovae' at Chicheley Hall, UK, in June 2016, with the specific purpose of simultaneously addressing the scientific connections between theoretical and observational studies of massive stars and their supernovae, through engaging astronomers from both communities.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bridging the gap: from massive stars to supernovae'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. User Experience Evaluation in BCI: Bridge the Gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, B.L.A.; Nijboer, Femke; Gürkök, Hayrettin; Plass - Oude Bos, D.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2011-01-01

    While there is a gap between user-centered human-computer interaction (HCI) research and the more technology driven brain-computer interface (BCI) research, there are numerous possibilities and advantages for the two fields to help each other. Methods to evaluate the user experience of BCI systems

  17. Bridging Information and Communication Technology and Staff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bridging Information and Communication Technology and Staff Professional Development: Case Study of Delta State Tertiary Institutions. ... Teachers are therefore faced with the formidable task of reinventing schools/classroom for a society and world transformed by ICT – because most of these children have grown with ...

  18. Bridging the Gap between Climate Research and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M.; Lambert, K. F.; Buonocore, J.; Driscoll, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    The weak link between science and policy jeopardizes the wellbeing of people and the planet. Climate change is a pressing example of this disconnect. Policies are not keeping pace with the best of our knowledge from climate change research. We are working to bridge the science-policy divide and advance climate solutions by focusing on the positive health, ecosystem, and economic benefits of policy action. In 2013, we brought together an interdisciplinary team to estimate the co-benefits of U.S. power plant carbon standards for air quality and health, plus the economic value of the benefits. The results demonstrate that strong carbon standards with flexible compliance options can change the power sector, yielding substantial air quality and health benefits nationwide. The results also show that the economic value of these benefits outweighs the costs nationally and regionally. We advanced the policy applications of this research through a strategic campaign with three key elements: media communication, targeted outreach, and information for policymakers. Our strategy was to build widespread awareness of the research outcomes via media engagement, amplify our message via targeted outreach to citizens groups, and inform policy solutions by sharing research results with decision makers. The research was reported in more than 600 unique news stories in mainstream media outlets and received social media posts by members of Congress and senior White House officials. We amplified the messages via 14 webinars for citizens groups. We also held 16 briefings for policymakers and the public, in addition to meetings with relevant policy staff. Regional, state and federal policy leaders have used the research to understand air quality and health benefits of power plant carbon standards. This model of pairing research with media communication, targeted outreach, and information for policymakers is effective for bridging the gap between climate research and policy, and can be

  19. THE ROLE OF VENTURE CAPITAL IN THE BRIDGING OF FUNDING GAPS – A REAL OPTIONS REASONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazekas Balazs

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Funding gaps occur when for a particular group of enterprises there are not enough available funds to finance their growth. Such enterprises are typically young, innovative and technology-oriented startup companies. These companies do not have significant revenues or collaterals; hence they are not suitable for bank financing. On the other hand the information problems decrease their chances to attract investors and also there is high uncertainty involved in these companies. The method of venture capital financing was established to operate in this financing gap and to provide funds for these technology-oriented, young startup enterprises. There is an extensive literature that highlights that venture capitalists are capable and willing to provide financing for these enterprises as a result of their special expertise and business experience and their sophisticated value creation methods. In this article the authors introduce a real options reasoning in order to give an interpretation of venture capital decision-making method and why venture capital is willing to operate in funding gaps and how it is able to bridge them. With the involvement in the operation of the invested companies venture capitalists create options that increase the value of the firm. Also in option-valuation the higher the uncertainty of the asset is, the higher the value of the option is. That is the reason, why other passive funding forms reject the financing of startup enterprises, while venture capital is willing to provide funds for them. In this article we will describe the problem of funding gaps, than we will introduce real options and their effect on investment decision. In the last part of the article we will demonstrate how real options appear and are created in venture capital financing as a result of its special characteristics and how the real options approach can explain the ability of venture capitalist of bridging funding gaps.

  20. Student assistantships: bridging the gap between student and doctor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crossley JGM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available James GM Crossley,1,2 Pirashanthie Vivekananda-Schmidt1 1University of Sheffield School of Medicine, Sheffield, 2Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Chesterfield, UK Abstract: In 2009, the General Medical Council UK (GMC published its updated guidance on medical education for the UK medical schools – Tomorrow's Doctors 2009. The Council recommended that the UK medical schools introduce, for the first time, a clinical placement in which a senior medical student, “assisting a junior doctor and under supervision, undertakes most of the duties of an F1 doctor”. In the UK, an F1 doctor is a postgraduation year 1 (PGY1 doctor. This new kind of placement was called a student assistantship. The recommendation was considered necessary because conventional UK clinical placements rarely provided medical students with opportunities to take responsibility for patients – even under supervision. This is in spite of good evidence that higher levels of learning, and the acquisition of essential clinical and nontechnical skills, depend on students participating in health care delivery and gradually assuming responsibility under supervision. This review discusses the gap between student and doctor, and the impact of the student assistantship policy. Early evaluation indicates substantial variation in the clarity of purpose, setting, length, and scope of existing assistantships. In particular, few models are explicit on the most critical issue: exactly how the student participates in care and how supervision is deployed to optimize learning and patient safety. Surveys indicate that these issues are central to students' perceptions of the assistantship. They know when they have experienced real responsibility and when they have not. This lack of clarity and variation has limited the impact of student assistantships. We also consider other important approaches to bridging the gap between student and doctor. These include supporting the

  1. Bridging the Gap: Possible Roles and Contributions of Representational Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Hubbard

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Memory for the position of a moving target is often displaced in the direction of anticipated motion, and this has been referred to as representational momentum. Such displacement might aid spatial localization by bridging the gap between perception and action, and might reflect a second-order isomorphism between subjective consequences of environmentally invariant physical principles and the functional architecture of mental representation that can be modulated by an observer’s expectations (e.g., that a moving target will change its heading or by the presence of nontarget stimuli (e.g., landmarks. Representational momentum and related types of displacement reflect properties of the world and properties of mental representation, and so a consideration of representational momentum and related types of displacement contribute an important component of contemporary psychophysics, and also broaden the reach of psychophysics to include numerous topics not usually considered within psychophysics (e.g., naive physics, boundary extension, flash-lag effect, aesthetics, mental imagery.

  2. Health innovations in patient decision support: Bridging the gaps and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirk Jenn Ng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Patient decision aids (PDAs help to support patients in making an informed and value-based decision. Despite advancement in decision support technologies over the past 30 years, most PDAs are still inaccessible and few address individual needs. Health innovation may provide a solution to bridge these gaps. Information and computer technology provide a platform to incorporate individual profiles and needs into PDAs, making the decision support more personalised. Health innovation may enhance accessibility by using mobile, tablet and Internet technologies; make risk communication more interactive; and identify patient values more effectively. In addition, using databases to capture patient data and the usage of PDAs can help: developers to improve PDAs’ design; clinicians to facilitate the decisionmaking process more effectively; and policy makers to make shared decision making more feasible and cost-effective. Health innovation may hold the key to advancing PDAs by creating a more personalised and effective decision support tool for patients making healthcare decisions.

  3. Science and Society Bridging the Information Gap in Neuroscience

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    In the final Science and Society Colloquium of 2000, Professor Mark Ellisman of the University of California in San Diego will examine the ways that information technology is bringing about changes in the field of neuroscience. Professor Ellisman is Director of the US National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research, and is involved in several projects that merge advanced computing and networking technologies with advanced forms of microscopy. These include the National Institutes of Health (NIH) sponsored Human Brain Project that aims to fill the gap in our understanding of how low-level operations of individual neurons scale up to higher-level mental activity. In his talk, Professor Ellisman will describe the promise offered by advanced informatics. Parallel processing and distributed computing, for example, are allowing new advances in visualising and understanding 3-D neuronal structures, while progress in the field of remote access to highly specialized and expensive instruments - like high voltage ...

  4. 76 FR 72957 - 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland. This year's event focuses on bridging the gap between research and... Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of Psychological Health and Traumatic... is hereby given of the ``4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and...

  5. Epigenetics: A way to bridge the gap between biological fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoglou, Antonine; Merlin, Francesca

    2017-12-01

    The concept of epigenetics has evolved since Waddington defined it from the late 1930s as the study of the causal mechanisms at work in development. It has become a multi-faceted notion with different meanings, depending on the disciplinary context it is used. In this article, we first analyse the transformations of the concept of epigenetics, from Waddington to contemporary accounts, in order to identify its different meanings and traditions, and to come up with a typology of epigenetics throughout its history. Second, we show on this basis that epigenetics has progressively turned its main focus from biological problems regarding development, toward issues concerning evolution. Yet, both these different epistemological aspects of epigenetics still coexist. Third, we claim that the classical opposition between epigenesis and preformationism as ways of thinking about the developmental process is part of the history of epigenetics and has contributed to its current various meanings. With these objectives in mind, we first show how Waddington introduced the term "epigenetics" in a biological context in order to solve a developmental problem, and we then build on this by presenting Nanney's, Riggs' and Holliday's definitions, which form the basis for the current conception of "molecular epigenetics". Then, we show that the evo-devo research field is where some particular uses of epigenetics have started shifting from developmental issues to evolutionary problems. We also show that epigenetics has progressively focused on the issue of epigenetic inheritance within the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis' framework. Finally, we conclude by presenting a typology of the different conceptions of epigenetics throughout time, and analyse the connections between them. We argue that, since Waddington, epigenetics, as an integrative research area, has been used to bridge the gap between different biological fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The evolution of massive stars: bridging the gap in the Local Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Philip; Neugent, Kathryn F; Levesque, Emily M

    2017-10-28

    The nearby galaxies of the Local Group can act as our laboratories in helping to bridge the gap between theory and observations. In this review, we will describe the complications of identifying samples of OB stars, yellow and red supergiants, and Wolf-Rayet stars, and what we have so far learned from these studies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bridging the gap: from massive stars to supernovae'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. EVA Systems Technology Gaps and Priorities 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J.; Buffington, Jesse A.

    2017-01-01

    Performance of Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) has been and will continue to be a critical capability for human space flight. Human exploration missions beyond LEO will require EVA capability for either contingency or nominal activities to support mission objectives and reduce mission risk. EVA systems encompass a wide array of products across pressure suits, life support systems, EVA tools and unique spacecraft interface hardware (i.e. EVA Translation Paths and EVA Worksites). In a fiscally limited environment with evolving transportation and habitation options, it is paramount that the EVA community's strategic planning and architecture integration products be reviewed and vetted for traceability between the mission needs far into the future to the known technology and knowledge gaps to the current investments across EVA systems. To ascertain EVA technology and knowledge gaps many things need to be brought together, assessed and analyzed. This includes an understanding of the destination environments, various mission concept of operations, current state of the art of EVA systems, EVA operational lessons learned, and reference advanced capabilities. A combined assessment of these inputs should result in well-defined list of gaps. This list can then be prioritized depending on the mission need dates and time scale of the technology or knowledge gap closure plan. This paper will summarize the current state of EVA related technology and knowledge gaps derived from NASA's Exploration EVA Reference Architecture and Operations Concept products. By linking these products and articulating NASA's approach to strategic development for EVA across all credible destinations an EVA could be done in, the identification of these gaps is then used to illustrate the tactical and strategic planning for the EVA technology development portfolio. Finally, this paper illustrates the various "touch points" with other human exploration risk identification areas including human health and

  8. Bridging the PSI Knowledge Gap: A Multi-Scale Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Brian D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-01-08

    Plasma-surface interactions (PSI) pose an immense scientific hurdle in magnetic confinement fusion and our present understanding of PSI in confinement environments is highly inadequate; indeed, a recent Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee report found that 4 out of the 5 top five fusion knowledge gaps were related to PSI. The time is appropriate to develop a concentrated and synergistic science effort that would expand, exploit and integrate the wealth of laboratory ion-beam and plasma research, as well as exciting new computational tools, towards the goal of bridging the PSI knowledge gap. This effort would broadly advance plasma and material sciences, while providing critical knowledge towards progress in fusion PSI. This project involves the development of a Science Center focused on a new approach to PSI science; an approach that both exploits access to state-of-the-art PSI experiments and modeling, as well as confinement devices. The organizing principle is to develop synergistic experimental and modeling tools that treat the truly coupled multi-scale aspect of the PSI issues in confinement devices. This is motivated by the simple observation that while typical lab experiments and models allow independent manipulation of controlling variables, the confinement PSI environment is essentially self-determined with few outside controls. This means that processes that may be treated independently in laboratory experiments, because they involve vastly different physical and time scales, will now affect one another in the confinement environment. Also, lab experiments cannot simultaneously match all exposure conditions found in confinement devices typically forcing a linear extrapolation of lab results. At the same time programmatic limitations prevent confinement experiments alone from answering many key PSI questions. The resolution to this problem is to usefully exploit access to PSI science in lab devices, while retooling our thinking from a linear and de

  9. Bridging the Wage Gap: Pay Equity and Job Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Geraldine A.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the growing gap between the wages of women and men and reviews arguments opposing pay equity. Cites occupational segregation and sex-based wage discrimination as causes for the wage gap, and considers some remedies that have proven to be effective: negotiation, collective bargaining, litigation, and job evaluation studies. (KH)

  10. Bridging the Climate Information and Communication Gaps for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The gaps in knowledge and information between farmers and policymakers, and the communication gaps that may arise as a result, could undermine adaptation to climate change. One way to overcome this problem is by establishing an Integrated Climate Information Management Systems (ICIMS) that can harness both ...

  11. Domain management OSSs: bridging the gap between legacy and standards-based network management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemley, Todd A.

    1996-11-01

    The rapid change in the telecommunications environment is forcing carriers to re-assess not only their service offering, but also their network management philosophy. The competitive carrier environment has taken away the luxury of throwing technology at a problem by using legacy and proprietary systems and architectures. A more flexible management environment is necessary to effectively gain, and maintain operating margins in the new market era. Competitive forces are driving change which gives carriers more choices than those that are available in legacy and standards-based solutions alone. However, creating an operational support system (OSS) with this gap between legacy and standards has become as dynamic as the services which it supports. A philosophy which helps to integrate the legacy and standards systems is domain management. Domain management relates to a specific service or market 'domain,'and its associated operational support requirements. It supports a companies definition of its business model, which drives the definition of each domain. It also attempts to maximize current investment while injecting new technology available in a practical approach. The following paragraphs offer an overview of legacy systems, standards-based philosophy, and the potential of domain management to help bridge the gap between the two types of systems.

  12. Field tests on total gap of modular expansion joints to avoid bridge pounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modular expansion joints (MEJs are used for accommodating large relative displacements of adjacent bridge segments and for completely eliminating pounding. However, the minimum total gap that an MEJ needs to avoid pounding is not well investigated. To provide guidance for the seismic gap of MEJs, the maximum relative displacement of adjacent bridge segments subject to strong earthquakes was studied experimentally. To date, no experimental investigation of excitation spatial variation effect on bridge on natural soil has been reported. This research addressed a bridge with three identical segments of 100 m. A 1:22 scale bridge model founded on compacted beach sand was tested using electro-magnetic inertial exciters. Different ground motions were applied to the model to simulate the effect of spatially varying ground motions. Soil-structure interaction (SSI was studied by comparing the minimum total gaps with those obtained from the fixed-based experiments in the laboratory. The spatially varying ground motions were simulated based on the New Zealand design spectra for soft soil, shallow soil and strong rock conditions using an empirical coherency loss function. SSI was found to reduce the minimum total gap of an MEJ needed to avoid pounding between adjacent segments. Under spatially varying ground motions designing adjacent bridge segments with identical or similar fundamental frequencies is still recommended even if it does not necessarily preclude an out-of-phase movement of adjacent structures.

  13. Bridging the gap between forestry education and sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forestry education is one of the vital factors that can contribute to the sustainable development of forestry sub-sector in any country. In Nigeria, there is a big gap between forestry education and sustainable forestry development. The paper examines the development of forestry education and deforestation in the country.

  14. Workaholism: Bridging the Gap between Workplace, Sociocultural, and Family Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Bryan E.

    2000-01-01

    Article attempts to narrow the gap between studies of workaholism and human relations/organizational development, and workaholism and cross-cultural research and family counseling. Counselors are encouraged to be aware of implications of workaholism for clients, including burnout and family disintegration, and screen for it just as they would for…

  15. Bridging the gap : reflections on theorizing with managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to reflect on Nenonen et al.'s paper on theorizing with managers. This paper discusses differences between marketing science and marketing practice and gives suggestions to reduce the theory-praxis gap. It gives examples of quantitative studies that have been

  16. Intervention Research and Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshler, Donald D.

    2003-01-01

    Getting research-based instructional practices into the hands of professionals who teach students with learning disabilities is one of the most significant challenges for educators. This paper describes some of the major factors accounting for the gaps that exist between the special education research and classroom practice and presents four major…

  17. The missing link : bridging the gap between science and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven, van der C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation biology is faced with an implementation crisis. This crisis is the result of a “knowledge-doing” or “assessment-planning” gap. One reason for this is that there is a discrepancy between systematic classical scientific assessments or surveys, and actual implementation in the field. This

  18. An Undergraduate Course to Bridge the Gap between Textbooks and Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegant, Fred; Scager, Karin; Boonstra, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a one-semester Advanced Cell Biology course that endeavors to bridge the gap between gaining basic textbook knowledge about cell biology and learning to think and work as a researcher. The key elements of this course are 1) learning to work with primary articles in order to get acquainted with the field of choice, to learn scientific reasoning, and to identify gaps in our current knowledge that represent opportunities for further research; 2) formulating a research project with fellow students; 3) gaining thorough knowledge of relevant methodology and technologies used within the field of cell biology; 4) developing cooperation and leadership skills; and 5) presenting and defending research projects before a jury of experts. The course activities were student centered and focused on designing a genuine research program. Our 5-yr experience with this course demonstrates that 1) undergraduate students are capable of delivering high-quality research designs that meet professional standards, and 2) the authenticity of the learning environment in this course strongly engages students to become self-directed and critical thinkers. We hope to provide colleagues with an example of a course that encourages and stimulates students to develop essential research thinking skills. PMID:21364103

  19. Seismic Behavior of Corroded RC Bridges: Review and Research Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Andisheh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloride-induced corrosion and its effect on structural and seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC structures have been the topic of several research projects in past decades. This literature review summarizes the state of the art by presenting a brief description of chloride-induced corrosion, its main characteristics and influencing factors, a summary of experimental published data, and existing corrosion-induced deterioration models together with numerical and experimental methods used to evaluate corroded RC bridge pier. This literature review highlights the need for reliable deterioration models for RC structures and appropriate analysis methods are needed for design of new structures or assessment of existing civil engineering structures especially in seismic areas.

  20. Bridging the Gap between Social Acceptance and Ethical Acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taebi, B.

    2016-01-01

    New technology brings great benefits, but it can also create new and significant risks. When evaluating those risks in policymaking, there is a tendency to focus on social acceptance. By solely focusing on social acceptance, we could, however, overlook important ethical aspects of technological

  1. Metrology and analytical chemistry: Bridging the cultural gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Metrology in general and issues such as traceability and measurement uncertainty in particular are new to most analytical chemists and many remain to be convinced of their value. There is a danger of the cultural gap between metrologists and analytical chemists widening with unhelpful consequences and it is important that greater collaboration and cross-fertilisation is encouraged. This paper discusses some of the similarities and differences in the approaches adopted by metrologists and analytical chemists and indicates how these approaches can be combined to establish a unique metrology of chemical measurement which could be accepted by both cultures. (author)

  2. Teaching and physics education research: bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, James M; Timan, Anneke L; Miller, Kelly; Dowd, Jason E; Tucker, Laura; Mazur, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Physics faculty, experts in evidence-based research, often rely on anecdotal experience to guide their teaching practices. Adoption of research-based instructional strategies is surprisingly low, despite the large body of physics education research (PER) and strong dissemination effort of PER researchers and innovators. Evidence-based PER has validated specific non-traditional teaching practices, but many faculty raise valuable concerns toward their applicability. We address these concerns and identify future studies required to overcome the gap between research and practice.

  3. Teaching and physics education research: bridging the gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, James M; Miller, Kelly; Dowd, Jason E; Tucker, Laura; Mazur, Eric; Timan, Anneke L

    2014-01-01

    Physics faculty, experts in evidence-based research, often rely on anecdotal experience to guide their teaching practices. Adoption of research-based instructional strategies is surprisingly low, despite the large body of physics education research (PER) and strong dissemination effort of PER researchers and innovators. Evidence-based PER has validated specific non-traditional teaching practices, but many faculty raise valuable concerns toward their applicability. We address these concerns and identify future studies required to overcome the gap between research and practice. (key issues reviews)

  4. Capacity Building on the Use of Earth Observation for Bridging the Gaps between Science and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, R. B.; Bajracharya, B.

    2017-12-01

    Although the geospatial technologies and Earth observation (EO) data are getting more accessible, lack of skilled human resources and institutional capacities are the major hurdles in the effective applications in Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region. Designing efficient and cost effective capacity building (CB) programs fitting needs by different users on the use of EO information for decision making will provide options in bridging the gaps in the region. This paper presents the strategies adopted by SERVIR-HKH as an attempt to strengthen the capacity of governments and development stakeholders in the region. SERVIR-HKH hub plays vital role in CB on EO applications by bringing together the leading scientists from the Globe and the key national institutions and stakeholders in the region. We conducted country consultation workshops in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal to identify national priorities, requirements and the capacity of the institutions to utilize EO information in decision making. The need assessments were focused on four thematic areas of SERVIR where capacity gaps in utilization of EO data in policy decisions were identified in thirteen key service areas. Geospatial capacities in GIT infrastructure, data, and human resources were varied. Linking EO information to policy decision is mostly lacking. Geospatial data sharing provision among the institutions in the region is poor. We developed a capacity building strategy for HKH region which bridges the gaps in a coordinated manner through customized training programs, institutional strengthening, coordination and regional cooperation. Using the strategy, we conducted training on FEWS NET remote sensing products for agro-climatological analysis, which focused on technical interpretation and analysis of the remote sensing and modeled products, eg, CHIRPS, RFE2, CHIRTS, GFS, NDVI, GeoCLIM and GeoGLAM. Scientists from USGS FEWS NET program delivered the training to mid-level managers and decision

  5. Bridging the cultural gap : Bible translation as a case in point | Nord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They have been translated and re-translated many times during the past (almost) 2000 years and into almost all languages on the planet. In spite of that, we do not always feel that the cultural gap has really been bridged. Does this justify yet another translation? Together with my husband, Klaus Berger, who is a New ...

  6. Bridging semantic gap between high-level and low-level features in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Content-based video retrieval system aims at assisting a user to retrieve targeted video sequence in a large database. Most of the search engines use textual annotations to retrieve videos. These types of engines offer a low-level abstraction while the user seeks high-level semantics. Bridging this type of semantic gap in ...

  7. Bioinformatics and Systems Biology: bridging the gap between heterogeneous student backgrounds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abeln, S.; Molenaar, D.; Feenstra, K.A.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Teusink, B.; Heringa, J.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching students with very diverse backgrounds can be extremely challenging. This article uses the Bioinformatics and Systems Biology MSc in Amsterdam as a case study to describe how the knowledge gap for students with heterogeneous backgrounds can be bridged. We show that a mix in backgrounds can

  8. An Action Five Strategy For Bridging The Gender Gap In Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Action Five Strategy For Bridging The Gender Gap In Academic Research Activities In African Universities. ... Two separate studies were carried out in 1988 using a sample of 297 lecturers with a minimum of five (5) years lectureship experience from ten (10) Nigerian Universities, in one case and, five hundred and sixty ...

  9. Bridging the gap between VCT and HIV/AIDS treatment uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bridging the gap between VCT and HIV/AIDS treatment uptake: perspectives from a mining-sector workplace in South Africa. ... and doubts about the voluntary basis of HIV testing; organisational factors, including the visible group nature of the VCT campaign; and fear of a HIV-positive result and discrimination in that event.

  10. Study on Construction Technology of Municipal Road and Bridge Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fuyong

    2018-03-01

    With the continuous development of social economy and the accelerating process of urbanization, municipal road and bridge projects have also shown a trend of rapid development. Municipal road and bridge work can fully reflect the economic and cultural development level of cities and is also an important symbol of urban development. As a basic material of construction, concrete is widely used in engineering construction. This article will analyze the municipal road and bridge concrete construction technology, put forward corresponding measures.

  11. Habits: bridging the gap between personhood and personal identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils-Frederic eWagner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In philosophy, the criteria for personhood (PH at a specific point in time (synchronic, and the necessary and sufficient conditions of personal identity (PI over time (diachronic are traditionally separated. Hence, the transition between both timescales of a person’s life remains largely unclear. Personal habits reflect a decision-making (DM process that binds together synchronic and diachronic timescales. Despite the fact that the actualization of habits takes place synchronically, they presuppose, for the possibility of their generation, time in a diachronic sense. The acquisition of habits therefore rests upon PI over time; that is, the temporal extension of personal decisions is the necessary condition for the possible development of habits. Conceptually, habits can thus be seen as a bridge between synchronic and diachronic timescales of a person’s life. In order to investigate the empirical mediation of this temporal linkage, we draw upon the neuronal mechanisms underlying DM; in particular on the distinction between internally and externally guided DM. Externally guided DM relies on external criteria at a specific point in time (synchronic; on a neural level, this has been associated with lateral frontal and parietal brain regions. In contrast, internally guided DM is based on the person’s own preferences that involve a more longitudinal and thus diachronic timescale, which has been associated with the brain’s intrinsic activity. Habits can be considered to reflect a balance between internally and externally guided DM, which implicates a particular temporal balance between diachronic and synchronic elements, thus linking two different timescales. Based on such evidence, we suggest a habit-based neurophilosophical approach of PH and PI by focusing on the empirically-based linkage between the synchronic and diachronic elements of habits. By doing so, we propose to link together what philosophically has been described and analyzed

  12. Bridging the Gap: Information Literacy Workshops for High School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorana, Janet; Curtis, Sylvia; DeDecker, Sherry; Edgerton, Sylvelin; Gibbens, Carol; Lueck, Lorna

    2002-01-01

    A team of University of California, Santa Barbara instruction librarians developed information literacy workshops for local high school teachers and librarians. They introduced teachers to information literacy standards, provided technology training, presented strategies and activities for incorporating critical thinking into the research process,…

  13. Optical 3D printing: bridging the gaps in the mesoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonušauskas, Linas; Juodkazis, Saulius; Malinauskas, Mangirdas

    2018-05-01

    Over the last decade, optical 3D printing has proved itself to be a flexible and capable approach in fabricating an increasing variety of functional structures. One of the main reasons why this technology has become so prominent is the fact that it allows the creation of objects in the mesoscale, where structure dimensions range from nanometers to centimeters. At this scale, the size and spatial configuration of produced single features start to influence the characteristics of the whole object, enabling an array of new, exotic and otherwise unachievable properties and structures (i.e. metamaterials). Here, we present the advantages of this technology in creating mesoscale structures in comparison to subtractive manufacturing techniques and to other branches of 3D printing. Differences between stereolithography, sintering, laser-induced forward transfer and femtosecond laser 3D multi-photon polymerization are highlighted. Attention is given to the discussion of applicable light sources, as well as to an ongoing analysis of the light–matter interaction mechanisms, as they determine the processable materials, required technological steps and the fidelity of feature sizes in fabricated patterns and workpieces. Optical 3D printing-enabled functional structures in micromechanics, medicine, microfluidics, micro-optics and photonics are discussed, with an emphasis on how this particular technology benefits advances in those fields. 4D printing, achieved by varying both the architecture and spatial material composition of the 3D structure, feature-size reduction via stimulated emission depletion-inspired nanolithography or thermal post-treatment, as well as plasmonic nanoparticle-polymer nanocomposites, are presented among examples of the newest trends in the development of this technology. Finally, an outlook is given, examining further scientific frontiers in the field as well as possibilities and challenges in transferring laboratory-level know-how to industrial

  14. Visual bridging of empty gaps in the optic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, G; Ahlström, U

    1998-08-01

    This is a study of perception of bending motion and jointed rigid motions over large invisible segments of a bending line. In this project, we investigated the visual perception of changing form of lines, built up by a series of dots and presented under highly reduced pictorial conditions. The changing form was indicated by one or two moving and continuously changing visible fragments of the line. The most extreme condition studied was the perception of the bending of an initially vertical 24-dot line, visually represented only by the stationary base dot and the two moving dots at its top. In this experiment, nearly all subjects reported experiencing a smooth bending connection over the 21-dot empty gap. Three experiments are described and analyzed. The results suggest that the human visual system is astonishingly well adapted for derivation of relevant figural information from such severely reduced, continuously changing optical presentation. An explanation in terms of automatic sensory mechanisms related to the physiological receptive field effect is proposed.

  15. Official Statistics and Statistics Education: Bridging the Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Iddo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to challenge official statistics providers and statistics educators to ponder on how to help non-specialist adult users of statistics develop those aspects of statistical literacy that pertain to official statistics. We first document the gap in the literature in terms of the conceptual basis and educational materials needed for such an undertaking. We then review skills and competencies that may help adults to make sense of statistical information in areas of importance to society. Based on this review, we identify six elements related to official statistics about which non-specialist adult users should possess knowledge in order to be considered literate in official statistics: (1 the system of official statistics and its work principles; (2 the nature of statistics about society; (3 indicators; (4 statistical techniques and big ideas; (5 research methods and data sources; and (6 awareness and skills for citizens’ access to statistical reports. Based on this ad hoc typology, we discuss directions that official statistics providers, in cooperation with statistics educators, could take in order to (1 advance the conceptualization of skills needed to understand official statistics, and (2 expand educational activities and services, specifically by developing a collaborative digital textbook and a modular online course, to improve public capacity for understanding of official statistics.

  16. Bridging the Cyberspace Gap: Washington and Silicon Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-21

    NSA, FBI, and Department of Homeland Security, is toward defense and disclosure. In a blog post in April 2014, then White House Cybersecurity... blog /2014/04/28/ heartbleed-understanding-when-we-disclose-cyber-vul- nerabilities>. 12 Sean Lyngass, “NSA chief says agency discloses ‘91 percent...Unpredictable,” Open Technology Institute, New America, August 22, 2016, available at <https://www.newamerica.org/oti/ blog / unbounded-and-unpredictable

  17. Observing Bridge Dynamic Deflection in Green Time by Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chengxin; Zhang, Guojian; Zhao, Yongqian; Chen, Mingzhi

    2018-01-01

    As traditional surveying methods are limited to observe bridge dynamic deflection; information technology is adopted to observe bridge dynamic deflection in Green time. Information technology used in this study means that we use digital cameras to photograph the bridge in red time as a zero image. Then, a series of successive images are photographed in green time. Deformation point targets are identified and located by Hough transform. With reference to the control points, the deformation values of these deformation points are obtained by differencing the successive images with a zero image, respectively. Results show that the average measurement accuracies of C0 are 0.46 pixels, 0.51 pixels and 0.74 pixels in X, Z and comprehensive direction. The average measurement accuracies of C1 are 0.43 pixels, 0.43 pixels and 0.67 pixels in X, Z and comprehensive direction in these tests. The maximal bridge deflection is 44.16mm, which is less than 75mm (Bridge deflection tolerance value). Information technology in this paper can monitor bridge dynamic deflection and depict deflection trend curves of the bridge in real time. It can provide data support for the site decisions to the bridge structure safety.

  18. Bridging the gap between basic science and clinical practice: a role for community clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Katherine; Ryan, Gery; Beckett, Megan; Taylor, Stephanie; Berrebi, Claude; Cho, Michelle; Quiter, Elaine; Fremont, Allen; Pincus, Harold

    2011-04-04

    Translating the extraordinary scientific and technological advances occurring in medical research laboratories into care for patients in communities throughout the country has been a major challenge. One contributing factor has been the relative absence of community practitioners from the US biomedical research enterprise. Identifying and addressing the barriers that prevent their participation in research should help bridge the gap between basic research and practice to improve quality of care for all Americans. We interviewed over 200 clinicians and other healthcare stakeholders from 2004 through 2005 to develop a conceptual framework and set of strategies for engaging a stable cadre of community clinicians in a clinical research program. Lack of engagement of community practitioners, lack of necessary infrastructure, and the current misalignment of financial incentives and research participation emerged as the three primary barriers to community clinician research participation. Although every effort was made to learn key motivators for engagement in clinical research from interviewees, we did not observe their behavior and self-report by clinicians does not always track with their behavior. A paradigm shift involving acknowledgement of the value of clinicians in the context of community research, establishment of a stable infrastructure to support a cohort of clinicians across time and research studies, and realignment of incentives to encourage participation in clinical research is required.

  19. Current Challenge in Consumer Health Informatics: Bridging the Gap between Access to Information and Information Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Alpay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of health-related websites has proliferated over the past few years. Health information consumers confront a myriad of health related resources on the internet that have varying levels of quality and are not always easy to comprehend. There is thus a need to help health information consumers to bridge the gap between access to information and information understanding—i.e. to help consumers understand health related web-based resources so that they can act upon it. At the same time health information consumers are becoming not only more involved in their own health care but also more information technology minded. One way to address this issue is to provide consumers with tailored information that is contextualized and personalized e.g. directly relevant and easily comprehensible to the person’s own health situation. This paper presents a current trend in Consumer Health Informatics which focuses on theory-based design and development of contextualized and personalized tools to allow the evolving consumer with varying backgrounds and interests to use online health information efficiently. The proposed approach uses a theoretical framework of communication in order to support the consumer’s capacity to understand health-related web-based resources.

  20. Bridging the gap between basic science and clinical practice: a role for community clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Michelle

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translating the extraordinary scientific and technological advances occurring in medical research laboratories into care for patients in communities throughout the country has been a major challenge. One contributing factor has been the relative absence of community practitioners from the US biomedical research enterprise. Identifying and addressing the barriers that prevent their participation in research should help bridge the gap between basic research and practice to improve quality of care for all Americans. Methods We interviewed over 200 clinicians and other healthcare stakeholders from 2004 through 2005 to develop a conceptual framework and set of strategies for engaging a stable cadre of community clinicians in a clinical research program. Results Lack of engagement of community practitioners, lack of necessary infrastructure, and the current misalignment of financial incentives and research participation emerged as the three primary barriers to community clinician research participation. Although every effort was made to learn key motivators for engagement in clinical research from interviewees, we did not observe their behavior and self-report by clinicians does not always track with their behavior. Conclusions A paradigm shift involving acknowledgement of the value of clinicians in the context of community research, establishment of a stable infrastructure to support a cohort of clinicians across time and research studies, and realignment of incentives to encourage participation in clinical research is required.

  1. Bridging the knowledge gap between Big Data producers and consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, G. S.; Worley, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Most weather data is produced, disseminated and consumed by expert users in large national operational centers or laboratories. Data 'ages' off their systems in days or weeks. While archives exist, would-be users often lack the credentials necessary to obtain an account to access or search its contents. Moreover, operational centers and many national archives lack the mandate and the resources to serve non-expert users. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Research Data Archive (RDA), rda.ucar.edu, was created over 40 years ago to collect data for NCAR's internal Big Science projects such as the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project. Over time, the data holdings have grown to 1.8+ Petabytes spanning 600+ datasets. The user base has also grown; in 2014, we served 1.1 Petabytes of data to over 11,000 unique users. The RDA works with national centers, such as NCEP, ECMWF and JMA to make their data available to worldwide audiences and mutually support data access at the production source. We have become not just an open-access data center, but also a data education center. Each dataset archived at the RDA is assigned to a data specialist (DS) who curates the data. If a user has a question not answered in the dataset information web pages prepared by the DS, they can call or email a skilled DS for further clarification. The RDA's diverse staff—with academic training in meteorology, oceanography, engineering (electrical, civil, ocean and database), mathematics, physics, chemistry and information science—means we likely have someone who "speaks your language." Erroneous data assumptions are the Achilles heel of Big Data. It doesn't matter how much data you crunch if the data is not what you think it is. Data discovery is another difficult Big Data problem; one can only solve problems with data if one can find the right data. Metadata, both machine and human-generated, underpin the RDA data search tools. The RDA has stepped in to fill the gap between data

  2. Bridging the Geoscientist Workforce Gap: Advanced High School Geoscience Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Richard William

    attitudes of the two student research groups that could be contributing to the developing geoscience workforce crisis. However, the study also validated the notion that, in spite of significant blocking forces arrayed in front of them, advanced geoscience programs can be successful and offer viable curricula that serve to increase students' interest and opinions towards the field. By not only recognizing the existence of the geoscience workforce gap but also understanding its root causes, the role of advanced high school geoscience education emerges as an integral part of a solution to the problem.

  3. Active Power Controls from Wind Power: Bridging the Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fleming, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Y. C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singh, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scholbrook, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aho, J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Buckspan, A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Pao, L. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Singhvi, V. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Tuohy, A. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Pourbeik, P. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Brooks, D. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Bhatt, N. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This paper details a comprehensive study undertaken by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Electric Power Research Institute, and the University of Colorado to understand how the contribution of wind power providing active power control (APC) can benefit the total power system economics, increase revenue streams, improve the reliability and security of the power system, and provide superior and efficient response while reducing any structural and loading impacts that may reduce the life of the wind turbine or its components. The study includes power system simulations, control simulations, and actual field tests using turbines at NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). The study focuses on synthetic inertial control, primary frequency control, and automatic generation control, and analyzes timeframes ranging from milliseconds to minutes to the lifetime of wind turbines, locational scope ranging from components of turbines to large wind plants to entire synchronous interconnections, and additional topics ranging from economics to power system engineering to control design.

  4. Blasting detonators incorporating semiconductor bridge technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The enormity of the coal mine and extraction industries in Russia and the obvious need in both Russia and the US for cost savings and enhanced safety in those industries suggests that joint studies and research would be of mutual benefit. The author suggests that mine sites and well platforms in Russia offer an excellent opportunity for the testing of Sandia`s precise time-delay semiconductor bridge detonators, with the potential for commercialization of the detonators for Russian and other world markets by both US and Russian companies. Sandia`s semiconductor bridge is generating interest among the blasting, mining and perforation industries. The semiconductor bridge is approximately 100 microns long, 380 microns wide and 2 microns thick. The input energy required for semiconductor bridge ignition is one-tenth the energy required for conventional bridgewire devices. Because semiconductor bridge processing is compatible with other microcircuit processing, timing and logic circuits can be incorporated onto the chip with the bridge. These circuits can provide for the precise timing demanded for cast effecting blasting. Indeed tests by Martin Marietta and computer studies by Sandia have shown that such precise timing provides for more uniform rock fragmentation, less fly rock, reduce4d ground shock, fewer ground contaminants and less dust. Cost studies have revealed that the use of precisely timed semiconductor bridges can provide a savings of $200,000 per site per year. In addition to Russia`s vast mineral resources, the Russian Mining Institute outside Moscow has had significant programs in rock fragmentation for many years. He anticipated that collaborative studies by the Institute and Sandia`s modellers would be a valuable resource for field studies.

  5. Bridging the gap between human knowledge and machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos ALVARADO-PÉREZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, great amount of data is being created by several sources from academic, scientific, business and industrial activities. Such data intrinsically contains meaningful information allowing for developing techniques, and have scientific validity to explore the information thereof. In this connection, the aim of artificial intelligence (AI is getting new knowledge to make decisions properly. AI has taken an important place in scientific and technology development communities, and recently develops computer-based processing devices for modern machines. Under the premise, the premise that the feedback provided by human reasoning -which is holistic, flexible and parallel- may enhance the data analysis, the need for the integration of natural and artificial intelligence has emerged. Such an integration makes the process of knowledge discovery more effective, providing the ability to easily find hidden trends and patterns belonging to the database predictive model. As well, allowing for new observations and considerations from beforehand known data by using both data analysis methods and knowledge and skills from human reasoning. In this work, we review main basics and recent works on artificial and natural intelligence integration in order to introduce users and researchers on this emergent field. As well, key aspects to conceptually compare them are provided.

  6. Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Willhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmend; Peter Senior

    2012-03-31

    Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

  7. Bridging the gap between energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, Robert A.; Scott, Kate; Hinton, Emma D.; Austen, Melanie C.; Barrett, John; Beaumont, Nicola; Blaber-Wegg, Tina; Brown, Gareth; Carter-Silk, Eleanor; Cazenave, Pierre; Eigenbrod, Felix; Hiscock, Kevin; Hooper, Tara; Lovett, Andrew; Papathanasopoulou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    Meeting the world’s energy demand is a major challenge for society over the coming century. To identify the most sustainable energy pathways to meet this demand, analysis of energy systems on which policy is based must move beyond the current primary focus on carbon to include a broad range of ecosystem services on which human well-being depends. Incorporation of a broad set of ecosystem services into the design of energy policy will differentiates between energy technology options to identify policy options that reconcile national and international obligations to address climate change and the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. In this paper we consider our current understanding of the implications of energy systems for ecosystem services and identify key elements of an assessment. Analysis must consider the full life cycle of energy systems, the territorial and international footprint, use a consistent ecosystem service framework that incorporates the value of both market and non-market goods, and consider the spatial and temporal dynamics of both the energy and environmental system. While significant methodological challenges exist, the approach we detail can provide the holistic view of energy and ecosystem services interactions required to inform the future of global energy policy. - Highlights: •Obligations for climate, biodiversity and ecosystem services must be aligned. •Ecosystem service based assessments of energy systems can inform energy policy. •Assessment to incorporate life cycle stages across spatial and temporal scales. •Implications for ecosystem services differentiate between energy options. •Pathways to decarbonisation should be identified based on such a holistic assessment.

  8. Bridging the gap between observational oceanography and users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenbach, Christiane A.

    2017-02-01

    In order to ensure relevance and societal impact of research and to meet the various requirements of different target groups, the Coastal Observing System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA) developed and pursued a broad range of activities for knowledge transfer and stakeholder interaction. Potential user groups of data and data products include (but are not limited to) science, administration, renewable energies, engineering, tourism, and nature conservation. COSYNA data and data products are publicly accessible and available free of charge via the Internet (data portal; www.cosyna.de). The stakeholder interaction is integrated into the COSYNA product life cycle outlined here and the steps undertaken are exemplified for the product Surface Current Fields in the German Bight. Initial surveys revealed COSYNA's potential relevance in the national and international context. After the technological and mathematical realization of high-quality parameter fields, external experts evaluated the scientific value, informational value, innovative leap, cost/benefit aspects, operability, etc., of the data products. In order to improve products and their usability and to pave the way for future co-operation, interviews and workshops with potential users from the offshore wind energy industry were conducted. The stakeholder interaction process was successful, revealing relevant insights into user demands and usability of (possible) products. Analysis of data download provided some evidence for impact beyond academia. Other criteria for the increasingly demanded evaluation of the impact of coastal research are discussed. By sharing first-hand experiences, this study contributes to the emerging knowledge on integration of science and end users.

  9. Bridge SHM system based on fiber optical sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Fan, Dian; Fu, Jiang-hua; Huang, Xing; Jiang, De-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The latest progress of our lab in recent 10 years on the area of bridge structural health monitoring (SHM) based on optical fiber sensing technology is introduced. Firstly, in the part of sensing technology, optical fiber force test-ring, optical fiber vibration sensor, optical fiber smart cable, optical fiber prestressing loss monitoring method and optical fiber continuous curve mode inspection system are developed, which not only rich the sensor types, but also provides new monitoring means that are needed for the bridge health monitoring system. Secondly, in the optical fiber sensing network and computer system platform, the monitoring system architecture model is designed to effectively meet the integration scale and effect requirement of engineering application, especially the bridge expert system proposed integration of sensing information and informatization manual inspection to realize the mode of multi index intelligence and practical monitoring, diagnosis and evaluation. Finally, the Jingyue bridge monitoring system as the representative, the research on the technology of engineering applications are given.

  10. Bridging the Measurement Gap Between Research and Clinical Care in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren D; Opler, Mark G A; Correll, Christoph U

    2017-01-01

    There is currently a "measurement gap" between research and clinical care in schizophrenia. The main reason behind this gap is that the most widely used rating scale in schizophrenia research, the 30-item Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), takes so long to administer that it is rarely...... used in clinical practice. This compromises the translation of research findings into clinical care and vice versa. The aim of this paper is to discuss how this measurement gap can be closed. Specifically, the main points of discussion are 1) the practical problems associated with using the full 30......-25-minute, stand-alone Simplified Negative and Positive Symptoms Interview (SNAPSI), might help bridge the measurement gap between research and clinical care in schizophrenia. The full 30-item PANSS is often used in research studies, but is too time consuming to allow for routine clinical use. Recent...

  11. Bridging a gap between theory and practice in mathematics teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóelsdóttir, Lóa Björk; Errebo-Hansen, Dorthe; Westphael, Henning

    Bridging the dichotomy of theory and practices has long been a key issue of the research in teacher education both in general and within mathematics education (Østergaard, 2016). In the15th ICMI Study (Even & Ball, 2009) there is brief discussion of this dichotomy in (Ponte et al, 2009) but mainly...... the perspective is either on students learning from practice or students learning in an educational programme, which we see as an example of the dichotomy between theory and practices often seen in research of mathematics teacher education. In studies, focusing on bridging the gap often it is seen being...... on students reflecting on their own practice (Rasmussen, 2016) or on students own understanding of - or views on the gap between theory and practice (Østergaard 2016). One study is found to address student development both in an educational context (method course) as well as in a practices context (weekly...

  12. Using a K-W-L Chart to Bridge the Theory-Practice Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Deborah A

    2017-12-28

    As nursing is a practice discipline, theory and practice cannot be separated. Yet nursing education is traditionally divided into two components: classroom or theory-based learning and clinical or practice-based learning. The theory-practice gap is one of the most significant issues in nursing today, given the emphasis on evidence-based practice. This article describes the use of a K-W-L chart as an approach to bridge the theory-practice gap and encourage students to become self-directed and take ownership of their knowledge.

  13. Motivation Peer Training ? Bridging the gap for people with mobility disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Lucy K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Only 2% of people with disabilities in developing countries have access to basic services and rehabilitation. Objectives: To bridge this gap, Motivation has been running Peer Training activities since 1993 and has identified that there is a growing need for Peer Training. The overall aim of Peer Training is for wheelchair users (Peer Trainers) to provide others (with similar disabilities) with the relevant knowledge on health issues, rights and skills to achieve a basic level o...

  14. Bridging the conservation genetics gap by identifying barriers to implementation for conservation practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Helen R. Taylor; Nicolas Dussex; Yolanda van Heezik

    2017-01-01

    Despite its recognised importance for species’ persistence, integrating genetics into conservation management has proved problematic, creating a “conservation genetics gap”, which could widen with the advent of advanced genomic techniques. Bridging this gap requires a clear understanding of the barriers to use of genetics by conservation practitioners, but few (if any) papers on this topic involve direct consultation with practitioners themselves. We surveyed 148 conservation practitioners in...

  15. Bridging the gaps: a global review of intersections of violence against women and violence against children.

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, A; Bott, S; Garcia-Moreno, C; Colombini, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: The international community recognises violence against women (VAW) and violence against children (VAC) as global human rights and public health problems. Historically, research, programmes, and policies on these forms of violence followed parallel but distinct trajectories. Some have called for efforts to bridge these gaps, based in part on evidence that individuals and families often experience multiple forms of violence that may be difficult to address in isolation, and that vi...

  16. The Role of Patents for Bridging the Science to Market Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Hellmann

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines an ex-post rationale for the patenting of scientific discoveries. In this model, scientist do not know which firms can make use of their discoveries, and firms do not know which scientific discoveries might be useful to them. To bridge this gap, either or both sides need to engage in costly search activities. Patents determine the appropriability of scientific discoveries, which affects the scientists. and firms. willingness to engage in search. Patents decrease disseminat...

  17. Construction Technology of Long Span Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    A large variety of construction methods are used during construction of major bridges, and in many cases the final structural system must be chosen with due respect to the construction process. Today the preferred construction methods are: the free-cantilever method, the launching method...

  18. Bridging the Information Gap: Remote Sensing and Micro Hydropower Feasibility in Data-Scarce Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Marc Francois

    Access to electricity remains an impediment to development in many parts of the world, particularly in rural areas with low population densities and prohibitive grid extension costs. In that context, community-scale run-of-river hydropower---micro-hydropower---is an attractive local power generation option, particularly in mountainous regions, where appropriate slope and runoff conditions occur. Despite their promise, micro hydropower programs have generally failed to have a significant impact on rural electrification in developing nations. In Nepal, despite very favorable conditions and approximately 50 years of experience, the technology supplies only 4% of the 10 million households that do not have access to the central electricity grid. These poor results point towards a major information gap between technical experts, who may lack the incentives or local knowledge needed to design appropriate systems for rural villages, and local users, who have excellent knowledge of the community but lack technical expertise to design and manage infrastructure. Both groups suffer from a limited basis for evidence-based decision making due to sparse environmental data available to support the technical components of infrastructure design. This dissertation draws on recent advances in remote sensing data, stochastic modeling techniques and open source platforms to bridge that information gap. Streamflow is a key environmental driver of hydropower production that is particularly challenging to model due to its stochastic nature and the complexity of the underlying natural processes. The first part of the dissertation addresses the general challenge of Predicting streamflow in Ungauged Basins (PUB). It first develops an algorithm to optimize the use of rain gauge observations to improve the accuracy of remote sensing precipitation measures. It then derives and validates a process-based model to estimate streamflow distribution in seasonally dry climates using the stochastic

  19. Bridging the Gap: Enriching YouTube Videos with Jazz Music Annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Balke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Web services allow permanent access to music from all over the world. Especially in the case of web services with user-supplied content, e.g., YouTube™, the available metadata is often incomplete or erroneous. On the other hand, a vast amount of high-quality and musically relevant metadata has been annotated in research areas such as Music Information Retrieval (MIR. Although they have great potential, these musical annotations are often inaccessible to users outside the academic world. With our contribution, we want to bridge this gap by enriching publicly available multimedia content with musical annotations available in research corpora, while maintaining easy access to the underlying data. Our web-based tools offer researchers and music lovers novel possibilities to interact with and navigate through the content. In this paper, we consider a research corpus called the Weimar Jazz Database (WJD as an illustrating example scenario. The WJD contains various annotations related to famous jazz solos. First, we establish a link between the WJD annotations and corresponding YouTube videos employing existing retrieval techniques. With these techniques, we were able to identify 988 corresponding YouTube videos for 329 solos out of 456 solos contained in the WJD. We then embed the retrieved videos in a recently developed web-based platform and enrich the videos with solo transcriptions that are part of the WJD. Furthermore, we integrate publicly available data resources from the Semantic Web in order to extend the presented information, for example, with a detailed discography or artists-related information. Our contribution illustrates the potential of modern web-based technologies for the digital humanities, and novel ways for improving access and interaction with digitized multimedia content.

  20. Review of wide band-gap semiconductors technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Haiwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC and gallium nitride (GaN are typical representative of the wide band-gap semiconductor material, which is also known as third-generation semiconductor materials. Compared with the conventional semiconductor silicon (Si or gallium arsenide (GaAs, wide band-gap semiconductor has the wide band gap, high saturated drift velocity, high critical breakdown field and other advantages; it is a highly desirable semiconductor material applied under the case of high-power, high-temperature, high-frequency, anti-radiation environment. These advantages of wide band-gap devices make them a hot spot of semiconductor technology research in various countries. This article describes the research agenda of United States and European in this area, focusing on the recent developments of the wide band-gap technology in the US and Europe, summed up the facing challenge of the wide band-gap technology.

  1. Bridging the gap between high and low acceleration for planetary escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrikis, Janis; Preble, Jeffrey C.

    With the exception of the often time consuming analysis by numerical optimization, no single orbit transfer analysis technique exists that can be applied over a wide range of accelerations. Using the simple planetary escape (parabolic trajectory) mission some of the more common techniques are considered as the limiting bastions at the high and the extremely low acceleration regimes. The brachistochrone, the minimum time of flight path, is proposed as the technique to bridge the gap between the high and low acceleration regions, providing a smooth bridge over the entire acceleration spectrum. A smooth and continuous velocity requirement is established for the planetary escape mission. By using these results, it becomes possible to determine the effect of finite accelerations on mission performance and target propulsion and power system designs which are consistent with a desired mission objective.

  2. Variable contact gap single-molecule conductance determination for a series of conjugated molecular bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haiss, W.; Wang, Christian; Jitchati, R.

    2008-01-01

    It is now becoming clear that the characteristics of the whole junction are important in determining the conductance of single molecules bound between two metal contacts. This paper shows through measurements on a series of seven conjugated molecular bridges that contact separation is an important...... that conductance increases rather dramatically at higher tilt angle away from the normal for conformationally rigid molecular wires and that this increase in conductance arises from increased electronic coupling between the molecular bridge and the gold contacts.......-distance curves and knowledge of the terminal to terminal length of the molecular wire. The contact gap separation dependence is interpreted as arising from tilting of these molecules in the junction and this model is underpinned by ab initio transport computations. In this respect we make the general observation...

  3. Long span cable supported bridges - present technology and trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The activity within the field of long-span cable supported bridges has never been larger than at the end of the 20th century. The technology is well advanced to cope with the present challenges but it is also approaching its limits so if the trend towards ever increasing spans continues into the ...... into the next century, further developments are required to ensure that the bridges will be stable, durable and constructible.......The activity within the field of long-span cable supported bridges has never been larger than at the end of the 20th century. The technology is well advanced to cope with the present challenges but it is also approaching its limits so if the trend towards ever increasing spans continues...

  4. Parental Involvement in English Homework Tasks: Bridging the Gap between School and Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Patricia Ávila Daza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the concept of parental involvement in English homework tasks as a way to include parents in the educational community. This descriptive study was carried out in a female public school with 10 students from third and fourth grades and their parents. In order to obtain the information, different instruments were used: artifacts, interviews, questionnaires and observations. After analyzing the data, it was stated that parental involvement was seen as a means to bridge the gap between the school and home. The findings also showed the possibility of learning from each other and the importance of homework tasks as interactional and learning spaces among parents and children.

  5. The ReflecTable: Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice in Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hook, Jonathan; Hjermitslev, Thomas; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    The ReflecTable is a digital learning environment that explores how design games and video-led reflection might be combined to bridge the gap between the theoretical and practical components of design education. The concept seeks to leverage the qualities of exploratory design games and video...... to inspire design students to critically reflect upon the relationship between their evolving design practices and the theories and techniques they are taught in lectures, by allowing them to capture, review and reflect upon short videos of a design game. In this paper, we present the ReflecTable design...

  6. Monatomic chemical-vapor-deposited graphene membranes bridge a half-millimeter-scale gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong-Kwang; Hwangbo, Yun; Kim, Sang-Min; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Lee, Seung-Mo; Kim, Seong-Su; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Lee, Hak-Joo; Choi, Byung-Ik; Song, Chang-Kyu; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Hyun

    2014-03-25

    One of the main concerns in nanotechnology is the utilization of nanomaterials in macroscopic applications without losing their extreme properties. In an effort to bridge the gap between the nano- and macroscales, we propose a clever fabrication method, the inverted floating method (IFM), for preparing freestanding chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) graphene membranes. These freestanding membranes were then successfully suspended over a gap a half-millimeter in diameter. To understand the working principle of IFM, high-speed photography and white light interferometry were used to characterize and analyze the deformation behaviors of the freestanding graphene membranes in contact with a liquid during fabrication. Some nanoscale configurations in the macroscopic graphene membranes were able to be characterized by simple optical microscopy. The proposed IFM is a powerful approach to investigating the macroscopic structures of CVD graphene and enables the exploitation of freestanding CVD graphene for device applications.

  7. Bridging the gaps: An early integrated support collaborative for at risk mothers in rural Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jennifer; Withers, Marjorie; Konrad, Shelley Cohen; Buterbaugh, Carry; Spence, RuthAnne

    2015-01-01

    The antecedents that contribute to health disparities in maternal child health populations begin before birth and extend into the early prenatal and gestational growth periods. Mothers and infants living in rural poverty in particular are at considerable risk for problems associated with reproductive health, including pregnancy complications and premature births. The aim of this manuscript is thus two-fold, to describe the epidemiologic makeup of the community and the intervention model of the Community Caring Collaborative. Innovative models of early-integrated care for high-risk mothers and children are showing promise for long-term outcomes. They foster environments that enable mothers to trust health systems while maintaining a workforce of high functioning health workers who understand the mechanisms that underpin maternal and child health disparities. The Community Caring Collaborative in Washington County, Maine developed one such model that has made inroads in bridging such gaps. This manuscript explicates a case study of how the Community Caring Collaborative came into being and why it established the Bridging model of comprehensive care. The focus of this manuscript is thus two-fold, the community and the intervention model. The "bridging model" develops trust-based relationships between high-risk mothers with the health system and its multiple resources. Community members with advanced training provide the support and care linkages that are critical for family success. Innovative models of collaborative care impact the health of vulnerable mothers and their children working toward a marked decrease in health related disparities.

  8. NITARP: Bridging the Gap Between the Traditional Science Classroom and Authentic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalnaker, Olivia K.; Evans, Sam; Rutherford, Thomas; Taylor, John; Rebull, Luisa

    2018-01-01

    In this poster, the differences between what occurs in the traditional secondary science classroom and what happens in the actual research world is examined. Secondary classroom teachers generally have limited, if any, research experience beyond what is presented through their undergraduate college lab coursework. A disparity exists between classroom laboratory work and professional research. Opportunities like NITARP provide research elements that bridge this gap. NITARP teams are in a unique situation, joining a small team working alongside Caltech researchers on cutting edge investigations in astrophysics. In this poster it is shown how the NITARP program provides key components and experiences to expand the skill sets that teachers bring to their classrooms, bridging the gap between the typical secondary classroom and the world of the professional researcher. The NASA/IPAC program immerses participating teachers into a year-long training experience via online and face-to-face learning that translates into enhanced instruction at the secondary level. This work was made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP) and was funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Program.

  9. globalization, technology transfer and the knowledge gap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2011-06-10

    Jun 10, 2011 ... This paper, discusses the impact of oligopolistic research on transfer of global pharmaceutical manufacturing technology to the less developed countries of the South (Nigeria) in post globalism. On the basis of empirical evidence from the advanced industrialized world, it is argued that the growth of.

  10. globalization, technology transfer and the knowledge gap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2011-06-10

    Jun 10, 2011 ... process. It includes basic process design or certain types of engineering designs. The peripheral components correspond to the body of knowledge that is needed for the application of core technologies in producing goods and service activities. (Junta del Acuerdo de categena, 1976). This component also ...

  11. The research-practice relationship in ergonomics and human factors--surveying and bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Shorrock, Steven T

    2011-05-01

    Significant discord has been aired regarding the widening research-practice gap in several disciplines (e.g. psychology, healthcare), especially with reference to research published in academic journals. The research-practice gap has profound and wide-ranging implications for the adequacy of ergonomics and human factors (E/HF) research and the implementation of research findings into practice. However, no substantive research on this issue has been identified in E/HF. Using an online questionnaire, practitioners were asked about their application of scientific research findings published in peer-reviewed journals and to suggest ways to improve research application in practice. A total of 587 usable responses were collected, spanning 46 countries. This article describes some of the key differences and correlations concerning reading, usefulness and barriers to application among respondents, who varied in terms of organisational type, percentage of work time devoted to application vs. research, society membership and experience. Various solutions proposed by the survey respondents on ways to bridge the research-practice gap are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relationship between research and practice in E/HF has long been a subject of discussion, with commentators pointing to tension and possible implications for the adequacy of the discipline. Findings from a cross-sectional survey provide ergonomics practitioners' views on research, leading to discussion of strategies for achieving better integration.

  12. Bridging the Gap: Ideas for water sustainability in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, V. C.; Passell, H. D.; Roach, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Incremental improvements in water sustainability in the western U.S. may not be able to close the growing gap between increasing freshwater demand, climate driven variability in freshwater supply, and growing environmental consciousness. Incremental improvements include municipal conservation, improvements to irrigation technologies, desalination, water leasing, and others. These measures, as manifest today in the western U.S., are successful in themselves but limited in their ability to solve long term water scarcity issues. Examples are plainly evident and range from the steady and long term decline of important aquifers and their projected inability to provide water for future agricultural irrigation, projected declines in states' abilities to meet legal water delivery obligations between states, projected shortages of water for energy production, and others. In many cases, measures that can close the water scarcity gap have been identified, but often these solutions simply shift the gap from water to some other sector, e.g., economics. Saline, brackish or produced water purification, for example, could help solve western water shortages in some areas, but will be extremely expensive, and so shift the gap from water to economics. Transfers of water out of agriculture could help close the water scarcity gap in other areas; however, loss of agriculture will shift the gap to regional food security. All these gaps, whether in water, economics, food security, or other sectors, will have a negative impact on the western states. Narrowing these future gaps requires both technical and policy solutions as well as tools to understand the tradeoffs. Here we discuss several examples from across the western U.S. that span differing scales and decision spaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear

  13. Bridging the gap between academic research and regulatory health risk assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beronius, Anna; Hanberg, Annika; Zilliacus, Johanna; Rudén, Christina

    2014-12-01

    Regulatory risk assessment is traditionally based primarily on toxicity studies conducted according to standardized and internationally validated test guidelines. However, health risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is argued to rely on the efficient integration of findings from academic research. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of current developments to facilitate the use of academic research in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals and how certain aspects of study design and reporting are particularly important for the risk assessment process. By bridging the gap between academic research and regulatory health risk assessment of EDCs, scientific uncertainty in risk assessment conclusions can be reduced, allowing for better targeted policy decisions for chemical risk reduction. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Self-Assembled Asymmetric Block Copolymer Membranes: Bridging the Gap from Ultra- to Nanofiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Haizhou

    2015-09-21

    The self-assembly of block copolymers is an emerging strategy to produce isoporous ultrafiltration membranes. However, thus far, it has not been possible to bridge the gap from ultra- to nanofiltration and decrease the pore size of self-assembled block copolymer membranes to below 5 nm without post-treatment. It is now reported that the self-assembly of blends of two chemically interacting copolymers can lead to highly porous membranes with pore diameters as small as 1.5 nm. The membrane containing an ultraporous, 60 nm thin separation layer can fully reject solutes with molecular weights of 600 g mol−1 in aqueous solutions with a water flux that is more than one order of magnitude higher than the permeance of commercial nanofiltration membranes. Simulations of the membrane formation process by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) were used to explain the dramatic observed pore size reduction combined with an increase in water flux.

  15. Logistics and supply chain innovation bridging the gap between theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Klumpp, Matthias; Clausen, Uwe; Hompel, Michael

    2016-01-01

     This contributed volume presents  state-of-the-art advances in logistics theory in various fields as well as case studies. The book reports on a number of recently conducted studies in the Dinalog and the EffizienzCluster LogistikRuhr, thus bridging the gap between different perspectives of theoretical and applied research. A selection of theoretical topics, practical examples, case studies and project reports  is presented in this volume. The editors carefully selected contributions from a wide variety of projects, which were carried out in both the Dinalog cluster and the Effizienzcluster LogistikRuhr. The contributions are grouped in five main sections, each representing key domains in the evolution of logistics and supply chain management: sustainability, urban logistics, value chain management, IT-based innovation, knowledge management. This book is intended for both researchers and practitioners in the field of logistics and supply chain management, to serve as an important source of information for...

  16. Bridging the gap between pain and gender research: a selective literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Sónia F; Keogh, Edmund; Lima, Maria Luísa

    2008-05-01

    Evidence suggests that males and females differ with respect to the perception and experience of pain. Much of this work focuses on biological factors, yet it is also acknowledged that psychosocial issues are important. Within humans, socially and culturally constructed meanings of being and acting as a man or a woman should help us understand sex-related differences in pain. However, such an approach has not been widely adopted, partly because of problems conveying sex and gender concepts. We argue here for an assimilation of gender studies concepts into pain research as a means of developing our understanding of the psychosocial influences on pain in men and women. In order to bridge the gap between gender studies and pain, we draw on theoretical developments in such gender concepts, and illustrate their application to pain. We make use of Doise's [Doise W. Levels of explanation in social psychology [Mapstone E, Trans.]. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press. 1986 [original work published 1982

  17. Enhancing the hermeneutic single-case efficacy design: Bridging the research-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jessie M; Kwee, Janelle L; Hu, Monica; McDonald, Marvin J

    2017-09-01

    Systematic case study designs are emerging as alternative paradigm strategies for psychotherapy and social science research. Through enhanced sensitivity to context, these designs examine idiographic profiles of causal processes. We specifically advocate the use of the hermeneutic single-case efficacy design (HSCED). HSCED has recently been used to investigate the efficacy of an existing therapy with a new population (Observed and Experiential Integration for athlete performance barriers) and an emerging therapy (Lifespan Integration Therapy). We describe innovations in HSCED that were implemented for these studies. These developments include (a) integrating psychotherapists as case developers, (b) incorporating multiple cases in one investigation, and (c) tailoring the repertoire of assessment tools. These extensions strategically incorporated principles of contextual paradigms in HSCED, thus complementing single-case designs that neglect idiographic contexts. We discuss recommendations for using HSCED in practice-based research, highlighting its potential as a bridge to address the research-practice gap.

  18. Animal minds and neuroimaging--bridging the gap between science and ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Tom

    2014-04-01

    As Colin Allen has argued, discussions between science and ethics about the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals often stall on account of the fact that the properties that ethics presents as evidence of animal mentality and moral status, namely consciousness and sentience, are not observable "scientifically respectable" properties. In order to further discussion between science and ethics, it seems, therefore, that we need to identify properties that would satisfy both domains. In this article I examine the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals from the perspective of neuroethics. By adopting this perspective, we can see how advances in neuroimaging regarding (1) research into the neurobiology of pain, (2) "brain reading," and (3) the minimally conscious state may enable us to identify properties that help bridge the gap between science and ethics, and hence help further the debate about the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals.

  19. BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDE Educational Technology for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Ozlem OZAN,

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDEEducational Technology for DevelopmentMarshall,S., Kinuthia, W. & Wallace Taylor., Ed.D.; Information Age Publishing, Charlotte, NC, SBN: 978-1-60752-109-9, p.433, 2009Reviewed by Ozlem OZANFaculty of EducationEskişehir Osmangazi UniversityEskisehir, TURKEYThe concept of a knowledge divide is used to describe the gap in living conditions between those who can find, manage and process information or knowledge, and those who are impaired in this, for one reason or another. In the 21st century, the emergence of the knowledge society becomes pervasive hence the information and ICT systems that support knowledge are very important.This book discusses how educational technology can be used to transform education and assist developing communities to close the knowledge divide. Its broader audience is anyone who is interested in educational technology for development. In the book you can find best practices and case studies especially from countries in Africa.The book is edited by Stewart Marshall, Wanjira Kinuthia, Wallace Taylor. Professor Stewart Marshall, PhD, is the director of the Academic Division of the University of the West Indies Open Campus (UWIOC and holds the UNESCO Chair in Educational Technologies.Dr. Wanjira Kinuthia is assistant professor of Learning Technologies at Georgia State University. She works as an instructional designer in higher education and business and industry for several years. Professor Wallace Taylor, PhD, is a founding director of The Information Society Institute (TISI, a non-profit academic, research, and policy development organization based in South Africa.The book is consisted of 433 pages (+xxxv covering 24 articles divided into four sections and provides information about flexible learning for empowerment, managing and communicating knowledge, flexible delivery in higher education and preparing teacher using flexible approaches.Topics covered in the book are as follows

  20. Bridging the gap between prevention research and practice: the interactive systems framework for dissemination and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandersman, Abraham; Duffy, Jennifer; Flaspohler, Paul; Noonan, Rita; Lubell, Keri; Stillman, Lindsey; Blachman, Morris; Dunville, Richard; Saul, Janet

    2008-06-01

    If we keep on doing what we have been doing, we are going to keep on getting what we have been getting. Concerns about the gap between science and practice are longstanding. There is a need for new approaches to supplement the existing approaches of research to practice models and the evolving community-centered models for bridging this gap. In this article, we present the Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation (ISF) that uses aspects of research to practice models and of community-centered models. The framework presents three systems: the Prevention Synthesis and Translation System (which distills information about innovations and translates it into user-friendly formats); the Prevention Support System (which provides training, technical assistance or other support to users in the field); and the Prevention Delivery System (which implements innovations in the world of practice). The framework is intended to be used by different types of stakeholders (e.g., funders, practitioners, researchers) who can use it to see prevention not only through the lens of their own needs and perspectives, but also as a way to better understand the needs of other stakeholders and systems. It provides a heuristic for understanding the needs, barriers, and resources of the different systems, as well as a structure for summarizing existing research and for illuminating priority areas for new research and action.

  1. Proxy representation of Arctic Ocean Bottom Pressure: Bridging gaps in GRACE measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Ferriz, C.; Morison, J.; Wallace, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean bottom pressure (OBP) measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have proved to be invaluable tools for understanding Arctic Ocean circulation patterns and variability [Morison et al., 2007; Morison et al., 2012; Peralta-Ferriz et al., 2014]. Here we use GRACE data from 2005 to 2015 jointly with a 9-year record of in situ OBP at the North Pole, and wind reanalysis products, to identify primary predictor time series that allow us to create a proxy representation of the Arctic OBP anomalies that explains the largest possible fraction of the observed Arctic OBP variability. We do this by performing a linear regression analysis, combined with maximum covariance analysis (MCA). The first predictor time series is the in situ OBP record at the North Pole; the second predictor time series is the expansion coefficients time series of the leading mode of MCA between the GRACE OBP coupled with the winds. After cross-validation, the proxy representation explains 50% of the total variance of Arctic OBP. This work identifies key locations where measuring OBP in situ contribute the most to the large-scale variability in Arctic OBP. It also provides a means for bridging short gaps in GRACE measurements as well as potentially larger future gaps that would result if GRACE does not overlap with its follow-on mission, GRACE-FO. Here we focus in the Arctic Ocean, but the technique may be applicable to bridge gaps in GRACE measurements in other oceanic regions. References:Morison, J. H., J. Wahr, R. Kwok and C. Peralta-Ferriz (2007), Recent trends in Arctic Ocean mass distribution revealed by GRACE, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L07602, doi:10.1029/2006GL029016. Morison, J., R. Kwok, C. Peralta-Ferriz, M. Alkire, I. Rigor, R. Andersen and M. Steele (2012), Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways. Nature, 481, 66-70.Peralta-Ferriz, C., J. H. Morison, J. M. Wallace, J. Bonin and J. Zhang (2014), Arctic Ocean circulation patterns revealed by GRACE, J. of

  2. Bridging the gap between Hydrologic and Atmospheric communities through a standard based framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini, E.; Salas, F.; Maidment, D. R.; Mazzetti, P.; Santoro, M.; Nativi, S.; Domenico, B.

    2012-04-01

    Data interoperability in the study of Earth sciences is essential to performing interdisciplinary multi-scale multi-dimensional analyses (e.g. hydrologic impacts of global warming, regional urbanization, global population growth etc.). This research aims to bridge the existing gap between hydrologic and atmospheric communities both at semantic and technological levels. Within the context of hydrology, scientists are usually concerned with data organized as time series: a time series can be seen as a variable measured at a particular point in space over a period of time (e.g. the stream flow values as periodically measured by a buoy sensor in a river); atmospheric scientists instead usually organize their data as coverages: a coverage can be seen as a multidimensional data array (e.g. satellite images acquired through time). These differences make non-trivial the set up of a common framework to perform data discovery and access. A set of web services specifications and implementations is already in place in both the scientific communities to allow data discovery and access in the different domains. The CUAHSI-Hydrologic Information System (HIS) service stack lists different services types and implementations: - a metacatalog (implemented as a CSW) used to discover metadata services by distributing the query to a set of catalogs - time series catalogs (implemented as CSW) used to discover datasets published by the feature services - feature services (implemented as WFS) containing features with data access link - sensor observation services (implemented as SOS) enabling access to the stream of acquisitions Within the Unidata framework, there lies a similar service stack for atmospheric data: - the broker service (implemented as a CSW) distributes a user query to a set of heterogeneous services (i.e. catalogs services, but also inventory and access services) - the catalog service (implemented as a CSW) is able to harvest the available metadata offered by THREDDS

  3. Biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method for peripheral nerve injury: regeneration law of nerve fibers in the conduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-xun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical effects of 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of the biological conduit to repair peripheral nerve injury are better than in the traditional epineurium suture, so it is possible to replace the epineurium suture in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. This study sought to identify the regeneration law of nerve fibers in the biological conduit. A nerve regeneration chamber was constructed in models of sciatic nerve injury using 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of a biodegradable biological conduit. The results showed that the biological conduit had good histocompatibility. Tissue and cell apoptosis in the conduit apparently lessened, and regenerating nerve fibers were common. The degeneration regeneration law of Schwann cells and axons in the conduit was quite different from that in traditional epineurium suture. During the prime period for nerve fiber regeneration (2-8 weeks, the number of Schwann cells and nerve fibers was higher in both proximal and distal ends, and the effects of the small gap sleeve bridging method were better than those of the traditional epineurium suture. The above results provide an objective and reliable theoretical basis for the clinical application of the biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method to repair peripheral nerve injury.

  4. Bridging the Gap between Physiology and Behavior: Evidence from the sSoTS Model of Human Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavritsaki, Eirini; Heinke, Dietmar; Allen, Harriet; Deco, Gustavo; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2011-01-01

    We present the case for a role of biologically plausible neural network modeling in bridging the gap between physiology and behavior. We argue that spiking-level networks can allow "vertical" translation between physiological properties of neural systems and emergent "whole-system" performance--enabling psychological results to be simulated from…

  5. Functional nerve recovery after bridging a 15 mm gap in rat sciatic nerve with a biodegradable nerve guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Klok, F; Robinson, PH; Nicolai, JPA; Gramsbergen, A; van der Werf, J.F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery of nerve function was evaluated after bridging a 15 mm sciatic nerve gap in 51 rats with a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide. Recovery of function was investigated by analysing the footprints, by analysing video recordings of gait, by electrically eliciting the

  6. The Challenge of Gender Gap in Science and Technology Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the challenges of university education in Nigeria is the issue of gender imbalance in the choice of pure science and technology courses. While private universities have contributed immensely in narrowing the gap between male and female students in over all admission, much is yet to be achieved in the area of pure ...

  7. A bridge between conceptual frameworks sciences, society and technology studies

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book analyzes scientific problems within the history of physics, engineering, chemistry, astronomy and medicine, correlated with technological applications in the social context. When and how is tension between disciplines explicitly practised? What is the conceptual bridge between science researches and the organization of technological researches in the development of  industrial applications?  The authors explain various ways in which the sciences allowed advanced modelling on the one hand, and the development of new technological ideas on the other hand. An emphasis on the role played by mechanisms, production methods and instruments bestows a benefit on historical and scientific discourse: theories, institutions, universities, schools for engineers, social implications as well.  Scholars from different traditions discuss the emerging style of thinking in methodology and, in theoretical perspective, aim to gather and re-evaluate the current thinking on this subject. It brings together contribution...

  8. Bridging the language gap: Exploring science teachers' dual role as teachers of content and English literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne C.

    Responsibility for educating English language learners is increasingly falling on the shoulders of content specialists at the secondary level, as students are mainstreamed into classes. Therefore, providing these students an opportunity to achieve academic success depends largely on the quality of mainstream instruction (Cornell, 1995). Most teachers receive little or no preparation in how to work with English language learners. In my study, I address the instructional issues confronting three white, monolingual English-speaking middle school science teachers who must meet the demands of an increasing English language learner population. Specifically, this study explores teacher beliefs and enactment of reform-oriented science and sheltered instructional approaches to develop English language learners scientific and English literacy skills. I also explore the relationships that exist between these two dynamics in an effort to determine the extent to which teachers take on a dual role as teachers promoting English language and science proficiency. Using a participant observation case study method and my adaptation of Schwab's commonplaces heuristic, I analyzed the relationship between teacher beliefs, milieu, subject matter, and enactment in bridging the language gap in the science classroom for English language learners. The most noteworthy finding of this study was the significant role of milieu in enacting lessons that bridge the language gap and foster the development of English language learners science and English literacy skills. The findings suggest that greater attention be given to helping teachers establish a relationship-driven classroom milieu. You can provide all kinds of courses or professional learning experiences to improve teachers' instructional practices, but they must also recognize the importance of establishing relationships with their students; the coursework they take will not supplant the need to foster a warm and safe environment for all

  9. Public security in Brazil: Efficiency and technological gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Soares de Lima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the technical efficiency, the Total Factor Productivity (TFP and the technological gap in public security services in Brazilian States. The order—m frontier is used for results estimation. The TFP variation is built by decomposing the Malmquist productivity index into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technological variation. More than 50% of the federative units were considered technically inefficient. Out of the 27 federative units, 12 presented a positive total productivity while all others suffered total productivity losses. Productivity gains in public security are more related to scale aspects than to efficiency improvements and technological progress.

  10. Scientific Innovation's Two Valleys of Death: How Blood and Tissue Banks Can Help to Bridge the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sean D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Most biomedical basic research in the United States takes place at universities and research institutes and is funded by federal grants. Basic research is awarded billions of federal dollars every year, enabling new discoveries and greater understanding of the fundamental science that makes new innovations and therapies possible. However, when basic research yields an invention of practical use and the research evolves from basic to applied, the playing field changes. Pre-technology licensing federal dollars all but disappear, and innovations rely predominantly on private funding to support the full path from bench to bedside. It is along this path that the scientific advance faces two Valleys of Death. These sometimes insurmountable development stages are the product of the innovation’s inherent financial, business and investment risks. Well-planned and executed in vivo studies using quality biological materials demonstrating proof-of-concept is often the key to bridging these gaps, and blood and tissue banks offer unique services and resources to enable this process. PMID:25457967

  11. Developments and Prospects of Long-Span High-Speed Railway Bridge Technologies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunquan Qin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid developments of the high-speed railway in China, a great number of long-span bridges have been constructed in order to cross rivers and gorges. At present, the longest main span of a constructed high-speed railway bridge is only 630 m. The main span of Hutong Yangtze River Bridge and of Wufengshan Yangtze River Bridge, which are under construction, will be much longer, at 1092 m each. In order to overcome the technical issues that originate from the extremely large dead loading and the relatively small structural stiffness of long-span high-speed railway bridges, many new technologies in bridge construction, design, materials, and so forth have been developed. This paper carefully reviews progress in the construction technologies of multi-function combined bridges in China, including combined highway and railway bridges and multi-track railway bridges. Innovations and practices regarding new types of bridge and composite bridge structures, such as bridges with three cable planes and three main trusses, inclined main trusses, slab-truss composite sections, and steel-concrete composite sections, are introduced. In addition, investigations into high-performance materials and integral fabrication and erection techniques for long-span railway bridges are summarized. At the end of the paper, prospects for the future development of long-span high-speed railway bridges are provided.

  12. Bridging the transfer gap: laboratory exercise combines clinical exposure and anatomy review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Adam B; Ross, Christopher; Petty, Michael; Williams, James M; Thorp, Laura E

    2009-08-01

    One of the goals of medical education is to bridge the gap between basic science and clinical practice. Students acquire basic science knowledge during their pre-clinical years, yet have limited opportunities to apply this knowledge clinically. This hands-on laboratory exercise was designed to facilitate a review of anatomy in the context of select clinical procedures, highlighting the application of anatomical concepts in clinical practice. In 2008, Year 2 medical students participated in a clinical procedures laboratory taught by senior residents and attending physicians. Before participating, all students completed anatomy and clinical pre-tests and received syllabi detailing the select procedures and the anatomy pertinent to each. Students were organised into experimental (EG, n = 48) and control (CG, n = 17) groups. The EG observed and practised five procedures on cadavers and the CG participated in a traditional anatomy review laboratory with no procedural demonstrations or practice. Anatomy and clinical post-tests were administered to both groups following the 3-hour interventions. Surveys and focus sessions were used to assess student opinions. Scores on the anatomy pre- and post-tests were compared and were found to have significantly increased (P anatomy coupled with the teaching of clinical procedures results in an anatomical review superior to that of traditional methods, enhances knowledge of clinical procedures, and heightens students' awareness of the relationships between basic science and clinical practice.

  13. Bridging the gap between motor imagery and motor execution with a brain-robot interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert; Fels, Meike; Vukelić, Mathias; Ziemann, Ulf; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2015-03-01

    According to electrophysiological studies motor imagery and motor execution are associated with perturbations of brain oscillations over spatially similar cortical areas. By contrast, neuroimaging and lesion studies suggest that at least partially distinct cortical networks are involved in motor imagery and execution. We sought to further disentangle this relationship by studying the role of brain-robot interfaces in the context of motor imagery and motor execution networks. Twenty right-handed subjects performed several behavioral tasks as indicators for imagery and execution of movements of the left hand, i.e. kinesthetic imagery, visual imagery, visuomotor integration and tonic contraction. In addition, subjects performed motor imagery supported by haptic/proprioceptive feedback from a brain-robot-interface. Principal component analysis was applied to assess the relationship of these indicators. The respective cortical resting state networks in the α-range were investigated by electroencephalography using the phase slope index. We detected two distinct abilities and cortical networks underlying motor control: a motor imagery network connecting the left parietal and motor areas with the right prefrontal cortex and a motor execution network characterized by transmission from the left to right motor areas. We found that a brain-robot-interface might offer a way to bridge the gap between these networks, opening thereby a backdoor to the motor execution system. This knowledge might promote patient screening and may lead to novel treatment strategies, e.g. for the rehabilitation of hemiparesis after stroke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bridging gaps in discovery and development: chemical and biological sciences for affordable health, wellness and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prem Man Singh

    2011-05-01

    To commemorate 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry, the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists organized its 15th International Conference on 'Bridging Gaps in Discovery and Development: Chemical and Biological Sciences for Affordable Health, Wellness and Sustainability' at Hotel Grand Bhagwati, in association with Saurashtra University, Rajkot, India. Anamik Shah, President of the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists, was organizing secretary of the conference. Nicole Moreau, President of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and Secretary General of the Comité National de la Chimie, National Centre for Scientific Research France, was chief guest of the function. The four-day scientific program included 52 plenary lectures, 24 invited lectures by eminent scientists in the field and 12 oral presentations. A total of 317 posters were presented by young scientists and PhD students in three different poster sessions. Approximately 750 delegates from India, the USA, UK, France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, Japan and other countries attended the conference. The majority of the speakers gave presentations related to their current projects and areas of interest and many of the talks covered synthesis, structure-activity relationships, current trends in medicinal chemistry and drug research.

  15. Bridging the Millennial Generation Expectation Gap: Perspectives and Strategies for Physician and Interprofessional Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Valerie N; Medina, Jose; Medina, Andria; Clifton, Shari

    2017-02-01

    Assigning attributes to a birth cohort is one way we identify society-wide, shared life experiences within a group collectively called a "generation." Such assigned attributes influence society's adoption of generation-based expectations held by and about people from a particular birth cohort. Census data and generational attributes inform perspectives on millennial generation birth cohort experiences and engagement as students. The eldest living generation in U.S. society has given way to 3 subsequent generations, the youngest of which is called the millennial generation. What generational attributes influence the effectiveness of teaching and learning between millennial learners and faculty members from other generations? Understanding the role of life cycle effects, period effects and cohort effects can offer medical and health professions educators' insights into different strategies for learner engagement. Discussion includes specific strategies and teaching tactics faculty members can use to engage millennials across a continuum of learning to bridge the "expectation gap." Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Organizing principles as tools for bridging the gap between system theory and biological experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekios, Constantinos

    2016-04-01

    Twentieth-century theoretical efforts towards the articulation of general system properties came short of having the significant impact on biological practice that their proponents envisioned. Although the latter did arrive at preliminary mathematical formulations of such properties, they had little success in showing how these could be productively incorporated into the research agenda of biologists. Consequently, the gap that kept system-theoretic principles cut-off from biological experimentation persisted. More recently, however, simple theoretical tools have proved readily applicable within the context of systems biology. In particular, examples reviewed in this paper suggest that rigorous mathematical expressions of design principles, imported primarily from engineering, could produce experimentally confirmable predictions of the regulatory properties of small biological networks. But this is not enough for contemporary systems biologists who adopt the holistic aspirations of early systemologists, seeking high-level organizing principles that could provide insights into problems of biological complexity at the whole-system level. While the presented evidence is not conclusive about whether this strategy could lead to the realization of the lofty goal of a comprehensive explanatory integration, it suggests that the ongoing quest for organizing principles is pragmatically advantageous for systems biologists. The formalisms postulated in the course of this process can serve as bridges between system-theoretic concepts and the results of molecular experimentation: they constitute theoretical tools for generalizing molecular data, thus producing increasingly accurate explanations of system-wide phenomena.

  17. Motivation Peer Training - Bridging the gap for people with mobility disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Lucy K

    2017-01-01

    Only 2% of people with disabilities in developing countries have access to basic services and rehabilitation. To bridge this gap, Motivation has been running Peer Training activities since 1993 and has identified that there is a growing need for Peer Training. The overall aim of Peer Training is for wheelchair users (Peer Trainers) to provide others (with similar disabilities) with the relevant knowledge on health issues, rights and skills to achieve a basic level of independence and greater quality of life. To test the impact of Peer Training, Motivation created a knowledge, skills and well-being questionnaire, which has been trialled in two locations: Kenya and Malawi. Overall, Motivation found that most participants reported an increase in knowledge, skills and well-being, supporting their experience that this training provides vital information and support mechanisms for wheelchair users in low- and middle-income countries. Further work is needed to ensure this tool measures the impact of Peer Training and lessons learnt have been identified to strengthen the methodology. Although Peer Training is not a replacement for rehabilitation services, Motivation believes it is an effective way to not only increase knowledge and skills of persons with disabilities but also reduce the sense of social isolation that can often be a result of disability.

  18. Bridging the gap between metallurgy and fatigue reliability of hydraulic turbine runners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, D; Gagnon, M; Godin, S

    2014-01-01

    The failure of hydraulic turbine runners is a very rare event. Hence, in order to assess the reliability of these components, one cannot rely on statistical models based on the number of failures in a given population. However, as there is a limited number of degradation mechanisms involved, it is possible to use physically-based reliability models. Such models are more complicated but have the advantage of being able to account for physical parameters in the prediction of the evolution of runner degradation. They can therefore propose solutions to help improve reliability. With the use of such models, the effect of materials properties on runner reliability can easily be illustrated. This paper will present a brief review of the Kitagawa-Takahashi diagram that links the damage tolerance approach, based on fracture mechanics, to the stress or strain-life approaches. This diagram is at the centre of the reliability model used in this study. Using simplified response spectra obtained from on-site runner stress measurements, the paper will show how fatigue reliability is impacted by materials fatigue properties, namely fatigue crack propagation behaviour and fatigue limit obtained on S-N curves. It will also present a review of the most important microstructural features of 13%Cr- 4%Ni stainless steels used for runner manufacturing and will review how they influence fatigue properties in an effort to bridge the gap between metallurgy and turbine runners reliability

  19. Does bridging the gap between knowledge and practice help? Example of patient dose reduction in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.M.; Kaul, Rashmi; Kumar, Pratik; Berry, M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper is aimed at bridging the gap between knowledge and practice and evaluating the impact of this activity on reduction of patient dose. While enormous data on radiation doses in diagnostic radiology exists, there is absolute lack of information at user's level. For example, the implications on patient dose from 1cm error in x-ray field size or error of 5 kVp or 5mAs is invariably not known. We estimated that 1 cm increase in field size results in irradiation of 600-900cc of extra volume of patient which may contain sensitive tissue, 5 kVp increase results in exposure of 35-65 mR, with more effect in case of lumbar spine and abdomen x-ray and lesser for chest and D-spine, 5 mAs error results in 4-25 mR. The impact of information supply to users was evaluated and it was found that information based approach results in dose reduction to patient and improved image quality. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Bridging the Gap from Classroom-based Learning to Experiential Professional Learning: A Hong Kong Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Du-Babcock

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and evaluates a funded longitudinal teaching development project that aims to bridge the gap from classroom-based theory learning to experiential professional learning, and thereby prepare ideal and competent world class graduates. To align with the University's shared mission to foster links with the business community, the design of the internship program has a threefold purpose and was implemented in stages. It intends to enhance students' professional awareness-knowledge-skills through a multi-leveled approach integrating classroom learning with professional practice. A debriefing mechanism was also built in enabling students to share their learning and professional challenges, and theory application to problem-solving scenarios. A 360 degree multiple evaluation procedure were used to measure the project effectiveness, including the use of industry consultants, student interns, hosts, and academic supervisors.   The project has proved to promote closer ties with the business community and enhance students' professional competencies to increase future success in the competitive job market. The impact of the internship program is significant in two aspects.  From the perspective of student learning, the internship allows students to understand how they can improve business efficiency by applying communications theories.  From the teaching perspective, the successful and unsuccessful intern experiences can be drawn upon in developing class-room teaching. These lessons can focus on preparing students to solve real-world business communication problems.

  1. Bridging ImmunoGenomic Data Analysis Workflow Gaps (BIGDAWG): An integrated case-control analysis pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Derek J; Marin, Wesley; Hollenbach, Jill A; Mack, Steven J

    2016-03-01

    Bridging ImmunoGenomic Data-Analysis Workflow Gaps (BIGDAWG) is an integrated data-analysis pipeline designed for the standardized analysis of highly-polymorphic genetic data, specifically for the HLA and KIR genetic systems. Most modern genetic analysis programs are designed for the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms, but the highly polymorphic nature of HLA and KIR data require specialized methods of data analysis. BIGDAWG performs case-control data analyses of highly polymorphic genotype data characteristic of the HLA and KIR loci. BIGDAWG performs tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, calculates allele frequencies and bins low-frequency alleles for k×2 and 2×2 chi-squared tests, and calculates odds ratios, confidence intervals and p-values for each allele. When multi-locus genotype data are available, BIGDAWG estimates user-specified haplotypes and performs the same binning and statistical calculations for each haplotype. For the HLA loci, BIGDAWG performs the same analyses at the individual amino-acid level. Finally, BIGDAWG generates figures and tables for each of these comparisons. BIGDAWG obviates the error-prone reformatting needed to traffic data between multiple programs, and streamlines and standardizes the data-analysis process for case-control studies of highly polymorphic data. BIGDAWG has been implemented as the bigdawg R package and as a free web application at bigdawg.immunogenomics.org. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Moving contact lines in partial wetting: bridging the gap across the scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavan, Amir; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; McKinley, Gareth; Juanes, Ruben

    2017-11-01

    The spreading and dewetting of liquid films on solid substrates is a common phenomenon in nature and industry from a snail secreting a mucosal film to printing and coating processes. A quantitative description of these phenomena, however, requires a detailed understanding of the flow physics at the nanoscale as the intermolecular interactions become important close to the contact line. Classical hydrodynamic theory describes wetting as an interplay between viscous and interfacial forces, neglecting the intermolecular interactions, leading to a paradox known as the moving contact line singularity. By contrast, molecular kinetic theory describes wetting as an activated process, neglecting the bulk hydrodynamics in the spreading viscous fluid film altogether. Here, we show that our recently developed model for thin liquid films in partial wetting, which properly incorporates the role of van der Waals interactions in a thin spreading fluid layer into a height-dependent surface tension, bridges the gap between these two approaches and leads to a unified framework for the description of wetting phenomena. We further use our model to investigate the instability and dewetting of nanometric liquid films, and show that it brings theoretical predictions closer to experimental observations.

  3. Bridging the conservation genetics gap by identifying barriers to implementation for conservation practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Taylor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite its recognised importance for species’ persistence, integrating genetics into conservation management has proved problematic, creating a “conservation genetics gap”, which could widen with the advent of advanced genomic techniques. Bridging this gap requires a clear understanding of the barriers to use of genetics by conservation practitioners, but few (if any papers on this topic involve direct consultation with practitioners themselves. We surveyed 148 conservation practitioners in New Zealand’s Department of Conservation regarding their attitude to, knowledge of, and experiences with genetics for conservation. Although practitioners were largely receptive to using genetics for conservation management, access to expertise and funding remains a barrier to use. Practitioners would like to collaborate with geneticists at universities or other institutes, but do not necessarily know who to talk to or fully understand how genetics might benefit them. We contend these barriers or similar likely exist at an international level, suggest ways they might be overcome, and emphasise the need for clearer communication between geneticists and practitioners.

  4. Bridging the Gap Between Surveyors and the Geo-Spatial Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H.

    2016-06-01

    For many years FIG, the International Association of Surveyors, has been trying to bridge the gap between surveyors and the geospatial society as a whole, with the geospatial industries in particular. Traditionally the surveying profession contributed to the good of society by creating and maintaining highly precise and accurate geospatial data bases, based on an in-depth knowledge of spatial reference frameworks. Furthermore in many countries surveyors may be entitled to make decisions about land divisions and boundaries. By managing information spatially surveyors today develop into the role of geo-data managers, the longer the more. Job assignments in this context include data entry management, data and process quality management, design of formal and informal systems, information management, consultancy, land management, all that in close cooperation with many different stakeholders. Future tasks will include the integration of geospatial information into e-government and e-commerce systems. The list of professional tasks underpins the capabilities of surveyors to contribute to a high quality geospatial data and information management. In that way modern surveyors support the needs of a geo-spatial society. The paper discusses several approaches to define the role of the surveyor within the modern geospatial society.

  5. Bridging the gap in ageing: Translating policies into practice in Malaysian Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambigga Krishnapillai S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Population ageing is poised to become a major challenge to the health system as Malaysia progresses to becoming a developed nation by 2020. This article aims to review the various ageing policy frameworks available globally; compare aged care policies and health services in Malaysia with Australia; and discuss various issues and challenges in translating these policies into practice in the Malaysian primary care system. Fundamental solutions identified to bridge the gap include restructuring of the health care system, development of comprehensive benefit packages for older people under the national health financing scheme, training of the primary care workforce, effective use of electronic medical records and clinical guidelines; and empowering older people and their caregivers with knowledge, skills and positive attitudes to ageing and self care. Ultimately, family medicine specialists must become the agents for change to lead multidisciplinary teams and work with various agencies to ensure that better coordination, continuity and quality of care are eventually delivered to older patients across time and settings.

  6. Bridging the gap with a duel-credit Earth Science course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norden, W.

    2011-12-01

    College-bound high school students rarely have any exposure to the Earth Sciences. Earth Science may be offered to Middle School students. What is offered in High School, however, is usually a watered-down course offered to the weakest students. Meanwhile, our best and brightest students are steered towards biology, chemistry, and physics, what most schools consider the "real sciences". As a direct result, our population is not literate in the Earth Sciences and few students choose to study the Earth Science in college. One way to counteract this trend is to offer a rigorous capstone Earth Science course to High School Juniors and Seniors. Offering a course does not guarantee enrollment, however. Top science students are too busy taking Advanced Placement courses to consider a non-AP course. For that reason, the best way to lure top students into studying Earth Science is to create a duel-credit course, for which students receive both high school and college credit. A collaboration between high school teachers and college professors can result in a quality Earth Science course that bridges the huge gap that now exists between middle school science and college Earth Science. Harvard-Westlake School has successfully offered a duel-credit course with UCLA, and has created a model that can be used by other schools.

  7. Wireless Technologies Bridging the Digital Divide in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Smyth

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to demonstrate how the latest wireless standards and technologies may overcome the digital divide in education in the developed and developing worlds. The concept of the digital divide is discussed in the traditional socio-economic sense and expanded in terms of the learner's location, age, culture and background. It is important that we understand the full extent and complexities of this division if we are to effectively bridge it. Why and how the digital divide may be bridged is examined. Apart from the inherent inequalities that need to be addressed from an ethical perspective, it is very much in the interests of governments and citizens globally that Information and Communications Technology (ICT is made available to all as quickly and cost-effectively as possible. New forms of wireless protocols are overcoming challenges of terrain, infrastructure and finance. It is proposed that, by leveraging open broadband wireless standards, like Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi* and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX*, and implementing Mobile Computing architecture, it is now possible to make dramatic strides in this direction. The paper continues with a general overview of these wireless standards and technologies followed by an in-depth look at Wi-Fi and WiMAX. The paper goes on to give examples of the Innovation Centre's involvement in delivering solutions and new usage models for eLearning that utilize the latest wireless standards and technologies. The challenges and successes of these projects are outlined and metrics are presented where available.

  8. Patient Safety Technology Gap: Minimizing Errors in Healthcare through Technology Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carstens

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In a world of ever increasing technological advances, users of technology are at risk for exceeding human memory limitations. A gap analysis was conducted through reviewing literature in the field of human error or specifically transition errors in emergency room (ER operations to identify the current state of technology available. The gap analysis revealed the technological needs of ER healthcare workers. The findings indicate the need for technology such as knowledge management or decision support systems in ERs to reduce the potential for error, enhance patient safety, and improve the overall quality of care for the patient.

  9. Bridging of shrinkage gaps by Exterior Thermal Insulation Composite Systems (ETICS); Zur Frage der Ueberbrueckung von Bewegungsfugen durch Waermedaemmverbundsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuenzel, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik, Holzkirchen (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    The bridging performance in respect to shrinkage gaps of ETICS is a subject of controversy. Practitioners point out good experience, calculative examinations, however, support the requirement of special tests prior to technical approval. Experiments at a half-timbered facade where an ETICS was applied to dry-out the wall confirm their bridging ability during the shrinkage of the wooden studs. Therefore a special bridging test is generally not necessary for an insulation thickness of 80 mm or more. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Frage der Ueberbrueckung von Bewegungsfugen durch Waermedaemmverbundsysteme gibt es unterschiedliche Meinungen: Die Anwender weisen auf gute Erfahrungen in der Praxis hin, rechnerische Untersuchungen lassen hingegen eine spezielle Ueberpruefung fuer zweckmaessig erscheinen, die bisher bei der Zulassung solcher Systeme gefordert worden ist. Untersuchungen an einem Fachwerk-Versuchshaus mit nachtraeglich aufgebrachtem Waermedaemmverbundsystem bestaetigen dessen fugenueberbrueckende Eigenschaft beim Schwinden des Fachwerkholzes. Demnach ist bei Daemmschichtdicken von mindestens 80 mm ein Nachweis der Fugenueberbrueckungs-Faehigkeit generell nicht erforderlich. (orig.)

  10. Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Dufek, Eric J.; Pesaran, Ahmad; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Hardy, Keith; Keyser, Matthew; Kreuzer, Cory; Markel, Anthony; Meintz, Andrew; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Nelson, Paul A.; Robertson, David C.; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Vijayagopal, Ram; Zhang, Jiucai

    2017-11-01

    The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable/validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.

  11. Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Dufek, Eric J.; Pesaran, Ahmad; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Hardy, Keith; Keyser, Matthew; Kreuzer, Cory; Markel, Anthony; Meintz, Andrew; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Nelson, Paul A.; Robertson, David C.; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Vijayagopal, Ram; Zhang, Jiucai

    2017-11-01

    The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable / validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.

  12. The theory-practice gap in cognitive behavioral therapy: reflections and a modest proposal to bridge the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Keith; Beshai, Shadi

    2013-12-01

    This paper examines the issues related to the gap between theory and practice in the area of cognitive-behavioral therapy. The article begins with a review of the evidence for such a gap, and having demonstrated that the gap exists, provides a discussion of some of the factors that are likely important in its genesis and maintenance. The article then focuses on potential strategies to reduce the theory-practice gap that go beyond the common recommendation for both efficacy and effectiveness research. In particular, we provide recommendations for protocol planning and design, training and competency maintenance, dissemination research, and implementation and policy change. We conclude with the proposition that theory and research should not only inform practice, but that practice should have a reciprocal benefit on theory and research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Population modeling using harpacticoid copepods : Bridging the gap between individual-level effects and protection goals of environmental risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lundström Belleza, Elin

    2014-01-01

    To protect the environment from contaminants, environmental risk assessment (ERA) evaluates the risk of adverse effects to populations, communities and ecosystems. Environmental management decisions rely on ERAs, which commonly are based on a few endpoints at the individual organism level. To bridge the gap between what is measured and what is intended for protection, individual-level effects can be integrated in population models, and translated to the population level. The general aim of th...

  14. Plurality of Methodologies to Bridge the Gap Between Research and Practice: A Case Study in Infertility Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Berger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the benefit of combining a quantitative and qualitative approach in studying social phenomena and illustrates it relative to the experience of individuals struggling with infertility. The combined use of the two methodologies allows capturing a comprehensive, nuanced and expansive picture of infertility, providing information to help bridge the gap between research and practice, and offering implications for policy and further research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs140185

  15. Science in Society: Bridging the gap to connect science to decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.; Bwarie, J.; Pearce, I.

    2016-12-01

    The gap between science and decision making in our society can be large and multi-faceted, involving communication, process, cultural and even subconscious differences. In sweeping generalization, scientists reject anecdotes, focus on uncertainty and details, and expect conflict as part of the scientific process, while non-scientists respond to stories, want certainty and the big picture, and see conflict as a reason to reject the message. Bridging this gap often requires ongoing collaboration to find the intersection of three independent domains: what science can provide, the technical information decision makers need to make the most effective choices and what information decision makers need to motivate action. For ten years, the USGS has experimented with improving the usefulness of its science through the SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Project and its predecessor, the Multi Hazards Demonstration Project in Southern California. Through leading and participating in these activities, we have recognized 3 steps that have been essential to successful partnerships between scientists and decision makers. First, determining what makes for a successful product cannot be done in isolation by either scientists or users. The users may want something science cannot produce (e.g., accurate short-term earthquake predictions), while the scientists can fail to see that the product they know how to make may not be relevant to the decisions that need to be made. Real discussions with real exchange and absorption of information on both sides makes for the most useful products. Second, most scientific results need work beyond what belongs in a journal to create a product that can be used. This is not just a different style of communication, but analyses that focus on the community's local questions rather than on scientific advances. Third, probabilities of natural hazards almost never motivate action to mitigate. The probabilities are usually low on human time

  16. CODEX-aligned dietary fiber definitions help to bridge the 'fiber gap'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julie Miller

    2014-04-12

    A comprehensive dietary fiber (DF) definition was adopted by the CODEX Alimentarius Commission (CAC) (1) to reflect the current state of knowledge about DF, (2) to recognize that all substances that behave like fiber regardless of how they are produced can be named as DF if they show physiological benefits, and (3) to promote international harmonization for food labeling and food composition tables. This review gives the history and evolution of the state of DF knowledge as looked at by refinements in DF methods and definitions subsequent to the launch of the DF hypothesis. The refinements parallel both interventional and epidemiological research leading to better understanding of the role of DF in contributing to the numerous physiological benefits imparted by all the various digestion resistant carbohydrates. A comparison of the CODEX definition (including its footnote that authorizes the inclusion of polymers with DP 3-9) and approved CODEX Type 1 methods with other existing definitions and methods will point out differences and emphasize the importance of adoption of CODEX-aligned definitions by all jurisdictions. Such harmonization enables comparison of nutrition research, recommendations, food composition tables and nutrition labels the world over. A case will be made that fibers are analogous to vitamins, in that they vary in structure, function and amount needed, but each when present in the right amount contributes to optimal health. Since the intake of DF is significantly below recommended levels throughout the world, the recognition that 'all fibers fit' is an important strategy in bridging the 'fiber gap' by enfranchising and encouraging greater intake of foods with inherent and added DF. Fortifying foods with added DF makes it easier to increase intakes while maintaining calories at recommended levels.

  17. Modeling the soil system: Bridging the gap between pedology and soil-water physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braudeau, Erik; Mohtar, Rabi H.

    2009-05-01

    The biological and geochemical processes in soil such as organic matter mineralization, microbiological activity, and plant alimentation can be accurately assessed and modeled only with the knowledge of the thermodynamic status of the soil medium where these processes take place. However, current soil water models do not define and characterize the soil structure or the thermodynamic state of the soil water interacting with this structure. This article presents a new paradigm in characterizing and modeling the organized soil medium and the physical properties resulting from this organization. It describes a framework of the modeling approach as a contribution to the General Systems theory. The basic concept of Representative Elementary Volume (REV) in soil physics and hydrology was transformed into the concept of Structure Representative Volume (SREV) which takes into account the hierarchical organization of the structured soil medium. The pedostructure is defined as the SREV of the soil medium and this concept is at the basis of the new paradigm including variables, equations, parameters, and units in soil physics, in a similar way that the REV is at the basis of the continuous porous media mechanics applied to soils. The paradigm allows for a thermodynamic characterization of the structured soil medium with respect to soil water content then bridging the gap between pedology and soil physics. We show that the two points of view (REV and SREV) are complementary and must be used in the scaling of information. This approach leads to a new dimension in soil-water properties characterization that ensures a physically based modeling of processes in soil and the transfer of information from the physical scale of processes (pedostructure or laboratory measurements scale) to the application scale of the other disciplines (modeling and mapping scale).

  18. Integrated and ecosystemic approaches for bridging the gap between environmental management and port management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Onetti, Javier; Scherer, Marinez E G; Barragán, Juan Manuel

    2018-01-15

    The rapid exploitation of coastal and marine ecosystemic capital is on course to reach a critical point. The difficulty of implementing Integrated and ecosystem based management models, taking into the account the great complexity of the marine socio-ecological systems, has resulted in a significant gap between theory and practice. The majority of authors emphasize difficulties in engaging and convincing private stakeholders and a number of economic sectors involved in these processes. This reticence is traditionally more pronounced in the port sector, despite their important role in the transformation of coastal and marine areas. This paper seeks to establish bridges between the Environmental Management systems and Tools (EMT) of economic sectors and the Integrated and Ecosystem Based Management models (IEBM). To achieve this goal, an effort has been made to rethink concepts and principles traditionally used in EMT to bring them into line with those of IEBM. A DPSIR adapted framework is proposed and applied in a conceptual model, where the necessary elements for environmental management tools and ecosystemic models coexist. The logic of ecosystem services has been included, with special attention to the variable of human behaviour. How the proposals fit into the reality of the maritime-port sector was analysed in a transversal way, seeking Socio-Ecological Port System (SEPS) perspectives. This made it possible to move from Environmental Management Systems to an Integrated and Ecosystem Based Port Environmental Management System (PEMS-IEB). From a managerial perspective, it was also suggested that an additional DPSIR framework should be applied to the "response" component, the management system itself, understood as a system with its own elements, processes and interrelations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MAEviz: Seismic Risk Assessment Environment - bridging the gap between research and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, C.; Lee, J. S.; Tolbert, N.; Hampton, S.; McLaren, T.; Myers, J.

    2008-12-01

    In the field of hazard risk assessment, a new generation of tools is needed to allow researchers and practicing engineers the ability to leverage investments in new methodologies and software infrastructure while enabling customization to local conditions. MAEviz represents such a next generation of seismic risk assessment environment, based on the Mid-America Earthquake (MAE) Center research and designed to be extended, customized, and evolved to meet the needs of specific organizations and regions. It is built upon an extensible Open Services Gateway Initiative (OSGi) based GIS application platform and leverages distributed content management, workflow, and virtual-organization based design concepts. MAEviz has been developed as a collaboration between the Mid-America Earthquake (MAE) Center community and the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and is an implementation of the MAE Centers research Consequence-based Risk Management (CRM) methodology. MAEviz is open source and provides a modern GIS application interface with sophisticated visualization and reporting capabilities. It also incorporates mechanisms to integrate distributed data sources, provides approximately 50 reusable analyses, and has the ability to save and share scenarios to coordinate work in distributed teams. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platform (RCP) application, MAEviz is composed of multiple plugins and clearly defined extension points that leverage numerous open source libraries such as Geotools, iText, kTable, JFreeChart and the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) as well as middleware components developed at NCSA. This architecture enables MAEviz to rapidly be extended with new scientific analyses and allows reuse of the base GIS environment capabilities. MAEviz helps bridge the gap between researchers, practitioners and policy-makers by integrating the latest research findings and most accurate data, state-of-the-art methodologies in an extensible open source platform.

  20. Belgrade adolescent personality inventory: Bridging the gap between personality assessment in children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamonja-Ignjatović Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personality inventories for assessment and study temperament and character of adolescents, an age critical for the finalisation of both normal and pathological mental development, have not been specifically developed. In this paper, we introduce a new personality inventory based on Cloninger's Psychobiological model of personality to assess adolescents from 14 to 18 years of age (the Belgrade Adolescent Personality Inventory - BAPI, which bridges the gap between personality assessment in children and adults. The BAPI is a 46-item Likert scale inventory derived from previous studies using the TCI and JTCI on the Serbian sample. The psychometric properties of the BAPI were tested on the sample of 535 secondary school students in Serbia, aged 15 to 16. In order to assess the fit of the model, the Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was performed. The differences between sexes were analysed by MANOVA, while the Latent class analysis (LCA was applied in order to identify different adaptation profiles among adolescents. The BAPI scales had a satisfactory internal consistency (.66 - .80. considering the small number of items (5-6 in each scale. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA generally supported the main dimensions of temperament and character, as postulated by Cloninger. The only exception was Novelty Seeking, which best fitted a two-factor solution, Explorative curiosity and Impulsivity, separating the 'good' (curious, inquisitive, creative and 'bad' (impulsive, impatient, disorderly facets of this trait. Such polarity of Novelty Seeking could be specific for personality development and behaviour disorders in adolescence. The LCA differentiated the personality profiles of well-adapted adolescents from those at risk for maladaptation that manifested low character traits, lack of Persistence and high Novelty seeking Impulsivity subscale. The results support the construct validity of the BAPI and thus provide the basis for its practical application

  1. Bridging the gaps: a global review of intersections of violence against women and violence against children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Alessandra; Bott, Sarah; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Colombini, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Background The international community recognises violence against women (VAW) and violence against children (VAC) as global human rights and public health problems. Historically, research, programmes, and policies on these forms of violence followed parallel but distinct trajectories. Some have called for efforts to bridge these gaps, based in part on evidence that individuals and families often experience multiple forms of violence that may be difficult to address in isolation, and that violence in childhood elevates the risk of violence against women. Methods This article presents a narrative review of evidence on intersections between VAC and VAW – including sexual violence by non-partners, with an emphasis on low- and middle-income countries. Results We identify and review evidence for six intersections: 1) VAC and VAW have many shared risk factors. 2) Social norms often support VAW and VAC and discourage help-seeking. 3) Child maltreatment and partner violence often co-occur within the same household. 4) Both VAC and VAW can produce intergenerational effects. 5) Many forms of VAC and VAW have common and compounding consequences across the lifespan. 6) VAC and VAW intersect during adolescence, a time of heightened vulnerability to certain kinds of violence. Conclusions Evidence of common correlates suggests that consolidating efforts to address shared risk factors may help prevent both forms of violence. Common consequences and intergenerational effects suggest a need for more integrated early intervention. Adolescence falls between and within traditional domains of both fields and deserves greater attention. Opportunities for greater collaboration include preparing service providers to address multiple forms of violence, better coordination between services for women and for children, school-based strategies, parenting programmes, and programming for adolescent health and development. There is also a need for more coordination among researchers working on

  2. Bridging the energy gap through small and medium sized nuclear reactors in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, R.

    1987-01-01

    India is the only country in the world which is employing small sized nuclear reactors for its nuclear power programme. It has now embarked on a programme of augmenting the contribution of the nuclear power by way of employing both medium and small sized nuclear reactors in the next 15 years. This paper discusses the Indian experience and its efforts for industrial mobilisation for rapidly constructing 235/500 MWe nuclear reactor units in a period of about 8 to 9 years. The current energy situation in India and this context the near term role of nuclear power for supplementing the existing sources of commercial energy have been evaluated. Nuclear power has reached such a stage of maturity whereby it has now become a commercially viable source of electricity and it could be utilised on large scale to bridge the energy gap. At present six reactor units of 210/235 MWe capacity are in operation and eight more are in different stages of construction. While we are continuing with the construction of 235 MWe units, a programme of being pursued to construct 550 MWe capacity reactor units from midnineties onwards. This has become possible with the strengthening of regional electricity grids and simultaneous efforts undertaken for augmentation of fuel supply, heavy water production and industrial infrastructure. For a developing country like India, implementation of a sizable nuclear power programme has posed certain special challenges as major inputs are required to be made available with indigeneous efforts. This paper discusses such challenges and presents the ways and means adopted to surmount them. Other developing countries with conditions comparable to those in India could benefit from Indian experience in this regard. This paper also proposes India's willingness to cooperate with other countries for exchange of information and assistance in terms of technical knowhow. (author)

  3. Water2Invest: Global facility for calculating investments needed to bridge the climate-induced water gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jairus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Meijer, Karen; van Aalst, Maaike; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Decision makers responsible for climate change adaptation investments are confronted with large uncertainties regarding future water availability and water demand, as well as the investment cost required to reduce the water gap. Moreover, scientists have worked hard to increase fundamental knowledge on climate change and its impacts (climate services), while practical use of this knowledge is limited due to a lack of tools for decision support under uncertain long term future scenarios (decision services). The Water2Invest project aims are to (i) assess the joint impact of climate change and socioeconomic change on water scarcity, (ii) integrate impact and potential adaptation in one flow, (iii) prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. Global water availability is computed between 2006 and 2100 using the PCR-GLOBWB water resources model at a 6 minute spatial resolution. Climate change scenarios are based on the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the IPCC Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) that defines four CO2 emission scenarios as representative concentration pathways. Water demand is computed for agriculture, industry, domestic, and environmental requirements based on socio-economic scenarios of increase in population and gross domestic product. Using a linear programming algorithm, water is allocated on a monthly basis over the four sectors. Based on these assessments, the user can evaluate various technological and infrastructural adaptation measures to assess the investments needed to bridge the future water gap. Regional environmental and socioeconomic effects of these investments are evaluated, such as environmental flows or downstream effects. A scheme is developed to evaluate the strategies on robustness and flexibility under climate change and scenario uncertainty

  4. CDS, UX, and System Redesign - Promising Techniques and Tools to Bridge the Evidence Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this special issue of eGEMs, we explore the struggles related to bringing evidence into day-to-day practice, what I define as the "evidence gap." We are all aware of high quality evidence in the form of guidelines, randomized clinical trials for treatments and diagnostic tests, and clinical prediction rules, which are all readily available online. We also know that electronic health records (EHRs) are now ubiquitous in health care and in most practices across the country. How we marry this high quality evidence and the practice of medicine through effective decision support is a major challenge. All of the articles in this issue explore, in some fashion, CDS systems and how we can best bring providers and their work environment to the evidence. We are at the very early stages of the science of usability. Much more research and funding is needed in this area if we hope to improve the dissemination and implementation of evidence in practice. While the featured examples, techniques, and tools in the special issue are a promising start to improving usability and CDS, many of the papers highlight current gaps in knowledge and a great need for generalizable approaches. The great promise is for "learning" approaches to generate new evidence and to integrate this evidence in reliable, patient-centered ways at scale using new technology. Closing the evidence gap is a real possibility, but only if the community works together to innovate and invest in research on the best ways to disseminate, communicate, and implement evidence in practice.

  5. Bridging the Gap Between Validation and Implementation of Non-Animal Veterinary Vaccine Potency Testing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Currie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, technologically advanced high-throughput techniques have been developed that replace, reduce or refine animal use in vaccine quality control tests. Following validation, these tests are slowly being accepted for use by international regulatory authorities. Because regulatory acceptance itself has not guaranteed that approved humane methods are adopted by manufacturers, various organizations have sought to foster the preferential use of validated non-animal methods by interfacing with industry and regulatory authorities. After noticing this gap between regulation and uptake by industry, we began developing a paradigm that seeks to narrow the gap and quicken implementation of new replacement, refinement or reduction guidance. A systematic analysis of our experience in promoting the transparent implementation of validated non-animal vaccine potency assays has led to the refinement of our paradigmatic process, presented here, by which interested parties can assess the local regulatory acceptance of methods that reduce animal use and integrate them into quality control testing protocols, or ensure the elimination of peripheral barriers to their use, particularly for potency and other tests carried out on production batches.

  6. Bridging the Gap Between Validation and Implementation of Non-Animal Veterinary Vaccine Potency Testing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Samantha; Brown, Jeffrey; Currie, Alistair

    2011-11-29

    In recent years, technologically advanced high-throughput techniques have been developed that replace, reduce or refine animal use in vaccine quality control tests. Following validation, these tests are slowly being accepted for use by international regulatory authorities. Because regulatory acceptance itself has not guaranteed that approved humane methods are adopted by manufacturers, various organizations have sought to foster the preferential use of validated non-animal methods by interfacing with industry and regulatory authorities. After noticing this gap between regulation and uptake by industry, we began developing a paradigm that seeks to narrow the gap and quicken implementation of new replacement, refinement or reduction guidance. A systematic analysis of our experience in promoting the transparent implementation of validated non-animal vaccine potency assays has led to the refinement of our paradigmatic process, presented here, by which interested parties can assess the local regulatory acceptance of methods that reduce animal use and integrate them into quality control testing protocols, or ensure the elimination of peripheral barriers to their use, particularly for potency and other tests carried out on production batches.

  7. Bridging the Gap: The 'Soft Path' for Improving Resilience and Adaptability of Water Systems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2010-12-01

    The failure of traditional water management systems in the 20th century -- what I call the "hard path for water" -- is evident in several ways, including the persistent inability to meet basic human needs for safe water and adequate sanitation for vast populations, ongoing and accelerating aquatic ecosystem collapses , and growing political disputes over water allocation, management, and use, even in regions where substantial investment in water has been made. Progress in resolving these problems, especially in the face of unavoidable climate changes, growing populations, and constrained financial systems, will require bridging hydrologic and social sciences in new ways. Integrating social and cultural knowledge with new economic and technological tools and classical hydrologic and climatological sciences can produce a new “soft path for water” that offers the opportunity to move toward sustainable water systems. This talk will define the soft path for water and offer examples of innovative steps already being taken along that path in the western United States, South Africa, India, and elsewhere.

  8. Bridging the Gap: Who Takes a Gap Year and Why? Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, David D.; Mlotkowski, Peter; Lumsden, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Taking a break between completing high school and entering university is common overseas, and is becoming more popular in Australia. There are many reasons why young people take a gap year. It may be to travel, to take a break, to study, or to work. The authors' definition of a "gapper" is a young person who commenced university one to…

  9. Quality control and in-service inspection technology for hybrid-composite girder bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report describes efforts to develop quality control tools and in-service inspection technologies for the fabrication and construction of Hybrid Composite Beams (HCBs). HCBs are a new bridge technology currently being evaluated by the Missouri De...

  10. Ontology Design Patterns: Bridging the Gap Between Local Semantic Use Cases and Large-Scale, Long-Term Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Adam; Arko, Robert; Krisnadhi, Adila; Hitzler, Pascal; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Chandler, Cyndy; Narock, Tom; Cheatham, Michelle; Schildhauer, Mark; Jones, Matt; Raymond, Lisa; Mickle, Audrey; Finin, Tim; Fils, Doug; Carbotte, Suzanne; Lehnert, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    Integrating datasets for new use cases is one of the common drivers for adopting semantic web technologies. Even though linked data principles enables this type of activity over time, the task of reconciling new ontological commitments for newer use cases can be daunting. This situation was faced by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) as it sought to integrate its existing linked data with other data repositories to address newer scientific use cases as a partner in the GeoLink Project. To achieve a successful integration with other GeoLink partners, BCO-DMO's metadata would need to be described using the new ontologies developed by the GeoLink partners - a situation that could impact semantic inferencing, pre-existing software and external users of BCO-DMO's linked data. This presentation describes the process of how GeoLink is bridging the gap between local, pre-existing ontologies to achieve scientific metadata integration for all its partners through the use of ontology design patterns. GeoLink, an NSF EarthCube Building Block, brings together experts from the geosciences, computer science, and library science in an effort to improve discovery and reuse of data and knowledge. Its participating repositories include content from field expeditions, laboratory analyses, journal publications, conference presentations, theses/reports, and funding awards that span scientific studies from marine geology to marine ecology and biogeochemistry to paleoclimatology. GeoLink's outcomes include a set of reusable ontology design patterns (ODPs) that describe core geoscience concepts, a network of Linked Data published by participating repositories using those ODPs, and tools to facilitate discovery of related content in multiple repositories.

  11. Engineering design processes in seventh-grade classrooms: bridging the engineering education gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.; Hudson, Peter B.; Dawes, Les

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on some findings from the first year of a three-year longitudinal study, in which seventh- to ninth-graders were introduced to engineering education. Specifically, the paper addresses students' responses to an initial design activity involving bridge construction, which was implemented at the end of seventh grade. This paper also addresses how students created their bridge designs and applied these in their bridge constructions; their reflections on their designs; their reflections on why the bridge failed to support increased weights during the testing process; and their suggestions on ways in which they would improve their bridge designs. The present findings include identification of six, increasingly sophisticated levels of illustrated bridge designs, with designs improving between the classroom and homework activities of two focus groups of students. Students' responses to the classroom activity revealed a number of iterative design processes, where the problem goals, including constraints, served as monitoring factors for students' generation of ideas, design thinking and construction of an effective bridge.

  12. The BRIDGE project: bridging the gap between university and schools. Being Responsive to Individual Differences in General Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, K; Hewitt, M; Danforth, S

    1997-01-01

    BRIDGE (Being Responsive to Individual Differences in General Education) is a partnership between university faculty and two elementary schools, focusing on the collaborative practices and programs in general and special education. University faculty have adopted new roles as facilitators, rather than "experts," in working side by side with teachers seeking to increase their sense of professional efficacy. Teachers at the two sites collaborate with university faculty and each other in acquiring new information and practices within four initiative areas. The four initiatives, designed generally to support professional development toward meeting the needs of struggling students, are (a) collaboration between special and general education, (b) family liaisons, (c) teacher research, and (d) teacher education. University student teachers at these two schools receive their clinical education in settings ripe with teacher inquiry, collaboration, and ongoing development of new and creative strategies.

  13. Nano-catalysts: Bridging the gap between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Functionalized nanoparticles have emerged as sustainable alternatives to conventional materials, as robust, high-surface-area heterogeneous catalyst supports. We envisioned a catalyst system, which can bridge the homogenous and heterogeneous system. Postsynthetic surface modifica...

  14. Bridge continuous deformation measurement technology based on fiber optic gyro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Weibing; Hu, Wenbin; Liu, Fang; Tang, Jianguang; Li, Sheng; Yang, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Bridge is an important part of modern transportation systems and deformation is a key index for bridge's safety evaluation. To achieve the long span bridge curve measurement rapidly and timely and accurately locate the bridge maximum deformation, the continuous deformation measurement system (CDMS) based on inertial platform is presented and validated in this paper. Firstly, based on various bridge deformation measurement methods, the method of deformation measurement based on the fiber optic gyro (FOG) is introduced. Secondly, the basic measurement principle based on FOG is presented and the continuous curve trajectory is derived by the formula. Then the measurement accuracy is analyzed in theory and the relevant factors are presented to ensure the measurement accuracy. Finally, the deformation measurement experiments are conducted on a bridge across the Yangtze River. Experimental results show that the presented deformation measurement method is feasible, practical, and reliable; the system can accurately and quickly locate the maximum deformation and has extensive and broad application prospects.

  15. Bridging the data gap: engaging developing country farmers in greenhouse gas accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paustian, Keith

    2013-06-01

    of data on agricultural management practices in many developing countries using traditional top-down agency-directed surveys. So how do we overcome this critical data gap, which I would argue is a prerequisite for broad-based implementation of GHG mitigation policies and projects in the developing world. A potential answer—have the farmers tell us themselves! The explosive growth in mobile phone accessibility and use in developing countries has been widely noted and has begun to be exploited for a variety of purposes to support rural development (Qiang et al 2011). To date, applications have centered mainly on providing market information to farmers so that they can make more profitable decisions on where and when to market their products. Dissemination of advice, such as weather forecasts and management recommendations is another area of development. The use of mobile device technology for 'crowd-sourcing' of land management data to support local-scale greenhouse gas accounting is still very much 'on-the-drawing board' (Paustian 2012); however, several factors argue in favor of the viability of this type of approach. First, is the fact that many key variables driving agricultural emissions (e.g., fertilizer applications, manure management) cannot be obtained by means other than asking the farmers themselves—either by traditional survey methods or through self-reporting. Remote sensing can provide data on variables such as land cover and land cover change, as well as some 'within land cover' management variables such as crop species, crop residue coverage, extent and periodicity of flooding (e.g. for rice) (NAS 2010). However, these latter observations are still highly uncertain and particularly challenging in the heterogeneous, fine-grained, land use mosaics that are typical for small-holder agriculture in the tropics. Hence, most of the management information needed as activity data, e.g., land area farmed, amount, type and timing of fertilizer applied, tillage

  16. Bridging generation gaps in medical education : a "light bulb moment" at the Association for Medical Education in Europe annual conference in Barcelona

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Marjel; Noben, Cindy; Higgins, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Generation gaps have been described before and so have ways to deal with them. But they were mainly focused on the teachers. We would like to bridge these generation gaps, not only by creating awareness but also by learning from each other. This leads to better equipped doctors across all

  17. Hypoglycaemia and QT interval prolongation in type 1 diabetes - bridging the gap between clamp studies and spontaneous episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke F.; Cichosz, Simon Lebech; Tarnow, Lise

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: We propose a study design with controlled hypoglycaemia induced by subcutaneous injection of insulin and matched control episodes to bridge the gap between clamp studies and studies of spontaneous hypoglycaemia. The observed prolongation of the heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) during...... hypoglycaemia varies greatly between studies. METHODS: We studied ten adults with type 1 diabetes (age 41±15years) without cardiovascular disease or neuropathy. Single-blinded hypoglycaemia was induced by a subcutaneous insulin bolus followed by a control episode on two occasions separated by 4weeks. QT...

  18. The energy trilogy: An integrated sustainability model to bridge wastewater treatment plant energy and emissions gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Talibi, A. Adhim

    An estimated 4% of national energy consumption is used for drinking water and wastewater services. Despite the awareness and optimization initiatives for energy conservation, energy consumption is on the rise owing to population and urbanization expansion and to commercial and industrial business advancement. The principal concern is since energy consumption grows, the higher will be the energy production demand, leading to an increase in CO2 footprints and the contribution to global warming potential. This research is in the area of energy-water nexus, focusing on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) energy trilogy -- the group of three related entities, which includes processes: (1) consuming energy, (2) producing energy, and (3) the resulting -- CO2 equivalents. Detailed and measurable energy information is not readily obtained for wastewater facilities, specifically during facility preliminary design phases. These limitations call for data-intensive research approach on GHG emissions quantification, plant efficiencies and source reduction techniques. To achieve these goals, this research introduced a model integrating all plant processes and their pertinent energy sources. In a comprehensive and "Energy Source-to-Effluent Discharge" pattern, this model is capable of bridging the gaps of WWTP energy, facilitating plant designers' decision-making for meeting energy assessment, sustainability and the environmental regulatory compliance. Protocols for estimating common emissions sources are available such as for fuels, whereas, site-specific emissions for other sources have to be developed and are captured in this research. The dissertation objectives were met through an extensive study of the relevant literature, models and tools, originating comprehensive lists of processes and energy sources for WWTPs, locating estimation formulas for each source, identifying site specific emissions factors, and linking the sources in a mathematical model for site specific CO2 e

  19. Diffusion of Innovation Theory: A Bridge for the Research-Practice Gap in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christine E.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a diffusion of innovation theory-based framework for addressing the gap between research and practice in the counseling profession. The author describes the nature of the research-practice gap and presents an overview of diffusion of innovation theory. On the basis of the application of several major postulates of diffusion…

  20. Accounting Practitioners Reflect on Faculty Impact: Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    A gap exists between the perception of accounting education in the classroom and accounting as it is practiced. This study explores qualitatively the perceptions and experiences of mid-career accounting professionals with respect to the impact of academic faculty on their careers in accounting. The study identifies a perception gap in the…

  1. How Do You Measure Success? Academic Wholism Bridges the Gap between High School and College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Barbara A.; Sullivan, Judith L.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a research case study to ascertain the effect of a bridge program on fostering self-growth and academic readiness for college. Academic wholism provided the vehicle to promote self-awareness, self-motivation, and academic maturity. The rippling effect of this program extended beyond academics to the personal level. (Contains 2…

  2. Steel bridge fabrication technologies in Europe and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this scanning tour was to conduct a broad overview of newly developed manufacturing techniques that are in use abroad for steel bridge fabrication and erection. The trip focused on the role of steel production, design, innovation, an...

  3. Rapid bridge construction technology : precast elements for substructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The goal of this research was to propose an alternate system of precast bridge substructures which can : substitute for conventional cast in place systems in Wisconsin to achieve accelerated construction. : Three types of abutment modules (hollow wal...

  4. Poor need knowledge not only technology to bridge digital divide: experts

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Developing countries need to gain knowledge rather than technology to latch onto the booming information society, experts said Monday ahead of a major conference on bridging the digital divide between rich and poor" (1/2 page).

  5. NATO Transformation: Prospects for and Constraints on Bridging the Capability Gap

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baykal, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    The thesis analyzes the capability transformation process of NATO to measure the progress made by the European NATO member states in narrowing the capability gap between the United States and European forces...

  6. New institutional mechanisms to bridge the information gap between climate science and public policy decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W.; Gulledge, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    to encourage the development of multidisciplinary educational programs on the national security implications of climate change. 2. Federal agencies should establish funding programs to encourage producers to provide scientific information tailored to consumer needs. 3. The Department of State should appoint climate advisors to serve within the regional bureaus and on the policy and planning staff. 4. Federal agencies, the Department of Education, and the National Science Foundation should develop programs to stimulate new interdisciplinary research partnerships and training of a new generation of interdisciplinary climate change risk thinkers, assessors and managers. 5. Federal agencies should encourage Senior Executive Service decision makers to participate in science policy certi¬fication workshops and include science and technology policy as a core curricu¬lum component of the SES Federal Candidate Development Program. These recommendations are described in detail in a report published by the Center for a New American Security: Rogers, W. and J. Gulledge (2010) Lost in Translation: Closing the Gap Between Climate Science and National Security Policy (available online: http://cnas.org/node/4391)

  7. Bridging the Gap for High-Coherence, Strongly Coupled Superconducting Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jonilyn; Kim, David; Baldo, Peter; Day, Alexandra; Fitch, George; Holihan, Eric; Hover, David; Samach, Gabriel; Weber, Steven; Oliver, William

    Crossovers can play a critical role in increasing superconducting qubit device performance, as long as device coherence can be maintained even with the increased fabrication and circuit complexity. Specifically, crossovers can (1) enable a fully-connected ground plane, which reduces spurious modes and crosstalk in the circuit, and (2) increase coupling strength between qubits by facilitating interwoven qubit loops with large mutual inductances. Here we will describe our work at MIT Lincoln Laboratory to integrate superconducting air bridge crossovers into the fabrication of high-coherence capacitively-shunted superconducting flux qubits. We will discuss our process flow for patterning air bridges by resist reflow, and we will describe implementation of air bridges within our circuits. This research was funded in part by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.

  8. Imperatives of Bridging the Audit Expectation Gap and Enhancing the Credibility of Corporate Financial Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Otalor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available he study sought to ascertain if reducing the audit expectation gap would led to greater public confidence in corporate financial information. Self-administered questionnaires were used in the study. The data generated from the responses of the subjects were analyzed using descriptive and statistical analysis through the computer (Eview3.1.   The result showed that the higher the audit expectation gap, the higher the negative impact on the credibility of corporate financial reports. Thus, audit expectation gap creates doubt on the reliability of financial statements. Based on the findings and conclusion, it was recommended that the scope of auditors’ responsibilities should be expanded; companies should create a forum for regular interface between management, auditors and financial statement users to enhance confidence in financial reports and strengthening the audit committee and regulatory oversight of auditors to enhance their respective performances.

  9. Bridging the gap between theories of sensory cue integration and the physiology of multisensory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetsch, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    The richness of perceptual experience, as well as its usefulness for guiding behavior, depends upon the synthesis of information across multiple senses. Recent decades have witnessed a surge in our understanding of how the brain combines sensory signals, or cues. Much of this research has been guided by one of two distinct approaches, one driven primarily by neurophysiological observations, the other guided by principles of mathematical psychology and psychophysics. Conflicting results and interpretations have contributed to a conceptual gap between psychophysical and physiological accounts of cue integration, but recent studies of visual-vestibular cue integration have narrowed this gap considerably. PMID:23686172

  10. Photonic band gap materials: Technology, applications and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johri, M.; Ahmed, Y.A.; Bezboruah, T.

    2006-05-01

    Last century has been the age of Artificial Materials. One material that stands out in this regard is the semiconductor. The revolution in electronic industry in the 20th century was made possible by the ability of semiconductors to microscopically manipulate the flow of electrons. Further advancement in the field made scientists suggest that the new millennium will be the age of photonics in which artificial materials will be synthesized to microscopically manipulate the flow of light. One of these will be Photonic Band Gap material (PBG). PBG are periodic dielectric structures that forbid propagation of electromagnetic waves in a certain frequency range. They are able to engineer most fundamental properties of electromagnetic waves such as the laws of refraction, diffraction, and emission of light from atoms. Such PBG material not only opens up variety of possible applications (in lasers, antennas, millimeter wave devices, efficient solar cells photo-catalytic processes, integrated optical communication etc.) but also give rise to new physics (cavity electrodynamics, localization, disorder, photon-number-state squeezing). Unlike electronic micro-cavity, optical waveguides in a PBG microchip can simultaneously conduct hundreds of wavelength channels of information in a three dimensional circuit path. In this article we have discussed some aspects of PBG materials and their unusual properties, which provided a foundation for novel practical applications ranging from clinical medicine to information technology. (author)

  11. Bridging the gap between basic and applied biology: towards preclinical translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross L. Cagan

    2013-05-01

    To better translate basic research findings into the clinic, we are moving away from the traditional one-gene–one-phenotype model towards the discovery of complex mechanisms. In this Editorial, the new Editor-in-Chief and Senior Editors of Disease Models & Mechanisms (DMM discuss the role that the journal will play in this transition. DMM will continue to provide a platform for studies that bridge basic and applied science, and, by demanding the rigorous assessment of animal models of disease, will help drive the establishment of robust standards of preclinical testing for drug development.

  12. Bridging the Gap between Polymer Melts and Solutions in Extensional Rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Hengeller, Ludovica; Alvarez, Nicolas J.

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception, the tube model of polymer dynamics has undergone several modifications to account for observed experimental trends. One trend that has yet to be captured by a modified version of the tube model is the observed experimental difference between concentrated polymer solutions...... per chain and are diluted in the same solvent (oligomeric styrene). We show that the difference in nonlinear rheological behavior between polystyrene melts reported by Bach et al.1 and polystyrene solutions reported by Bhattacharjee et al.2 and Sridhar et al.3 can be bridged by changing...... the polystyrene concentration. The results presented represent a unique benchmark for all future modifications to the tube model....

  13. Seam gap bridging of laser based processes for the welding of aluminium sheets for industrial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalderink, B.J.; Aalderink, Benno; Pathiraj, B.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Laser welding has a large potential for the production of tailor welded blanks in the automotive industry, due to the low heat input and deep penetration. However, due to the small laser spot and melt pool, laser-based welding processes in general have a low tolerance for seam gaps. In this paper,

  14. Bridging the gap: exploring the attitudes and beliefs of nurses and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Further research is required to understand which illnesses are primarily seen as traditional, how this gap can be effectively addressed, and how different healthcare co-delivery models can best be utilised and evaluated. Keywords: health worker, traditional health care, biomedical health care, culture ...

  15. Experiencing biodiversity as a bridge over the science-society communication gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinard, Yves; Quétier, Fabien

    2014-06-01

    Drawing on the idea that biodiversity is simply the diversity of living things, and that everyone knows what diversity and living things mean, most conservation professionals eschew the need to explain the many complex ways in which biodiversity is understood in science. On many biodiversity-related issues, this lack of clarity leads to a communication gap between science and the general public, including decision makers who must design and implement biodiversity policies. Closing this communication gap is pivotal to the ability of science to inform sound environmental decision making. To address this communication gap, we propose a surrogate of biodiversity for communication purposes that captures the scientific definition of biodiversity yet can be understood by nonscientists; that is, biodiversity as a learning experience. The prerequisites of this or any other biodiversity communication surrogate are that it should have transdisciplinary relevance; not be measurable; be accessible to a wide audience; be usable to translate biodiversity issues; and understandably encompass biodiversity concepts. Biodiversity as a learning experience satisfies these prerequisites and is philosophically robust. More importantly, it can effectively contribute to closing the communication gap between biodiversity science and society at large. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Bridging English Language Learner Achievement Gaps through Effective Vocabulary Development Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Despite a well-documented history of immigration in the United States of America and rise in population of students that speak a language other than English, academic achievement gaps between English Language Learners and their native English language speaking counterparts from Grades Pre-Kindergarten through the college/university level still…

  17. Bridging the Rural-Urban Literacy Gap in China: A Mediation Analysis of Family Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingying; Li, Hui; Wang, Dan

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effects of family involvement on the literacy gap between rural and urban Chinese primary students via mediation analysis. Altogether, 1080 students in Grades 1, 3, and 5 were randomly sampled from three urban and three rural primary schools from Shandong and Guizhou Provinces, representing eastern and western China,…

  18. Bridging the Gap between Higher Education and the Telecommunications Engineering Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sajid Sheikh; Aurangzeb, Muhammad; Tarique, Imtiaz

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the growth of the telecommunication sector in Pakistan and consequent development in the related professional education is studied. The widening gap between the telecommunication industry and associated education sector is identified. The higher educational programs in Pakistan have grown very rapidly to meet the needs of the…

  19. Bridging the Gap between Accounting Students and the Profession: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightweis, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the gap between accounting educators and the profession. Research indicates accounting graduates are underprepared for this challenging career. The issue stems from accounting educators who only lecture and accounting students who memorize the information provided in these lectures. Accounting students need opportunities to…

  20. Bridging the gaps: An overview of wood across time and space in diverse rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    Nearly 50 years of research focused on large wood (LW) in rivers provide a basis for understanding how wood enters rivers; how wood decays, breaks, and is transported downstream; and how at least temporarily stable wood influences channel geometry, fluxes of water, sediment, and organic matter, and the abundance and diversity of aquatic and riparian organisms. Field-based studies have led to qualitative conceptual models and to numerical stimulations of river processes involving wood. Numerous important gaps remain, however, in our understanding of wood dynamics. The majority of research on wood in rivers focuses on small- to medium-sized rivers, defined using the ratio of wood piece size to channel width as channels narrower than the locally typical wood-piece length (small) and slightly narrower than the longer wood pieces present (medium). Although diverse geographic regions and biomes are represented by one or a few studies in each region, the majority of research comes from perennial rivers draining temperate conifer forests. Regional syntheses most commonly focus on the Pacific Northwest region of North America where most of these studies originate. Consequently, significant gaps in our understanding include lack of knowledge of wood-related processes in large rivers, dryland rivers, and rivers of the high and low latitudes. Using a wood budget as an organizing framework, this paper identifies other gaps related to wood recruitment, transport, storage, and how beavers influence LW dynamics. With respect to wood recruitment, we lack information on the relative importance of mass tree mortality and transport of buried or surficial downed wood from the floodplain into the channel in diverse settings. Knowledge gaps related to wood transport include transport distances of LW and thresholds for LW mobility in small to medium rivers. With respect to wood storage, we have limited data on longitudinal trends in LW loads within unaltered large and great rivers and on

  1. Stand up and Speak Out: Professional Training Can Help Bridge the Science Communication Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, E.; Simler Smith, B.; Baron, N.

    2011-12-01

    Science and technology have become firmly entrenched in our daily lives, and as a society we depend on this advanced knowledge in order to maintain - and improve - our standard of living. At the same time, social media and other advanced tools have made it easier than ever to communicate scientific findings to a wide and diverse audience. Yet herein lies a paradox: evidence shows that scientific literacy among the general public remains frustratingly low. Why does this gap remain, given such a seemingly fertile climate for scientific literacy? The answer to this question is complex, but a historical lack of communications training and support for scientists is unquestionably a part of it. Effectively explaining research findings - and why they are important - to journalists, policymakers, and other non-scientists requires specific skills that aren't accounted for in most graduate programs. For decades, in fact, scientific institutions have made communications a very low priority. Some have even discouraged outreach for fear of backlash or out of reluctance to sacrifice research time. There are indications that the culture is shifting, however. The integration of formal, for-credit communications training into graduate curricula is one promising sign. Also, professional, extracurricular communications training is now readily available from a number of sources. COMPASS (the Communication Partnership for Science and the Sea) has pioneered this latter model for more than a decade, both independently and as the lead communication trainers for the prestigious Aldo Leopold Leadership Program. Working with some of the most accomplished marine and environmental scientists in North America and beyond, COMPASS has helped equip the community with the tools to make their science clear, compelling and relevant for non-scientist audiences. We have led communication workshops for scientists at all career levels - from beginning graduate students to tenured senior faculty. A key to

  2. Case Studies in Exercise and Sport Sciences: A Powerful Tool to Bridge the Science-Practice Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Israel

    2018-03-27

    Despite the progress made by the scientific exercise community in collaborating and communicating with non-scientist coaches, there is room for improvement. Coaches find research difficult to understand, feel that their interests are not being addressed by exercise research, and rely on peer-discussion to further their coaching knowledge base while consuming little peer-reviewed articles. One useful strategy to bridge the science-practice gap is with case-studies. In addition to furthering our understanding of the physiology, psychology, and training schedules of elite athletes, case studies can serve 1) as a useful communication channel with coaches if presented as narratives and 2) to establish and strengthen relationships between scientists and coaches leading to fruitful research collaborations. The purpose of this invited commentary is to discuss these two less-recognized benefits of case-studies, and propose a way to incorporate case-studies more frequently alongside group-based studies.

  3. Photochemical stability and photovoltaic performance of low-band gap polymers based on dithiophene with different bridging atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgesen, Martin; Sørensen, Thomas J.; Manceau, Matthieu

    2011-01-01

    New low-band gap polymers based on dithienylbenzothiadiazole (DBT) and dithiophene with different bridging atoms have been synthesized and explored in a comparative study on the photochemical stability and photovoltaic performance. Two differently modified DBT units were exploited, namely 5,6- bis...... indicating greater interchain packing when the side chains are situated on the thienyl groups compared to on the benzothiadiazole unit. The best photovoltaic devices based on blends of polymer and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were prepared with polymers based on the DBT1 unit giving...... efficiencies up to 2.3%. The photochemical stability was measured by the amount of absorbed photons under 1 sun versus the ageing time for each polymer, which clearly shows that the two polymers containing a 4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H- cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b′]dithiophene (CPDT) unit are by far the most unstable...

  4. Wise Additions Bridge the Gap between Social Psychology and Clinical Practice: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as an Exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Johanna B; Disabato, David J; Goodman, Fallon R; Carter, Sarah P; DiMauro, Jennifer C; Riskind, John H

    2016-01-01

    Progress in clinical science, theory, and practice requires the integration of advances from multiple fields of psychology, but much integration remains to be done. The current article seeks to address the specific gap that exists between basic social psychological theories and the implementation of related therapeutic techniques. We propose several "wise additions," based upon the principles outlined by Walton (2014), intended to bridge current social psychological research with clinical psychological therapeutic practice using cognitive behavioral therapy as an example. We consider how recent advances in social psychological theories can inform the development and implementation of wise additions in clinical case conceptualization and interventions. We specifically focus on self and identity, self-affirmation, transference, social identity, and embodied cognition, five dominant areas of interest in the field that have clear clinical applications.

  5. Bridging the Research to Practice Gap: A Case Study Approach to Understanding EIBI Supports and Barriers in Swedish Preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise ROLL-PETTERSSON

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined proximal and distal barriers and supports within the Swedish service system that may affect implementation of early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI for children with autism. A case study approach with roots in ethnography was chosen to explore this issue. Two preschools exemplifying ‘high quality practice’ were studied and information was collected through multiple sources during a 12 month period, this included participant observations, direct observations, semi-structured interviews with key informants; paraprofessionals, parents, special educators, habilitation specialists and a focus group interview. Interview transcripts and field notes were combined and analyzed using an abductive grounded theory approach. Findings highlight the relevance of researchers understanding and taking into consideration the effect that distal variables have on implementation within proximal settings. A theoretical model of factors affecting implementation was conceptualised to include: staff entry knowledge and competence, development through supervision, the role of the preschool administrator, as well as distal influences and inter-organizational tensions, values, and bridges. Findings are discussed within the context of implementation science. Implications for future research are discussed as well as areas in need of further development to bridge the gap between research and practice.

  6. Bridging the Gap: using an interrupted time series design to evaluate systems reform addressing refugee maternal and child health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Jane; Riggs, Elisha; Szwarc, Josef; Casey, Sue; Dawson, Wendy; Vanpraag, Dannielle; East, Chris; Wallace, Euan; Teale, Glyn; Harrison, Bernie; Petschel, Pauline; Furler, John; Goldfeld, Sharon; Mensah, Fiona; Biro, Mary Anne; Willey, Sue; Cheng, I-Hao; Small, Rhonda; Brown, Stephanie

    2015-04-30

    The risk of poor maternal and perinatal outcomes in high-income countries such as Australia is greatest for those experiencing extreme social and economic disadvantage. Australian data show that women of refugee background have higher rates of stillbirth, fetal death in utero and perinatal mortality compared with Australian born women. Policy and health system responses to such inequities have been slow and poorly integrated. This protocol describes an innovative programme of quality improvement and reform in publically funded universal health services in Melbourne, Australia, that aims to address refugee maternal and child health inequalities. A partnership of 11 organisations spanning health services, government and research is working to achieve change in the way that maternity and early childhood health services support families of refugee background. The aims of the programme are to improve access to universal health care for families of refugee background and build organisational and system capacity to address modifiable risk factors for poor maternal and child health outcomes. Quality improvement initiatives are iterative, co-designed by partners and implemented using the Plan Do Study Act framework in four maternity hospitals and two local government maternal and child health services. Bridging the Gap is designed as a multi-phase, quasi-experimental study. Evaluation methods include use of interrupted time series design to examine health service use and maternal and child health outcomes over a 3-year period of implementation. Process measures will examine refugee families' experiences of specific initiatives and service providers' views and experiences of innovation and change. It is envisaged that the Bridging the Gap program will provide essential evidence to support service and policy innovation and knowledge about what it takes to implement sustainable improvements in the way that health services support vulnerable populations, within the constraints

  7. Bridging the Legitimacy Gap: A Proposal for the International Legal Recognition of INGOs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrandardottir, Erla; Keating, Vincent Charles

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we argue that there is a gap between the de facto and de jure legitimacy of international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) that requires more consideration from scholars who study their role in the international system. The gradual acceptance of INGOs as de facto legitimate ac...... on the principles that underpin the regulation of charities in English law as a first step in a gradualist argument for the institution of their international de jure legitimacy....

  8. Bridging the theory and practise gap in emergency services research: the case for a new journal

    OpenAIRE

    Wankhade, P; Murphy, P

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The paper aims to provide the rationale underpinning this new journal in addressing the apparent gap and fragmented nature of the emergency services research, to introduce the papers in this inaugural issue and encourage readers and potential contributors to support the International Journal of Emergency Services (IJES). Design/methodology/approach - The paper introduces the new journal to outline the current "silos approach" which isolates the academic and practitioner community. I...

  9. Bridging the gap: global disparity processing in the human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottereau, Benoit R; McKee, Suzanne P; Norcia, Anthony M

    2012-05-01

    The human stereoscopic system is remarkable in its ability to utilize widely separated features as references to support fine depth discrimination. In a search for possible neural substrates of this ability, we recorded high-density EEG and used a distributed inverse technique to estimate population-level disparity responses in five regions of interest (ROIs): V1, V3A, hMT+, V4, and lateral occipital complex (LOC). The stimulus was a central modulating disk surrounded by a correlated "reference" annulus presented in the fixation plane. We varied a gap separating the disk from the annulus parametrically from 0 to 5.5° as a test of long-range disparity integration. In the V1, LOC, and hMT+ ROIs, the responses with gaps >0.5° were equal to those obtained in a control condition where the surround was composed of uncorrelated noise (no reference). By contrast, in the V4 and V3A ROIs, responses with gaps as large as 5.5° were still significantly higher than the control. As a test of the spatial distribution of the disparity reference information, we manipulated the properties of the stimulus by placing noise between the center and the surround or throughout the surround. The V3A ROI was particularly sensitive to disparity noise between the center and annulus regions, suggesting an important contribution of disparity edge detectors in this ROI.

  10. Crossing Boundaries and Bridging Gaps: Thoughts on Relationships Between Ethnomusicology And Music Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Clayton

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Judith Becker’s contribution highlights the timely issue of interdisciplinary interaction between ethnomusicology and music psychology, with its attendant opportunities and difficulties. My response aims to first of all place this issue in the historical context of disciplinary development and differentiation. As for the present-day situation, I argue that for interdisciplinary engagement to be productive, bridges need to be built between pockets of interest on both sides of the disciplinary divide. The difficulties faced by Becker do not in my view suggest that there is no appetite on the psychology side of the divide for interdisciplinary exchange, although they do highlight some of the barriers to such communication.

  11. Community Colleges Bridge a Tech Gap with Cellphones and Summer Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Dan

    2007-01-01

    When the League for Innovation in the Community College held its annual technology conference here last week it drew about 2,350 participants, live and in person. People came from 374 colleges around the country and overseas, and listened to faculty members and technology officials discuss new teaching techniques using gadgets like cell phones.…

  12. Bridging the gap from university research to high-tech venture via experienced entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Murdock, Karen

    2015-01-01

    We report a new model for development of sustainable growth companies based on research from universities via systematic collaboration with experienced, external entrepreneurs having spin-out experience and market insight. The research has identified university structures that support the spinning...... out of new companies as well as the influence of technology characteristics and technology transfer units....

  13. Bridging the Gap Between Policy and Research Infrastructure: Risk and Vulnerability Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim; Rogers, Annabelle

    2017-04-01

    IPCC for translating climate science into policy - (IPCC, 2007), or less formally - such as the move to develop Essential Biodiversity Variables, loosely designed to support Aichi Targets (Pereira et al., 2013) or the UN Sustainable Development Goals (UN, 2016). In the paper, we examine a number of these frameworks, map them onto a generic framework for the translation of research output into policy and decision support, and discuss an example from the South African Risk and Vulnerability Atlas in detail. References Craig R. Fox & Sim B. Sitkin (2015). Bridging the divide between behavioral science & policy, Behavioral Science & Policy, Spring 2015, https://behavioralpolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/1-1/Bridging-the-divide-between-behavioral-science-and-policy.pdf IPCC (2007). Conceptual framework for the identification and assessment of key vulnerabilities, https://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch19s19-1-2.html Pereira et al. (2013). Essential Biodiversity Variables, Science 18 Jan 2013: Vol. 339, Issue 6117, pp. 277-278 DOI: 10.1126/science.1229931 Preston, B.L., Mustelin, J. & Maloney, M.C. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change (2015) 20: 467. doi:10.1007/s11027-013-9503-x Reid WV (2004) Bridging the Science-Policy Divide. PLoS Biol 2(2): e27. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020027 UN (2016). Sustainable Development Goals, http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/

  14. Organisational Strategies to Bridge the Theological Language Gap : Exploring the Youth Ministry Practice of New Ecclesial Movements through Case Study Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    The-Mertens, Stephie

    2017-01-01

    (Theological) language is an important theme in youth ministry. Conveying the Gospel message entails making it accessible and understandable to young people. Thus, it is important to bridge the theological language gap that can exist between organisers and young people in New Ecclesial Movements

  15. Bridging the Experiential Learning Gap: An Evaluation of the Impacts of Ulster University's Senior Student Tutoring Scheme on First Year Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Martin D.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004-05 first year students at the School of Environmental Sciences, Ulster University have engaged with senior student tutors (SSTs) in workshop activities aimed at preparations for their written examinations. Using a pedagogical action research methodology we evaluated the role of SSTs in bridging the experiential learning gap between…

  16. Establishment of medical education upon internalization of virtue ethics: bridging the gap between theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Mansoureh; Larijani, Bagher; Madani, Ensieh; Ghasemzadeh, Nazafarin

    2017-01-01

    During medical training, students obtain enough skills and knowledge. However, medical ethics accomplishes its goals when, together with training medical courses, it guides students behavior towards morality so that ethics-oriented medical practice is internalized. Medical ethics is a branch of applied ethics which tries to introduce ethics into physicians' practice and ethical decisions; thus, it necessitates the behavior to be ethical. Therefore, when students are being trained, they need to be supplied with those guidelines which turn ethical instructions into practice to the extent possible. The current text discusses the narrowing of the gap between ethical theory and practice, especially in the field of medical education. The current study was composed using analytical review procedures. Thus, classical ethics philosophy, psychology books, and related articles were used to select the relevant pieces of information about internalizing behavior and medical education. The aim of the present study was to propose a theory by analyzing the related articles and books. The attempt to fill the gap between medical theory and practice using external factors such as law has been faced with a great deal of limitations. Accordingly, the present article tries to investigate how and why medical training must take internalizing ethical instructions into consideration, and indicate the importance of influential internal factors. Virtue-centered education, education of moral emotions, changing and strengthening of attitudes through education, and the wise use of administrative regulations can be an effective way of teaching ethical practice in medicine.

  17. Bridging the gap: parkour athletes provide new insights into locomotion energetics of arboreal apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Lewis G; Coward, Samuel R L; Thorpe, Susannah K S

    2016-11-01

    The tree canopy is an energetically challenging environment to traverse. Along with compliant vegetation, gaps in the canopy can prove energetically costly if they force a route-extending detour. Arboreal apes exhibit diverse locomotion strategies, including for gap crossing. Which one they employ in any given scenario may be influenced by the energy costs to do so, which are affected by the details of the immediate environment in combination with their body size. Measuring energetics of arboreal apes is not tractable; thus our knowledge in this area is limited. We devised a novel, custom-made experimental set-up to record the energy expenditure of parkour athletes tree-swaying, jumping and vertical climbing. The latter strategy was vastly more expensive, indicating that when energy economy is the focus arboreal apes will prioritize routes that limit height changes. Whether tree-swaying or jumping was most economical for the athletes depended upon interactions between tree stiffness, the distance to cross, number of tree-sways required and their own mass. Updated analysis of previous interspecific correlations suggests that whether the relative costs to vertical climb are size-invariant across primate species is complicated by details of the climbing context. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Bridging the gap: parkour athletes provide new insights into locomotion energetics of arboreal apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Samuel R. L.; Thorpe, Susannah K. S.

    2016-01-01

    The tree canopy is an energetically challenging environment to traverse. Along with compliant vegetation, gaps in the canopy can prove energetically costly if they force a route-extending detour. Arboreal apes exhibit diverse locomotion strategies, including for gap crossing. Which one they employ in any given scenario may be influenced by the energy costs to do so, which are affected by the details of the immediate environment in combination with their body size. Measuring energetics of arboreal apes is not tractable; thus our knowledge in this area is limited. We devised a novel, custom-made experimental set-up to record the energy expenditure of parkour athletes tree-swaying, jumping and vertical climbing. The latter strategy was vastly more expensive, indicating that when energy economy is the focus arboreal apes will prioritize routes that limit height changes. Whether tree-swaying or jumping was most economical for the athletes depended upon interactions between tree stiffness, the distance to cross, number of tree-sways required and their own mass. Updated analysis of previous interspecific correlations suggests that whether the relative costs to vertical climb are size-invariant across primate species is complicated by details of the climbing context. PMID:27881766

  19. Establishment of medical education upon internalization of virtue ethics: bridging the gap between theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Mansoureh; Larijani, Bagher; Madani, Ensieh; Ghasemzadeh, Nazafarin

    2017-01-01

    During medical training, students obtain enough skills and knowledge. However, medical ethics accomplishes its goals when, together with training medical courses, it guides students behavior towards morality so that ethics-oriented medical practice is internalized. Medical ethics is a branch of applied ethics which tries to introduce ethics into physicians’ practice and ethical decisions; thus, it necessitates the behavior to be ethical. Therefore, when students are being trained, they need to be supplied with those guidelines which turn ethical instructions into practice to the extent possible. The current text discusses the narrowing of the gap between ethical theory and practice, especially in the field of medical education. The current study was composed using analytical review procedures. Thus, classical ethics philosophy, psychology books, and related articles were used to select the relevant pieces of information about internalizing behavior and medical education. The aim of the present study was to propose a theory by analyzing the related articles and books. The attempt to fill the gap between medical theory and practice using external factors such as law has been faced with a great deal of limitations. Accordingly, the present article tries to investigate how and why medical training must take internalizing ethical instructions into consideration, and indicate the importance of influential internal factors. Virtue-centered education, education of moral emotions, changing and strengthening of attitudes through education, and the wise use of administrative regulations can be an effective way of teaching ethical practice in medicine. PMID:29282423

  20. Questions Students Ask: Bridging the gap between scientists and students in a research institute classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Bev; Bay, Jacquie L.

    2010-01-01

    It was proposed that an analysis of the questions students anticipate asking, and ask, could provide information about an enculturation encounter between Year 13 biology students and scientists working in a biomedical-clinical research unit. As part of a day-long intervention at this research institute, small groups of students (10-15) met with scientists (two) for a 15-minute discussion period. Pre- and post-questionnaires from 398 students provided data on intended, and judged best questions that were categorised and analysed into five categories: nature of science, science information, citizen decisions, personal, and no response/other. Chi Square analysis showed that students' areas of interest shifted to a personal perspective as a result of the intervention. Twenty students were interviewed who provided explanations for their questions. Analysis of their responses showed students were: developing an understanding of scientific practice as a journey, making identity links, using the personal as a knowledge bridge, acknowledging a commonality of values, and demonstrating that such an enculturation can be a transformative experience. These students engaged with a community of scientists at a physical, cognitive, and personal level. Physically they engaged with the practice of science in the laboratory, cognitively they were able to develop an understanding about how science knowledge was developed, and personally they were able to identify with science and scientists. The shift in students' questions showed that the intervention influenced their views on science and scientists to a broader understanding of scientific literacy.

  1. The Oxygen Dissociation Curve of Hemoglobin: Bridging the Gap between Biochemistry and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cambronero, Julian

    2001-06-01

    Cooperativity is a very difficult concept for biochemistry students in the health sciences. An analogy between breaking salt bonds and tearing apart a block of four stamps has been proposed for hemoglobin (Hb). However, since tearing is equated to binding of molecules, two intrinsically contradictory terms, students still have difficulty. I apply the pictorial analogy to the releasing of oxygen instead of the binding, thus bridging biochemistry (cooperativity) with physiology (oxygen dissociation). I embark on an imaginary journey from the lungs (saturation at 100 mmHg) to the oxygen-starved tissues. The stamps represent fully loaded Hb. By making two cuts the first "oxygen" is released. For the second, only one cut is needed. With one final cut, the last two stamps are separated. This means that less energy is needed to unload oxygen: just small drops in partial pressure do the trick in the right place (tissues) but not in the wrong one (lungs). In doing this, I use the three main models of learning: association, discovery and mentoring. Additionally, by guiding students to discover the truth by themselves, I can use hemoglobin as a wonderful excuse to apply the "Socratic method" in the classroom.

  2. An influence of technological contraflexure of crane bridges on its durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur BLUM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard requirements till 1996 year during bridge crane manufacturing demanded a positive technological contraflexure. As a result of this process were implemented technological compressive stress into tensile zone from inertial and operational loads and tensile stress into compressive zone. This way there were redistributed resultant stress which have increased fatigue strength of exploited crane bridges. Actually valid standard PN-ISO 7363 has removed this obligatory requirement. Its use depends of crane buyer demands. Reduction of initial positive deflection can be seen after few years of crane operations. It is a case of girders permanent deflections increment. Article presents method of technological prestressing of bridge girders with its practical application to obtain positive contrafexure.

  3. Bridging the Otolaryngology Peer Review Knowledge Gap: A Call for a Residency Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalbach, Cecelia E

    2016-07-01

    Current otolaryngology literature and future scientific direction rely heavily on a rigorous peer review process. Just as manuscripts warrant thoughtful review with constructive feedback to the authors, the same can be said for critiques written by novice peer reviewers. Formal scientific peer review training programs are lacking. Recognizing this knowledge gap, Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery is excited to offer its new Resident Reviewer Development Program. All otolaryngology residents who are postgraduate year 2 and above and in excellent academic standing are eligible to participate in this mentored program, during which they will conduct 6 manuscript reviews under the direction of a seasoned reviewer in his or her subspecialty area of interest. By completing reviews alongside a mentor, participants gain the required skills to master the peer review process-a first step that often leads to journal editorial board and associate editor invitations. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  4. Bridging the gap between empirical results, actual strategies, and developmental programs in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, António J; Gonçalves, Carlos E; Tessitore, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Being one of the most prominent globalized sports, soccer played at club, national, and continental levels has a relevant societal role. At present, the specific competencies, interests, and languages of the different actors involved in the selection, development, and support of long-lasting careers of players might limit opportunities for potential talented players. Unless the cultural environment of soccer resolves the gaps between empirical results and actual soccer strategies, scientific discussion relating to the effectiveness of talent selection and development remains limited. This commentary is intended to highlight the need for developmental programs to prepare soccer personnel for a transdisciplinary dialogue, which could foster a future development of this sport. Finally, in considering the wide soccer-related employment opportunities at local, national, and international levels, the need for a clear qualification framework is crucial.

  5. Integrating Research Into Clinical Internship Training Bridging the Science/Practice Gap in Pediatric Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirito, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a “capstone experience”; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the “business of science.” Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists. PMID:22286345

  6. Mitochondrial Haplotype Diversity in Zambian Lions: Bridging a Gap in the Biogeography of an Iconic Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Caitlin J; White, Paula A; Derr, James N

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of DNA sequence diversity at the 12S to 16S mitochondrial genes of 165 African lions (Panthera leo) from five main areas in Zambia has uncovered haplotypes which link Southern Africa with East Africa. Phylogenetic analysis suggests Zambia may serve as a bridge connecting the lion populations in southern Africa to eastern Africa, supporting earlier hypotheses that eastern-southern Africa may represent the evolutionary cradle for the species. Overall gene diversity throughout the Zambian lion population was 0.7319 +/- 0.0174 with eight haplotypes found; three haplotypes previously described and the remaining five novel. The addition of these five novel haplotypes, so far only found within Zambia, nearly doubles the number of haplotypes previously reported for any given geographic location of wild lions. However, based on an AMOVA analysis of these haplotypes, there is little to no matrilineal gene flow (Fst = 0.47) when the eastern and western regions of Zambia are considered as two regional sub-populations. Crossover haplotypes (H9, H11, and Z1) appear in both populations as rare in one but common in the other. This pattern is a possible result of the lion mating system in which predominately males disperse, as all individuals with crossover haplotypes were male. The determination and characterization of lion sub-populations, such as done in this study for Zambia, represent a higher-resolution of knowledge regarding both the genetic health and connectivity of lion populations, which can serve to inform conservation and management of this iconic species.

  7. Mitochondrial Haplotype Diversity in Zambian Lions: Bridging a Gap in the Biogeography of an Iconic Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin J Curry

    Full Text Available Analysis of DNA sequence diversity at the 12S to 16S mitochondrial genes of 165 African lions (Panthera leo from five main areas in Zambia has uncovered haplotypes which link Southern Africa with East Africa. Phylogenetic analysis suggests Zambia may serve as a bridge connecting the lion populations in southern Africa to eastern Africa, supporting earlier hypotheses that eastern-southern Africa may represent the evolutionary cradle for the species. Overall gene diversity throughout the Zambian lion population was 0.7319 +/- 0.0174 with eight haplotypes found; three haplotypes previously described and the remaining five novel. The addition of these five novel haplotypes, so far only found within Zambia, nearly doubles the number of haplotypes previously reported for any given geographic location of wild lions. However, based on an AMOVA analysis of these haplotypes, there is little to no matrilineal gene flow (Fst = 0.47 when the eastern and western regions of Zambia are considered as two regional sub-populations. Crossover haplotypes (H9, H11, and Z1 appear in both populations as rare in one but common in the other. This pattern is a possible result of the lion mating system in which predominately males disperse, as all individuals with crossover haplotypes were male. The determination and characterization of lion sub-populations, such as done in this study for Zambia, represent a higher-resolution of knowledge regarding both the genetic health and connectivity of lion populations, which can serve to inform conservation and management of this iconic species.

  8. Bridging the Gap: A Manual Primer into Design Computing in the Context of Basic Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, V. Safak; Topaloglu, Fulden

    2017-01-01

    Design education is in need of a wider restructuring to accommodate new developments and paradigmatic shifts brought forth by the information age, all of which capitalise a move towards complexity theory, systems science and digital technologies. The intention of this article is to approach one particular aspect of this need: that is, how basic…

  9. Bridging medicine and biomedical technology: enhance translation of fundamental research to patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Adam B; Seiler, Theo G; Apiou-Sbirlea, Gabriela

    2017-12-01

    The 'Bridging medicine and biomedical technology' special all-congress session took place for the first time at the OSA Biophotonics Congress: Optics in Life Sciences in 2017 (http://www.osa.org/enus/meetings/osa_meetings/optics_in_the_life_sciences/bridging_medicine_and_biomedical_technology_specia/). The purpose was to identify key challenges the biomedical scientists in academia have to overcome to translate their discoveries into clinical practice through robust collaborations with industry and discuss best practices to facilitate and accelerate the process. Our paper is intended to complement the session by providing a deeper insight into the concept behind the structure and the content we developed.

  10. MS PHD'S: Bridging the Gap of Academic and Career Success Through Educational and Professional Development for Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D.; Vargas, W.; Padilla, E.; Strickland, J.; Echols, E.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ithier-Guzman, W.; Ricciardi, L.; Johnson, A.; Braxton, L.

    2011-12-01

    Historically, there has been a lack of ethnic and gender diversity in the geo-sciences. The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program provides a bridge to young scientists of diverse backgrounds who in turn will impact many. In a process of 3 phases, the program introduces the students to the scientific community through participation in professional and society meetings and networking with scientists and personnel within federal agencies, academic institutions and STEM-based industries. The program builds confidence, offers role models for professional development and provides students support during their education. Upon completion, students achieve a high level of self-actualization and self-esteem combined with individual growth. They become part of a community that continuously provides support and security to each other. This support is tangible through the mentor/mentee relationships which will help with individual growth throughout the mentoring cycle. Having role models and familiar faces to whom mentees can relate to will encourage our students to succeed in the STEM's field. To date, 159 students have participated in the program: 26 have successfully completed their PhD and 56 are currently enrolled in the PhD programs nationwide. The MS PHD'S Program creates a forum of diverse peoples by diverse peoples with diverse interest and strength, where the ongoing goal is to continually raise the bar for each individual. MS PHD'S establishes a nurturing goal-oriented environment for the geo scientist of the future who in turn will make profound contributions on a local, national and global scale. To conclude, MSPHD'S not only bridges the gap of unrepresented minorities in STEM careers, but also generates educational approaches to make the earth system sciences available to more, impacting all.

  11. The 5As team intervention: bridging the knowledge gap in obesity management among primary care practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunleye, Ayodele; Osunlana, Adedayo; Asselin, Jodie; Cave, Andrew; Sharma, Arya Mitra; Campbell-Scherer, Denise Lynn

    2015-12-22

    Despite opportunities for didactic education on obesity management, we still observe low rates of weight management visits in our primary care setting. This paper describes the co-creation by front-line interdisciplinary health care providers and researchers of the 5As Team intervention to improve obesity prevention and management in primary care. We describe the theoretical foundations, design, and core elements of the 5AsT intervention, and the process of eliciting practitioners' self-identified knowledge gaps to inform the curricula for the 5AsT intervention. Themes and topics were identified through facilitated group discussion and a curriculum relevant to this group of practitioners was developed and delivered in a series of 12 workshops. The research question and approach were co-created with the clinical leadership of the PCN; the PCN committed internal resources and a practice facilitator to the effort. Practice facilitation and learning collaboratives were used in the intervention For the content, front-line providers identified 43 topics, related to 13 themes around obesity assessment and management for which they felt the need for further education and training. These needs included: cultural identity and body image, emotional and mental health, motivation, setting goals, managing expectations, weight-bias, caregiver fatigue, clinic dynamics and team-based care, greater understanding of physiology and the use of a systematic framework for obesity assessment (the "4Ms" of obesity). The content of the 12 intervention sessions were designed based on these themes. There was a strong innovation values fit with the 5AsT intervention, and providers were more comfortable with obesity management following the intervention. The 5AsT intervention, including videos, resources and tools, has been compiled for use by clinical teams and is available online at http://www.obesitynetwork.ca/5As_Team . Primary care interdisciplinary practitioners perceive important

  12. Challenging the unipolar-bipolar division: does mixed depression bridge the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Franco

    2007-01-30

    Mixed states, i.e., opposite polarity symptoms in the same mood episode, question the categorical splitting of mood disorders in bipolar disorders and unipolar depressive disorders, and may support a continuum between these disorders. Study aim was to find if there were a continuum between hypomania (defining BP-II) and depression (defining MDD), by testing mixed depression as a 'bridge' linking these two disorders. A correlation between intradepressive hypomanic symptoms and depressive symptoms could support such a continuum, but other explanations of a correlation are possible. Consecutive 389 BP-II and 261 MDD major depressive episode (MDE) outpatients were interviewed, cross-sectionally, with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Hypomania Interview Guide (to assess intradepressive hypomanic symptoms) and the Family History Screen, by a mood disorders specialist psychiatrist in a private practice. Patients presented voluntarily for treatment of depression when interviewed drug-free and had many subsequent follow-ups after treatment start. Mixed depression (depressive mixed state) was defined as the combination of MDE (depression) and three or more DSM-IV intradepressive hypomanic symptoms (elevated mood and increased self-esteem were always absent by definition), a definition validated by Akiskal and Benazzi. BP-II, versus MDD, had significantly lower age at onset, more recurrences, atypical and mixed depressions, bipolar family history, MDE symptoms and intradepressive hypomanic symptoms. Mixed depression was present in 64.5% of BP-II and in 32.1% of MDD (p=0.000). There was a significant correlation between number of MDE symptoms and number of intradepressive hypomanic symptoms. A dose-response relationship between frequency of mixed depression and number of MDE symptoms was also found. Differences on classic diagnostic validators could support a division between BP-II and MDD. Presence of intradepressive hypomanic symptoms by itself, and

  13. Extrafibrillar collagen demineralization-based chelate-and-rinse technique bridges the gap between wet and dry dentin bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Sui; Wei, Chin-Chuan; Gu, Li-Sha; Tian, Fu-Cong; Arola, Dwayne D; Chen, Ji-Hua; Jiao, Yang; Pashley, David H; Niu, Li-Na; Tay, Franklin R

    2017-07-15

    Limitations associated with wet-bonding led to the recent development of a selective demineralization strategy in which dentin was etched with a reduced concentration of phosphoric acid to create exclusive extrafibrillar demineralization of the collagen matrix. However, the use of acidic conditioners removes calcium via diffusion of very small hydronium ions into the intrafibrillar collagen water compartments. This defeats the purpose of limiting the conditioner to the extrafibrillar space to create a collagen matrix containing only intrafibrillar minerals to prevent collapse of the collagen matrix. The present work examined the use of polymeric chelators (the sodium salt of polyacrylic acid) of different molecular weights to selectively demineralize extrafibrillar dentin. These polymeric chelators exhibit different affinities for calcium ions (isothermal titration calorimetry), penetrated intrafibrillar dentin collagen to different extents based on their molecular sizes (modified size-exclusion chromatography), and preserve the dynamic mechanical properties of mineralized dentin more favorably compared with completely demineralized phosphoric acid-etched dentin (nanoscopical dynamic mechanical analysis). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy provided evidence for retention of intrafibrillar minerals in dentin surfaces conditioned with polymeric chelators. Microtensile bond strengths to wet-bonded and dry-bonded dentin conditioned with these polymeric chelators showed that the use of sodium salts of polyacrylic acid for chelating dentin prior to bonding did not result in significant decline in resin-dentin bond strength. Taken together, the findings led to the conclusion that a chelate-and-rinse conditioning technique based on extrafibrillar collagen demineralization bridges the gap between wet and dry dentin bonding. The chelate-and-rinse dental adhesive bonding concept differentiates from previous research in that it is based on the size

  14. Bridging scale gaps between regional maps of forest aboveground biomass and field sampling plots using TanDEM-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, G.

    2017-12-01

    Several large-scale maps of forest AGB have been released [1] [2] [3]. However, these existing global or regional datasets were only approximations based on combining land cover type and representative values instead of measurements of actual forest aboveground biomass or forest heights [4]. Rodríguez-Veiga et al[5] reported obvious discrepancies of existing forest biomass stock maps with in-situ observations in Mexico. One of the biggest challenges to the credibility of these maps comes from the scale gaps between the size of field sampling plots used to develop(or validate) estimation models and the pixel size of these maps and the availability of field sampling plots with sufficient size for the verification of these products [6]. It is time-consuming and labor-intensive to collect sufficient number of field sampling data over the plot size of the same as resolutions of regional maps. The smaller field sampling plots cannot fully represent the spatial heterogeneity of forest stands as shown in Figure 1. Forest AGB is directly determined by forest heights, diameter at breast height (DBH) of each tree, forest density and tree species. What measured in the field sampling are the geometrical characteristics of forest stands including the DBH, tree heights and forest densities. The LiDAR data is considered as the best dataset for the estimation of forest AGB. The main reason is that LiDAR can directly capture geometrical features of forest stands by its range detection capabilities.The remotely sensed dataset, which is capable of direct measurements of forest spatial structures, may serve as a ladder to bridge the scale gaps between the pixel size of regional maps of forest AGB and field sampling plots. Several researches report that TanDEM-X data can be used to characterize the forest spatial structures [7, 8]. In this study, the forest AGB map of northeast China were produced using ALOS/PALSAR data taking TanDEM-X data as a bridges. The TanDEM-X InSAR data used in

  15. Bridging the gap between policy and science in assessing the health status of marine ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Borja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activities, both established and emerging, increasingly affect the provision of marine ecosystem services that deliver societal and economic benefits. Monitoring the status of marine ecosystems and determining how human activities change their capacity to sustain benefits for society requires an evidence-based Integrated Ecosystem Assessment approach that incorporates knowledge of ecosystem functioning and services. Although there are diverse methods to assess the status of individual ecosystem components, none assesses the health of marine ecosystems holistically, integrating information from multiple ecosystem components. Similarly, while acknowledging the availability of several methods to measure single pressures and assess their impacts, evaluation of cumulative effects of multiple pressures remains scarce. Therefore, an integrative assessment requires us to first understand the response of marine ecosystems to human activities and their pressures and then develop innovative, cost-effective monitoring tools that enable collection of data to assess the health status of large marine areas. Conceptually, combining this knowledge of effective monitoring methods with cost-benefit analyses will help identify appropriate management measures to improve environmental status economically and efficiently. The European project DEVOTES (DEVelopment Of innovative Tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status specifically addressed these topics in order to support policy makers and managers in implementing the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Here, we synthesize our main innovative findings, placing these within the context of recent wider research, and identifying gaps and the major future challenges.

  16. Atmospheric pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy apparatus: Bridging the pressure gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco-Vélez, J. J., E-mail: velasco@fhi-berlin.mpg.de, E-mail: mh@fhi-berlin.mpg.de; Schlögl, R. [Department of Heterogeneous Reactions, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Mülheim an der Ruhr 45470 (Germany); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin 14195 (Germany); Pfeifer, V.; Algara-Siller, G.; Stotz, E.; Teschner, D.; Kube, P.; Knop-Gericke, A. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin 14195 (Germany); Hävecker, M., E-mail: velasco@fhi-berlin.mpg.de, E-mail: mh@fhi-berlin.mpg.de; Skorupska, K. [Department of Heterogeneous Reactions, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Mülheim an der Ruhr 45470 (Germany); Wang, R.; Braeuninger-Weimer, P.; Hofmann, S. [Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Centeno, A.; Zurutuza, A. [Graphenea, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    One of the main goals in catalysis is the characterization of solid/gas interfaces in a reaction environment. The electronic structure and chemical composition of surfaces become heavily influenced by the surrounding environment. However, the lack of surface sensitive techniques that are able to monitor these modifications under high pressure conditions hinders the understanding of such processes. This limitation is known throughout the community as the “pressure gap.” We have developed a novel experimental setup that provides chemical information on a molecular level under atmospheric pressure and in presence of reactive gases and at elevated temperatures. This approach is based on separating the vacuum environment from the high-pressure environment by a silicon nitride grid—that contains an array of micrometer-sized holes—coated with a bilayer of graphene. Using this configuration, we have investigated the local electronic structure of catalysts by means of photoelectron spectroscopy and in presence of gases at 1 atm. The reaction products were monitored online by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. The successful operation of this setup was demonstrated with three different examples: the oxidation/reduction reaction of iridium (noble metal) and copper (transition metal) nanoparticles and with the hydrogenation of propyne on Pd black catalyst (powder).

  17. Diagnosing metabolic acidosis in the critically ill: bridging the anion gap, Stewart, and base excess methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidkowski, Christina; Helstrom, James

    2009-03-01

    Metabolic acid-base disorders are common in critically ill patients. Clinicians may have difficulty recognizing their presence when multiple metabolic acid-base derangements are present in a single patient. Clinicians should be able to identify the components of complex metabolic acid-base disorders since metabolic acidoses due to unmeasured anions are associated with increased mortality in critically ill patients. This review presents the derivation of three commonly used methods of acid-base analysis, which include the anion gap, Stewart physiochemical, and modified base excess. Clinical examples are also provided to demonstrate the subtleties of the different methods and to demonstrate their application to real patient data. A comparison of these methods shows that each one is equally adept at identifying a metabolic acidosis due to unmeasured anions; however, the Stewart physiochemical and the modified base excess methods better evaluate complex metabolic acid-base disorders. While all three methods correctly identify metabolic acidosis due to unmeasured anions, which is a predictor of mortality, it remains unclear if further delineation of complex metabolic acid-base disorders using the Stewart physiochemical or the modified base excess methods is clinically beneficial.

  18. Bridging the Gap between Eco-Design and the Human Thinking System

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Komeijani; Erinn G. Ryen; Callie W. Babbitt

    2016-01-01

    Technological progress has enabled widespread adoption and use of consumer electronics, changing how global society lives and works. This progress has come with immense environmental cost, including extraction of scarce materials, consumption of fossil fuels, and growing e-waste challenges. Eco-design has emerged as a promising approach to reduce the environmental footprint of electronics by integrating sustainability-oriented decisions early in the product realization process. However, most ...

  19. Landscaping capacity-building initiatives in epidemiology in India: bridging the demand-supply gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodpey, Sanjay; Pandey, Anuja; Murhekar, Manoj; Sharma, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    India, the second most populous country in the world, has 17% of the world's population but its total share of global disease burden is 21%. With epidemiological transition, the challenge of the public health system is to deal with a high burden of noncommunicable diseases, while still continuing the battle against communicable diseases. To combat this progression, public health capacity-building initiatives for the health workforce are necessary to develop essential skills in epidemiology and competencies in other related fields of public health. This study is an effort to systematically explore the training programmes in epidemiology in India and to understand the demand-supply dynamics of epidemiologists in the country. A systematic, predefined approach, with three parallel strategies, was used to collect and assemble the data regarding epidemiology training in India and assess the demand-supply of epidemiologists in the country. The programmes offering training in epidemiology included degree and diploma courses offered by departments of preventive and social medicine/community medicine in medical colleges and 19 long-term academic programmes in epidemiology, with an estimated annual output of 1172 per year. The demand analysis for epidemiologists estimated that there is need for at least 3289 epidemiologists to cater for the demand of various institutions in the country. There is a wide gap in demand-supply of epidemiologists in the country and an urgent need for further strengthening of epidemiology training in India. More capacity-building and training initiatives in epidemiology are therefore urgently required to promote research and address the public health challenges confronting the country.

  20. Bridging the gap: functional healing of embryonic small intestine ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Riccardo; Roberts, Neil A; Oltrabella, Francesca; Khalil, Basem A; Morabito, Antonino; Woolf, Adrian S

    2016-02-01

    The ability to grow embryonic organs ex vivo provides an opportunity to follow their differentiation in a controlled environment, with resulting insights into normal development. Additionally, similar strategies can be used to assess effects on organogenesis of physical and chemical manipulations. This study aimed to create an organ culture model with which to test physical manipulations to enhance healing of gut segments, thus generating a single functional organ. Embryonic mouse jejunum was isolated and cut into 2-3 mm tubes, which were placed in pairs, separated by a small gap, on semi-permeable supports. Each pair was linked by a nylon suture threaded through their lumens. After 3 days in organ culture fed by defined serum-free media, the rudiments differentiated to form tubes of smooth muscle surrounding a core of rudimentary villi. Of 34 such pairs, 74% had touching and well aligned proximate ends. Of these joined structures, 80% (59% of the total pairs) had a continuous lumen, as assessed by observing the trajectories of fluorescent dextrans injected into their distal ends. Fused organ pairs formed a single functional unit, as assessed by spontaneous contraction waves propagated along their lengths. In these healed intestines, peripherin(+) neurons formed a nexus in the zone of fusion, linking the rudiment pairs. In future, this system could be used to test whether growth factors enhance fusion. Such results should in turn inform the design of novel treatments for short bowel syndrome, a potentially fatal condition with a currently limited and imperfect range of therapies. ©2015. The Authors Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Understanding soil erosion impacts in temperate agroecosystems: bridging the gap between geomorphology and soil ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, C.; Rowan, J. S.; McKenzie, B. M.; Neilson, R.

    2013-04-01

    Soil is a key asset of natural capital, providing a myriad of goods and ecosystem services that sustain life through regulating, supporting and provisioning roles, delivered by chemical, physical and biological processes. One of the greatest threats to soil is accelerated erosion, which raises a natural process to unsustainable levels, and has downstream consequences (e.g. economic, environmental and social). Global intensification of agroecosystems is a major cause of soil erosion which, in light of predicted population growth and increased demand for food security, will continue or increase. Elevated erosion and transport is common in agroecosystems and presents a multi-disciplinary problem with direct physical impacts (e.g. soil loss), other less tangible impacts (e.g. loss of ecosystem productivity), and indirect downstream effects that necessitate an integrated approach to effectively address the problem. Climate is also likely to increase susceptibility of soil to erosion. Beyond physical response, the consequences of erosion on soil biota have hitherto been ignored, yet biota play a fundamental role in ecosystem service provision. To our knowledge few studies have addressed the gap between erosion and consequent impacts on soil biota. Transport and redistribution of soil biota by erosion is poorly understood, as is the concomitant impact on biodiversity and ability of soil to deliver the necessary range of ecosystem services to maintain function. To investigate impacts of erosion on soil biota a two-fold research approach is suggested. Physical processes involved in redistribution should be characterised and rates of transport and redistribution quantified. Similarly, cumulative and long-term impacts of biota erosion should be considered. Understanding these fundamental aspects will provide a basis upon which mitigation strategies can be considered.

  2. Bridging the gap: metabolic and endocrine care of patients during transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Hokken-Koelega

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Seamless transition of endocrine patients from the paediatric to adult setting is still suboptimal, especially in patients with complex disorders, i.e., small for gestational age, Turner or Prader–Willi syndromes; Childhood Cancer Survivors, and those with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency. Methods: An expert panel meeting comprised of European paediatric and adult endocrinologists was convened to explore the current gaps in managing the healthcare of patients with endocrine diseases during transition from paediatric to adult care settings. Results: While a consensus was reached that a team approach is best, discussions revealed that a ‘one size fits all’ model for transition is largely unsuccessful in these patients. They need more tailored care during adolescence to prevent complications like failure to achieve target adult height, reduced bone mineral density, morbid obesity, metabolic perturbations (obesity and body composition, inappropriate/inadequate puberty, compromised fertility, diminished quality of life and failure to adapt to the demands of adult life. Sometimes it is difficult for young people to detach emotionally from their paediatric endocrinologist and/or the abrupt change from an environment of parental responsibility to one of autonomy. Discussions about impending transition and healthcare autonomy should begin in early adolescence and continue throughout young adulthood to ensure seamless continuum of care and optimal treatment outcomes. Conclusions: Even amongst a group of healthcare professionals with a great interest in improving transition services for patients with endocrine diseases, there is still much work to be done to improve the quality of healthcare for transition patients.

  3. Bridging the Technology Readiness "Valley of Death" Utilizing Nanosats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert A.; Millar, Pamela S.; Norton, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating new technology is a hallmark of space missions. Missions demand ever-improving tools and techniques to allow them to meet the mission science requirements. In Earth Science, these technologies are normally expressed in new instrument capabilities that can enable new measurement concepts, extended capabilities of existing measurement techniques, or totally new detection capabilities, and also, information systems technologies that can enhance data analysis or enable new data analyses to advance modeling and prediction capabilities. Incorporating new technologies has never been easy. There is a large development step beyond demonstration in a laboratory or on an airborne platform to the eventual space environment that is sometimes referred to as the "technology valley of death." Studies have shown that non-validated technology is a primary cause of NASA and DoD mission delays and cost overruns. With the demise of the New Millennium Program within NASA, opportunities for demonstrating technologies in space have been rare. Many technologies are suitable for a flight project after only ground testing. However, some require validation in a relevant or a space flight environment, which cannot be fully tested on the ground or in airborne systems. NASA's Earth Science Technology Program has initiated a nimble program to provide a fairly rapid turn-around of space validated technologies, and thereby reducing future mission risk in incorporating new technologies. The program, called In-Space Validation of Earth Science Technology (InVEST), now has five tasks in development. Each are 3U CubeSats and they are targeted for launch opportunities in the 2016 time period. Prior to formalizing an InVEST program, the technology program office was asked to demonstrate how the program would work and what sort of technologies could benefit from space validation. Three projects were developed and launched, and have demonstrated the technologies that they set out to validate

  4. Real Science, Real Learning: Bridging the Gap Between Scientists, Educators and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Y.

    2006-05-01

    Today as never before, America needs its citizens to be literate in science and technology. Not only must we only inspire a new generation of scientists and engineers and technologists, we must foster a society capable of meeting complex, 21st-century challenges. Unfortunately, the need for creative, flexible thinkers is growing at a time when our young students are lagging in science interest and performance. Over the past 17 years, the JASON Project has worked to link real science and scientists to the classroom. This link provide viable pipeline to creating the next generation scientists and researchers. Ultimately, JASON's mission is to improve the way science is taught by enabling students to learn directly from leading scientists. Through partnerships with agencies such as NOAA and NASA, JASON creates multimedia classroom products based on current scientific research. Broadcasts of science expeditions, hosted by leading researchers, are coupled with classroom materials that include interactive computer-based simulations, video- on-demand, inquiry-based experiments and activities, and print materials for students and teachers. A "gated" Web site hosts online resources and provides a secure platform to network with scientists and other classrooms in a nationwide community of learners. Each curriculum is organized around a specific theme for a comprehensive learning experience. It may be taught as a complete package, or individual components can be selected to teach specific, standards-based concepts. Such thematic units include: Disappearing Wetlands, Mysteries of Earth and Mars, and Monster Storms. All JASON curriculum units are grounded in "inquiry-based learning." The highly interactive curriculum will enable students to access current, real-world scientific research and employ the scientific method through reflection, investigation, identification of problems, sharing of data, and forming and testing hypotheses. JASON specializes in effectively applying

  5. Industry-Education Partnerships: Bridging the Gap Between the Workplace and the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpole, S. H.

    2004-12-01

    Across the nation, business and industry are increasingly concerned about the quality of today's workforce and are issuing policy statements on both teacher preparation and teacher enhancement. Educational partnerships with industry are critical to the economic growth of the nation, particularly in rural areas where 31 percent of the nation's public schools are located. Through quality learning experiences that result from research/industry internships, teachers can better prepare for the 21st century workforce, become more aware of career opportunities, and emphasize the importance of preparation in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. To provide a model for successful industry-education partnerships, Mississippi State University is building on projects funded by the National Science Foundation, other funding agencies, and private foundations involving research/industry experiences for teachers. Industry-Education Partnerships: A Model for the Teacher Professional Continuum (NSF ESI-0353441) is developing a learning community model that spans the education continuum, connecting education and industry while focusing on preparing students to enter a workplace based on a global economy and researching the factors that contribute to successful partnerships. Research/work experiences will be provided to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) participants covering the teacher continuum.

  6. Bridging the knowing–doing gap in South Africa and the role of environmental volunteer groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy M. Dzerefos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The implementation gap between science, policy and practice has led to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services throughout Africa and is described in a case study from Limpopo Province, South Africa. In 2006, the South African National Biodiversity Institute first highlighted the Woodbush Granite Grassland (WGG in the Greater Tzaneen Local Municipality as the only Critically Endangered ecosystem in Limpopo Province. Five years later (2011, the Critically Endangered listing was published in the Government Gazette No. 34809. After repeated and sustained efforts for many years from volunteers of a local environmental group – currently known as the Friends of the Haenertsburg Grassland (FroHG – in 2015 the intent to formally protect 126 ha was published in the Government Gazette No. 2609. Unfortunately, the proposed protected area accounts for only 66% of the largest remaining fragment of WGG, which excludes an important colony of medicinal plants. Considering that only 6% of the original extent of WGG remains in an untransformed state the whole fragment should be conserved. Non-alignment of municipal spatial priorities, as in the Haenertsburg town plan from 1896, to provincial and national environmental priorities has resulted in numerous incidents that have degraded what little remains of the WGG ecosystem. Failure of the provincial authorities to act timeously to enforce environmental regulations resulted in the FroHG successfully involving national authorities to stop illegal land occupation while another incident involving an illegal fence was resolved 9 years after erection. A strengthened relationship with Lepelle Northern Water has resulted in better planning of activities in relation to an existing pipeline. This case study shows various avenues available to environmental volunteer groups in South Africa and suggests that long-term lobbying can yield positive results. Conservation implications: Formal conservation of WGG through the

  7. Bridging the logistics gap for sustainable ethanol production: the CentroSul ethanol pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megiolaro, Moacir; Daud, Rodrigo; Pittelli, Fernanda [CentroSul Transportadora Dutoviaria, SP (Brazil); Singer, Eugenio [EMS Consultant, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The continuous increase of ethanol production and growth in consumption in Brazil is a reality that poses significant logistics challenges both for producers and consumers. The Brazilian local market absorbs a great portion of the country's production of ethanol, but the export market is also experiencing significant expansion so that both local and external market consumption will require more adequate transportation solutions. The alternative routes for Brazilian ethanol exports within the South and Southeast regions of Brazil range from the port of Paranagua, in the state of Parana, to the port of Vitoria, in the state of Espirito Santo. Each of these routes is about 1,000 km distance from the main production areas in the Central South states of Brazil. Brazilian highways and railways systems are overly congested and do not present efficient logistics alternatives for the transportation of large ethanol flows over long distances (cross-country) from the central Midwest regions of the country to the consumer and export markets in the Southeast. In response to the challenge to overcome such logistic gaps, CentroSul Transportadora Dutoviaria 'CentroSul', a company recently founded by a Brazilian ethanol producer group, the Brenco Group, is developing a project for the first fully-dedicated ethanol pipeline to be constructed in Brazil. The ethanol pipeline will transport 3,3 million m{sup 3} of Brenco - Brazilian Renewable Energy Company's ethanol production and an additional 4,7 million cubic meters from other Brazilian producers. The pipeline, as currently projected, will, at its full capacity, displace a daily vehicle fleet equivalent to 500 trucks which would be required to transport the 8,0 million cubic meters from their production origins to the delivery regions. In addition, the project will reduce GHG (trucking) emissions minimizing the project's overall ecological footprint. Key steps including conceptual engineering, environmental

  8. Bridging the gap between self-directed learning of nurse educators and effective student support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensburg, Gisela H; Botma, Yvonne

    2015-11-26

    Self-directed learning requires the ability to identify one's own learning needs, develop and implement a plan to gain knowledge and to monitor one's own progress. A lifelong learning approach cannot be forced, since it is in essence an internally driven process. Nurse educators can, however, act as role models to empower their students to become independent learners by modelling their own self-directed learning and applying a number of techniques in supporting their students in becoming ready for self-directed learning.  The aim of the article is to describe the manifestations and implications of the gap between self-directed learning readiness of nurse educators and educational trends in supporting students.  An instrumental case study design was used to gain insight into the manifestations and implications of self-directed learning of nurse educators. Based on the authentic foci of various critical incidents and literature, data were collected and constructed into a fictitious case. The authors then deductively analysed the case by using the literature on self-directed learning readiness as departure point. Four constructs of self-directed learning were identified, namely internal motivation, planning and implementation, self-monitoring and interpersonal communication. Supportive strategies were identified from the available literature.  Nine responses by nurse educators based on the fictitious case were analysed.Analysis showed that readiness for self-directed learning in terms of the identified constructswas interrelated and not mutually exclusive of one other.  The success of lifelong learning is the ability to engage in self-directed learning which requires openness to learning opportunities, good self-concept, taking initiative and illustrating independence in learning. Conscientiousness, an informed acceptance of a responsibility for one's own learning and creativity, is vital to one's future orientation towards goal-directed learning. Knowledge and

  9. FDI technology spillover and threshold effect of the technology gap: regional differences in the Chinese industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Huifang; Cao, Zhiyong; Wang, Bowen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new perspective that there is a double-threshold effect in terms of the technology gap existing in the foreign direct investment (FDI) technology spillover process in different regional Chinese industrial sectors. In this paper, a double-threshold regression model was established to examine the relation between the threshold effect of the technology gap and technology spillover. Based on the provincial panel data of Chinese industrial sectors from 2000 to 2011, the empirical results reveal that there are two threshold values, which are 1.254 and 2.163, in terms of the technology gap in the industrial sector in eastern China. There are also two threshold values in both the central and western industrial sector, which are 1.516, 2.694 and 1.635, 2.714, respectively. The technology spillover is a decreasing function of the technology gap in both the eastern and western industrial sectors, but a concave curve function of the technology gap is in the central industrial sectors. Furthermore, the FDI technology spillover has increased gradually in recent years. Based on the empirical results, suggestions were proposed to elucidate the introduction of the FDI and the improvement in the industrial added value in different regions of China.

  10. Bridging the Gap between Sample Collection and Laboratory Analysis: Using Dried Blood Spots to Identify Human Exposure to Chemical Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I; Blake, Thomas A; Perez, Jonas W; Crow, Brian S; Shaner, Rebecca L; Coleman, Rebecca M; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2016-05-13

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  11. Bridging the gap between physiology and behavior: evidence from the sSoTS model of human visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavritsaki, Eirini; Heinke, Dietmar; Allen, Harriet; Deco, Gustavo; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2011-01-01

    We present the case for a role of biologically plausible neural network modeling in bridging the gap between physiology and behavior. We argue that spiking-level networks can allow "vertical" translation between physiological properties of neural systems and emergent "whole-system" performance-enabling psychological results to be simulated from implemented networks and also inferences to be made from simulations concerning processing at a neural level. These models also emphasize particular factors (e.g., the dynamics of performance in relation to real-time neuronal processing) that are not highlighted in other approaches and that can be tested empirically. We illustrate our argument from neural-level models that select stimuli by biased competition. We show that a model with biased competition dynamics can simulate data ranging from physiological studies of single-cell activity (Study 1) to whole-system behavior in human visual search (Study 2), while also capturing effects at an intermediate level, including performance breakdown after neural lesion (Study 3) and data from brain imaging (Study 4). We also show that, at each level of analysis, novel predictions can be derived from the biologically plausible parameters adopted, which we proceed to test (Study 5). We argue that, at least for studying the dynamics of visual attention, the approach productively links single-cell to psychological data.

  12. Evaluation of antibacterial, angiogenic, and osteogenic activities of green synthesized gap-bridging copper-doped nanocomposite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dan; Ma, Kena; Cai, Xinjie; Yang, Xu; Hu, Yinghui; Huang, Pin; Wang, Fushi; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Yining

    2017-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys have been widely used in clinics for years. However, their bio-inert surface challenges application in patients with compromised surgical conditions. Numerous studies were conducted to modify the surface topography and chemical composition of Ti substrates, for the purpose of obtaining antibacterial, angiogenic, and osteogenic activities. In this study, using green electrophoretic deposition method, we fabricated gap-bridging chitosan-gelatin (CSG) nanocomposite coatings incorporated with different amounts of copper (Cu; 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 mM for Cu I, II, III, and IV groups, respectively) on the Ti substrates. Physicochemical characterization of these coatings confirmed that Cu ions were successfully deposited into the coatings in a metallic status. After rehydration, the coatings swelled by 850% in weight. Mechanical tests verified the excellent tensile bond strength between Ti substrates and deposited coatings. All Cu-containing CSG coatings showed antibacterial property against both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial property was positively correlated with the Cu concentration. In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation demonstrated that activities of bone marrow stromal cells were not impaired on Cu-doped coatings except for the Cu IV group. Moreover, enhanced angiogenic and osteogenic activities were observed on Cu II and Cu III groups. Overall, our results suggested that Cu-doped CSG nanocomposite coating is a promising candidate to functionalize Ti materials with antibacterial, angiogenic, and osteogenic properties.

  13. Using insects to drive mobile robots - hybrid robots bridge the gap between biological and artificial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Noriyasu; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2017-09-01

    The use of mobile robots is an effective method of validating sensory-motor models of animals in a real environment. The well-identified insect sensory-motor systems have been the major targets for modeling. Furthermore, mobile robots implemented with such insect models attract engineers who aim to avail advantages from organisms. However, directly comparing the robots with real insects is still difficult, even if we successfully model the biological systems, because of the physical differences between them. We developed a hybrid robot to bridge the gap. This hybrid robot is an insect-controlled robot, in which a tethered male silkmoth (Bombyx mori) drives the robot in order to localize an odor source. This robot has the following three advantages: 1) from a biomimetic perspective, the robot enables us to evaluate the potential performance of future insect-mimetic robots; 2) from a biological perspective, the robot enables us to manipulate the closed-loop of an onboard insect for further understanding of its sensory-motor system; and 3) the robot enables comparison with insect models as a reference biological system. In this paper, we review the recent works regarding insect-controlled robots and discuss the significance for both engineering and biology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  15. Measuring students' self-regulated learning in professional education: bridging the gap between event and aptitude measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, Maaike D; Brekelmans, Mieke; Sleegers, Peter; Vermunt, Jan D

    Self-regulated learning has benefits for students' academic performance in school, but also for expertise development during their professional career. This study examined the validity of an instrument to measure student teachers' regulation of their learning to teach across multiple and different kinds of learning events in the context of a postgraduate professional teacher education programme. Based on an analysis of the literature, we developed a log with structured questions that could be used as a multiple-event instrument to determine the quality of student teachers' regulation of learning by combining data from multiple learning experiences. The findings showed that this structured version of the instrument measured student teachers' regulation of their learning in a valid and reliable way. Furthermore, with the aid of the Structured Learning Report individual differences in student teachers' regulation of learning could be discerned. Together the findings indicate that a multiple-event instrument can be used to measure regulation of learning in multiple contexts for various learning experiences at the same time, without the necessity of relying on students' ability to rate themselves across all these different experiences. In this way, this instrument can make an important contribution to bridging the gap between two dominant approaches to measure SRL, the traditional aptitude and event measurement approach.

  16. Transformation of curcumin from food additive to multifunctional medicine: nanotechnology bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki; Akhter, Shabib; Mohsin, Nehal; Abdel-Wahab, Basel A; Ahmad, Javed; Warsi, Musarrat Husain; Rahman, Mahfoozur; Mallick, Neha; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR) is a yellow-coloured polyphenolic compound obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa. In-depth pharmacological screening of curcumin has given the evidence that CUR persuades shielding and curative effects against various cancers, cardiovascular, wound healing effect and neuro disorders etc owning to anti-oxidant, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and antimicrobial activities. However, miserable bioavailability due to poor aqueous solubility limits the application of CUR in various ailments. Different methodologies including the nanoparticle technology have been reported for the bioavailability enhancement of CUR. Nanoparticles exhibit not only the improvement in the solubility of CUR and alike lipophilic molecules (resulted in improved bioavailability) but also giving the opportunity for the disease specific cellular and organ targeting. Improved bioavailability and disease based site specific delivery of CUR is more likely to bring it as a safe multifunctional medicine.

  17. Workshop report - Bridging the Climate Information Gap held at Argonne National Laboratory September 29, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.

    2000-01-01

    In a recent report entitled The Regional Impacts of Climate Change it was concluded that the technological capacity to adapt to climate change is likely to be readily available in North America, but its application will be realized only if the necessary information is available (sufficiently far in advance in relation to the planning horizons and lifetimes of investments) and the institutional and financial capacity to manage change exists. The report also acknowledged that one of the key factors that limit the ability to understand the vulnerability of subregions of North America to climate change, and to develop and implement adaptive strategies to reduce that vulnerability, is the lack of accurate regional projections of climate change, including extreme events. In particular, scientists need to account for the physical-geographic characteristics (e.g., the Great Lakes, coastlines, and mountain ranges) that play a significant role in the North America climate and also need to consider the feedback between the biosphere and atmosphere

  18. Bridging the Gap of Standardized Animals Models for Blast Neurotrauma: Methodology for Appropriate Experimental Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandeVord, Pamela J; Leonardi, Alessandra Dal Cengio; Ritzel, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent military combat has heightened awareness to the complexity of blast-related traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). Experiments using animal, cadaver, or biofidelic physical models remain the primary measures to investigate injury biomechanics as well as validate computational simulations, medical diagnostics and therapies, or protection technologies. However, blast injury research has seen a range of irregular and inconsistent experimental methods for simulating blast insults generating results which may be misleading, cannot be cross-correlated between laboratories, or referenced to any standard for exposure. Both the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command and the National Institutes of Health have noted that there is a lack of standardized preclinical models of TBI. It is recommended that the blast injury research community converge on a consistent set of experimental procedures and reporting of blast test conditions. This chapter describes the blast conditions which can be recreated within a laboratory setting and methodology for testing in vivo models within the appropriate environment.

  19. Bridging the gap: leveraging business intelligence tools in support of patient safety and financial effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferranti, Jeffrey M; Langman, Matthew K; Tanaka, David; McCall, Jonathan; Ahmad, Asif

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare is increasingly dependent upon information technology (IT), but the accumulation of data has outpaced our capacity to use it to improve operating efficiency, clinical quality, and financial effectiveness. Moreover, hospitals have lagged in adopting thoughtful analytic approaches that would allow operational leaders and providers to capitalize upon existing data stores. In this manuscript, we propose a fundamental re-evaluation of strategic IT investments in healthcare, with the goal of increasing efficiency, reducing costs, and improving outcomes through the targeted application of health analytics. We also present three case studies that illustrate the use of health analytics to leverage pre-existing data resources to support improvements in patient safety and quality of care, to increase the accuracy of billing and collection, and support emerging health issues. We believe that such active investment in health analytics will prove essential to realizing the full promise of investments in electronic clinical systems.

  20. Laser Scanning Technology as Part of a Comprehensive Condition Assessment for Covered Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Samuel Anderson; Robert J. Ross

    2015-01-01

    New noncontact technologies have been developed and implemented for determining as-built condition and current dimensions for a wide variety of objects and buildings. In this study, a three-dimensional laser scanner was used to determine the dimensions and visual condition of a historic bridge in the Amnicon Falls State Park in northern Wisconsin. 3D scanning provides...

  1. Bridge to a sustainable future: National environmental technology strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    For the past two years the Administration has sought the views of Congress, the states, communities, industry, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and interested citizens on ways to spur the development and use of a new generation of environmental technologies. This document represents the views of thousands of individuals who participated in events around the country to help craft a national environmental technology strategy that will put us on the path to sustainable development.

  2. Closing the Gender Gap in the Technology Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Laura; Clark, Ulku; Patterson, Laurie; Pence, Toni

    2017-01-01

    Technology makes up our daily lives and is a part of everything we do. The tech job market is expanding with more and more jobs needing to be filled by those with the necessary qualifications. Students are realizing the vast opportunities a career in technology can offer them and many are making the conscience decision to major in a technical…

  3. Bridging the Gap between Eco-Design and the Human Thinking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Komeijani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress has enabled widespread adoption and use of consumer electronics, changing how global society lives and works. This progress has come with immense environmental cost, including extraction of scarce materials, consumption of fossil fuels, and growing e-waste challenges. Eco-design has emerged as a promising approach to reduce the environmental footprint of electronics by integrating sustainability-oriented decisions early in the product realization process. However, most approaches focus on the product itself, not on the consumer who ultimately decides how to purchase, use, maintain, and dispose of the device. This article presents a new framework to guide designers in developing products with features that encourage consumers to use them in an environmentally sustainable manner. The Sustainable Behavior Design (SBD framework links common design concepts (ergonomic, emotional, preventative, and interaction design with core aspects of the human thinking system to create features to make users aware of their behavior and decisions (reflective thinking or result in sustainable behaviors even when users are unaware (automatic thinking. The SBD framework is demonstrated using a case study on a smartphone, a high demand product. The reimagined smartphone design integrates solutions addressing both automatic and reflective thinking systems, potentially reducing life cycle impacts by almost 30%.

  4. Understanding indigenous knowledge: Bridging the knowledge gap through a knowledge creation model for agricultural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edda T. Lwoga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the management of agricultural indigenous knowledge (IK in developing countries, with a specific focus on Tanzania. It provides background details on IK and its importance for agricultural development. It introduces various knowledge management (KM concepts and discusses their application in managing IK in the developing world by placing Nonaka’s knowledge creation theory (Nonaka 1991; Nonaka & Takeuchi 1995; Nonaka, Toyama & Konno 2000 in the context of the local communities. Data from focus groups were used to triangulate with data from interviews in order to validate, confirm and corroborate quantitative results with qualitative findings. The study findings showed that knowledge creation theory can be used to manage IK in the local communities, however, adequate and appropriate resources need to be allocated for capturing and preserving IK before it disappears altogether. For sustainable agricultural development, the communities have to be placed within a knowledge-creating setting that continuously creates, distributes and shares knowledge within and beyond the communities’ boundaries and integrates it with new agricultural technologies, innovations and knowledge.

  5. Bridging gaps in health information systems: a case study from Somaliland, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Ahmed; Ardakani, Malekafzali; Majdzade, Reza

    2018-01-02

    Reliable and timely health information is fundamental for health information systems (HIS) to work effectively. This case study aims to assess Somaliland HIS in terms of its contextual situation, major weaknesses and proposes key evidence-based recommendations. Data were collected through national level key informants' interviews, observations, group discussion and scoring using the HIS framework and assessment tool developed by World Health Organization Health Metrics Network (WHO/HMN). The study found major weaknesses including: no policy, strategic plan and legal framework in place; fragmented sub-information systems; Poor information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure; poorly motivated and under-skilled personnel; dependence on unsustainable external funds; no census or civil registration in place; data from private health sector not captured; insufficient technical capacity to analyse data collected by HIS; and information is not widely shared, disseminated or utilized for decision-making. We recommend developing a national HIS strategic plan that harmonizes and directs collective efforts to become a more integrated, cost-effective and sustainable HIS.

  6. Atomistic simulations in Si processing: Bridging the gap between atoms and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Luis A.; Pelaz, Lourdes; Lopez, Pedro; Aboy, Maria; Santos, Ivan; Barbolla, Juan

    2005-01-01

    With devices shrinking to nanometric scale, process simulation tools have to shift from continuum models to an atomistic description of the material. However, the limited sizes and time scales accessible for detailed atomistic techniques usually lead to the difficult task of relating the information obtained from simulations to experimental data. The solution consists of the use of a hierarchical simulation scheme: more fundamental techniques are employed to extract parameters and models that are then feed into less detailed simulators which allow direct comparison with experiments. This scheme will be illustrated with the modeling of the amorphization and recrystallization of Si, which has been defined as a key challenge in the last edition of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. The model is based on the bond defect or IV pair, which is used as the building block of the amorphous phase. The properties of this defect have been studied using ab initio methods and classical molecular dynamics techniques. It is shown that the recombination of this defect depends on the surrounding bond defects, which accounts for the cooperative nature of the amorphization and recrystallization processes. The implementation of this model in a kinetic Monte Carlo code allows extracting data directly comparable with experiments. This approach provides physical insight on the amorphization and recrystallization mechanisms and a tool for the optimization of solid-phase epitaxial-related processes

  7. Bridging the Gap Between Scientists and Classrooms: Scientist Engagement in the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers in today s classrooms need to find creative ways to connect students with science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) experts. These STEM experts can serve as role models and help students think about potential future STEM careers. They can also help reinforce academic knowledge and skills. The cost of transportation restricts teachers ability to take students on field trips exposing them to outside experts and unique learning environments. Additionally, arranging to bring in guest speakers to the classroom seems to happen infrequently, especially in schools in rural areas. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program [1], facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate Education Program at the NASA Johnson Space Center has created a way to enable teachers to connect their students with STEM experts virtually. These virtual connections not only help engage students with role models, but are also designed to help teachers address concepts and content standards they are required to teach. Through EEAB, scientists are able to actively engage with students across the nation in multiple ways. They can work with student teams as mentors, participate in virtual student team science presentations, or connect with students through Classroom Connection Distance Learning (DL) Events.

  8. Crystal-Clear Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondris-Crawford, Renate J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Provides diagrams to aid in discussing polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) technology. Equipped with a knowledge of PDLC, teachers can provide students with insight on how the gap between basic science and technology is bridged. (ZWH)

  9. Integrating Solar Power onto the Electric Grid - Bridging the Gap between Atmospheric Science, Engineering and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonima, M. S.; Yang, H.; Zhong, X.; Ozge, B.; Sahu, D. K.; Kim, C. K.; Babacan, O.; Hanna, R.; Kurtz, B.; Mejia, F. A.; Nguyen, A.; Urquhart, B.; Chow, C. W.; Mathiesen, P.; Bosch, J.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    One of the main obstacles to high penetrations of solar power is the variable nature of solar power generation. To mitigate variability, grid operators have to schedule additional reliability resources, at considerable expense, to ensure that load requirements are met by generation. Thus despite the cost of solar PV decreasing, the cost of integrating solar power will increase as penetration of solar resources onto the electric grid increases. There are three principal tools currently available to mitigate variability impacts: (i) flexible generation, (ii) storage, either virtual (demand response) or physical devices and (iii) solar forecasting. Storage devices are a powerful tool capable of ensuring smooth power output from renewable resources. However, the high cost of storage is prohibitive and markets are still being designed to leverage their full potential and mitigate their limitation (e.g. empty storage). Solar forecasting provides valuable information on the daily net load profile and upcoming ramps (increasing or decreasing solar power output) thereby providing the grid advance warning to schedule ancillary generation more accurately, or curtail solar power output. In order to develop solar forecasting as a tool that can be utilized by the grid operators we identified two focus areas: (i) develop solar forecast technology and improve solar forecast accuracy and (ii) develop forecasts that can be incorporated within existing grid planning and operation infrastructure. The first issue required atmospheric science and engineering research, while the second required detailed knowledge of energy markets, and power engineering. Motivated by this background we will emphasize area (i) in this talk and provide an overview of recent advancements in solar forecasting especially in two areas: (a) Numerical modeling tools for coastal stratocumulus to improve scheduling in the day-ahead California energy market. (b) Development of a sky imager to provide short term

  10. Bridge scour monitoring technologies : development of evaluation and selection protocols for application on river bridges in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Bridge failure or loss of structural integrity can result from scour of riverbed sediment near bridge abutments or : piers during high-flow events in rivers. In the past 20 years, several methods of monitoring bridge scour have been : developed spann...

  11. A Hierarchical Analysis of Bridge Decision Makers ... The Role of New Technology Adoption in the Timber Bridge Market: Special Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; Robert J. Bush; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    Bridge design engineers and local highway officials make bridge replacement decisions across the United States. The Analytical Hierarchy Process was used to characterize the bridge material selection decision of these individuals. State Department of Transportation engineers, private consulting engineers, and local highway officials were personally interviewed in...

  12. HealthBridge : Information and Communication Technologies for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing data collected in different locations presents a particular challenge and the organization has decided to experiment with new information and communication technologies (ICTs) to streamline and standardize its data management system. This project aims to improve data management from the point where data ...

  13. Bridging Divides through Technology Use: Transnationalism and Digital Literacy Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueron, Silvia Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    In this study, I investigate the digital literacy practices of adult immigrants, and their relationship with transnational processes and practices. Specifically, I focus on their conditions of access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) in their life trajectories, their conditions of learning in a community center, and their…

  14. Automated inspection of gaps on the free-form shape parts by laser scanning technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sen; Xu, Jian; Tao, Lei; An, Lu; Yu, Yan

    2018-01-01

    In industrial manufacturing processes, the dimensional inspection of the gaps on the free-form shape parts is critical and challenging, and is directly associated with subsequent assembly and terminal product quality. In this paper, a fast measuring method for automated gap inspection based on laser scanning technologies is presented. The proposed measuring method consists of three steps: firstly, the relative position is determined according to the geometric feature of measuring gap, which considers constraints existing in a laser scanning operation. Secondly, in order to acquire a complete gap profile, a fast and effective scanning path is designed. Finally, the range dimension of the gaps on the free-form shape parts including width, depth and flush, correspondingly, is described in a virtual environment. In the future, an appliance machine based on the proposed method will be developed for the on-line dimensional inspection of gaps on the automobile or aerospace production line.

  15. The empowerment and sharing of knowledge among mental health service users: bridging the gap between the users and the mental health institution

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Paz; Leahy, Eithne; Sorro, Montse; Izquierdo, Roser; Masferrer, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Provide an insight into the on-going work in the Barcelona Demonstration Site of the European 6th framework EMILIA project (Empowerment of mental illness service users: Lifelong learning, integration and empowerment). Determine how this work bridges the gap between mental health users and the mental health institution. Aim To demonstrate how the methodology of life long learning is used to train a group of mental health service users to become Experts by Experience (EbE). The EbE...

  16. Bridging knowledge translation gap in health in developing countries: visibility, impact and publishing standards in journals from the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrobičić, Ana; Chaudhry, Nauman; Ghaffar, Abdul; Marušić, Ana

    2012-05-11

    Local and regional scientific journals are important factors in bridging gaps in health knowledge translation in low-and middle-income countries. We assessed indexing, citations and publishing standards of journals from the Eastern Mediterranean region. For journals from 22 countries in the collection of the Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), we analyzed indexing in bibliographical databases and citations during 2006-2009 to published items in 2006 in Web of Science (WoS) and SCOPUS. Adherence to editorial and publishing standards was assessed using a special checklist. Out of 419 journals in IMEMR, 19 were indexed in MEDLINE, 23 in WoS and 46 in SCOPUS. Their impact factors ranged from 0.016 to 1.417. For a subset of 175 journals with available tables of contents from 2006, articles published in 2006 from 93 journals received 2068 citations in SCOPUS (23.5% self-citations) and articles in 86 journals received 1579 citations in WoS (24.3% self-citations) during 2006-2009. Citations to articles came mostly from outside of the Eastern Mediterranean region (76.8% in WoS and 75.4% in SCOPUS). Articles receiving highest number of citations presented topics specific for the region. Many journals did not follow editorial and publishing standards, such addressing requirements about the patient's privacy rights (68.0% out of 244 analyzed), policy on managing conflicts of interest (66.4%), and ethical conduct in clinical and animal research (66.4%). Journals from the Eastern Mediterranean are visible in and have impact on global scientific community. Coordinated effort of all stakeholders in journal publishing, including researchers, journal editors and owners, policy makers and citation databases, is needed to further promote local journals as windows to the research in the developing world and the doors for valuable regional research to the global scientific community.

  17. Bridging the gap between textbook and maternity patient: a nurse-developed teaching model for first-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey, Nancy Rumsey

    2010-12-01

    Providing more opportunities for first-year medical students to interact with patients in clinical settings is a current discussion topic in medical student education reform. Early clinical experience helps students bridge the gap between textbook and patient while observing patient-centered care, and serves as a first step for students to develop the skills needed to work cooperatively as members of a multidisciplinary health care team. The author developed a model to provide perinatal education to first-year medical students, consistent with the concept of interprofessional education. Primarily first-year medical students participated in the nurse-developed education model, a component of a noncredit extracurricular, student-run perinatal program at a Midwestern university medical center. Students were placed at the bedsides of hospitalized women to provide support and education to them during perinatal procedures, labor, childbirth, and cesarean delivery. A total of 350 students participated over a period of 13 school calendar years. Students remarked that participation in the program reinforced the importance of their concurrent anatomy and physiology classes. They observed interdependence and cooperation among the members of the health care team caring for women, and their evaluations of their experiences at the bedside were highly positive. Women consistently expressed appreciation for the additional individualized attention and education received from our student and nurse team. Nurses can enhance the learning of first-year medical students in the maternity care clinical setting. This nurse-developed education program provided students with a variety of vivid clinical experiences with maternity patients. © 2010, Copyright the Author. Journal compilation © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Bridging knowledge translation gap in health in developing countries: visibility, impact and publishing standards in journals from the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Local and regional scientific journals are important factors in bridging gaps in health knowledge translation in low-and middle-income countries. We assessed indexing, citations and publishing standards of journals from the Eastern Mediterranean region. Methods For journals from 22 countries in the collection of the Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), we analyzed indexing in bibliographical databases and citations during 2006–2009 to published items in 2006 in Web of Science (WoS) and SCOPUS. Adherence to editorial and publishing standards was assessed using a special checklist. Results Out of 419 journals in IMEMR, 19 were indexed in MEDLINE, 23 in WoS and 46 in SCOPUS. Their impact factors ranged from 0.016 to 1.417. For a subset of 175 journals with available tables of contents from 2006, articles published in 2006 from 93 journals received 2068 citations in SCOPUS (23.5% self-citations) and articles in 86 journals received 1579 citations in WoS (24.3% self-citations) during 2006–2009. Citations to articles came mostly from outside of the Eastern Mediterranean region (76.8% in WoS and 75.4% in SCOPUS). Articles receiving highest number of citations presented topics specific for the region. Many journals did not follow editorial and publishing standards, such addressing requirements about the patient’s privacy rights (68.0% out of 244 analyzed), policy on managing conflicts of interest (66.4%), and ethical conduct in clinical and animal research (66.4%). Conclusion Journals from the Eastern Mediterranean are visible in and have impact on global scientific community. Coordinated effort of all stakeholders in journal publishing, including researchers, journal editors and owners, policy makers and citation databases, is needed to further promote local journals as windows to the research in the developing world and the doors for valuable regional research to the global scientific community. PMID:22577965

  19. Globalization, Technology Transfer and the Knowledge Gap: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper, discusses the impact of oligopolistic research on transfer of global pharmaceutical manufacturing technology to the less developed countries of the South (Nigeria) in post globalism. On the basis of empirical evidence from the advanced industrialized world, it is argued that the growth of oligopolistic research has ...

  20. Producer firms, technology diffusion and spillovers to local suppliers : Examining the effects of Foreign Direct Investment and the technology gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordaan, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a detailed examination of the effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and the technology gap on local technology dissemination and spillovers. Using unique firm level data from surveys among FDI firms and domestic producer firms and a random sample of their suppliers in

  1. Bridging the gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the options for financing of independent power projects particularly in the early stages of the project by looking at a case study involving Panda Energy Corporation's Roanoke Rapids cogeneration project financed by Heller Financial. The topics discussed in the article include the financing challenges, Heller Financial's role in the project, and successful completion of the project

  2. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Tunnel, approximately 25,000 of them critical to the regional work market. Even though the risk analysis states that the likelihood of a long-term closure (100C days) is very low Danish and Swedish transport authorities have demanded that the infrastructure operator conducts a survey of the preparedness...

  3. Bridging the Transition Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    www.army.mil/ cmh -pg/documents/panama/jcit/ JCIT97Z.htm (accessed on January 7, 2013). 115Fred Charles Iklé, Every War Must End, revised ed. (New York...Just Cause.” Oral History Interview of Lieutenant Gernaerla Carmen Cavessa conducted at Fort Lewis, Washington, 30 April 1992. http://www.army.mil/ cmh

  4. Investigating extreme event loading on coastal bridges using wireless sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelineau, Douglas A.; Davis, Justin R.; Rice, Jennifer A.

    2017-04-01

    Coastal infrastructure, such as bridges, are susceptible to many forms of coastal hazards: particularly hurricane surge and wave loading. These two forms of loading can cause catastrophic damage to aging highway infrastructure. It is estimated that storm damage costs the United States about $50 Billion per year. In light of this, it is crucial that we understand the damaging forces placed on infrastructure during storm events so that we can develop safer and more resilient coastal structures. This paper presents the ongoing research to enable the efficient collection of extreme event loads acting on both the substructure and superstructure of low clearance, simple span, reinforced concrete bridges. Bridges of this type were commonly constructed during the 1950's and 60's and are particularly susceptible to deck unseating caused by hurricane surge and wave loading. The sensing technology used to capture this data must be ruggedized to survive in an extremely challenging environment, be designed to allow for redundancy in the event of sensors or other network components being lost in the storm, and be relatively low cost to allow for more bridges to be instrumented per storm event. The prototype system described in this paper includes wireless technology, rapid data transmission, and, for the sensors, self-contained power. While this specific application focuses on hurricane hazards, the framework can be extended to include other natural hazards.

  5. Three-dimensional locations of destinations have species-dependent effects on the choice of paths and the gap-bridging performance of arboreal snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, K Marie; Jayne, Bruce C

    2013-03-01

    Challenges for moving in arboreal environments include sizable gaps and variable three-dimensional locations between the discrete destinations created by branches. Different three-dimensional orientations of the body change the mechanical demands of crossing gaps, especially for elongate animals, but these effects on both the maximal gap distance crossed (Gapmax ) and the choice of destinations are poorly understood despite many animals frequently encountering these circumstances. We tested and compared the effects of three-dimensional gap location on the bridging ability of three species of snakes with similar length but moderately stout (Boa constrictor), intermediate (Pantherophis guttatus) or slender (Boiga irregularis) shapes, and we tested for bias in choice of destinations for the latter two species. The effects of both gap location and species on Gapmax were highly significant, and the rank order of species from greatest to least Gapmax was often from the most slender to the stoutest species. Although the effects of yaw (horizontal) angles were statistically significant, they were small compared to those of pitch (vertical) angles, which created nearly twofold variation in the values of Gapmax within each species. The greatest values of Gapmax occurred when snakes went straight down. Within a horizontal plane, P. guttatus and B. irregularis had similar preferences for choosing gaps with smaller yaw angles. However, when pitch angle was varied, P. guttatus preferred lower destinations, whereas B. irregularis preferred higher destinations. Thus, despite quite uniform effects of gap location on bridging abilities and torques acting on the animals, some preferences for locations were species specific. J. Exp. Zool. 319A:124-137, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A Summary of Actinide Enrichment Technologies and Capability Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Bradley D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robinson, Sharon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation performed in this study indicates that a new program is needed to efficiently provide a national actinide radioisotope enrichment capability to produce milligram-to-gram quantities of unique materials for user communities. This program should leverage past actinide enrichment, the recent advances in stable isotope enrichment, and assessments of the future requirements to cost effectively develop this capability while establishing an experience base for a new generation of researchers in this vital area. Preliminary evaluations indicate that an electromagnetic isotope separation (EMIS) device would have the capability to meet the future needs of the user community for enriched actinides. The EMIS technology could be potentially coupled with other enrichment technologies, such as irradiation, as pre-enrichment and/or post-enrichment systems to increase the throughput, reduce losses of material, and/or reduce operational costs of the base EMIS system. Past actinide enrichment experience and advances in the EMIS technology applied in stable isotope separations should be leveraged with this new evaluation information to assist in the establishment of a domestic actinide radioisotope enrichment capability.

  7. Grandma's Games Project: Bridging Tradition and Technology Mediated Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vasileva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a project entitled "Grandma’s games", following a research idea to enrich the educational process of K9 students by introducing the traditional children games of our ancestors in the learning environment, revived and adapted for modern students with the aid of information and communication technology. While creating a strong connection between our heritage and the modern educational trends, the project’s intention goes beyond mere fulfilment of educational goals, striving to increase the interest and motivation of primary education students to develop their creativity and originality while learning, with respect of their own personal preferences and cultural heritage. The "Grandma’s games" research project engaged twelve traditional games in the educational activities at primary schools from both rural and non-rural environments in Republic of Macedonia. Descriptive statistics was applied on the data set sampled from the extensive survey conducted among teachers in these schools, to illustrate the benefits from the application of the Grandma’s games in educational process.

  8. Cool Science Explains a Warming World: Using Ice Core Science to Bridge the Gap Between Researchers and the K-12 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, L. T.

    2017-12-01

    Changing ice has urgent implications for people around the world. The Ice Drilling Program Office (IDPO) provides scientific leadership and oversight of ice coring and drilling activities funded by the US National Science Foundation and also has goals to enhance education and communication of current research information. In a time when misinformation is rampant and climate change science is suspect, it is essential that students receive accurate scientific information and engage in learning activities that model complex ideas through engaging and age appropriate ways, while also learning to validate and recognize reliable sources. The IDPO Education and Outreach (EO) office works to create resources, activities and professional development that bridge the gap between ice core science research and educators and their students. Ice core science is on the cutting edge of new discoveries about climate change and understanding better the past to predict the future. Hands-on inquiry activities based on ice core data allow teachers to lead their students to new discoveries about climate secrets hidden deep in the ice. Capitalizing on the inherent interest in the extremes of the Polar Regions, IDPO materials engage students in activities aligned with NGSS standards. Ice drilling technologies make an ideal platform for intertwining engineering concepts and practices with science research to meet the SEP (Science and Engineering Practices) in the NGSS. This session will highlight how the IDPO EO office has built a community of ice core scientists willing to take part in education and outreach projects and events and share some of the resources available to K-12 educators. We will highlight some of the successes and lessons learned as we continually evolve our work toward more effective science education and communication highlighting ice core and climate change science.

  9. Bridging the provenance gap: opportunities and challenges tracking in and ex silico provenance in sUAS workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomer, A.

    2017-12-01

    Data provenance - the record of the varied processes that went into the creation of a dataset, as well as the relationships between resulting data objects - is necessary to support the reusability, reproducibility and reliability of earth science data. In sUAS-based research, capturing provenance can be particularly challenging because of the breadth and distributed nature of the many platforms used to collect, process and analyze data. In any given project, multiple drones, controllers, computers, software systems, sensors, cameras, imaging processing algorithms and data processing workflows are used over sometimes long periods of time. These platforms and processing result in dozens - if not hundreds - of data products in varying stages of readiness-for-analysis and sharing. Provenance tracking mechanisms are needed to make the relationships between these many data products explicit, and therefore more reusable and shareable. In this talk, I discuss opportunities and challenges in tracking provenance in sUAS-based research, and identify gaps in current workflow-capture technologies. I draw on prior work conducted as part of the IMLS-funded Site-Based Data Curation project in which we developed methods of documenting in and ex silico (that is, computational and non-computation) workflows, and demonstrate this approaches applicability to research with sUASes. I conclude with a discussion of ontologies and other semantic technologies that have potential application in sUAS research.

  10. Bridging the Gap between Scientific and Indigenous knowledge to Better Understand Social Impacts of Changing Rainfall Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, A. H.; Joachim, L.; Zhu, X.; Hammer, C.; Harris, M.; Griggs, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Murray-Darling Basin incorporates Australia's three longest rivers and is important for an agricultural industry worth more than $9 billion per annum, a rich biodiversity of habitat and species, and the very life of its traditional owners. The complex and sometimes enigmatic relationships between modes of variability and Australian regional rainfall distribution means that reliable projections of future water availability remain highly uncertain. Persistent drought, with associated heat stress and high fire danger, and episodic flooding rains present further challenges. Indeed, recent extremes likely herald a tipping point for the communities and ecosystems that rely on the river system. The Barmah-Millewa region in the Murray-Darling Basin is the heart of Yorta Yorta Traditional Tribal Lands. The Yorta Yorta continue to assert their inherent rights to country and have shown through oral, documentary and material evidence, that their social, spiritual, economic and cultural links with country have never been broken. Current water policy and practice, highly contested community consultation processes, cross-border governance issues and a changing social landscape create in this region a microcosm for understanding the complex demands of economic, environmental and cultural security along the Murray-Darling Basin as the climate changes. New approaches to bridging the gap between scientific and Indigenous epistemologies have emerged in recent years, including for example ecosystem-based adaptation (Vignola et al. 2009) and the analysis of cultural water flows (Weir 2010). The potential for innovation using these approaches has informed a study that investigates how the deep knowledge of country of the Yorta Yorta people can be combined with state of the art climate science to develop a better understanding of the competing demands on water resources in the Barmah-Millewa region now and in the future. An important dimension of this collaborative work with the Yorta

  11. Rapid development of image analysis research tools: Bridging the gap between researcher and clinician with pyOsiriX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackledge, Matthew D; Collins, David J; Koh, Dow-Mu; Leach, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    We present pyOsiriX, a plugin built for the already popular dicom viewer OsiriX that provides users the ability to extend the functionality of OsiriX through simple Python scripts. This approach allows users to integrate the many cutting-edge scientific/image-processing libraries created for Python into a powerful DICOM visualisation package that is intuitive to use and already familiar to many clinical researchers. Using pyOsiriX we hope to bridge the apparent gap between basic imaging scientists and clinical practice in a research setting and thus accelerate the development of advanced clinical image processing. We provide arguments for the use of Python as a robust scripting language for incorporation into larger software solutions, outline the structure of pyOsiriX and how it may be used to extend the functionality of OsiriX, and we provide three case studies that exemplify its utility. For our first case study we use pyOsiriX to provide a tool for smooth histogram display of voxel values within a user-defined region of interest (ROI) in OsiriX. We used a kernel density estimation (KDE) method available in Python using the scikit-learn library, where the total number of lines of Python code required to generate this tool was 22. Our second example presents a scheme for segmentation of the skeleton from CT datasets. We have demonstrated that good segmentation can be achieved for two example CT studies by using a combination of Python libraries including scikit-learn, scikit-image, SimpleITK and matplotlib. Furthermore, this segmentation method was incorporated into an automatic analysis of quantitative PET-CT in a patient with bone metastases from primary prostate cancer. This enabled repeatable statistical evaluation of PET uptake values for each lesion, before and after treatment, providing estaimes maximum and median standardised uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmed respectively). Following treatment we observed a reduction in lesion volume, SUVmax and SUVmed for

  12. Bridging the climate-induced water gap in the twenty-first century: adaptation support based on water supply, demand, adaptation and financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jaïrus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Vitolo, Claudia; Schmitz, Oliver; Meijer, Karen; Van Aalst, Maaike; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    realistic combinations of a shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) and RCPs. Our Water And Climate Adaptation Model (WatCAM) was used to compute the water gap based on reservoir capacity, water supply, and water demand. WatCam is based on the existing ModSim (Labadie, 2010) water allocation model, and facilitated the evaluation of nine technological and infrastructural adaptation measures to assess the investments needed to bridge the future water gap. Regional environmental and socio-economic effects of these investments, such as environmental flows or downstream effects, were evaluated. A scheme was developed to evaluate the strategies on robustness and flexibility under climate change and scenario uncertainty, and each measure was linked to possibilities for investment and financing mechanisms. The WatCAM is available as a web modeling service from www.water2invest.com, and enables user specified adaptation measures and the creation of an ensemble of water gap forecasts.

  13. Knowledge engineering for health: a new discipline required to bridge the "ICT gap" between research and healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Tim; Gollapudi, Sirisha; Brunak, Søren; Graf, Norbert; Lemke, Heinz U; Dash, Debasis; Buchan, Iain; Díaz, Carlos; Sanz, Ferran; Brookes, Anthony J

    2012-05-01

    Despite vast amount of money and research being channeled toward biomedical research, relatively little impact has been made on routine clinical practice. At the heart of this failure is the information and communication technology "chasm" that exists between research and healthcare. A new focus on "knowledge engineering for health" is needed to facilitate knowledge transmission across the research-healthcare gap. This discipline is required to engineer the bidirectional flow of data: processing research data and knowledge to identify clinically relevant advances and delivering these into healthcare use; conversely, making outcomes from the practice of medicine suitably available for use by the research community. This system will be able to self-optimize in that outcomes for patients treated by decisions that were based on the latest research knowledge will be fed back to the research world. A series of meetings, culminating in the "I-Health 2011" workshop, have brought together interdisciplinary experts to map the challenges and requirements for such a system. Here, we describe the main conclusions from these meetings. An "I4Health" interdisciplinary network of experts now exists to promote the key aims and objectives, namely "integrating and interpreting information for individualized healthcare," by developing the "knowledge engineering for health" domain. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Crystal Structure and Band-Gap Engineering of a Semiconducting Coordination Polymer Consisting of Copper(I) Bromide and a Bridging Acceptor Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Takashi; Himoto, Kento; Tanishima, Koki; Fukuda, Sanshiro; Noda, Yusuke; Nakayama, Masanobu; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Maekawa, Masahiko; Kuroda-Sowa, Takayoshi

    2018-03-05

    A new semiconducting 3D coordination polymer, [Cu 2 Br 2 (ttz)] n (1), with an acceptor bridging ligand, 1,2,4,5-tetrazine (ttz), was synthesized. The complex shows large absorption bands extending to the near-IR region, indicating a small band gap in the coordination polymer. This complex shows higher conductivity than those of [CuBr(pyz)] n (2), including pyrazine (pyz) with a higher lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level. We performed density functional theory band calculations using the VASP program to understand the electronic states and conducting paths of the coordination polymer.

  15. Bridging the Gap between Work and Education in Vocational Education and Training: A study of Norwegian Apprenticeship Training Offices and E-portfolio Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hæge Nore

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the effect that the use of e-portfolios initiated and organized by apprenticeship training offices has had on the learning processes and assessment practices of apprentices in Norwegian vocational education and training. Although these intermediate structures have the potential to bridge the gap between work and education, they seem to maintain a system of two parallel learning arenas. However, the article summarizes the innovative effects of these transformations as supportive structures for expansive apprenticeship. The study is based on data from a national project on quality assessment, which is supported by documentary evidence from e-portfolios in three different trades: plumbing, industrial mechanics and sales.

  16. Mothers' use of information and communication technologies for information seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Juyoung; Dworkin, Jodi; Hessel, Heather

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have revealed that information and communication technologies (ICTs) play a crucial role in parenting. Utilizing a national sample of mothers, the current study addresses mothers' information-seeking behaviors using ICTs utilizing the sense-making theoretical approach. Specifically, the study explored mothers' gap-bridging activities via online information venues including blogs, discussion boards/chatrooms, e-mailed newsletters, and online courses. Further, the associations were examined between mothers' demographic characteristics and their patterns of gap-bridging activities using online information venues. Latent class analysis revealed five latent classes: limited gap bridging, active gap bridging, problem identifiers, perspective explorers, and reassurance seekers. The "limited gap bridging" latent class was the most common class across online information venues. The other latent classes illustrate a more complex picture of mothers' gap-bridging activities depending on their needs. Mothers' demographic characteristics were associated with their patterns of gap-bridging activities. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  17. The bridge between real and ideal: students perception on quality gap in reality and their educational expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabilou, Bahram; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud

    2014-09-01

    Studies in higher education indicated that students' expectation for their educational services are not provided sufficiently, particularly in developing countries that implies on gap between the students perception on current situation and their expectations from educational services. The aim of this study was to determine the gap between student perception and expectations of students in various levels of the undergraduate educational courses at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Iran. This is a longitudinal study, which was conducted in academic year 2007-2008 at the Urmia University of Medical Sciences. In total, 173 students were selected as sample size, among various courses. SERVQUAL questionnaire was used as instrument. Descriptive statistics following by Friedman and Wilcoxon tests were used to determining significance of quality gap between five dimensions and to evaluate significant gap between student perceptions and their expectations, respectively. Spearman test was also used to determine the relationship between dimensions. In overall, 80% of educational expectations were not meet; there was a negative gap at all phrases and dimensions and the gap was more negative for educational experts (-1.45 ± 0.89) compared to teachers (-0.97 ± 0.97). The highest gap for teachers was in empathy dimension (-1.11 ± 1.51), while for experts it was in assurance dimension (-1.58 ± 1). Existences of gap in dimensions indicated that expectations of students are not met and it indicates their dissatisfaction, and thus it is a necessity for improvement in all dimensions.

  18. Center Director Bridges visits Disability Awareness and Action working Group Technology Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Center Director Roy Bridges (standing, center) poses with members of the Disability Awareness and Action Working Group (DAAWG), which is holding the 1999 Technology Fair Oct. 20-21 at Kennedy Space Center. The Fair is highlighting vendors demonstrating mobility, hearing, vision and silent disability assistive technology. The purpose is to create an awareness of the types of technology currently available to assist people with various disabilities in the workplace. The theme is that of this year's National Disability Employment Awareness Month, 'Opening Doors to Ability.' Some of the vendors participating are Canine Companions for Independence, Goodwill Industries, Accessible Structures, Division of Blind Services, Space Coast Center for Independent Living, KSC Fitness Center and Delaware North Parks Services.

  19. Mathematics Education for Engineering Technology Students – A Bridge Too Far?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraishiyah Abdullah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Trying to decide what is best suited for someone or something is an ever enduring task let alone trying to prepare students with the right engineering mind. So ‘how do you build an engineer?’ if that is the right word. What is the right ingredient? Mathematics has been said as the most important foundation in engineers’ life. Curriculum has been developed and reviewed over the years to meet this target. This work explores how much or lack of it has the curriculum prepares the future technologist to face the world of engineering technology as far as mathematics is concerned. Analysis of mathematics lectures, interviews of engineering technologist students and engineering technology subject lecturer is undertaken. Understand what each contributes help in understanding the picture that the current education is painting. Based on the theory of learning, APOS theory helps in explaining how students bridge their knowledge of mathematics when it comes to solving engineering technology problems. The question is, is it a bridge too far? 

  20. Bridging the Gap between International Investment Law and the Environment”, 4th and 5th November, The Hague, The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalien Diepeveen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is based on the discussions that took place in the international conference “Bridging the Gap between International Investment Law and the Environment” which was held on 4-5 November 2013 in the Hague. The main goal of the conference was to answer the question of how the gap between international investment law and the environment can be bridged. Different perspectives were presented, helping to shed light on this issue. The emphasis of the first day of the conference was the academic debate in the field of international investment law and the environment. Four main perspectives were discussed: general principles of international investment law and the environment, various legal regimes, specific legal regimes and case studies. Furthermore, also the topics of sustainable development, the right to access to water and climate change were elaborated upon by the experts. The second day of the conference focussed on the perspective of policy-makers. Most of the topics were presented in the form of panel discussions. Issues that were discussed included: the perspective of various intergovernmental organisations, concerns and dilemmas of non-European capital-importing countries, and the European Investment Policy. This contribution elaborates upon the most important themes and issues debated at the conference, providing academic and policy perspectives.

  1. Long-Term Regeneration and Functional Recovery of a 15 mm Critical Nerve Gap Bridged by Tremella fuciformis Polysaccharide-Immobilized Polylactide Conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-hui Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel peripheral nerve conduits containing the negatively charged Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (TF were prepared, and their efficacy in bridging a critical nerve gap was evaluated. The conduits were made of poly(D,L-lactide (PLA with asymmetric microporous structure. TF was immobilized on the lumen surface of the nerve conduits after open air plasma activation. The TF-modified surface was characterized by the attenuated total reflection Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscopy. TF modification was found to enhance the neurotrophic gene expression of C6 glioma cells in vitro. TF-modified PLA nerve conduits were tested for their ability to bridge a 15 mm gap of rat sciatic nerve. Nerve regeneration was monitored by the magnetic resonance imaging. Results showed that TF immobilization promoted the nerve connection in 6 weeks. The functional recovery in animals receiving TF-immobilized conduits was greater than in those receiving the bare conduits during an 8-month period. The degree of functional recovery reached ~90% after 8 months in the group of TF-immobilized conduits.

  2. Technology-supported reflection : towards bridging the gap between theory and practice in teacher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almodaires, Abdullah Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    The ability to convert theoretical knowledge into practical behavior is a common obstacle facing newly graduated employees in most professions. To overcome this obstacle, educational institutes are offering some kind of field training courses that allow their students to practice and gain experience

  3. Intersection how enterprise design bridges the gap between business, technology, and people

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations struggle with the dynamics and the complexity of today''s social ecosystems that connect everyone and everything, everywhere and all the time. Facing challenges at the intersection of business models, technical developments, and human needs, modern enterprises must overcome the siloed thinking and isolated efforts of the past, and instead address their relationships to people holistically. In Intersection, Milan Guenther introduces a Strategic Design approach that aligns the overarching efforts of Branding, Enterprise Architecture, and Experience Design, and sets them on a

  4. The theory-practice gap of black carbon mitigation technologies in rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weishi; Li, Aitong; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Junfeng

    2018-02-01

    Black carbon mitigation has received increasing attention for its potential contribution to both climate change mitigation and air pollution control. Although different bottom-up models concerned with unit mitigation costs of various technologies allow the assessment of alternative policies for optimized cost-effectiveness, the lack of adequate data often forced many reluctant explicit and implicit assumptions that deviate away from actual situations of rural residential energy consumption in developing countries, where most black carbon emissions occur. To gauge the theory-practice gap in black carbon mitigation - the unit cost differences that lie between what is estimated in the theory and what is practically achieved on the ground - this study conducted an extensive field survey and analysis of nine mitigation technologies in rural China, covering both northern and southern regions with different residential energy consumption patterns. With a special focus on two temporal characteristics of those technologies - lifetimes and annual utilization rates, this study quantitatively measured the unit cost gaps and explain the technical as well as sociopolitical mechanisms behind. Structural and behavioral barriers, which have affected the technologies' performance, are discussed together with policy implications to narrow those gaps.

  5. Installations in practice. Gap between technological options and users of health care services; Installaties in de praktijk. Dichten kloof tussen mogelijkheden technologie en zorgontvangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoof, J. [Hogeschool Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    Health care and building services professionals are increasingly working together, even though there are apparent differences in each others approaches. This paper will zoom in on these differences. Examples from long-term care and ageing-in-place such as home automation, technology for dementia, medical equipment at home, the need for cooling during hot summers, and special lighting systems should lead to steps to bridge the gap between technology and health care. [Dutch] De zorg en de installatiewereld werken steeds nauwer met elkaar samen, zij het dat elkaars werkwijzen duidelijk verschillen. Dit artikel gaat hier dieper op in. Aan de hand van voorbeelden uit de ouderenzorg en het langer zelfstandig wonen, zoals domotica, technologie voor dementie, medische apparatuur aen huis, koeling bij hete zomers en speciale verlichting, zal worden geprobeerd de technologie dichter naar de zorg toe te laten groeien.

  6. A large-area strain sensing technology for monitoring fatigue cracks in steel bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangxiong; Li, Jian; Collins, William; Bennett, Caroline; Laflamme, Simon; Jo, Hongki

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel large-area strain sensing technology for monitoring fatigue cracks in steel bridges. The technology is based on a soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC), which serves as a flexible and large-area strain gauge. Previous experiments have verified the SEC’s capability to monitor low-cycle fatigue cracks experiencing large plastic deformation and large crack opening. Here an investigation into further extending the SEC’s capability for long-term monitoring of fatigue cracks in steel bridges subject to traffic loading, which experience smaller crack openings. It is proposed that the peak-to-peak amplitude (pk-pk amplitude) of the sensor’s capacitance measurement as the indicator of crack growth to achieve robustness against capacitance drift during long-term monitoring. Then a robust crack monitoring algorithm is developed to reliably identify the level of pk-pk amplitudes through frequency analysis, from which a crack growth index (CGI) is obtained for monitoring fatigue crack growth under various loading conditions. To generate representative fatigue cracks in a laboratory, loading protocols were designed based on constant ranges of stress intensity to limit plastic deformations at the crack tip. A series of small-scale fatigue tests were performed under the designed loading protocols with various stress intensity ratios. Test results under the realistic fatigue crack conditions demonstrated the proposed crack monitoring algorithm can generate robust CGIs which are positively correlated with crack lengths and independent from loading conditions.

  7. Linking International Development Actors to Geophysical Infrastructure: Exploring an IRIS Community Role in Bridging a Communications Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner-Lam, A.; Aster, R.; Beck, S.; Ekstrom, G.; Fisher, K.; Meltzer, A.; Nyblade, A.; Sandvol, E.; Willemann, R.

    2008-12-01

    Over the past quarter century, national investments in high-fidelity digital seismograph networks have resulted in a global infrastructure for real-time in situ earthquake monitoring. Many network operators adhere to community-developed standards, with the result that there are few technical impediments to data sharing and real-time information exchange. Two unanswered questions, however, are whether the existing models of international collaboration will ensure the stability and sustainability of global earthquake monitoring, and whether the participating institutions can work with international development agencies and non- governmental organizations in meeting linked development and natural hazard risk reduction goals. Since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, many of these actors are enlarging their commitments to natural hazard risk reduction and building national technical capacities, among broader programs in poverty alleviation and adaptation to environmental stress. Despite this renewed commitment, international development organizations, with notable exceptions, have been relatively passive in discussions of how the existing earthquake monitoring infrastructure could be leveraged to support risk-reduction programs and meet sustainable development goals. At the same time, the international seismological community - comprising universities and government seismological surveys - has built research and education initiatives such as EarthScope, AfricaArray, and similar programs in China, Europe and South America, that use innovative instrumentation technologies and deployment strategies to enable new science and applications, and promote education and training in critical sectors. Can these developments be combined? Recognizing this communication or knowledge gap, the IRIS International Working Group (IWG) explores the link between the activities of IRIS Members using IRIS facilities and the missions of international development agencies, such as US AID, the World

  8. Dynamics of Reverse Salience as Technological Performance Gap: An Empirical Study of the Personal Computer Technology System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Dedehayir

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of technological systems is hindered by systemic components, referred to as reverse salients, which fail to deliver the necessary level of technological performance thereby inhibiting the performance delivery of the system as a whole. This paper develops a performance gap measure of reverse salience and applies this measurement in the study of the PC (personal computer technological system, focusing on the evolutions of firstly the CPU (central processing unit and PC game sub-systems, and secondly the GPU (graphics processing unit and PC game sub-systems. The measurement of the temporal behavior of reverse salience indicates that the PC game sub-system is the reverse salient, continuously trailing behind the technological performance of the CPU and GPU sub-systems from 1996 through 2006. The technological performance of the PC game sub-system as a reverse salient trails that of the CPU sub-system by up to 2300 MHz with a gradually decreasing performance disparity in recent years. In contrast, the dynamics of the PC game sub-system as a reverse salient trails the GPU sub-system with an ever increasing performance gap throughout the timeframe of analysis. In addition, we further discuss the research and managerial implications of our findings.

  9. Endogenous implementation of technology gap in energy optimization models-a systematic analysis within TIMES G5 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Ullash K.; Fahl, Ulrich; Remme, Uwe; Blesl, Markus; Voss, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of global diffusion potential of learning technologies and their timely specific cost development across regions is always a challenging issue for the future technology policy preparation. Further the process of evaluation gains interest especially by endogenous treatment of energy technologies under uncertainty in learning rates with technology gap across the regions in global regional cluster learning approach. This work devised, implemented, and examined new methodologies on technology gaps (a practical problem), using two broad concepts of knowledge deficit and time lag approaches in global learning, applying the floor cost approach methodology. The study was executed in a multi-regional, technology-rich and long horizon bottom-up linear energy system model on The Integrated MARKAL EFOM System (TIMES) framework. Global learning selects highest learning technologies in maximum uncertainty of learning rate scenario, whereas any form of technology gap retards the global learning process and discourages the technologies deployment. Time lag notions of technology gaps prefer heavy utilization of learning technologies in developed economies for early reduction of specific cost. Technology gaps of any kind should be reduced among economies through the promotion and enactment of various policies by governments, in order to utilize the technological resources by mass deployment to combat ongoing climate change.

  10. Novice-Service Language Teacher Development: Bridging the Gap between Preservice and In-Service Education and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2012-01-01

    One reason for teacher attrition is that a gap exists between pre-service teacher preparation and in-service teacher development, in that most novice teachers suddenly have no further contact with their teacher educators, and from the very first day on the job, must face the same challenges as their more experienced colleagues, often without much…

  11. Bridging the Gap between Instructional and Research Laboratories: Teaching Data Analysis Software Skills through the Manipulation of Original Research Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sarah J. R.; Zhu, Jieling; Karch, Jessica M.; Sorrento, Cristina M.; Ulichny, Joseph C.; Kaufman, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    The gap between graduate research and introductory undergraduate teaching laboratories is often wide, but the development of teaching activities rooted within the research environment offers an opportunity for undergraduate students to have first-hand experience with research currently being conducted and for graduate students to develop…

  12. Crossing the Gap between Indigenous Worldview and Western Science: Millet Festival as a Bridge in the Teaching Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chia-Ling; Lee, Huei

    2015-01-01

    The worldview within indigenous people's traditional knowledge and western science can be a world of difference. In order to help indigenous students cross the gap and develop a sense of cultural identification. Taking Bunun, one of the Taiwanese indigenous tribes, as our subject, this study aims to develop a teaching module through Bunun's Millet…

  13. Bridging the digital divide in older adults: a study from an initiative to inform older adults about new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Damnée, Souad; Kerhervé, Hélène; Ware, Caitlin; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    In a society where technology progresses at an exponential rate, older adults are often unaware of the existence of different kinds of information and communication technologies (ICTs). To bridge the gap, we launched a 2-year project, during which we conducted focus groups (FGs) with demonstrations of ICTs, allowing older adults to try them out and to share their opinions. This study aimed at investigating how participants perceived this kind of initiative and how they reacted to different kinds of ICTs. In total, 14 FGs were conducted with community-dwelling older adults, with a frequency of two FGs on the same topic once per trimester. Twenty-three older adults (four men and 19 women) attended at least one FG but only nearly half of them were regular attendants (ten participating in at least five sessions). Age of participants ranged from 63 years to 88 years, with a mean of 77.1 years. All of them had completed secondary education. The analyses of the data were performed according to inductive thematic analysis. Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis. The first concerned participants' motivation for and assessment of the project. The second theme identified the underlying factors of the "digital divide" between the younger and the older generations. The third theme concerned the factors of technology adoption among older adults. The fourth one identified participants' attitudes toward assistive ICTs, designed specifically for older adults ("gerontechnologies"). This project encouraging older adults to be informed about different kinds of ICTs was positively rated. With regard to ICTs, participants perceived a digital divide. The underlying factors are generation/cohort effects, cognitive and physical decline related to aging, and negative attitudes toward technologies. However, more and more older adults adopt different kinds of ICTs in order to fit in with the society. Concerning assistive ICTs, they manifested a lack of perceived need and usefulness

  14. Carbon emissions reductions and technology gaps in the world's factory, 1990–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Bing; Chen, Zhongfei

    2016-01-01

    China's manufacturing industries are traditionally energy-intensive sectors and are responsible for over half of the country's total CO 2 emissions. In this paper, we propose a global meta-frontier non-radial directional distance function approach to measure the CO 2 emissions performance of Chinese manufacturing sectors during the period of 1990–2012. This approach allows us to simultaneously consider technological heterogeneity in manufacturing, non-radial slacks, and undesirable outputs. The global level of environmental technology is incorporated into the efficiency model to improve discriminating power and comparability. The results indicate significant differences in CO 2 -emissions-reduction performance among five broad groups of Chinese manufacturing industries. The “global technologies/ innovators group” is the most efficient under meta-frontier technologies, with the smallest technology gap. Meanwhile, the “energy-/resource-intensive commodities group” is, on average, the least efficient. Therefore, the Chinese government should implement targeted policies that encourage firms in the global technologies/innovators group to increase market share while supporting those in the energy-/resource-intensive commodities group to upgrade their technologies. - Highlights: • Global meta-frontier non-radial directional distance function approach is proposed. • It measures CO 2 emissions performance of Chinese manufacturing during 1990–2012. • The impact of group heterogeneity is incorporated. • Global technologies/innovators group is the most efficient under meta-frontier. • Energy-/resource-intensive commodities group is, on average, the least efficient.

  15. Program on Promoting Climate Change Adaptation Technologies Bridging Policy Making and Science Research in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Y.; Chiang, W.; Sui, C.; Tung, C.; Ho, H.; Li, M.; Chan, S.; Climate Change Adaptation Technologies Program, National Science Council, Taiwan

    2010-12-01

    Climate changes adaptation needs innovative technological revolution on demand for transdisciplinary studies in various temporal and spatial scales. In our proposed program, a systematic and scientific framework will be developed to promote innovative adaptation technologies with respect to providing decision making information for government sectors, enhancing applicability of scientific research output, strengthening national research capabilities, and integrating both academic and non-academic resources. The objectives of this program are to identify key issues, required technologies, and scientific knowledge for climate change adaptations, and to build a transdisciplinary platform bridging science-supported technologies required by government sectors and demand-oriented scientific research conducted by academic communities. The approach proposed herein will be practiced in vulnerable regions, such as urban, rural, mountain, river basin, and coastal areas, which are particularly sensitive to climate change. The first phase of 3-year (2011~2013) work is to deploy framework and strategies of climate change impact assessment and adaptation measures between related government sectors and researchers from academic communities. The proposed framework involves three principle research groups, namely Environmental System, Vulnerability Assessment, and Risk Management and Adaptation Technology. The goal of the first group, Environmental System, is to combine climate change projections with enhanced scientific and environmental monitoring technologies for better adaptations to future scenarios in different social, economic, and environmental sectors to support adaptation measures planning and to reduce uncertainties on assessing vulnerability. The goal of the second group, Vulnerability Assessment, is to identify interfaces and information structures of climate change vulnerably issues and to develop protocol, models, and indices for vulnerability assessment. The goal of

  16. Measurement of the Dynamic Displacements of Railway Bridges Using Video Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Diogo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of a non-contact dynamic displacement measurement system for railway bridges based on video technology. The system, consisting of a high speed video camera, an optical lens, lighting lamps and a precision target, can perform measurements with high precision for distances from the camera to the target up to 25 m, with acquisition frame rates ranging from 64 fps to 500 fps, and be articulated with other measurement systems, which promotes its integration in structural health monitoring systems. The system’s performance was evaluated based on two tests, one in the laboratory and other on the field. The laboratory test evaluated the performance of the system in measuring the displacement of a steel beam, subjected to a point load applied dynamically, for distances from the camera to the target between 3 m and 15 m. The field test allowed evaluating the system’s performance in the dynamic measurement of the displacement of a point on the deck of a railway bridge, induced by passing trains at speeds between 160 km/h and 180 km/h, for distances from the camera to the target up to 25 m. The results of both tests show a very good agreement between the displacement measurement obtained with the video system and with a LVDT.

  17. Building ICT capabilities for clinical work in a sustainable healthcare system: approaches to bridging the higher education learning and teaching gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen; Sim, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    There is a recognised gap in information and communications technology (ICT) learning and teaching in higher education for entry-level healthcare professionals. This paper proposes a research model for understanding the dimensions of this gap. We describe methodological approaches to understanding present practices, identifying levers for change and learning by doing. We discuss issues faced in getting started and sustaining momentum on the research that is an essential prerequisite to effectively build the ICT capacity required by the clinical workforce in a sustainable healthcare system.

  18. Field application of smart SHM using field programmable gate array technology to monitor an RC bridge in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarbayejani, M; Jalalpour, M; Reda Taha, M M; El-Osery, A I

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an innovative field application of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system using field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology and wireless communication is presented. The new SHM system was installed to monitor a reinforced concrete (RC) bridge on Interstate 40 (I-40) in Tucumcari, New Mexico. This newly installed system allows continuous remote monitoring of this bridge using solar power. Details of the SHM component design and installation are discussed. The integration of FPGA and solar power technologies make it possible to remotely monitor infrastructure with limited access to power. Furthermore, the use of FPGA technology enables smart monitoring where data communication takes place on-need (when damage warning signs are met) and on-demand for periodic monitoring of the bridge. Such a system enables a significant cut in communication cost and power demands which are two challenges during SHM operation. Finally, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of the bridge was developed and calibrated using a static loading field test. This model is then used for simulating damage occurrence on the bridge. Using the proposed automation process for SHM will reduce human intervention significantly and can save millions of dollars currently spent on prescheduled inspection of critical infrastructure worldwide

  19. Bridging the research to practice gap: A case study approach to understanding eıbı supports and barriers in Swedish preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Roll-Petterson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined proximal and distal barriers and supports within the Swedish service system that may affect implementation of early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI for children with autism. A case study approach with roots in ethnography was chosen to explore this issue. Two preschools exemplifying ‘high quality practice’ were studied and information was collected through multiple sources during a 12 month period, this included participant observations, direct observations, semi-structured interviews with key informants; paraprofessionals, parents, special educators, habilitation specialists and a focus group interview. Interview transcripts and field notes were combined and analyzed using an abductive grounded theory approach. Findings highlight the relevance of researchers understanding and taking into consideration the effect that distal variables have on implementation within proximal settings. A theoretical model of factors affecting implementation was conceptualised to include: staff entry knowledge and competence, development through supervision, the role of the preschool administrator, as well as distal influences and inter-organizational tensions, values, and bridges. Findings are discussed within the context of implementation science. Implications for future research are discussed as well as areas in need of further development to bridge the gap between research and practice.

  20. Bridging the Gap between the Nanometer-Scale Bottom-Up and Micrometer-Scale Top-Down Approaches for Site-Defined InP/InAs Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Rainville, Christophe; Salmon, Adrian; Takiguchi, Masato; Tateno, Kouta; Gotoh, Hideki

    2015-11-24

    This work presents a method that bridges the gap between the nanometer-scale bottom-up and micrometer-scale top-down approaches for site-defined nanostructures, which has long been a significant challenge for applications that require low-cost and high-throughput manufacturing processes. We realized the bridging by controlling the seed indium nanoparticle position through a self-assembly process. Site-defined InP nanowires were then grown from the indium-nanoparticle array in the vapor-liquid-solid mode through a "seed and grow" process. The nanometer-scale indium particles do not always occupy the same locations within the micrometer-scale open window of an InP exposed substrate due to the scale difference. We developed a technique for aligning the nanometer-scale indium particles on the same side of the micrometer-scale window by structuring the surface of a misoriented InP (111)B substrate. Finally, we demonstrated that the developed method can be used to grow a uniform InP/InAs axial-heterostructure nanowire array. The ability to form a heterostructure nanowire array with this method makes it possible to tune the emission wavelength over a wide range by employing the quantum confinement effect and thus expand the application of this technology to optoelectronic devices. Successfully pairing a controllable bottom-up growth technique with a top-down substrate preparation technique greatly improves the potential for the mass-production and widespread adoption of this technology.

  1. The Transition Year: A Unique Programme in Irish Education Bridging The Gap Between School and The Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. MOYNIHAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition Year is a unique and exciting programme situated in the middle of the six year second level education system in Ireland. Since its introduction in 1974, the programme has experienced unprecedented growth now being offered in over 80% of schools on the island. Transition Year seeks to emphasize alternative learning methodologies including self-directed learning and experiential learning; intellectual, social and personal development; community and inter-school communications; exposure to careers education and the world of work. The latter occurs predominantly through actual work experience. This paper situates and explains the Transition Year Programme in Irish education as well as outlining the significance of the essential work experience component. Transition Year work experience is the bridge that connects young people in the classroom with adult life and the world of work.

  2. Hierarchical analysis of bridge decision makers : the role of new technology adoption in the timber bridge market : special project fiscal year 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Bridge design engineers and local highway officials make bridge replacement decisions across the : United States. The Analytical Hierarchy Process was used to characterize the bridge material selection : decision of these individuals. State Departmen...

  3. A Hierarchical Analysis of Bridge Decision Makers; the Role of New Technology Adoption in the Timber Bridge Market: Special Project Fiscal Year 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Bridge design engineers and local highway officials make bridge replacement decsions across the U.S. The Analytical Hierarchical Process was used to characterize the bridge material selection decisions of these individuals. State Departments of Trans...

  4. National Cancer Institute and American Association for Clinical Chemistry Partner to Bridge the Gap | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute, through its Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer (CPTC) initiative has entered into a memorandum of understanding with the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) to join forces to promote and educate the clinical chemistry community in the area of proteomic standards and technology advances.

  5. Bridging the Gap of Practice and Research: A Preliminary Investigation of Evidence-based Practice for Library and Information Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吳寂絹 Chi-Chuan Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The gap between practice and research is commonly found in disciplines with both ofprofessional practitioners and academic researchers. How to bridge the gap is also acontinuing concern in the field of Library and Information Studies. This article describes therecent development of Evidence-based Practice for Library and Information ScienceResearch (EBLIP, and provides analysis of the journal EBLIP including its authors’backgrounds, methods, and topics. The results show that the United States and Canadaare the two major nations of contributors; more than 70% of first authors are librarians; 76%of the articles were contributed by one single institute, co-authorship by cross-nationinstitutes were rarely seen, and demonstrates local research interests; type of co-authoredagency is primarily among libraries; 60% methods employed include questionnaires,interviews and content analysis; the coverage of topics is rather broad, and the top threecategories of research topics include Information Literacy & Instruction, Information Needs& Seeking Behavior, and Reference Services / Digital Reference Services (15%, 10%, and8%; many datasets were obtained from real library practice, and 72% of articles provide specific implications for applications which highlight the value of implementation. Manylibrarians have the research capability, and this article serves as a purpose to introduce theevidence-based research and encourage more such research done in Taiwan. Hopefully itmay benefit and further enhance the quality of library decision-making and their professionalimage.

  6. The technology gap and efficiency measure in WEC countries: Application of the hybrid meta frontier model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Yung-Ho; Lee, Jen-Hui; Lu, Ching-Cheng; Shyu, Ming-Kuang; Luo, Zhengying

    2012-01-01

    This study develops the hybrid meta frontier DEA model for which inputs are distinguished into radial inputs that change proportionally and non-radial inputs that change non-proportionally, in order to measure the technical efficiency and technology gap ratios (TGR) of four different regions: Asia, Africa, America, and Europe. This paper selects 87 countries that are members of the World Energy Council from 2005 to 2007. The input variables are industry and population, while the output variances are gross domestic product (GDP) and the amount of fossil-fuel CO 2 emissions. The result shows that countries’ efficiency ranking among their own region presents more implied volatility. In view of the Technology Gap Ratio, Europe is the most efficient of any region, but during the same period, Asia has a lower efficiency than other regions. Finally, regions with higher industry (or GDP) might not have higher efficiency from 2005 to 2007. And higher CO 2 emissions or population also might not mean lower efficiency for other regions. In addition, Brazil is not OECD member, but it is higher efficiency than other OECD members in emerging countries case. OECD countries are better efficiency than non-OECD countries and Europe is higher than Asia to control CO 2 emissions. If non-OECD countries or Asia countries could reach the best efficiency score, they should try to control CO 2 emissions. - Highlights: ► The new meta frontier Model for evaluating the efficiency and technology gap ratios. ► Higher CO 2 emissions might not lower efficiency than any other regions, like Europe. ► Asia’s output and CO 2 emissions simultaneously increased and lower of its efficiency. ► Non-OECD or Asia countries should control CO 2 emissions to reach best efficiency score.

  7. The role of place branding in local and regional economic development: bridging the gap between policy and practicality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Cleave

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Place branding has become an increasingly integral part of local and regional economic development strategies in the global competition for business investment. Professional and academic understanding remains limited, however, regarding whether place branding can be classified as a ‘high-road’ policy with substantive and effective merits or a ‘low-road’ policy that is generally inefficient and ineffective at fostering sustainable economic growth. Through the context of business attraction, this study examines whether place branding represents ‘high-road’ policy by comparing what economic development practitioners are doing to create and support their brands against the needs and desires of businesses considering relocation. The research goal is achieved through a series of in-depth interviews with economic development practitioners (n = 25 and private-sector site selectors (n = 10 in the province of Ontario, Canada. Gaps between policy and practicality are identified by comparing the responses of the two groups. Results demonstrate that place branding has the potential to be ‘high-road’ policy given its utility in business attraction. In its current implementation, however, place branding remains better described as a ‘low-road’ policy, as it is not being used efficiently. Several gaps in place-branding policy are identified, including an overreliance on visual identities and narratives, poor communication of the brand information, and overemphasis on presenting quality of life and affordability. These gaps present possible areas of ineffectiveness that can limit the ability of a place brand to attract investment, but provide areas of future policy improvements, thus enabling place branding to shift from ‘low road’ to ‘high road’.

  8. Managing the gap: balancing advances in technology with advances in management practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, D

    1997-01-01

    Expenditure on information systems is widely anticipated to lead to improved management of health care resources. Despite large investments in hardware and software, these expectations are difficult to realise. Part of the difficulty lies in the manner in which information systems are applied to, rather than integrated within, organisations. This paper considers some of the the personal and organisational issues that need to be addressed to 'manage the gap' in balancing advances in information technology with advances in management practice. The issues identified are consistent with the concept of a learning organisation dealing with environmental change.

  9. Bridging the Nagoya Compliance Gap: The Fundamental Role of Customary Law in Protection of Indigenous Peoples’ Resource and Knowledge Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan M. Tobin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nagoya Protocol requires states to ensure that access to and use of genetic resources and traditional knowledge of Indigenous peoples and local communities is subject to their prior informed consent (PIC. It also requires states to take into consideration their customary laws. However, it lacks effective compliance mechanisms, a gap exposed in draft European legislation that sidesteps the Nagoya Protocol’s obligations regarding PIC and customary law, leaving traditional knowledge largely unprotected. This article examines the status of customary law under international, regional and national law, and the challenges and opportunities for securing recognition of its role in the protection of traditional knowledge. The article contends that all commercial and development activities with the potential to impact on Nagoya Protocol rights will in the future need to ensure compliance with relevant customary law. It finds state reluctance to adopt measures to ensure consideration of customary law shortsighted and likely to lead to increased litigation. It concludes that customary law has a key role to play in closing the Nagoya compliance gap but to do so it will need to be supported by enforcement mechanisms such as disclosure of origin regimes in intellectual property law.

  10. Bridging the gap between system and cell: The role of ultra-high field MRI in human neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert; De Haan, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The volume of published research at the levels of systems and cellular neuroscience continues to increase at an accelerating rate. At the same time, progress in psychiatric medicine has stagnated and scientific confidence in cognitive psychology research is under threat due to careless analysis methods and underpowered experiments. With the advent of ultra-high field MRI, with submillimeter image voxels, imaging neuroscience holds the potential to bridge the cellular and systems levels. Use of these accurate and precisely localized quantitative measures of brain activity may go far in providing more secure foundations for psychology, and hence for more appropriate treatment and management of psychiatric illness. However, fundamental issues regarding the construction of testable mechanistic models using imaging data require careful consideration. This chapter summarizes the characteristics of acceptable models of brain function and provides concise descriptions of the relevant types of neuroimaging data that have recently become available. Approaches to data-driven experiments and analyses are described that may lead to more realistic conceptions of the competences of neural assemblages, as they vary across the brain's complex neuroanatomy. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The moral experience of the patient with chronic pain: bridging the gap between first and third person ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ian; Jones, Mark; Thacker, Michael; Swisher, Laura Lee

    2014-03-01

    There has been a widespread call for an ethics in the management of patients with chronic pain which is patient centered and takes into account the lived experience of the patient. It has been argued in literature that current "duty" or principlist-based models of ethics (so-called 3rd person ethics) have not adequately addressed the needs of either patients or practitioners in this area. Two strands of literature within phenomenology were reviewed: the literature of interpretative phenomenological analysis and the study of the lived experience of the person with chronic pain; and the contribution of phenomenology in neo-Aristotelian virtue ethics (1st person ethics). Patients experience chronic pain in existential and moral terms in addition to their biomedical issues, facing dilemmas in understanding their own self-identity and in attempting to recover a sense of moral worth and agency. We outline a patient-centered ethics to underpin contemporary collaborative, multimodal approaches in the management of chronic pain. We firstly describe an agency-oriented, neo-Aristotelian 1st person ethics and then outline a hermeneutic relationship with extant "duty-based," 3rd person bioethics. The utility of the ethics model we propose (the ethical reasoning bridge) lies in its capacity for developing a sense of moral agency for both practitioner and patient, resonating with the current emphasis of seeking active engagement of patients in management. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Local correlations for flap gap oscillatory blowing active flow control technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin NAE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Active technology for oscillatory blowing in the flap gap has been tested at INCAS subsonic wind tunnel in order to evaluate this technology for usage in high lift systems with active flow control. The main goal for this investigation was to validate TRL level 4 for this technology and to extend towards flight testing. CFD analysis was performed in order to identify local correlations with experimental data and to better formulate a design criteria so that a maximum increase in lift is possible under given geometrical constraints. Reference to a proposed metric for noise evaluation is also given. This includes basic 2D flow cases and also 2.5D configurations. In 2.5D test cases this work has been extended so that the proposed system may be selected as a mature technology in the JTI Clean Sky, Smart Fixed Wing Aircraft ITD. Complex post-processing of the experimental and CFD data was mainly oriented towards system efficiency and TRL evaluation for this active technology.

  13. Identifying performance gaps in hydrogen safety sensor technology for automotive and stationary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boon-Brett, L.; Bousek, J.; Black, G.; Moretto, P.; Castello, P.; Huebert, T.; Banach, U.

    2010-01-01

    A market survey has been performed of commercially available hydrogen safety sensors, resulting in a total sample size of 53 sensors from 21 manufacturers. The technical specifications, as provided by the manufacturer, have been collated and are displayed herein as a function of sensor working principle. These specifications comprise measuring range, response and recovery times, ambient temperature, pressure and relative humidity, power consumption and lifetime. These are then compared against known performance targets for both automotive and stationary applications in order to establish in how far current technology satisfies current requirements of sensor end users. Gaps in the performance of hydrogen sensing technologies are thus identified and areas recommended for future research and development. (author)

  14. Bridging the digital divide in older adults: a study from an initiative to inform older adults about new technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu YH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Huei Wu,1,2 Souad Damnée,1,2 Hélène Kerhervé,1,2 Caitlin Ware,1,3 Anne-Sophie Rigaud1,2 1Department of Clinical Gerontology, Broca Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 2Research Team 4468, Paris Descartes University, 3Centre de Recherche en Psychanalyse, Médicine et la Société, Paris Diderot University, Paris, France Purpose: In a society where technology progresses at an exponential rate, older adults are often unaware of the existence of different kinds of information and communication technologies (ICTs. To bridge the gap, we launched a 2-year project, during which we conducted focus groups (FGs with demonstrations of ICTs, allowing older adults to try them out and to share their opinions. This study aimed at investigating how participants perceived this kind of initiative and how they reacted to different kinds of ICTs.Patients and methods: In total, 14 FGs were conducted with community-dwelling older adults, with a frequency of two FGs on the same topic once per trimester. Twenty-three older adults (four men and 19 women attended at least one FG but only nearly half of them were regular attendants (ten participating in at least five sessions. Age of participants ranged from 63 years to 88 years, with a mean of 77.1 years. All of them had completed secondary education. The analyses of the data were performed according to inductive thematic analysis.Results: Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis. The first concerned participants’ motivation for and assessment of the project. The second theme identified the underlying factors of the “digital divide” between the younger and the older generations. The third theme concerned the factors of technology adoption among older adults. The fourth one identified participants’ attitudes toward assistive ICTs, designed specifically for older adults (“gerontechnologies”.Discussions and conclusion: This project encouraging older adults to be informed about

  15. Bridging the gaps in the Health Management Information System in the context of a changing health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyamtema Angelo S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health Management Information System (HMIS is crucial for evidence-based policy-making, informed decision-making during planning, implementation and evaluation of health programs; and for appropriate use of resources at all levels of the health system. This study explored the gaps and factors influencing HMIS in the context of a changing health sector in Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in 11 heath facilities in Kilombero district between January and February 2008. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 43 health workers on their knowledge, attitude, practice and factors for change on HMIS and HMIS booklets from these facilities were reviewed for completeness. Results Of all respondents, 81% had never been trained on HMIS, 65% did not properly define this system, 54% didn't know who is supposed to use the information collected and 42% did not use the collected data for planning, budgeting and evaluation of services provision. Although the attitude towards the system was positive among 91%, the reviewed HMIS booklets were never completed in 25% - 55% of the facilities. There were no significant differences in knowledge, attitude and practice on HMIS between clinicians and nurses. The most common type of HMIS booklets which were never filled were those for deliveries (55%. The gaps in the current HMIS were linked to lack of training, inactive supervision, staff workload pressure and the lengthy and laborious nature of the system. Conclusions This research has revealed a state of poor health data collection, lack of informed decision-making at the facility level and the factors for change in the country's HMIS. It suggests need for new innovations including incorporation of HMIS in the ongoing reviews of the curricula for all cadres of health care providers, development of more user-friendly system and use of evidence-based John Kotter's eight-step process for implementing

  16. Eight-Legged Encounters-Arachnids, Volunteers, and Art help to Bridge the Gap between Informal and Formal Science Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebets, Eileen A; Welch-Lazoritz, Melissa; Tisdale, Pawl; Wonch Hill, Trish

    2018-02-26

    Increased integration and synergy between formal and informal learning environments is proposed to provide multiple benefits to science learners. In an effort to better bridge these two learning contexts, we developed an educational model that employs the charismatic nature of arachnids to engage the public of all ages in science learning; learning that aligns with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas associated with Biodiversity and Evolution). We created, implemented, and evaluated a family-focused, interactive science event- Eight-Legged Encounters (ELE )-which encompasses more than twenty modular activities. Volunteers facilitated participant involvement at each activity station and original artwork scattered throughout the event was intended to attract visitors. Initial ELE goals were to increase interest in arachnids and science more generally, among ELE participants. In this study, we tested the efficacy of ELE in terms of (i) activity-specific visitation rates and self-reported interest levels, (ii) the self-reported efficacy of our use of volunteers and original artwork on visitor engagement, and (iii) self-reported increases in interest in both spiders and science more generally. We collected survey data across five ELE events at four museum and zoo sites throughout the Midwest. We found that all activities were successful at attracting visitors and capturing their interest. Both volunteers and artwork were reported to be effective at engaging visitors, though likely in different ways. Additionally, most participants reported increased interest in learning about arachnids and science. In summary, ELE appears effective at engaging the public and piquing their interest. Future work is now required to assess learning outcomes directly, as well as the ability for participants to transfer knowledge gain across learning environments.

  17. Eight-Legged Encounters—Arachnids, Volunteers, and Art help to Bridge the Gap between Informal and Formal Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebets, Eileen A.; Welch-Lazoritz, Melissa; Tisdale, Pawl; Wonch Hill, Trish

    2018-01-01

    Increased integration and synergy between formal and informal learning environments is proposed to provide multiple benefits to science learners. In an effort to better bridge these two learning contexts, we developed an educational model that employs the charismatic nature of arachnids to engage the public of all ages in science learning; learning that aligns with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas associated with Biodiversity and Evolution). We created, implemented, and evaluated a family-focused, interactive science event—Eight-Legged Encounters (ELE)—which encompasses more than twenty modular activities. Volunteers facilitated participant involvement at each activity station and original artwork scattered throughout the event was intended to attract visitors. Initial ELE goals were to increase interest in arachnids and science more generally, among ELE participants. In this study, we tested the efficacy of ELE in terms of (i) activity-specific visitation rates and self-reported interest levels, (ii) the self-reported efficacy of our use of volunteers and original artwork on visitor engagement, and (iii) self-reported increases in interest in both spiders and science more generally. We collected survey data across five ELE events at four museum and zoo sites throughout the Midwest. We found that all activities were successful at attracting visitors and capturing their interest. Both volunteers and artwork were reported to be effective at engaging visitors, though likely in different ways. Additionally, most participants reported increased interest in learning about arachnids and science. In summary, ELE appears effective at engaging the public and piquing their interest. Future work is now required to assess learning outcomes directly, as well as the ability for participants to transfer knowledge gain across learning environments. PMID:29495395

  18. Eight-Legged Encounters—Arachnids, Volunteers, and Art help to Bridge the Gap between Informal and Formal Science Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen A. Hebets

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased integration and synergy between formal and informal learning environments is proposed to provide multiple benefits to science learners. In an effort to better bridge these two learning contexts, we developed an educational model that employs the charismatic nature of arachnids to engage the public of all ages in science learning; learning that aligns with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas associated with Biodiversity and Evolution. We created, implemented, and evaluated a family-focused, interactive science event—Eight-Legged Encounters (ELE—which encompasses more than twenty modular activities. Volunteers facilitated participant involvement at each activity station and original artwork scattered throughout the event was intended to attract visitors. Initial ELE goals were to increase interest in arachnids and science more generally, among ELE participants. In this study, we tested the efficacy of ELE in terms of (i activity-specific visitation rates and self-reported interest levels, (ii the self-reported efficacy of our use of volunteers and original artwork on visitor engagement, and (iii self-reported increases in interest in both spiders and science more generally. We collected survey data across five ELE events at four museum and zoo sites throughout the Midwest. We found that all activities were successful at attracting visitors and capturing their interest. Both volunteers and artwork were reported to be effective at engaging visitors, though likely in different ways. Additionally, most participants reported increased interest in learning about arachnids and science. In summary, ELE appears effective at engaging the public and piquing their interest. Future work is now required to assess learning outcomes directly, as well as the ability for participants to transfer knowledge gain across learning environments.

  19. Mapping evidence of interventions and strategies to bridge the gap in the implementation of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme policy in sub-Saharan countries: A scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbroda H. Ngidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV is a life-saving public health intervention. Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries have made significant progress in the programme, but little is known about the strategies used by them to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV.Aim: To map evidence of strategies and interventions employed by SSA in bridging the implementation gap in the rapidly changing PMTCT of HIV programme policy.Methods: Electronic search of the databases MEDLINE, PubMed and SABINET for articles published in English between 2001 and August 2016. Key words included ‘Sub-Saharan African countries’, ‘implementation strategies’, ‘interventions to bridge implementation gap’, ‘prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV’ and ‘closing implementation gap’.Results: Of a total of 743 articles, 25 articles that met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Manual content analysis resulted in the identification of three categories of strategies: (1 health system (referral systems, integration of services, supportive leadership, systematic quality-improvement approaches that vigorously monitors programme performance; (2 health service delivery (task shifting, networking, shared platform for learning, local capacity building, supportive supervision; as well as (3 community-level strategies (community health workers, technology use – mHealth, family-centred approaches, male involvement, culturally appropriate interventions.Conclusion: There are strategies that exist in SSA countries. Future research should examine multifaceted scientific models to prioritise the highest impact and be evaluated for effectiveness and efficiency.

  20. TECHNOLOGY AND EFFICIENT USE OF PEAT ASH IN MASTICS FOR WATERPROOFING OF BRIDGE AND TUNNEL STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Lyahevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective method for protection of  bridges and tunnels against aggressive water action is surface waterproofing on the basis of an organo-mineral binder. Its structural strength can be increased by introduction of particles which are similar to the size of  asphaltenes and an elasticity of disperse medium has been increased due to introduction of polymers. These theoretical suppositions point out the possibility for simultaneous provision of flexibility at low temperatures and high heat resistance for mastics on the basis  of organo-mineral binders. In this regard a goal has been set to obtain a mastic high flexibility and high heat resistance  while using finely divided activated peat ash.Rubber crushed in accordance with ТУ (Technical Specifications 38.108035–87,  divinyl-styrene thermoelastoplast DСT-30Р-20ПС,  bitumen of grade 20/30 in accordance with СТБ ЕН 12591–2010, ash from burning peat at the Lida Peat Briquette Plant, multi-purpose industrial oil of solvent refining with high viscosity index, super-plasticizer – sodium salt which is a condensation product of aromatic carbon sulfo-oxidation with formaldehyde and neutralization with the help of sodium hydroxide (type 1 have been used in order to obtain the stated objective. While using these materials compositions and technology for preparation of organo-mineral mastics have been developed in the paper. Their tests have shown that a modification of finely divided  mastics carried out with the help of peat ash which is activated by super-plasticizer НСПКСАУсФ-1, various polymer additives, contributes to an increase in their heat resistance, elasticity, water resistance, and also allows to control their technological and operational characteristics. The paper has experimentally confirmed that peat ash can be successfully used for preparation of high-quality waterproofing mastics which are so necessary for  protection of bridge and tunnel

  1. How to bridge the gap between "unresolved" model and "resolved" model in CFD-DEM coupled method for sediment transport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Fu, X.; Liu, X.

    2016-12-01

    In nature, granular materials exist widely in water bodies. Understanding the fundamentals of solid-liquid two-phase flow, such as turbulent sediment-laden flow, is of importance for a wide range of applications. A coupling method combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) is now widely used for modeling such flows. In this method, when particles are significantly larger than the CFD cells, the fluid field around each particle should be fully resolved. On the other hand, the "unresolved" model is designed for the situation where particles are significantly smaller than the mesh cells. Using "unresolved" model, large amount of particles can be simulated simultaneously. However, there is a gap between these two situations when the size of DEM particles and CFD cell is in the same order of magnitude. In this work, the most commonly used void fraction models are tested with numerical sedimentation experiments. The range of applicability for each model is presented. Based on this, a new void fraction model, i.e., a modified version of "tri-linear" model, is proposed. Particular attention is paid to the smooth function of void fraction in order to avoid numerical instability. The results show good agreement with the experimental data and analytical solution for both single-particle motion and also group-particle motion, indicating great potential of the new void fraction model.

  2. Stochastic and Geometric Reasoning for Indoor Building Models with Electric Installations - Bridging the Gap Between GIS and Bim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbi, Y.; Haunert, J.-H.; Plümer, L.

    2017-10-01

    3D city and building models according to CityGML encode the geometry, represent the structure and model semantically relevant building parts such as doors, windows and balconies. Building information models support the building design, construction and the facility management. In contrast to CityGML, they include also objects which cannot be observed from the outside. The three dimensional indoor models characterize a missing link between both worlds. Their derivation, however, is expensive. The semantic automatic interpretation of 3D point clouds of indoor environments is a methodically demanding task. The data acquisition is costly and difficult. The laser scanners and image-based methods require the access to every room. Based on an approach which does not require an additional geometry acquisition of building indoors, we propose an attempt for filling the gaps between 3D building models and building information models. Based on sparse observations such as the building footprint and room areas, 3D indoor models are generated using combinatorial and stochastic reasoning. The derived models are expanded by a-priori not observable structures such as electric installation. Gaussian mixtures, linear and bi-linear constraints are used to represent the background knowledge and structural regularities. The derivation of hypothesised models is performed by stochastic reasoning using graphical models, Gauss-Markov models and MAP-estimators.

  3. The challenges of emerging HISs in bridging the communication gaps among physicians and nurses in China: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dong; Zhang, Xingting; Wan, Jie; Fu, Jing; Lei, Jianbo

    2017-06-12

    To explore the current situation, existing problems and possible causes of said problems with regards to physician-nurse communication under an environment of increasingly widespread usage of Hospital Information Systems and to seek out new potential strategies in information technology to improve physician-nurse communication. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 physicians and nurses in five leading tertiary grade A hospitals in Beijing, China (two physicians and two nurses in each hospital). The interviews primarily included three aspects comprising the current situation and problems of clinical physician-nurse communication, the application and problems of Hospital Information Systems, and assessments on the improvement of physician-nurse communication through the usage of information technology. The inductive conventional content analysis approach was employed. (1) Physicians and nurses are generally quite satisfied with the current situation of communication. However, the information needs of nurses are prone to being overlooked, and the communication methods are primarily synchronous communication such as face-to-face and phone communication. (2) Hospital Information Systems are gradually being used for physician-nurse communication; in the meantime, physicians and nurses face challenges with regards to the improvement of physician-nurse communication through the usage of information technology. Challenges differ based on the different stages of using the system and the different levels of understanding of physicians and nurses towards information technology. Their dissatisfaction mainly deals with system errors and the level of convenience in using the system. (3) In-depth interviews found that in general, physicians and nurses have a strong interest and trust in improving physician-nurse communication through appropriate information technology, e.g., communication methods such as information reminders for physicians and nurses through mobile

  4. Bridging the data gaps in the epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection in Malaysia using multi-parameter evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Scott A; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Dahlui, Maznah; Naning, Herlianna; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2014-11-07

    Collecting adequate information on key epidemiological indicators is a prerequisite to informing a public health response to reduce the impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Malaysia. Our goal was to overcome the acute data shortage typical of low/middle income countries using statistical modelling to estimate the national HCV prevalence and the distribution over transmission pathways as of the end of 2009. Multi-parameter evidence synthesis methods were applied to combine all available relevant data sources - both direct and indirect - that inform the epidemiological parameters of interest. An estimated 454,000 (95% credible interval [CrI]: 392,000 to 535,000) HCV antibody-positive individuals were living in Malaysia in 2009; this represents 2.5% (95% CrI: 2.2-3.0%) of the population aged 15-64 years. Among males of Malay ethnicity, for 77% (95% CrI: 69-85%) the route of probable transmission was active or a previous history of injecting drugs. The corresponding proportions were smaller for male Chinese and Indian/other ethnic groups (40% and 71%, respectively). The estimated prevalence in females of all ethnicities was 1% (95% CrI: 0.6 to 1.4%); 92% (95% CrI: 88 to 95%) of infections were attributable to non-drug injecting routes of transmission. The prevalent number of persons living with HCV infection in Malaysia is estimated to be very high. Low/middle income countries often lack a comprehensive evidence base; however, evidence synthesis methods can assist in filling the data gaps required for the development of effective policy to address the future public health and economic burden due to HCV.

  5. The `WikiGuidelines' smartphone application: Bridging the gaps in availability of evidence-based smartphone mental health applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ho, Roger C M; Mcintyre, Roger S

    2016-07-27

    Over the past decade, there have been massive advances in technology. These advances in technology have significantly transformed various aspects of healthcare. The advent of E-health and its influence on healthcare practice also implies that there is a paradigm shift in the way healthcare professionals work. Conventionally, healthcare professionals would have to refer to books and journals for updates in treatment algorithms, but with the advent of technology, they could access this information via the web or via various smartphone applications on the go. In the field of Psychiatry, one of the commonest mental health disorder to date, with significant morbidity and mortality is that of Major depressive disorder. Routinely, clinicians and healthcare professionals are advised to refer to standard guidelines in guiding them with regards to their treatment options. Given the high prevalence of conditions like Major Depressive Disorder, it is thus of importance that whatever guidelines that clinicians and healthcare professionals refer to are constantly kept up to date, so that patients could benefit from latest evidence based therapy and treatment. A review of the current literature highlights that whilst there are a multitude of smartphone applications designed for mental health care, previous systematic review has highlighted a paucity of evidence based applications. More importantly, current literature with regards to provision of treatment information to healthcare professionals and patients are limited to web-based interventions. It is the aim of this technical note to highlight a methodology to which the authors have conceptualized in the implementation of an evidence based mental health guideline applications, known as the `Wiki Guidelines' smartphone application. The authors hope to illustrate the algorithms behind the development of the application, and how it could be easily updated by the guidelines working group.

  6. Bridging the osteoarthritis treatment gap with the KineSpring Knee Implant System: early evidence in 100 patients with 1-year minimum follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    London NJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas J London,1 Jon Smith,2 Larry E Miller,3,4 Jon E Block4 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harrogate District Foundation Trust, Harrogate, UK; 2The Mid Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Yorkshire, UK; 3Miller Scientific Consulting, Arden, NC, USA; 4The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: Almost 4 million Americans are within the knee osteoarthritis (OA treatment gap, the period from unsuccessful exhaustion of conservative treatment to major surgical intervention. New treatment alternatives for symptomatic knee OA are greatly needed. The purpose of this report was to assess outcomes of a joint-unloading implant (KineSpring® Knee Implant System in patients with symptomatic medial knee OA. A total of 100 patients enrolled in three clinical trials were treated with the KineSpring System and followed for a minimum of 1 year. All devices were successfully implanted and activated, with no operative complications. Knee pain severity improved 60% (P < 0.001 at 1 year, with 76% of patients reporting a minimum 30% improvement in pain severity. All Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC subscores significantly improved at 1 year, with a 56% improvement in pain, 57% improvement in function, and a 39% improvement in stiffness (all P < 0.001. The percentage of patients experiencing a minimum 20% improvement in WOMAC subscores was 74% for pain, 83% for function, and 67% for stiffness. During follow-up, six (6% patients required additional surgery, including four total knee arthroplasties and two high tibial osteotomies. The KineSpring System effectively bridges the treatment gap between failed conservative care and surgical joint-modifying procedures. Keywords: implant, KineSpring, knee, medial, osteoarthritis, unloading

  7. The dual cycle bridge detection of piezoresistive triaxial accelerometer based on MEMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanting, Zhang; Changde, He; Hui, Zhang; Yuping, Li; Yongping, Zhang; Chunhui, Du; Wendong, Zhang

    2014-06-01

    A cycle bridge detection method, which uses a piezoresistive triaxial accelerometer, has been described innovatively. This method just uses eight resistors to form a cycle detection bridge, which can detect the signal of the three directions for real time. It breaks the law of the ordinary independent Wheatstone bridge detection method, which uses at least 12 resistors and each four resistors connected as a Wheatstone bridge to detect the output signal from a specific direction. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, the modeling and simulating of the sensor structure have been conducted by ANSYS, then the dual cycle bridge detection method and independent Wheatstone bridge detection method are compared, the result shows that the former method can improve the sensitivity of the sensor effectively. The sensitivity of the x, y-axis used in the former method is two times that of the sensor used in the latter method, and the sensitivity of the z-axis is four times. At the same time, it can also reduce the cross-axis coupling degree of the sensor used in the dual cycle bridge detection method. In addition, a signal amplifier circuit and adder circuit have been provided. Finally, the test result of the “eight-beams/mass” triaxial accelerometer, which is based on the dual cycle bridge detection method and the related circuits, have been provided. The results of the test and the theoretical analysis are consistent, on the whole.

  8. A Mobile Virtual Butler to Bridge the Gap between Users and Ambient Assisted Living: A Smart Home Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence promises to transform current spaces into electronic environments that are responsive, assistive and sensitive to human presence. Those electronic environments will be fully populated with dozens, hundreds or even thousands of connected devices that share information and thus become intelligent. That massive wave of electronic devices will also invade everyday objects, turning them into smart entities, keeping their native features and characteristics while seamlessly promoting them to a new class of thinking and reasoning everyday objects. Although there are strong expectations that most of the users’ needs can be fulfilled without their intervention, there are still situations where interaction is required. This paper presents work being done in the field of human-computer interaction, focusing on smart home environments, while being a part of a larger project called Aging Inside a Smart Home. This initiative arose as a way to deal with a large scourge of our country, where lots of elderly persons live alone in their homes, often with limited or no physical mobility. The project relies on the mobile agent computing paradigm in order to create a Virtual Butler that provides the interface between the elderly and the smart home infrastructure. The Virtual Butler is receptive to user questions, answering them according to the context and knowledge of the AISH. It is also capable of interacting with the user whenever it senses that something has gone wrong, notifying next of kin and/or medical services, etc. The Virtual Butler is aware of the user location and moves to the computing device which is closest to the user, in order to be always present. Its avatar can also run in handheld devices keeping its main functionality in order to track user when s/he goes out. According to the evaluation carried out, the Virtual Butler is assessed as a very interesting and loved digital friend, filling the gap between the user and the

  9. Depth and breadth: Bridging the gap between scientific inquiry and high-stakes testing with diverse junior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jee Sun Emily

    This study explored how inquiry-based teaching and learning processes occurred in two teachers' diverse 8th grade Physical Science classrooms in a Program Improvement junior high school within the context of high-stakes standardized testing. Instructors for the courses examined included not only the two 8th grade science teachers, but also graduate fellows from a nearby university. Research was drawn from inquiry-based instruction in science education, the achievement gap, and the high stakes testing movement, as well as situated learning theory to understand how opportunities for inquiry were negotiated within the diverse classroom context. Transcripts of taped class sessions; student work samples; interviews of teachers and students; and scores from the California Standards Test in science were collected and analyzed. Findings indicated that the teachers provided structured inquiry in order to support their students in learning about forces and to prepare them for the standardized test. Teachers also supported students in generating evidence-based explanations, connecting inquiry-based investigations with content on forces, proficiently using science vocabulary, and connecting concepts about forces to their daily lives. Findings from classroom data revealed constraints to student learning: students' limited language proficiency, peer counter culture, and limited time. Supports were evidenced as well: graduate fellows' support during investigations, teachers' guided questioning, standardized test preparation, literacy support, and home-school connections. There was no statistical difference in achievement on the Forces Unit test or science standardized test between classes with graduate fellows and without fellows. There was also no statistical difference in student performance between the two teachers' classrooms, even though their teaching styles were very different. However, there was a strong correlation between students' achievement on the chapter test and

  10. A mobile Virtual Butler to bridge the gap between users and ambient assisted living: a Smart Home case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Nuno; Domingues, Patricio; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Pereira, António

    2014-08-06

    Ambient Intelligence promises to transform current spaces into electronic environments that are responsive, assistive and sensitive to human presence. Those electronic environments will be fully populated with dozens, hundreds or even thousands of connected devices that share information and thus become intelligent. That massive wave of electronic devices will also invade everyday objects, turning them into smart entities, keeping their native features and characteristics while seamlessly promoting them to a new class of thinking and reasoning everyday objects. Although there are strong expectations that most of the users' needs can be fulfilled without their intervention, there are still situations where interaction is required. This paper presents work being done in the field of human-computer interaction, focusing on smart home environments, while being a part of a larger project called Aging Inside a Smart Home. This initiative arose as a way to deal with a large scourge of our country, where lots of elderly persons live alone in their homes, often with limited or no physical mobility. The project relies on the mobile agent computing paradigm in order to create a Virtual Butler that provides the interface between the elderly and the smart home infrastructure. The Virtual Butler is receptive to user questions, answering them according to the context and knowledge of the AISH. It is also capable of interacting with the user whenever it senses that something has gone wrong, notifying next of kin and/or medical services, etc. The Virtual Butler is aware of the user location and moves to the computing device which is closest to the user, in order to be always present. Its avatar can also run in handheld devices keeping its main functionality in order to track user when s/he goes out. According to the evaluation carried out, the Virtual Butler is assessed as a very interesting and loved digital friend, filling the gap between the user and the smart home. The

  11. The theory-practice relationship: reflective skills and theoretical knowledge as key factors in bridging the gap between theory and practice in initial nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlevik, Ida Katrine Riksaasen

    2012-04-01

    This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of nursing students' acquired reflective skills, practical skills and theoretical knowledge on their perception of coherence between theory and practice. Reflection is considered a key factor in bridging the gap between theory and practice. However, it is not evident whether reflective skills are primarily generic in nature or whether they develop from a theoretical knowledge base or the acquisition of practical skills. This study is a secondary analysis of existing data. The data are part of a student survey that was conducted among third-year nursing students in Norway during the spring of 2007. A total of 446 nursing students participated in this study and the response rate was 71%. Structural equation modelling analyses were performed. The results indicate that students' perception of coherence between theory and practice during initial nursing education is directly influenced by reflective skills and theoretical knowledge. The results also reveal that reflective skills have mediating effects and that practical skills have a fully mediated and theoretical knowledge a partially mediated influence on students' perception of coherence. The findings imply that helping students perceive coherence between theory and practice in nursing education, developing students' reflective skills and strengthening the theoretical components of the initial nursing education programme might be beneficial. The results suggest that reflective thinking is not merely a generic skill but rather a skill that depends on the acquisition of relevant professional knowledge and experience. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Bridging the gap between modules in isolation and as part of networks: A systems framework for elucidating interaction and regulation of signalling modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Govind; Krishnan, J.

    2016-07-01

    While signalling and biochemical modules have been the focus of numerous studies, they are typically studied in isolation, with no examination of the effects of the ambient network. In this paper we formulate and develop a systems framework, rooted in dynamical systems, to understand such effects, by studying the interaction of signalling modules. The modules we consider are (i) basic covalent modification, (ii) monostable switches, (iii) bistable switches, (iv) adaptive modules, and (v) oscillatory modules. We systematically examine the interaction of these modules by analyzing (a) sequential interaction without shared components, (b) sequential interaction with shared components, and (c) oblique interactions. Our studies reveal that the behaviour of a module in isolation may be substantially different from that in a network, and explicitly demonstrate how the behaviour of a given module, the characteristics of the ambient network, and the possibility of shared components can result in new effects. Our global approach illuminates different aspects of the structure and functioning of modules, revealing the importance of dynamical characteristics as well as biochemical features; this provides a methodological platform for investigating the complexity of natural modules shaped by evolution, elucidating the effects of ambient networks on a module in multiple cellular contexts, and highlighting the capabilities and constraints for engineering robust synthetic modules. Overall, such a systems framework provides a platform for bridging the gap between non-linear information processing modules, in isolation and as parts of networks, and a basis for understanding new aspects of natural and engineered cellular networks.

  13. Urban water metabolism indicators derived from a water mass balance - Bridging the gap between visions and performance assessment of urban water resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, M A; Serrao-Neumann, S; Kenway, S J; Morgan, E A; Low Choy, D

    2017-10-01

    Improving resource management in urban areas has been enshrined in visions for achieving sustainable urban areas, but to date it has been difficult to quantify performance indicators to help identify more sustainable outcomes, especially for water resources. In this work, we advance quantitative indicators for what we refer to as the 'metabolic' features of urban water management: those related to resource efficiency (for water and also water-related energy and nutrients), supply internalisation, urban hydrological performance, sustainable extraction, and recognition of the diverse functions of water. We derived indicators in consultation with stakeholders to bridge this gap between visions and performance indicators. This was done by first reviewing and categorising water-related resource management objectives for city-regions, and then deriving indicators that can gauge performance against them. The ability for these indicators to be quantified using data from an urban water mass balance was also examined. Indicators of water efficiency, supply internalisation, and hydrological performance (relative to a reference case) can be generated using existing urban water mass balance methods. In the future, indicators for water-related energy and nutrient efficiencies could be generated by overlaying the urban water balance with energy and nutrient data. Indicators of sustainable extraction and recognising diverse functions of water will require methods for defining sustainable extraction rates and a water functionality index. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biomedical Big Data Training Collaborative (BBDTC): An effort to bridge the talent gap in biomedical science and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purawat, Shweta; Cowart, Charles; Amaro, Rommie E; Altintas, Ilkay

    2017-05-01

    The BBDTC (https://biobigdata.ucsd.edu) is a community-oriented platform to encourage high-quality knowledge dissemination with the aim of growing a well-informed biomedical big data community through collaborative efforts on training and education. The BBDTC is an e-learning platform that empowers the biomedical community to develop, launch and share open training materials. It deploys hands-on software training toolboxes through virtualization technologies such as Amazon EC2 and Virtualbox. The BBDTC facilitates migration of courses across other course management platforms. The framework encourages knowledge sharing and content personalization through the playlist functionality that enables unique learning experiences and accelerates information dissemination to a wider community.

  15. Research gaps and technology needs in development of PHM for passive AdvSMR components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henagar, Chuck H., Jr.

    2014-02-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near-term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. SMRs are challenged economically because of losses in economy of scale; thus, there is increased motivation to reduce the controllable operations and maintenance costs through automation technologies including prognostics health management (PHM) systems. In this regard, PHM systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of AdvSMRs and face several unique challenges with respect to implementation for passive AdvSMR components. This paper presents a summary of a research gaps and technical needs assessment performed for implementation of PHM for passive AdvSMR components.

  16. Research gaps and technology needs in development of PHM for passive AdvSMR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Henagar, Chuck H. Jr.; Coble, Jamie B.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near-term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. SMRs are challenged economically because of losses in economy of scale; thus, there is increased motivation to reduce the controllable operations and maintenance costs through automation technologies including prognostics health management (PHM) systems. In this regard, PHM systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of AdvSMRs and face several unique challenges with respect to implementation for passive AdvSMR components. This paper presents a summary of a research gaps and technical needs assessment performed for implementation of PHM for passive AdvSMR components

  17. BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN GLOBAL AND LOCAL STRATEGIES OF ARCHITECTURAL CONSERVATION, EXAMPLES OF THE CURRENT SCENARIOS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kavuru

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Culture develops from a civilization and progresses through the generations in tangible and intangible forms affecting various aspects of living. It gradually becomes a rulebook that guides the way of life for some people. This holds true in the Indian Society, which is punctuated by constant incorporation of migrating people with the diverse cultures that surround India. Such illustrious past should predict augmented conservation efforts. However, that is not the case. Following the Hindu philosophy of the life cycle, buildings are allowed to be deteriorating over the passage of time. It was only much later that the occidental influence of the British Empire encouraged conservation of built heritage. Yet today these efforts are absent at the most basic levels. On one side are the international organizations such as UNESCO providing guidelines for protection of these buildings and the on the other side are the government and non-government organizations which help maintain the structures. Co-relation between the two levels of conservation are non-existent in a way that initiatives by the government focus on improving infrastructure but neglect the Risk-assessment of the buildings. Such examples will be discussed further in the paper with suggestions to improve the situation with the help of new technologies and simplified methods that include making conservation education easier for even the most rural population. The research explores avenues of diagnosis integrated in the Italian philosophy of conservation to make maintenance more easy and effective.

  18. Bridging the Gap Between Global and Local Strategies of Architectural Conservation, Examples of the Current Scenarios in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuru, M.

    2017-05-01

    Culture develops from a civilization and progresses through the generations in tangible and intangible forms affecting various aspects of living. It gradually becomes a rulebook that guides the way of life for some people. This holds true in the Indian Society, which is punctuated by constant incorporation of migrating people with the diverse cultures that surround India. Such illustrious past should predict augmented conservation efforts. However, that is not the case. Following the Hindu philosophy of the life cycle, buildings are allowed to be deteriorating over the passage of time. It was only much later that the occidental influence of the British Empire encouraged conservation of built heritage. Yet today these efforts are absent at the most basic levels. On one side are the international organizations such as UNESCO providing guidelines for protection of these buildings and the on the other side are the government and non-government organizations which help maintain the structures. Co-relation between the two levels of conservation are non-existent in a way that initiatives by the government focus on improving infrastructure but neglect the Risk-assessment of the buildings. Such examples will be discussed further in the paper with suggestions to improve the situation with the help of new technologies and simplified methods that include making conservation education easier for even the most rural population. The research explores avenues of diagnosis integrated in the Italian philosophy of conservation to make maintenance more easy and effective.

  19. Bridging Innovation and Outreach to Overcome Global Gaps in Radiation Oncology Through Information and Communication Tools, Trainee Advancement, Engaging Industry, Attention to Ethical Challenges, and Political Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dad, Luqman; Royce, Trevor J; Morris, Zachary; Moran, Meena; Pawlicki, Todd; Khuntia, Deepak; Hardenbergh, Patricia; Cummings, Bernard; Mayr, Nina; Hu, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    An evolving paradigm in global outreach in radiation oncology has been the implementation of a more region-specific, needs-based approach to help close the gap in radiation services to low- and middle-income countries through the use of innovative tools in information and communication technology. This report highlights 4 information and communication technology tools in action today: (1) the NCCN Framework for Resource Stratification of NCCN guidelines, (2) ASTRO e-Contouring, (3) i.treatsafely.org, and (4) ChartRounds.com. We also render special consideration to matters related to global outreach that we believe require distinct attention to help us meet the goals established by the 2011 United Nations׳ Declaration on noncommunicable diseases: (1) trainee advancement toward careers in global health, (2) ethical challenges of international outreach, (3) critical importance of political advocacy, and (4) collaboration with Industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Policy gaps and technological deficiencies in social networking environments: Implications for information sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Mutula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the growing adoption and acceptance of social networking, there are increased concerns about the violation of the users’ legitimate rights such as privacy, confidentiality, trust, security, safety, content ownership, content accuracy, integrity, access and accessibility to computer and digital networks amongst others.Objectives: The study sought to investigate the following research objectives to: (1 describe the types of social networks, (2 examine global penetration of the social networks, (3 outline the users’ legitimate rights that must be protected in the social networking sites (SNS, (4 determine the methods employed by SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights and (5 identify the policy gaps and technological deficiencies in the protection of the users’ legitimate rights in the SNS.Method: A literature survey and content analysis of the SNS user policies were used to address objective four and objective five respectively.Results: The most actively used sites were Facebook and Twitter. Asian markets were leading in participation and in creating content than any other region. Business, education, politics and governance sectors were actively using social networking sites. Social networking sites relied upon user trust and internet security features which however, were inefficient and inadequate.Conclusion: Whilst SNS were impacting people of varying ages and of various professional persuasions, there were increased concerns about the violation and infringement of the users’ legitimate rights. Reliance on user trust and technological security features SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights seemed ineffectual and inadequate.

  1. Policy gaps and technological deficiencies in social networking environments: Implications for information sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Mutula

    2013-06-01

    Objectives: The study sought to investigate the following research objectives to: (1 describe the types of social networks, (2 examine global penetration of the social networks, (3 outline the users’ legitimate rights that must be protected in the social networking sites (SNS, (4 determine the methods employed by SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights and (5 identify the policy gaps and technological deficiencies in the protection of the users’ legitimate rights in the SNS. Method: A literature survey and content analysis of the SNS user policies were used to address objective four and objective five respectively. Results: The most actively used sites were Facebook and Twitter. Asian markets were leading in participation and in creating content than any other region. Business, education, politics and governance sectors were actively using social networking sites. Social networking sites relied upon user trust and internet security features which however, were inefficient and inadequate. Conclusion: Whilst SNS were impacting people of varying ages and of various professional persuasions, there were increased concerns about the violation and infringement of the users’ legitimate rights. Reliance on user trust and technological security features SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights seemed ineffectual and inadequate.

  2. Structural Health Monitoring Using Wireless Technologies: An Ambient Vibration Test on the Adolphe Bridge, Luxembourg City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Oth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Major threats to bridges primarily consist of the aging of the structural elements, earthquake-induced shaking and standing waves generated by windstorms. The necessity of information on the state of health of structures in real-time, allowing for timely warnings in the case of damaging events, requires structural health monitoring (SHM systems that allow the risks of these threats to be mitigated. Here we present the results of a short-duration experiment carried out with low-cost wireless instruments for monitoring the vibration characteristics and dynamic properties of a strategic civil infrastructure, the Adolphe Bridge in Luxembourg City. The Adolphe Bridge is a masonry arch construction dating from 1903 and will undergo major renovation works in the upcoming years. Our experiment shows that a network of these wireless sensing units is well suited to monitor the vibration characteristics of such a historical arch bridge and hence represents a low-cost and efficient solution for SHM.

  3. Superhydrophobic engineered cementitious composites for highway bridge applications : technology transfer and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The strength and durability of highway bridges are two of the key components in maintaining a : high level of freight transportation capacity on the nations highways. Superhydrophobic : engineered cementitious composite (SECC) is a new advanced con...

  4. Construction and Design of Post-Tensioned Pearl-Chain Bridges using SL-Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov

    2016-01-01

    Pre‐fabricated closed‐spandrel concrete arch bridges have existed for more than 50 years. Pearl‐Chain (PC) Bridges are a new award‐winning state‐of‐the‐art segmental concrete arch bridge concept invented by professor Kristian Hertz. A PC‐Arch can consist of a number of pre‐tensioned low‐weight SL......‐Decks. One SL‐Deck is a combination of light aggregate concrete, and regular concrete. Curved post‐tensioning ducts are cast into the elements, and several SL‐Decks are post‐tensioned together in an arch shape to become a PC‐Arch. A PC‐Bridge is built by erecting a number of adjacent PC‐Arches and applying......‐Bridge. The case showed that the pre‐compression in the arch from pre‐stressing, rise/to span ratio, and layer thickness of the filling as expected had influence on the capacity and could be altered to meet the capacity demands of a specific project. For an unevenly loaded bridge, in general, the lowest capacity...

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of DVT and prevention of DVT recurrence and the PTS: bridging the gap between DVT and PTS in the primary care setting or outpatient ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiels JJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jan Jacques Michiels,1–3 Wim Moosdorff,1 Mildred U Lao,1 Hanny Maasland,1 Janneke Maria Michiels,2,4 HA Martino Neumann,5 Petr Dulicek,6 Viera Stvrtinova,3,7 Pavel Poredos,3,8 Jacques Barth,1,3 Gualtiero Palareti,3,9 1Primary Care Medicine Medical Diagnostic Center, Rotterdam, 2Goodheart Institute, Blood Coagulation and Vascular Medicine Science Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 3Central European Vascular Forum, Prague, Czech Republic; 4Primary Care Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, 5Department of Dermatology, Section Phlebology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 64th Department of Internal Medicine – Hematology, University Hospital in Hradec Kralove and Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic; 7Internal Medicine Medical Faculty, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia; 8University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Department of Vascular Disease, Ljubljana, Slovenia; 9Department of Angiology and Blood Coagulation, University Hospital, Bologna, Italy Abstract: Duplex ultrasonography (DUS does pick up alternative diagnoses (AD including Baker's cyst, muscle hematomas, old deep vein thrombosis (DVT, and superficial vein thrombosis. The sequential use of DUS followed by a sensitive D-dimer test and a clinical score assessment is a safe and effective noninvasive strategy to exclude and diagnose DVT and AD in patients with suspected DVT. DVT patients are recommended to wear medical elastic stockings (MECS for symptomatic relief of swollen legs during the acute phase of DVT, or when postthrombotic syndrome (PTS is present. In routine daily practice, discontinuation of anticoagulation at 6 months post-DVT is followed by a subsequent 20%–30% DVT recurrence rate; this is the main cause of PTS after 1–5 years of follow-up. To bridge the gap between DVT and PTS, the frequent occurrence of PTS is best prevented by prolonged anticoagulation, if indicated, based on

  6. Bridging gaps to promote networked care between teams and groups in health delivery systems: a systematic review of non-health literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-09-24

    To assess non-health literature, identify key strategies in promoting more networked teams and groups, apply external ideas to healthcare, and build a model based on these strategies. A systematic review of the literature outside of healthcare. Searches guided by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) of ABI/INFORM Global, CINAHL, IBSS, MEDLINE and Psychinfo databases following a mind-mapping exercise generating key terms centred on the core construct of gaps across organisational social structures that uncovered 842 empirical articles of which 116 met the inclusion criteria. Data extraction and content analysis via data mining techniques were performed on these articles. The research involved subjects in 40 countries, with 32 studies enrolling participants in multiple countries. There were 40 studies conducted wholly or partly in the USA, 46 wholly or partly in continental Europe, 29 wholly or partly in Asia and 12 wholly or partly in Russia or Russian federated countries. Methods employed included 30 mixed or triangulated social science study designs, 39 qualitative studies, 13 experimental studies and 34 questionnaire-based studies, where the latter was mostly to gather data for social network analyses. Four recurring factors underpin a model for promoting networked behaviours and fortifying cross-group cooperation: appreciating the characteristics and nature of gaps between groups; using the leverage of boundary-spanners to bridge two or more groups; applying various mechanisms to stimulate interactive relationships; and mobilising those who can exert positive external influences to promote connections while minimising the impact of those who exacerbate divides. The literature assessed is rich and varied. An evidence-oriented model and strategies for promoting more networked systems are now available for application to healthcare. While caution needs to be exercised in translating outside ideas and studies, drawing on non

  7. The 3rd Report on Climate Change in Catalonia: a joint initiative to bridge the gap between Science and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queralt, Arnau; Llasat, Maria del Carmen; Serena, Josep Maria; Pont, Isabel

    2017-04-01

    In January 2017 the Government of Catalonia (Advisory Council for the Sustainable Development, Catalan Office for Climate Change, and Meteorological Service of Catalonia) and the Institute for Catalan Studies presented the Third Report on Climate Change in Catalonia, whose aims are (1) to gather and summarise the most recent information on climate change and its effects on the natural and human systems in Catalonia (and to identify existing knowledge gaps), (2) to make recommendations to decision-makers, and (3) to rise decision-makers and citizens awareness on the effects of climate change and the importance of reinforce mitigation and adaptation efforts. Although climate change is a global phenomenon, impacts and subsequent adaptive action may differ across countries and regions. In accordance to this, and with the aim of downscaling the contents of the IPCC reports, the first report on climate change in Catalonia was published in 2005 and was followed by a second edition in 2010. Directly linked to this second report, the Catalan Panel on Climate Change was established. During a year and a half more than 130 authors and 40 scientific and technical revisers (assisted by a board and technical staff from the leading institutions) have participated in the third assessment of climate change in Catalonia. The report updates the observations and projections related to the climate evolution at Catalonia and its impacts, gathering the most advanced scientific knowledge and providing the Catalan Government with sectorial recommendations to face these impacts. After its official launch in January 2017, the report will be presented and discussed with several ministers and officials within the Catalan Government, but also with the main stakeholders. These presentations and dialogue are strategic actions for bridging the gap between Science and Policy-making regarding climate change. An executive summary identifying in a very focused way the main messages arising from the

  8. Bridging the Gap: From Model Surfaces to Nanoparticle Analogs for Selective Oxidation and Steam Reforming of Methanol and Selective Hydrogenation Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Matthew B.

    Most industrial catalysts are very complex, comprising of non-uniform materials with varying structures, impurities, and interaction between the active metal and supporting substrate. A large portion of the ongoing research in heterogeneous catalysis focuses on understanding structure-function relationships in catalytic materials. In parallel, there is a large area of surface science research focused on studying model catalytic systems for which structural parameters can be tuned and measured with high precision. It is commonly argued, however, that these systems are oversimplified, and that observations made in model systems do not translate to robust catalysts operating in practical environments; this discontinuity is often referred to as a "gap." The focus of this thesis is to explore the mutual benefits of surface science and catalysis, or "bridge the gap," by studying two catalytic systems in both ultra-high vacuum (UHV) and near ambient-environments. The first reaction is the catalytic steam reforming of methanol (SRM) to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The SRM reaction is a promising route for on-demand hydrogen production. For this catalytic system, the central hypothesis in this thesis is that a balance between redox capability and weak binding of reaction intermediates is necessary for high SRM activity and selectivity to carbon dioxide. As such, a new catalyst for the SRM reaction is developed which incorporates very small amounts of gold (liquid-phase, stirred-tank batch reactor under a hydrogen head pressure of approximately 7 bar. Palladium alloyed into the surface of otherwise inactive copper nanoparticles shows a marked improvement in selectivity when compared to monometallic palladium catalysts with the same metal loading. This effect is attributed hydrogen spillover onto the copper surface. In summary, the development of new, highly active and selective catalysts for the methanol steam reforming reaction and for the partial hydrogenation of alkynes

  9. Bridging the gender gap: Insights from a contemporary analysis of sex-related differences in the treatment and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Stephanie; Goodman, Shaun G; Yan, Raymond T; Bugiardini, Raffaele; Bierman, Arlene S; Eagle, Kim A; Johnston, Nina; Huynh, Thao; Grondin, Francois R; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin; Yan, Andrew T

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether gender-related disparities still exist in the treatment and outcomes of patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) remains controversial. Using data from 4 registries spanning a decade, we sought to determine whether sex-related differences have persisted over time and to examine the treating physician's rationale for adopting a conservative management strategy in women compared with men. From 1999 to 2008, 14,196 Canadian patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS were recruited into the Acute Coronary Syndrome I (ACSI), ACSII, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE/GRACE(2)), and Canadian Registry of Acute Coronary Events (CANRACE) prospective multicenter registries. Women in the study population were found to be significantly older than men and were more likely to have a history of heart failure, diabetes, or hypertension. Fewer women were treated with thienopyridines, heparin, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors compared with men in GRACE and CANRACE. Female gender was independently associated with a lower in-hospital use of coronary angiography (adjusted odds ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.69-0.84, P < .001) and higher in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.26, 95% CI 1.02-1.56, P = .036), irrespective of age (P for interaction =.76). Underestimation of patient risk was the most common reason for not pursuing an invasive strategy in both men and women. Despite temporal increases in the use of invasive cardiac procedures, women with ACS are still more likely to be treated conservatively, which may be due to underestimation of patient risk. Furthermore, they have worse in-hospital outcomes. Greater awareness of this paradox may assist in bridging the gap between current guidelines and management practices. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Young people’s differential vulnerability to criminogenic exposure: Bridging the gap between people- and place-oriented approaches in the study of crime causation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Per-Olof H; Mann, Richard P; Hardie, Beth

    2018-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to contribute to bridging the gap between people- and place-oriented approaches in the study of crime causation. To achieve this we will explore some core hypotheses derived from Situational Action Theory about what makes young people crime prone and makes places criminogenic, and about the interaction between crime propensity and criminogenic exposure predicting crime events. We will also calculate the expected reduction in aggregate levels of crime that will occur as a result of successful interventions targeting crime propensity and criminogenic exposure. To test the hypotheses we will utilize a unique set of space–time budget, small area community survey, land-use and interviewer-led questionnaire data from the prospective longitudinal Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+) and an artificial neural network approach to modelling. The results show that people’s crime propensity (based on their personal morals and abilities to exercise self-control) has the bulk of predictive power, but also that including criminogenic exposure (being unsupervised with peers and engaged in unstructured activities in residential areas of poor collective efficacy or commercial centres) demonstrates a substantial increase in predictive power (in addition to crime propensity). Moreover, the results show that the probability of crime is strongest when a crime-prone person is in a criminogenic setting and, crucially, that the higher a person’s crime propensity the more vulnerable he or she is to influences of criminogenic exposure. Finally, the findings suggest that a reduction in people’s crime propensity has a much bigger impact on their crime involvement than a reduction in their exposure to criminogenic settings. PMID:29416442

  11. Multimodal-3D imaging based on μMRI and μCT techniques bridges the gap with histology in visualization of the bone regeneration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinibaldi, R; Conti, A; Sinjari, B; Spadone, S; Pecci, R; Palombo, M; Komlev, V S; Ortore, M G; Tromba, G; Capuani, S; Guidotti, R; De Luca, F; Caputi, S; Traini, T; Della Penna, S

    2018-03-01

    Bone repair/regeneration is usually investigated through X-ray computed microtomography (μCT) supported by histology of extracted samples, to analyse biomaterial structure and new bone formation processes. Magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI) shows a richer tissue contrast than μCT, despite at lower resolution, and could be combined with μCT in the perspective of conducting non-destructive 3D investigations of bone. A pipeline designed to combine μMRI and μCT images of bone samples is here described and applied on samples of extracted human jawbone core following bone graft. We optimized the coregistration procedure between μCT and μMRI images to avoid bias due to the different resolutions and contrasts. Furthermore, we used an Adaptive Multivariate Clustering, grouping homologous voxels in the coregistered images, to visualize different tissue types within a fused 3D metastructure. The tissue grouping matched the 2D histology applied only on 1 slice, thus extending the histology labelling in 3D. Specifically, in all samples, we could separate and map 2 types of regenerated bone, calcified tissue, soft tissues, and/or fat and marrow space. Remarkably, μMRI and μCT alone were not able to separate the 2 types of regenerated bone. Finally, we computed volumes of each tissue in the 3D metastructures, which might be exploited by quantitative simulation. The 3D metastructure obtained through our pipeline represents a first step to bridge the gap between the quality of information obtained from 2D optical microscopy and the 3D mapping of the bone tissue heterogeneity and could allow researchers and clinicians to non-destructively characterize and follow-up bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Bridging the gender pay gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-08-31

    Nursing may be a largely female profession, but men are vastly overrepresented in senior positions. Experts say the NHS has to take action to correct the huge gender imbalance - and female nurses need to learn how to help themselves.

  13. Mitigating the Mathematical Knowledge Gap between High School and First Year University Chemical Engineering Mathematics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basitere, Moses; Ivala, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out at a University of Technology, South Africa, aimed at identifying the existence of the mathematical knowledge gap and evaluating the intervention designed to bridge the knowledge gap amongst students studying first year mathematics at the Chemical Engineering Extended Curriculum Program (ECP). In this…

  14. The potential of natural gas as a bridging technology in low-emission road transportation in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Helmreich Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emission reductions are at the centre of national and international efforts to mitigate climate change. In road transportation, many politically incentivised measures focus on increasing the energy efficiency of established technologies, or promoting electric or hybrid vehicles. The abatement potential of the former approach is limited, electric mobility technologies are not yet market-ready. In a case study for Germany, this paper focuses on natural gas powered vehicles as a bridging technology in road transportation. Scenario analyses with a low level of aggregation show that natural gas-based road transportation in Germany can accumulate up to 464 million tonnes of CO2-equivalent emission reductions until 2030 depending on the speed of the diffusion process. If similar policies were adopted EU-wide, the emission reduction potential could reach a maximum of about 2.5 billion tonnes of CO2-equivalent. Efforts to promote natural gas as a bridging technology may therefore contribute to significant emissions reductions.

  15. Gender Gap in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM): Current Knowledge, Implications for Practice, Policy, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    Although the gender gap in math course-taking and performance has narrowed in recent decades, females continue to be underrepresented in math-intensive fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Career pathways encompass the ability to pursue a career as well as the motivation to employ that ability. Individual differences…

  16. Demonstration and Validation of a Lightweight Composite Bridge Deck Technology as an Alternative to Reinforced Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Abstract Cyclic loading and weathering of reinforced concrete bridge decks cause corrosion of reinforcement steel, which leads to cracking , potholes...economic analysis in terms of return on investment (ROI). The main problems identified after construction were reflective cracking of the polymer...flange and bottom of deck). ..................... 21 Figure 22. Foam grout dams in pultruded deck section

  17. The impact of care management information technology model on quality of care after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: "Bridging the Divides".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, William S; Elliott, Daniel; Fanari, Zaher; Ostertag-Stretch, Jennifer; Muther, Ann; Lynahan, Margaret; Kerzner, Roger; Salam, Tabassum; Scherrer, Herbert; Anderson, Sharon; Russo, Carla A; Kolm, Paul; Steinberg, Terri H

    Reducing readmissions and improving metrics of care are a national priority. Supplementing traditional care with care management may improve outcomes. The Bridges program was an initial evaluation of a care management platform (CareLinkHub), supported by information technology (IT) developed to improve the quality and transition of care from hospital to home after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (CABG) and reduce readmissions. CareLink is comprised of care managers, patient navigators, pharmacists and physicians. Information to guide care management is guided by a middleware layer to gather information, PLR (ColdLight Solutions, LLC) and presented to CareLink staff on a care management platform, Aerial™ (Medecision). In addition there is an analytic engine to help evaluate and guide care, Neuron™ (Coldlight Solutions, LLC). The "Bridges" program enrolled a total of 716 CABG patients with 850 admissions from April 2013 through March 2015. The data of the program was compared with those of 1111 CABG patients with 1203 admissions in the 3years prior to the program. No impact was seen with respect to readmissions, Blood Pressure or LDL control. There was no significant improvement in patients' reported outcomes using either the CTM-3 or any of the SAQ-7 scores. Patient follow-up with physicians within 1week of discharge improved during the Bridges years. The CareLink hub platform was successfully implemented. Little or no impact on outcome metrics was seen in the short follow-up time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Innovation strategy management survey of the Chilean biomedical industry. Assessment of windows of opportunities to reduce technological gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Tomas Gabriel; Oliu, Carolina Alejandra

    2018-02-09

    The convergence of different theories (ie, catch-up effect and windows of opportunities) allows for the interpretation of different "technological innovation gaps" in Chile's biomedical industry. It is common knowledge that Chile has always had an economy almost exclusively based on services, commodities, and mainly in the exploitation of natural resources with low value added. The literature confirms that countries that concentrate their economies on the knowledge, research, development, and commercialization of technology and innovation have a better and more stable growth rate in the medium and long run. The "Asian Tigers" are a good example of this. Analyzing the technological gaps that affect the Chilean biomedical industry, it is possible to find windows of opportunities to catch up. This could allow the country to take its knowledge, skills, and capabilities further, thus enabling Chile to not just depend on its unpredictable natural resources. For the first time, a quantitative diagnosis of the Chilean biomedical industry was made. This study considered the Chilean biomedical industry and its innovation and entrepreneurship environment, taking into account its productive capacities and its potential to make progress in technological innovation and, as a result, dramatically reducing technological gaps through windows of opportunities. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The impact of care management information technology model on quality of care after percutaneous coronary intervention: "Bridging the Divides".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, William S; Fanari, Zaher; Elliott, Daniel; Ostertag-Stretch, Jennifer; Muther, Ann; Lynahan, Margaret; Kerzner, Roger; Salam, Tabassum; Scherrer, Herbert; Anderson, Sharon; Russo, Carla A; Kolm, Paul; Steinberg, Terri H

    2017-07-03

    Reducing readmissions and improving metrics of care are a national priority. Supplementing traditional care with care management may improve outcomes. The Bridges program was an initial evaluation of a care management platform (CareLinkHub), supported by information technology (IT) developed to improve the quality and transition of care from hospital to home after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and reduce readmissions. CareLink is comprised of care managers, patient navigators, pharmacists and physicians. Information to guide care management is guided by a middleware layer to gather information, PLR (ColdLight Solutions, LLC) and presented to CareLink staff on a care management platform, Aerial™ (Medecision). An additional analytic engine [Neuron™ (ColdLight Solutions, LLC)] helps, evaluates and guide care. The "Bridges" program enrolled a total of 2054 PCI patients with 2835 admission from April, 1st 2013 through March 1st, 2015. The data of the program was compared with those of 3691 PCI patients with 4414 admissions in the 3years prior to the program. No impact was seen with respect to inpatient and observation readmission, or emergency department visits. Similarly no change was noticed in LDL control. There was minimal improvement in BP control and only in the CTM-3 and SAQ-7 physical limitation scores in the patients' reported outcomes. Patient follow-up with physicians within 1week of discharge improved during the Bridges years. The CareLink hub platform was successfully implemented. Little or no impact on outcome metrics was seen in the short follow-up time. The Bridges program suggests that population health management must be a long-term goal, improving preventive care in the community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bridging gaps in everyday life - a free-listing approach to explore the variety of activities performed by physiotherapists in specialized palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson Möller, U; Stigmar, K; Beck, I; Malmström, M; Rasmussen, B H

    2018-01-29

    physiotherapists' everyday activities. Physiotherapists in specialized palliative care help patients and families to bridge the gap between their real and ideal everyday life with the aim to maximize security, autonomy and wellbeing. The concrete examples included can be used in understanding the contribution of physiotherapists to the palliative care team and inform future research interventions and outcomes.

  1. Bridging the gap between the economic evaluation literature and daily practice in occupational health: a qualitative study among decision-makers in the healthcare sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Continued improvements in occupational health can only be ensured if decisions regarding the implementation and continuation of occupational health and safety interventions (OHS interventions) are based on the best available evidence. To ensure that this is the case, scientific evidence should meet the needs of decision-makers. As a first step in bridging the gap between the economic evaluation literature and daily practice in occupational health, this study aimed to provide insight into the occupational health decision-making process and information needs of decision-makers. Methods An exploratory qualitative study was conducted with a purposeful sample of occupational health decision-makers in the Ontario healthcare sector. Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted to explore the process by which occupational health decisions are made and the importance given to the financial implications of OHS interventions. Twenty-five structured telephone interviews were conducted to explore the sources of information used during the decision-making process, and decision-makers’ knowledge on economic evaluation methods. In-depth interview data were analyzed according to the constant comparative method. For the structured telephone interviews, summary statistics were prepared. Results The occupational health decision-making process generally consists of three stages: initiation stage, establishing the need for an intervention; pre-implementation stage, developing an intervention and its business case in order to receive senior management approval; and implementation and evaluation stage, implementing and evaluating an intervention. During this process, information on the financial implications of OHS interventions was found to be of great importance, especially the employer’s costs and benefits. However, scientific evidence was rarely consulted, sound ex-post program evaluations were hardly ever performed, and there seemed to be a need to advance the economic

  2. New Solar Soft X-Ray (SXR) Spectral Irradiance Measurements Bridge the SDO and RHESSI Spectral Gap to Study Flare Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, T. N.; Jones, A.; Mason, J.; Moore, C.; Eparvier, F.; Caspi, A.; Chamberlin, P.

    2016-10-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrum is rich in many different emission lines that reveal plasma characteristics concerning active region evolution and explosive energy release during coronal eruptions. Solar EUV imagers, such as SDO AIA, provide insight into the location, thermal structure, and dynamics of the coronal eruptions and associated flares. In addition, the solar EUV spectral irradiance from SDO EVE, with its higher spectral resolution, provides more detailed thermal evolution of the eruption and has better characterized some aspects of the eruptions such as relationship of coronal dimming and mass loss and post-eruption coronal loop cooling. Complementary to SDO are hard x-ray (HXR) measurements by RHESSI that have clarified the initiation of energy release from magnetic reconnection in the corona. New solar soft x-ray (SXR) spectral irradiance from the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat is now bridging this spectral gap between SDO EUV and RHESSI HXR observations. MinXSS-1 was deployed from the ISS in May 2016 for a 1-year mission, and MinXSS-2 is being launched in October 2016 for a 5-year mission. The energy release during solar flares is expected to peak in the SXR and thus the SXR has been monitored with GOES broadband photometers for decades, but there has been very limited SXR spectral measurements. With the new and unique MinXSS measurements of the SXR spectral variability during flares, coupled with solar SXR images from Hinode, EUV data from SDO, and HXR data from RHESSI, the processes for releasing energy during an eruption and affecting post-eruption thermal evolution can be explored in more detail. Furthermore, the new SXR spectral irradiance measurements can help improve the accuracy of broad band SXR measurements by GOES XRS, SDO EVE ESP, and XPS aboard TIMED and SORCE. Such improvements can lead to better understanding the solar impacts in Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere and how they might affect some of our space

  3. Why Are We Unable Bridging Theory-Practice Gap in Context of Plethora of Literature on Its Causes, Effects and Solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyaduka, Bryson D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper raises pertinent issues regarding an obvious gap that prevails between theory and practice in various professions. The paper makes it clear that there is theory-practice gap among professions; however, it focuses more on informing theory-practice gap in the teaching profession. The paper identifies and informs of causes, effects and…

  4. Smart photonic coating for civil engineering field: for a future inspection technology on concrete bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudouzi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Koichi; Todoroki, Shin-ichi; Hyakutake, Tsuyoshi; Nitta, Hiroyuki; Nishizaki, Itaru; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Ohya, Takao

    2017-04-01

    Here we will propose the conceptual new idea of the inspection of concrete bridge using smart materials and mobile IoT system. We apply opal photonic crystal film to detect cracks on concrete infrastructures. High quality opal photonic crystal films were coated on black color PET sheet over 1000 cm2 area. The opal film sheet was cut and adhered to concrete or mortar test pieces by epoxy resin. In the tensile test, the structural color of the opal sheet was changed when the crack was formed. As a demonstration, we have installated the opal film sheet on the wall of the concrete bridge. Our final purpose is the color change will be recorded by portable CCD devices, and send to expert via IoT network.

  5. TECHNOLOGY AND EFFICIENT USE OF PEAT ASH IN MASTICS FOR WATERPROOFING OF BRIDGE AND TUNNEL STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    G. D. Lyahevich; A. G. Lyahevich; Agababa Rangraz Alireza Najib; A. A. Dalidovskaya

    2015-01-01

    A prospective method for protection of  bridges and tunnels against aggressive water action is surface waterproofing on the basis of an organo-mineral binder. Its structural strength can be increased by introduction of particles which are similar to the size of  asphaltenes and an elasticity of disperse medium has been increased due to introduction of polymers. These theoretical suppositions point out the possibility for simultaneous provision of flexibility at low temperatures and high heat ...

  6. Dual-stream accounts bridge the gap between monkey audition and human language processing. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by Michael Arbib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, Simon; Pickering, Martin J.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few years there has been a resurgence of interest in dual-stream dorsal-ventral accounts of language processing [4]. This has led to recent attempts to bridge the gap between the neurobiology of primate audition and human language processing with the dorsal auditory stream assumed to underlie time-dependent (and syntactic) processing and the ventral to underlie some form of time-independent (and semantic) analysis of the auditory input [3,10]. Michael Arbib [1] considers these developments in relation to his earlier Mirror System Hypothesis about the origins of human language processing [11].

  7. Local participation in complex technological projects as bridging between different communities in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sips, K.; Craps, M.; Dewulf, A.

    2013-01-01

    Local community participation in complex technological projects, where technological innovations and risks need to be managed, is notoriously challenging. Relations with local inhabitants easily take the form of exclusion, protest, controversy or litigation. While such projects represent

  8. Myocardial Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center > Myocardial Bridge Menu Topics Topics FAQs Myocardial Bridge Article Info En español Your heart is made ... surface of the heart. What is a myocardial bridge? A myocardial bridge is a band of heart ...

  9. [Segmental cut-off bridge and local floating technology for the treatment of ossification of ligamentum flavum in thoracic spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-dong; Zhang, Jian; Sheng, Wei-bin

    2013-10-08

    To explore the efficacy and safety of segmental cut-off bridge and local floating technology for the treatment of ossification of ligamentum flavum (OLF) in thoracic spine. Retrospective study was performed in 98 patients with thoracic OLF who under went operation. There was 56 males and 42 females with an average age of 45.8 (35-73) years. The average duration of onset was 17 (3-51) months. The main clinical symptoms were numbness and paraesthesia (n = 90), lower limb weakness and walking trouble (n = 46), positive pyramidal tract signs (n = 33) and sphincter function obstacle (n = 9). OLF was screened and diagnosed by radiology, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) or CT myelography (CTM). A total of 142 OLF nidus were spotted. The lesions involved single segment (n = 32), double segments (n = 56), three segments (n = 6) and ≥ four segments (n = 4). And the locations were at upper thoracic segment (T1-4) (n = 34), middle thoracic segment (T5-8) (n = 23) and lower thoracic segment (T9-12) (n = 42). The OLF nidus were removed by local floating technology oft windowing at cephalic and caudal ends and a cut-off bridge at both sides of involved segments. Pre- and post-operative Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores and Epstein grades were recorded to evaluate the outcomes. The mean loss volume of blood was 320 ml and operative duration 155 min. All cases recovered independent activities. The mean follow-up period was 28 (13-48) months. The mean preoperative JOA score was 4.3 (1-8) points and the mean postoperative JOA score 9.7 (5-11) points. The recovery rate was 78.8%. According to Epstein grade, the excellent and good rate was 86.7%. As a common cause of thoracic spinal cord compression, OLF should be operated as early as possible. Based upon clinical and imaging findings, the application of segmental cut-off bridge and local floating technology is both safe and efficacious in the treatment of OLF in thoracic spine.

  10. Bridging the Gap between In- and Out-of-Hospital Care: the Role and Limitations of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-13

    initiate stabilization procedures, or even farther in the future, place the body in some type of suspended animation. 2. Everything is very simple in...resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta or expanding intrabdominal foam to control abdominal and pelvic hemorrhage. Helmet and

  11. Using Emerging Technologies To Help Bridge the Gap between University Theory and Classroom Practice: Challenges and Successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael; Harwood, William; Keating, Thomas; Saam, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Describes challenges as a web-supported professional development system is integrated into elementary science methods courses. Discusses the difficulties encountered while attempting to develop and sustain effective inquiry-based teaching. Recommends the implementation of a web-based professional development system into elementary methods science…

  12. Closing the gap between socioeconomic and financial implications of residential and community level hydrogen-based energy systems: Incentives needed for a bridge to the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduzco, Laura E.

    benefits and costs of hydrogen-based alternatives, H2POWER compares the financial and socioeconomic costs of home and neighborhood refueling units to a baseline of "conventional" sources of residential electricity, space heat, water heat, and vehicle fuel. The model can also calculate the "gap" between the financial cost of the technology and the environmental cost of the externalities that are generated using conventional energy sources. H2POWER is a flexible, user-friendly tool that allows the user to specify different production pathways, supplemental power sources (renewable and non-renewable), component characteristics, electricity mixes, and other analysis parameters in order to customize the results to specific projects. The model has also built-in default values for each of the input fields based on national averages, standard technology specifications and input from experts.

  13. Phenomenology study of HERMES ground-penetrating radar technology for detection and identification of common bridge deck features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Accurately evaluating the condition of a bridge deck over time and using this information to choose appropriate maintenance techniques has become critical for the efficient allocation of resources to bridge deck maintenance. Tomographic imaging of su...

  14. The role of new information technology meeting the global need and gap of education in pediatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ure, Benno; Zoeller, Christoph; Lacher, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, pediatric surgical education consisted of exposure to patients, textbooks, lectures, team-based education, congresses, and workshops. Over the last decades, however, new information technology (IT) and the internet revolutionized the sharing of information and communication. IT has become relevant in particular for the younger generation of pediatric surgeons. Today, gaps in children's health and the quality of pediatric surgical education persist between countries and regions. Advances in health care are not shared equitably. The use of IT for resource libraries, teleconferences, virtual symposiums, and telementoring has great potential in closing this gap and meeting the global needs for pediatric surgical education. This article focuses on the potential role of IT in this respect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bridges between science, society and policy technology assessment : methods and impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Ladikas, Miltos

    2004-01-01

    This book summarises the results of the project TAMI (Technology Assessment in Europe; between Method and Impact). This was a two-year project that brought together the main institutes of technology assessment in Europe, both parliamentary and non-parliamentary. TAMI created a structured dialogue between technology assessment experts and policymakers on current methodologies and their impact on policymaking. The TAMI team explored and assessed the whole spectrum of methodologies from the "classical" to the "interactive/participatory" and "communicative," identified good practices in project implementation and set the stage for impact evaluation based on objective criteria. Finally this report offers a series of policy recommendations based on the findings of the project. Science, Society and Policy, are three areas that technology assessment functions within and works for; this book is an attempt to improve the interaction amongst them for a more socially and economically sustainable Science and Technology p...

  16. Debating the future of genetically modified plants - bridging knowledge dimensions. A technology foresight study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Kristian; Rasmussen, Birgitte

    2003-01-01

    Rapid developments in, and the controversial nature of, biotechnology call for communication, networks, partnerships, and collaboration in research, not just among researchers but also between researchers and research “users” in industry, government, andelsewhere. Technological foresight appears...

  17. Mind the Gap: Technology, Millennial Leadership and the Cross-Generational Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Adam

    2011-01-01

    It comes as no surprise that different generations respond to and utilise emerging technology in vastly different ways. However as more Millennials take on leadership positions within academic libraries, their attitudes towards and uses of technology may bring conflicting expectations for leadership to the forefront. What are the generational…

  18. GAPS Programme with HARPS-N@TNG: Synergy Between Scientific and Technological INAF Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smareglia, R.; Bignamini, A.; Knapic, C.; Molinaro, M.; GAPS Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    GAPS (Global Architecture of Planetary Systems) is an Italian project devoted to understanding the architectural properties of planetary systems in connection with the characteristics of their host stars, taking advantage of the surgical (minus 1 m/s) radial velocity precision provided by HARPS-N@TNG. This project is the result of a concerted collaborative effort of a large fraction of the Italian astronomical community working in the exoplanetary field. This team has joined forces and its long-term expertise in high resolution spectroscopy, stellar rotation and activity, crowded stellar environments, formation of planetary systems, planetary dynamics, and data handling, with the aim to achieve the overarching goals of the program.

  19. Bridging the Gap in Military Robotics : Report on the Requirements and Gaps in Short-Term Military Robotics as identified during the IST-032 Workshop held in Bonn, Germany, September 2004.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roning, J.; Zijderveld, E.J.A. van; Walle, L.; Castelli, R.

    2008-01-01

    There appears to exist a gap between the ideas of the military on the use of ground robotics for their purposes and the technical possibilities offered by industry and research. In many cases the military are offered robots created by industry, but to a lesser degree robots developed to explicitly

  20. Bridging the Hemispheres through the Use of Technology: International Collaboration in Social Work Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenbach, John Victor; Black-Hughes, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The social work programs of the University of Fort Hare, East London, South Africa, and Minnesota State University, Mankato, United States, began using various technologies in 2007 to facilitate interaction. This project included conducting practicum supervision and seminars via videoconferencing (using Breeze, Adobe Connect, and Skype) and…

  1. Students design composite bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.; Galjaard, J.C.; Brekelmans, J.W.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of recent research on steel-concrete composite bridge design by students of Delft University of Technology doing their master's thesis. Primary objective of this research was to find possibilities for application of steel-concrete composite bridges in the Netherlands,

  2. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  3. Super-long bridges with floating towers: the role of multi-box decks and Hardware-In-the-Loop technology for wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasso, A.; Argentini, T.; Bayati, I.; Belloli, M.; Rocchi, D.

    2017-12-01

    The super long fjord crossings in E39 Norwegian project pose new challenges to long span bridge design and construction technology. Proposed solutions should consider the adoption of bridge deck with super long spans or floating solutions for at least one of the towers, due to the relevant fjord depth. At the same time, the exposed fjord environment, possibly facing the open ocean, calls for higher aerodynamic stability performances. In relation to this scenario, the present paper addresses two topics: 1) the aerodynamic advantages of multi-box deck sections in terms of aeroelastic stability, and 2) an experimental setup in a wind tunnel able to simulate the aeroelastic bridge response including the wave forcing on the floating.

  4. Railroad Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Bridges-Rail in the United States According to The National Bridge Inspection Standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (23 CFR 650.3), a bridge isA...

  5. Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development (LOCAD): Bridging Technology Readiness for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Scott F.; Jenkins, Andy

    2004-01-01

    At Marshall Space Flight Center we have established a capability to investigate the use of microfluidics for space flight. The Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development (LOCAD) team has created a program for advancing Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) of 1 and 2 to TRL 6 and 7, quickly and economically for Lab-On-a-Chip (LOC) applications. Scientists and engineers can utilize LOCAD'S process to efficiently learn about microfluidics and determine if microfluidics is applicable to their needs. Once the applicability has been determined, LOCAD can then perform tests to develop the new fluidic protocols which are different from macro-scale chemical reaction protocols. With this information new micro-fluidic devices can be created and tested. Currently, LOCAD is focused on using microfluidics for both Environmental Monitoring & Control, and Medical Systems. Eventually, handheld portable units utilizing LOC technology will perform rapid tests to determine water quality, and microbial contamination levels. Since LOC technology is drastically reduced in physical size, it thereby reduces power, weight, volume, and sample requirements, a big advantage considering the resource constraints associated with spaceflight. Another one of LOCAD's current activities is the development of a microfluidic system to aid in the search for life on Mars.

  6. Mind the Gap: Task Design and Technology in Novice Language Teachers' Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Tom F. H.; Oberhofer, Margret; Colpaert, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the possibilities/challenges for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers designing tasks grounded in Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) and taking advantage of the affordances of technology--Interactive WhiteBoards (IWBs). Teachers have been shown to confuse tasks with exercises or activities. The interactive…

  7. Human Mars EDL Pathfinder Study: Assessment of Technology Development Gaps and Mitigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Randolph; Olejniczak, Joe; Polsgrove, Tara; Cianciolo, Alice Dwyer; Munk, Michelle; Whetsel, Charles; Drake, Bret

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a NASA initiated Agency-wide assessment to better characterize the risks and potential mitigation approaches associated with landing human class Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems on Mars. Due to the criticality and long-lead nature of advancing EDL techniques, it is necessary to determine an appropriate strategy to improve the capability to land large payloads. A key focus of this study was to understand the key EDL risks and with a focus on determining what "must" be tested at Mars. This process identified the various risks and potential risk mitigation strategies along with the key near term technology development efforts required and in what environment those technology demonstrations were best suited. The study identified key risks along with advantages to each entry technology. In addition, it was identified that provided the EDL concept of operations (con ops) minimized large scale transition events, there was no technology requirement for a Mars pre-cursor demonstration. Instead, NASA should take a direct path to a human-scale lander.

  8. Future impact of new technologies: Three scenarios, their competence gaps and research implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne; Sonne, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    What will the impact of science be ten years from now in the food industry? Large or overwhelming most people will probably agree. But before we can be any more specific, we need to address the questions of what type or aspect of science or technology we have in mind and secondly, what kind...

  9. Narrowing the Gender Gap: Enduring Changes in Middle School Students' Attitude toward Math, Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naizer, Gilbert; Hawthorne, Melissa J.; Henley, Tracy B.

    2014-01-01

    Middle School students from rural school districts participated in a Summer STEM program with academic year follow-up requirements. Both males and females showed increased interest and confidence regarding math science, technology, and problem-solving. Furthermore, these gains continued beyond the immediate impact of Summer program participation…

  10. Closing the global immunization gap: delivery of lifesaving vaccines through innovation and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sachin N; Kamat, Deepak

    2014-07-01

    One of every 5 children does not receive basic vaccines because of concerns related to storage and delivery in resource limited countries. Transporting vaccines over long distances in extreme temperatures is a common challenge. Issues that involve production and formulation, delivery technologies, cold chain logistics, and safety factors need to be addressed to properly adapt vaccines to resource constrained settings. Current successful field interventions include United Nation Children's Fund cold boxes, which are used to store and distribute vaccine in disaster struck areas, and vaccine vial monitors, which allow health workers to gauge whether vaccine is still usable in areas with unreliable electricity and refrigeration. This review aims to provide a general overview of innovative approaches and technologies that positively affect vaccine coverage and save more lives. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2014. All rights reserved.

  11. Minding the Gap: The Growing Divide Between Privacy and Surveillance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    administrative purposes, such as parking tickets (Manson, 2008). While LPR technology shares similar structure and components, the policies that control when...Information Center, 2011). However, in 2012, many consumers no longer rent movie videocassette tapes, as identified within the act. Rather, they...use the Internet to obtain their movie via a download—something not envisioned or addressed under the Video Privacy Protection Act. A limited

  12. Managing the Classroom with Technology. On Progress Reports and Online Communications, and How To Manage the Two Different Communication Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Describes how one teacher bridged the communications gap among teachers, parents, and students through the use of technology in managing his classroom. Discusses progress reports and online communications and how to manage the two different communication techniques. (JOW)

  13. Care robots for the supermarket shelf: a product gap in assistive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Tim

    2013-07-01

    The literature on the development of assistive robots is dominated by technological papers with little consideration of how such devices might be commercialised for a mass market at a price that is affordable for older people and their families as well as public services and care insurers. This article argues that the focus of technical development in this field is too ambitious, neglecting the potential market for an affordable device that is aleady in the realm of the 'adjacent possible' given current technology capabilities. It also questions on both ethical and marketing grounds the current effort to develop assistive robots with pet-like or human-like features. The marketing literature on 'really new products' has so far not appeared to inform the development of assistive robots but has some important lessons. These include using analogies with existing products and giving particular attention to the role of early adopters. Relevant analogies for care robots are not animals or humans but useful domestic appliances and personal technologies with attractive designs, engaging functionality and intuitive usability. This points to a strategy for enabling mass adoption - which has so far eluded even conventional telecare - of emphasising how such an appliance is part of older people's contemporary lifestyles rather than a sign of age-related decline and loss of independence.

  14. Design, construction and load testing of the bridge on Arnault Branch, Washington County, Missouri using innovative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    The superstructure and instrumentation designs of a three-span bridge are presented in this report. The three spans include a : precast box-girder bridge, a precast deck on steel girder and a precast deck on concrete girder. They were designed to com...

  15. Change Requires Change! Information Technology, Student Preparedness and Industry Collaboration: Supporting the Bridging Process between Education and Training with Innovative Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Anne O'Sullivan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper, Change Requires Change: will relate that bridging the gap between education: of what we teach and training: of what industry looks for in prepared skills for students, needs to be relevant to today's situations. We need to re-evaluate traditional industry academic partnerships which have been relatively successful including; internships, work-study programs, curriculum advisory boards, guest lectures and capstone courses, to identify gaps and opportunities for what is needed to support our future. Do we want to continue with the status-quo or enhance education? Should we be cognizant of emerging trends? What could be the implications on changing academic-industry partnerships? How can we improve? This paper proposes several new approaches to academics and industry practitioner's towards greater successful collaborations towards student preparation.

  16. Filling the Data Gaps in Mountain Climate Observatories Through Advanced Technology, Refined Instrument Siting, and a Focus on Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotty Strachan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The mountain research community is still contending with the need to monitor ecosystems, both to improve local management practices and to address regional and global science questions related to the Future Earth themes of Dynamic Planet, Global Sustainable Development, and Transformations Towards Sustainability. How such efforts may be designed and coordinated remains an open question. Historical climate and ecological observatories and networks typically have not represented the scope or spatial and topographic distribution of near-surface processes in mountains, creating knowledge gaps. Grassroots, in situ investigations have revealed the existence of topoclimates that are not linearly related to general atmospheric conditions, and are also not adequately represented in gridded model products. In this paper, we describe how some of the disconnects between data, models, and applications in mountains can be addressed using a combination of gradient monitoring, uniform observational siting and standards, and modern technology (cyberinfrastructure. Existing observational studies need to expand their topographic niches, and future observatories should be planned to span entire gradients. Use of cyberinfrastructure tools such as digital telemetry and Internet Protocol networks can reduce costs and data gaps while improving data quality control processes and widening audience outreach. Embracing this approach and working toward common sets of comparable measurements should be goals of emerging mountain observatories worldwide.

  17. Bridging the Gap Between Innovation and ELSA: The TA Program in the Dutch Nano-R&D Program NanoNed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rip, Arie; van Lente, H

    2013-01-01

    The Technology Assessment (TA) Program established in 2003 as part of the Dutch R&D consortium NanoNed is interesting for what it did, but also as an indication that there are changes in how new science and technology are pursued: the nanotechnologists felt it necessary to spend part of their

  18. Understanding the digital divide in the clinical setting: the technology knowledge gap experienced by US safety net patients during teleretinal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Fish, Allison; Ogunyemi, Lola

    2013-01-01

    Differential access to everyday technology and healthcare amongst safety net patients is associated with low technological and health literacies, respectively. These low rates of literacy produce a complex patient "knowledge gap" that influences the effectiveness of telehealth technologies. To understand this "knowledge gap", six focus groups (2 African-American and 4 Latino) were conducted with patients who received teleretinal screenings in U.S. urban safety-net settings. Findings indicate that patients' "knowledge gap" is primarily produced at three points: (1) when patients' preexisting personal barriers to care became exacerbated in the clinical setting; (2) through encounters with technology during screening; and (3) in doctor-patient follow-up. This "knowledge gap" can produce confusion and fear, potentially affecting patients' confidence in quality of care and limiting their disease management ability. In rethinking the digital divide to include the consequences of this knowledge gap faced by patients in the clinical setting, we suggest that patient education focus on both their disease and specific telehealth technologies deployed in care delivery.

  19. Bridging the Divide: The Role of Motivation and Self-Regulation in Explaining the Judgment-Action Gap Related to Academic Dishonesty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jason M

    2018-01-01

    There is often a divide between moral judgment and moral action; between what we believe we ought to do (or not do) and what we do. Knowledge of this divide is not new, and numerous theories have attempted to offer more robust accounts of ethical decision-making and moral functioning. Knowledge of widespread academic dishonesty among students is also not new, and several studies have revealed that many students report cheating despite believing it is wrong. The present study, involving cross-sectional survey data from a sample of secondary students ( N = 380) in the United States, contributes to the literature on this important area of theory and research by fulfilling three broad purposes. The first purpose concerned the assessment of students' judgments related to academic dishonesty, and offered evidence for the utility of a new instrument that measures what domain (personal, conventional, or moral) students use to categorize various types of cheating behavior rather than how much they believe it to be wrong. The second purpose involved exploring the relations between domain judgments and engagement in academic dishonesty, and results provided evidence for the hypothesis that students who believed an action to be morally wrong would be less likely to report doing it. Finally, the third and most important purpose of the study involved bridging the divide between moral judgment and action of academic dishonesty by testing competing theoretical models of moral functioning. Results indicated that the data demonstrated the best fit to a modified version of the hypothesized four-component model, whereby self-regulation (in the form of selective moral disengagement) played a significant mediating role in the relations between moral judgment and academic dishonesty, and that moral judgment also affected self-regulation indirectly through moral motivation (i.e., responsibility judgments). In brief, findings from this study offer support for the contention that moral

  20. Bridging the Divide: The Role of Motivation and Self-Regulation in Explaining the Judgment-Action Gap Related to Academic Dishonesty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Stephens

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is often a divide between moral judgment and moral action; between what we believe we ought to do (or not do and what we do. Knowledge of this divide is not new, and numerous theories have attempted to offer more robust accounts of ethical decision-making and moral functioning. Knowledge of widespread academic dishonesty among students is also not new, and several studies have revealed that many students report cheating despite believing it is wrong. The present study, involving cross-sectional survey data from a sample of secondary students (N = 380 in the United States, contributes to the literature on this important area of theory and research by fulfilling three broad purposes. The first purpose concerned the assessment of students' judgments related to academic dishonesty, and offered evidence for the utility of a new instrument that measures what domain (personal, conventional, or moral students use to categorize various types of cheating behavior rather than how much they believe it to be wrong. The second purpose involved exploring the relations between domain judgments and engagement in academic dishonesty, and results provided evidence for the hypothesis that students who believed an action to be morally wrong would be less likely to report doing it. Finally, the third and most important purpose of the study involved bridging the divide between moral judgment and action of academic dishonesty by testing competing theoretical models of moral functioning. Results indicated that the data demonstrated the best fit to a modified version of the hypothesized four-component model, whereby self-regulation (in the form of selective moral disengagement played a significant mediating role in the relations between moral judgment and academic dishonesty, and that moral judgment also affected self-regulation indirectly through moral motivation (i.e., responsibility judgments. In brief, findings from this study offer support for the contention

  1. Interactive web-based mapping: bridging technology and data for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Highfield Linda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Community Health Information System (CHIS online mapping system was first launched in 1998. Its overarching goal was to provide researchers, residents and organizations access to health related data reflecting the overall health and well-being of their communities within the Greater Houston area. In September 2009, initial planning and development began for the next generation of CHIS. The overarching goal for the new version remained to make health data easily accessible for a wide variety of research audiences. However, in the new version we specifically sought to make the CHIS truly interactive and give the user more control over data selection and reporting. Results In July 2011, a beta version of the next-generation of the application was launched. This next-generation is also a web based interactive mapping tool comprised of two distinct portals: the Breast Health Portal and Project Safety Net. Both are accessed via a Google mapping interface. Geographic coverage for the portals is currently an 8 county region centered on Harris County, Texas. Data accessed by the application include Census 2000, Census 2010 (underway, cancer incidence from the Texas Cancer Registry (TX Dept. of State Health Services, death data from Texas Vital Statistics, clinic locations for free and low-cost health services, along with service lists, hours of operation, payment options and languages spoken, uninsured and poverty data. Conclusions The system features query on the fly technology, which means the data is not generated until the query is provided to the system. This allows users to interact in real-time with the databases and generate customized reports and maps. To the author's knowledge, the Breast Health Portal and Project Safety Net are the first local-scale interactive online mapping interfaces for public health data which allow users to control the data generated. For example, users may generate breast cancer incidence rates

  2. Institutional Profile: University of California San Diego Pharmacogenomics Education Program (PharmGenEd™): bridging the gap between science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Grace M; Ma, Joseph D; Lee, Kelly C; Halpert, James R; Bourne, Philip E; Ganiats, Theodore G; Taylor, Palmer

    2011-02-01

    Clinical application of evidence-based pharmacogenomics information has the potential to help healthcare professionals provide safe and effective medication management to patients. However, there is a gap between the advances of pharmacogenomics discovery and the health professionals' knowledge regarding pharmacogenomics testing and therapeutic uses. Furthermore, pharmacogenomics education materials for healthcare professionals have not been readily available or accessible. Pharmacogenomics Education Program (PharmGenEd™) is an evidence-based pharmacogenomics education program developed at the University of California San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences and the School of Medicine (CA, USA), with funding support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Program components include continuing education modules, train-the-trainer materials and shared curriculum modules based on therapeutic topics, and virtual communities with online resources.

  3. Bridging the gap between the human and macaque connectome: a quantitative comparison of global interspecies structure-function relationships and network topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Dominguez, Oscar; Mills, Brian D; Grayson, David; Woodall, Andrew; Grant, Kathleen A; Kroenke, Christopher D; Fair, Damien A

    2014-04-16

    Resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) may provide a powerful and noninvasive "bridge" for comparing brain function between patients and experimental animal models; however, the relationship between human and macaque rs-fcMRI remains poorly understood. Here, using a novel surface deformation process for species comparisons in the same anatomical space (Van Essen, 2004, 2005), we found high correspondence, but also unique hub topology, between human and macaque functional connectomes. The global functional connectivity match between species was moderate to strong (r = 0.41) and increased when considering the top 15% strongest connections (r = 0.54). Analysis of the match between functional connectivity and the underlying anatomical connectivity, derived from a previous retrograde tracer study done in macaques (Markov et al., 2012), showed impressive structure-function correspondence in both the macaque and human. When examining the strongest structural connections, we found a 70-80% match between structural and functional connectivity matrices in both species. Finally, we compare species on two widely used metrics for studying hub topology: degree and betweenness centrality. The data showed topological agreement across the species, with nodes of the posterior cingulate showing high degree and betweenness centrality. In contrast, nodes in medial frontal and parietal cortices were identified as having high degree and betweenness in the human as opposed to the macaque. Our results provide: (1) a thorough examination and validation for a surface-based interspecies deformation process, (2) a strong theoretical foundation for making interspecies comparisons of rs-fcMRI, and (3) a unique look at topological distinctions between the species.

  4. Factors Influencing Adoption of Information Technology Infrastructure Library: Utilizing the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Din S. Z.

    2013-01-01

    There is a shortage of evidence based research that provides organizations with the necessary information in support of their technology adoption decisions in relation to ITSM technologies. As such, this research study attempted to bridge the gap by offering insight on possible factors that could influence such decisions. An examination of…

  5. A Smart Home Test Bed for Undergraduate Education to Bridge the Curriculum Gap from Traditional Power Systems to Modernized Smart Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinran; Li, Fangxing; Chen, Chien-fei

    2015-01-01

    There is a worldwide trend to modernize old power grid infrastructures to form future smart grids, which will achieve efficient, flexible energy consumption by using the latest technologies in communication, computing, and control. Smart grid initiatives are moving power systems curricula toward smart grids. Although the components of smart grids…

  6. Bridging the Gap between User Experience Research and Design in Industry: An Analysis of Two Common Communication Tools--Personas and Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) research in the design of technology products utilizes human-centered design (HCD) methods to summarize and explain pertinent information about end users to designers. However, UX researchers cannot effectively communicate the needs and goals of users if designers do not find UX research (a) easy to integrate into design…

  7. Hematology oncology practice in the Asia-Pacific APHCON survey results from the 6th international hematologic malignancies conference: bridging the gap 2015, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao Jun; Liu, Kaiyan; Ritchie, David; Andersson, Borje; Lu, Jin; Hou, Jian; Burguera, Adolfo de la Fuente; Wang, JianXiang; Yeoh, Allen; Yan, Chenhua; Zhou, Daobin; Tan, Daryl; Kim, Dong Wook; Wu, Depei; Shpall, Elizabeth; Kornblau, Stephen; Neelapu, Sattava; Hongeng, Suradej; Li, Jianyong; Hu, Jiong; Zhang, Lian Sheng; Wang, Michael; Malhotra, Pankaj; Jiang, Qian; Qin, Yazhen; Wong, Raymond; Champlin, Richard; Hagemeister, Frederick; Westin, Jason; Iyer, Swaminathan; Mathews, Vikram; Wang, Yu; Hu, Yu; Xiao, Zhijian; Shao, Zonghong; Orlowski, Robert Z; Chim, Chor Sang; Mulligan, Stephen; Sanz, Miguel; Ozawa, Keiya; Parmar, Simrit; Issaragrisil, Surapol

    2017-06-20

    This report serves as a snapshot of the state-of-knowledge in the Asia Pacific (APAC) Hematology Oncology community, and establishes a baseline for longitudinal investigations to follow changes in best practices over time. The objective of this study was to understand the approach to hematologic diseases, common standards of care and best practices, issues that remain controversial or debated, and educational or resource gaps that warrant attention. We used mobile application to disseminate and distribute questionnaires to delegates during the 6th international hematologic malignancies conference hosted by the APAC Hematology Consortium at Beijing, China. User responses were collected in an anonymous fashion. We report survey results in two ways: the overall responses, and responses as stratified between Chinese physicians and "Other" represented nationalities. Overall geographical concordance in survey responses was positive and strong. Perhaps more interesting than instances of absolute agreement, these data provide a unique opportunity to identify topics in which physician knowledge or opinions diverge. We assigned questions from all modules to broad categories of: patient information; diagnosis; treatment preference; transplantation; and general knowledge/opinion. On average, we observed a geographic difference of 15% for any particular answer choice, and this was fairly constant across survey modules. These results reveal utility and need for widespread and ongoing initiatives to assess knowledge and provide evidence-based education in real time. The data will be made more valuable by longitudinal participation, such that we can monitor changes in the state of the art over time.

  8. Bridging the gap: Lessons we have learnt from the merging of psychology and psychiatry for the optimisation of treatments for emotional disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bronwyn M; Callaghan, Bridget L; Richardson, Rick

    2014-11-01

    In recent years the gap between psychological and psychiatric research and practice has lessened. In turn, greater attention has been paid toward how psychological and pharmacological treatments interact. Unfortunately, the majority of research has indicated no additive effect of anxiolytics and antidepressants when combined with psychological treatments, and in many cases pharmacological treatments attenuate the effectiveness of psychological treatments. However, as psychology and psychiatry have come closer together, research has started to investigate the neural and molecular mechanisms underlying psychological treatments. Such research has utilised preclinical models of psychological treatments, such as fear extinction, in both rodents and humans to determine multiple neural and molecular changes that may be responsible for the long-term cognitive and behavioural changes that psychological treatments induce. Currently, researchers are attempting to identify pharmacological agents that directly augment these neural/molecular changes, and which may be more effective adjuncts to psychological treatments than traditional anxiolytics and antidepressants. In this review we describe the research that has led to this new wave of thinking about combined psychological/pharmacological treatments. We also argue that an increased emphasis on identifying individual difference factors that predict the effectiveness of pharmacological adjuncts is critical in facilitating the translation of this preclinical research into clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding soil erosion impacts in temperate agroecosystems: bridging the gap between geomorphology and soil ecology using nematodes as a model organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, C.; Rowan, J. S.; McKenzie, B. M.; Neilson, R.

    2013-11-01

    Soil is a key asset of natural capital, providing a myriad of goods and ecosystem services that sustain life through regulating, supporting and provisioning roles, delivered by chemical, physical and biological processes. One of the greatest threats to soil is accelerated erosion, which raises a natural process to unsustainable levels, and has downstream consequences (e.g.~economic, environmental and social). Global intensification of agroecosystems is a recognised major cause of soil erosion which, in light of predicted population growth and increased demand for food security, will continue or increase. Transport and redistribution of biota by soil erosion has hitherto been ignored and thus is poorly understood. With the move to sustainable intensification this is a key knowledge gap that needs to be addressed. Here we highlight the erosion-energy and effective-erosion-depth continuum in soils, differentiating between different forms of soil erosion, and argue that nematodes are an appropriate model taxa to investigate impacts of erosion on soil biota across scales. We review the different known mechanisms of soil erosion that impact on soil biota in general, and nematodes in particular, and highlight the few detailed studies, primarily from tropical regions, that have considered soil biota. Based on the limited literature and using nematodes as a model organism we outline future research priorities to initially address the important interrelationships between soil erosion processes and soil biota.

  10. Gas-fired power in the UK: Bridging supply gaps and implications of domestic shale gas exploitation for UK climate change targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Jeremy K; Reay, David S; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2018-03-01

    There is a projected shortcoming in the fourth carbon budget of 7.5%. This shortfall may be increased if the UK pursues a domestic shale gas industry to offset projected decreases in traditional gas supply. Here we estimate that, if the project domestic gas supply gap for power generation were to be met by UK shale gas with low fugitive emissions (0.08%), an additional 20.4MtCO 2 e 1 would need to be accommodated during carbon budget periods 3-6. We find that a modest fugitive emissions rate (1%) for UK shale gas would increase global emissions compared to importing an equal quantity of Qatari liquefied natural gas. Additionally, we estimate that natural gas electricity generation would emit 420-466MtCO 2 e (460 central estimate) during the same time period within the traded EU emissions cap. We conclude that domestic shale gas production with even a modest 1% fugitive emissions rate would risk exceedance of UK carbon budgets. We also highlight that, under the current production-based greenhouse gas accounting system, the UK is incentivized to import natural gas rather than produce it domestically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bridging the Time Gap: A Copper/Zinc Oxide/Aluminum Oxide Catalyst for Methanol Synthesis Studied under Industrially Relevant Conditions and Time Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenbein, Thomas; Girgsdies, Frank; Kandemir, Timur; Thomas, Nygil; Behrens, Malte; Schlögl, Robert; Frei, Elias

    2016-10-04

    Long-term stability of catalysts is an important factor in the chemical industry. This factor is often underestimated in academic testing methods, which may lead to a time gap in the field of catalytic research. The deactivation behavior of an industrially relevant Cu/ZnO/Al2 O3 catalyst for the synthesis of methanol is reported over a period of 148 days time-on-stream (TOS). The process was investigated by a combination of quasi in situ and ex situ analysis techniques. The results show that ZnO is the most dynamic species in the catalyst, whereas only slight changes can be observed in the Cu nanoparticles. Thus, the deactivation of this catalyst is driven by the changes in the ZnO moieties. Our findings indicate that methanol synthesis is an interfacially mediated process between Cu and ZnO. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge and the Storebælt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    With the completion of the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge and the Storebælt East Bridge the development of the suspension bridge technology in the 20th century has manifested itself in two impressive structures. With the present echnology may bridges of similar (and also more modest) dimensions...... will undoubtedly be built far into the next century. For bridges going beyond the spans of existing bridges it is, however, likely that new concepts will be developed....

  13. Bridging the gap between North and Central Chile : insight from new GPS data on coupling complexities and the Andean sliver motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E.; Métois, M.; Meneses, G.; Vigny, C.; Delorme, A.

    2018-03-01

    GPS surveys have been extensively used over the past 20 years to quantify crustal deformation associated with the Andean subduction zone in Chile. Such measurements revealed the coupling variations associated with the seismic segmentation of the subduction. However, because of data gaps mostly due to access difficulties, the Atacama-Antofagasta regions of North Chile remain poorly known. We present here an upgraded interseismic velocity field aggregating new data acquired between 2012 and 2016 in the region of Taltal (24° S - 26° S), over a small scale network of 20 benchmarks. This denser data set reveals a new complexity regarding the modelling methodology commonly used. We first show that a large scale rigid Andean sliver, running from central to North Chile, does not allow to explain the velocities measured near the cordillera in the region of Taltal. This region exhibits an additional coherent block motion of almost 8 mm/yr with respect to the inland motion generated by the rotation of the sliver proposed by (e.g. Brooks et al. 2003; Métois et al. 2013, 2014) which works well everywhere else. Second, once this local block motion is taken into account, the coupling in the Taltal area is refined, which brings new insights about the subduction segmentation there. The Taltal area shows as a relative low in coupling (although coupling values are still high), potentially cutting a long section of the subduction into two independent highly coupled segments: the Paranal segment - North of Taltal, between 23° S and 25° S - and the Chañaral segment - south of Taltal, between 26° S and 28° S. These segments may rupture individually with magnitude ˜8 earthquakes or simultaneously which would produce a larger earthquake, especially if a third segment (Atacama - more to the south - between 28° S and 29° S) is also involved.

  14. Bridging the ';knowing and doing gap' in disaster risk reduction using design and design thinking; Ideation of concepts to improve hazard preparedness and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The central goal of disaster risk reduction (DRR) is to reduce the impact and cost of natural hazards, in human, environmental and economic terms. There are numerous approaches that aim to achieve this but recent studies have shown a substantial gap between risk reduction actions taken at national and local levels. The traditional media of the scientist: education, outreach and increasingly community involvement, have been shown to raise levels of awareness and understanding but generate little change in terms of people's actions. This can be attributed to the differences in hazard perception and the relative weight placed on various aspects by scientists, authorities and communities as a result of non-hazard related factors. Therefore DRR, particularly when placed in its social, environmental and economic contexts, is an excellent example of what is termed a ';wicked problem': a problem that is difficult to formulate, where data to base decisions on are incomplete, the stakeholders are many and they hold contradicting views and the consequences of actions on the wider system are unclear. Although both science and design are geared towards problem solving, design, in drawing equally on art and engineering skills, does so in a fundamentally different but complementary way. Neither design nor science will solve the wicked problem that is DRR, but scientists, engineers and designers can improve the current state of disaster risk reduction by tackling aspects of underlying risk factors. This work will present concepts aimed at engaging people in novel and innovative ways with scientific results, with a specific focus on improving hazard preparedness and tangible, rather than abstract, ways of communicating hazard levels. Key considerations include the need to graft onto existing behaviours or innovate on existing products to simplify implementation, the possibility to co-create and connect through design and balancing desirability with technical and economical

  15. Kinetic bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    This report on kinetic bridges is essentially a state-of-the-art study on two types of bridges whose location or physical characteristics are designed to be time dependent. The first type, called a "relocatable bridge", is essentially for use as a te...

  16. Improved quality of management of eclampsia patients through criteria based audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Bridging the quality gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidanto Hussein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Criteria-based audits (CBA have been used to improve clinical management in developed countries, but have only recently been introduced in the developing world. This study discusses the use of a CBA to improve quality of care among eclampsia patients admitted at a University teaching hospital in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. Objective The prevalence of eclampsia in MNH is high (≈6% with the majority of cases arriving after start of convulsions. In 2004–2005 the case-fatality rate in eclampsia was 5.1% of all pregnant women admitted for delivery (MNH obstetric data base. A criteria-based audit (CBA was used to evaluate the quality of care for eclamptic mothers admitted at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania after implementation of recommendations of a previous audit. Methods A CBA of eclampsia cases was conducted at MNH. Management practices were evaluated using evidence-based criteria for appropriate care. The Ministry of Health (MOH guidelines, local management guidelines, the WHO manual supplemented by the WHO Reproductive Health Library, standard textbooks, the Cochrane database and reviews in peer reviewed journals were adopted. At the initial audit in 2006, 389 case notes were assessed and compared with the standards, gaps were identified, recommendations made followed by implementation. A re-audit of 88 cases was conducted in 2009 and compared with the initial audit. Results There was significant improvement in quality of patient management and outcome between the initial and re-audit: Review of management plan by senior staff (76% vs. 99%; P=0.001, urine for albumin test (61% vs. 99%; P=0.001, proper use of partogram to monitor labour (75% vs. 95%; P=0.003, treatment with steroids for lung maturity (2.0% vs. 24%; P=0.001, Caesarean section within 2 hours of decision (33% vs. 61%; P=0.005, full blood count (28% vs. 93%; P=0.001, serum urea and creatinine (44% vs. 86%; P=0.001, liver enzymes (4.0% vs

  17. Precast concrete elements for accelerated bridge construction : laboratory testing, field testing, evaluation of a precast concrete bridge, Madison County bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The importance of rapid construction technologies has been recognized by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Iowa : DOT Office of Bridges and Structures. Recognizing this a two-lane single-span precast box girder bridge was constructed ...

  18. On the road to metallic nanoparticles by rational design: bridging the gap between atomic-level theoretical modeling and reality by total scattering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Binay; Wilson, A R; Wiley, B J; Ren, Y; Petkov, Valeri

    2015-11-14

    The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can reveal real-world metallic nanoparticles (NPs) at the atomic level was scrutinized and demonstrated to be insufficient and how it can be improved by using a pragmatic approach involving straightforward experiments is shown. In particular, 4 to 6 nm in size silica supported Au(100-x)Pd(x) (x = 30, 46 and 58) explored for catalytic applications is characterized structurally by total scattering experiments including high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled to atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Atomic-level models for the NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modeling Sutton-Chen (SC) method. Models are matched against independent experimental data and are demonstrated to be inaccurate unless their theoretical foundation, i.e. the SC method, is supplemented with basic yet crucial information on the length and strength of metal-to-metal bonds and, when necessary, structural disorder in the actual NPs studied. An atomic PDF-based approach for accessing such information and implementing it in theoretical modeling is put forward. For completeness, the approach is concisely demonstrated on 15 nm in size water-dispersed Au particles explored for bio-medical applications and 16 nm in size hexane-dispersed Fe48Pd52 particles explored for magnetic applications as well. It is argued that when "tuned up" against experiments relevant to metals and alloys confined to nanoscale dimensions, such as total scattering coupled to atomic PDF analysis, rather than by mere intuition and/or against data for the respective solids, atomic-level theoretical modeling can provide a sound understanding of the synthesis-structure-property relationships in real-world metallic NPs. Ultimately this can help advance nanoscience and technology a step closer to producing metallic NPs by rational design.

  19. A patient-specific intracranial aneurysm model with endothelial lining: a novel in vitro approach to bridge the gap between biology and flow dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Naoki; Mashiko, Toshihiro; Namba, Katsunari; Tateshima, Satoshi; Watanabe, Eiju; Kawai, Kensuke

    2018-03-01

    To develop an in vitro model for studying the biological effect of complex-flow stress on endothelial cells in three-dimensional (3D) patient-specific vascular geometry. A vessel replica was fabricated with polydimethylsiloxanes using 3D printing technology from vascular image data acquired by rotational angiography. The vascular model was coated with fibronectin and immersed in a tube filled with a cell suspension of endothelium, and then cultured while being slowly rotated in three dimensions. Culture medium with viscosity was perfused in the circulation with the endothelialized vascular model. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study was conducted using perfusion conditions used in the flow experiment. The morphology of endothelial cells was observed under a confocal microscope. The CFD study showed low wall shear stress and circulating flow in the apex of the basilar tip aneurysm, with linear flow in the parent artery. Confocal imaging demonstrated that the inner surface of the vascular model was evenly covered with monolayer endothelial cells. After 24 h of flow circulation, endothelial cells in the parent artery exhibited a spindle shape and aligned with the flow direction. In contrast, endothelial cells in the aneurysmal apex were irregular in shape and size. A geometrically realistic intracranial aneurysm model with live endothelial lining was successfully developed. This in vitro model enables a new research approach combining study of the biological impact of complex flow on endothelial cells with CFD analysis and patient information, including the presence of aneurysmal growth or rupture. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Bridging the potato variety gap: a review of the Kenya - The Netherlands potato project (2012–2015: its success, challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komen Simeon K.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Potato is Kenya’s second most important staple crop which contributes immensely to the food security and income of smallholder farmers in the Kenya Highlands. Despite its importance however, crop yields are very low (7.7 to 9.5 t/ha against a potential of over 40 t/ha. Many reasons are cited to explain this including inadequate good quality seed of suitable varieties, seed recycling, low soil fertility, limited use of agro-chemicals and leaf diseases. Potatoes were introduced in the late 19th Century from Britain and later Germany. During the 1980’s several Dutch varieties were brought in for evaluation but the process could not be completed as the test sites were allocated to other uses. This review highlights progress made with new varieties in terms of evaluation, registration and the associated technology identifies challenges and solutions. Until 2012 only 15 varieties had been in commercial use, mostly originating from temperate countries with a few local releases in collaboration with the International potato center (CIP. With increased demand for processed potato products driven by the urban middle -income population, and its preference for fast foods, there was need for high yielding varieties. Since 2012 over 100 Dutch and local varieties have been evaluated under conventional performance trials at seven locations spread across different potato-growing counties. Normal agronomic practices were followed and several yield parameters were measured. Several high-potential Dutch varieties failed due to their susceptibility to low management practices. From these, 33 varieties have been released from seven Dutch companies and local breeders and two parallel evaluation procedures have been conducted since 2013 one conventional and one intensive. Consequently, 44% and 56% of the released varieties came through conventional and intensive channels respectively. In terms of usage, those released consist of 61% for table use and 39% for

  1. Myocardial Bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

  2. State Level Intelligence Doctrine: Bridging the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    is from Criminal Justice peer reviewed journals, (Criminal Justice Policy Review, Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice) federal government...implementation. Using additional genres and fields of study in academia to conduct comparative analysis would also give practitioners as well as...Steven Chermak. “Intelligence-Led Policing as a Framework for Responding to Terrorism.” Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 23, no. 2. 2007: 142

  3. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun

    2015-08-05

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Bridging the Linguistic and Affective Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westbrook, Peter Nils; Henriksen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    feedback sessions. The study also includes a structured, in-depth interview with the informant, which yields very specific and rich data about how one lecturer feels about teaching in English, the informant’s own learning focus and the outcomes of a short language course. The aims of the study are fourfold......This paper reports on a small-scale case study which follows an experienced Danish university lecturer during a tailor-made, one-to-one language course to improve her English language skills for lecturing, consisting of a five-week cycle of observed English-medium lectures and subsequent language......, namely: 1) to describe the informant’s motivation for taking an English course; 2) to compare her affective and perceived linguistic needs with her objective needs; 3) to follow her own language focus areas during the course; and 4) to identify any subjective or objective gains she achieved from...

  5. 109 BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN POLICY AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Alex C Asigbo

    Between years 2011 and 2012, the researcher conducted her National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) with the. Council for Arts and Culture of Akwa-Ibom State. The researcher served in the capacity of a dancer in the performance unit of the institution. Also the researcher represented the State in the. National Youth Service ...

  6. Bridging the Gap Between Economics and Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Leefers

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Economics and ecology are often presented as opposing disciplines. Both fields have strengths and weaknesses. A new transdisciplinary field, ecological economics, attempts to bring together the strengths of both disciplines with a vision for a sustainable future. In this paper, we focus on one particular concept championed by ecological economists, natural capital. In particular, our interest is on the institutionalization of this concept through the United Nation's Satellite System for Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA. SEEA is an international convention that incorporates natural resource accounting as a complement to the traditional System of National Accounts (SNA. In the case of boreal forests, the stocks and flows of forest resources can be assessed to determine prospects for sustainability. To provide a context for how natural resource accounting may be applied to boreal forests, we review the origin and purpose of natural resource accounting, summarize several cases in which natural resource accounting has been applied, and present an example of stocks and flows from Michigan's (United States boreal forest resources. Natural resource accounting work from Canada, Finland, Norway, and other countries with boreal forests should be compiled and analyzed to provide more insights regarding circumpolar forest conditions.

  7. Asian-Australian Writers: Bridging the Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelberga Vita Astuti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini membahas tentang wawancara (dengan, tulisan, dan karya sastra oleh para penulis wanita migran di Australia yang berasal dari negara-negara di Asia Tenggara. Tulisan ini meneliti kehidupan para penulis ketika tinggal di Australia, yang memiliki perbedaan budaya, sosial dan politik dengan negara asli mereka. Menggunakan gagasan cultural identity and diaspora dari Stuart Hall dan conditional hospitality dari Jaques Derrida, artikel ini mengungkap peran penting penulis migran dalam menjembatani perbedaan antara budaya timur dan barat. Analisis artikel menunjukkan bahwa identitas budaya mereka berubah untuk memperkecil jarak perbedaan dan proses perubahan ini terwujud dalam tulisan mereka.

  8. Bridging the gap between wikipedia and academia

    OpenAIRE

    Jemielniak, Dariusz; Aibar, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    In this opinion piece, we would like to present a short literature review of perceptions and reservations towards Wikipedia in academia, address the common questions about overall reliability of Wikipedia entries, review the actual practices of Wikipedia usage in academia, and conclude with possible scenarios for a peaceful coexistence. Because Wikipedia is a regular topic of JASIST publications (Lim, 2009; Meseguer-Artola, Aibar, Llados, Minguillon, & Lerga, 2015; Mesgari, Okoli, Mehdi, Niel...

  9. Bridging the Gap in Hospital Preparedness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adwell, James P

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a baseline measurement tool by assessing individual attitudes regarding hospital preparedness, departmental preparedness, and preparedness through education and training...

  10. Bridging Lithuania's energy gap / Adam Mullett

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mullett, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Leedu peab leidma võimalusi, kuidas leevendada pärast Ignalina tuumaelektrijaama sulgemist tekkivat energia defitsiiti. Võimalik on alternatiivenergia kasutamine, Rootsi ja Baltimaade vahelise elektrikaabli rajamine ning uue tuumaelektrijaama ehitamine

  11. Bridging the gap between farmers and consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoin, Florence; Kristensen, Troels; Noe, Egon

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how different quality dimensions (safety, aesthetics, ethics and rooted ness) are created in food networks; how these qualities are transferred until the consumers; and how this process is supported by the organisation of the food network. Our postulate is th...... of organisations such as public label scheme, cooperate owned brand and direct sell from farmer to consumer. The results highlight the importance of the role of certification and personal commitment for the creation, and also for the mediation of added-value....... is that combining the quality and organisation dimensions and exploring the link between them will provide an interesting perspective for improving the sharing of values in food networks. This framework is applied to five case studies of “pasture-raised beef” food networks in France, representing a diversity...

  12. Spatial consequences of bridging the saccadic gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yarrow, Kielan; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Rothwell, John C

    2006-01-01

    with the post-saccadic image. We first demonstrate that this illusion holds for moving objects, implying that the perception of time, velocity, and distance traveled become discrepant. We then show that this discrepancy is partially resolved up to 500 ms after a saccade: the perceived offset position of a post...

  13. Business and computing : Bridging the gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.; Coles, F.C.

    1999-01-01

    Information systems, in the form of paper files or electronic files on computer systems and digital storage devices are employed in the oil industry to handle data from 3 basic infrastructures: accounting, geotechnical, and administration. The accounting function was the main driving force behind the development of the computer. The geotechnical data storage and manipulation infrastructure has its basis in signal recording and processing related to seismic acquisition and well logging. The administrative infrastructure deals with documents and not just data. Management in the oil industry needs two main kinds of useful information: reports about their organization and about the marketplace. Using an example of an oil and gas enterprise whose aim is to pursue low cost shallow gas to increase production levels, the basic business process is shown to relate to land and prospect inventory management, tightly controlled drilling methods, gathering system and production facility standardization, logistics and planning models, and strong transportation and marketing management. The role of the computer in this process is to yield information, that is, to provide coordinated, integrated, useful information that facilitates the processes essential to accomplish the business's objectives

  14. Bridging the Linguistic and Affective Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westbrook, Peter Nils; Henriksen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    , namely: 1) to describe the informant’s motivation for taking an English course; 2) to compare her affective and perceived linguistic needs with her objective needs; 3) to follow her own language focus areas during the course; and 4) to identify any subjective or objective gains she achieved from...... the course. The conclusions suggest that while the immediate observable linguistic gains on such a short course are relatively modest, what should not be overlooked are the significant ‘knock-on effect’ benefits relating to the informant’s affective needs. Furthermore, many of the informant’s direct quotes...

  15. [Neuroscience and education: towards the construction of interactive bridges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarós, Sol; Lipina, Sebastián J; Segretin, M Soledad; Hermida, M Julia; Jorge, Jorge A

    The debates on the potential interdisciplinary association between neuroscience and education began approximately three decades ago. In order for the integration of neuroscientific and educational knowledge to impact on learning and teaching it would imply the consideration of the emergence of several cognitive and emotional processes during development, and the possibility to influence them through specific interventions. AIM. To examine epistemological and methodological implications and bridging requirements in the interaction between neuroscience, cognitive psychology and education. A dynamic interdisciplinary bridging consists in the identification and reduction of different epistemological, methodological, technological and practical gaps between those disciplines. Furthermore, the consideration of complex phenomena, such as human development and learning processes in terms of multiple levels of analysis, may contribute to the enrichment of a critical dialogue, but also to generate genuine integrated interventions. Historical and current conceptual perspectives attempting to bridge neuroscience and education are described. At present, interdisciplinary efforts between neuroscience and education are at a preliminary stage. In this context, bridging requires conceptual and methodological approaches that consider the complexity of developmental and learning phenomena and the participation of actors from different fields, instead of unique bridges. This paper intends to consider several basic principles aimed at developing a dynamic integration that assesses the complexity of development, learning and teaching processes.

  16. Compilation of accelerated bridge construction (ABC) bridges : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Development of accelerated bridge construction (ABC) technologies has been occurring across the country, many times in : isolation. Although FHWA and others have worked to facilitate communication between these efforts, there was not a : comprehensiv...

  17. Bridging the digital disconnect : Exploring the views of professionals on using technology to promote young people’s mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, Aleisha M.; Chambers, Derek; Barry, Margaret M.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing role of online technologies in young people’s lives has significant implications for professionals’ engagement with technologies to promote youth mental health and well-being. However, relatively little is known about professionals’ views on the role of technologies in supporting

  18. Evaluation of the Buena Vista IBRD bridge : a furthering of accelerated bridge construction in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The need to construct bridges that last longer, are less expensive, and take less time to build has increased. The importance of accelerated bridge construction (ABC) technologies has been realized by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the...

  19. DOE Information Bridge

    CERN Document Server

    United States. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information

    DOE Information Bridge, a component of EnergyFiles, provides free, convenient, and quick access to full-text DOE research and development reports in physics, chemistry, materials, biology, environmental sciences, energy technologies, engineering, computer and information science, renewable energy, and other topics. This vast collection includes over 43,000 reports that have been received and processed by OSTI since January 1995.

  20. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way.......In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  1. For the sake of technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Rørbæk

    2016-01-01

    of technology conceptualisations, constructed with inspiration from science and technology studies and information systems research. To bridge the gap, funding bodies and museum designers are encouraged to focus on processes rather than on product specifications when funding and designing digital museum......While digital technologies are becoming increasingly commonplace in museum practice, research that critically considers the processes in which they emerge is still scarce. This article demonstrates the role of technology views in these processes. Based on ethnographic data from two design processes...... and interview data from supplementary cases in Denmark, the article points to a gap between what practitioners view as necessary to secure funding and what they view as necessary for designing meaningful digital museum communication. This gap is identified by analysing the data in relation to a continuum...

  2. Study of technology of pile foundation construction of no.5 main pier of Shoujiang bridge in Wenchuan County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianbin; Liu, Chenyang; Chen, Chunyang; Wangren, Yahong; Xu, Jialin; Xian, Jin

    2018-03-01

    The group of pile foundation of no.5 pier in Shoujiang Bridge needs to overcome the big load of large span continuous steel structure. The length of single pile foundation is 77m and the diameter of single pile foundation is 250cm. It not only faces the flood in the upstream of Shoujiang river, the construction obstacles during summer rain period, but also the reservoir clearance activity of Zipingpu reservoir and the high water level in winter and other water level fluctuation that have huge impact on platform of pile foundation construction. This article introduces the preparation in aspect of personnel, material, equipment and so on of pile foundation construction, and also conduct intensive research on leveling the field, assaying pile location, the embedment of the steel casing, installing the drill, mixing mud, drilling, final hole inspection and clearance, steel cage construction, perfusing concrete under water.

  3. A novel multi-level IC-compatible surface microfabrication technology for MEMS with independently controlled lateral and vertical submicron transduction gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Paul-Vahe; Elsayed, Mohannad; Nabki, Frederic; El-Gamal, Mourad

    2017-11-01

    An above-IC compatible multi-level MEMS surface microfabrication technology based on a silicon carbide structural layer is presented. The fabrication process flow provides optimal electrostatic transduction by allowing the creation of independently controlled submicron vertical and lateral gaps without the need for high resolution lithography. Adopting silicon carbide as the structural material, the technology ensures material, chemical and thermal compatibility with modern semiconductor nodes, reporting the lowest peak processing temperature (i.e. 200 °C) of all comparable works. This makes this process ideally suited for integrating capacitive-based MEMS directly above standard CMOS substrates. Process flow design and optimization are presented in the context of bulk-mode disk resonators, devices that are shown to exhibit improved performance with respect to previous generation flexural beam resonators, and that represent relatively complex MEMS structures. The impact of impending improvements to the fabrication technology is discussed.

  4. What drives the gender gap in STEM? The SAGA Science, Technology and Innovation Gender Objectives List (STI GOL) as a new approach to linking indicators to STI policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, E.; Schaaper, M.; Bello, A.

    2016-07-01

    There is a large imbalance in the participation of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields across all of Latin American countries despite the fact that the region has one of the highest proportions of female researchers worldwide (44% according to UIS statistics). Female researchers face persisting institutional and cultural barriers, which limit the development of their careers and constrains their access to decision-making positions. In this framework, UNESCO has launched the STEM and Gender Advancement (SAGA) project, which has for objective to address the gender gap in STEM fields in all countries at all levels of education and research as well as to promote women’s participation in science. SAGA is a global UNESCO project with the support of the Swedish Government through the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). One of the outcomes of this project is the SAGA Science, Technology and Innovation Gender Objectives List (STI GOL), which is an innovative tool that aids in the identification of gaps in the policy mix. Additionally, the STI GOL configures the conceptual backbone of the SAGA project, by linking gender equality STI policy instruments with indicators. By using the STI GOL, and identifying the gender gaps, policy-makers will be able to implement evidence-based policies in STEM fields. The SAGA STI GOL is a new and innovative way of contributing to the development of effective gender sensitive policies in STI fields, both in education and in the workplace. Likewise, it enables the categorization of STI policies and instruments, with the objective of identifying gaps in the policy mix and aid in the creation and design of evidence-based public policies to promote gender equality. (Author)

  5. Integrating iPad Technology in Earth Science K-12 Outreach Courses: Field and Classroom Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Davin J.; Witus, Alexandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating technology into courses is becoming a common practice in universities. However, in the geosciences, it is difficult to find technology that can easily be transferred between classroom- and field-based settings. The iPad is ideally suited to bridge this gap. Here, we fully integrate the iPad as an educational tool into two…

  6. Towards Developing an Industry-Validated Food Technology Curriculum in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Paul; McNamara, Kevin; Deering, Amanda; Oliver, Haley; Rahimi, Mirwais; Faisal, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Afghanistan remains an agrarian country with most analyses holding food production and processing as key to recovery. To date, however, there are no public or private higher education departments focused on food technology. To bridge this gap, Herat University initiated a new academic department conferring BS degrees in food technology. Models for…

  7. National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NBI is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 600,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate Highways,...

  8. Technology of substrates for molecular beam homo epitaxy of wide - gap AII-BVI semiconductors and construction of a simplified setup for this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycielski, A.; Szadkowski, A.; Kaliszek, W.

    2000-01-01

    The technology of 'epi-ready' substrate plates (for MBE) of the wide gap AII-BVI semiconductor compounds, i. e. - preparation of the ultra pure elements, synthesis of the source material, crystallization by the physical vapour transport technique, cutting of the oriented plates, mechano-chemical polishing and preparation of the 'epi-ready' surface - is described, as well as the construction of a simplified version of the MBE setup for covering the substrate plates with the homoepitaxial layer. The results of the characterization of the substrate crystals and plates are presented. (author)

  9. The impact of digital technology on health of populations affected by humanitarian crises: Recent innovations and current gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesmar, Sandra; Talhouk, Reem; Akik, Chaza; Olivier, Patrick; Elhajj, Imad H; Elbassuoni, Shady; Armoush, Sarah; Kalot, Joumana; Balaam, Madeline; Germani, Aline; Ghattas, Hala

    2016-11-01

    Digital technology is increasingly used in humanitarian action and promises to improve the health and social well-being of populations affected by both acute and protracted crises. We set out to (1) review the current landscape of digital technologies used by humanitarian actors and affected populations, (2) examine their impact on health and well-being of affected populations, and (3) consider the opportunities for and challenges faced by users of these technologies. Through a systematic search of academic databases and reports, we identified 50 digital technologies used by humanitarian actors, and/or populations affected by crises. We organized them according to the stage of the humanitarian cycle that they were used in, and the health outcomes or determinants of health they affected. Digital technologies were found to facilitate communication, coordination, and collection and analysis of data, enabling timely responses in humanitarian contexts. A lack of evaluation of these technologies, a paternalistic approach to their development, and issues of privacy and equity constituted major challenges. We highlight the need to create a space for dialogue between technology designers and populations affected by humanitarian crises.

  10. Bridging the gap from prenatal karyotyping to whole-genome array comparative genomic hybridization in Hong Kong: survey on knowledge and acceptance of health-care providers and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hiu Yee Heidi; Kan, Anita Sik-Yau; Hui, Pui Wah; Lee, Chin Peng; Tang, Mary Hoi Yin

    2017-12-01

    The use of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has been increasingly widespread. The challenge of integration of this technology into prenatal diagnosis was the interpretation of results and communicating findings of unclear clinical significance. This study assesses the knowledge and acceptance of prenatal aCGH in Hong Kong obstetricians and pregnant women. The aim is to identify the needs and gaps before implementing the replacement of karyotyping with aCGH. Questionnaires with aCGH information in the form of pamphlets were sent by post to obstetrics and gynecology doctors. For the pregnant women group, a video presentation, pamphlets on aCGH and a self-administered questionnaire were provided at the antenatal clinic. The perception of aCGH between doctors and pregnant women was similar. Doctors not choosing aCGH were more concerned about the difficulty in counseling of variants of unknown significance and adult-onset disease in pregnant women, whereas pregnant women not choosing aCGH were more concerned about the increased waiting time leading to increased anxiety. Prenatal aCGH is perceived as a better test by both doctors and patients. Counseling support, training, and better understanding and communication of findings of unclear clinical significance are necessary to improve doctor-patient experience.

  11. Marketing and 21 st Century Technological Challenges: The Need ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing and 21 st Century Technological Challenges: The Need for Curricula Review. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... Marketing had over the years served the dominant function of bridging the gap between production and consumption through a conceptualized, well structured programme of academic ...

  12. Integration of Informal Music Technologies in Secondary School Music Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Dan; Dixon, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Technologies such as YouTube, mobile phones and MP3 players are increasingly integrated into secondary school music in the UK. At the same time, the gap between formal and informal music learning is being bridged by the incorporation of students' preferred music into class activities. We conducted an ethnographic study in two secondary schools in…

  13. Bridging the digital disconnect: Exploring the views of professionals on using technology to promote young people's mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Aleisha M; Chambers, Derek; Barry, Margaret M

    2017-08-01

    The increasing role of online technologies in young people's lives has significant implications for professionals' engagement with technologies to promote youth mental health and well-being. However, relatively little is known about professionals' views on the role of technologies in supporting youth mental health. This article outlines key findings from a needs assessment survey carried out in Ireland that sought to determine the views of professionals working with young people on the use of online technologies in supporting young people's mental health and well-being. A total of 900 professionals from across the education, health, and mental health professions completed an online survey. The findings demonstrate the importance of the internet as a resource for professionals working with young people, with over 98% of those surveyed expressing a readiness to use online resources to support young people's mental health. The nature of preferred online technologies differed according to professional groupings, however, 63% of overall respondents indicated they would look for help on a dedicated mental health website. Guidelines on working with young people and their parents on the promotion of positive mental were requested with the most frequency. Among the barriers identified were concerns about access to reliable information that was relevant to specific professional roles, and the need for organizational support of professionals' use of online evidence-based resources. Concerns were also expressed that online resources could replace face-to-face support services for young people, and the need for training professionals in their appropriate use. The results highlight the potential role of technology in assisting professionals through the provision of online training, reliable information, and practical resources on the promotion of positive youth mental health.

  14. Bridging the digital divide through the integration of computer and information technology in science education: An action research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gail Laverne

    The presence of a digital divide, computer and information technology integration effectiveness, and barriers to continued usage of computer and information technology were investigated. Thirty-four African American and Caucasian American students (17 males and 17 females) in grades 9--11 from 2 Georgia high school science classes were exposed to 30 hours of hands-on computer and information technology skills. The purpose of the exposure was to improve students' computer and information technology skills. Pre-study and post-study skills surveys, and structured interviews were used to compare race, gender, income, grade-level, and age differences with respect to computer usage. A paired t-test and McNemar test determined mean differences between student pre-study and post-study perceived skills levels. The results were consistent with findings of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (2000) that indicated the presence of a digital divide and digital inclusion. Caucasian American participants were found to have more at-home computer and Internet access than African American participants, indicating that there is a digital divide by ethnicity. Caucasian American females were found to have more computer and Internet access which was an indication of digital inclusion. Sophomores had more at-home computer access and Internet access than other levels indicating digital inclusion. Students receiving regular meals had more computer and Internet access than students receiving free/reduced meals. Older students had more computer and Internet access than younger students. African American males had been using computer and information technology the longest which is an indication of inclusion. The paired t-test and McNemar test revealed significant perceived student increases in all skills levels. Interviews did not reveal any barriers to continued usage of the computer and information technology skills.

  15. Strengthening Bridges with Prestressed CFRP Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwowski, Tomasz; Żółtowski, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    Limitation of bridge's carrying bearing capacity due to aging and deterioration is a common problem faced by road administration and drivers. Rehabilitation of bridges including strengthening may be applied in order to maintain or upgrade existing bridge parameters. The case studies of strengthening of two small bridges with high modulus prestressed CFRP strips have been presented in the paper. The first one - reinforced concrete slab bridge - and the other - composite steel-concrete girder bridge - have been successfully upgraded with quite new technology. In both cases the additional CFRP reinforcement let increasing of bridge carrying capacity from 15 till 40 metric tons. The CFRP strip prestressing system named Neoxe Prestressing System (NPS), developed by multi-disciplinary team and tested at full scale in Rzeszow University of Technology, has been also described in the paper.

  16. Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Ruan

    1998-01-01

    FLINS is the acronym for Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science. The main task for FLINS is to solve intricate problems pertaining to the nuclear environment by using modern technologies as additional tools and to bridge the gap between novel technologies and the industrial nuclear world. In 1997, major efforts went to the specific prototyping of Fuzzy Logic Control of SCK-CEN's BR1 research Reactor. Progress and achievements are reported

  17. Information Sharing between the U.S. Department State and the U.S. Army: Using Knowledge Management Technology and Tools to Bridge the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    gathering previously uncaptured tacit knowledge within an organization and converting it to explicit knowledge .30 Another definition from Army Field...foundation for expertise and better judgment.32 Tacit knowledge is defined as knowledge in people’s heads, but not documented anywhere in the... tacit knowledge . This addition of a third type of knowledge underscores the difficulty in transferring all of an organizations knowledge from tacit

  18. Technology and Tasks for Bridging the Language-Content Gap: Teacher-Researcher Collaboration in a Third-Year Spanish Writing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Many scholars have noted the disjunction between language instruction at the lower- and upper levels of FL study (Byrnes, 2002; Kraemer, 2008; Lord, 2014; Maxim, 2005; Schultz, 2000; Swaffar & Arens, 2005). Whereas lower-division courses tend to focus primarily on learning grammatical patterns and the "four skills," upper-level…

  19. Floating liquid bridge charge dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez; Gomes, Whyllerson Evaristo; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of liquid with electric fields is investigated in a configuration where up to 13 kV are applied between electrodes resulting in a 106 V/m electric field in the capillaries and where there is the formation of a free-standing fluid bridge in the interelectrode gap. The Mott-Gurney equation was fitted to the measured ionization current vs applied voltage curve which indicates that the ionization rate at the high-voltage anode electrode dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) interface and space charging in the interelectrode gap determine the floating liquid bridge current for a given cathode-to-anode voltage. Space charge effects were measured in the cathode becker and also at the liquid bridge since the ionized charges at the anode migrate to the bridge outer surface and decrease the interfacial tension from 43 mJ/m2 to 29 mJ/m2. Two distinct structural regions then form the bridge, a charged plastic (bulk modulus ˜100 MPa) conducting outer layer with a surface conductivity of ˜10-9 Ω-1, which shapes and supports the floating fluid structure, and an inner liquid cylinder, where DMSO molecules flow.

  20. [R]MIT Research Centre at Delft University of Technology: A Bridge between Research, Education, Society and Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, Hielkje

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, we launched the [R]MIT Research Centre (Modification, Intervention Transformation) at the Faculty of Architecture at Delft University of Technology. [R]MIT was founded to respond to the need for an integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to the transformation of the built environment. [R]MIT aims to bring momentum to the renewal of…