WorldWideScience

Sample records for bridging ecology culture

  1. The Cultural Bridge Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Edith A.

    1993-01-01

    Offers a cultural bridge model that would enhance the health care of the American Indian population. Suggests that transcultural nursing should transcend the realm of thought and become an integrated part of daily practice. (Author)

  2. Ecological effect and risk towards aquatic plants induced by perfluoroalkyl substances: Bridging natural to culturing flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yunqiao; Wang, Tieyu; Jiang, Zhaoze; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Li, Qifeng; Sun, Yajun; Wang, Pei; Liu, Zhaoyang

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the concentrations and proportions of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water and sediments (in different seasons) from the Qing River were investigated. The highest concentration of PFASs in water (207.59 ng L -1 ) was found in summer. The composition of PFASs in water changed with time, perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) was the predominant compound in spring and summer, while long-chain PFASs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), started to increase in autumn and winter. The PFASs concentration in sediments ranged from 0.96 to 4.05 ng g -1 dw. The proportion of long-chain PFASs was higher than that of short-chain PFASs in sediments, the dominant component in sediments was PFOA with a contribution of 24.6-75.4% to total PFASs in sediments, followed by PFOS. The concentrations of PFASs in roots of emergent plants were relatively higher than those in submerged plants. However, the translocation effect of PFASs was not remarkable. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of the aquatic plants indicated the absorption of PFASs were effective. BAFs in submerged plants basically increased with increasing chain length accordingly. In general, aquatic plants had the absorption preference for long-chain PFASs, especially PFOS, which was the predominant compounds in both submerged and emergent plants. Based on the results above, hornworts were selected to be cultivated indoor in the nutrient solution spiked gradient concentrations of PFOS to assess the general ecological risk. The results revealed that hornworts were resistant to PFOS and might be used as remediation flora to eliminate PFOS contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecological bridges and barriers in pelagic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Dana K.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Carlisle, Aaron; Scales, Kylie; Eveson, J. Paige; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Druon, Jean Noel; Fromentin, Jean-Marc

    2017-06-01

    Many highly mobile species are known to use persistent pathways or corridors to move between habitat patches in which conditions are favorable for particular activities, such as breeding or foraging. In the marine realm, environmental variability can lead to the development of temporary periods of anomalous oceanographic conditions that can connect individuals to areas of habitat outside a population's usual range, or alternatively, restrict individuals from areas usually within their range, thus acting as ecological bridges or ecological barriers. These temporary features can result in novel or irregular trophic interactions and changes in population spatial dynamics, and, therefore, may have significant implications for management of marine ecosystems. Here, we provide evidence of ecological bridges and barriers in different ocean regions, drawing upon five case studies in which particular oceanographic conditions have facilitated or restricted the movements of individuals from highly migratory species. We discuss the potential population-level significance of ecological bridges and barriers, with respect to the life history characteristics of different species, and inter- and intra-population variability in habitat use. Finally, we summarize the persistence of bridge dynamics with time, our ability to monitor bridges and barriers in a changing climate, and implications for forecasting future climate-mediated ecosystem change.

  4. Bridging the Gap Between Economics and Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Leefers

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Economics and ecology are often presented as opposing disciplines. Both fields have strengths and weaknesses. A new transdisciplinary field, ecological economics, attempts to bring together the strengths of both disciplines with a vision for a sustainable future. In this paper, we focus on one particular concept championed by ecological economists, natural capital. In particular, our interest is on the institutionalization of this concept through the United Nation's Satellite System for Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA. SEEA is an international convention that incorporates natural resource accounting as a complement to the traditional System of National Accounts (SNA. In the case of boreal forests, the stocks and flows of forest resources can be assessed to determine prospects for sustainability. To provide a context for how natural resource accounting may be applied to boreal forests, we review the origin and purpose of natural resource accounting, summarize several cases in which natural resource accounting has been applied, and present an example of stocks and flows from Michigan's (United States boreal forest resources. Natural resource accounting work from Canada, Finland, Norway, and other countries with boreal forests should be compiled and analyzed to provide more insights regarding circumpolar forest conditions.

  5. Foundations of Socio-Cultural Ecology: Consequences for Media Education and Mobile Learning in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Rummler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This conceptual paper offers insights to the foundations of Socio-Cultural Ecology and relates this concept to traditional concepts of Ecology e.g. media ecology or Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model of child development. It will further discuss the term «ecology» as a relation between learners and their surrounding physical and structural world, e. g. an ecology of resources or the classroom as an ecological system. Thirdly more recent concepts in ecology will be considered e. g. Digital Media Ecology including media ecology (German: Medienökologie from a German perspective. This contribution tries to describe common principles of (media ecologies and will ask after their meaning and relation to media education and mobile learning. One of the main results is the realisation that cultural practices of school learning and cultural practices of media acquisition take place in different worlds or in different ecological spheres. The question is thus again of how to bridge these ecological spheres, and how «agency» developed outside school, can be nourished inside school. In other words: how can we bridge socio-cultural and technological structures within these cultural practices.

  6. Bridging Cultural Differences in Medical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrese, Joseph A; Rhodes, Lorna A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cultural differences between doctors and their patients are common and may have important implications for the clinical encounter. For example, some Navajo patients may regard advance care planning discussions to be a violation of their traditional values. OBJECTIVE To learn from Navajo informants a culturally competent approach for discussing negative information. DESIGN Focused ethnography. SETTING Navajo Indian reservation, northeast Arizona. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-four Navajo informants, including patients, traditional healers, and biomedical health care providers. MEASUREMENT In-depth interviews. MAIN RESULTS Strategies for discussing negative information were identified and organized into four stages. Assessment of patients is important because some Navajo patients may be troubled by discussing negative information, and others may be unwilling to have such discussions at all. Preparation entails cultivating a trusting relationship with patients, involving family members, warning patients about the nature of the discussion as well as communicating that no harm is intended, and facilitating the involvement of traditional healers. Communication should proceed in a caring, kind, and respectful manner, consistent with the Navajo concept κ'é. Reference to a third party is suggested when discussing negative information, as is respecting the power of language in Navajo culture by framing discussions in a positive way. Follow-through involves continuing to care for patients and fostering hope. CONCLUSIONS In-depth interviews identified many strategies for discussing negative information with Navajo patients. Future research could evaluate these recommendations. The approach described could be used to facilitate the bridging of cultural differences in other settings. PMID:10672111

  7. The ecology of primate material culture

    OpenAIRE

    Koops K.; Visalberghi E.; van Schaik C.P.

    2014-01-01

    Tool use in extant primates may inform us regarding the conditions that favoured the expansion of hominin technology and material culture. The ‘method of exclusion’ has arguably confirmed the presence of culture in wild animal populations by excluding ecological and genetic explanations for geographical variation in behaviour. However thismethod neglects ecological influences on culturewhich ironicallymay be critical for understanding technology and thus material culture. We review all the cu...

  8. Bridging Cultures. Transnational Cultural Encounters in the Reception of The Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2018-01-01

    the Nordic noir phenomenon. This article deals with reception of the series in three countries (Denmark, UK and Sweden), through analysis of the demographic profile of audiences and the discourses of reception of the series in selected newspapers and on social media. Such transnational intercultural......The Danish-Swedish crime series The Bridge (2011-) is not just a European co-production involving several national funding sources. It has also created quite an active response among transnational audiences, critics, journalists and creative industry people – further expanding and consolidating...... negotiations relate to universal dimensions of stories, but also initiate a cultural encounter between ‘us and them’. The reception shows a fascination of Nordic Noir as a genre, but the transnational cultural encounters with the series also involve social, political and cultural themes and exchange...

  9. Bridging User Requirements and Cultural Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadzilias, Elias; Carugati, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    . These cases show the existence of four key issues in the development of this kind of information systems: digitisation, requirements engineering, standardisation and interoperability. The proposed framework addresses these issues focusing on the user requirements and the cultural object representation......This chapter aims at defining a framework for the design of e-Government services on cultural heritage. Starting from an analysis of three cases on digitisation of different types of cultural objects the author highlights the problems existing in the creation of e-services on cultural heritage...

  10. Using Drama as a Cultural Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, Liane

    1992-01-01

    Explains how authentic literature can be combined with dramatic techniques in a workshop format to explore culturally based experiences and perceptions. Provides an example of a workshop for teachers which used the poetry in Leslie Silko's book, "Ceremony," to explore the Native American viewpoint through drama. (KS)

  11. How We Can Bridge the Culture Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    As the cultural and experience gap between an increasingly diverse student population and predominantly white, female educators widens, schools continue to rely heavily on the pedagogies, curricula, assessments, and interventions that more effectively served a homogeneous group of educators than they do a heterogeneous student population. The…

  12. The Ecological Culture of Russian and American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaeva, P. O.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative research data show that there is both a high level of ecological concern and a high level of ecological passivity among students in Russia, indicating that their ecological culture exists only on the symbolic level. The "green" culture of American college students, in contrast to that of Russia's college students, has become…

  13. Applications Research of Microbial Ecological Preparation in Sea Cucumber Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiahui; Wang, Guangyu

    2017-12-01

    At present, micro ecological preparation is widely applied in aquaculture with good effect. The application of micro ecological preparation in sea cucumber culture can effectively improve the economic benefits. The micro ecological preparation can play the role of inhibiting harmful bacteria, purifying water quality and saving culture cost in the process of sea cucumber culture. We should select appropriate bacteria, guarantee stable environment and use with long-term in the applications of microbial ecological preparation in sea cucumber culture to obtain good effects.

  14. Bridge hosts, a missing link for disease ecology in multi-host systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alexandre; Cappelle, Julien; Cumming, Graeme S; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Gaidet, Nicolas

    2015-07-21

    In ecology, the grouping of species into functional groups has played a valuable role in simplifying ecological complexity. In epidemiology, further clarifications of epidemiological functions are needed: while host roles may be defined, they are often used loosely, partly because of a lack of clarity on the relationships between a host's function and its epidemiological role. Here we focus on the definition of bridge hosts and their epidemiological consequences. Bridge hosts provide a link through which pathogens can be transmitted from maintenance host populations or communities to receptive populations that people want to protect (i.e., target hosts). A bridge host should (1) be competent for the pathogen or able to mechanically transmit it; and (2) come into direct contact or share habitat with both maintenance and target populations. Demonstration of bridging requires an operational framework that integrates ecological and epidemiological approaches. We illustrate this framework using the example of the transmission of Avian Influenza Viruses across wild bird/poultry interfaces in Africa and discuss a range of other examples that demonstrate the usefulness of our definition for other multi-host systems. Bridge hosts can be particularly important for understanding and managing infectious disease dynamics in multi-host systems at wildlife/domestic/human interfaces, including emerging infections.

  15. Personality: bridging the literatures from human psychology and behavioural ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Penke, Lars

    2010-12-27

    The concept of personality has recently begun to attract a great deal of interest in behavioural ecology. However, there is also a large and mature literature on personality within human psychology. These two bodies of work have developed independently and at present make rather little reference to one another. The current paper has two main objectives. First, we seek to acquaint behavioural ecologists with the principal ideas and issues found in the human personality psychology literature. Second, we explore how ideas from the behavioural ecology literature might help advance research in human personality psychology. We suggest strong potential for convergence between the two literatures in the near future. Common themes of this future unified science of personality include the conception of personality traits as reaction norms, a commitment to the importance of direct measurement of behaviour, investigation of both proximate and ultimate explanations for personality variation, and a concern with the impact of personality variation on survival and reproductive success.

  16. Personality: bridging the literatures from human psychology and behavioural ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Penke, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The concept of personality has recently begun to attract a great deal of interest in behavioural ecology. However, there is also a large and mature literature on personality within human psychology. These two bodies of work have developed independently and at present make rather little reference to one another. The current paper has two main objectives. First, we seek to acquaint behavioural ecologists with the principal ideas and issues found in the human personality psychology literature. Second, we explore how ideas from the behavioural ecology literature might help advance research in human personality psychology. We suggest strong potential for convergence between the two literatures in the near future. Common themes of this future unified science of personality include the conception of personality traits as reaction norms, a commitment to the importance of direct measurement of behaviour, investigation of both proximate and ultimate explanations for personality variation, and a concern with the impact of personality variation on survival and reproductive success. PMID:21078656

  17. Cultural psychology as a bridge between anthropology and cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A

    2012-07-01

    The theory and methods of cultural psychology begin with the assumption that psychological processes are socioculturally and historically grounded. As such, they offer a new approach for understanding the diversity of human functioning because they (a) question the presumed neutrality of the majority group perspective; (b) take the target's point-of-view (i.e., what it means to be a person in a particular context); (c) assume that there is more than one viable way of being a competent or effective person; and (d) provide a road map for understanding and reducing social inequities. As illustrated in this essay, a cultural psychological approach provides a bridge between anthropology and the cognitive sciences, and in so doing it offers an alternative set of explanations and interventions for group differences. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. The Role of Cultural Astronomy in Bridging the Snow's "Two Cultures": Some Italian Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcaro, V. F.

    2015-05-01

    Cultural Astronomy can have an essential role: it can actually be of great benefit in bridging the Snow's "Two Cultures". Actually, to date, the breakdown of communication between sciences and humanities is a major hindrance to solving the problems of modern society. This work will present a number of experiences of the author in promoting the knowledge of Cultural Astronomy to teachers and students within Italian upper-schools, as well as to inhabitants of many Italian towns where important cultural heritage sites of astronomical interest are often neglected.

  19. Culturally induced range infilling of eastern redcedar: a problem in ecology, an ecological problem, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit Krug, Aubrey; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Twidwell, Dirac

    2017-01-01

    The philosopher John Passmore distinguished between (1) “problems in ecology,” or what we might call problems in scientific understanding of ecological change, and (2) “ecological problems,” or what we might call problems faced by societies due to ecological change. The spread of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) and conversion of the central and southern Great Plains of North America to juniper woodland might be categorized as a problem in ecology, an ecological problem, or both. Here, we integrate and apply two interdisciplinary approaches to problem-solving—social-ecological systems thinking and ecocriticism—to understand the role of human culture in recognizing, driving, and responding to cedar’s changing geographic distribution. We interpret the spread of cedar as a process of culturally induced range infilling due to the ongoing social-ecological impacts of colonization, analyze poetic literary texts to clarify the concepts that have so far informed different cultural values related to cedar, and explore the usefulness of diverse interdisciplinary collaborations and knowledge for addressing social-ecological challenges like cedar spread in the midst of rapidly unfolding global change. Our examination suggests that it is not only possible, but preferable, to address cedar spread as both a scientific and a social problem. Great Plains landscapes are teetering between grassland and woodland, and contemporary human societies both influence and choose how to cope with transitions between these ecological states. We echo previous studies in suggesting that human cultural values about stability and disturbance, especially cultural concepts of fire, will be primary driving factors in determining future trajectories of change on the Great Plains. Although invasion-based descriptors of cedar spread may be useful in ecological research and management, language based on the value of restraint could provide a common vocabulary for effective cross

  20. Field Ecology in a Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierling, Kerri T.; Bolman, Jacquelyn; Lane, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Ecological studies that examine how organisms interact with their environment provide a particularly useful backdrop for high school students to both quantitatively and qualitatively explore the natural world. In Hot Springs, South Dakota, the authors developed a module that integrated modern ecological theory within an American Indian cultural…

  1. Current cultures in threatening, comforting, and challenging ecologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, Evert

    2015-01-01

    Places of residence have multiple, yet largely unintegrated, cultural characteristics. Here I make a distinction between human environments that offer demanding winters or summers together with collective poverty (threatening ecologies), undemanding temperate climates irrespective of income per head

  2. Diversifying the Midwifery Workforce: Inclusivity, Culturally Sensitive Bridging, and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Holliday; Wilson-Mitchell, Karline

    2016-11-01

    Midwifery educators and regulators in Canada have begun to address diversity, equity, and inclusion in admission processes and program curricula. Populations served by midwives value internationally educated midwives from their countries of origin. The International Midwifery Pre-Registration Program at Ryerson University in Toronto, Ontario, provides assessment, midwifery workplace orientation, and accelerated education for internationally educated midwives on behalf of the regulatory College of Midwives of Ontario. Between 2003 and 2015, midwives from 41 countries participated in the bridging program, and 214 (80%) successfully completed the program and qualified for licensure. Of these 214 graduates, 100% passed the Canadian Midwifery Registration Examination and 193 (90%) were employed full time as midwives within 4 months of graduation. The program curriculum enables the integration of these midwives into health care workplaces utilizing innovative approaches to assessment and competency enhancement. Critical to the bridging process are simulation-based practices to develop effective psychomotor learning, virtual and real primary care community placements, and coaching in empathetic, client-centered communication. Cultural sensitivity is embedded into the multiple assessment and learning modalities, and addresses relevant barriers faced by immigrant midwives in the workplace. Findings from the 13 years of the program may be applicable to increase diversity in other North American midwifery settings. This article describes the process, content, outcomes, and findings of the program. Midwifery educators and regulators may consider the utility of these approaches for their settings. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  3. Importance of including cultural practices in ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehi, Priscilla M; Lord, Janice M

    2017-10-01

    Ecosystems worldwide have a long history of use and management by indigenous cultures. However, environmental degradation can reduce the availability of culturally important resources. Ecological restoration aims to repair damage to ecosystems caused by human activity, but it is unclear how often restoration projects incorporate the return of harvesting or traditional life patterns for indigenous communities. We examined the incorporation of cultural use of natural resources into ecological restoration in the context of a culturally important but protected New Zealand bird; among award-winning restoration projects in Australasia and worldwide; and in the peer-reviewed restoration ecology literature. Among New Zealand's culturally important bird species, differences in threat status and availability for hunting were large. These differences indicate the values of a colonizing culture can inhibit harvesting by indigenous people. In Australasia among award-winning ecological restoration projects, <17% involved human use of restored areas beyond aesthetic or recreational use, despite many projects encouraging community participation. Globally, restoration goals differed among regions. For example, in North America, projects were primarily conservation oriented, whereas in Asia and Africa projects frequently focused on restoring cultural harvesting. From 1995 to 2014, the restoration ecology literature contained few references to cultural values or use. We argue that restoration practitioners are missing a vital component for reassembling functional ecosystems. Inclusion of sustainably harvestable areas within restored landscapes may allow for the continuation of traditional practices that shaped ecosystems for millennia, and also aid project success by ensuring community support. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Priming effect: bridging the gap between terrestrial and aquatic ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenet, Bertrand; Danger, Michael; Abbadie, Luc; Lacroix, Gérard

    2010-10-01

    Understanding how ecosystems store or release carbon is one of ecology's greatest challenges in the 21st century. Organic matter covers a large range of chemical structures and qualities, and it is classically represented by pools of different recalcitrance to degradation. The interaction effects of these pools on carbon cycling are still poorly understood and are most often ignored in global-change models. Soil scientists have shown that inputs of labile organic matter frequently tend to increase, and often double, the mineralization of the more recalcitrant organic matter. The recent revival of interest for this phenomenon, named the priming effect, did not cross the frontiers of the disciplines. In particular, the priming effect phenomenon has been almost totally ignored by the scientific communities studying marine and continental aquatic ecosystems. Here we gather several arguments, experimental results, and field observations that strongly support the hypothesis that the priming effect is a general phenomenon that occurs in various terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. For example, the increase in recalcitrant organic matter mineralization rate in the presence of labile organic matter ranged from 10% to 500% in six studies on organic matter degradation in aquatid ecosystems. Consequently, the recalcitrant organic matter mineralization rate may largely depend on labile organic matter availability, influencing the CO2 emissions of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. We suggest that (1) recalcitrant organic matter may largely contribute to the CO2 emissions of aquatic ecosystems through the priming effect, and (2) priming effect intensity may be modified by global changes, interacting with eutrophication processes and atmospheric CO2 increases. Finally, we argue that the priming effect acts substantially in the carbon and nutrient cycles in all ecosystems. We outline exciting avenues for research, which could provide new insights on the responses

  5. METHODIC OF UPBRINGING ECOLOGICAL CULTURE OF TEENAGERS WITH MEANS OF CURRICULAR AND EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Abaturov Eugeny Igorevich

    2012-01-01

    Ecological culture is understood today as intellectual and moral basis of stable community. In accordance with it the purpose of study is upbringing ecological culture, which is most meaningful at the secondary school because of teenagers’ age appropriate. Teenagers’ ecological culture is considered by the author as developing personal education, including the system of ecological knowledge, ecological activities, ecological consciousness and ecological world view. Upbringing ecological cultu...

  6. On Building Bridges: Cultural Agnosia, HipHopEd, and Urban Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lens for engaging in research and practice in urban education rooted in deep cultural understandings of the concept of building bridges and the impact of cultural agnosia.

  7. FORMATION OF ECOLOGICAL AWARENESS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CULTURE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Snisar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the important problem of searching and introducing innovative forms and methods of ecological upbringing and environmental education in the educational process of the medical educational establishment. Medical workers first face the negative impact of environmental problems on human health, therefore formation of high level of their environmental awareness and culture, ability to apply knowledge of medical ecology while performing their professional duties is an important condition for their qualitative vocational training. The aim of the article is to analyze the benefits of creating an environmental squad in the medical educational establishment with a purpose to create a high level of the studets’ environmental awareness, environmental culture and expositive behavior. The experience of the environmental squad Cherkasy medical academy to attract students to the ecological and elucidative and environmental protection, scientific research ecologically oriented. Effective methods and forms of environmental squad’s work in spreading ecological knowledge are characterized, the main topics of scientific research work are presented. Stages of forming ecological awareness and ecological culture of future doctors have been analyzed, while working in the environmental squad, from expanding and systematization of ecological knowledge to the development of ecological style of thinking and environmentally safe behavior. The results of the study led to the conclusion that activity of such structure as an ecological squad in the medical educational establishment provides improved ecological upbringing and environmental education and allows training of medical specialists, who understand the danger of a complicated ecological situation for human health, will promote healthy lifestyle, help reduce the negative impact of harmful factors on the health of patients, as well as a conscious citizen, which is a patriot of his country, take

  8. Art and artistic processes bridge knowledge systems about social-ecological change: An empirical examination with Inuit artists from Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn J. Rathwell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of art and artistic processes is one fruitful yet underexplored area of social-ecological resilience. Art and art making can nurture Indigenous knowledge and at the same time bridge knowledge across generations and cultures (e.g., Inuit and scientific. Experiences in two Inuit communities in northern Canada (Cape Dorset and Pangnirtung, Nunavut provide the context in which we empirically examine the mechanisms through which art and art making may bridge knowledge systems about social-ecological change. Art making and artworks create continuity between generations via symbols and skill development (e.g., seal skin stretching for a modern artistic mural and by creating mobile and adaptive boundary objects that function as a shared reference point to connect different social worlds. Our results indicate how art and artistic processes may bridge knowledge systems through six mechanisms, and in so doing contribute to social-ecological resilience during change and uncertainty. These mechanisms are (1 embedding knowledge, practice and belief into art objects; (2 sharing knowledge using the language of art; (3 sharing of art making skills; (4 art as a contributor to monitoring social-ecological change; (5 the role of art in fostering continuity through time; and (6 art as a site of knowledge coproduction.

  9. Cultural Keystone Species: Implications for Ecological Conservation and Restoration

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    Ann Garibaldi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists have long recognized that some species, by virtue of the key roles they play in the overall structure and functioning of an ecosystem, are essential to its integrity; these are known as keystone species. Similarly, in human cultures everywhere, there are plants and animals that form the contextual underpinnings of a culture, as reflected in their fundamental roles in diet, as materials, or in medicine. In addition, these species often feature prominently in the language, ceremonies, and narratives of native peoples and can be considered cultural icons. Without these "cultural keystone species," the societies they support would be completely different. An obvious example is western red-cedar (Thuja plicata for Northwest Coast cultures of North America. Often prominent elements of local ecosystems, cultural keystone species may be used and harvested in large quantities and intensively managed for quality and productivity. Given that biological conservation and ecological restoration embody human cultures as crucial components, one approach that may improve success in overall conservation or restoration efforts is to recognize and focus on cultural keystone species. In this paper, we explore the concept of cultural keystone species, describe similarities to and differences from ecological keystone species, present examples from First Nations cultures of British Columbia, and discuss the application of this concept in ecological restoration and conservation initiatives.

  10. Thermodynamics, ecology and evolutionary biology: A bridge over troubled water or common ground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skene, Keith R.

    2017-11-01

    This paper addresses a key issue confronting ecological and evolutionary biology, namely the challenge of a cohesive approach to these fields given significant differences in the concepts and foundations of their study. Yet these two areas of scientific research are paramount in terms addressing the spatial and temporal dynamics and distribution of diversity, an understanding of which is needed if we are to resolve the current crisis facing the biosphere. The importance of understanding how nature responds to change is now of essential rather than of metaphysical interest as our planet struggles with increasing anthropogenic damage. Ecology and evolutionary biology can no longer remain disjointed. While some progress has been made in terms of synthetic thinking across these areas, this has often been in terms of bridge building, where thinking in one aspect is extended over to the other side. We review these bridges and the success or otherwise of such efforts. This paper then suggests that in order to move from a descriptive to a mechanistic understanding of the biosphere, we may need to re-evaluate our approach to the studies of ecology and evolutionary biology, finding a common denominator that will enable us to address the critical issues facing us, particularly in terms of understanding what drives change, what determines tempo and how communities function. Common ground, we argue, is essential if we are to comprehend how resilience operates in the natural world and how diversification can counter increasing extinction rates. This paper suggests that thermodynamics may provide a bridge between ecology and evolutionary biology, and that this will enable us to move forward with otherwise intractable problems.

  11. Political Cultural Ecology and the Study of Regions in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábregas Puig, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows why Cultural Ecology, understood as a method to explore the relationships between the environment and cultural processes, has deeply influenced a whole generation of Mexican anthropologists as a result of the teachings of Ángel Palerm and Eric Wolf. The practical application of Steward’s theories to the processes of Mexican regional formation, linked to the use of hydraulic technologies as part of both adaptative cultural strategies and the political control of water in the process of food production, shows that Cultural Ecology, understood as cultural management of natural environments, as it happens with Economy, is designed and politically manipulated in the context of deeply unequal societies with unadaptative consequences.

    El artículo muestra por qué la ecología cultural, entendida como un método para indagar en las relaciones entre el medio ambiente y los procesos culturales ha arraigado en una generación de antropólogos mexicanos como consecuencia del magisterio de Ángel Palerm y Eric Wolf. La aplicación práctica de las teorías de Steward a los procesos de formación regional mexicana vinculados a usos políticos de tecnologías hidráulicas como parte, tanto de estrategias culturales de adaptación como de control político del agua en el proceso de producción de alimentos, ha puesto de manifiesto que la ecología cultural, entendida como manejo cultural de entornos naturales, al igual que la economía, es diseñada y manejada políticamente en el contexto de sociedades profundamente desiguales con consecuencias maladaptantes.

  12. Bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, W.

    2017-01-01

    We estimate to what extent bridges in Mozambique lead to transport cost reductions and attribute these reductions to key determinants, in particular road distance, road quality and crossing borders. For identification we exploit the introduction of a road bridge over the Zambezi river, in August

  13. The Cultural Ecology Protection and Management of Urban Forests in China

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, Ying; SONG, Weiming; CHEN, Ke; GUO, Chunjing

    2013-01-01

    Forests have economic, ecological, social and cultural functions. Forests Cultural ecology, the counterpart of forest ecology, is the integration of human spirit formed on the basis of natural forest and living systems. In recent years, China's urbanization rate has increased from 28% in 1993 to 45.68% in 2008, and ecological protection of urban forest has made great progress, but insufficient attention was paid to the forest cultural ecology protection and the relevant regulatory was not w...

  14. Cultural Studies and Media Ecology: Meyrowitz's Medium Theory and Carey's Cultural Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayhan, Donna P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines work of two communication and media studies scholars, Joshua Meyrowitz and James Carey. Suggests their studies represent media ecology with analyses of the dynamic interaction between communication, consciousness, and culture. Highlights how their work embodies a North American cultural studies approach to media studies (moving away from…

  15. Interdisciplinary Art Education: Building Bridges to Connect Disciplines and Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokrocki, Mary, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of discipline-based art education has been transformed into new avenues for teaching and learning that require an array of bridges to traverse creating new approaches and settings for art teaching and learning. The concept of interdisciplinary learning is one that should be scrutinized closely and research and practical applications…

  16. Introductory biology and ecological literacy: A critical cultural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Joseph Damian

    Despite the lack of accepted standards for the introductory biology course for students majoring in biology, the content and format of the first-year biology course is remarkably uniform in terms of both curriculum and pedagogy. This investigation is a critical cultural analysis of the purpose of, and practices within, undergraduate biology education in general, and the introductory biology course in particular. Drawing on a theoretical framework that combines critical philosophical inquiry, ecological literacy, science studies, and cultural studies, I argue that the failure of biology educators within the university to acknowledge the diversity of their student body and to actively engage social and ecological issues has resulted in a curriculum that has almost no meaning for students, and that is socially and ecologically irresponsible. This work is a search for meaningful alternatives. Within this work, I attempt to provide biology educators, as well as would-be reformers, with a seldom-seen view of academic biology. This is done to unsettle the status quo, and to initiate processes of seeking out spaces for change. Through the discourses of critical pedagogy and ecological literacy I examine the laboratories, lecture halls, teaching practices, and course materials that students encounter as they experience "the study of life." Additionally, I place the genesis and evolution of the introductory biology course within the sociohistorical context of reform in science education and academic biology in an effort to explain the amazing and problematic stability of this course.

  17. Establishing the Boundaries and Building Bridges: Research Methods Into the Ecology of the Refugee Parenting Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nombasa Williams

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the suitability of the focus group method for conducting research early in post-resettlement among refugee parents and carers in South Australia. This method was employed to uncover the refugee parenting experience in pre-resettlement contexts. There were three refugee focus groups, consisting of a Sudanese women’s group, an African men’s group, and an Afghani and Iraqi women’s group. To illustrate each group’s differential parenting ecologies in milieus of forced migration ecological matrixes were devised which are presented in the results section. An ecological matrix was also developed to unpack, code and analyse transcripts. The matrix was designed to include categories and actions so as to construct meaning units and subsequent condensed meaning units to determine the concluding themes. These provided an analytical framework with which to illuminate the constructed meanings participants attributed to their refugee parenting experiences. The findings provide insights into the ecology of the refugee parenting experience and might be of considerable importance for Australian resettlement services and state systems of child protection seeking to develop culturally appropriate and relevant services.

  18. The role of leadership in bridging the cultural divide within university-industry cooperative research centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdad, Maral; Bogers, Marcel; Piccaluga, Andrea

    deeply investigated. In order to advance our understanding in this context, our multiple case study addresses the question of how leadership bridges the cultural divide within university-industry joint laboratories. Our results are derived from 53 in-depth interviews with laboratory directors......The purpose of this study is to understand the role of leadership in bridging the cultural gap within university-industry cooperative research centres. Many different aspects of university-industry collaborations have been researched, but the role of leadership in such organizations has not been...... by distributed leadership practices at the collective level as being crucial in bridging the cultural divide between individuals within university-industry research centres. Our qualitative analysis draws on an analytical framework for leadership of university-industry cooperative research centres. Our findings...

  19. Extraordinary sex ratios: cultural effects on ecological consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Molnár

    Full Text Available We model sex-structured population dynamics to analyze pairwise competition between groups differing both genetically and culturally. A sex-ratio allele is expressed in the heterogametic sex only, so that assumptions of Fisher's analysis do not apply. Sex-ratio evolution drives cultural evolution of a group-associated trait governing mortality in the homogametic sex. The two-sex dynamics under resource limitation induces a strong Allee effect that depends on both sex ratio and cultural trait values. We describe the resulting threshold, separating extinction from positive growth, as a function of female and male densities. When initial conditions avoid extinction due to the Allee effect, different sex ratios cannot coexist; in our model, greater female allocation always invades and excludes a lesser allocation. But the culturally transmitted trait interacts with the sex ratio to determine the ecological consequences of successful invasion. The invading female allocation may permit population persistence at self-regulated equilibrium. For this case, the resident culture may be excluded, or may coexist with the invader culture. That is, a single sex-ratio allele in females and a cultural dimorphism in male mortality can persist; a low-mortality resident trait is maintained by father-to-son cultural transmission. Otherwise, the successfully invading female allocation excludes the resident allele and culture and then drives the population to extinction via a shortage of males. Finally, we show that the results obtained under homogeneous mixing hold, with caveats, in a spatially explicit model with local mating and diffusive dispersal in both sexes.

  20. Bridging the Language and Cultural Gaps: The Use of Blogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Soraya; Rojas-Lizana, Sol

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate how the use of an online journal, a bilingual blog, can contribute to filling in the language and cultural gaps of foreign language learners. This case study focuses on the participation, interaction, motivation, language acquisition, feedback and cultural input improved by students of Spanish as a Foreign Language…

  1. Celebrity culture and public connection: bridge or chasm?

    OpenAIRE

    Couldry, N.; Markham, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Media and cultural research has an important contribution to make to recent debates about declines in democratic engagement: is for example celebrity culture a route into democratic engagement for those otherwise disengaged? This article contributes to this debate by reviewing qualitative and quantitative findings from a UK project on 'public connection'. Using self-produced diaries (with in-depth multiple interviews) as well as a nationwide survey, the authors argue that while celebrity cult...

  2. Seeing Cooperation or Competition: Ecological Interactions in Cultural Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojalehto, Bethany L; Medin, Douglas L; Horton, William S; Garcia, Salino G; Kays, Estefano G

    2015-10-01

    Do cultural models facilitate particular ways of perceiving interactions in nature? We explore variability in folkecological principles of reasoning about interspecies interactions (specifically, competitive or cooperative). In two studies, Indigenous Panamanian Ngöbe and U.S. participants interpreted an illustrated, wordless nonfiction book about the hunting relationship between a coyote and badger. Across both studies, the majority of Ngöbe interpreted the hunting relationship as cooperative and the majority of U.S. participants as competitive. Study 2 showed that this pattern may reflect different beliefs about, and perhaps different awareness of, plausible interspecies interactions. Further probes suggest that these models of ecological interaction correlate with recognition of social agency (e.g., communication, morality) in nonhuman animals. We interpret our results in terms of cultural models of nature and nonhuman agency. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. Bridging the cultural gap : Bible translation as a case in point | Nord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They have been translated and re-translated many times during the past (almost) 2000 years and into almost all languages on the planet. In spite of that, we do not always feel that the cultural gap has really been bridged. Does this justify yet another translation? Together with my husband, Klaus Berger, who is a New ...

  4. Foundations of Socio-Cultural Ecology: Consequences for Media Education and Mobile Learning in Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Rummler

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual paper offers insights to the foundations of Socio-Cultural Ecology and relates this concept to traditional concepts of Ecology e.g. media ecology or Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model of child development. It will further discuss the term «ecology» as a relation between learners and their surrounding physical and structural world, e. g. an ecology of resources or the classroom as an ecological system. Thirdly more recent concepts in ecology will be considered e. g. Digital Medi...

  5. Ecological and valeological culture of future teacher: self-analisys of its completeness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boychuk Yu. D; Ziomenko S.K

    2012-01-01

    .... A component foresees developed the capacity of future teacher for an analysis and self-examination of formed to ecological and valeological culture, self-control and self-appraisal own, ecological...

  6. Bridging the gap between policy and administration of cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This institution is charged with the responsibility of preserving, protecting and promoting the state's arts and cultural heritage that are deemed as valuable, and also (re)presenting these artistic expressions as identity markers to the local communities, the Nigerian nation and the international audiences. The research findings ...

  7. Bridging the Two Cultures: Disciplinary Divides and Educational Reward Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiferl, E. I.

    2007-01-01

    In 1959 C.P. Snow believed that communication and education could span the cultural gap between the sciences and the humanities. In the twenty-first century, language, research models, and academic structures hinder intellectual communication between art history, cognitive neuroscience and perceptual psychology--three disciplines dedicated to…

  8. Bridging the Cultural Gap by Teaching Multicultural Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu Ren

    2005-01-01

    As multicultural literature has made its way into the English curriculum, it has challenged teachers' thinking about curriculum and instruction and urged them to expand their teaching repertoire to include a cultural-response approach to literature instruction. This article reports on a group of secondary English teachers' exploration and…

  9. Microbial ecology and starter culture technology in coffee processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinícius de Melo Pereira, Gilberto; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Neto, Ensei; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-09-02

    Coffee has been for decades the most commercialized food product and most widely consumed beverage in the world, with over 600 billion cups served per year. Before coffee cherries can be traded and processed into a final industrial product, they have to undergo postharvest processing on farms, which have a direct impact on the cost and quality of a coffee. Three different methods can be used for transforming the coffee cherries into beans, known as wet, dry, and semi-dry methods. In all these processing methods, a spontaneous fermentation is carried out in order to eliminate any mucilage still stuck to the beans and helps improve beverage flavor by microbial metabolites. The microorganisms responsible for the fermentation (e.g., yeasts and lactic acid bacteria) can play a number of roles, such as degradation of mucilage (pectinolytic activity), inhibition of mycotoxin-producing fungi growth, and production of flavor-active components. The use of starter cultures (mainly yeast strains) has emerged in recent years as a promising alternative to control the fermentation process and to promote quality development of coffee product. However, scarce information is still available about the effects of controlled starter cultures in coffee fermentation performance and bean quality, making it impossible to use this technology in actual field conditions. A broader knowledge about the ecology, biochemistry, and molecular biology could facilitate the understanding and application of starter cultures for coffee fermentation process. This review provides a comprehensive coverage of these issues, while pointing out new directions for exploiting starter cultures in coffee processing.

  10. Collaborative learning to unlock investments for functional ecological infrastructure: Bridging barriers in social-ecological systems in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Angelstam, P

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Marsh A Polonsky S Richardson DM Rivers N Shackleton RT Stafford, William ABSTRACT: Maintenance of functional ecological (or green) infrastructure is threatened by habitat conversion, fragmentation and loss, water scarcity, invasive species...

  11. Resilience Pivots: Stability and Identity in a Social-Ecological-Cultural System

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie J. Rotarangi; Janet Stephenson

    2014-01-01

    How is cultural resilience achieved in the face of significant social and ecological change? Is resilience compatible with changed structures, functions, and feedbacks as long as identity is maintained? The concept of cultural resilience has been less explored than its older siblings ecological resilience, social resilience, and social-ecological resilience. We seek to redress the balance, drawing from resilience thinking to examine how a New Zealand Māori tribal group of landowners retaine...

  12. Landscape Ecology and problems of European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Parallel to a growing global cooperation among landscape ecologists, different regional trends within landscape ecology seems to arise, related to different geographical and historical conditions. Modern landscape ecology in Europe has developed as an interdisciplinary activity inspired by practi...

  13. Latino English Language Learners: Bridging Achievement and Cultural Gaps between Schools and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Mary Ellen; Masewicz, Sophia; Vogel, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study grounded in critical inquiry and cultural-ecological theory explores barriers to academic achievement for Latino English language learners (ELLs). Parents and teachers were purposefully selected from a rural school district in the Rocky Mountain region to participate in focus group interviews. Findings included barriers…

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF ECOLOGICAL CULTURE OF STUDENTS IN THE PROCESS OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Andryukhina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. High level of ecological culture in modern society is the most important condition of self-preservation and sustainable development of a human civilization. The processes of globalization force to consider environmental problems with a support on polycultural practice, to take into account national and regional peculiarities in their integrity. Thus, there is the need of the international cooperation not only at the government level, but also at the levels of expert communities, separate groups of society and citizens of the country. Moreover, ecological culture is constantly highlighted in numerous studies, materials and documents of the international forums, summits and conferences of the UN and UNESCO. The aim of this publication is to present the authors’ didactic complex of development tools of ecological culture of students, and to show the potential of teaching foreign languages (on the example of French for students’ ecological culture formation by means of development of cross-cultural communicative competence.  Methodology and research methods. Culturological approach has been chosen as a key approach for creation of integrative model of development of ecological culture. The methods involve: the system-based analysis of the content of ecological education; generalization of the theory and practice of implementation of the international strategies of ecological culture development and the analysis of efficiency of the pedagogical technologies intended for this purpose; modeling of the process of formation of ecological culture of students. The diagnostics of components of students’ ecological culture has been performed by means of internal questioning, observation, and comparative analysis of group interactions. Also, pedagogical ascertaining experiments, methods of pedagogical design for forms of the educational environment organization, design of the educational programmes, and methods of graphical

  15. Bridging Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Susan

    2005-01-01

    This brief article tells the story of one young man's complicated history and background that was turned around for the better through his involvement with the YMCA Youth Institute and a camp providing team-building exercises, and in-depth instruction in digital arts skills, such as how to edit photos with Adobe Photoshop and create 3D animations…

  16. Ecological and valeological culture of future teacher: self-analisys of its completeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boychuk Yu. D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical ground is presented reflection-evaluation component to ecological and valeological cultures of future teacher. A component foresees developed the capacity of future teacher for an analysis and self-examination of formed to ecological and valeological culture, self-control and self-appraisal own, ecological and valeological conduct, his comprehension and self-regulation. It is marked that reflection mechanisms operate at formation of primary and auxiliary purposes. Directions of achievement a purpose are recommended to ecological and valeological to activity. Attention is accented on technologies of verification of knowledge, ability and skills.

  17. Bridging food webs, ecosystem metabolism, and biogeochemistry using ecological stoichiometry theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welti, Nina; Striebel, Maren; Ulseth, Amber J.

    2017-01-01

    stoichiometry is important for both biogeochemical and ecological research. Nonetheless, assessments of ecological stoichiometry (ES) often focus on the elemental content of biota rather than taking a more holistic view by examining both elemental pools and fluxes (e. g., organismal stoichiometry and ecosystem...

  18. Bridges across the Racial Digital Divide: Residential Ecology of Internet Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Fong

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Our paper extends the study of residential ecology to understand social changes, specifically the adoption of Internet use. We suggest that the residential ecology of the metropolitan area, in addition to household socioeconomic factors, should be considered in understanding Internet use. The centripetal dimension of residential ecology, represented by residential isolation and the spatial concentration of the poor, and the centrifugal dimension of residential ecology, reflected by residential interaction of groups, are important to understanding the digital divide among racial groups. Based on the August 2000 Current Population Survey Computer and Internet Use Supplement, our results demonstrate that residential ecology is important to understanding the digital divide of groups, especially groups with low rates of Internet use, i.e., blacks and Hispanics. Implications are discussed.

  19. Sampling in ecology and evolution - bridging the gap between theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, C.H.; Yoccoz, N.G.; Edwards, T.C.; Graham, C.H.; Zimmermann, N.E.; Thuiller, W.

    2010-01-01

    Sampling is a key issue for answering most ecological and evolutionary questions. The importance of developing a rigorous sampling design tailored to specific questions has already been discussed in the ecological and sampling literature and has provided useful tools and recommendations to sample and analyse ecological data. However, sampling issues are often difficult to overcome in ecological studies due to apparent inconsistencies between theory and practice, often leading to the implementation of simplified sampling designs that suffer from unknown biases. Moreover, we believe that classical sampling principles which are based on estimation of means and variances are insufficient to fully address many ecological questions that rely on estimating relationships between a response and a set of predictor variables over time and space. Our objective is thus to highlight the importance of selecting an appropriate sampling space and an appropriate sampling design. We also emphasize the importance of using prior knowledge of the study system to estimate models or complex parameters and thus better understand ecological patterns and processes generating these patterns. Using a semi-virtual simulation study as an illustration we reveal how the selection of the space (e.g. geographic, climatic), in which the sampling is designed, influences the patterns that can be ultimately detected. We also demonstrate the inefficiency of common sampling designs to reveal response curves between ecological variables and climatic gradients. Further, we show that response-surface methodology, which has rarely been used in ecology, is much more efficient than more traditional methods. Finally, we discuss the use of prior knowledge, simulation studies and model-based designs in defining appropriate sampling designs. We conclude by a call for development of methods to unbiasedly estimate nonlinear ecologically relevant parameters, in order to make inferences while fulfilling requirements of

  20. Forming ecological culture of students in teaching inverse problems for the differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Семенович Корнилов

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In article the attention to formation of ecological culture of students of physical and mathematical specialties of higher education institutions when training in the inverse problems for the differential equations is paid. Examples of educational tasks in the course of which decision students get skills of logical reasonings of ecological character are given.

  1. A Dialogic Vaccine to Bridge Opposing Cultural Viewpoints Based on Bakhtin's Views on Dialogue and Estrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    Today, we face global conflicts between opposing ideologies that may be described in terms of cultural viewpoints and value judgments. It is difficult for individuals to determine whether ideologies are right or wrong because each ideology has its own worldview and sense of justice. Psychologists have an urgent mission to defuse the likelihood of fatal clashes between opposing cultural perspectives (ideologies), and to propose paradigms for peaceful coexistence. This paper examines the series of papers (Oh, Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 51, 2017; Sakakibara, Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 51, 2017; Watanabe, Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 51, 2017) contributed to this volume that investigate the effects of high school and university educational programs promoting productive dialogue aimed at bridging, or transcending, conflicting perspectives among Japanese, Chinese, and Korean students. Here, I have evaluated the capacity of these educational programs to coordinate opposing cultural ideologies using the framework of Bakhtin's theories of dialogue and estrangement. Bakhtin viewed discourse with others who had opposing viewpoints as an opportunity to learn to overcome the one-sidedness of ideology, which ensues from automatic value judgments made by each speaker according to their culture, and he affirmed the value of flexible attitudes toward opposing viewpoints. In this paper, I review Bakhtin's theories relating to communication in a context of different cultural viewpoints, assess the general values of the educational practices mentioned above, and propose new concepts for applying these methods to other educational fields in the future using Bakhtin's theoretical viewpoints.

  2. Bridging Cultural Borders: American Students’ Pedagogical Cross-Cultural Experiences in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Greene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In exploring the best practices for preparing new teachers to meet the challenges of the changing demographics present in contemporary classrooms, cross-cultural internship experiences emerge as an important component to teacher training curriculums. The authors present information based on the experiences of American student teachers spending three weeks teaching English and American Culture in Szent István’s Practice School, making presentations to local clubs, churches, libraries, and traveling throughout Hungary. This exchange program presented a great opportunity for the authors to conduct a study related to exploring the impact of the student teaching abroad experience in their teaching dispositions as well as in developing an understanding of working within a culturally and linguistically diverse environment.

  3. An anthropology of learning on nested frictions in cultural ecologies

    CERN Document Server

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    This book has one explicit purpose: to present a new theory of cultural learning in organisations which combines practice-based learning with cultural models - a cognitive anthropological schema theory of taken-for-granted connections - tied to the everyday meaningful use of artefacts. The understanding of culture as emerging in a process of learning open up for new understandings, which is useful for researchers, practitioners and students interested in dynamic studies of culture and cultural studies of organisations. The new approach goes beyond culture as a static, essentialist entity and open for our possibility to learn in organisations across national cultures, across ethnicity and across the apparently insurmountable local educational differences which makes it difficult for people to communicate working together in an increasingly globalized world. The empirical examples are mainly drawn from organisations of education and science which are melting-pots of cultural encounters.

  4. La convergencia cultural a través de la ecología de medios Understanding Cultural Convergence through Media Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Islas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Antes de Internet cada medio de comunicación tenía funciones y mercados perfectamente definidos. Sin embargo, a consecuencia del formidable desarrollo de Internet y de las comunicaciones digitales, el mismo contenido hoy puede circular a través de distintos medios de comunicación. Esa es la convergencia cultural. El relato transmediático anticipa el advenimiento de nuevos mercados de consumo cultural. Con base en la ecología de medios y particularmente considerando las tesis de Marshall McLuhan, Neil Postman y Henry Jenkins, es analizada la convergencia cultural como complejo ambiente comunicativo. La convergencia cultural modifica los procedimientos de operación de las industrias mediáticas. Los cambios más significativos, sin embargo, se presentan en las comunidades de conocimiento. Before the Internet, the different media had specifically defined functions and markets. However, since the emergence of the Internet and digital communication, the same content can be found right across the media; this is known as cultural convergence. This media crossing anticipates the coming of new markets of cultural consumption. Based on media ecology, with specific reference to the thesis developed by Marshall McLuhan, Neil Postman, and Henry Jenkins, cultural convergence is studied as a complex communication environment. Cultural convergence modifies the operative procedures of media industries. However, the most significant changes can be found within the knowledge communities.

  5. Barriers and Bridges to the Integration of Social-ecological Resilience and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a fundamental rift between how ecologists and lawyers view uncertainty. In the study of ecology, uncertainty is a catalyst for exploration. However, uncertainty is antithetical to the rule of law. This issue is particularly troubling in environmental management, where th...

  6. Landscape services as a bridge between landscape ecology and sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termorshuizen, J.W.; Opdam, P.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Landscape ecology is in a position to become the scientific basis for sustainable landscape development. When spatial planning policy is decentralised, local actors need to collaborate to decide on the changes that have to be made in the landscape to better accommodate their perceptions of value.

  7. THE ROLE OF THE FAMILY EDUCATION IN THE FORMATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL ECOLOGICAL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Novoselova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to one of the most pressing problems affecting multiple aspects of modern social life – the formation of value attitudes towards nature. The article discovers the concepts of ecological culture, ecological consciousness, ecological education. The main agents of ecological socialization, the difficulties the ecological culture formation in Russian society are being analyzed. The necessity of protecting environment is substantiated, especially considering the conditions marked by mankindreaching the stage of development when the relations between nature and society may lead to ecological crisis.The main attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of one of the main agents of environmental education of the individual – the family, which is most capable of inculcating environmental behavioral stereotypes, environmental norms and rules of behavior. Family and its members are child’s primary environment, hence it plays an essential role in child’s life and are obliged to teach children not only what and how you can take from nature, but also what they need to give it. The author of the article states that in contemporary Russia parents’ opportunities to foster ecological culture among their children are limited due to the fact that they do not always have sufficient knowledge and skills, which in its turn is caused by lack of culture aimed at preserving environment. This leads to ecological infantilism of the future generations.The empirical base of the work is the research of the Public Opinion Fund, the All Russian Center for the Study of Public Opinion, the Analytical Center of Yuri Levada and the World Health Organization.This article will be of interest to specialists in the fields of social ecology, environmental sociology, family sociology, ecology and nature management, as well as a wide range of readers interested in environmental issues. The materials of the article will be useful to employees of

  8. Jakarta socio-cultural ecology: a sustainable architecture concept in urban neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaksono, Sigit; Sasmoko; Indrianti, Y.; Widhoyoko, SA

    2017-12-01

    As a metropolitan city with densely populated and fast residential development Jakarta should be able to implement a concept that is Jakarta socio-cultural ecology Architecture as the basis of settlement development. The concept of Jakarta socio-cultural ecology architecture is characterized by residential development capabilities that reflect and express the indigenous culture, the settlements built by linking the social and economic activities of the people of Jakarta and the settlements built by maintaining the building with the value of existing heritage. The objectives of this research are 1) to find a relevant construct to housing condition in Jakarta which then called Jakarta socio-cultural ecology, and 2) to see the tendency of complex condition of Jakarta socio-cultural ecology settlement. This research uses Neuroresearch method, which is one of mix-method research method as a mixture research method between qualitative research (exploration) and quantitative research method (explanatory and confirmatory). The population of research as well as unit analysis are all settlements in Jakarta. Sampling technique using probability sampling that is with multistage sampling. The results show that nowadays the Jakarta residential complex tends to lead to socio-cultural ecology and rather reflects and expresses the indigenous culture, the residential complex in Jakarta tends to form the building has been linked fully with the social and economic activities of Jakarta society but tends to occasionally maintain buildings with existing heritage values. This study also found that indigenous culture is a significant determinant of the formation of the condition of Jakarta socio-cultural ecology.

  9. Ubiquitous Mobility with Mobile Phones: A Cultural Ecology for Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, John; Pachler, Norbert; Bachmair, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that mobile phones should be viewed as new cultural resources that operate within an individualized, mobile and convergent mass communication; such a recognition facilitates the options for a cultural ecology. A particular challenge here is to find adequate curricular functions in school where the inclusion of these new…

  10. Under niche construction: An operational bridge between ecology, evolution, and ecosystem science

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews Blake; De Meester L.; Jones C.G; Ibelings B.W; Bouma T.J.; Nuutinen V.; Van De Koppel J; Odling-Smee J

    2014-01-01

    All living organisms modify their biotic and abiotic environment. Niche construction theory posits that organism-mediated modifications to the environment can change selection pressures and influence the evolutionary trajectories of natural populations. While there is broad support for this proposition in general, there is considerable uncertainty about how niche construction is related to other similar concepts in ecology and evolution. Comparative studies dealing with certain aspects of nic...

  11. Culturally grounded indicators of resilience in social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleanor Sterling; Tamara Ticktin; Tē Kipa Kepa Morgan; Georgina Cullman; Diana Alvira; Pelika Andrade; Nadia Bergamini; Erin Betley; Kate Burrows; Sophie Caillon; Joachim Claudet; Rachel Dacks; Pablo Eyzaguirre; Chris Filardi; Nadav Gazit; Christian Giardina; Stacy Jupiter; Kealohanuiopuna Kinney; Joe McCarter; Manuel Mejia; Kanoe Morishige; Jennifer Newell; Lihla Noori; John Parks; Pua‘ala Pascua; Ashwin Ravikumar; Jamie Tanguay; Amanda Sigouin; Tina Stege; Mark Stege; Alaka Wali

    2017-01-01

    Measuring progress toward sustainability goals is a multifaceted task. International, regional, and national organizations and agencies seek to promote resilience and capacity for adaptation at local levels. However, their measurement systems may be poorly aligned with local contexts, cultures, and needs. Understanding how to build effective, culturally grounded...

  12. Parenting Practices in Cultural Context: An Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnegar, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Despite general consensus that parenting practices influence the developmental processes of children, many questions about the impacts of parenting practices on child development within the cultural context remain unanswered. This article presents how cultural templates influence parenting practices and developmental processes of young children.…

  13. Ecological Knowledge Among Communities, Managers and Scientists: Bridging Divergent Perspectives to Improve Forest Management Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Lucy; Shackleton, Charlie; Gadamus, Lily; Chapin, F Stuart; Gowda, C Made; Setty, Siddappa; Kannan, Ramesh; Shaanker, R Uma

    2016-04-01

    Multiple actors are typically involved in forest management, namely communities, managers and researchers. In such cases, suboptimal management outcomes may, in addition to other factors, be symptomatic of a divergence in perspectives among these actors driven by fundamental differences in ecological knowledge. We examine the degree of congruence between the understandings of actors surrounding key issues of management concern in three case studies from tropical, subtropical and boreal forests. We identify commonly encountered points of divergence in ecological knowledge relating to key management processes and issues. We use these to formulate seven hypotheses about differences in the bodies of knowledge that frequently underlie communication and learning failures in forest management contexts where multiple actors are involved and outcomes are judged to be suboptimal. Finally, we present a set of propositions to acknowledge and narrow these differences. A more complete recognition of the full triangulation between all actors involved, and of the influence that fundamental differences in ecological knowledge can exert, may help lead to a more fruitful integration between local knowledge and practice, manager knowledge and practice, and contemporary science in forest management.

  14. Bridges across the Racial Digital Divide: Residential Ecology of Internet Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao, Xingshan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishOur paper extends the study of residential ecology to understand social changes, specificallythe adoption of Internet use. We suggest that the residential ecology of the metropolitan area,in addition to household socioeconomic factors, should be considered in understanding Internetuse. The centripetal dimension of residential ecology, represented by residential isolationand the spatial concentration of the poor, and the centrifugal dimension of residential ecology,reflected by residential interaction of groups, are important to understanding the digitaldivide among racial groups. Based on the August 2000 Current Population Survey Computerand Internet Use Supplement, our results demonstrate that residential ecology is important tounderstanding the digital divide of groups, especially groups with low rates of Internet use,i.e., blacks and Hispanics. Implications are discussed.FrenchNotre article a étendu l’étude de l’écologie résidentielle dans le but de comprendre les changementssociaux; et spécialement l’adoption de l’utilisation d’internet. Nous suggérons quel’écologie résidentielle de la région métropolitaine, en outre des facteurs socioéconomiquesdes ménages, devrait être prise en compte pour comprendre l’utilisation d’internet. Nousavançons que la dimension centripète de l’écologie résidentielle, tel que représentée par l’isolationrésidentielle et la concentration spatiale des pauvres, ainsi que la dimension centrifugede l’écologie, tel que reflétée par l’interaction résidentielle entre les groupes, sont des facteursimportants pour comprendre la division numérique entre les groupes; et spécialement lesgroupes qui ont les taux d’utilisation les moins élevés, c’est-à-dire les noirs et les hispaniques.Les implications de ces faits sont discutées.

  15. Bridging Food Webs, Ecosystem Metabolism, and Biogeochemistry Using Ecological Stoichiometry Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welti, Nina; Striebel, Maren; Ulseth, Amber J.; Cross, Wyatt F.; DeVilbiss, Stephen; Glibert, Patricia M.; Guo, Laodong; Hirst, Andrew G.; Hood, Jim; Kominoski, John S.; MacNeill, Keeley L.; Mehring, Andrew S.; Welter, Jill R.; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    Although aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists are well aware of the crucial importance of ecosystem functions, i.e., how biota drive biogeochemical processes and vice-versa, linking these fields in conceptual models is still uncommon. Attempts to explain the variability in elemental cycling consequently miss an important biological component and thereby impede a comprehensive understanding of the underlying processes governing energy and matter flow and transformation. The fate of multiple chemical elements in ecosystems is strongly linked by biotic demand and uptake; thus, considering elemental stoichiometry is important for both biogeochemical and ecological research. Nonetheless, assessments of ecological stoichiometry (ES) often focus on the elemental content of biota rather than taking a more holistic view by examining both elemental pools and fluxes (e.g., organismal stoichiometry and ecosystem process rates). ES theory holds the promise to be a unifying concept to link across hierarchical scales of patterns and processes in ecology, but this has not been fully achieved. Therefore, we propose connecting the expertise of aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists with ES theory as a common currency to connect food webs, ecosystem metabolism, and biogeochemistry, as they are inherently concatenated by the transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous through biotic and abiotic nutrient transformation and fluxes. Several new studies exist that demonstrate the connections between food web ecology, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem metabolism. In addition to a general introduction into the topic, this paper presents examples of how these fields can be combined with a focus on ES. In this review, a series of concepts have guided the discussion: (1) changing biogeochemistry affects trophic interactions and ecosystem processes by altering the elemental ratios of key species and assemblages; (2) changing trophic dynamics influences the transformation and fluxes of matter

  16. Natural search algorithms as a bridge between organisms, evolution, and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Andrew M; Carrara, Francesco; Brumley, Douglas R; Stocker, Roman; Levin, Simon A

    2016-08-23

    The ability to navigate is a hallmark of living systems, from single cells to higher animals. Searching for targets, such as food or mates in particular, is one of the fundamental navigational tasks many organisms must execute to survive and reproduce. Here, we argue that a recent surge of studies of the proximate mechanisms that underlie search behavior offers a new opportunity to integrate the biophysics and neuroscience of sensory systems with ecological and evolutionary processes, closing a feedback loop that promises exciting new avenues of scientific exploration at the frontier of systems biology.

  17. Bridging Food Webs, Ecosystem Metabolism, and Biogeochemistry Using Ecological Stoichiometry Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welti, Nina; Striebel, Maren; Ulseth, Amber J; Cross, Wyatt F; DeVilbiss, Stephen; Glibert, Patricia M; Guo, Laodong; Hirst, Andrew G; Hood, Jim; Kominoski, John S; MacNeill, Keeley L; Mehring, Andrew S; Welter, Jill R; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    Although aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists are well aware of the crucial importance of ecosystem functions, i.e., how biota drive biogeochemical processes and vice-versa, linking these fields in conceptual models is still uncommon. Attempts to explain the variability in elemental cycling consequently miss an important biological component and thereby impede a comprehensive understanding of the underlying processes governing energy and matter flow and transformation. The fate of multiple chemical elements in ecosystems is strongly linked by biotic demand and uptake; thus, considering elemental stoichiometry is important for both biogeochemical and ecological research. Nonetheless, assessments of ecological stoichiometry (ES) often focus on the elemental content of biota rather than taking a more holistic view by examining both elemental pools and fluxes (e.g., organismal stoichiometry and ecosystem process rates). ES theory holds the promise to be a unifying concept to link across hierarchical scales of patterns and processes in ecology, but this has not been fully achieved. Therefore, we propose connecting the expertise of aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists with ES theory as a common currency to connect food webs, ecosystem metabolism, and biogeochemistry, as they are inherently concatenated by the transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous through biotic and abiotic nutrient transformation and fluxes. Several new studies exist that demonstrate the connections between food web ecology, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem metabolism. In addition to a general introduction into the topic, this paper presents examples of how these fields can be combined with a focus on ES. In this review, a series of concepts have guided the discussion: (1) changing biogeochemistry affects trophic interactions and ecosystem processes by altering the elemental ratios of key species and assemblages; (2) changing trophic dynamics influences the transformation and fluxes of matter

  18. Bridging Food Webs, Ecosystem Metabolism, and Biogeochemistry Using Ecological Stoichiometry Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Welti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists are well aware of the crucial importance of ecosystem functions, i.e., how biota drive biogeochemical processes and vice-versa, linking these fields in conceptual models is still uncommon. Attempts to explain the variability in elemental cycling consequently miss an important biological component and thereby impede a comprehensive understanding of the underlying processes governing energy and matter flow and transformation. The fate of multiple chemical elements in ecosystems is strongly linked by biotic demand and uptake; thus, considering elemental stoichiometry is important for both biogeochemical and ecological research. Nonetheless, assessments of ecological stoichiometry (ES often focus on the elemental content of biota rather than taking a more holistic view by examining both elemental pools and fluxes (e.g., organismal stoichiometry and ecosystem process rates. ES theory holds the promise to be a unifying concept to link across hierarchical scales of patterns and processes in ecology, but this has not been fully achieved. Therefore, we propose connecting the expertise of aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists with ES theory as a common currency to connect food webs, ecosystem metabolism, and biogeochemistry, as they are inherently concatenated by the transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous through biotic and abiotic nutrient transformation and fluxes. Several new studies exist that demonstrate the connections between food web ecology, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem metabolism. In addition to a general introduction into the topic, this paper presents examples of how these fields can be combined with a focus on ES. In this review, a series of concepts have guided the discussion: (1 changing biogeochemistry affects trophic interactions and ecosystem processes by altering the elemental ratios of key species and assemblages; (2 changing trophic dynamics influences the transformation and

  19. Bridging the gap between theoretical ecology and real ecosystems: modeling invertebrate community composition in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuwirth, Nele; Reichert, Peter

    2013-02-01

    For the first time, we combine concepts of theoretical food web modeling, the metabolic theory of ecology, and ecological stoichiometry with the use of functional trait databases to predict the coexistence of invertebrate taxa in streams. We developed a mechanistic model that describes growth, death, and respiration of different taxa dependent on various environmental influence factors to estimate survival or extinction. Parameter and input uncertainty is propagated to model results. Such a model is needed to test our current quantitative understanding of ecosystem structure and function and to predict effects of anthropogenic impacts and restoration efforts. The model was tested using macroinvertebrate monitoring data from a catchment of the Swiss Plateau. Even without fitting model parameters, the model is able to represent key patterns of the coexistence structure of invertebrates at sites varying in external conditions (litter input, shading, water quality). This confirms the suitability of the model concept. More comprehensive testing and resulting model adaptations will further increase the predictive accuracy of the model.

  20. From Scaling to Governance of the Land System: Bridging Ecological and Economic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Veldkamp

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main unresolved problems in policy making is the step from scale issues to effective governance. What is appropriate for a lower level, such as a region or location, might be considered undesirable at a global scale. Linking scaling to governance is an important issue for the improvement of current environmental management and policies. Whereas social-ecological science tends to focus on adaptive behavior and aspects of spatial ecological data, new institutional economics focuses more on levels in institutional scales and temporal dimensions. Consequently, both disciplines perceive different scaling challenges while aiming at a similar improvement of effective governance. We propose that future research needs to focus on four themes: (1 How to combine spatial properties such as extent and grain with the economic units of market and agent; (2 How to combine the different governance instruments proposed by both perspectives; (3 How to communicate the different scaling perspectives (hierarchy vs. no hierarchy and meanings to policy makers and other stakeholders; and (4 How to deal with the non-equilibrium conditions in the real world and the disciplinary perspectives. Here, we hypothesize that a combined system perspective of both disciplines will improve our understanding of the missing link between scaling and governance.

  1. Formation of Ecological Culture of Young People within the Framework of Education for Steady Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Stepanov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the questions of the education reform, the crisis of which is one of the challenges of globalization, it also offers a wide argumentation to the conclusion that the ecological education and the formation of ecological culture is the basis of education in the interests of steady development and the methodological base to the contents of education modernization in the frameworks of Bologna process.

  2. ¿How to aboard interdisciplinary topics since the cultural ecology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica E. Ruiz Torres

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article has as principal aim explain since from the cultural ecology interdisciplinary topics can be approached. For effects of the same one given two practical examples, the first one of them belongs to the production of flowers in the municipality of Villa Guerrero, whereas the second one will expose the social and ecological problems that they bring with the construction of hydraulics works in Almoloya de Juarez, both in the State of Mexico.

  3. The Ecology of Arts and Humanities Education: Bridging the Worlds of Universities and Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Porzio, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, colleges and universities have been talking seriously about civic learning, but other stakeholders, particularly public arts, culture, and humanities institutions, must be part of the conversation in order to create a context for learning that develops the skills of graduates in robust ways that reflect the full promise of liberal…

  4. The Ecology of Role Play: Intentionality and Cultural Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the evolutionary function of children's pretence. The everyday, cultural environment that children engage with is of a highly complex structure. Human adaptation, thus, becomes, by analogy, an equally complex process that requires the development of life skills. Whilst in role play children engage in "mimesis" and…

  5. ECOTOURISM AS WAY OF DEVELOPMENT OF ECOLOGICAL CULTURE OF MODERN SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKLADANOVSKA M. H.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. One of the main features of modern tourism is the concept of its development based on sustainable development. Ecotourism, provided cultural approach to its organization, is an important means to improve the level of ecological culture of society and quality of life, maintain a balance in nature and the balanced development of the regions of our country. The necessary condition for the attractiveness of green tourism is an information and education activities media about public 'associations, educational and socio-cultural organizations, cultural approach to the planning and management of tourism activities.

  6. Culture and domestic violence: the ecology of abused Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilla, J L; Bakeman, R; Norris, F H

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the predictors of domestic violence within a sample of 60 immigrant Latinas, of whom 30 had sought assistance for abuse and 30 had sought other family services. Hypotheses were derived from several frameworks relevant to understanding abuse--intrapsychic (learned helplessness), interpersonal (family violence), and feminist theory. Findings related to the specific formulations were subsequently combined into a model of abuse in which the mutuality of communication within the couple mediates the effects of husband's intoxication and environmental stressors on the occurrence/severity of abuse. The study points out the inadequacy of relying on any one existing theory and supports the idea of taking an ecological approach to the study of abuse in specific populations.

  7. Resilience Pivots: Stability and Identity in a Social-Ecological-Cultural System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J. Rotarangi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available How is cultural resilience achieved in the face of significant social and ecological change? Is resilience compatible with changed structures, functions, and feedbacks as long as identity is maintained? The concept of cultural resilience has been less explored than its older siblings ecological resilience, social resilience, and social-ecological resilience. We seek to redress the balance, drawing from resilience thinking to examine how a New Zealand Māori tribal group of landowners retained strong cultural identity and connectedness to their land despite enduring significant changes in land use, economy, tenure, and governance. The landowners negotiated radical transformations in the ecology and land use of their home lands on terms that supported matters of cultural importance. The key resilience concepts of adaptation and transformation were helpful in analyzing the trajectory of change, but fell short of representing the elements of stability that supported the cultural resilience of the landowners. The concept of resilience pivots was designed to address this conceptual gap, and to offer another heuristic to resilience thinking by focusing on stability rather than change. Resilience pivots are those elements of a resilient system that remain stable despite adaptation or even transformation of other elements of that system, and in doing so support the maintenance of the system's distinctive identity.

  8. Plant-parasite coevolution: bridging the gap between genetics and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James K M; Tellier, Aurélien

    2011-01-01

    We review current ideas about coevolution of plants and parasites, particularly processes that generate genetic diversity. Frequencies of host resistance and parasite virulence alleles that interact in gene-for-gene (GFG) relationships coevolve in the familiar boom-and-bust cycle, in which resistance is selected when virulence is rare, and virulence is selected when resistance is common. The cycle can result in stable polymorphism when diverse ecological and epidemiological factors cause negative direct frequency-dependent selection (ndFDS) on host resistance, parasite virulence, or both, such that the benefit of a trait to fitness declines as its frequency increases. Polymorphism can also be stabilized by overdominance, when heterozygous hosts have greater resistance than homozygotes to diverse pathogens. Genetic diversity can also persist in the form of statistical polymorphism, sustained by random processes acting on gene frequencies and population size. Stable polymorphism allows alleles to be long-lived and genetic variation to be detectable in natural populations. In agriculture, many of the factors promoting stability in host-parasite interactions have been lost, leading to arms races of host defenses and parasite effectors. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  9. Community metabolic modeling approaches to understanding the gut microbiome: Bridging biochemistry and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Soares, Helena; Chia, Nicholas

    2017-04-01

    Interest in the human microbiome is at an all time high. The number of human microbiome studies is growing exponentially, as are reported associations between microbial communities and disease. However, we have not been able to translate the ever-growing amount of microbiome sequence data into better health. To do this, we need a practical means of transforming a disease-associated microbiome into a health-associated microbiome. This will require a framework that can be used to generate predictions about community dynamics within the microbiome under different conditions, predictions that can be tested and validated. In this review, using the gut microbiome to illustrate, we describe two classes of model that are currently being used to generate predictions about microbial community dynamics: ecological models and metabolic models. We outline the strengths and weaknesses of each approach and discuss the insights into the gut microbiome that have emerged from modeling thus far. We then argue that the two approaches can be combined to yield a community metabolic model, which will supply the framework needed to move from high-throughput omics data to testable predictions about how prebiotic, probiotic, and nutritional interventions affect the microbiome. We are confident that with a suitable model, researchers and clinicians will be able to harness the stream of sequence data and begin designing strategies to make targeted alterations to the microbiome and improve health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A two-way street: bridging implementation science and cultural adaptations of mental health treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Baumann, Ana A

    2013-08-19

    Racial and ethnic disparities in the United States exist along the entire continuum of mental health care, from access and use of services to the quality and outcomes of care. Efforts to address these inequities in mental health care have focused on adapting evidence-based treatments to clients' diverse cultural backgrounds. Yet, like many evidence-based treatments, culturally adapted interventions remain largely unused in usual care settings. We propose that a viable avenue to address this critical question is to create a dialogue between the fields of implementation science and cultural adaptation. In this paper, we discuss how integrating these two fields can make significant contributions to reducing racial and ethnic disparities in mental health care. The use of cultural adaptation models in implementation science can deepen the explicit attention to culture, particularly at the client and provider levels, in implementation studies making evidence-based treatments more responsive to the needs and preferences of diverse populations. The integration of both fields can help clarify and specify what to adapt in order to achieve optimal balance between adaptation and fidelity, and address important implementation outcomes (e.g., acceptability, appropriateness). A dialogue between both fields can help clarify the knowledge, skills and roles of who should facilitate the process of implementation, particularly when cultural adaptations are needed. The ecological perspective of implementation science provides an expanded lens to examine how contextual factors impact how treatments (adapted or not) are ultimately used and sustained in usual care settings. Integrating both fields can also help specify when in the implementation process adaptations may be considered in order to enhance the adoption and sustainability of evidence-based treatments. Implementation science and cultural adaptation bring valuable insights and methods to how and to what extent treatments and

  11. A two-way street: bridging implementation science and cultural adaptations of mental health treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Racial and ethnic disparities in the United States exist along the entire continuum of mental health care, from access and use of services to the quality and outcomes of care. Efforts to address these inequities in mental health care have focused on adapting evidence-based treatments to clients’ diverse cultural backgrounds. Yet, like many evidence-based treatments, culturally adapted interventions remain largely unused in usual care settings. We propose that a viable avenue to address this critical question is to create a dialogue between the fields of implementation science and cultural adaptation. In this paper, we discuss how integrating these two fields can make significant contributions to reducing racial and ethnic disparities in mental health care. Discussion The use of cultural adaptation models in implementation science can deepen the explicit attention to culture, particularly at the client and provider levels, in implementation studies making evidence-based treatments more responsive to the needs and preferences of diverse populations. The integration of both fields can help clarify and specify what to adapt in order to achieve optimal balance between adaptation and fidelity, and address important implementation outcomes (e.g., acceptability, appropriateness). A dialogue between both fields can help clarify the knowledge, skills and roles of who should facilitate the process of implementation, particularly when cultural adaptations are needed. The ecological perspective of implementation science provides an expanded lens to examine how contextual factors impact how treatments (adapted or not) are ultimately used and sustained in usual care settings. Integrating both fields can also help specify when in the implementation process adaptations may be considered in order to enhance the adoption and sustainability of evidence-based treatments. Summary Implementation science and cultural adaptation bring valuable insights and methods to how and

  12. The Cultural Ecology of Scholar-Practitioner Leaders: An Ethnographic Study of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenlink, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this critical ethnographic study was to examine the nature and meaning of cultural ecology in relation to preparing scholar-practitioner leaders. The ethnography focused on how the discourses and practices within the disciplinary setting of leadership preparation shape the identity of social scholar-practitioner leaders. The…

  13. Of Models and Meanings: Cultural Resilience in Social–Ecological Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crane, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Modeling has emerged as a key technology in analysis of social–ecological systems. However, the tendency for modeling to focus on the mechanistic materiality of biophysical systems obscures the diversity of performative social behaviors and normative cultural positions of actors within the modeled

  14. Quantitative Assessment of a Field-Based Course on Integrative Geology, Ecology and Cultural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Paul R.; Donaldson, Brad A.; Huckleberry, Gary

    2010-01-01

    A field-based course at the University of Arizona called Sense of Place (SOP) covers the geology, ecology and cultural history of the Tucson area. SOP was quantitatively assessed for pedagogical effectiveness. Students of the Spring 2008 course were given pre- and post-course word association surveys in order to assess awareness and comprehension…

  15. Preliminary studies in rice-fish culture in a rainfed lowland ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary studies in rice-fish culture in a rainfed lowland ecology in Ghana. PKA Dartey, RK Bam, J Ofori. Abstract. Mixed farms of rice and fish are yet to receive attention in Ghana, despite lowland rice being grown under inundation in most areas nationwide. In a preliminary study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was ...

  16. Identifying socio-ecological networks in rural-urban gradients: Diagnosis of a changing cultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz-Schmitz, C; Schmitz, M F; Herrero-Jáuregui, C; Gutiérrez-Angonese, J; Pineda, F D; Montes, C

    2018-01-15

    Socio-ecological systems maintain reciprocal interactions between biophysical and socioeconomic structures. As a result of these interactions key essential services for society emerge. Urban expansion is a direct driver of land change and cause serious shifts in socio-ecological relationships and the associated lifestyles. The framework of rural-urban gradients has proved to be a powerful tool for ecological research about urban influences on ecosystems and on sociological issues related to social welfare. However, to date there has not been an attempt to achieve a classification of municipalities in rural-urban gradients based on socio-ecological interactions. In this paper, we developed a methodological approach that allows identifying and classifying a set of socio-ecological network configurations in the Region of Madrid, a highly dynamic cultural landscape considered one of the European hotspots in urban development. According to their socio-ecological links, the integrated model detects four groups of municipalities, ordered along a rural-urban gradient, characterized by their degree of biophysical and socioeconomic coupling and different indicators of landscape structure and social welfare. We propose the developed model as a useful tool to improve environmental management schemes and land planning from a socio-ecological perspective, especially in territories subject to intense urban transformations and loss of rurality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex differences in color preferences transcend extreme differences in culture and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Witzel, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    At first glance, color preferences might seem to be the most subjective and context-dependent aspects of color cognition. Yet they are not. The present study compares color preferences of women and men from an industrialized and a remote, nonindustrialized culture. In particular, we investigated preferences in observers from Poland and from the Yali in Papua, respectively. Not surprisingly, we found that color preferences clearly differed between the two communities and also between sexes. However, despite the pronounced cultural differences, the way in which men and women differed from each other was almost the same in both cultures. At the same time, this sexual contrast was not specific to biological components of color vision. Our results reveal a pattern of sexual dimorphism that transcends extreme differences in culture and ecology. They point toward strong cross-cultural constraints beyond the biological predispositions of nature and the cultural particularities of nurture.

  18. Bridging cultures: Nonprofit, church, and emergency management agency collaboration after the May 2013 Oklahoma tornado outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Haley; Pudlo, Jason

    Community-based organizations, such as nonprofit organizations (NPOs) and churches, play an important role in helping individuals and communities bounce back after a disaster. The nature of disasters requires organizations across sectors to partner together to provide recovery services; however, collaboration is difficult even in times of stability and requires trust and communication to be built through prior collaborative relationships. These prior relationships rarely exist between the majority of the nonprofit sector, churches, and existing emergency management structures. Furthermore, these organizations often have very different cultures, values, and norms that can further hinder successful postdisaster collaboration. The authors use data collected from interviews with nonprofit and church leaders involved in recovery efforts after a series of devastating storms impacted central Oklahoma in 2013 to understand how well nonprofit and church leaders perceive their organizations collaborated with each other and with government and emergency management agencies in response and recovery efforts. Interview data suggest that NPOs and churches without a primary or secondary mission of disaster response and recovery have a difficult time collaborating with organizations involved in existing emergency management structures. The authors suggest that nonprofits with a primary or secondary purpose in disaster response are a potential bridge between other nonprofits and emergency management agencies.

  19. The Case for Summer Bridge: Building Social and Cultural Capital for Talented Black STEM Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle-McAllister, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This study uses focus groups to examine the importance of a pre-college summer bridge program for highly talented black students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Longitudinal data were collected from 134 participants who identified three aspects of Summer Bridge that were particularly helpful: academic, social, and…

  20. Understanding the earth systems of Malawi: Ecological sustainability, culture, and place-based education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasson, George E.; Frykholm, Jeffrey A.; Mhango, Ndalapa A.; Phiri, Absalom D.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this 2-year study was to investigate Malawian teacher educators' perspectives and dispositions toward teaching about ecological sustainability issues in Malawi, a developing country in sub-Sahara Africa. This study was embedded in a larger theoretical framework of investigating earth systems science through the understanding of nature-knowledge-culture systems from local, place-based perspectives. Specifically, we were interested in learning more about eco-justice issues that are related to environmental degradation in Malawi and the potential role of inquiry-oriented pedagogies in addressing these issues. In a science methods course, the African educators' views on deforestation and teaching about ecological sustainability were explored within the context of the local environment and culture. Teachers participated in inquiry pedagogies designed to promote the sharing of perspectives related to the connections between culture and ecological degradation. Strategies encouraging dialogue and reflection included role-playing, class discussions, curriculum development activities, teaching experiences with children, and field trips to a nature preserve. Data were analyzed from postcolonial and critical pedagogy of place theoretical perspectives to better understand the hybridization of viewpoints influenced by both Western and indigenous science and the political hegemonies that impact sustainable living in Malawi. Findings suggested that the colonial legacy of Malawi continues to impact the ecological sustainability issue of deforestation. Inquiry-oriented pedagogies and connections to indigenous science were embraced by the Malawian educators as a means to involve children in investigation, decision making, and ownership of critical environmental issues.

  1. Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternjej, Ivancica; Mihaljevic, Zlatko

    2017-10-01

    Ecology is a science that studies the mutual interactions between organisms and their environment. The fundamental subject of interest in ecology is the individual. Topics of interest to ecologists include the diversity, distribution and number of particular organisms, as well as cooperation and competition between organisms, both within and among ecosystems. Today, ecology is a multidisciplinary science. This is particularly true when the subject of interest is the ecosystem or biosphere, which requires the knowledge and input of biologists, chemists, physicists, geologists, geographists, climatologists, hydrologists and many other experts. Ecology is applied in a science of restoration, repairing disturbed sites through human intervention, in natural resource management, and in environmental impact assessments.

  2. Cultural Foundations for Ecological Restoration on the White Mountain Apache Reservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Long

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Myths, metaphors, and social norms that facilitate collective action and understanding of restoration dynamics serve as foundations for ecological restoration. The experience of the White Mountain Apache Tribe demonstrates how such cultural foundations can permeate and motivate ecological restoration efforts. Through interviews with tribal cultural advisors and restoration practitioners, we examined how various traditions inform their understanding of restoration processes. Creation stories reveal the time-honored importance and functions of water bodies within the landscape, while place names yield insights into their historical and present conditions. Traditional healing principles and agricultural traditions help guide modern restoration techniques. A metaphor of stability illustrates how restoration practitioners see links among ecological, social, and personal dimensions of health. These views inspire reciprocal relationships focused on caretaking of sites, learning from elders, and passing knowledge on to youths. Woven together, these cultural traditions uphold a system of adaptive management that has withstood the imposition of non-indigenous management schemes in the 20th century, and now provides hope for restoring health and productivity of ecosystems through individual and collective efforts. Although these traditions are adapted to the particular ecosystems of the Tribe, they demonstrate the value of understanding and promoting the diverse cultural foundations of restoration.

  3. How National Culture and Parental Style Affect the Process of Adolescents’ Ecological Resocialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Gentina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of adolescents as influencers on their families’ environmental behavior is potentially a catalyst for change towards increasing eco-friendly actions. In this paper, the authors report on a cross-cultural study of ecological resocialization in France and India. Using in-depth dyadic interviews, they investigated parental styles, cultural attributes and extent of adolescents’ influence over parental eco-behavior. The study reveals that ecological resocialization across countries differs substantially, according to a combination of national cultural values, parental style and influence strategy. French teens exhibit a greater impact than Indian teens on their parents’ eco-behavior and use bilateral influence strategies. In India, not all mothers engage in ecological resocialization, but those who do are susceptible to unilateral strategies. The role of environmental knowledge, and the context and effectiveness of each kind of strategy is discussed. The findings have implications for how public policy officials and agencies can encourage adolescents as key resocialization agents to influence their parents’ pro-environmental consumption by using the most adapted influence strategy across cultures.

  4. Culturally significant fisheries: keystones for management of freshwater social-ecological systems

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    Mae Noble

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples of North America, Australia, and New Zealand have a long tradition of harvesting freshwater animals. Over generations of reliance and subsistence harvesting, Indigenous peoples have acquired a profound understanding of these freshwater animals and ecosystems that have become embedded within their cultural identity. We have identified trans-Pacific parallels in the cultural significance of several freshwater animal groups, such as eels, other finfish, bivalves, and crayfish, to Indigenous peoples and their understanding and respect for the freshwater ecosystems on which their community survival depends. In recognizing such cultural connections, we found that non-Indigenous peoples can appreciate the deep significance of freshwater animals to Indigenous peoples and integrate Indigenous stewardship and Indigenous ecological knowledge into effective comanagement strategies for sustainable freshwater fisheries, such as Indigenous rangers, research partnerships, and Indigenous Protected Areas. Given that many of these culturally significant freshwater species also play key ecological roles in freshwater ecosystems, their recognition and prioritization in management and monitoring approaches should help sustain the health and well-being of both the social and ecological components of freshwater ecosystems.

  5. Connecting Social Networks with Ecosystem Services for Watershed Governance: a Social-Ecological Network Perspective Highlights the Critical Role of Bridging Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn J. Rathwell

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In many densely settled agricultural watersheds, water quality is a point of conflict between amenity and agricultural activities because of the varied demands and impacts on shared water resources. Successful governance of these watersheds requires coordination among different activities. Recent research has highlighted the role that social networks between management entities can play to facilitate cross-scale interaction in watershed governance. For example, bridging organizations can be positioned in social networks to bridge local initiatives done by single municipalities across whole watersheds. To better understand the role of social networks in social-ecological system dynamics, we combine a social network analysis of the water quality management networks held by local governments with a social-ecological analysis of variation in water management and ecosystem services across the Montérégie, an agricultural landscape near Montréal, Québec, Canada. We analyze municipal water management networks by using one-mode networks to represent direct collaboration between municipalities, and two-mode networks to capture how bridging organizations indirectly connect municipalities. We find that municipalities do not collaborate directly with one another but instead are connected via bridging organizations that span the water quality management network. We also discovered that more connected municipalities engaged in more water management activities. However, bridging organizations preferentially connected with municipalities that used more tourism related ecosystem services rather than those that used more agricultural ecosystem services. Many agricultural municipalities were relatively isolated, despite being the main producers of water quality problems. In combination, these findings suggest that further strengthening the water management network in the Montérégie will contribute to improving water quality in the region. However, such

  6. Community Participation in Ethnic Minority Cultural Heritage Management in China: A Case Study of Xianrendong Ethnic Cultural and Ecological Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Xu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Heritage protection in China has long been considered as the responsibility of the government. However, over the last 20 years, a number of heritage projects, mainly in ethnic minority regions, have attempted to engage with local communities. These seem to be an attractive alternative to top-down approaches. This paper explores the implications of a bottom-up approach for Chinese ethnic minority heritage management through an examination of the Ethnic Cultural and Ecological Village project in Xianrendong in Yunnan province. It is a result of my fascination with the project’s concept and my desire to understand its key characteristics, application and potential for future development in China. After a discussion of cultural performance, modernisation and inside/outside encounters, I conclude by suggesting that well-planned and well-informed community participation, with realistic control, contributes to reconciling tourism and cultural heritage conservation.

  7. Turn left for Murmansk: ‘Fourth World’ transculturalism and its cultural ecological framing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Dillon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review briefly histories and ideologies underlying multiculturalism in Nordic countries, highlighting tensions between integrationist and inclusive approaches. We propose a cultural ecological framework through which we discuss the possibility of a transculturalism based on Fourth World engagement with the environment. Cultural ecology is about the reciprocal interactions and transactions between people and their environments. The Fourth World is a circum-global, pan-arctic region which includes the northern parts of some Nordic countries. We argue that whether or not there is a distinctively Nordic version of multiculturalism, Nordic countries have access to Fourth World ways of engaging with the environment which transcend notions of inter- and multiculturalism and the ideological tensions associated with them.

  8. The practice of cultural ecology: Network connectivity in the creative economy

    OpenAIRE

    Dovey, J.; Moreton, S; Sparke, S.; Sharpe, B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects on approaches to collaborative knowledge exchange projects between UK universities and the creative economy. It develops a preliminary account of cultural ecology as a systematic approach to producing impact in the creative economy. It argues that such an approach is a powerful way to aggregate micro-businesses and small and medium sized enterprises in a meaningful network of new relationships. The paper uses social network analysis software to begin to visualise the patte...

  9. Cultural or Ecological Sustainability? The Effect of Cultural Change on Sabal Palm Management Among the Lowland Maya of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Martínez-Ballesté

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sabal palm has been used for thatching the traditional Maya house for over 3000 yr. The great importance of this resource has promoted its management within home gardens. Although traditionally managed populations in home gardens are capable of ecological long-term persistence, the impact of cultural change on sustainable resource management is poorly understood. By means of interviews in 108 households, we obtained information about Sabal management practices, leaf demand, and sociocultural data. Density and size structure of the palm populations in the respective home gardens were also measured. By means of principal components analysis, the sociocultural data were summarized into a cultural change index, which was then statistically related to palm density, size structure, leaf demand, and management practices. Leaf demand along the cultural change gradient was estimated. Sabal populations were affected by the cultural change index. Palm density and the proportion of harvestable individuals were higher in the more traditional households. The number of management practices decreased, and the probability of felling adult palms increased with cultural change. As a result, the percentage of the total leaf demand satisfied by home garden production diminished from 118.2-69.4% as cultural change increased. Traditional practices seem oriented to increasing the palm availability. Seed sowing and the protection of seedlings and adults affect the life stages with the largest impact on the population growth rate, as measured through sensitivity analysis. This means that abandoning traditional practices and felling adults more frequently should reduce rapidly, which is consistent with the low palm density observed in less traditional households. The application of demographic models to Sabal tells us that traditional management warrants the persistence of the resource as long as the current conditions remain unchanged. In contrast, our data show that

  10. Applying an ecological restoration approach to study patient safety culture in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, Fernanda Raphael Escobar; Torrieri, Mayara Carvalho Godinho Rigobello; Gabriel, Carmen Silvia; Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Silva, Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo; Shasanmi, Rebecca O; Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli

    2016-04-01

    To gain an understanding of medication safety culture and other quality issues in a Brazilian intensive care unit using a restorative approach. Patient safety should be considered one of the pillars of quality in health care. Thus, patient safety culture is increasingly being explored as a guide for quality improvement efforts. A qualitative approach. Participatory photographic research methods from the field of ecological restoration were adapted in this study. This study used focus groups, then subsequent nurse-led photo-narrated walkabouts, and photo elicitation with 23 nurses and one physician in interactive phases of data collection and analysis over an eight-month timeframe. The core themes identified were: the 'medication system shapes patient safety' and the 'feeling of helplessness in the face of the prevailing organization culture'. Participants discussed supports exiting in the intensive care unit that shape medication safety, the barriers that impede safe medication management, the solutions to improve medication safety and the creation of a better medication safety culture. The methods used allowed participants to visualise sound practices as well as key safety issues, reflect on their day-to-day work, re-think potential improvements, and enact changes to improve medication safety and medication safety culture. However, the patient safety culture is also marked by administrative pressure. The hospital needs to adopt participatory management, where the health professionals can act together with the organisational leaders to promote a just culture. The participatory photographic research methods from the field of ecological restoration provided participants with a tool to promote patient safety culture and engage policy change dialogue. However, it will be important in future restorative research to track-specific safety outcomes over time to assess the cost-benefit of the adoption of participatory management models. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Cultural-Ecological Theory of Academic Disengagement Used to Explain a Story of Race, Culture and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunyemi, Boluwaji

    2017-01-01

    Students of African ancestry often share an experience of being a racialized minority in the context of the educational institution. Late Professor of Anthropology John Ogbu's Cultural-ecological Theory of Academic Disengagement is employed to describe the negative responses encountered by peers in the name of academic achievement. The late Nigerian-American anthropologist John Ogbu described that it is often socially disadvantageous for black youth to prosper academically in formal education. Black students are often seen as betraying their cultural identities by aspiring to academic success and scholastic achievement and are met with repugnance by black peers. The notion of "acting white" is unnecessary, impertinent should be abandoned outright as achievement should have no color. Copyright © 2017 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of culture in moderating the links between early ecological risk and young children's adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effects of risk on infant development within cultural contexts, 141 dual-earner Israeli and Palestinian couples and their first-born child were observed at 5 months and again at 34 months. Eight ecological determinants were examined as potential risk factors, including the infant's observed and parent-reported difficult temperament; the mother's depressive symptoms, work-family interference, and experience of childbirth; the parents' marital satisfaction and social support; and observed maternal and paternal sensitivity. Symbolic play and behavior problems were assessed at 34 months. Culture-specific effects of risk and protective factors were found. Parent sensitivity facilitated symbolic competence to a greater extent in the Israeli group. Culture moderated the effects of maternal depression and family social support on toddlers' behavior problems. Maternal depressive symptoms had a negative impact on the behavior adaptation of Israeli children and social support buffered against behavior problems in the Arab group. Implications for research on risk and resilience and the role of culture in moderating the effects of ecological risk are discussed.

  13. Ecological Effects in Cross-Cultural Differences Between U.S. and Japanese Color Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokosawa, Kazuhiko; Schloss, Karen B; Asano, Michiko; Palmer, Stephen E

    2016-09-01

    We investigated cultural differences between U.S. and Japanese color preferences and the ecological factors that might influence them. Japanese and U.S. color preferences have both similarities (e.g., peaks around blue, troughs around dark-yellow, and preferences for saturated colors) and differences (Japanese participants like darker colors less than U.S. participants do). Complex gender differences were also evident that did not conform to previously reported effects. Palmer and Schloss's (2010) weighted affective valence estimate (WAVE) procedure was used to test the Ecological Valence Theory's (EVT's) prediction that within-culture WAVE-preference correlations should be higher than between-culture WAVE-preference correlations. The results supported several, but not all, predictions. In the second experiment, we tested color preferences of Japanese-U.S. multicultural participants who could read and speak both Japanese and English. Multicultural color preferences were intermediate between U.S. and Japanese preferences, consistent with the hypothesis that culturally specific personal experiences during one's lifetime influence color preferences. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. The Relationship between Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Evolving Cultures, and Wilderness Protection in the Circumpolar North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Watson

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many unique issues associated with natural resource management in the far north as a result of legislative direction, historic settlement and occupation patterns, northern cultural traditions, ecotourism, economic depression, pressures for energy development, and globalization and modernization effects. Wilderness designation in Canada, the USA, and Finland is aimed at preserving and restoring many human and ecological values, as are the long-established, strictly enforced, nature reserves in Russia. In Alaska and Finland, and in some provinces of Canada, there is a variety of values associated with protecting relatively intact relationships between indigenous people and relatively pristine, vast ecosystems. These values are often described as "traditional means of livelihood," "traditional means of access," "traditional relationships with nature," or "traditional lifestyles." Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK forms part of these relationships and has been acknowledged as a contributor to understanding the effects of management decisions and human-use impacts on long-term ecological composition, structure, and function. Wilderness protection can help maintain opportunities to continue traditional relationships with nature. As cultures continue to evolve in customs, attitudes, knowledge, and technological uses, values associated with both TEK and relationships with relatively pristine ecosystems will also evolve. Understanding these relationships and how to consider them in wilderness protection and restoration decision making is potentially one of the most contentious, widespread natural resource management issues in the circumpolar north.

  15. Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of nine Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on various ecological topics. The bulletins have these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, Owls and Predators, The Forest Community, Life in Freshwater Marshes, Camouflage in the Animal World, Life in the Desert, The…

  16. Bridge Building Potential in Cross-Cultural Learning: A Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienties, Bart; Johan, Novie; Jindal-Snape, Divya

    2015-01-01

    Although many international students experience transitional issues, most research assumes that these issues will disappear over time with increased interaction. Using principles of social network theory, this study addressed why some students become bridge builders between international and host students, while others primarily interact with…

  17. The Freedom Seder: A Bridge across Ethnic, Cultural, and Religious Divides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbaum, Larry

    2012-01-01

    The Freedom Seder is a multicultural and interfaith celebration based on the Exodus themes of the Passover Seder. Conceived during the Civil Rights Movement, this ritualized program has been used successfully to build bridges between diverse communities at the University of Massachusetts Amherst (and elsewhere). This article provides insight into…

  18. The MOSC Project: Using the OAI-PMH to Bridge Metadata Cultural Differences across Museums, Archives, and Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Roel

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The MetaScholar Initiative of Emory UniversityLibraries, in collaboration with the Center for the Studyof Southern Culture, the Atlanta History Center, and theGeorgia Music Hall of Fame, received an Institute ofMuseum and Library Services grant to develop a newmodel for library-museum-archives collaboration. Thiscollaboration will broaden access to resources for learningcommunities through the use of the Open ArchivesInitiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAIPMH. The project, titled Music of Social Change(MOSC, will use OAI-PMH as a tool to bridge thewidely varying metadata standards and practices acrossmuseums, archives, and libraries. This paper will focusspecifically on the unique advantages of the use of OAIPMH to concurrently maximize the exposure of metadataemergent from varying metadata cultures.

  19. A Comparative Fieldwork Experience in Spain and Mexico Or, Cultural Ecology Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomé Martín, Pedro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to frequent statements in the literature since the 19th century, the use of the comparative method in anthropology has been more apparent, or programmatic, than real. Worth mentioning exceptions in both Spanish anthropology and the anthropology of the Americas are studies by J. M. Arguedas, G. Foster, M. Gutierrez Estevez and C. Gimenez. Exceptions such as these confirm the rule. The author came across this methodological paradox while doing research with Mexican anthropologist Andres Fabregas Puig for a project of comparative cultural ecology in the Jalisco highlands of Mexico and the Avila mountain range of Spain. The comparison between the two areas, as well as the reciprocal reflections of both ethnographers while carrying out the project, revealed unexpected findings and differences —and other surprises— in what otherwise seemed two similar cultural ecologies.

    Contrariamente a lo que se suele leer en la bibliografía desde el siglo XIX, el recurso al método comparativo en antropología ha sido más aparente, o programático, que real. Notables excepciones en la antropología española y americana han sido estudios de J. M. Arguedas, G. Foster, M. Gutiérrez Estévez y C. Giménez. Pero excepciones como éstas confirman la regla. El autor descubrió esta paradoja metodológica mientras realizaba, junto con el mexicano Andrés Fábregas Puig, un estudio de ecología cultural comparada entre los Altos de Jalisco, en México, y la Sierra de Ávila, en España. La comparación, acompañada de reflexión recíproca entre los dos etnógrafos, reveló novedades y diferencias imprevistas —y otras sorpresas— entre ambas regiones, en principio muy parecidas.

  20. Breakage-fusion-bridge cycles and de novo telomere formation on broken chromosomes in maize callus cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Serejo, Janay A; Aguiar-Perecin, Margarida L R

    2016-06-01

    Breakpoints involved in chromosome alterations associated with heterochromatin have been detected in maize plants regenerated from callus culture. A cytogenetic analysis of plants regenerated from a maize callus was performed aiming to analyze the stability of a chromosome 7 bearing a deficiency-duplication (Df-Dp), which was interpreted as derived from a chromatid type breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycle. The Df-Dp chromosome 7 was stable in mitotic and meiotic cells of the regenerated plants. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed signals of telomeric sequences on the broken chromosome arm and provided evidence of de novo telomere formation. The stability of two types of altered chromosome 7 was investigated in C-banded metaphases from samples of the original callus that were collected during a period of 30-42 months after culture initiation. New alterations involving heterochromatic knobs of chromosomes 7 and 9 were observed. The aberrant chromosomes were stable in the subcultures, thus providing evidence of broken chromosome healing. The examination of anaphases showed the presence of bridges, which was consistent with the occurrence of BFB cycles. De novo telomere formation occurred in euchromatic and heterochromatic chromosome termini. The results point to events of chromosomal evolution that might occur in plants.

  1. Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Dana L.; Hammer, Tonya R.; Strentzsch, Julie; Cannon, Kristi; Parsons, Jacqueline; Salazar, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Relational-cultural theory (RCT) theorists advocate expanding the multicultural/social justice counseling competencies beyond the domains of self-awareness, cultural knowledge, and culturally responsive helping skills. This article provides an overview of RCT and discusses how creating and participating in growth-fostering relationships are…

  2. Study on Ecological Design Concept of Buton Sultanate Cityscape Based on Local Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansyur, A.; Gunawan, A.; Munandar, A.

    2017-10-01

    Buton Sultanate Cityscape was constituted of man-made landscape constructed in the era of Buton Sultanate in 1322. It is one of the Indonesian heritage networks proposed to be the world heritage city. The Sultanate cityscape should have the concept of traditional city and refer to the ecological principles. This research was conducted to analyze elements and spatial patterns of Sultanate cityscape based on the ecological principles (eco-design). Descriptive method was utilized in the research by conducting in-depth interviews with the local custom figures and experts of the local culture, literature reviews, and field observations. The main elements of Buton Sultanate Cityscape consisted of palaces, city square, mosque, cemeteries, and settlements, while the supporting elements located outside the city border include mountains, valleys, rivers, and forests. City square is located in the city center surrounded by the palace, cemetery, and mosque. The main pattern of city circulation pattern has formed a simple figure of human body. Ecological principles can be examined from the housing layout paralleled to the road, direction of most city gates facing the east and forests, and the city wall pattern which is closely related to the religious matter.

  3. Cross-Cultural Differences and Similarities in Proneness to Shame: An Adaptationist and Ecological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sznycer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available People vary in how easily they feel ashamed, that is, in their shame proneness. According to the information threat theory of shame, variation in shame proneness should, in part, be regulated by features of a person's social ecology. On this view, shame is an emotion program that evolved to mitigate the likelihood or costs of reputation-damaging information spreading to others. In social environments where there are fewer possibilities to form new relationships (i.e., low relational mobility, there are higher costs to damaging or losing existing ones. Therefore, shame proneness toward current relationship partners should increase as perceived relational mobility decreases. In contrast, individuals with whom one has little or no relationship history are easy to replace, and so shame-proneness towards them should not be modulated by relational mobility. We tested these predictions cross-culturally by measuring relational mobility and shame proneness towards friends and strangers in Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Japanese subjects were more shame-prone than their British and American counterparts. Critically, lower relational mobility was associated with greater shame proneness towards friends (but not strangers, and this relationship partially mediated the cultural differences in shame proneness. Shame proneness appears tailored to respond to relevant features of one's social ecology.

  4. Cross-Cultural Differences and Similarities in Proneness to Shame: An Adaptationist and Ecological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kosuke; Delton, Andrew W.; Sato, Kosuke; Robertson, Theresa; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2013-01-01

    People vary in how easily they feel ashamed, that is, in their shame proneness. According to the information threat theory of shame, variation in shame proneness should, in part, be regulated by features of a person’s social ecology. On this view, shame is an emotion program that evolved to mitigate the likelihood or costs of reputation-damaging information spreading to others. In social environments where there are fewer possibilities to form new relationships (i.e., low relational mobility), there are higher costs to damaging or losing existing ones. Therefore, shame proneness toward current relationship partners should increase as perceived relational mobility decreases. In contrast, individuals with whom one has little or no relationship history are easy to replace, and so shame-proneness towards them should not be modulated by relational mobility. We tested these predictions cross-culturally by measuring relational mobility and shame proneness towards friends and strangers in Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Japanese subjects were more shame-prone than their British and American counterparts. Critically, lower relational mobility was associated with greater shame proneness towards friends (but not strangers), and this relationship partially mediated the cultural differences in shame proneness. Shame proneness appears tailored to respond to relevant features of one’s social ecology. PMID:22947644

  5. Woodland restoration in Scotland: ecology, history, culture, economics, politics and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Richard

    2009-07-01

    In the latter half of the 20th century, native pine woodlands in Scotland were restricted to small remnant areas within which there was little regeneration. These woodlands are important from a conservation perspective and are habitat for numerous species of conservation concern. Recent developments have seen a large increase in interest in woodland restoration and a dramatic increase in regeneration and woodland spread. The proximate factor enabling this regeneration is a reduction in grazing pressure from sheep and, particularly, deer. However, this has only been possible as a result of a complex interplay between ecological, political and socio-economic factors. We are currently seeing the decline of land management practices instituted 150-200 years ago, changes in land ownership patterns, cultural revival, and changes in societal perceptions of the Scottish landscape. These all feed into the current move to return large areas of the Scottish Highlands to tree cover. I emphasize the need to consider restoration in a multidisciplinary framework which accounts not just for the ecology involved but also the historical and cultural context.

  6. Nothingness and the human umwelt: a cultural-ecological approach to meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jytte

    2009-12-01

    In the paper I argue that the great impact of empiricism on psychology and the enclosed dualist agenda traps psychological phenomena into subjectivism. By discussing the phenomena of nothingness in biological and cultural life it is argued that meaning must be considered as a phenomenon that represents both a fit and a misfit of the individual with the environment. By stressing the overall presence of nothingness phenomena it is argued how the reduced ontology of empiricism--and its blindness to relations and transformations out of which meaning grows--should be overcome. In human cultural life, transformations are constitutive and ongoing changes are being produced to make sure that continuity as well as discontinuity will happen. The analysis of especially one case--the removal of an Amish school after a shooting episode--serves to prove how meaning grows out of cultural processes as people produce their own conditions of life. From a cultural-ecological point of view, analyzing meaning at the level of individual phenomenology, hence, means analyzing the 'total psychological situation' (legacy of Kurt Lewin). This may for instance include analyzing how people live, what they consider important and worth preserving, what must be changed, what are their core values and how do institutional arrangements contribute to keeping up that which is valued or to changing that which is not, etc. Meaning may be viewed the lived-out experience-the domain of self-generativity in human life.

  7. Building Bridges: A Peace Corps Classroom Guide to Cross-Cultural Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronhime, Raquel; Bennhold-Samaan, Laurette; Coratti, Nancy; Lazar, Cori; Flaccus, Trisha Tumulty; McGinnis, J. Randy; Scammahorn, Emmy; Soderstrom, Robert; Storti, Craig; Williams, Krystal

    2010-01-01

    The lessons presented in this book will: (1) Help students better understand their own culture and how it has shaped them; (2) Help students begin to understand the perspectives of other cultures, leading to increased respect for those who are different from them--in the classroom and worldwide; and (3) Provide an increased awareness of the value…

  8. School Culture Benchmarks: Bridges and Barriers to Successful Bullying Prevention Program Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, H. Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    A substantial body of research indicates that positive school culture benchmarks are integrally tied to the success of school reform and change in general. Additionally, an emerging body of research suggests a similar role for school culture in effective implementation of school violence prevention and intervention efforts. However, little…

  9. Two Cultures Collide: Bridging the Generation Gap in a Non-Traditional Mentorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriweather, Lisa R.; Morgan, Alberta J.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-cultural mentoring relationships between younger mentors and older mentees are increasing in frequency across all levels of post-secondary education. Generational cultural differences can result in conflict and misunderstanding and therefore should be considered in non-traditional inter-generational mentoring relationships. Through…

  10. Bridging the Knowing/Doing Gap to Create High Engagement Work cultures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fredricka F Joyner

    2015-01-01

      The magnitude of investment made by US organizations in the training and development of individuals is significant, as business leaders strive to implement strategies to create high engagement work cultures...

  11. Obeying God? Obeying Paul? Bridging the socio-cultural context in the interpretation of Biblical imperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre van Rheede van Oudtshoorn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available When do we encounter God in the Pauline imperatives, or when is it Paul, the man of his times, that we are dealing with? This article develops a model to help us determine the reach of the imperatives into our socio-cultural context today. The imperatives are shown to be more than ad hoc injunctions but, rather, legitimate expressions of the new symbolic world in which both Paul and believers participate by faith. The imperatives carry an illocutionary force which relies on such a shared symbolic world. By analysing Paul�s imperatives in terms of this symbolic world it is clear that he, at times, simply accepted the dominant cultural interpretation of reality of his day at the cost of limiting the expression of his symbolic world. At other times he modified the dominant cultural interpretation by calling believers to act contra-culturally in the light of the gospel�s new interpretation of reality. There are also instances where Paul directly rejects certain aspects of the culture of the day in the light of the symbolic world. Paul�s flexibility to develop a variety of responses towards the dominant culture of his day in the light of the indicatives of the gospel message provides an important key to developing a model to determine �if?�, �when?� and �how?�, to apply the imperatives into our context today.

  12. Algae for controlled ecological life support system diet characterization of cyanobacteria 'spirulina' in batch cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Spirulina sp. is a bioregenerative photosynthetic and edible alga for space craft crews in a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CLESS). It was characterized for growth rate and biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The cell characteristics were identified for one strain of Spirulina: S. maxima. Fast growth rate and high yield were obtained. The partitioning of the assimulatory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental conditions. Experiments with Spirulina demonstrated that under stress conditions carbohydrate increased at the expense of protein. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total proteins were increased up to almost 70 percent of the organic weight. In other words, the nutritional quality of the alga could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

  13. The cultural and ecological impacts of aboriginal tourism: a case study on Taiwan's Tao tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Dau-Jye

    2014-01-01

    We show that tourism activities severely impact the ecology of Orchid Island, its natural resources, and the culture of the Tao tribe. For example, highway widening, in response to the increased traffic volumes caused by tourism, required many Pandanus trees to be cut and removed, which has placed the coconut crabs in danger of extinction. To promote eco-tourism, observation trips to observe Elegant Scops owls and Birdwing butterflies have taken place, which has affected the breeding of these two protected species. The Elegant Scops owls- and Birdwing butterflies-related tourism activities also break the "evil spirits" taboo of the Tao people and have caused the disappearance of the specifications for using traditional natural resources, causing natural ecosystems to face the threat of excessive use. In addition to promoting and advocating aboriginal tourism of the Tao people on Orchid Island, the Taiwanese government should help the Tao people to develop a management model that combines traditional regulations and tourism activities.

  14. The social ecology of resilience: addressing contextual and cultural ambiguity of a nascent construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael

    2011-01-01

    More than two decades after E. E. Werner and R. S. Smith (1982), N. Garmezy (1983), and M. Rutter (1987) published their research on protective mechanisms and processes that are most likely to foster resilience, ambiguity continues regarding how to define and operationalize positive development under adversity. This article argues that, because resilience occurs even when risk factors are plentiful, greater emphasis needs to be placed on the role social and physical ecologies play in positive developmental outcomes when individuals encounter significant amounts of stress. Four principles are presented as the basis for an ecological interpretation of the resilience construct: decentrality, complexity, atypicality, and cultural relativity. These 4 principles, and the research upon which they are based, inform a definition of resilience that emphasizes the environmental antecedents of positive growth. This framework can guide future theory development, research, and the design of interventions that promote well-being among populations who experience environments that inhibit resilience-promoting processes. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  15. Does geography or ecology best explain 'cultural' variation among chimpanzee communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilar, Jason M; Marshack, Joshua L

    2012-02-01

    Much attention has been paid to geographic variation in chimpanzee behavior, but few studies have applied quantitative techniques to explain this variation. Here, we apply methods typically utilized in macroecology to explain variation in the putative cultural traits of chimpanzees. We analyzed published data containing 39 behavioral traits from nine chimpanzee communities. We used a canonical correspondence analysis to examine the relative importance of environmental characteristics and geography, which may be a proxy for inter-community gene flow and/or social transmission, for explaining geographic variation in chimpanzee behavior. We found that geography, and longitude in particular, was the best predictor of behavioral variation. Chimpanzee communities in close longitudinal proximity to each other exhibit similar behavioral repertoires, independent of local ecological factors. No ecological variables were significantly related to behavioral variation. These results support the idea that inter-community dispersal patterns have played a major role in structuring behavioral variation. We cannot be certain whether behavioral variation has a genetic basis, is the result of innovation and diffusion, or a combination of the two. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Culture-dependent and -independent methods to investigate the microbial ecology of Italian fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Urso, Rosalinda; Iacumin, Lucilla; Cantoni, Carlo; Cattaneo, Patrizia; Comi, Giuseppe; Cocolin, Luca

    2005-04-01

    In this study, the microbial ecology of three naturally fermented sausages produced in northeast Italy was studied by culture-dependent and -independent methods. By plating analysis, the predominance of lactic acid bacteria populations was pointed out, as well as the importance of coagulase-negative cocci. Also in the case of one fermentation, the fecal enterocci reached significant counts, highlighting their contribution to the particular transformation process. Yeast counts were higher than the detection limit (> 100 CFU/g) in only one fermented sausage. Analysis of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns and sequencing of the bands allowed profiling of the microbial populations present in the sausages during fermentation. The bacterial ecology was mainly characterized by the stable presence of Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus sakei, but Lactobacillus paracasei was also repeatedly detected. An important piece of evidence was the presence of Lactococcus garvieae, which clearly contributed in two fermentations. Several species of Staphylococcus were also detected. Regarding other bacterial groups, Bacillus sp., Ruminococcus sp., and Macrococcus caseolyticus were also identified at the beginning of the transformations. In addition, yeast species belonging to Debaryomyces hansenii, several Candida species, and Willopsis saturnus were observed in the DGGE gels. Finally, cluster analysis of the bacterial and yeast DGGE profiles highlighted the uniqueness of the fermentation processes studied.

  17. Post-cultural stand dynamics in an abandoned chestnut coppice at its ecological border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the be­ginning of the last century, chestnut has played an important role as staple food and primary wood source. In many cases it was cultivated at the border of its ecological limits where it was planted by man in place of the original and more site-adapted tree species. However, with the abandonment of the rural activities, ma­nagement of chestnut forests was progressively left starting from more marginal areas, usually occupied by coppice stands. After the interruption of the traditional coppice management system (usual rotation periods of 10-25 years, natural intra- and interspecific competition dynamics have become the driving force of the stand evolution. This may lead to dramatic changes in both structure and species composition of the stands. The aim of this study is to analyse the post-cultural evolution of an abandoned chestnut coppice in the Pesio Valley (Piedmont, Italy in order to highlight the competition among different "basic silvi­cultural components" of the forest using a dendroecological approach. The "basic silvicultural components" are intended as the elements defined as groups of trees of the stand that have similar features such as silvi­culturally relevant attributes: species (chestnut, beech, fir, origin (seed, sprout and cultural age and function (standard/reserve, maiden, shoot, regeneration, dead tree. The mean growth curves of the compo­nents show the different fitness of each category. From a general point of view, the beech and fir components show a better competitive potential in comparison with chestnut. Among chestnut components, maidens from seeds reveal a better growth trend compared to coppice shoots and standards.

  18. A bridge between cultures: interpreters' perspectives of consultations with migrant oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butow, Phyllis N; Lobb, Elizabeth; Jefford, Michael; Goldstein, David; Eisenbruch, Maurice; Girgis, Afaf; King, Madeleine; Sze, Ming; Aldridge, Lynley; Schofield, Penelope

    2012-02-01

    Migration is increasing worldwide. In previous research into people with cancer from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, interpreter accuracy, professionalism and continuity have emerged as key concerns for patients. Little is known about interpreters' perceptions of their role and the challenges they face. This study aimed to obtain their perspective. Thirty interpreters (Greek n = 7, Chinese n = 11, and Arabic n = 12) participated in four focus groups which were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed for themes using N-Vivo software. Skills as an interpreter were broadly perceived as conveying information accurately, being confidential and impartial. Three broad dilemmas faced by interpreters emerged: accuracy versus understanding; translating only versus cultural advocacy and sensitivity; and professionalism versus providing support. Some saw themselves as merely an accurate conduit of information, while others saw their role in broader terms, encompassing patient advocacy, cultural brokerage and provision of emotional support. Perceived challenges in their role included lack of continuity, managing their own emotions especially after bad news consultations, and managing diverse patient and family expectations. Training and support needs included medical terminology, communication and counselling skills and debriefing. Interpreters suggested that oncologists check on interpreter/patient's language or dialect compatibility; use lay language and short sentences; and speak in the first person. Resolving potential conflicts between information provision and advocacy is an important area of cross-cultural communication research. Further training and support is required to enhance interpreters' competence in managing delicate situations from a professional, cultural and psychological perspective; and to assist doctors to collaborate with interpreters to ensure culturally competent communication. Ultimately, this will improve interpreters' well-being and

  19. Place and culture-based professional development: cross-hybrid learning and the construction of ecological mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2015-03-01

    This paper approaches mindfulness, an awareness of internal and external realities, as a culturally-shaped habit of mind. Findings of a cross-cultural study and popular sayings that reflect America's cultural orientation to consumption and competition are contrasted with findings from Hawaiian language newspapers, traditional cultural practices, and Hawaiian sayings that indicate an orientation to ecological mindfulness that increased the resilience of fragile social ecosystems. Marginalization of indigenous culture, language, and knowledge and cultural differences between teachers and indigenous students are proposed as a contributing factor to lower science performance of Native Hawaiian students in mainstream schools. Two professional development projects designed to reduce conflicts between culture and science instruction are presented. Findings from these projects suggest alignment of science inquiry with indigenous cultural knowledge and practices oriented to sustainability supports the development of teachers' ecological mindfulness as indicated by increased awareness of, interest in, and incorporation of place and culture-based based resources into their instruction. Teacher feedback indicates that mapping technologies that enable teachers to visualize and integrate indigenous place-based Hawaiian knowledge with science inquiry are promising instructional strategies.

  20. Transracial adoptees bridging heritage and national cultures: Parental socialisation, ethnic identity and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Laura; Ranieri, Sonia; Barni, Daniela; Rosnati, Rosa

    2015-12-01

    Transracial adoptees represent a specific group of immigrants who experience unique immigration processes that bring them face-to-face with two cultural backgrounds: that of their heritage culture on one hand and that of their national culture on the other hand. However, there is a scarcity of studies focused on the way these processes unfold within adoptive families. This study was aimed at exploring how transracial adoptees cope with the construction of their ethnic identity. Administering a self-report questionnaire to 127 transracial adoptees and their mothers, for a total of 254 participants, we first investigated the association between mothers' cultural socialisation (enculturation and preparation for bias strategies) and adoptees' ethnic identity (i.e. ethnic identity exploration and ethnic identity affirmation dimensions). We then investigated whether ethnic identity affects self-esteem by testing the hypothesis that national identity moderates the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem. Results revealed that mothers' enculturation (but not their preparation for bias) supported adoptees' ethnic identity exploration, which in turn was positively associated with ethnic identity affirmation. Moreover, we confirmed the moderation effect: ethnic identity affirmation enhanced the level of self-esteem, but only for those adoptees who perceived a higher degree of national identity affirmation. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. Bridging Spaces: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Promoting Positive Online Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyt, Ilka

    2013-01-01

    The globalization of online courses has transformed online learning into cross-cultural learning spaces. Students from non-English backgrounds are enrolling in credit-bearing courses and must adjust their thinking and writing to adapt to online practices. Online courses have as their aim the construction of knowledge, but students' perceptions of…

  2. Building the Diversity Bridge Abroad: The Journey to Implement Cultural Competent Health Care in Lausanne, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Alejandra; Paroz, Sophie; Dory, Elody; Green, Alexander; Vu, Francis; Bodenmann, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although the United States has been central in bringing cultural competency into the discussion of high-quality care, health systems all over the world are faced with the effects of global immigration and the widening disparities gap between socioeconomic classes. Lausanne University Hospital is one of five Swiss academic medical…

  3. Music, Education, and Diversity: Bridging Cultures and Communities. Multicultural Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    2018-01-01

    Music is a powerful means for educating citizens in a multicultural society and meeting many challenges shared by teachers across all subjects and grade levels. By celebrating heritage and promoting intercultural understandings, music can break down barriers among various ethnic, racial, cultural, and language groups within elementary and…

  4. Sustainable Communities: A Lens for Envisioning and Achieving a Community-Based Culture of Social and Ecological Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Frans C.

    2014-01-01

    One of the obstacles to dealing with the social and ecological crises that obstruct the achievement of a culture of peace is silo thinking in global governance. A unidimensional mode of planning, silo thinking leads to decisions based on the area of expertise of a particular agency or intergovernmental organization and fails to recognize linkages…

  5. Cross-Cultural Understanding Through Youth Sports: Bridging the Tolerance Gap Through Youth Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig M. Ross

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The USPORT-Kyrgyzstan project was an ambitious initiative of public diplomacy, sports diplomacy, cross-cultural exchange, in-country grassroots projects, and international cooperation. The project consisted of three phrases which included youth recreational sport programming, youth leadership and development training, and youth tolerance training. Overall, it proved to be an extremely effective form of intervention that provided youth in this region of the Middle East with many positive and constructive youth sports and leadership development opportunities.

  6. Bridging Mediterranean cultures in the IYS: A documentary exhibition on irrigation techniques in water scarcity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barontini, Stefano; Louki, Amina; Ben Slima, Zied; Ezzahra Ghaouch, Fatima; Labaran, Raisa; Raffelli, Giulia; Peli, Marco; Vitale, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Brescia, an industrial city in Northern Italy, is now experiencing a crucial change in its traditional structure. In recent years in fact it has been elected as living and working seat by many foreigners and it is now one of the cities with the greatest percentage of migrants in the Country. This is an important challenge for the city and an opportunity to merge, compare and integrate different cultures to build its future. In this context some students of different Courses (engineering and medicine), belonging both to the Arabian and local community, met together and with researchers in the study team 'Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i , for culture, science and society'. The team aims at organising cultural events in which, starting from the figure of the Persian scientist Ab¯u Raih. ¯a n Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i (about 973, 1051), the contribution of the Arabian and Islamic culture to the development of the European one in the middle ages is investigated. Moving from the initial idea of the study team Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i and from the suggestions of the World Soil Day 2014 and of the International Year of Soils 2015, we built a documentary exhibition entitled 'Irrigation techniques in water scarcity conditions'. The exhibition, which stresses the importance of the irrigation techniques for the soil conservation, is focused on the idea of disseminating two main concepts, i.e. (1) the technological continuity of some water supply systems in countries, around the Mediterranean Sea, affected by similar conditions of water availability, and (2) the possibility of building environments where, due to severe or extreme climatic conditions, the sustainability is reached when the man lives in equilibrium with the nature. The exhibition, which is written in Italian and will move around in the city during all 2015, consists of about twenty posters organized into three main chapters, corresponding to three main classes of water supply systems which are common in most of the countries surrounding

  7. Bridging Cultures and Crossing Academic Divides: Teaching the Americas in the New Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Akbar Gilliam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available African Diaspora Studies and Latin American (and Latino Studies are traditionally seen as two distinct disciplines, each having its own perspective, each having its particular areas of concern.  Some scholars, however, see each of these fields of study as complementary, and take the position that neither field can be fully understood or appreciated without including the history, culture and theoretical framework of the other.  I make this argument based on four factors: 1 Over 90% of the Africans brought to the Americas as slaves were sent to Latin America  2 A documented shared history for more than 500 years 3 A trend toward interdisciplinarity and multicultural perspective among scholars in the two fields  4 The shared political genesis of Black Studies and Latino Studies in the 1960s and 1970s. As someone who teaches Spanish language, and researches Afro-Hispanic writers and themes, I welcomed the challenge to enhance an existing Latin American and Latino Studies course with a curriculum to more fully reflect the development of the modern Americas as both a clash and combination of African, Native American (indigenous, and European peoples: their bloodlines, cultures, languages, faith traditions, and political struggles.  This course is called “Founding Myths and Cultural Conquest in Latin America.”  It is one of two courses prerequisite to a major or minor in Latin American and Latino Studies, and is now regularly cross-listed in the African and Black Diaspora Studies Program. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso

  8. Do PhD supervisors play a role in bridging academic cultures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliot, Dely; Kobayashi, Sofie

    Our study reports a phenomenological investigation of ten international PhD students’ and nine supervisors’ first-hand experience of being in doctoral supervisory relationships in a Danish setting. In-depth qualitative data were gathered through face-to-face individual interviews, which explored......, we strongly argue that PhD supervisors also have a significant part to play in facilitating successful transition of their PhD students to a new academic culture. Literature in doctoral education recognises the importance of ‘pastoral care’ in the supervisory bond for nurturing students’ overall...... learning, e.g. confidence and capacity-building in preparation for independent research (Cotterall, 2013; Wright, 2003). Pastoral care arguably includes supervisors’ efforts to facilitate the transition to the new learning environment. Yet, more in-depth examination of this aspect of the supervisory...

  9. Primates, Provisioning and Plants: Impacts of Human Cultural Behaviours on Primate Ecological Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Asmita; McConkey, Kim R; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2015-01-01

    Human provisioning of wildlife with food is a widespread global practice that occurs in multiple socio-cultural circumstances. Provisioning may indirectly alter ecosystem functioning through changes in the eco-ethology of animals, but few studies have quantified this aspect. Provisioning of primates by humans is known to impact their activity budgets, diets and ranging patterns. Primates are also keystone species in tropical forests through their role as seed dispersers; yet there is no information on how provisioning might affect primate ecological functions. The rhesus macaque is a major human-commensal species but is also an important seed disperser in the wild. In this study, we investigated the potential impacts of provisioning on the role of rhesus macaques as seed dispersers in the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India. We studied a troop of macaques which were provisioned for a part of the year and were dependent on natural resources for the rest. We observed feeding behaviour, seed handling techniques and ranging patterns of the macaques and monitored availability of wild fruits. Irrespective of fruit availability, frugivory and seed dispersal activities decreased when the macaques were provisioned. Provisioned macaques also had shortened daily ranges implying shorter dispersal distances. Finally, during provisioning periods, seeds were deposited on tarmac roads that were unconducive for germination. Provisioning promotes human-primate conflict, as commensal primates are often involved in aggressive encounters with humans over resources, leading to negative consequences for both parties involved. Preventing or curbing provisioning is not an easy task as feeding wild animals is a socio-cultural tradition across much of South and South-East Asia, including India. We recommend the initiation of literacy programmes that educate lay citizens about the ill-effects of provisioning and strongly caution them against the practice.

  10. Assessing Freshwater Ecosystem Service Risk over Ecological, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Gradients: Problem Space Characterization and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, T. C.; Villamizar, S. R.; Conde, D.; Rusak, J.; Reid, B.; Astorga, A.; Perillo, G. M.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zilio, M.; London, S.; Velez, M.; Hoyos, N.; Escobar, J.

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide are under increasing anthropogenic pressure at local (e.g., irrigation diversions, wastewater discharge) and global scales (e.g., climate change, global trading). The impact depends on an ecosystem's sensitivity, which is determined by its geophysical and ecological settings, and the population and activities in its surrounding watershed. Given the importance of ecosystem services, it is critical that we improve our ability to identify and understand changes in aquatic ecosystems, and translate them to risk of service loss. Furthermore, to inspire changes in human behavior, it is equally critical that we learn to communicate risk, and pose risk mitigation strategies, in a manner acceptable to a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Quantifying the nature and timing of the risk is difficult because (1) we often fail to understand the connection between anthropogenic pressures and the timing and extent of ecosystem changes; and (2) the concept of risk is inherently coupled to human perception, which generally differs with cultural and socio-economic conditions. In this study, we endeavor to assess aquatic ecosystem risks across an international array of six study sites. The challenge is to construct a methodology capable of capturing the marked biogeographical, socioeconomic, and cultural differences among the sites, which include: (1) Muskoka River watershed in humid continental Ontario, Canada; (2) Lower San Joaquin River, an impounded snow-fed river in semi-arid Central California; (3) Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, a tropical coastal lagoon in Colombia; (4) Senguer River basin in the semi-arid part of Argentina; (5) Laguna de Rocha watershed in humid subtropical Uruguay; and (6) Palomas Lake complex in oceanic Chilean Patagonia. Results will include a characterization of the experimental gradient over the six sites, an overview of the risk assessment methodology, and preliminary findings for several of the sites.

  11. Introduction to a special section: Ecology, culture, and management of Burbot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Madenjian, Charles P.

    2013-01-01

    The Burbot Lota lota is the only truly freshwater member of the cod family (Gadidae) and one of only two species of freshwater fish that have a circumpolar range (McPhail and Lindsey 1970; McPhail and Paragamian 2000). Two subspecies of Lota lota have been documented: Lota lota maculosa, which is found exclusively in North America from south of Great Slave Lake in Canada to the southern limit of its range; and Lota lota lota, which is found over the remainder of the species’ Nearctic range and its entire Eurasian range (Hubbs and Schultz 1941; Van Houdt et al. 2003). However, many recent authorities (e.g., Scott and Crossman 1973) do not designate subspecies. Burbot occupy the widest range of depths of all fishes found in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin (i.e., from small streams to at least 300 m in Lake Superior; Boyer et al. 1989). Worldwide, many Burbot populations are threatened or endangered or have been extirpated (reviewed by Stapanian et al. 2010). Due in part to its unpopularity as a sport and commercial fish in much of its range, the species is often ignored in fish management and conservation programs (McPhail and Paragamian 2000; Stapanian et al. 2008, 2010). Even basic information on Burbot ecology, particularly its early life history and spawning habitats and sites, is lacking. This lack of information is particularly troubling because Burbot are an indicator of the health of coldwater systems (Stapanian et al. 2010). Efforts to rehabilitate or restore imperiled populations include culturing early life stages. Burbot larvae are difficult to culture for a variety of reasons, including their delicate body structure, small size at hatch, and live-feed requirement for at least 5 weeks following alimentary tract development.

  12. The philosophical and educational potential ecopsychology as means of forming ecological culture of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kisyel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current ecological crisis is largely caused by the dominance of anthropocentric environmental awareness. To overcome it and move humanity to a model of sustainable social and environmental development required the establishment of environmental consciousness ecocentric type, which is the aim of environmental education, namely, the formation of personality type ecocentric environmental awareness. The purpose of the article is to study the philosophical and educational potential environmental psychology as a means of transformation of personal values and attitudes toward nature. Analysis of the concepts of subjective attitude to nature, subjective perception of the natural world, environmental knowledge, empaurment-method pedagogy. Education for Sustainable Development aims to develop such knowledge, skills and values that will enable people to make individual and collective decisions of local and global nature to improve the quality of life without endangering future generations. The basic methodological principle of environmental psyhopedahohiky is in strict accordance with the environmental education teaching psychological process of environmental awareness. Interaction with nature is a great psychological and pedagogical potential that should be used in the environmental education that will allow him to become a factor in the overall development and personality development. So effectively targeted formation ekospozhyvchoyi culture of all populations requires training of qualified specialists in the field of eco-educational activities and environmental education and its philosophical and educational foundation.

  13. Unraveling microbial ecology of industrial-scale Kombucha fermentations by metabarcoding and culture-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coton, Monika; Pawtowski, Audrey; Taminiau, Bernard; Burgaud, Gaëtan; Deniel, Franck; Coulloumme-Labarthe, Laurent; Fall, Abdoulaye; Daube, Georges; Coton, Emmanuel

    2017-05-01

    Kombucha, historically an Asian tea-based fermented drink, has recently become trendy in Western countries. Producers claim it bears health-enhancing properties that may come from the tea or metabolites produced by its microbiome. Despite its long history of production, microbial richness and dynamics have not been fully unraveled, especially at an industrial scale. Moreover, the impact of tea type (green or black) on microbial ecology was not studied. Here, we compared microbial communities from industrial-scale black and green tea fermentations, still traditionally carried out by a microbial biofilm, using culture-dependent and metabarcoding approaches. Dominant bacterial species belonged to Acetobacteraceae and to a lesser extent Lactobacteriaceae, while the main identified yeasts corresponded to Dekkera, Hanseniaspora and Zygosaccharomyces during all fermentations. Species richness decreased over the 8-day fermentation. Among acetic acid bacteria, Gluconacetobacter europaeus, Gluconobacter oxydans, G. saccharivorans and Acetobacter peroxydans emerged as dominant species. The main lactic acid bacteria, Oenococcus oeni, was strongly associated with green tea fermentations. Tea type did not influence yeast community, with Dekkera bruxellensis, D. anomala, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Hanseniaspora valbyensis as most dominant. This study unraveled a distinctive core microbial community which is essential for fermentation control and could lead to Kombucha quality standardization. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Difference in association. About bridging the cultural gap when translating Ibsen's En folkefiende

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lande Peters

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ibsen-In-Translation aims at translating Ibsen’s work simultaneously into the languages of: Classic Arabic, Chinese, Egyptian, English, Hindi, Japanese, Russian and Spanish. During the translation of En Folkefiende the group met twice to discuss problems and help eachother’s understanding of the play. This article aims at pointing out some of the common translation-problems the eight translators encountered, and to mention specific problems I encountered in the process of translating the play into Japanese. During our two meetings, I saw that some problems were language-specific, and that some were common to more of us. We also discovered that some words and expressions are so rooted in the Norwegian culture and that a literal translation of such words and expressions create different associations in the target language. Among the problems we had in common, there seemed to be two main categories. 1: Concepts related to Christian values, and 2: Concepts related to the Norwegian societal organization of the time. Christian values-related problems consisted of translating swearwords, translating the concepts and the associations related to the words ”temperance”, ”atheism” and ”openmindedness”. As for the problems relating to societal organization and political ideology in Norway of the time, concepts relating to the term ”borger” was a challenge for many of us. As for me specifically, I also had the added challenge of fitting the relatively democratic language of Ibsen into the Japanese hierarchical language system.

  15. Evaluation of Policy Implementation at Norm Strategy Criteria Procedure Safety Management System that Influence the Safety Culture in Building Construction, Housing, Waterworks, Road and Bridge Project in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Latief; Rossy Armyn Machfudiyanto; Brain Harryanto; Cahyadi Santoso

    2017-01-01

    Unideal Safety culture in Indonesia requires an evaluation of policy implementation refers to the construction safety regulation, Ministry Regulation 05/PRT/2014. Out of Norms, Standards, Procedures and Criteria (NSPK), we only have Norms and Procedure. As for Standard and Criteria are still being planned. This research on building, housing, water resource, roads and bridges construction at the Ministry of General Works and Housing resulted in having significant relation between safety policy...

  16. Ecological and Cultural Importance of a Species at Risk of Extinction, Pacific Lamprey, 1964-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-07-01

    The cultural and ecological values of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) have not been understood by Euro-Americans and thus their great decline has almost gone unnoticed except by Native Americans, who elevated the issue and initiated research to restore its populations, at least in the Columbia Basin. They regard Pacific lamprey as a highly valued resource and as a result ksuyas (lamprey) has become one of their cultural icons. Ksuyas are harvested to this day as a subsistence food by various tribes along the Pacific coast and are highly regarded for their cultural value. Interestingly, our review suggests that the Pacific lamprey plays an important role in the food web, may have acted as a buffer for salmon from predators, and may have been an important source of marine nutrients to oligotrophic watersheds. This is very different from the Euro-American perception that lampreys are pests. We suggest that cultural biases affected management policies.

  17. Improved earthen stoves in coastal areas in Bangladesh: Economic, ecological and socio-cultural evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazmul Alam, S.M.; Chowdhury, Sakila Jahan [Department of Social Sciences and Asian Languages, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987 Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    The study evaluated the economic, ecological and socio-cultural achievements of improved earthen stoves that were provided to the beneficiaries under a project to improve decreasing biomass energy utilization. A questionnaire was developed and a random sampling method was employed for selecting the samples from the population. The region has undergone a significant change with the development of shrimp aquaculture in brackish water on former paddy field. As a result the households have become dependent on the wood resources of the Sundarban (77% as their first choice of daily fuel). The fuel collection rate from the Sundarban has increased by 30% since the change to aquaculture, while the use of agricultural residues has declined by a similar amount. The introduction of the improved stove with two cook stations and a chimney resulted in a reduction of fuel use (as wood) to 540 g caput{sup -1} d{sup -1}, from the previous usage of 810 g caput{sup -1} d{sup -1} using the traditional stove. Households saved 1.5 kg d{sup -1} of fuel (one third), and reduced the cooking time by 45 min d{sup -1} (about 20%). While 85% of men and 65% of women were the major fuel collectors, the improved stove resulted in a small increase (14 taka) in the women's contribution to family income as well as a monthly saving on fuel cost of 45 taka. Respondents utilized saved time and money for household means and other economic activities. (author)

  18. Glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides from Rosa cell cultures are boron-bridged in the plasma membrane and form complexes with rhamnogalacturonan II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voxeur, Aline; Fry, Stephen C

    2014-07-01

    Boron (B) is essential for plant cell-wall structure and membrane functions. Compared with its role in cross-linking the pectic domain rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II), little information is known about the biological role of B in membranes. Here, we investigated the involvement of glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs), major components of lipid rafts, in the membrane requirement for B. Using thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry, we first characterized GIPCs from Rosa cell culture. The major GIPC has one hexose residue, one hexuronic acid residue, inositol phosphate, and a ceramide moiety with a C18 trihydroxylated mono-unsaturated long-chain base and a C24 monohydroxylated saturated fatty acid. Disrupting B bridging (by B starvation in vivo or by treatment with cold dilute HCl or with excess borate in vitro) enhanced the GIPCs' extractability. As RG-II is the main B-binding site in plants, we investigated whether it could form a B-centred complex with GIPCs. Using high-voltage paper electrophoresis, we showed that addition of GIPCs decreased the electrophoretic mobility of radiolabelled RG-II, suggesting formation of a GIPC-B-RG-II complex. Last, using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we showed that added GIPCs facilitate RG-II dimerization in vitro. We conclude that B plays a structural role in the plasma membrane. The disruption of membrane components by high borate may account for the phytotoxicity of excess B. Moreover, the in-vitro formation of a GIPC-B-RG-II complex gives the first molecular explanation of the wall-membrane attachment sites observed in vivo. Finally, our results suggest a role for GIPCs in the RG-II dimerization process. © 2014 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Yeast culture supplement during nursing and transport affects immunity and intestinal microbial ecology of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedman, S M; Rostagno, M H; Patterson, J A; Yoon, I; Fitzner, G; Eicher, S D

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on innate immunity and intestinal microbial ecology after weaning and transport stress. In a randomized complete block design, before weaning and in a split-plot analysis of a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of yeast culture (YY) and transport (TT) after weaning, 3-d-old pigs (n = 108) were randomly assigned within litter (block) to either a control (NY, milk only) or yeast culture diet (YY; delivered in milk to provide 0.1 g of yeast culture product/kg of BW) from d 4 to 21. At weaning (d 21), randomly, one-half of the NY and YY pigs were assigned to a 6-h transport (NY-TT and YY-TT) before being moved to nursery housing, and the other one-half were moved directly to nursery housing (NY-NT and YY-NT, where NT is no transport). The yeast treatment was a 0.2% S. cerevisiae fermentation product and the control treatment was a 0.2% grain blank in feed for 2 wk. On d 1 before transport and on d 1, 4, 7, and 14 after transport, blood was collected for leukocyte assays, and mesenteric lymph node, jejunal, and ileal tissue, and jejunal, ileal, and cecal contents were collected for Toll-like receptor expression (TLR); enumeration of Escherichia coli, total coliforms, and lactobacilli; detection of Salmonella; and microbial analysis. After weaning, a yeast × transport interaction for ADG was seen (P = 0.05). Transport affected (P = 0.09) ADFI after weaning. Yeast treatment decreased hematocrit (P = 0.04). A yeast × transport interaction was found for counts of white blood cells (P = 0.01) and neutrophils (P = 0.02) and for the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.02). Monocyte counts revealed a transport (P = 0.01) effect. Interactions of yeast × transport (P = 0.001) and yeast × transport × day (P = 0.09) for TLR2 and yeast × transport (P = 0.08) for TLR4 expression in the mesenteric lymph node were detected. Day affected lactobacilli, total coliform, and E

  20. Ecology of Physical Culture and Sports as a science and the prospects of its teaching in schools of physical education and sport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsyganenko O.I.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of information generators is conducted on ecology of physical culture. The substantive provisions of ecology of physical culture and sport as sciences are developed. An object and objects of study, basic tasks of researches, place of ecology of physical culture and sport, is certain among other sciences, methods of researches. Perspective of teaching of discipline is certain «Ecology of physical culture and sport» in the institutes of higher in form discipline on a choice. The necessity of development of on-line tutorial is marked. It is marked that in an on-line tutorial information must be presented about the amount of credits, modules and semantic modules. In the program aims and tasks of discipline must be certain also, the levels of jurisdiction are indicated. The system of estimation of quality of mastering of on-line tutorial students must be presented. Directions of including of discipline are recommended in curricula.

  1. Ecological evaluation of two prawn culture fields in the Cochin Backwater based on premonsoon diurnal observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balasubramanian, T.; Viswakumar, M.; Venugopal, P.

    condition. The present study confirms the need to give full recognition to both these parts of the backwater in planning detailed ecological studies in order to fully utilise the high aquaculture potential afforded by the Cochin Backwater....

  2. A Case Study of the Cultural Ecological Protection in Wa Ethnical Willage, Wengding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Fan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to survive in the context of new developments is a major problem confronting minority nationality cultures in the process of modernization. This paper is a case study of Wongding,an aboriginal Wa minority nationality culture village listed among the first group of intangible culture units in China’s Yunnan Province. The research emphasizes giving balanced attention to both protection and development, focusing on the living inheritance of culture in community life and the development of cultural tourism by utilizing the market platform and diverse forces to promote the development of minority nationality cultures.

  3. MODEL FOR THE FORMATION OF ECOLOGICAL CULTURE OF THE MILITARY HIGH SCHOOL CADETS IN THE MUSEUM EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT IN THE PROCESS OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Khrabrova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the formation of ecological culture of military high school cadets in the process of the museum’s research activities. The author defines the main mechanism of ecological culture formation, being characteristic of military high school cadets, and believes that the development of the cadets’ ecological culture, while they are engaged in the research process, will be effective, provided an innovative research context has been set up within the educational activities scope of the high school’s museum. For this purpose, the author suggests both considering the formation of ecological culture of military high school cadets in the process of the museum’s research activities and revealing certain links between the following components: socio-cultural environment and the museum’s one, the cadets’ research activities and the setting up of the ecological display at the museum, which comprises the contents of the museum teaching science. The author considers this model to be efficient for the purposes of the formation of the cadets’ ecological culture within the museum educational environment, as it has been proved efficient at a civil high school.

  4. Railroad Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Bridges-Rail in the United States According to The National Bridge Inspection Standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (23 CFR 650.3), a bridge isA...

  5. Myocardial Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sudden Cardiac Arrest Valve Disease Vulnerable Plaque Myocardial Bridge Related terms: myocardium, coronary arteries, myocardial ischemia Your ... surface of the heart. What is a myocardial bridge? A myocardial bridge is a band of heart ...

  6. Storytelling as Academic Discourse: Bridging the Cultural-Linguistic Divide in the Era of the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching Ching

    2014-01-01

    Bakhtin's dialogism provides a sociocultural approach that views language as a social practice informed by the complex interaction between discourse and meaning. Drawing on this theoretical framework, I argue that a dialogized version of storytelling can be helpful in creating a reflective form of academic discourse that bridges the gap between…

  7. "Talking Leaves Are Striped": American Indian Cultural and Religious Challenges with Literacy and Why Process Drama Can Bridge the Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Christine D.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses studies that indicate that most American Indians have a historical and contemporary aversion to writing and reading. Suggests that the use of process drama in American Indian classrooms can bridge the gap between Western philosophies and education and American Indian religious attitudes and oral traditions. Concludes if educators…

  8. Fostering Eco-Cultural Literacies for Social, Cultural and Ecological Justice: A Perspective from Aotearoa (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Pedagogies that reflect the eco-cultural literacies of local Indigenous peoples have potential to foster young children's empathy for our planet as well as for other humans and for more-than-human kin such as mountains, rivers, forests, plants, fish, insects and animals. This article explores some ways in which early years educators can implement…

  9. Algal culture studies related to a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Fernandez, E.; Ollinger, O.; Howell, C.; Venables, A.; Huggins, D.; Gladue, R.

    1984-01-01

    In many respects, algae would be the ideal plant component for a biologically based controlled life support system, since they are eminently suited to the closely coupled functions of atmosphere regeneration and food production. Scenedesmus obliquus and Spirulina platensis were grown in three continuous culture apparatuses. Culture vessels their operation and relative merits are described. Both light and nitrogen utilization efficiency are examined. Long term culture issues are detailed and a discussion of a plasmid search in Spirulina is included.

  10. Eco-Film and the Audience: Making Ecological Sense of National Cultural Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culloty, Eileen; Brereton, Pat

    2017-01-01

    As eco-criticism moves in the mainstream of film studies, questions remain about the relationship between ecological film representations and audience understanding. Addressing definitional tensions within eco-film research, this article argues that eco-criticism can be pragmatically grounded in terms of eco-film's pedagogical pertinence for…

  11. Sponge culture: learning from biology and ecology = Spons cultuur: leren van biologie and ecologie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caralt, de S.

    2007-01-01

    Sponges produce secondary metabolites, which play several ecological roles (McClintock & Baker 2001) such us competition for the space (Martí 2005), antifouling activity (Martin & Uriz 1993, Becerro 1994), and deterrence from predators (e.g. Becerro et al. 2003).

  12. Microbial ecology of artisanal italian cheese: Molecular microbial characterization by culture-independent method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, E.; Scarpellini, M.; Franzatti, L.; Dioguardi, L.

    2009-07-01

    Present study will treat the next topics: ecology of the natural and man made environments and functional diversity of bacteria. The microbial communities in artisanal goat cheeses produced in mountain pastures (typical farms) in Piemonte mountain (North of Italy) change a lot during precessing and ripening time. Moreover cheese microbial ecosystems are different in each small dairy because adventitious microflora can come from the environment and contamination the milk before the cheese making process and the product during manufacture and ripening. (Author)

  13. Nutritional and cultural aspects of plant species selection for a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, J. E.; Howe, J. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and management of plants, food processing, the psychological impact of vegetarian diets, and plant propagation. A total of 115 higher plant species are compared based on 21 selection criteria.

  14. Bridging the gap for ethnic minority adult outpatients with depression and anxiety disorders by culturally adapted treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Annelies; van Schaik, Anneke; Dekker, Jack; Beekman, Aartjan

    2013-05-01

    Culturally adapted guideline driven depression and anxiety treatments have been developed for ethnic minority patients in Western countries to boost effectiveness for these growing and vulnerable groups. The aims of this study are to systematically review the empirical literature of outcomes associated with culturally adapted guideline driven depression and anxiety interventions, to describe the cultural adaptation and to identify the contribution of the cultural adaptation and approach as such. Comprehensive search of the major bibliographical databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Pubmed; Psychinfo) for randomized controlled trials. Nine eligible studies were identified and all were conducted in the USA. The pooled random standardized differences in means of the culturally adapted depression and anxiety treatment on clinical outcome was 1.06 (CI 95% 0.51-1.62, P=0.00). Two studies demonstrated effectiveness of the population specific cultural adaptation per se. All studies incorporated a focus on cultural values and beliefs as a cultural adaptation. We only identified a small number of USA studies so generalisation of the findings to other western countries can be discussed. Culturally adapted guideline driven depression and anxiety treatment was effective for USA minority patients from different cultural backgrounds. There is some evidence for the effectiveness of the population specific cultural adaptation as such. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Social Vulnerability and Ecological Fragility: Building Bridges between Social and Natural Sciences Using the Irish Potato Famine as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan D. G. Fraser

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 1845 and 1850, a potato blight triggered a famine that killed or displaced 25% of the Irish population. Aside from its historical and cultural significance, the Irish Potato Famine illustrates how social and economic forces can create vulnerability to environmental disturbance. Therefore, studying the famine contributes to the on-going academic debate on theories to combine social and environmental data. This paper explores the conditions leading to the Irish famine using the "Entitlement" framework of Sen (1980 and the "Panarchy" model proposed by Gunderson and Holling (2002. Entitlement theory allows us to better understand how community food security may become vulnerable over time as different social and economic forces eliminate or restrict avenues to obtain food. In Ireland, a host of economic, demographic, and social pressures marked the decades leading to the famine and meant that the Irish peasantry had no food options when the potato crop failed. Panarchy provides a way of characterizing ecological systems that are vulnerable to disruptions. The agro-ecosystem that developed in Ireland prior to the famine had characteristics typical of vulnerable environments: fields were close together, biodiversity was low, and a large amount of biomass made this ecosystem attractive to opportunistic pests. Neither framework, however, provides an adequate way of examining the totality of human-environmental relations. By combining entitlements with panarchy, we can explore both the social and environmental characteristics of vulnerability. Entitlements and panarchy can be coupled by first assessing the extent to which communities depend on the natural environment for livelihoods, and the options available if the environment changes. Once a dependency on the environment has been ascertained, the characteristics of the specific ecosystems in question must then be assessed to determine their vulnerability to external shocks and disturbances. The

  16. Ecological and socio-cultural factors influencing in situ conservation of crop diversity by traditional Andean households in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velásquez-Milla Dora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Peruvian Andean region is a main center of plant domestication of the world. There, several tuber species were domesticated and the area lodges one of the most important reservoirs of their varieties and wild relatives. It is also the setting of traditional cultures using and conserving them. However, crop genetic erosion has been reported in the region since several decades ago; therefore, understanding factors influencing both loss and maintenance of crop variation is relevant to design conservation policies. Previous researches have examined factors influencing agrobiodiversity conservation in the region but additional case studies are recognized to be still necessary for a deeper understanding of causes of genetic erosion and for policy design to prevent and remedy it. Our study focused on analyzing (1 variation in richness of traditional varieties of tubers cultivated among households, (2 changes in varieties richness occurred in four consecutive agricultural cycles, and (3 ecological, social, and cultural factors influencing loss and conservation of varieties. Methods Richness of farmer varieties of tuber species cultivated by 28 peasant households was monitored in communities of Cajamarca and Huánuco, Peru during four consecutive agricultural cycles (from 2001 to 2005. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 of the households with higher reputation as conservationists, in order to document farmers' perception of tubers qualities in ecological, social, economic, technological and culinary aspects and how these influence their decisions of conservation priorities. Traditional varieties were identified according to their local names, which were then confronted among farmers and with scientific catalogues in order to identify synonyms. Based on the information documented, indexes of ecological and socio-cultural factors affecting agricultural practices were designed, and their linear correlations and multivariate

  17. Socio-cultural valuation of ecosystem services in a transhumance social-ecological network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oteros-Rozas, E.; Martín-López, B.; González, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The ecosystem services framework is receiving increasing attention in the fields of policy and research. The assessment of human attitudes and perceptions regarding ecosystem services has been proposed as a promising tool for addressing complex problems associated with environmental change......, particularly in the context of cultural landscapes. Transhumance is not only a farming practice responsible for shaping cultural landscapes but also an adaptive strategy based on mobility that may represent a useful approach to overcoming the growing challenges posed by accelerated environmental change....... A socio-cultural valuation of ecosystem services associated with the Conquense Drove Road, one of the major transhumant networks still in use in Mediterranean Spain, was conducted via the distribution of questionnaires to 416 local residents and visitors to capture their perceptions regarding...

  18. Transformation of rural-urban cultural landscapes in Europe: Integrating approaches from ecological, socio-economic and planning perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pauleit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the presentations and synthesis of the discussion during a Symposium on ‘Transformation of rural-urban cultural landscapes in Europe: Integrating approaches from ecological, socio-economic and planning perspectives’ held at the European IALE conference 2009 in Salzburg, Austria. The symposium addressed an extended and much debated subject of the landscape dynamics in Europe. The papers presented during the symposium showcased a broad spectrum of cutting edge research questions and challenges faced by the cultural landscapes of Europe. During six sessions, 18 presentations (besides 20 posters were made by 36 scientists (including co-authors from 14 countries, representing 25 institutions of Europe. A glance at the presentations revealed that the state-of-the-art focuses on driving forces and selected aspects of transformation processes, methods of its analysis and planning support as dimensions of research in this field. However, inter- and transdisciplinary research and integrative approaches to the development of rural-urban cultural landscapes are needed. The extended discussion session at the latter part of the symposium highlighted some critical and unaddressed research questions which remained a pending agenda for future research.

  19. The ecological and cultural functions of invertebrates in the Congo River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot

    2005-01-01

    One of the entomologically richest, yet least studied, regions of Africa is the interior Congo River Basin. Forests of this region have been called Earth's "second lung" (after the Amazon Basin forests) and harbor an immense diversity of invertebrates. In these tropical rainforests live people of several cultures whose lives and livelihoods are...

  20. Negotiating Sustainability: Reclaiming Ecological Pathways to Bio-Cultural Regeneration in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Abeer Abdel Hamid

    2013-01-01

    What can an indigenous Egyptian paradigm for social evolution that represents the composite of bio-cultural diversities of Egypt and multiple bio-regions within it look like? With such exploratory inquiry in mind, this dissertation research focuses on analyzing the practice of development in Egypt through the lens of place, critiquing its…

  1. Dimensions of Cultural Differences: Pancultural, ETIC/EMIC, and Ecological Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar; Lee, Jihyun

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the factorial structure of four major domains in social psychology (personality traits, social attitudes, values, and social norms) with an emphasis on cross-cultural differences. Three distinctive approaches--pancultural, multigroup, and multilevel--were applied to the data based on 22 measures that were collected from 2029…

  2. Bacterial ecology of artisanal Minas cheeses assessed by culture-dependent and -independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Luana Martins; Savo Sardaro, Maria Luisa; Nero, Luís Augusto; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

    2017-08-01

    Artisanal Minas cheese is produced in Minas Gerais state, Brazil and its varieties are named according to their geographical origin (Serro, Canastra, Serra do Salitre, Araxá and Campo das Vertentes). The cheese is produced with raw cow's milk and the whey from the previous cheese production ("pingo"). The high economic and cultural importance of artisanal cheese in Brazil justifies the efforts to ensure its safety, quality and provenance. This study aimed to characterize the microbial diversity composition, and geographical distribution of artisanal Minas cheese, focusing on the characterization of its autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota. Artisanal Minas cheese varieties from Serro, Canastra, Serra do Salitre, Araxá and Campo das Vertentes were analyzed by culture-dependent (culturing and LAB sequencing) and -independent (repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (rep-PCR) and length heterogeneity-PCR, LH-PCR) methods to characterize the microbiota. The microbial counts were variable between cheese samples, and some samples presented high number of coagulase positive bacteria and coliforms that may be associated with hygienic issues. In all samples was observed a prevalence of LAB. 16S rRNA sequencing and rep-PCR of the LAB strains identified four genus (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Enterococcus and Weissella), ten species and more than one strain per species. Lactobacillus was the most prevalent genera in all the cheeses. LH-PCR revealed a further six genera and ten species that were not identified by culturing, highlighting the importance of combining both culture-dependent and -independent methods to fully characterize microbiota diversity. Principal component analysis of the LH-PCR data and cluster analysis of rep-PCR data revealed that the artisanal Minas cheese microbiota was influenced not only by their geographical origin but also by the cheese farm. The lack of standardization in the milking and cheese manufacturing procedures between

  3. Disease effects on lobster fisheries, ecology, and culture: overview of DAO Special 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Donald C; Butler, Mark J; Stentiford, Grant D

    2012-08-27

    Lobsters are prized by commercial and recreational fishermen worldwide, and their populations are therefore buffeted by fishery practices. But lobsters also remain integral members of their benthic communities where predator-prey relationships, competitive interactions, and host-pathogen dynamics push and pull at their population dynamics. Although lobsters have few reported pathogens and parasites relative to other decapod crustaceans, the rise of diseases with consequences for lobster fisheries and aquaculture has spotlighted the importance of disease for lobster biology, population dynamics and ecology. Researchers, managers, and fishers thus increasingly recognize the need to understand lobster pathogens and parasites so they can be managed proactively and their impacts minimized where possible. At the 2011 International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management a special session on lobster diseases was convened and this special issue of Diseases of Aquatic Organisms highlights those proceedings with a suite of articles focused on diseases discussed during that session.

  4. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...

  5. Social and Cultural Contexts of Alcohol Use: Influences in a Social-Ecological Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Wigglesworth, Christina; Takeuchi, David T

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and misuse account for 3.3 million deaths every year, or 6 percent of all deaths worldwide. The harmful effects of alcohol misuse are far reaching and range from individual health risks, morbidity, and mortality to consequences for family, friends, and the larger society. This article reviews a few of the cultural and social influences on alcohol use and places individual alcohol use within the contexts and environments where people live and interact. It includes a discussion of macrolevel factors, such as advertising and marketing, immigration and discrimination factors, and how neighborhoods, families, and peers influence alcohol use. Specifically, the article describes how social and cultural contexts influence alcohol use/misuse and then explores future directions for alcohol research.

  6. Role of Ecological Cultural Synthesis in Enhancement of Importance and Competitive Ability of Polytechnic Education in the Southern Far East of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, V. I.; Golikov, S. Yu; Maiorov, I. S.

    2017-11-01

    The regional features of polytechnic education development under present-day conditions are considered. The enhanced role of ecological cultural synthesis is proved to be necessary in order to enhance the importance and competitive ability of the polytechnic education in the southern Far East of the Russian Federation. Ecological cultural synthesis is the major condition to turn natural management into the ecologically sparing management of natural resources; it is also a method of a person to learn nature and the mutual relations with nature. It should become a basis for educational programs in the higher schools of the Russian Federation (that may be used with the practical purposes not only in the Russian Federation), and it may promote the search of the national idea, ideological core, and basic principles of further education development in Russia.

  7. Impact of operating history on mixed culture fermentation microbial ecology and product mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Slater, F R; Mohd-Zaki, Z; Pratt, S; Batstone, D J

    2011-01-01

    Mixed culture fermentation is an alternative to pure culture fermentation for production of biofuels and valuable products. A glucose-fed, continuous reactor was operated cyclically to a central pH of 5.5 from a number of precedent pHs, from 4.5 to 7.5. At each pH, stable chemical production was reached after 2 retention times and was held for least 2 further retention times prior to the next change. Bacterial groups were identified by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene clones. Bacterial community dynamics were monitored by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism. More ethanol was produced at high pH, and more butyrate at lower pH. At pH 5.5, the product spectrum was not measurably influenced by precedent pH but showed seemingly random changes. The impact of precedent pH on community structure was more systematic, with clear indications that when the pH was returned to 5.5, the bacterial group that was dominant at the precedent pH remained at high abundance. This result is important, since it indicates a decoupling between microbial function (as indicated by product spectrum), and community structure. More work is needed to determine the longevity of this hysteresis effect. There was evidence that groups retained their ability to re-emerge even after times of low abundance.

  8. Narrative ethics and the ecology of culture: notes on new Italian-Icelandic sagas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Rocha, Antonio Casado

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The following are a few loose notes about a tough subject: the relationship between ethics, storytelling and the legal-cum-social framework that makes human creativity thrive or decay. Rather than a tight argument, what I propose here is a few, unoriginal hints, in the hope that they may help others to pursue a fuller answer to the question, On what depends the preservation of transmission of a culture? Using some thoughts by A. MacIntyre and some examples taken from the history of Icelandic literature, I emphasize the role of alternative ways of understanding intellectual property, as well as some contemporary experiments in mythopoiesis, such as the one by the Italian collective of writers-activists known as Wu Ming.

  9. Crossing Boundaries between Cultures and Disciplines: Using Geography and Creative Arts to Build Bridges with Community Groups in One School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Ruth; Lane, Sue

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to develop tolerance and acceptance of other cultural groups, teacher educators from the University of Newcastle worked with members of the local African community and teachers from a local school to develop a Creative Arts and Geography program for young school children (aged 7-9 years). The program developed put together the…

  10. Bridging the gap for ethnic minority adult outpatients with depression and anxiety disorders by culturally adapted treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, A.; van Schaik, A.M.C.G.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Beekman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Culturally adapted guideline driven depression and anxiety treatments have been developed for ethnic minority patients in Western countries to boost effectiveness for these growing and vulnerable groups. The aims of this study are to systematically review the empirical literature of

  11. Bridging Theory and Practice: Using Hip-Hop Pedagogy as a Culturally Relevant Approach in the Urban Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Edmund S.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation explores the context of urban science education as it relates to the achievement and engagement of urban youth. This study provides a framework for Hip-Hop Pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning anchored in the creative elements of Hip-Hop culture, in STEM as an innovative approach to teaching and learning demonstrates…

  12. OSL versus 14C dating of sandy pedosediments as paleo-ecological archives in cultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Late glacial aeolian coversand dominates the surface geology of an extensive area in Northwest Europe. During prehistoric and early historic time, forest grazing, wood cutting and shifting cultivation gradually transformed natural forest into heath land. Subsequently the use of the heath for the production of organic manure during the period of plaggen agriculture (from early Middle Ages to the invention of chemical fertilizers around 1900 AD) resulted in the comeback of active sand drifting. Locally the coversand landscape transformed into a driftsand landscape with characteristic new landforms and soils. Important parts of soil archives in these cultural landscapes are fimic covers, records of a long period of agricultural history and polycyclic driftsand deposits, records of alternating instable and stable phases in landscape development. Based on pollen analysis of fimic covers and buried humic soil horizons in polycyclic driftsand sequences, a lot of paleoecological information is available to reconstruct the development of soils and landforms in cultural landscapes, but we need a correct chronological framework to correlate information of various sources and sites. Traditionally 14C dating was applied on humic horizons of buried soils and a 14C based chronological framework was designed to estimate the accumulation rate of fimic covers and to date stable and instable periods in polycyclic driftsand profiles. However, 14C dates of extracted SOM (soil organic matter) are not always reliable. Firstly, in studies of fimic antrosols arose disagreement between paleoecological and historical interpretators of the evolution of these antrosols. The results of soil micromorphology and 14C dating, applied on separated SOM fractions (humine, humic acids and fulvic acids) showed that SOM, present in fimic horizons, consists of a complex mix of compounds of different ages and sources. Secondly, 14C dates of buried humic soil horizons are not always reliable. In thin

  13. Myocardial Bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

  14. A quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative approaches to measure and assess resilience are needed to bridge gaps between science, policy, and management. In this paper, we suggest a quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience. Ecological resilience as an emergent ecosystem phenomenon can be dec...

  15. [System construction of early warning for ecological security at cultural and natural heritage mixed sites and its application: a case study of Wuyishan Scenery District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Wei-Bin; He, Dong-Jin; Qin, De-Hua; Ji, Zhi-Rong; Wu, Li-Yun; Yu, Jian-An; Chen, Bing-Rong; Tan, Yong

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposed a new concept of ecological security for protection by a comprehensive analysis of the contents and standards of world heritage sites. A frame concept model named "Pressure-State-Control" for early warning of ecological security at world heritage mixed sites was constructed and evaluation indicators of this frame were also selected. Wuyishan Scenery District was chosen for a case study, which has been severely disturbed by natural and artificial factors. Based on the frame model of "Pressure-State-Control" and by employing extension analysis, the matter-element model was established to assess the ecological security status of this cultural and natural world heritage mixed site. The results showed that the accuracy of ecological security early warning reached 84%. Early warning rank was I level (no alert status) in 1997 and 2009, but that in 2009 had a higher possibility to convert into II level. Likewise, the early-warning indices of sensitive ranks were different between 1997 and 2009. Population density, population growth rate, area index for tea garden, cultivated land owned per capita, level of drought, and investment for ecological and environmental construction were the main limiting factors to hinder the development of ecological security from 2009 to future. In general, the status of Wuyishan Scenery District ecological security was relatively good and considered as no alert level, while risk conditions also existed in terms of a few early-warning indicators. We still need to pay more attention to serious alert indicators and adopt effective prevention and control measures to maintain a good ecological security status of this heritage site.

  16. Integrating Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Fisheries Management in the Torres Strait, Australia: the Catalytic Role of Turtles and Dugong as Cultural Keystone Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. A. Butler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In many developing regions of Melanesia, fishers' traditional ecological knowledge (TEK has been integrated with western science and management knowledge (SMK to generate innovative and effective fisheries management. Previous research suggests that three factors initiate this process: depleted fishery stocks, limited SMK, and ownership of resources by local communities. In other contexts the extent of power-sharing through comanagement, and the cultural significance of species may also be important determinants of knowledge integration. Here we assess the role of these factors in the application of TEK in the Torres Strait Islands, Australia, where commercial and subsistence fisheries are fundamental to the Indigenous Melanesian culture and livelihoods. In 2009 we surveyed fishery managers and scientists who revealed that TEK had only been recently and sparingly applied in four fisheries (turtle, dugong, lobster, and hand collectables, and only two of the seven species concerned had a combination of depleted stocks, low SMK, and high community ownership. Instead, comanagement characteristics and the cultural value of species were the primary determinants of TEK application. We suggest that turtles and dugong are cultural keystone species that simultaneously provide important ecosystem services to both islanders' livelihoods and international conservation interests. Combined with their ecological scale these species have catalyzed comanagement between indigenous and government stakeholders, precipitating the application of TEK in other fisheries of lesser cultural importance. We discuss modifications to governance required to enable knowledge integration to evolve further through adaptive comanagement, and its role in enhancing fisheries management and thus the resilience of the Torres Strait social-ecological system. Our study highlights the potential utility of cultural keystone species in stimulating cross-cultural resource governance in

  17. Bridging Theory and Practice: Using Hip-Hop Pedagogy As A Culturally Relevant Approach In The Urban Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Edmund S.

    This dissertation explores the context of urban science education as it relates to the achievement and engagement of urban youth. This study provides a framework for Hip-Hop Pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning anchored in the creative elements of Hip-Hop culture, in STEM as an innovative approach to teaching and learning demonstrates the effect that Hip-Hop Pedagogy, as a culturally relevant approach to teaching has on teaching and learning in an urban science classroom. This study establishes practical tools and approaches, which were formed from by theory and research that transcend the traditional monolithic approaches to teaching science. Participants in this study are middle school students who attend an urban school in one of the largest school systems in the country. This research showed that as result of utilizing Hip-Hop pedagogical practices, students reported that they developed a deeper understanding of science content, students were more likely to identify as scientists, and students were provided a space and opportunities to deconstruct traditional classroom spaces and structures.

  18. Bridging peripheral nerve defects with a tissue engineered nerve graft composed of an in vitro cultured nerve equivalent and a silk fibroin-based scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Xue, Chengbin; Wang, Yaxian; Ding, Fei; Yang, Yumin; Gu, Xiaosong

    2012-05-01

    Tissue engineered nerve grafts are considered as a promising alternative to autologous nerve grafts used for peripheral nerve repair. The differences between these two types of nerve grafts are mainly in the regenerative microenvironment established by them. To construct ideal tissue engineered nerve grafts, it is therefore required to develop a better way to introduce biochemical cues into a neural scaffold, as compared to single or combined use of support cells and growth factors. Here, we used a co-culture system of dorsal root ganglia and Schwann cells to create an in vitro formed nerve equivalent, which was introduced into a silk fibroin-based scaffold to furnish a tissue engineered nerve graft (TENG). At 4- and 12- weeks after the TENG was implanted to bridge a 10-mm-long sciatic nerve defect in rats, histological and functional assessments as well as Western blot analysis were performed to evaluate the influences of the TENG on peripheral nerve regeneration. We found that at an early stage of nerve regeneration, the TENG significantly accelerated axonal growth, and up-regulated expressions of N-cadherin and PMP22. Twelve weeks after nerve grafting, the TENG produced a further improved outcome of nerve regeneration and functional recovery, which was more close to that of the autologous nerve graft than that of the silk fibroin-based scaffold. The introduction of an in vitro cultured nerve equivalent into a scaffold might contribute to establishing a native-like microenvironment for nerve regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  20. Cognitive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. ``Yo soy indígena'': identifying and using traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) to make the teaching of science culturally responsive for Maya girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Maria L.

    2013-12-01

    This study examines how traditional ecological knowledge—TEK—can be identified and utilized to create culturally responsive science learning opportunities for Maya girls from a community in the Guatemalan highlands. Maya girls are situated in a complex socio-historical and political context rooted in racism and sexism. This study contextualizes the current situation of Maya women and girls in Guatemala and emphasizes the important need for educators to create science-learning opportunities that are culturally congruent. The author posits that when considering how to make the teaching and learning of science culturally responsive for Maya girls, educators must begin with the scientific knowledge inherent within Maya communities. Indigenous communities have a wealth of TEK that can be used to contextualize science curricula that can be purposely designed to meet the nuanced cultural needs of traditional Maya girls within and outside Guatemala.

  2. International Education Opportunities During the IHY: Bridging the Geographic, Cultural and Linguistic Divide Between Participating IHY Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. J.; Morrow, C. A.; Rabello-Soares, M. C.; Smith, R. W.

    2006-12-01

    Currently there are over 70 U.N. Member States participating in the International Heliophysical Year (IHY 2007- 8), and most of these nations do not use English as their primary language. The IHY contains four main program elements: Science, Observatory Development, Outreach, and History. For these elements to be successful, each requires successful communication within and adaptation for the individual member states. The IHY Outreach program contains many educational activities targetting a wide range of languages and contexts. The other three program elements, however, offer a means to extend the impact of the educational programs and reinforce educational activities. IHY's scientific activities involve partnerships with institutions and observatories, many of which have outreach activities in their local communities. Scientists and participation programs from around the world have begun translating materials into their local languages and adapting educational tools for use in their communities. IHY's Observatory Development program, which began deploying instrumentation worldwide in 2004, encourages a strong educational component to each new observatory site as a means of ensuring long-lasting viability of the research program. The history program gathers important information and educates the public about the development of space science. This presentation will discuss efforts occurring within the IHY program that support cross-cultural communication and education and present opportunities to reach new audiences.

  3. International Education Opportunities during the IHY: Bridging the Geographic, Cultural and Linguistic Divide between Participating IHY Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B.J.; Morrow, C.A.; Rabello-Soares, M.C.; Smith, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    Currently there are over 70 U.N. Member States participating in the International Heliophysical Year (IHY 2007- 8), and most of these nations do not use English as their primary language. The IHY contains four main program elements: Science, Observatory Development, Outreach, and History. For these elements to be successful, each requires successful communication within and adaptation for the individual member states. The IHY Outreach program contains many educational activities targeting a wide range of languages and contexts. The other three program elements, however, offer a means to extend the impact of the educational programs and reinforce educational activities. IHY's scientific activities involve partnerships with institutions and observatories, many of which have outreach activities in their local communities. Scientists and participation programs from around the world have begun translating materials into their local languages and adapting educational tools for use in their communities. IHY's Observatory Development program, which began deploying instrumentation worldwide in 2004, encourages a strong educational component to each new observatory site as a means of ensuring long-lasting viability of the research program. The history program gathers important information and educates the public about the development of space science. This presentation will discuss efforts occurring within the IHY program that support cross-cultural communication and education and present opportunities to reach new audiences.

  4. Cultural Resilience of Nenets Social-Ecological Systems in Arctic Russia: A Focus on Reindeer Nomads of the Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.

    2013-12-01

    Empirical data on resilience in social-ecological systems (SESs) are reviewed from local and regional scale case studies among full-time nomads in the neighbouring Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia. The focus is on critical cultural factors contributing to SES resilience. In particular, this work presents an integrated view of people situated in specific tundra landscapes that face significantly different prospects for adaptation depending on existing or planned infrastructure associated with oil and gas development. Factors contributing to general resilience are compared to those that are adapted to certain spatial and temporal contexts. Environmental factors include ample space and an abundance of resources, such as fish and game (e.g. geese), to augment the diet of not only the migratory herders, but also residents from coastal settlements. In contrast to other regions, such as the Nenets Okrug, Yamal Nenets households consist of intact nuclear families with high retention among youth in the nomadic tundra population. Accepting attitudes toward exogenous drivers such as climate change and industrial development appear to play a significant role in how people react to both extreme weather events and piecemeal confiscation or degradation of territory. Consciousness of their role as responsible stewards of the territories they occupy has likely been a factor in maintaining viable wildlife populations over centuries. Institutions administering reindeer herding have remained flexible, especially on Yamal, and so accommodate decision-making that is sensitive to herders' needs and timetables. This affects factors such as herd demography, mobility and energetics. Resilience is further facilitated within the existing governance regimes by herders' own agency, most recently in the post-Soviet shift to smaller, privately managed herds that can better utilize available pastures in a highly dynamic environment experiencing rapid socio-economic, climate and

  5. Bridging cross-cultural gaps: monitoring herbal use during chemotherapy in patients referred to integrative medicine consultation in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Limor; Lev, Efraim; Schiff, Elad; Linn, Shai; Ben-Arye, Eran

    2014-10-01

    The high prevalence of the use of traditional herbs among patients with cancer is a cause for concern with regard to potentially adverse interactions with conventional oncology treatments. In this study, we explore herbal use among patients with cancer in northern Israel who are referred by their health care providers to complementary and traditional medicine (CTM) consultations provided to them within the conventional oncology department. The study's objectives were to identify which herbs patients use and to examine the scope of current research on the efficacy and safety regarding the identified herbs. Herbal use by patients receiving oncology care was assessed prospectively from July 2009 to July 2012 by integrative physicians (IPs) trained in herbal medicine. Historical, ethnobotanical, basic research, and clinical data regarding the identified herbs were explored by using a keyword search in PubMed and Middle Eastern ethnohistorical literature. Disclosure of herbal use was reported by 154 of the 305 patients (50.5 %) interviewed by IPs. The use of 85 single herbs and 30 different herbal formulas was documented during the initial or follow-up IP assessments. Patients reported 14 quality of life-associated indications for herbal use. The ten most prevalent herbs displaying in vitro/in vivo anticancer activity and nine other herbs were preliminarily assessed concerning potential risks, safety, and interaction with chemotherapy. Herbal use by patients with cancer in northern Israel is widespread and calls for further study in order to address issues of safety and effectiveness. We recommend constructing a multinational and multidisciplinary team of researchers with ethnopharmacological and clinical expertise that will explore the use of herbs among patients with cancer in a cross-cultural perspective attuned with patients' affinity to traditional herbal medicine.

  6. National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NBI is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 600,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate Highways,...

  7. "A shepherd has to invent": Poetic analysis of social-ecological change in the cultural landscape of the central Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Fernández-Giménez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-20th century, the Pyrenean pastoral social-ecological system (SES has undergone socioeconomic and demographic transformations leading to changes in grazing practices and a decline in the livestock industry. Land abandonment has contributed to an ecological transition from herbaceous vegetation cover to shrublands and forests, leading to a loss of ecosystem services, including biodiversity and forage. I interviewed 27 stockmen (ganaderos in two valleys of the central Pyrenees to document their traditional ecological knowledge and observations of environmental, social, economic, and cultural changes in the valleys. I used poetic analysis, a qualitative data analysis approach, to illustrate and analyze one ganadero's experience of social-ecological change. First, I created seven poems based on an interview transcript with this ganadero. Second, I analyzed the poetry I created, to see what new insights and understanding about system dynamics and the lived experience of SES change emerged from analysis of the transcript re-presented as poetry. Third, I compared key themes that emerged from this analysis with findings across the other 26 interviews. Fourth, I read the poems and presented the associated analysis to multiple audiences, to gauge their impact and effectiveness in communicating research findings. Finally, I synthesized across the themes raised in the seven poems. Poetic analysis revealed emotional and cultural dimensions of change, especially the importance of occupational and place identity, in the experience of the ganadero. The transcript re-presented as poetry portrayed the ganadero as an agent in creating and maintaining a cultural landscape and as both an adaptor and resister to SES change. Poetic analysis also uncovered telling contradictions, adaptive capacities, and barriers to adaptation in this SES that went unappreciated with conventional qualitative analysis approaches. This exploratory study illustrates the

  8. Bridge the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on photo projects organised for teenage refugees by the Society for Humanistic Photography (Berlin, Germany). These projects, named Bridge the Gap I (2015), and Bridge the Gap II (2016), were carried out in Berlin and brought together teenagers with refugee and German-majorit...... was produced – and sometimes not produced - within the projects. The importance of memory work in the context of refugee resettlement is often overlooked, but is particularly relevant when cultural encounters are organised in museums and exhibition galleries.......-majority backgrounds to experiment with digital photography and create joint exhibitions. Drawing on concepts from memory studies, such as travelling memory and multidirectional memory, the author examines the projects as interventions in German and Berlin memory cultures, and examines how multidirectional memory...

  9. An Environmental Critique: Impact of Socialist Ideology on the Ecological and Cultural Sensitivity of Belgrade’s Large-Scale Residential Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Djokić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates the stance that sustainable approaches in architecture, although usually associated to contemporary practice, have a very complex relationship with the history of architecture and urbanism. By adopting an interpretative framework, the paper highlights the environmental aspects of the architectural practice of Belgrade’s large-scale residential settlements created under the cultural influences of socialist ideology. The socialist system enabled systematic implementation of the principles of the Congrès International d’Architecture Moderne (CIAM on a large urban scale, in contrast to capitalist countries where these principles were applied on a smaller scale. The paper starts with the premise that these cultural influences, together with the integration of the principles of modernism, caused the rejection and the loss of traditional and ambience values in architecture. Research has shown that these values play a very important role in meeting the needs of ecological and cultural sensitivity in architecture. In its final consequences, the results of research have revealed that, although widely criticized for its break with tradition and the loss of ambience values, residential architecture in Belgrade during the socialist era included significant aspirations of the architectural practice directed at the improvement of aspects of sustainability, and especially aspects of ecological and cultural sensitivity.

  10. Evaluating mobile learning practice. Towards a framework for analysis of user-generated contexts with reference to the socio-cultural ecology of mobile learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Seipold

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Against the conceptual and theoretical background of a socio-culturally orientated approach to mobile learning (Pachler, Bachmair and Cook, 2010, this paper examines the evaluation of user-generated contexts by referring to an example from the use of mobile phones in schools. We discuss how mobile device-related, user- generated contexts around structures, agency and cultural practices might be brought into a fruitful relationship with institution-based learning. And, we provide categories for evaluating the use of mobile devices to generate meaning from and with fragmented and discontinuous media and modes at the interface of learning in formal, institutionalised and informal, self-directed settings. The evaluation criteria build on the framework of a socio-cultural ecology of mobile learning developed by the London Mobile Learning Group.

  11. Influence of ecological and botanical factors on the culture of black pine (Pinus nigra and proposed future management in Šumadija region (Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šikanja Severin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available All ecological aspects have been analysed and studied: botanical factors at black pine cultures in the area of Šumadija. Cultures of black pine of age 33 and 55−60 years within five experimental fields can be found in (1 good habitats, (2 medium habitats and (3 bad habitats were analysed in order to see how the same aged cultures act in different habitats. We analysed all the plants that appear as terrestrial flora, all the plants that occur as a shrub vegetation and, finally, floor trees. We analysed all the biotic and abiotic factors. The measures for most appropriate care for the cultures of black pine. Black pine in Serbia reaches its highest elevation amplitude in Europe and covers most diverse habitats and soil, mainly because of its visibly pronounced ecological modesty. For this reason, the black pine is one of the most usable kinds of artificial afforestation in the Republic of Serbia at all devastated, treeless terrain in the oak belt, where there is a danger that through the action of erosion, soil degradation occurs. That in the management unit, Gružansko Lepeničke, Jaseničke forests, to answer all the questions, the pine, when it comes to artificially established black lines on the same or on different sites and the same and the various soils, as when it comes to tending these crops. It should be noted that of the 125,000 ha conifer cultures in the Republic of Serbia, 86 000 ha of trees were all pines, roughly 70% of all conifer cultures. Of the 86 000 ha pine, 65,200 ha was occupied by black pine, which is about 70%. In the above,Management Unit separate the five sample plots of 25 acres in size.

  12. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...

  13. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker...... in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit......-setting. It is specified how context issues can be treated within each of these information ecologies. The paper concludes by discussing the outcome of applying this paradigm with respect to the student-designers’ competence as reflective practitioners....

  14. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  15. Joy of Nature, "Friluftsliv" Education and Self: Combining Narrative and Cultural-Ecological Approaches to Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurholt, Kirsti Pedersen

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographies of prominent environmentalists describe that their early lives have been rich in personal experiences of nature. The early childhood experiences of philosopher and climber Arne Naess (1912-2009) inspired the development of deep ecology philosophy, which markedly influenced the emergence of Norwegian "friluftsliv"…

  16. Mathematical bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu; Tetiva, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Building bridges between classical results and contemporary nonstandard problems, Mathematical Bridges embraces important topics in analysis and algebra from a problem-solving perspective. Blending old and new techniques, tactics and strategies used in solving challenging mathematical problems, readers will discover numerous genuine mathematical gems throughout that will heighten their appreciation of the inherent beauty of mathematics. Most of the problems are original to the authors and are intertwined in a well-motivated exposition driven by representative examples. The book is structured to assist the reader in formulating and proving conjectures, as well as devising solutions to important mathematical problems by making connections between various concepts and ideas from different areas of mathematics. Instructors and educators teaching problem-solving courses or organizing mathematics clubs, as well as motivated mathematics students from high school juniors to college seniors, will find Mathematical Bri...

  17. Archaeology meets marine ecology: the antiquity of maritime cultures and human impacts on marine fisheries and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Jon M; Rick, Torben C

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary study of coastal archaeological sites provides a wealth of information on the ecology and evolution of ancient marine animal populations, the structure of past marine ecosystems, and the history of human impacts on coastal fisheries. In this paper, we review recent methodological developments in the archaeology and historical ecology of coastal regions around the world. Using two case studies, we examine (a) a deep history of anthropogenic effects on the marine ecosystems of California's Channel Islands through the past 12,000 years and (b) geographic variation in the effects of human fishing on Pacific Island peoples who spread through Oceania during the late Holocene. These case studies--the first focused on hunter-gatherers, the second on maritime horticulturalists-provide evidence for shifting baselines and timelines, documenting a much deeper anthropogenic influence on many coastal ecosystems and fisheries than considered by most ecologists, conservation biologists, and fisheries managers.

  18. A roadmap for bridging basic and applied research in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, J K; Mohr, R; Benbow, M E; Tarone, A M; VanLaerhoven, S

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council issued a report in 2009 that heavily criticized the forensic sciences. The report made several recommendations that if addressed would allow the forensic sciences to develop a stronger scientific foundation. We suggest a roadmap for decomposition ecology and forensic entomology hinging on a framework built on basic research concepts in ecology, evolution, and genetics. Unifying both basic and applied research fields under a common umbrella of terminology and structure would facilitate communication in the field and the production of scientific results. It would also help to identify novel research areas leading to a better understanding of principal underpinnings governing ecosystem structure, function, and evolution while increasing the accuracy of and ability to interpret entomological evidence collected from crime scenes. By following the proposed roadmap, a bridge can be built between basic and applied decomposition ecology research, culminating in science that could withstand the rigors of emerging legal and cultural expectations.

  19. Thermal bridges. Causes and impacts, information on reduction and avoidance; Waermebruecken. Ursachen und Auswirkungen, Hinweise zur Verringerung und Vermeidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feist, Wolfgang; Born, Rolf

    2012-11-15

    Thermal bridges increase the heat demand, affect the thermal comfort, facilitate mould cultures and cause structural damage. Many thermal bridges can be avoided by proper building construction details. At least the impact of thermal bridges can be avoided.

  20. Philosophical contents environmental culture

    OpenAIRE

    Mironov, Vitaly

    2012-01-01

    The article is devoted to the review and analysis of different approaches to the concept of ecological culture in the socio-philosophical knowledge, philosophical reflection of ecological culture as value relations between man and nature.

  1. [Ecology and ecologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  2. Growth of plant tissue cultures in simulated lunar soil: Implications for a lunar base Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venketeswaran, S.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments to determine whether plant tissue cultures can be grown in the presence of simulated lunar soil (SLS) and the effect of simulated lunar soil on the growth and morphogenesis of such cultures, as well as the effect upon the germination of seeds and the development of seedlings were carried out . Preliminary results on seed germination and seedling growth of rice and calli growth of winged bean and soybean indicate that there is no toxicity or inhibition caused by SLS. SLS can be used as a support medium with supplements of certain major and micro elements.

  3. Biosemiotics and ecological monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2001-01-01

    of the qualitative and relational aspects that can only be grasped by considering the semiotic networks operative in complex ecological and cultural systems. In this paper, it is suggested that a biosemiotic approach to ecology may prove useful for the modelling process, which in turn will allow the construction...

  4. Bridge resource program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The mission of Rutgers Universitys Center for Advanced Infrastructure and Transportation (CAIT) Bridge Resource Program (BRP) is to provide bridge engineering support to the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT)s Bridge Engineering an...

  5. The Componential Model of Reading: Predicting First Grade Reading Performance of Culturally Diverse Students From Ecological, Psychological, and Cognitive Factors Assessed at Kindergarten Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Miriam; Folsom, Jessica S.; Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Greulich, Luana; Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Connor, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    This study, framed by the component model of reading (CMR), examined the relative importance of kindergarten-entry predictors of first grade reading performance. Specifically, elements within the ecological domain included dialect, maternal education, amount of preschool, and home literacy; elements within the psychological domain included teacher-reported academic competence, social skills, and behavior; and elements within the cognitive domain included initial vocabulary, phonological, and morpho-syntactic skills, and alphabetic and word recognition skills. Data were obtained for 224 culturally diverse kindergarteners (58% Black, 35% White, and 9% Hispanic; 58% received free or reduced-price lunch) from a larger study conducted in seven predominantly high poverty schools (n = 20 classrooms) in a midsized city school district in northern Florida. Results from a hierarchical multiple regression (with variables in the ecological domain entered first, followed by the psychological and cognitive domains) revealed a model that explained roughly 56% of the variance in first grade reading achievement, using fall-of-kindergarten predictors. Letter-word reading and morpho-syntactic skill were the strongest significant predictors. The findings largely support the CMR model as a means to understand individual differences in reading acquisition and, in turn, to support data-based instructional decisions for a wider range of children. PMID:22227395

  6. Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Timothy B.; Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele...

  7. Bridging the Gap Between Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values, Perceptions of Values Held by Scientists, and the Relationships of These Values to Conceptions of Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.; Eastwood, Jennifer L.

    2011-07-01

    This study explored preservice teachers' views of their own cultural values, the cultural values they believed scientists hold, and the relationships of these views to their conceptions of nature of science (NOS). Parallel assignments in a foundations of early childhood education and a science methods course required preservice teachers to explore their own cultural backgrounds and their perceptions of the cultural backgrounds of scientists. The Schwartz Values Inventory was used to measure preservice teachers' personal cultural values and those they perceived of scientists. The Views of Nature of Science version B questionnaire and interviews assessed teachers' conceptions of NOS. Copies of student work were collected and sought for themes indicating how preservice teachers perceived scientists' cultural values and how those perceptions changed over time. We found that from the beginning to the end of the semester, preservice teachers perceived fewer differences between their own cultural values and those they perceived scientists held, though they did not change their own cultural values. We found that preservice teachers' NOS conceptions improved, and that they were related to both their cultural values and those they perceived scientists held. Preservice teachers who indicated the fewest differences between their own cultural values and those they perceived scientists held the most informed conceptions of NOS.

  8. Bridging the Generational Culture Gap in Youth Civic Engagement through Social Media: Lessons Learnt from Young Designers in Three Civic Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Mainsah, Henry; Brandtzæg, Petter Bae; Følstad, Asbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Youth civic identities and social media practices are changing rapidly, and civic organisations are struggling to exploit the potential of social media to reach youth. One major challenge concerns the generational culture gap between the networked culture of today’s youth and the top–down culture characteristic of many civic organisations. This study presents lessons learnt from three cases where young designers (22–26 years) were engaged to develop social media concepts for civic organisatio...

  9. Growth of plant tissue cultures in simulated lunar soil: Implications for a lunar base CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venketeswaran, S.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on plant tissue cultures, seed germination, seedling development and plants grown on Simulated Lunar Soil to evaluate the potential of future development of lunar based agriculture. The studies done to determine the effect of the placement of SLS on tissue cultures showed no adverse effect of SLS on tissue cultures. Although statistically insignificant, SLS in suspension showed a comparatively higher growth rate. Observations indicate the SLS, itself cannot support calli growth but was able to show a positive effect on growth rate of calli when supplemented with MS salts. This positive effect related to nutritive value of the SLS was found to have improved at high pH levels, than at the recommended low pH levels for standard media. Results from seed germination indicated that there is neither inhibitory, toxicity nor stimulatory effect of SLS, even though SLS contains high amounts of aluminum compounds compared to earth soil. Analysis of seeding development and growth data showed significant reduction in growth rate indicating that, SLS was a poor growth medium for plant life. This was confirmed by the studies done with embryos and direct plant growth on SLS. Further observations attributed this poor quality of SLS is due to it's lack of essential mineral elements needed for plant growth. By changing the pH of the soil, to more basic conditions, the quality of SLS for plant growth could be improved up to a significant level. Also it was found that the quality of SLS could be improved by almost twice, by external supply of major mineral elements, directly to SLS.

  10. Bacterial Ecology of Fermented Cucumber Rising pH Spoilage as Determined by Non-Culture Based Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Eduardo; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys M.; Breidt, Fred; Hayes, Janet; Franco, Wendy; Butz, Natasha; Azcarate-Peril, María Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Fermented cucumber spoilage (FCS) characterized by rising pH and the appearance of manure and cheese like aromas is a challenge of significant economical impact for the pickling industry. Previous culture based studies identified the yeasts Pichia manshurica and Issatchenkia occidentalis, four gram positive bacteria, Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus parrafaraginis, Clostridium sp. and Propionibacterium and one gram-negative genus, Pectinatus as relevant in various stages of FCS given their ability to metabolize lactic acid. It was the objective of this study to augment the current knowledge of FCS using culture independent methods to microbiologically characterize commercial spoilage samples. Ion Torrent data and 16S rRNA cloning library analyses of samples collected from commercial fermentation tanks confirmed the presence of L. rapi and L. buchneri and revealed the presence of additional species involved in the development of FCS such as Lactobacillus namurensis, Lactobacillus acetotolerans, Lactobacillus panis, Acetobacter peroxydans, Acetobacter aceti, and Acetobacter pasteurianus at pH below 3.4. The culture independent analyses also revealed the presence of species of Veillonella and Dialister in spoilage samples with pH above 4.0 and confirmed the presence of Pectinatus spp. during lactic acid degradation at the higher pH. Acetobacter spp. were successfully isolated from commercial samples collected from tanks subjected to air purging by plating on Mannitol Yeast Peptone agar. In contrast, Lactobacillus spp. were primarily identified in samples of FCS collected from tanks not subjected to air purging for more than 4 months. Thus, it is speculated that oxygen availability may be a determining factor in the initiation of spoilage and the leading microbiota. Practical Application Understanding of the underlying microbiology and biochemistry driving FCS is essential to enhancing the sodium chloride (NaCl)-free cucumber fermentation technology and in

  11. Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Coulangeon, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Il n’est sans doute pas de notion aussi vaste et aussi polysémique en sciences sociales que la notion de culture, qui renvoie alternativement à l’ensemble des symboles, des significations, des valeurs et des manières de faire propres à un groupe et au domaine spécialisé des activités expressives, savantes et populaires. La notion de culture est ainsi tout autant mobilisée dans l’exploration des grandes thématiques de la sociologie (stratification, inégalités, institutions, mouvements sociaux)...

  12. Cultural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur F. LaPage

    1971-01-01

    A critical look at outdoor recreation research and some underlying premises. The author focuses on the concept of culture as communication and how it influences our perception of problems and our search for solutions. Both outdoor recreation and science are viewed as subcultures that have their own bodies of mythology, making recreation problems more difficult to...

  13. Combining In Situ and Culture-based `Omic and Biogeochemical Measures to Identify the Physiological Ecology of a Blooming Diatom in the Amazon River Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, H.; Durkin, C. A.; Dyhrman, S.

    2016-02-01

    The Amazon River is the largest riverine fresh water input to the ocean and forms a plume that may extend over 1.3 x 106 km2, providing a significant source of nutrients that contributes to enhanced regional export flux and carbon sequestration. While we know that the enriched nutrient environment of the plume should promote phytoplankton success, it is difficult to discern the physiological basis of one organism's success over another. Characterizing the physiological ecology of individual species is increasingly tractable with the application of `omic approaches in situ. In the spring of 2013, a large centric diatom of the genus Coscinodiscus was observed in a mesohaline region of the Amazon River plume at high abundance relative to other diatoms both in the surface low salinity lens and in sediment traps deployed in this region. Using a combination of physiological, biogeochemical, rate, and `omic measurements, the metabolic state of the blooming Coscinodiscus species was examined in situ and in incubation experiments designed to characterize the physiological response to changes in nutrient supply ratios. In addition to field measurements, an isolate of the blooming Coscinodiscus species was brought into uni-algal culture and used to generate a de novo transcriptome assembly spanning gene sets expressed over a range of physiological conditions. This unique aspect of the research approach provided a reference transcriptome for improved (6 fold) identification of Coscinodiscus metatranscriptome reads. Taken together, the data from this multi-faceted approach, indicate the strong control of nitrogen on Coscinodiscus physiology in this system, as evidenced by cell counts and chlorophyll patterns as well as the modulation of Coscinodiscus marker genes like a nitrogen-regulated nitrate transporter. Future work that uses a similar approach may be a valuable path forward in discerning the physiological ecology of key species in other systems.

  14. Bacterial Genetic Architecture of Ecological Interactions in Co-culture by GWAS-Taking Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available How a species responds to such a biotic environment in the community, ultimately leading to its evolution, has been a topic of intense interest to ecological evolutionary biologists. Until recently, limited knowledge was available regarding the genotypic changes that underlie phenotypic changes. Our study implemented GWAS (Genome-Wide Association Studies to illustrate the genetic architecture of ecological interactions that take place in microbial populations. By choosing 45 such interspecific pairs of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains that were all genotyped throughout the entire genome, we employed Q-ROADTRIPS to analyze the association between single SNPs and microbial abundance measured at each time point for bacterial populations reared in monoculture and co-culture, respectively. We identified a large number of SNPs and indels across the genomes (35.69 G clean data of E. coli and 50.41 G of S. aureus. We reported 66 and 111 SNPs that were associated with interaction in E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. 23 out of 66 polymorphic changes resulted in amino acid alterations.12 significant genes, such as murE, treA, argS, and relA, which were also identified in previous evolutionary studies. In S. aureus, 111 SNPs detected in coding sequences could be divided into 35 non-synonymous and 76 synonymous SNPs. Our study illustrated the potential of genome-wide association methods for studying rapidly evolving traits in bacteria. Genetic association study methods will facilitate the identification of genetic elements likely to cause phenotypes of interest and provide targets for further laboratory investigation.

  15. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  16. Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Le découpage des spécialités sociologiques hésite habituellement entre une répartition thématique par domaines empiriquement distingués et un partage conceptuel reposant sur des orientations de recherche. La sociologie de la culture n'échappe pas à cette oscillation. De prime abord, elle couvre un secteur plus ou moins clairement délimité, qui englobe la sociologie de l'art et ce qui est socialement désigné comme relevant de la « vie culturelle ». Elle regroupe alors un ensemble de subdivisio...

  17. Ecological Schoolyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2000-01-01

    Presents design guidelines and organizational and site principles for creating schoolyards where students can learn about ecology. Principles for building schoolyard ecological systems are described. (GR)

  18. Bridging consent: from toll bridges to lift bridges?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knoppers Bartha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to share human biological samples, associated data and results across disease-specific and population-based human research biobanks is becoming increasingly important for research into disease development and translation. Although informed consent often does not anticipate such cross-domain sharing, it is important to examine its plausibility. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of bridging consent between disease-specific and population-based research. Comparative analyses of 1 current ethical and legal frameworks governing consent and 2 informed consent models found in disease-specific and population-based research were conducted. Discussion Ethical and legal frameworks governing consent dissuade cross-domain data sharing. Paradoxically, analysis of consent models for disease-specific and population-based research reveals such a high degree of similarity that bridging consent could be possible if additional information regarding bridging was incorporated into consent forms. We submit that bridging of consent could be supported if current trends endorsing a new interpretation of consent are adopted. To illustrate this we sketch potential bridging consent scenarios. Summary A bridging consent, respectful of the spirit of initial consent, is feasible and would require only small changes to the content of consents currently being used. Under a bridging consent approach, the initial data and samples collection can serve an identified research project as well as contribute to the creation of a resource for a range of other projects.

  19. Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Boas, Franz

    2003-01-01

    L’un des objets de l’enquête anthropologique, pour laquelle des éléments peuvent être obtenus par l’étude des sociétés existantes, est l’inter-dépendance des phénomènes culturels. Alors que dans l’étude des processus de diffusion et de développement parallèle les caractères et la distribution de traits singuliers sont communément les objets de l’analyse, nous sommes conduits, ici, à considérer la culture, dans toutes ses manifestations, comme un tout. Les inventions, la vie économique, la str...

  20. Ecological thinking: Four qualities

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, James G.

    2010-01-01

    The article proposes a journey on the ecological premises or attributes of ecological thinking. Identifies its four main qualities and probes to demonstrate how at present there is some empirical evidence upon which such premises may be anchored. The first is focused on the interdependencies of persons and social environments, the second is that research methodologies may be congruent with the culture of place, the third that to the community psychologist is required t...

  1. Dragon bridge - the world largest dragon-shaped (ARCH steel bridge as element of smart city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinh Luong Minh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dragon Bridge - The world’s largest dragon-shaped steel bridge, with an installation cost of $85 million USD, features 6 lanes for two separate directions, 666 meters of undulating steel in the shape of a dragon in the Ly Dynasty, the symbol of prosperity in Vietnamese culture. This unique and beautifully lit bridge, which also breathes fire and sprays water. It’s the purposeful integration of the lighting hardware articulates the dragon’s form, and the fire-breathing dragon head. This project transcends the notion of monumental bridge with dynamic colour-changing lighting, creating an iconic sculpture in the skyline that is both reverent and whimsical. The signature feature of the bridge was the massive undulating support structure resembling a dragon flying over the river. The dragon is prominent in Vietnamese culture as a symbol of power and nobility. Dragon Bridge stands out as a model of innovation. It has received worldwide attention in the design community and from the global media for its unique arch support system. Dragon Bridge serves as an example of how aesthetic quality of a design can serve cultural, economic and functional purposes. The article presents design solutions of the object and the evaluation of the technical condition before putting the facility into service.

  2. Bridge vehicle impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  3. Movable bridge maintenance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Movable bridges have particular maintenance issues, which cost considerably more than those of fixed bridges, : mostly because of the complex interaction of the mechanical, electrical and structural components. In order to track : maintenance and ope...

  4. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...... to quantify the different structural configurations and allows a preliminary optimization of the main structure.Included are the most recent advances in structural design, corrosion protection of cables, aerodynamic safety, and erection procedures....

  5. Bridge Crossing Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-07

    support the durability testing of Military Bridging and Gap Crossing Equipment. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Bridge Crossing Simulator Trilateral Design... Trilateral Design and Test Code for Military Bridging and Gap Crossing Equipment (TDTC) 1* is derived based on the number of samples the test bridge...Automotive and Armaments Command TARDEC U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center TDTC Trilateral Design and Test Code

  6. The trans-species core SELF: the emergence of active cultural and neuro-ecological agents through self-related processing within subcortical-cortical midline networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak; Northoff, Georg

    2009-03-01

    attentional, emotional and motivational functions that are apparently shared between humans, non-human mammals, and perhaps in a proto-SELF form, other vertebrates. Such a trans-species concept of organismic coherence is thoroughly biological and affective at the lowest levels of a complex neural network, and culturally and ecologically molded at higher levels of neural processing. It allows organisms to selectively adapt to and integrate with physical and social environments. Such a psychobiologically universal, but environmentally diversified, concept may promote novel trans-species studies of the core-self across mammalian species.

  7. The Publishing Culture and the Literary Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solotaroff, Ted

    1984-01-01

    Argues that traditional bridges between the literary culture and publishing culture have increasingly weakened in past decade. The publishing culture has become like that of big business, marked by effort to standardize product, distribution, and consumer, and the advent of bookstore chains has put into practice the mass-merchandising system.…

  8. Integrating ecology into biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Katherine D; Martin, Hector Garcia; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2007-06-01

    New high-throughput culture-independent molecular tools are allowing the scientific community to characterize and understand the microbial communities underpinning environmental biotechnology processes in unprecedented ways. By creatively leveraging these new data sources, microbial ecology has the potential to transition from a purely descriptive to a predictive framework, in which ecological principles are integrated and exploited to engineer systems that are biologically optimized for the desired goal. But to achieve this goal, ecology, engineering and microbiology curricula need to be changed from the very root to better promote interdisciplinarity.

  9. Emergence Unites Ecology and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L. Trosper

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The effort to combine analysis of ecosystems and social systems requires a firm theoretical basis. When humans are present in an ecosystem, their actions affect emergent structures; this paper examines forms of emergence that account for the presence of humans. Humans monitor and regulate ecosystems based on their cultural systems. Cultural systems consist of concepts linked in complicated ways that can form consistent world views, can contain inconsistencies, and may or may not accurately model the properties of a social-ecological system. Consequently, human monitoring and regulating processes will differ, depending on cultural systems. Humans, as agents, change or maintain pre-existing material and cultural emergent structures. The presentation is illustrated with a case study of fire-prone forests. The paper shows that explicit attention to emergence serves very well in unifying the following requirements for social-ecological analysis: coherent and observable definitions of sustainability; ways to link ecological and social phenomena; ways to understand cultural reasons for stability and instability in dynamic social-ecological systems; and ways to include human self-evaluation and culture within dynamic models of social-ecological systems. Analysis of cultural emergent structures clarifies many differences in assumptions among the fields of economics, sociology, political science, ecology, and ecological economics. Because it can be readily applied to empirical questions, the framework provides a good way to organize policy analysis that is not dominated by one or another discipline.

  10. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  11. Waianae Ecological Characterization Oahu, Hawaii 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Waianae Ecological Characterization is a digital synthesis of historical and current physical, ecological, and cultural information about the Waianae moku, which...

  12. European ecological networks and greenways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Ib; Jongman, Rob H.G.; Kulvik, Mart

    2004-01-01

    In the context of European integration, networks are becoming increasingly important in both social and ecological sense. Since the beginning of the 1990s, societal and scientific exchanges are being restructured as the conceptual approaches towards new nature conservation strategies have been...... renewed. Within the framework of nature conservation, the notion of an ecological network has become increasingly important. Throughout Europe, regional and national approaches are in different phases of development, which are all based on recent landscape ecological principles. Ecological networks....... This complex interaction between cultural and natural features results in quite different ways for the elaboration of ecological networks and greenways....

  13. Física e literatura: construindo uma ponte entre as duas culturas Physics and literature: building a bridge between two cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Zanetic

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo defende a aproximação entre física e literatura como uma forma útil de interpretar o mundo. Utilizo nessa aproximação a filosofia de Gaston Bachelard, explorando sua discussão sobre perfis epistemológicos em que comparecem doutrinas filosóficas que vão do realismo ingênuo ao ultra-racionalismo, compreendendo entre elas o empirismo determinista da física clássica e a indeterminação da física contemporânea. Destaco estas últimas porque analiso, de forma metafórica, os perfis epistemológicos de alguns escritores importantes do século XIX e início do século XX que são exemplos de transição entre aquelas duas doutrinas filosóficas. A ponte aqui será mais explicitamente a transformação do papel do escrito literário na passagem da visão de mundo influenciada pela física clássica, representada pelos escritores Edgar Allan Poe, Gustave Flaubert, Emile Zola e Augusto Zaluar, para aquela que nasceria influenciada pela física contemporânea, exemplificada pelos escritos de Fiódor Dostoiévski e William Faulkner.In this article, I advocate linking physics and literature as a useful way of interpreting the world. To this end, I use the philosophy of Gaston Bachelard and his discussion of "epistemological profiles," which embrace philosophical doctrines running the gamut from naïve realism to ultra-rationalism while also including the determinist empiricism of classical physics and the indetermination of contemporary physics. Special attention is drawn to the latter two as I undertake a metaphorical analysis of the epistemological profiles of some major nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century writers who exemplify the transition between the two philosophical doctrines. On one end of this transformational bridge was the literary writing style that conveyed a worldview influenced by classical physics-represented by Edgar Allan Poe, Gustave Flaubert, Emile Zola, and Augusto Zaluar-and on the other, a writing style

  14. Cultural Resilience of Social-ecological Systems in the Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia: A Focus on Reindeer Nomads of the Tundra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. Forbes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Empirical data on resilience in social-ecological systems (SESs are reviewed from local and regional scale case studies among full-time nomads in the neighboring Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia. The focus is on critical cultural factors contributing to SES resilience. In particular, this work presents an integrated view of people situated in specific tundra landscapes that face significantly different prospects for adaptation depending on existing or planned infrastructure associated with oil and gas development. Factors contributing to general resilience are compared to those that are adapted to certain spatial and temporal contexts. Environmental factors include ample space and an abundance of resources, such as fish and game (e.g., geese, to augment the diet of not only the migratory herders, but also residents from coastal settlements. In contrast to other regions, such as the Nenets Okrug, Yamal Nenets households consist of intact nuclear families with high retention among youth in the nomadic tundra population. Accepting attitudes toward exogenous drivers such as climate change and industrial development appear to play a significant role in how people react to both extreme weather events and piecemeal confiscation or degradation of territory. Consciousness of their role as responsible stewards of the territories they occupy has likely been a factor in maintaining viable wildlife populations over centuries. Institutions administering reindeer herding have remained flexible, especially on Yamal, and so accommodate decision-making that is sensitive to herders' needs and timetables. This affects factors such as herd demography, mobility and energetics. Resilience is further facilitated within the existing governance regimes by herders' own agency, most recently in the post-Soviet shift to smaller, privately managed herds that can better utilize available pastures in a highly dynamic environment experiencing rapid socio

  15. Dragon bridge - the world largest dragon-shaped (ARCH) steel bridge as element of smart city

    OpenAIRE

    Chinh Luong Minh; Adamczak Anna; Krampikowska Aleksandra; Świt Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Dragon Bridge - The world’s largest dragon-shaped steel bridge, with an installation cost of $85 million USD, features 6 lanes for two separate directions, 666 meters of undulating steel in the shape of a dragon in the Ly Dynasty, the symbol of prosperity in Vietnamese culture. This unique and beautifully lit bridge, which also breathes fire and sprays water. It’s the purposeful integration of the lighting hardware articulates the dragon’s form, and the fire-breathing dragon head. This projec...

  16. Towards ecological autarky

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Michel van Dartel; dr. Anne Nigten

    2014-01-01

    While the notion of autarky is often contested in terms of feasibility and desirability, art and design projects that deal with autarky seem to moreover suggest positive socio-cultural and ecological effects of autarkic living. A social network model of autarky is introduced to unify these seemingly

  17. [Composite (etched) bridge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, H J; van Pelt, A W

    1996-11-01

    An adhesive or resin-bonded bridge is a tooth saving construction for the replacement of a lost tooth, especially when the abutment teeth are relatively sound. In this article an overview is presented of the different types of resin-bonded bridges, their advantages and disadvantages and their indications. The direct methods are very suited for the immediate replacement of a lost anterior tooth. The all composite adhesive bridge has a survival rate that is surprisingly good.

  18. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  19. Durability and Wood Protection for Historic Covered Bridges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina W. Yang; Carol A. Clausen

    2014-01-01

    A majority of the covered wooden bridges in United States were built in the mid -1800’s. These structures represent a unique cultural and technological heritage from that era. Over time, these bridges have been deteriorated by microorganisms and insects or damaged by acts of vandalism and arson. The National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program...

  20. Bridge health monitoring metrics : updating the bridge deficiency algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    As part of its bridge management system, the Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) must decide how best to spend its bridge replacement funds. In making these decisions, ALDOT managers currently use a deficiency algorithm to rank bridges that ...

  1. Covered Bridge Security Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng

    2013-01-01

    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...

  2. Bridges Expansion Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey W. Kozlachkow

    2012-01-01

    The survey is concerned with the expansion joints, used in bridge constructions to compensate medium and significant operational linear and spatial displacements between adjacent spans or between bridge span and pier. The analysis of design features of these types of expansion joints, their advantages and disadvantages, based on operational experience justified the necessity to design constructions, meeting the modern demands imposed to expansion joints.

  3. Students design composite bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.; Galjaard, J.C.; Brekelmans, J.W.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of recent research on steel-concrete composite bridge design by students of Delft University of Technology doing their master's thesis. Primary objective of this research was to find possibilities for application of steel-concrete composite bridges in the Netherlands,

  4. Bridge the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on photo projects organised for teenage refugees by the Society for Humanistic Photography (Berlin, Germany). These projects, named Bridge the Gap I (2015), and Bridge the Gap II (2016), were carried out in Berlin and brought together teenagers with refugee and German...

  5. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  6. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... communication related to collaboration and ‘small talk’ may provide linguistic bridges to social capital formation....

  7. Restoration Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, William R.; Gilpin, Michael E.; Aber, John D.

    1990-08-01

    This book explores the ecological concepts and ideas involved in the practice of habitat restoration by taking a theoretical approach that will appeal to ecologists concerned with the structure and dynamics of communities. The contributors examine aspects of this new realization and its implications for both ecology and the practice of habitat restoration. What emerges is the outline of a new paradigm for ecological research and the basis for a stronger relationship between theory and practice in this area.

  8. Long Span Bridges in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    is found in Scandinavia - the 1210 m span of the Höga Kusten Bridge in Sweden.The Kvarnsund Bridge in Norway was at the completion in 1991 the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world, and the span of 530 m is still thge longest for cable-stayed bridges in concrete. The Øresund Bridge with its sapn of 490...... m is the longest among cable-stayed bridges for both road and railway traffic....

  9. Sustainable Bridge Infrastructure Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use to p...... to procure the most “sustainable” (lifecycle-efficient) bridge through a fair design-build (D-B) tendering process, considering all the main aspects: life-cycle cost (LCC), service life-span, aesthetic demands and environmental impacts (LCA).......The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use...

  10. LANGUAGE ECOLOGY AS LINGUISTIC THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Garner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available language ecology was proposed by Einar Haugen in 1972 as the study of the interaction of any given language and its environment. Despite some use of the term in the literature, sociolinguistics have failed to develop the potenstial that Haugen saw in an ecological approach. Recent developments in ecological thought, however; when applied to language, raise questions about many basic assumptions of conventional linguistics. For example, from an ecological perspective, language is not a rule-governed system, but a form of patterned behaviour arising from the needs of human socialtity: communication, culture, and community. As Haugen foresaw, language ecology offers an exciting alternative approach to linguistic theory. Key words: language ecology, patterned behaviour, holistic, dynamic, and interactive

  11. Soil Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killham, Ken

    1994-04-01

    Soil Ecology is designed to meet the increasing challenge faced by today's environmental scientists, ecologists, agriculturalists, and biotechnologists for an integrated approach to soil ecology. It emphasizes the interrelations among plants, animals, and microbes, by first establishing the fundamental physical and chemical properties of the soil habitat and then functionally characterizing the major components of the soil biota and some of their most important interactions. The fundamental principles underpinning soil ecology are established and this then enables an integrated approach to explore and understand the processes of soil nutrient (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) cycling and the ecology of extreme soil conditions such as soil-water stress. Two of the most topical aspects of applied soil ecology are then selected. First, the ecology of soil pollution is examined, focusing on acid deposition and radionuclide pollution. Second, manipulation of soil ecology through biotechnology is discussed, illustrating the use of pesticides and microbial inocula in soils and pointing toward the future by considering the impact of genetically modified inocula on soil ecology.

  12. Flowers culture and ecological aspects of the areas under petroleum exploitation; Aspectos floristicos e ecologicos das areas submetidas a exploracao de petroleo. Relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Ieda Leao do; Matos, Francisca Dionisia de Almeida; Lima Filho, Diogenes de Andrade

    1995-08-01

    This document represents the final report of the brazilian Amazon Research National Institute studies on the ecological aspects of the petroleum exploitation at the Urucu river - State of Amazon - Brazil. The study aimed the determination of the vegetation of the Urucu river, in the areas of PETROBRAS petroleum exploitation activities.

  13. Poetry Inside Out: Bridging Cultures through Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Marty

    2009-01-01

    This paper is about a writing and literary translation program called Poetry Inside Out (PIO). Students in the PIO program study poetic form and structure, figurative language, and the fundamentals of literary translation in an extended workshop format. During a typical Poetry Inside Out workshop, participants read, discuss, translate and recite…

  14. "Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, th...

  15. Symmetry: a bridge between nature and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Mouchet, Amaury

    2015-01-01

    Are symmetries discovered or rather invented by humans ? The stand you may take firmly here reveals a lot of your epistemological position. Conversely, the arguments you may forge for answering to this question, or to one of its numerous narrower or broader variations, shape your whole philosophical thoughts; not specifically about science, by the way. I will try to show how physics helps to (re)consider this issue.

  16. Bridge technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. As LANs have proliferated, new technologies and system concepts have come to the fore. One of the key issues is how to interconnect networks. One means of interconnection is to use a 'bridge'. Other competing technologies are repeaters, routers, and gateways. Bridges permit traffic isolation, connect network segments together and operate at the MAC layer. Further, because they operate at the MAC layer, they can handle a variety of protocols such as TCP/IP, SNA, and X.25. This report focuses on the specific technology of bridging two netw

  17. Sustainable Bridge Infrastructure Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use to p...... to procure the most “sustainable” (lifecycle-efficient) bridge through a fair design-build (D-B) tendering process, considering all the main aspects: life-cycle cost (LCC), service life-span, aesthetic demands and environmental impacts (LCA)....

  18. Ecologies of Learning, Ecologies of Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Helene

    in the light of the new Danish school reform. How can different learning institutions contribute to a “joint” ecology of learning? What would the benefits be from this in terms of young people’s literacies? On what theoretical basis can such an ecology and co-creation take place? And what kind of didactics...... to be developed, both theoretically and in practical terms. My presentation will take its point of departure in a concrete Danish project titled “Popup Experimentariet – Digital dannelse på skemaet” [The PopUp Experimentarium – Digital Literacy on the Agenda], which is funded by the Danish Cultural Ministry...... are in need of development? It is the aim of the research project to investigate the mentioned questions – and to further qualify the co-creation of literacies by different types of learning institutions....

  19. Application of ecological tourism in physical education of primary school age children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olena Andrieieva; Yaroslav Galan; Anna Hakman; Inna Holovach

    2017-01-01

      Purpose: to work out and scientifically substantiate the program of trainings with application of ecological tourism means for primary school pupils, oriented on pupils' ecological culture formation...

  20. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  1. State's First Bridge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Article with details on the state's first bridge that crossed the Noxubee River adjacent to the Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Boundary. Details also included...

  2. Forward Affect Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonshtein, Udi; Torem, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a modification of the affect bridge technique. The Forward Affect Bridge enables practitioners to create and maintain hope when it is missing. Hope is relevant for diminishing avoidance and being involved with necessary activities. The main idea is to build up a positive atmosphere in the here and now (relying on rapport), to amplify it, and to project it forward. By using clinical vignettes, the authors illustrate these techniques.

  3. Bridges Expansion Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey W. Kozlachkow

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The survey is concerned with the expansion joints, used in bridge constructions to compensate medium and significant operational linear and spatial displacements between adjacent spans or between bridge span and pier. The analysis of design features of these types of expansion joints, their advantages and disadvantages, based on operational experience justified the necessity to design constructions, meeting the modern demands imposed to expansion joints.

  4. Ecological diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pielou E. C

    1975-01-01

    The richness and variety-in a word, the diversity-of natural ecological communities have never been more highly valued than they are now, as they become increasingly threatened by the environmental crisis...

  5. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  6. The ecology of religious beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Carlos A.; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C.; Gray, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species. PMID:25385605

  7. The ecology of religious beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Carlos A; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C; Gray, Russell D

    2014-11-25

    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species.

  8. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1007 - Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. 80.1007 Section 80.1007 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1007 Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. Use of the bridge-to-bridge...

  10. Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gülkan, Polat; Mahmoud, Khaled

    2016-01-01

      The book includes peer-reviewed contributions selected from presentations given at the Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014, held from August 11 – 13 in Istanbul, Turkey. It reports on the current challenges in bridge engineering faced by professionals around the globe, giving a special emphasis to recently developed techniques, innovations and opportunities. The book covers key topics in the field, including modeling and analysis methods; construction and erection techniques; design for extreme events and condition assessment and structural health monitoring. There is a balanced presentation of theory, research and practice. This book, which provides the readers with a comprehensive and timely reference guide on current practices in bridge engineering, is intended for professionals, academic researchers and students alike.

  11. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    The fixed link between Denmark and Sweden connects two busy cities and a large international airport with many of its travelers and employees. 18,000 vehicles and 160 passenger trains transport each day more than 70,000 people across the combined road and rail Øresund Bridge and through the Øresund...... Tunnel, approximately 25,000 of them critical to the regional work market. Even though the risk analysis states that the likelihood of a long-term closure (100C days) is very low Danish and Swedish transport authorities have demanded that the infrastructure operator conducts a survey of the preparedness...... in its final report to the Danish and Swedish transport authorities while drawing upon experiences from two recent comparable cases of infrastructure disruptions: The Champlain Bridge (2009) and the Forth Road Bridge (2015)....

  12. Development of bridge girder movement criteria for accelerated bridge construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    End diaphragms connect multiple girders to form a bridge superstructure system for effective resistance to earthquake loads. Concrete : girder bridges that include end diaphragms consistently proved to perform well during previous earthquake events. ...

  13. Ecological effects of co-culturing the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus with the Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis in an earthen pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shun; Ren, Yichao; Pearce, Christopher M.; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Using net enclosures in an earthen pond, we established three culture treatments with the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and the Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis: monoculture of sea cucumbers (C), monoculture of shrimp (S), and co-culture of the two species (CS). We measured levels of suspended particulate matter in the water column; total organic matter, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and carbon/nitrogen ratios in both settling particles and the sediment; and chlorophyll a levels in the sediment. We then compared these variables between the three treatments. We also examined growth, survival, and yield of the two species in the different treatments. From June to September, the mean monthly suspended particulate matter sedimentation rates in the CS and S treatments were significantly ( Psea cucumbers in co-culture were all significantly greater than those of sea cucumbers in monoculture. There were no significant differences among any of these variables for shrimp reared in the two systems. The bioturbation of the sediment and fecal production of the shrimp likely supplied natural food for the sea cucumbers. Co-culture of the two species is a viable option for increasing yield per unit area, maximizing use of the water body, and diversifying crop production.

  14. Behind cultural competence: The role of causal attribution in multicultural teacher education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Yan; Montgomery, Diane

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to bridge the gap between achievement motivation and multicultural teacher education, this study explored the relationship between causal attribution of cultural awareness and cultural...

  15. Ecology and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, C

    1978-01-01

    Health is commonly conceived as having fixed and universal aims, while conditions interposed by environmental and cultural conditions are often ignored or at least shunted to one side. Rejecting this point of view, the author asserts that health in any society should be defined in terms of ecological reality--that is, in terms of the cultural and environmental variables affecting the population. He also notes that acceptance of this concept does not imply perpetuation of a natural but static situation. Rather, it implies searching for ways to improve the situation without necessarily striving for international goals that may be unsuitable or impossible to achieve. The concept also implies that we should ask how to define a satisfactory health level for a given set of conditions--and then consider how to achieve that level. The search for answers to these questions and subsequent programs based on the results will require a multidisciplinary approach. Within this context two PAHO facilities, the Pan American Center for Human Ecology and Health (ECO) and the Pan American Center and Engineering and Environmental Sciences (CEPIS), can provide strong support for activities in the Americas. Specifically, ECO is in a good position to collaborate on ecological planning, model-building, and research evaluation, while CEPIS is geared to provide advice and assistance in the key field of environmental sanitation.

  16. Museum as ecology: A case study analysis of an ambient intelligent museum guide

    OpenAIRE

    Wakkary, Ron; Evernden, Dale

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the usefulness of the ecology concept as an analytical framework for designing interactive technology in museums. We aim to describe and evaluate an ecological approach to understanding museums and to examine information and cultural ecologies as analytical tools for guiding the design of interactive systems. We focus on two related concepts of ecology, cultural ecology (Bell 2002) and information ecology (Nardi and O'Day 1999). Utilizing each of the two frameworks, we ana...

  17. Bridge-Vehicle Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  18. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  19. Colorado statewide historic bridge inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the Colorado statewide historic bridge inventory was to document and evaluate the National : Register of Historic Places eligibility all on-system highway bridges and grade separation structures built in : Colorado between 1959 and 196...

  20. Strengthening bridges using composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this research project is to outline methodologies for using Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites to strengthen and rehabilitate reinforced concrete bridge elements. : Infrastructure deterioration and bridge strengthening techniq...

  1. Virginia Bridge Information Systems Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report presents the results of applied data mining of legacy bridge databases, focusing on the Pontis and : National Bridge Inventory databases maintained by the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT). Data : analysis was performed using a...

  2. Uncontrolled concrete bridge parapet cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation has recently identified the problem of wide-spread premature cracking of concrete bridge : parapets throughout its District 12 region (Northeast Ohio). Many of the bridge decks that contain these prematurely crac...

  3. Call cultures in orang-utans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects. Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval, individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are consistent with the potential presence of 'call cultures' and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might

  4. Trash Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Georgia J.

    2004-01-01

    A hands on activity involving density, frequency and biomass using transects, quadrats and a local good deed by cleaning up the neighborhood while practicing important techniques in ecology is detailed. The activity is designed for KCC-STEP, whose primary goal is to expand the scientific knowledge and research experiences of their students, who…

  5. Ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. Barton; John I. Blake; Donald W. Imm

    2005-01-01

    The long history of human settlement, agriculture, and industry at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has created extensive opportunities for ecological restoration. Two hundred years of farming, drainage, dam construction, stream channeling, fire protection, subsistence hunting and fishing, exotic animal and plant introduction, and selective timber harvesting have caused...

  6. Visual ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Thomas W; Johnsen, Sönke; Marsahll, N. Justin; Warrant, Eric

    2014-01-01

    ... ecology. . Physiology, Comparative. . Eye- Evolution. I. Title. QP.C  .'- dc British Library Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available This book...

  7. Cultural, Transcriptomic, and Proteomic Analyses of Water-Stressed Cells of Actinobacterial Strains Isolated from Compost: Ecological Implications in the Fed-Batch Composting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narihiro, Takashi; Kanosue, Yuji; Hiraishi, Akira

    2016-06-25

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of water activity (aw) on the viability of actinobacterial isolates from a fed-batch composting (FBC) process by comparing culturability and stainability with 5-cyano-2,3-ditoryl tetrazolium chloride (CTC). The FBC reactor as the source of these bacteria was operated with the daily loading of household biowaste for 70 d. During this period of composting, aw in the reactor decreased linearly with time and reached approximately 0.95 at the end of operation. The plate counts of aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria were 3.2-fold higher than CTC-positive (CTC+) counts on average at the fully acclimated stage (after 7 weeks of operation), in which Actinobacteria predominated, as shown by lipoquinone profiling and cultivation methods. When the actinobacterial isolates from the FBC process were grown under aw stress, no significant differences were observed in culturability among the cultures, whereas CTC stainability decreased with reductions in aw levels. A cDNA microarray-based transcriptomic analysis of a representative isolate showed that many of the genes involved in cellular metabolism and genetic information processing were down-regulated by aw stress. This result was fully supported by a proteomic analysis. The results of the present study suggest that, in low aw mature compost, the metabolic activity of the community with Actinobacteria predominating is temporarily reduced to a level that hardly reacts with CTC; however, these bacteria are easily recoverable by exposure to a high aw culture medium. This may be a plausible reason why acclimated FBC reactors in which Actinobacteria predominate yields higher plate counts than CTC+ counts.

  8. Building a Straw Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  9. Bridge the Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Mel; Cufaude, Jeffrey B.

    1989-01-01

    This document consists of two paired articles: the first, "Preparing Faculty Out of Class Experiences," by Mel Klein, and the second, "Help Advisers Be More Than Ghost Signatures," by Jeffrey B. Calfaude. Each article shares insights on how faculty advisers "bridge the gap" between students and faculty. When faculty members are asked to advise…

  10. Bridging the gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Astronomy is flourishing in China, with impressive achievements in instrument design and construction matched by a higher international research profile. Yet there remains a mismatch between the facilities available and those needed to progress. Sue Bowler wonders how the country will bridge the gap.

  11. Quantum Bidding in Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Muhammad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantum methods allow us to reduce communication complexity of some computational tasks, with several separated partners, beyond classical constraints. Nevertheless, experimental demonstrations of this have thus far been limited to some abstract problems, far away from real-life tasks. We show here, and demonstrate experimentally, that the power of reduction of communication complexity can be harnessed to gain an advantage in a famous, immensely popular, card game—bridge. The essence of a winning strategy in bridge is efficient communication between the partners. The rules of the game allow only a specific form of communication, of very low complexity (effectively, one has strong limitations on the number of exchanged bits. Surprisingly, our quantum technique does not violate the existing rules of the game (as there is no increase in information flow. We show that our quantum bridge auction corresponds to a biased nonlocal Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game, which is equivalent to a 2→1 quantum random access code. Thus, our experiment is also a realization of such protocols. However, this correspondence is not complete, which enables the bridge players to have efficient strategies regardless of the quality of their detectors.

  12. Bridge over troubled water?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Nannestad, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2008-01-01

    The problem of integrating non-Western immigrants into Western welfare states is the focus of this paper. To address this issue, we suggest a social capital approach in which we apply the conceptual pair of bridging social capital (BR), which connects an individual to the broader social structure...

  13. Bridging the Gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Colin

    2009-01-01

    The political context of the conversion of the Historic Tramway Bridge, adjacent to Sandon Point in Bulli (NSW, Australia), and how this was exploited to serve predetermined ends, illustrates that technologies can be designed to have particular social (and political) effects. Through reflection on this relatively small engineering project, this…

  14. Conference Proceedings: Seed Ecology III - The Third International Society for Seed Science Meeting on Seeds and the Environment - "Seeds and Change"; June 20-June 24, 2010; Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemary Pendleton; Susan Meyer; Bitsy Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Seed Ecology III was held in Salt Lake City, Utah in June 2010, sharing the latest research on all aspects of seed ecology. Our meeting was organized around the theme "Seeds and Change." We welcomed contributions in any area of seed ecology. Our agenda also aimed to create bridges between seed ecology and plant conservation, restoration ecology, and global...

  15. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  16. Socio-Ecological Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    is part of the enterprise cultural fabric, is foundational to enterprise strategy, and contributes to the financial security of the enterprise. Innovation for Sustainability is innovation that is specifically targeted to address ecological and / or societal considerations. That is, Innovation......Socio‐Ecological Innovation or SEI is innovation resulting from strategic integration of sustainable innovation and innovation for sustainability. In particular SEI is regarded as critical to organizations intent on progressing toward Sustainable Enterprise Excellence (SEE) and, indeed, progressing...... toward the asymptotic goal of becoming a continuously relevant and responsible organization (CR2O). Sustainable Innovation is something that is attained only when innovation in an enterprise is regular, systematic, and systemic to the endeavors of the enterprise itself – that is – Sustainable Innovation...

  17. Cultural realities of being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of cultural psychology. The book builds upon rich cultural traditions present in India, and precisely because of this focus, the book has much larger implications and relevance to the field and aims to orient the academic reader from around the world to viewing India and Indian society as a valuable area...... for research. Divided into three sections, the book covers: • Social presentation in culture • Representing relations • Children and youth in culture This book includes commentaries from expert academics from outside of India, providing a bridge between academic reality and cultural discourse and throwing...

  18. Ecological English Language Learning Among Ethnic Minority Youth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noah E. Borrero; Christine J. Yeh

    2010-01-01

    To empirically investigate language learning in relational and cultural settings, the authors developed and administered the Ecological Language Learning and Academic Success scale to an ethnically...

  19. Ecological Continuum from the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Watersheds to the East China Sea Continental Margin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    ...) and its adjacent marginal environment, the East China Sea. The studies in this volume bridges the watersheds of the river and the marginal sea through a combined approach of hydro-dynamics, geochemistry, sedimentary processes, ecology and fishery...

  20. Traditional ecological knowledge and restoration practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    René Senos; Frank K. Lake; Nancy Turner; Dennis Martinez

    2006-01-01

    Ecological restoration is a process, a directed action aimed at repairing damage to ecocultural systems for which humans are responsible. Environmental degradation has impaired the functioning of both ecological and cultural systems and disrupted traditional practices that maintained these systems over several millennia. Indigenous and local peoples who depend...

  1. Positive interactions between irrawaddy dolphins and artisanal fishers in the Chilika Lagoon of eastern India are driven by ecology, socioeconomics, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Lima, Coralie; Marsh, Helene; Hamann, Mark; Sinha, Anindya; Arthur, Rohan

    2014-09-01

    In human-dominated landscapes, interactions and perceptions towards wildlife are influenced by multidimensional drivers. Understanding these drivers could prove useful for wildlife conservation. We surveyed the attitudes and perceptions of fishers towards threatened Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) at Chilika Lagoon India. To validate the drivers of fisher perceptions, we : (1) observed dolphin foraging behavior at stake nets, and (2) compared catch per unit effort (CPUE) and catch income of fishers from stake nets in the presence and absence of foraging dolphins. We found that fishers were mostly positive towards dolphins, believing that dolphins augmented their fish catch and using culture to express their perceptions. Foraging dolphins were observed spending half their time at stake nets and were associated with significantly higher catch income and CPUE of mullet (Liza sp.), a locally preferred food fish species. Wildlife conservation efforts should use the multidimensional drivers of human-wildlife interactions to involve local stakeholders in management.

  2. Bridging Classroom Language Ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    Grenfell, Michael James

    2012-01-01

    PUBLISHED Paper #5: Bridging Classroom Language Ethnography, New Literacy Studies and Bourdieu?s Social Philosophy: Principles and Practice The purpose of this paper is to analyze and synthesize the various ways that classroom language ethnography, NLS, and Bourdieu?s social philosophy, were integrated. The goal of the analysis and synthesis is to provide a fresh perspective and fruitful insights on literacy in all its manifestations that provides the foundations for a more robust...

  3. Historical ecology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter

    2015-11-01

    The term 'historical ecology' has been used with various meanings since the first half of the 20th century. Studies labelled as historical ecology have been produced in at least four academic disciplines: history, ecology, geography and anthropology. Although all those involved seem to agree that historical ecology concerns the historical interconnectedness of nature and human culture, this field of study has no unified methodology, specialized institutional background and common publication forums. Knowledge of the development of historical ecology is also limited. As a result, the current multitude of definitions of historical ecology is accompanied by divergent opinions as to where the origins of the field are to be sought. In this review, I follow the development of historical ecology from the 18th century to the present. In the first part, I briefly describe some early examples of historical ecological investigations, followed by a description of the various scientific strands in the 20th century that contributed to the formation of historical ecology. In the second part, I discuss the past five decades of historical ecological investigations in more detail, focusing mostly (but not exclusively) on works that their respective authors identified as historical ecology. I also examine the appearance and interconnectedness of the two main trends (ecological and anthropological) in historical ecological research. In the last part, I attempt to outline the future of historical ecology based on common features in existing research. It appears that at present historical ecology is at a crossroads. With rapidly growing interest in historical ecological research, it may move towards institutionalization or remain an umbrella term. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  4. Bartonella melophagi in blood of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern US: Cultures, genetic characterization, and ecological connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Enscore, Russell; Rizzo, Maria Rosales; Bender, Scott; Popov, Vsevolod; Albayrak, Levent; Fofanov, Yuriy; Chomel, Bruno

    2016-07-15

    Bartonella melophagi sp. nov. was isolated from domestic sheep blood and from sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern United States. The sequence analyses of the reference strain performed by six molecular markers consistently demonstrated that B. melophagi relates to but differ from other Bartonella species isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. Presence of 183 genes specific for B. melophagi, being absent in genomes of other Bartonella species associated with ruminants also supports the separation of this bacterial species from species of other ruminants. Bartonella DNA was detected in all investigated sheep keds; however, culturing of these bacteria from sheep blood rejects a speculation that B. melophagi is an obligatory endosymbiont. Instead, the results support the hypothesis that the domestic sheep is a natural host reservoir for B. melophagi and the sheep ked its main vector. This bacterium was not isolated from the blood of bighorn sheep and domestic goats belonging to the same subfamily Caprinae. B. melophagi has also been shown to be zoonotic and needs to be investigated further. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The Rakiura Titi Islands Restoration Project: community action to eradicate Rattus rattus and Rattus exulans for ecological restoration and cultural wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, P.J; Coote,; Trow,; Hutchins,; Nevins, HannahRose M.; Adams, Josh; Newman, J.; Moller, H.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, Mike N.; Towns, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, a non-profit group, Ka Mate Nga Kiore, was set up to oversee the restoration of four Maori-owned islands off the south coast of Stewart Island, New Zealand. The first step in the restoration was to eradicate ship rats (Rattus rattus) from three islands and Pacific rats (R. exulans) from another. The eradication was funded by the Command Oil Spill Trustee Council which managed the mitigation money from an oil spill off the Californian coast in 1998. The funding was coordinated via Oikonos Ecosystem Knowledge, a non-profit USA group primarily involved in seabird research and restoration. The project was primarily to benefit sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) and to sustain a culturally important customary harvest of their chicks by Rakiura Maori. However, like all island eradications, a wide range of other species also benefited from the removal of rats. The New Zealand Department of Conservation provided technical advice and assistance for the planning and implementation of the eradication programme. This paper describes how, with appropriate funding, community and technical support, rodent eradications can be achieved on private islands. In this case, a range of institutions and individuals joined to achieve a common goal that highlighted a significant international conservation action. We urge that more international and local-community-led restoration projects be initiated in the future.

  6. Call Cultures in Orang-Utans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A.; Nater, Alexander; Arora, Natasha; Bastian, Meredith L.; Meulman, Ellen; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C.; Atmoko, S. Suci Utami; Pamungkas, Joko; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Hardus, Madeleine E.; van Noordwijk, Maria; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents) has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects). Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval), individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. Conclusion/Significance These results are consistent with the potential presence of ‘call cultures’ and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might assist in bridging

  7. [Human ecology: an overview of man-environment relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begossi, A

    1993-01-01

    Cultural ecology, ethnobiology, sociobiology, models of subsistence and of cultural transmission, and applied ecology as parts of human ecology have a common denominator: they all present an ecological basis as continued biological force. Both the concepts and analytical models of ecology are necessary for understanding the relationship between man and nature. Cultural ecology studies the influence of environmental variables on the behavior of human cultures; sociobiology studies the biological bases of behavior; and ethnobiology studies classification systems of nature. The disciplines of anthropology, geography, sociology, and psychology represent specific branches of human ecology. Cultural ecology or ecological anthropology arise from the interaction of ecology (evolution of systems) with anthropology. Sociobiology evolved since the early 1970s, and it includes the disciplines of classical ethnology, evolutive ecology, and genetics. The interaction of evolutive ecology with ethology helped create sociology. In Brazil the study of human ecology on indigenous human populations (in particular in the Amazon basin) deals with cultural ecology, ethnology, and models of subsistence (goal model, models of decision, the theory of players, linear programming, central place foraging). Recent work includes that of Neves (1989), Moran (1983), and Fearnside (1986) who studies acculturated Brazilian half-breed Indians, fishermen, and migrants. Ethnobiology is well represented in Brazilian studies of indigenous populations. The works of Posey (1983) about ethnobotanics, ethnoentemology, and ethnoecology with Kayapo Indians are distinguished. Studies about littoral populations and other fishermen and agriculturists include such ecological aspects as territoriality (Forman 1970), diversity, and subsistence models (Begossi 1992, Begossi and Richerson 1993), ethnoichthyology (Marques 1991), and food taboos (Begossi 1992). In the social, environmental, and conservationist context

  8. Simulation of multivariate diffusion bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Finch, Samuel; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose simple methods for multivariate diffusion bridge simulation, which plays a fundamental role in simulation-based likelihood and Bayesian inference for stochastic differential equations. By a novel application of classical coupling methods, the new approach generalizes a previously...... proposed simulation method for one-dimensional bridges to the mulit-variate setting. First a method of simulating approzimate, but often very accurate, diffusion bridges is proposed. These approximate bridges are used as proposal for easily implementable MCMC algorithms that produce exact diffusion bridges....... The new method is much more generally applicable than previous methods. Another advantage is that the new method works well for diffusion bridges in long intervals because the computational complexity of the method is linear in the length of the interval. In a simulation study the new method performs well...

  9. Historical ecology: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter

    2017-01-01

    The term ‘historical ecology’ has been used with various meanings since the first half of the 20th century. Studies labelled as historical ecology have been produced in at least four academic disciplines: history, ecology, geography and anthropology. Although all those involved seem to agree that historical ecology concerns the historical interconnectedness of nature and human culture, this field of study has no unified methodology, specialized institutional background and common publication forums. Knowledge of the development of historical ecology is also limited. As a result, the current multitude of definitions of historical ecology is accompanied by divergent opinions as to where the origins of the field are to be sought. In this review, I follow the development of historical ecology from the 18th century to the present. In the first part, I briefly describe some early examples of historical ecological investigations, followed by a description of the various scientific strands in the 20th century that contributed to the formation of historical ecology. In the second part, I discuss the past five decades of historical ecological investigations in more detail, focusing mostly (but not exclusively) on works that their respective authors identified as historical ecology. I also examine the appearance and interconnectedness of the two main trends (ecological and anthropological) in historical ecological research. In the last part, I attempt to outline the future of historical ecology based on common features in existing research. It appears that at present historical ecology is at the crossroads. With rapidly growing interest in historical ecological research, it may move towards institutionalization or remain an umbrella term. PMID:25174685

  10. Liver Cell Culture Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andria, B.; Bracco, A.; Cirino, G.; Chamuleau, R. A. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15 years many different liver cell culture devices, consisting of functional liver cells and artificial materials, have been developed. They have been devised for numerous different applications, such as temporary organ replacement (a bridge to liver transplantation or native liver

  11. Bridging the gaps for global sustainable development: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Victor E; Jansson, Peter Mark

    2009-09-01

    Global human progress occurs in a complex web of interactions between society, technology and the environment as driven by governance and infrastructure management capacity among nations. In our globalizing world, this complex web of interactions over the last 200 years has resulted in the chronic widening of economic and political gaps between the haves and the have-nots with consequential global cultural and ecosystem challenges. At the bottom of these challenges is the issue of resource limitations on our finite planet with increasing population. The problem is further compounded by pleasure-driven and poverty-driven ecological depletion and pollution by the haves and the have-nots respectively. These challenges are explored in this paper as global sustainable development (SD) quantitatively; in order to assess the gaps that need to be bridged. Although there has been significant rhetoric on SD with very many qualitative definitions offered, very few quantitative definitions of SD exist. The few that do exist tend to measure SD in terms of social, energy, economic and environmental dimensions. In our research, we used several human survival, development, and progress variables to create an aggregate SD parameter that describes the capacity of nations in three dimensions: social sustainability, environmental sustainability and technological sustainability. Using our proposed quantitative definition of SD and data from relatively reputable secondary sources, 132 nations were ranked and compared. Our comparisons indicate a global hierarchy of needs among nations similar to Maslow's at the individual level. As in Maslow's hierarchy of needs, nations that are struggling to survive are less concerned with environmental sustainability than advanced and stable nations. Nations such as the United States, Canada, Finland, Norway and others have higher SD capacity, and thus, are higher on their hierarchy of needs than nations such as Nigeria, Vietnam, Mexico and other

  12. Matters of Taste: Bridging Molecular Physiology and the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangachari, P. K.; Rangachari, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Taste perception was the focus of an undergraduate course in the health sciences that bridged the sciences and humanities. A problem-based learning approach was used to study the biological issues, whereas the cultural transmutations of these molecular mechanisms were explored using a variety of resources (novels, cookbooks, and films). Multiple…

  13. Video as a Bridge for Integrating the Four Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Emi; O'Donnell, William A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper, based on a presentation given under the same name at the 4th Annual CamTESOL Conference on English Language Teaching: "Building Bridges to the World" on 24 February 2008 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, offers advice on integrating the teaching of the four language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) in their cultural context…

  14. Editorial: Pedagogical Media Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee M. Meister

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From educational gaming through portable e-readers to cell phones, media are interpenetrating educational spaces and activities. Accordingly, understanding media in environmental or ecological terms has become increasingly important for education internationally. In North America, for example, the centenary of McLuhan’s birth has focused attention on approaches to media – whether oral, textual, electronic or digital– as a kind of environment in which education takes place. In parts of Europe, the so-called mediatic turn – following on the linguistic and iconic turns – has similarly emphasized the role of media as a condition for the possibility of educational activities and programs. With a few exceptions1 the papers in this special issue were first presented at the conference «Educational Media Ecologies: International Perspectives» which took place at the University of Paderborn, Germany, on March 27–28, 2012.2 The event was an interdisciplinary and transatlantic endeavor to bring together a wide range of perspectives on various issues relevant to educational media ecologies,3 and on related debates on mediation, medialization, mediatization, and mediality.4 The purpose of this volume, like the conference, is to foster and deepen international dialogue in the area of educational media. Areas of research and scholarship relevant to this dialogue include educational media, media literacy, educational philosophy, and media and cultural studies. The contributions, described below, put conceptual issues as well as social practices and applications at the center of the debate. Klaus Rummler opens the issue by clarifying the concept of ecology itself. Referencing a range of work over the past 50 years, Rummler describes how ecological models have been cast in sociological, semiotic, cultural, mediatic and other terms, and he explains the implications of these various perspectives for the study of educational contexts. Rummler also

  15. Civic Ecology: A Postmodern Approach to Ecological Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Human agency is transforming the planetary processes at unprecedented rates risking damaging essential life-support systems. Climate change, massive species extinction, land degradation, resources depletion, overpopulation, poverty and social injustice are all the result of human choices and non-sustainable ways of life. The survival of our modern economic systems depends upon insatiable consumption - a simple way of life no longer satisfies most people. Detached, instrumental rationality has created an ideal of liberalism based on individual pursuit of self-interest, leading the way into unprecedented material progress but bringing with it human alienation, social injustice, and ecological degradation. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce a community-based systems response to a growing sense that the interlocked social-ecological crisis is as much a problem of human thought and behavior as it is about identifying carrying capacities and CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. This approach, referred to here as civic ecology, presents a new and important paradigm shift in sustainability practice that attempts to bring together and integrate ecological ideas and postmodern thinking. As such, it is as much a holistic, dynamic, and synergistic approach to ecological sustainability, as it is a philosophy of life and ethical perspective born of ecological understanding and insight. Civic ecology starts with the proposition that the key factor determining the health of the ecosphere is the behavior of human beings, and therefore many of the most important issues related to sustainability lie in the areas of human thought and culture. Thus, the quest for sustainability must include as a central concern the transformation of psychological and behavioral patterns that have become an imminent danger to planetary health. At the core of this understanding is a fundamental paradigm shift from the basic commitments of modern Western culture to its model of mechanism

  16. Morphological aspects of myocardial bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira Lujinović

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although some myocardial bridges can be asymptomatic, their presence often causes coronary disease either through direct compression of the “tunnel” segment or through stimulation and accelerated development of atherosclerosis in the segment proximally to the myocardial bridge. The studied material contained 30 human hearts received from the Department of Anatomy. The hearts were preserved 3 to 5 days in 10% formalin solution. Thereafter, the fatty tissue was removed and arterial blood vessels prepared by careful dissection with special reference to the presence of the myocardial bridges. Length and thickness of the bridges were measured by the precise electronic caliper. The angle between the myocardial bridge fibre axis and other axis of the crossed blood vessel was measured by a goniometer. The presence of the bridges was confirmed in 53.33% of the researched material, most frequently (43.33% above the anterior interventricular branch. The mean length of the bridges was 14.64±9.03 mm and the mean thickness was 1.23±1.32 mm. Myocardial bridge fibres pass over the descending blood vessel at the angle of 10-90 degrees. The results obtained on a limited sample suggest that the muscular index of myocardial bridge is the highest for bridges located on RIA, but that the difference is not significant in relation to bridges located on other branches. The results obtained suggest that bridges located on other branches, not only those on RIA, could have a great contractive power and, consequently, a great compressive force, which would be exerted on the wall of a crossed blood vessel.

  17. MODERN ASPECTS OF BRIDGES MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kazakevych

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The major concepts of the elaboration and realization of the bridge construction monitoring systemic approach are presented in this paper. The main peculiarity of the bridge monitoring modern aspect is pointed out here, namely, the transition from the demands of providing the reliability to the demands of providing the whole complex of the structure consumer qualities. The criteria of diagnostics of the bridge exploitation reliability as the fundamental aim of monitoring are formulated here.

  18. Bridging the Health Data Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Leo Anthony; Davidzon, Guido; Johnson, Alistair Ew; Komorowski, Matthieu; Marshall, Dominic C; Nair, Sunil S; Phillips, Colin T; Pollard, Tom J; Raffa, Jesse D; Salciccioli, Justin D; Salgueiro, Francisco Muge; Stone, David J

    2016-12-20

    Fundamental quality, safety, and cost problems have not been resolved by the increasing digitization of health care. This digitization has progressed alongside the presence of a persistent divide between clinicians, the domain experts, and the technical experts, such as data scientists. The disconnect between clinicians and data scientists translates into a waste of research and health care resources, slow uptake of innovations, and poorer outcomes than are desirable and achievable. The divide can be narrowed by creating a culture of collaboration between these two disciplines, exemplified by events such as datathons. However, in order to more fully and meaningfully bridge the divide, the infrastructure of medical education, publication, and funding processes must evolve to support and enhance a learning health care system. ©Leo Anthony Celi, Guido Davidzon, Alistair EW Johnson, Matthieu Komorowski, Dominic C Marshall, Sunil S Nair, Colin T Phillips, Tom J Pollard, Jesse D Raffa, Justin D Salciccioli, Francisco Muge Salgueiro, David J Stone. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 20.12.2016.

  19. Bridging the Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The view from the top of Hoover Dam looking south over the Colorado River was breathtaking! My friend and I stood there in silence, taking it all in. I had visited Hoover Dam on many occasions, but this visit was the first time I had seen the arch bridge that carries US Route 93 over the river and joins Nevada and Arizona states. It was a beautiful day, the temperature was perfect, and there was a slight breeze coming from Lake Mead behind us as we took in the view.

  20. Bridging the Emissions Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Blok, K.

    2012-01-01

    The analyses in Chapters 2 and 3 of this report concluded that the emissions gap in 2020 will likely be between 8 and 13 GtCO2e. The chapters also estimated the difference between BaU emissions in 2020 and the emissions level consistent with a “likely” chance of staying within the 2°C target to be 14 GtCO2e. This chapter explores the potential for bridging this gap using a sector policy approach. Firstly, the chapter provides a summary and update of the estimated emission reduction potential ...

  1. Bridging biometrics and forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa Ann

    2008-02-01

    This paper is a survey on biometrics and forensics, especially on the techniques and applications of face recognition in forensics. This paper describes the differences and connections between biometrics and forensics, and bridges each other by formulating the conditions when biometrics can be applied in forensics. Under these conditions, face recognition, as a non-intrusive and non-contact biometrics, is discussed in detail as an illustration of applying biometrics in forensics. The discussion on face recognition covers different approaches, feature extractions, and decision procedures. The advantages and limitations of biometrics in forensic applications are also addressed.

  2. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which do...

  3. Comprehensive evaluation of fracture critical bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Two-girder steel bridges are classified as fracture critical bridges based on the definition given in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. In a fracture critical bridge a failure of a tension member leads to collapse of the bridge. However, ...

  4. BRIDGES: Evolution of basic and applied linkages in benthic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumen, Nicholas G.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Barbour, Michael T.; Moerke, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    Growing awareness of environmental degradation resulted in stricter environmental regulations and laws for aquatic ecosystems. These regulations were followed by an increase in applied research and monitoring beginning in the early 1970s. The number of applied scientists who were members of the North American Benthological Society grew at a commensurate rate. The editors of J-NABS recognized that, despite these increases, submitted manuscripts mostly addressed basic science. In response, the BRIDGES section of J-NABS was created in 1994 to provide a forum for linking basic ecological principles to applied science problems and issues. We examined the emergence of applied science topics in J-NABS and its predecessor, Freshwater Invertebrate Biology, from their beginning in 1982 to 2009. We classified papers among 11 categories that included a basic/applied science linkage. In the 1980s, applied papers were predominantly on effects of eutrophication/pollution and landuse changes. When BRIDGES was established in 1994, papers were solicited by editors and BRIDGES sections usually included >1 paper on a common theme to express complementary or alternate viewpoints. Forty-two papers appeared in BRIDGES between 1994 and 2009, but the number per issue declined after 2001. The total number of applied science papers in J-NABS has increased since ∼1994. Citation analysis of BRIDGES papers illustrates how information is being cited, but applied papers often are used in ways that might not lead to citations. BRIDGES transitioned to a new format in September 2009 to address new types of complex, multifaceted linkages. All new BRIDGES articles will be open access, and authors will be encouraged to produce lay-language fact sheets and to post them on the web.

  5. Environmental life cycle assessment comparison between two bridge types: reinforced concrete bridge and steel composite bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2013-01-01

    The concept of sustainable construction has attracted an increased attention. Bridge infrastructures and their belonged construction activities consume considerable material and energy, which is responsible for large environmental burdens. However, the environmental assessment of bridges has...... not been integrated into the decision-making process. This paper presents a systematic LCA method for quantifying the environmental impacts for bridges. The comparison study is performed between a reinforced concrete bridge and a steel bridge as an alternative design, with several key maintenance and EOL...... scenarios outlined. LCA study is performed with the ReCiPe methodology with life cycle inventories data from public database. Five selected mid-point level impact categories and the energy consumption are presented. The result shows that the steel bridge has a better environmental performance due...

  6. Community ecology in a changing environment: Perspectives from the Quaternary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Stephen T; Blois, Jessica L

    2015-04-21

    Community ecology and paleoecology are both concerned with the composition and structure of biotic assemblages but are largely disconnected. Community ecology focuses on existing species assemblages and recently has begun to integrate history (phylogeny and continental or intercontinental dispersal) to constrain community processes. This division has left a "missing middle": Ecological and environmental processes occurring on timescales from decades to millennia are not yet fully incorporated into community ecology. Quaternary paleoecology has a wealth of data documenting ecological dynamics at these timescales, and both fields can benefit from greater interaction and articulation. We discuss ecological insights revealed by Quaternary terrestrial records, suggest foundations for bridging between the disciplines, and identify topics where the disciplines can engage to mutual benefit.

  7. ECOLOGICAL BASES OF FOLK ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Abakarova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Esthetic bases of natural in national culture is defined in the paper. On the example of construction and internal furniture of dwellings of peoples of Dagestan communication of microcosm and macrocosm in consciousness of people is shown. Architectural monuments of national culture kept features of adaptive-adapting function of ecological thinking of the people.Aim of the research is to define ecological bases of national architecture, to show features of natural and esthetic dwelling in the mountain regions of Dagestan.Methods of carrying out work represent interdisciplinary research of folk art in a context of cultural science, cultural history, and an esthetics. The complex of methods was used: diachronic, synchronic, functional, psychological.Main conclusions. National creativity is closely connected with the nature of the native land. So, lullabies and lyrical songs, games, signs, labor and ceremonial songs, and also architecture and painting reflected features of perception of nature by people, their attitude towards her, use of natural resources. In national creativity regional features of relationship of people and nature are most fully and authentically traced. In art of the people its spiritual wealth, the internal ecological environment is reflected.

  8. 47 CFR 80.163 - Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge... Requirements § 80.163 Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. Each ship subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must have on board a radio operator who holds a restricted radiotelephone operator permit or...

  9. 47 CFR 80.331 - Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. 80..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.331 Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. (a) Vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act transmitting on the designated navigational frequency must conduct...

  10. Field performance of timber bridges. 7, Connell Lake stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. E. Hislop; M. A. Ritter

    The Connell Lake bridge was constructed in early 1991 on the Tongass National Forest, Alaska, as a demonstration bridge under the Timber Bridge Initiative. The bridge is a stress-laminated deck structure with an approximate 36-ft length and 18-ft width and is the first known stress-laminated timber bridge constructed in Alaska. Performance of the bridge was monitored...

  11. Design of piles for integral abutment bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    More and more, integral abutment bridges are being used in place : of the more traditional bridge designs with expansion releases. In : this study, states which use integral abutment bridges were surveyed : to determine their current practice in the ...

  12. Developing deterioration models for Nebraska bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Nebraska Bridge Management System (NBMS) was developed in 1999 to assist in optimizing budget allocation for : the maintenance, rehabilitation and replacement needs of highway bridges. This requires the prediction of bridge : deterioration to calcula...

  13. Monitoring bridge scour using fiber optic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The scouring process excavates and carries away materials from the bed and banks of streams, and from : around the piers and abutments of bridges. Scour undermines bridges and may cause bridge failures due to : structural instability. In the last 30 ...

  14. Faster bridge construction using precast substructures : brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Bridge replacement often requires road closures and detours that frustrate road users. It remains a key goal of Wisconsin DOT to reduce construction-related road use interruptions. This will be a challenge with bridges: Bridge inspections in 2007 ide...

  15. An integrated conceptual framework for long-term social-ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.L. Collins; S.R. Carpenter; S.M. Swinton; D.E. Orenstein; D.L. Childers; T.L. Gragson; N.B. Grimm; J.M. Grove; S.L. Harlan; J.P. Kaye; A.K. Knapp; G.P. Kofinas; J.J. Magnuson; W.H. McDowell; J.M. Melack; L.A. Ogden; G.P. Robertson; M.D. Smith; A.C. Whitmer

    2010-01-01

    The global reach of human activities affects all natural ecosystems, so that the environment is best viewed as a social-ecological system. Consequently, a more integrative approach to environmental science, one that bridges the biophysical and social domains, is sorely needed. Although models and frameworks for social-ecological systems exist, few are explicitly...

  16. The violin bridge as filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, George

    2006-07-01

    The violin bridge filter role was investigated using modal and acoustic measurements on 12 quality-rated violins combined with systematic bridge rocking frequency f(rock) and wing mass decrements deltam on four bridges for two other violins. No isolated bridge resonances were observed; bridge motions were complex (including a "squat" mode near 0.8 kHz) except for low frequency rigid body pivot motions, all more or less resembling rocking motion at higher frequencies. A conspicuous broad peak near 2.3 kHz in bridge driving point mobility (labeled BH) was seen for good and bad violins. Similar structure was seen in averaged bridge, bridge feet, corpus mobilities and averaged radiativity. No correlation between violin quality and BH driving point, averaged corpus mobility magnitude, or radiativity was found. Increasing averaged-over-f(rock) deltam(g) from 0 to 0.12 generally increased radiativity across the spectrum. Decreasing averaged-over-deltam f(rock) from 3.6 to 2.6 kHz produced consistent decreases in radiativity between 3 and 4.2 kHz, but only few-percent decreases in BH frequency. The lowest f(rock) values were accompanied by significantly reduced radiation from the Helmholtz A0 mode near 280 Hz; this, combined with reduced high frequency output, created overall radiativity profiles quite similar to "bad" violins among the quality-rated violins.

  17. Crashworthy railing for timber bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Ritter; Ronald K. Faller; Sheila Rimal. Duwadi

    1999-01-01

    Bridge railing systems in the United States have historically beers designed based on static load criteria given in the American Association of State Highway and Transportation 0fficials (AASHTO) Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. In the past decade, full-scale vehicle crash testing has been recognized as a more appropriate and reliable method of evaluating...

  18. Fatigue tests on aluminium bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2004-01-01

    Traffic bridges are subjected to variable loads and should therefore be checked on fatigue. Especially low weight materials, like aluminium, are sensitive to fatigue, because the variable load is a substantial part of the total load. This paper shows the structural design of an aluminium bridge

  19. Steel-soil composite bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid

    2017-01-01

    viability, while their environmental performance is overlooked. Today’s designers are urged to seek new design options to reduce the environmental burdens. Sweden owns more than 24574 bridges and most of them are short spans. Among them, the slab frame bridge (CFB) is a common solution. Soil steel composite...

  20. Vulnerability of bridges to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Crosti, C.; Gentili, F.

    2012-01-01

    Even if recent effort in developing methodology and measures for design structures against fire and explosions has been mostly focused on buildings, bridges can also be very sensitive to those actions, as witnesses by some recent bridge accidents, which caused major economic losses and also endan...

  1. Crossing borders via mental bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Dirk

    administration, and in specific on the attempt to initiate and promote cross-border regional integration via the building of mental bridges between Danish and German parts of the Femern Belt Region. Here one of the first projects aiming primarily at building mental bridges in the Femern Belt Region...

  2. Invasive plant ecology and management: Linking processes to practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book brings together 10 chapters from renowned researchers that study how ecosystems operate and how to adopt the principles of ecology to manage invasive plants. This book taps this expertise by seeking to bridge the inherent disconnect between processes operating within ecosystems and the pr...

  3. The Ecology of Human Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Fernández-Gracia, Juan; Thums, Michele; Sequeira, Ana M M; Harcourt, Rob; Eguíluz, Víctor M

    2017-03-01

    Mobile phones and other geolocated devices have produced unprecedented volumes of data on human movement. Analysis of pooled individual human trajectories using big data approaches has revealed a wealth of emergent features that have ecological parallels in animals across a diverse array of phenomena including commuting, epidemics, the spread of innovations and culture, and collective behaviour. Movement ecology, which explores how animals cope with and optimize variability in resources, has the potential to provide a theoretical framework to aid an understanding of human mobility and its impacts on ecosystems. In turn, big data on human movement can be explored in the context of animal movement ecology to provide solutions for urgent conservation problems and management challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Ecology of Human Mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Meekan, Mark G.

    2017-02-03

    Mobile phones and other geolocated devices have produced unprecedented volumes of data on human movement. Analysis of pooled individual human trajectories using big data approaches has revealed a wealth of emergent features that have ecological parallels in animals across a diverse array of phenomena including commuting, epidemics, the spread of innovations and culture, and collective behaviour. Movement ecology, which explores how animals cope with and optimize variability in resources, has the potential to provide a theoretical framework to aid an understanding of human mobility and its impacts on ecosystems. In turn, big data on human movement can be explored in the context of animal movement ecology to provide solutions for urgent conservation problems and management challenges.

  5. Sound ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  6. Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and Modern Western Ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous knowledge is often dismissed as 'traditional and outdated', and hence irrelevant to modern ecological assessment. This theoretical paper critically examines the arguments advanced to elevate modern western ecological knowledge over indigenous ecological knowledge, as well as the sources and uses of ...

  7. Ecologia global contra diversidade cultural? Conservação da natureza e povos indígenas no Brasil: O Monte Roraima entre Parque Nacional e terra indígena Raposa-Serra do Sol Global ecology versus cultural diversity? Conservation of nature and indigenous peoples in Brazil. Roraima Mount: National Park vs. Raposa-Serra do Sol Indigenous Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Lauriola

    2003-01-01

    . Adotar a perspectiva cultural indígena para entender e esclarecer suas regras efetivas de uso e manejo dos recursos naturais pode representar o ponto de partida para desenvolver e implementar planos de manejo ecologicamente eficazes e socialmente benéficos. Redirecionar a disponibilidade ecológica global a pagar na direção dos povos indígenas representaria uma contribuição nesta direção.Nature conservation policies in different countries are increasingly linked to global ecological decision making. Examples of such linkages abound, and range from priorities and policy objectives defined in international forums and institutions to the action of global environmentally concerned NGOs, to global environmental and sustainable development funds and programmes, and new economic opportunities represented by emerging markets for global ecological services and environmental commodities. These policies often clash with the needs and rights of different populations, since the implementation of man-excluding protected areas is given priority over other models of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Brazil is no exception to this rule: today, nature conservation policies are entering in direct conflict with policies preserving indigenous people’s rights to cultural difference. This is happening at different levels, and in several different local contexts, from the Atlantic to the Amazon and the Guyana Shield regions. Global policy priorities and funding can contribute to explain these conflicts, as the global ecological link contributes to redefine national and local political relations. The case of Mount Roraima National Park, overlapping with the Raposa-Serra do Sol Indigenous Land, illustrates how conservation policies based on man exclusion, such as National Parks, conceived and implemented in a top-down fashion, stimulate pre-existing political and land rights conflicts. Approached through a different angle, this case also indicates a possible way to viable

  8. Electrothermally Tunable Bridge Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.

    2016-12-05

    This paper demonstrates experimentally, theoretically, and numerically a wide-range tunability of an in-plane clamped-clamped microbeam, bridge, and resonator compressed by a force due to electrothermal actuation. We demonstrate that a single resonator can be operated at a wide range of frequencies. The microbeam is actuated electrothermally, by passing a DC current through it. We show that when increasing the electrothermal voltage, the compressive stress inside the microbeam increases, which leads eventually to its buckling. Before buckling, the fundamental frequency decreases until it drops to very low values, almost to zero. After buckling, the fundamental frequency increases, which is shown to be as high as twice the original resonance frequency. Analytical results based on the Galerkin discretization of the Euler Bernoulli beam theory are generated and compared to the experimental data and to simulation results of a multi-physics finite-element model. A good agreement is found among all the results.

  9. Bridging the Evaluation Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wouters

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul Wouters’ essay is concerned with bridging the gap between what we value in our academic work and how we are assessed in formal evaluation exercises. He reflects on the recent evaluation of his own center, and reminds us that it is productive to see evaluations not as the (obviously impossible attempt to produce a true representation of past work, but rather as the exploration and performance of “who one wants to be.” Reflecting on why STS should do more than just play along to survive in the indicator game, he suggests that our field should contribute to changing its very rules. In this endeavor, the attitude and sensibilities developed in our field may be more important than any specific theoretical concepts or methodologies.

  10. Design without thermal bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltseva Irina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the article is on the quality design and implementation of the thermal insulation of buildings. Shells of buildings consist not only of conventional structures (wall, roof, ceiling, but also of edges, corners, joints and places of disruption of the outer thermal insulation shell integrity (due to through passage of pipelines, ventilation ducts and etc.. In all these places, heat losses are generally increased in comparison with conventional surfaces. Some of them are easily taken into account by calculation, using a special method proposed by the authors. Other thermal bridges due to unfavorable structural details can be avoided by observing the rules and recommendations that are classified and discussed in detail in this article.

  11. Looking Beyond the Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Rosholm, Michael

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of the stepping-stone effect of temporary agency employment on unemployed workers. Using the timing-of-events approach, we not only investigate whether agency employment is a bridge into regular employment but also analyze its effect on post-unemployment wages...... and job stability for unemployed Danish workers. We find evidence of large positive treatment effects, particularly for immigrants. There is also some indication that higher treatment intensity increases the likelihood of leav-ing unemployment for regular jobs. Our results show that agency employment...... is even more effective in tight labor markets, where firms use agency employment primarily to screen po-tential candidates for permanent posts. Finally, our results suggest that agency employment may improve subsequent match quality in terms of wages and job duration....

  12. Ecological subsidies: a conceptual framework for integrating ecosystem and exposure studies in linked aquatic-terrestrial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecology and ecotoxicology share common goals - tracing and quantifying material flux in the environment. Bridging these disciplines is challenging because their practitioners have slightly different methods, terminologies and objectives. For example, ecologists strive to identify...

  13. Cultural Problems of English-Arabic Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Yowell Y.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses some of the difficulties that arise when an Arabic-English translator is required to find cultural equivalents for words or concepts that do not exist in one of the languages. Examples are given in the areas of ecology, material culture, social culture, political culture, and religious culture. (EKN)

  14. Sustainable building versus ecological building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available and Grosskopf posit that in the future three basic contemporary approaches will be synthesised into an integrated process and that ecological design will become a part of a new design process. The three contemporary processes are: vernacular design..., the technological approach, and the biomimetic approach. Vernacular architecture is the embodiment of cultural wisdom, memory, tradition and intimate knowledge of place into the design and operation of buildings. Vernacular architecture speaks directly...

  15. Interdisciplinary Adventures in Perceptual Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocast, Christopher S.

    A portfolio dissertation that began as acoustic ecology and matured into perceptual ecology, centered on ecomusicology, bioacoustics, and translational audio-based media works with environmental perspectives. The place of music in Western eco-cosmology through time provides a basis for structuring an environmental history of human sound perception. That history suggests that music may stabilize human mental activity, and that an increased musical practice may be essential for the human project. An overview of recent antecedents preceding the emergence of acoustic ecology reveals structural foundations from 20th century culture that underpin modern sound studies. The contextual role that Aldo Leopold, Jacob von Uexkull, John Cage, Marshall McLuhan, and others played in anticipating the development of acoustic ecology as an interdiscipline is detailed. This interdisciplinary aspect of acoustic ecology is defined and defended, while new developments like soundscape ecology are addressed, though ultimately sound studies will need to embrace a broader concept of full-spectrum "sensory" or "perceptual" ecology. The bioacoustic fieldwork done on spawning sturgeon emphasized this necessity. That study yielded scientific recordings and spectrographic analyses of spawning sounds produced by lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, during reproduction in natural habitats in the Lake Winnebago watershed in Wisconsin. Recordings were made on the Wolf and Embarrass River during the 2011-2013 spawning seasons. Several specimens were dissected to investigate possible sound production mechanisms; no sonic musculature was found. Drumming sounds, ranging from 5 to 7 Hz fundamental frequency, verified the infrasonic nature of previously undocumented "sturgeon thunder". Other characteristic noises of sturgeon spawning including low-frequency rumbles and hydrodynamic sounds were identified. Intriguingly, high-frequency signals resembling electric organ discharges were discovered. These

  16. Bridge Creek IMW database - Bridge Creek Restoration and Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek is thought to be limiting a population of ESA-listed steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A logical restoration approach...

  17. Compilation of accelerated bridge construction (ABC) bridges : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Development of accelerated bridge construction (ABC) technologies has been occurring across the country, many times in : isolation. Although FHWA and others have worked to facilitate communication between these efforts, there was not a : comprehensiv...

  18. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...... if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...

  19. Reliability Assessment of Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Middleton, C. R.

    This paper is partly based on research performed for the Highways Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: concrete bridges". It contains the details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability...... profiles. These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for concrete bridges. This paper is to some extend based on Thoft-Christensen et. al. [1996], Thoft-Christensen [1996] et. al. and Thoft-Christensen [1996]....

  20. Complex Testing of the Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Adrijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the process of examining bridges. AB road bridge, founded on the columns by the Karpoš system and damaged due to erosive action of the river, is given as an example. The first tests of the bridge are conducted on the impact load of V 300, because of the appearance of longitudinal cracks. The results of the columns testing are presented in this paper, as well as the rehabilitation measures thus increasing the load capacity of the column.

  1. A bridge monitoring tool based on bridge and vehicle accelerations

    OpenAIRE

    Hester, David; González, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on damage detection based on the response of a structure to a moving load has reported decay in accuracy with increasing load speed. Using a 3D vehicle – bridge interaction model, this paper shows that the area under the filtered acceleration response of the bridge increases with increasing damage, even at highway load speeds. Once a datum reading is established, the area under subsequent readings can be monitored and compared with the baseline reading, if an increase is obs...

  2. Upgrading Marine Ecosystem Restoration Using Ecological-Social Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Avigdor; Halpern, Benjamin S; Reed, Daniel C; Orth, Robert J; Kendrick, Gary A; Beck, Michael W; Belmaker, Jonathan; Krause, Gesche; Edgar, Graham J; Airoldi, Laura; Brokovich, Eran; France, Robert; Shashar, Nadav; de Blaeij, Arianne; Stambler, Noga; Salameh, Pierre; Shechter, Mordechai; Nelson, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    Conservation and environmental management are principal countermeasures to the degradation of marine ecosystems and their services. However, in many cases, current practices are insufficient to reverse ecosystem declines. We suggest that restoration ecology, the science underlying the concepts and tools needed to restore ecosystems, must be recognized as an integral element for marine conservation and environmental management. Marine restoration ecology is a young scientific discipline, often with gaps between its application and the supporting science. Bridging these gaps is essential to using restoration as an effective management tool and reversing the decline of marine ecosystems and their services. Ecological restoration should address objectives that include improved ecosystem services, and it therefore should encompass social-ecological elements rather than focusing solely on ecological parameters. We recommend using existing management frameworks to identify clear restoration targets, to apply quantitative tools for assessment, and to make the re-establishment of ecosystem services a criterion for success.

  3. The stories of two bridges in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    Public participation in bridge building was promoted by un habitat in the village of Mankrong. The neighbouring village did not participate in the construction of their bridge. The first flooding washed the second bridge down while the "participative bridge" stood up....

  4. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    Vibration of a bridge structure due to the passage of vehicles is an important consideration in the design of bridges. Further, a common problem in bridge engineering practice in these years is the upgrading of minor highway bridges (=5-20 m) to carry heavier loads partly due to a tendency of hea...

  5. Interstate-35 bridge instrumentation renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    An updated, accelerometer-based, sensor and data acquisition system was installed and verified on the I-35 Walnut Creek Bridge in Purcell, Oklahoma. The data collection system also includes a microwave communication system to move sensor and video da...

  6. Caltrans bridge inspection aerial robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) project resulted in the development of a twin-motor, : single duct, electric-powered Aerobot designed of carrying video cameras up to 200 feet in elevation to enable : close inspection of bridges...

  7. Energy harvesting on highway bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A concept for harvesting energy from the traffic-induced loadings on a highway bridge using piezoelectric : materials to generate electricity was explored through the prototype stage. A total of sixteen lead-zirconate : titanate (PZT) Type 5A piezoel...

  8. Milton-Madison Bridge Project

    OpenAIRE

    Hetrick, Kevin; Bunselmeier, Jason

    2013-01-01

    INDOT will provide a brief introduction to the Madison Milton Ohio River Bridge Project, discuss the project development process, the design/build procurement and the construction during this presentation.

  9. Preventative maintenance program for bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Kentucky Transportation Cabinets (KYTC) bridge inventory is rapidly aging. As such, the Cabinet : needs to identify and implement relevant preventative maintenance (PM) actions to extend the useful : service lives of those structures. Maintena...

  10. Bridge Aesthetics and Structural Honesty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In bridges the overall form must be chosen with due respect to the transmission of forces if efficient structures shall be created, The design must therefore be governed by experienced structural engineers - in some cases assisted by aesthetic advisers on specific issues. Some basic requirements ...... decisive for choosing the form of trusses, arches and cable-stayed bridges are outlined, and several examples show bridges designed without giving priority to the structural aspects.......In bridges the overall form must be chosen with due respect to the transmission of forces if efficient structures shall be created, The design must therefore be governed by experienced structural engineers - in some cases assisted by aesthetic advisers on specific issues. Some basic requirements...

  11. GFRP reinforced concrete bridge decks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This report investigates the application of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) rebars in concrete bridge decks as a potential replacement or supplement to conventional steel rebars. Tests were conducted to determine the material properties of the ...

  12. We Must Be Bridge Builders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    Higher education, and trustees in particular, must be "bridge builders" among academe, government, and business communities. Trustees must also be the mediators and a reconciling force when the public and independent campuses lose sight of their common cause. (MLW)

  13. VEXAG's Venus Bridge Focus Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, J. A.

    2017-11-01

    VEXAG’s Venus Bridge Focus Group is investigating whether viable Venus missions can be conducted within a $200M cost-cap. Progress reports on mission concept studies of combined in situ and orbiter missions will be presented.

  14. The road to sustainability must bridge three great divides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, James; Blignaut, James N; de Groot, Rudolf S; Clewell, Andre; Lowry, Porter P; Woodworth, Paddy; Cowling, Richard M; Renison, Daniel; Farley, Joshua; Fontaine, Christelle; Tongway, David; Levy, Samuel; Milton, Suzanne J; Rangel, Orlando; Debrincat, Bev; Birkinshaw, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The world's large and rapidly growing human population is exhausting Earth's natural capital at ever-faster rates, and yet appears mostly oblivious to the fact that these resources are limited. This is dangerous for our well-being and perhaps for our survival, as documented by numerous studies over many years. Why are we not moving instead toward sustainable levels of use? We argue here that this disconnection between our knowledge and our actions is largely caused by three "great divides": an ideological divide between economists and ecologists; an economic development divide between the rich and the poor; and an information divide, which obstructs communications between scientists, public opinion, and policy makers. These divides prevent our economies from responding effectively to urgent signals of environmental and ecological stress. The restoration of natural capital (RNC) can be an important strategy in bridging all of these divides. RNC projects and programs make explicit the multiple and mutually reinforcing linkages between environmental and economic well-being, while opening up a promising policy road in the search for a sustainable and desirable future for global society. The bridge-building capacity of RNC derives from its double focus: on the ecological restoration of degraded, overexploited natural ecosystems, and on the full socio-economic and ecological interface between people and their environments.

  15. Development of inspection robots for bridge cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hae-Bum; Kim, Se-Hoon; Wu, Liuliu; Lee, Jong-Jae

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented.

  16. Development of Inspection Robots for Bridge Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Bum Yun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented.

  17. Cultural legacies and political preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siroky, David S.; Mueller, Sean; Hechter, Michael

    2017-01-01

    that cultural identities matter for explaining secessionism, but not because of primordial attachments. Rather, religious and linguistic groups matter because their members are imbued with cultural legacies that lead to distinct political preferences – in this case preferences over welfare statism. Further......, ecological constraints such as geography and topography affect social interaction with like-minded individuals. On the basis of both these political preferences and ecological constraints, individuals then make rational choices about the desirability of secession. Instrumental considerations are therefore...

  18. Developing cultural sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruddock, Heidi; Turner, deSalle

    2007-01-01

    Title. Developing cultural sensitivity: nursing students’ experiences of a study abroad programme Aim. This paper is a report of a study to explore whether having an international learning experience as part of a nursing education programme promoted cultural sensitivity in nursing students...... comfortable with the experience of making a transition from one culture to another, making adjustments to cultural differences, and growing personally. Central to this process was the students’ experience of studying in an unfamiliar environment, experiencing stress and varying degrees of culture shock....... The findings suggest that study abroad is a useful strategy for bridging the theory–practice divide. However, further research is needed with larger and more diverse students to test the generalizability of the findings. Longitudinal research is also needed to assess the impact of study abroad programmes...

  19. Reverse genetics in ecological research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Schwachtje

    Full Text Available By precisely manipulating the expression of individual genetic elements thought to be important for ecological performance, reverse genetics has the potential to revolutionize plant ecology. However, untested concerns about possible side-effects of the transformation technique, caused by Agrobacterium infection and tissue culture, on plant performance have stymied research by requiring onerous sample sizes. We compare 5 independently transformed Nicotiana attenuata lines harboring empty vector control (EVC T-DNA lacking silencing information with isogenic wild types (WT, and measured a battery of ecologically relevant traits, known to be important in plant-herbivore interactions: phytohormones, secondary metabolites, growth and fitness parameters under stringent competitive conditions, and transcriptional regulation with microarrays. As a positive control, we included a line silenced in trypsin proteinase inhibitor gene (TPI expression, a potent anti-herbivore defense known to exact fitness costs in its expression, in the analysis. The experiment was conducted twice, with 10 and 20 biological replicates per genotype. For all parameters, we detected no difference between any EVC and WT lines, but could readily detect a fitness benefit of silencing TPI production. A statistical power analyses revealed that the minimum sample sizes required for detecting significant fitness differences between EVC and WT was 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than the 10 replicates required to detect a fitness effect of TPI silencing. We conclude that possible side-effects of transformation are far too low to obfuscate the study of ecologically relevant phenotypes.

  20. 33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retroreflective panels on bridge... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.100 Retroreflective panels on bridge piers. The... 12 inches square. (c) To mark bridge piers or channel sides on bridges not required to have bridge...

  1. PRÁCTICAS PARA LA NO VIOLENCIA: LA EXPERIENCIA COMO FUENTE DE APRENDIZAJE DE LA CULTURA DE LA PAZ -- PRACTICES FOR THE NON-VIOLENCE: THE EXPERIENCE AS A BRIDGE FOR UNDERSTANDING THE CULTURE OF PEACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEAN DAVID POLO

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals the experience of implementation of the program Education for NonViolence, presented in the Manuel Zapata Olivella School de la Comuna 4 Los Olivos in Barranquilla. The concept of Non-Violence and Culture of Peace represents a new form of facing the violence, not only an opposing obtuse, but according to the idea of peace the same comprehension of violence can be taught and learnt. The program had been implemented among a population more vulnerable to aggression and violence. Alongside the program managed to understand mutual learning from both side. So far it succeeded in decreasing the rates of mistreatments in the population, and other side the concientisation of the auditor groups with respect to the psychosocial risks which represents the violence and the appreciation of the education as a protecting factor.

  2. Bridging developmental systems theory and evolutionary psychology using dynamic optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenhuis, Willem E; Panchanathan, Karthik; Clark Barrett, H

    2013-07-01

    Interactions between evolutionary psychologists and developmental systems theorists have been largely antagonistic. This is unfortunate because potential synergies between the two approaches remain unexplored. This article presents a method that may help to bridge the divide, and that has proven fruitful in biology: dynamic optimization. Dynamic optimization integrates developmental systems theorists' focus on dynamics and contingency with the 'design stance' of evolutionary psychology. It provides a theoretical framework as well as a set of tools for exploring the properties of developmental systems that natural selection might favor, given particular evolutionary ecologies. We also discuss limitations of the approach. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80... Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. In addition to the watch requirement contained in § 80.148, all vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must keep a watch on the designated...

  4. Culture.:'Culture.'

    OpenAIRE

    Thin, Neil; Biswas-Diener, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Although the most visible elements of culture are dress, cuisine and architecture, culture is a highly psychological phenomenon. Culture is a pattern of meaning for understanding how the world works. This knowledge is shared among a group of people and passed from one generation to the next. This module defines culture, addresses methodological issues, and introduces the idea that culture is a process. Understanding cultural processes can help people get along better with others and be more s...

  5. South Dakota NASA Space Grant Consortium Creating Bridges in Indian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    The South Dakota Space Grant Consortium (SDSGC) was established March 1, 1991 by a NASA Capability Enhancement Grant. Since that time SDSGC has worked to provide earth and space science educational outreach to all students across South Dakota. South Dakota has nine tribes and five tribal colleges. This has presented a tremendous opportunity to develop sustainable equitable partnerships and collaborations. SDSGC believes strongly in developing programs and activities that highlight the balance of indigenous science and ways of knowing with current findings in contemporary science. This blending of science and culture creates a learning community where individuals, especially students, can gain confidence and pride in their unique skills and abilities. Universities are also witnessing the accomplishments and achievements of students who are able to experience a tribal college environment and then carry that experience to a college/university/workplace and significantly increase the learning achievement of all. The presentation will highlight current Tribal College partnerships with Sinte Gleska University and Oglala Lakota College amongst others. Programs and activities to be explained during the presentation include: Native Connections, Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL), Bridges to Success Summer Research Program, Fire Ecology Summer Experience, and dual enrolled/college bridge programs. The presentation will also cover the current initiatives underway through NASA Workforce Development. These include: partnering program with the Annual He Sapa Wacipi, American Indian Space Days 2005, NASA research/internship programs and NASA Fellow Summit. An overview of recent American Indian student success will conclude the presentation. The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has struggled over many years to develop and implement sustainable successful initiatives with Tribal Colleges and Communities. The motivating philosophy is the

  6. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species.

  7. Forest Fire Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  8. Taoism and Deep Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvan, Richard; Bennett, David

    1988-01-01

    Contrasted are the philosophies of Deep Ecology and ancient Chinese. Discusses the cosmology, morality, lifestyle, views of power, politics, and environmental philosophies of each. Concludes that Deep Ecology could gain much from Taoism. (CW)

  9. ECOLOGICAL CONSCIOUSNESS AS ONE OF THE MAIN PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGICAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana O. Dushkova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the concept of ecological consciousness and analyzes main features of its development and implementation in the environmental policy in European practice on the example of Germany. The study of German experience is conditioned by the fact that among the other developed countries of the world Germany is the leading country in its active work carried out at all levels of the environmental policy. It is shown that actions aimed at the development of ecological culture and environmental education of the civil society in Germany are of the same priority as the use of renewable energy, development of green technologies, etc. The article provides an overview of the most important publications devoted to the phenomenon of ecological consciousness and highlights different approaches to this definition. Based on the German experience, it defines the prerequisites, main roots and sources of ecological consciousness creation and the ways in which it can be involved in the regional programs on sustainable development and ecological policy. It analyzes the main practical approaches to the implementation of the principles of ecological consciousness in Germany as well as the role of environmental organizations in the realization of environmentally oriented activities. Therefore, it presents the main results of socio-ecological surveys conducted in Germany and Russia and gives their comparative analysis. It indicates possible ways to transfer the German experience in the Russian context to improve the ecological awareness of the Russian society and to arise its ecological activity in addressing environmental issues.

  10. Constraint Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolo, Alain

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge process (i.e., the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process conditioned to start and end at fixed points) constraints to have a fixed area under its path. We present both anticipative (in this case, we need the knowledge of the future of the path) and non-anticipative versions of the stochastic process. We obtain the anticipative description thanks to the theory of generalized Gaussian bridges while the non-anticipative representation comes from the theory of stochastic control. For this last representation, a stochastic differential equation is derived which leads to an effective Langevin equation. Finally, we extend our theoretical findings to linear bridge processes.

  11. Ecological restoration [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    2010-01-01

    Ecological restoration has increased in prominence in recent years as environmental policies have slowed the rate of environmental degradation in many parts of the world and practitioners have looked for active ways to reverse the damage. Because of the vast number of types and contexts of degraded ecological systems, the field of ecological restoration is still very...

  12. Political ecologies of resource extraction: Agendas pendientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bebbington

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research related to extractive industries has grown significantly over the last decade. As the commodities boom appears to be winding down, this essay outlines areas for potential future research. Emphasis is placed on the need for research on: the relationships among extractivism, climate change and societal transitions; the aggregate effects of the commodity boom on the environment, on societal structures, on elite formation and on cultural politics; the implications of resource extraction on the couplings of space and power at different scales and with particular reference to the Colombian peace process; and the gendered and generation dimensions of the effects of extractivism on rights and citizenship. The paper calls for on-going collaborations among scholars and activists, for greater collaboration among social and bio-physical scientists, for comparative analysis with regions beyond Latin America and for innovative ways of bridging research and the public sphere. Resumen: Ecologías políticas de la extracción de recursos: Agendas pendientes Las investigaciones relacionadas con las industrias extractivas han aumentado considerablemente durante la última década. Como el boom de las materias primas está tocando su fin, este ensayo señala áreas que se prestan a posibles investigaciones en el futuro. Se pone el énfasis en la necesidad de investigar: las relaciones entre el extractivismo, el cambio climático y las transiciones sociales; los efectos agregados del boom de las materias primas en el medio ambiente, en las estructuras sociales, en la formación de élites y en las políticas culturales; las implicaciones de la extracción de recursos en las relaciones entre espacio y poder a distintas escalas y refiriéndose especialmente al proceso de paz colombiano; y las dimensiones generizadas y generacionales de los efectos del extractivismo en los derechos y en la ciudadanía. Este artículo hace un llamamiento a colaboraciones

  13. Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.

    1999-02-08

    This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

  14. Bridging the Vector Calculus Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne

    2003-05-01

    As with Britain and America, mathematicians and physicists are separated from each other by a common language. In a nutshell, mathematics is about functions, but physics is about things. For the last several years, we have led an NSF-supported effort to "bridge the vector calculus gap" between mathematics and physics. The unifying theme we have discovered is to emphasize geometric reasoning, not (just) algebraic computation. In this talk, we will illustrate the language differences between mathematicians and physicists, and how we are trying reconcile them in the classroom. For further information about the project go to: http://www.physics.orst.edu/bridge

  15. Small Worlds and Cultural Polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Macy, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Building on Granovetter's theory of the "strength of weak ties,'' research on "small-world'' networks suggests that bridges between clusters in a social network (long-range ties) promote cultural diffusion, homogeneity, and integration. We show that this macro-level implication of network structure

  16. Morphometry of the osteodural bridge and the myodural bridge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The osteodural bridge, the connective tissue between the axis and dura can be measured radiographically. The aim of the study was therefore to determine if there is a relationship between their lengths. Thirty formalin fixed cadavers were meticulously dissected at the department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, ...

  17. Ecological aspects of social evolution: birds and mammals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubenstein, D.I; Wrangham, R.W

    1986-01-01

    ... out. They examine how social organization is shaped by the interaction between proximate ecological pressures and culture-the social traditions already in place and shaped by local and phylogenetic history...

  18. Cultural Ecosystem Services: A Literature Review and Prospects for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Ioana. Milcu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultural ecosystem services constitute a growing field of research that is characterized by an increasing number of publications from various academic disciplines. We conducted a semiquantitative review of publications explicitly dealing with cultural ecosystem services. Our aims were: (1 to provide an overview of the current state of research, (2 to classify the diversity of research approaches by identifying clusters of publications that address cultural ecosystem services in similar ways, and (3 to highlight some important challenges for the future of cultural ecosystem services research. We reviewed 107 publications and extracted 20 attributes describing their type and content, including methods, scales, drivers of change, and trade-offs between services. Using a cluster analysis on a subset of attributes we identified five groups of publications: Group 1, conceptual focus, deals with theoretical issues; Group 2, descriptive reviews, consists mostly of desktop studies; Group 3, localized outcomes, deals with case studies coming from different disciplines; Group 4, social and participatory, deals mainly with assessing preferences and perceptions; and Group 5, economic assessments, provides economic valuations. Emerging themes in cultural ecosystem services research relate to improving methods for cultural ecosystem services valuation, studying cultural ecosystem services in the context of ecosystem service bundles, and more clearly articulating policy implications. Based on our findings, we conclude that: (1 cultural ecosystem services are well placed as a tool to bridge gaps between different academic disciplines and research communities, (2 capitalizing on the societal relevance of cultural ecosystem services could help address real-world problems, and (3 cultural ecosystem services have the potential to foster new conceptual links between alternative logics relating to a variety of social and ecological issues.

  19. Learning Peace: The Promise of Ecological and Cooperative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty, Ed.; Nordland, Eva, Ed.

    This book is a collection of writings by American, Russian, and Norwegian scholars who, in 1988, launched the Project on Ecological and Cooperative Education. Formation of the group was motivated by the conviction that the planet needs an ecologically conscious culture to overcome the fragmentation and specialization that is typical of the…

  20. Developing the Ecological Awareness of College and University Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasikhanov, M. S.

    2008-01-01

    The author maintains that present-day civilization can exist and develop only as a unity of nature, culture, and society; that a new ecological worldview must be developed to teach citizens to have a cultivated and expanded ecological awareness that is characterized by a number of fundamental features: (1) Motivation (the moral stance of the…

  1. Media Ecology Comes into Its Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    The study of communication systems catalysts and influence has taken on a newer form--media ecology. Participants have emerged from many disciplines in order to create this new field of inquiry that explores and posits human communication, culture, communication environments, and their evolution and interconnectedness from pre-literacy to the…

  2. Laboratory and field testing of an accelerated bridge construction demonstration bridge : US Highway 6 bridge over Keg Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The US Highway 6 Bridge over Keg Creek outside of Council Bluffs, Iowa is a demonstration bridge site chosen to put into practice : newly-developed Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) concepts. One of these new concepts is the use of prefabricated ...

  3. An Expert System for Concrete Bridge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, J. de; Branco, F. A.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1997-01-01

    The importance of bridge repair versus new bridge construction has risen in recent decades due to high deterioration rates that have been observed in these structures. Budgets both for building new bridges and keeping the existing ones are always limited. To help rational decision-making, bridge...... management systems are presently being implemented by bridge authorities in several countries. The prototype of an expert system for concrete bridge management is presented in this paper, with its functionality relying on two modules. The inspection module relies on a periodic acquisition of field...... information complemented by a knowledge-based interactive system, BRIDGE-1. To optimize management strategies at the headquarters, the BRIDGE-2 module was implemented, including three submodules: inspection strategy, maintenance and repair....

  4. Meeting Environmental Requirements after a Bridge Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This report is intended to assist transportation and environmental professionals in the event of a bridge collapse or similar emergency. It analyzes the environmental review process in five cases of bridge reconstruction following collapse in Florida...

  5. Risk Mitigation for Highway and Railway Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Performance of the transportation network strongly depends on the performance of bridges. Bridges constitute a vital part of the transportation infrastructure system and they are vulnerable to extreme events such as natural disasters (i.e., hurricane...

  6. Mechanisms involved in symptomatic myocardial bridging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, A. J. C.; Jessurun, G. A. J.; Tio, R. A.

    Background. In patients with extensive myocardial bridging, evaluation of its clinical significance remains a challenge. Hypothesis. Sequential invasive testing is feasible and gives more insight into the pathophysiological mechanism of bridging-related angina. Methods. Twelve patients with chest

  7. Developing county bridge repair and retrofit techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Oklahoma rated first in the Nation in the percentage of bridges that are structurally deficient or : functionally obsolete. According to Federal Highway Administration data, Oklahoma uses : approximately 23,250 bridges maintained by state, County, Ci...

  8. Forensic testing of a double tee bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This report describes an investigation to quantify the behavior of precast, prestressed concrete double-tee bridge : girders made with lightweight concrete. As part of the investigation, three bridge girders were salvaged from a : decommissioned brid...

  9. Microfluidic Wheatstone bridge for rapid sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyeri, Melikhan; Ranka, Mikhil; Sittipolkul, Natawan; Schroeder, Charles M

    2011-12-21

    We developed a microfluidic analogue of the classic Wheatstone bridge circuit for automated, real-time sampling of solutions in a flow-through device format. We demonstrate precise control of flow rate and flow direction in the "bridge" microchannel using an on-chip membrane valve, which functions as an integrated "variable resistor". We implement an automated feedback control mechanism in order to dynamically adjust valve opening, thereby manipulating the pressure drop across the bridge and precisely controlling fluid flow in the bridge channel. At a critical valve opening, the flow in the bridge channel can be completely stopped by balancing the flow resistances in the Wheatstone bridge device, which facilitates rapid, on-demand fluid sampling in the bridge channel. In this article, we present the underlying mechanism for device operation and report key design parameters that determine device performance. Overall, the microfluidic Wheatstone bridge represents a new and versatile method for on-chip flow control and sample manipulation.

  10. Philosophy of ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bryson; Peacock, Kent A

    2011-01-01

    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology to policy or other practical concerns right, humanity needs a clear and disinterested philosophical understanding of ecology which can help identify the practical lessons of science. Conversely, the urgent practical demands humanity faces today cannot help but direct scientific and philosophical investigation toward the basis of those ecological challenges that threaten human survival. This book will help to fuel the timely renaissance of interest in philosophy of ecology that is now oc...

  11. [Ecological monitoring in agro-ecological systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baĭkov, B D

    1983-01-01

    The fundamental principles of the ecologic monitoring in the antropogenic ecosystems are dealt with. Analyzed are the structure and function of the agroecologic systems, and, on the basis of the particular aspects established a concept is developed of the ecologic control at autoecologic and biocoenologic level. An analysis is likewise made of the ecologic sequelae resulting from the chemical war launched by the American aggressors in Vietnam and the specific trends therefrom in the substantiation of the ecologic monitoring. Stated is the necessity of profound investigations to establish the bioaccumulation of dioxine, a poisonous agent which was contained in herbicides and defoliants used in the war, and which was distinguished by exclusively high toxicity, producing teratogenic and cancerogenic effects and possessing high resistance in the environment.

  12. CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION AND DRAMATIC RITUAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALISBURY, LEE H.

    THE AUTHOR'S PROGRAM, COLLEGE ORIENTATION PROGRAM FOR ALASKAN NATIVES (COPAN), WAS DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE A SMOOTH TRANSITION FOR NATIVE ALASKAN STUDENTS INTO THE AREA OF WESTERN CULTURE, IN COLLEGE. THE FINE ARTS WERE UTILIZED AS A COMMUNICATION BRIDGE BETWEEN THE ESKIMO AND WESTERN CULTURES. THE MEDIA OF THE DANCE AND DRAMA WERE THE BASES FOR…

  13. Adding Value to Ecological Risk Assessment with Population Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Calow, Peter; Grimm, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Current measures used to estimate the risks of toxic chemicals are not relevant to the goals of the environmental protection process, and thus ecological risk assessment (ERA) is not used as extensively as it should be as a basis for cost-effective management of environmental resources. Appropriate...... population models can provide a powerful basis for expressing ecological risks that better inform the environmental management process and thus that are more likely to be used by managers. Here we provide at least five reasons why population modeling should play an important role in bridging the gap between...

  14. The Wien Bridge Oscillator Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2006-01-01

    A tutorial in which the Wien bridge family of oscillators is defined and investigated. Oscillators which do not fit into the Barkhausen criterion topology may be designed. A design procedure based on initial complex pole quality factor is reported. The dynamic transfer characteristic...

  15. Architectural engineering of FRP bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.E.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP's) in architectural and structural bridge design. The challenges and opportunities that come with this relatively new material are discussed. An inventory is made of recent engineers' solutions in FRP, followed by a discussion on

  16. Official English: Bridge or Barrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the official English movement in the United States. Provides suggestions for groups that really want to help immigrants acquire English, by building bridges and not barriers. These include the following: (1) joining private and charitable organizations in helping make English-as-a-Second-Language classes available; (2) support libraries;…

  17. Accelerated bridge paint test program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    The accelerated bridge paint (AB-Paint) program evaluated a new Sherwin-Williams two-coat, : fast-curing paint system. The system is comprised of an organic zinc-rich primer (SW Corothane I : Galvapac One-Pack Zinc-Rich Primer B65 G11) and a polyurea...

  18. Exodermic bridge deck performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In 1998, the Wisconsin DOT completed a two"leaf bascule bridge in Green Bay with an exodermic deck system. The exodermic deck consisted of 4.5"in thick cast"in"place reinforced concrete supported by a 5.19"in tall unfilled steel grid. The concrete an...

  19. Intercellular bridges in vertebrate gastrulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Caneparo

    Full Text Available The developing zebrafish embryo has been the subject of many studies of regional patterning, stereotypical cell movements and changes in cell shape. To better study the morphological features of cells during gastrulation, we generated mosaic embryos expressing membrane attached Dendra2 to highlight cellular boundaries. We find that intercellular bridges join a significant fraction of epiblast cells in the zebrafish embryo, reaching several cell diameters in length and spanning across different regions of the developing embryos. These intercellular bridges are distinct from the cellular protrusions previously reported as extending from hypoblast cells (1-2 cellular diameters in length or epiblast cells (which were shorter. Most of the intercellular bridges were formed at pre-gastrula stages by the daughters of a dividing cell maintaining a membrane tether as they move apart after mitosis. These intercellular bridges persist during gastrulation and can mediate the transfer of proteins between distant cells. These findings reveal a surprising feature of the cellular landscape in zebrafish embryos and open new possibilities for cell-cell communication during gastrulation, with implications for modeling, cellular mechanics, and morphogenetic signaling.

  20. Detection of Ultrafine Anaphase Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizard, Anna H; Nielsen, Christian F; Hickson, Ian D

    2018-01-01

    Ultrafine anaphase bridges (UFBs) are thin DNA threads linking the separating sister chromatids in the anaphase of mitosis. UFBs are thought to form when topological DNA entanglements between two chromatids are not resolved prior to anaphase onset. In contrast to other markers of defective...

  1. Field performance of timber bridges. 5, Little Salmon Creek stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Ritter; J. A. Kainz; G. J. Porter

    The Little Salmon Creek bridge was constructed in November 1988 on the Allegheny National Forest in Pennsylvania. The bridge is a simple span, single-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure that is approximately 26-ft long and 16-ft wide. The bridge is unique in that it is the first known stress-laminated timber bridge to be constructed of hardwood lumber. The...

  2. Field performance of timber bridges. 6, Hoffman Run stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Ritter; P. D. Hilbrich Lee; G. J. Porter

    The Hoffman Run bridge, located just outside Dahoga, Pennsylvania, was constructed in October 1990. The bridge is a simple-span, single-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure that is approximately 26 ft long and 16 ft wide. It is the second stress-laminated timber bridge to be constructed of hardwood lumber in Pennsylvania. The performance of the bridge was...

  3. 77 FR 53251 - Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Rehabilitation AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Section 1114 of the... used in new Federal-aid bridge construction and bridge rehabilitation projects. As part of the SAFETEA... bridge construction and bridge rehabilitation projects. Data on Federal-aid and non-Federal-aid highway...

  4. Designing timber bridge superstructures : a comparison of U.S. and Canadian bridge codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Scott Groenier; James P. Wacker

    2008-01-01

    Several changes relating to timber bridges have been incorporated into the AASHTO-LRFD Bridge Design Specifications recently. In addition, the Federal Highway Administration is strongly encouraging an LRFD-based design approach for all new bridges in the United States. The Bridge Design Code in Canada was one of the first to adopt the limit states design philosophy,...

  5. Bridge Programs in Illinois: Results of the 2010 Illinois Bridge Status Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. L.; Harmon, T.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides a summary of major results of the Illinois Bridge Status Survey, administered online between April and June 2010. The purpose of the survey was to understand the extent to which bridge programs are being implemented in Illinois, as well as to build an online directory of bridge programs. Bridge programs are an emerging…

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND CULTURE HISTORY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND CULTURE HISTORY. MUSEUMS: POTENTIALS OF THE KWAZULU ... Ondini portraying the culture-history of the region. Ondini, the Zulu capital of His Majesty King Cetes- wayo ... could be conducted around and instructed in the basic principles of human and environmental ecology.

  7. Using ecological production functions to link ecological ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological production functions (EPFs) link ecosystems, stressors, and management actions to ecosystem services (ES) production. Although EPFs are acknowledged as being essential to improve environmental management, their use in ecological risk assessment has received relatively little attention. Ecological production functions may be defined as usable expressions (i.e., models) of the processes by which ecosystems produce ES, often including external influences on those processes. We identify key attributes of EPFs and discuss both actual and idealized examples of their use to inform decision making. Whenever possible, EPFs should estimate final, rather than intermediate, ES. Although various types of EPFs have been developed, we suggest that EPFs are more useful for decision making if they quantify ES outcomes, respond to ecosystem condition, respond to stressor levels or management scenarios, reflect ecological complexity, rely on data with broad coverage, have performed well previously, are practical to use, and are open and transparent. In an example using pesticides, we illustrate how EPFs with these attributes could enable the inclusion of ES in ecological risk assessment. The biggest challenges to ES inclusion are limited data sets that are easily adapted for use in modeling EPFs and generally poor understanding of linkages among ecological components and the processes that ultimately deliver the ES. We conclude by advocating for the incorporation into E

  8. Evaluation of Sille Settlement in the Context of Ecological Tourizm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arife Deniz Oktaç Beycan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In our time people began to search for resting in historical, cultural and natural environments being other than coast, sea and urban tourism and they began to prefer different tourism activities. Tourism requests focusing on traditional settlements with cultural and natural values, have causes a sustainable tourism approach to come out.  Ecological tourism, which is one of the sustainable tourism types, is being used as a development tool by protecting the history, culture and nature.  Ecological tourism has the least impact on natural environment, ecological and cultural heritage while it contributes to the tourism area where it is applied by protecting values, providing local economical benefits and with the educational aspects it has. In the study it is being focused on making use of  Sille, which is newly opened to tourism as having natural, historical and cultural structure and bearing value with regards to alternative tourism, through ecological tourism. In the first part of the study ecological tourism has been defined. In the second part natural, cultural and architectural features of Sille have been explained and in the third part changes lived through in Sille with regards to sociocultural and architectural aspects have been mentioned. As the conclusion the particulars to be realized in Sille with regards to ecological tourism have been recommended in order to protect its values and to benefit from tourism while transfering these values to the future.

  9. Hydrodynamic forces on inundated bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    The hydrodynamic forces experienced by an inundated bridge deck have great importance in the design of bridges. Specifically, the drag force, lift force, and the moment acting on the bridge deck under various levels of inundation and a range of flow ...

  10. Spread prestressed concrete slab beam bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    TxDOT uses prestressed slab beam bridges for short-span bridges ranging from approximately 3050 ft in : length. These bridges have precast, pretensioned slab beams placed immediately adjacent to one another : with a cast-in-place slab made composi...

  11. 49 CFR 236.713 - Bridge, movable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge, movable. 236.713 Section 236.713 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Bridge, movable. That section of a structure bridging a navigable waterway so designed that it may be...

  12. The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge and the Storebælt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    With the completion of the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge and the Storebælt East Bridge the development of the suspension bridge technology in the 20th century has manifested itself in two impressive structures. With the present echnology may bridges of similar (and also more modest) dimensions will undoub......With the completion of the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge and the Storebælt East Bridge the development of the suspension bridge technology in the 20th century has manifested itself in two impressive structures. With the present echnology may bridges of similar (and also more modest) dimensions...... will undoubtedly be built far into the next century. For bridges going beyond the spans of existing bridges it is, however, likely that new concepts will be developed....

  13. Cultural resource management and the necessity of cultural and natural resource collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick Kevin Donald; Kara Kusche; Collin Gaines

    2005-01-01

    Cultural Resource Specialists function as interpreters of past and present human behavior through the analysis of cultural/natural resources vital to human ecological sustainability. When developing short and long-term preservation strategies for cultural resources, it is more current and innovative for Cultural Resource Specialists to think of past human populations...

  14. ESTIMATION OF ECONOMIC EXPEDIENCY OF «BRIDGE-PRE-BRIDGE TERRITORY» SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lapko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers principles that form «Bridge-Pre-Bridge Territory» system. The method is proposed for calculation of expenses on technical research for development of projects on usage of pre-bridge territories. Usage of site class number for natural conditions makes it possible to estimate investment attractiveness of «Bridge-Pre-Bridge Territory» system.

  15. Implementation of Bridge Management System on Interurban Bridge in Maluku Province

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin Marasabessy

    2015-01-01

    Bridges as transport infrastructures play a vital role in smoothing traffic flows. The success of a bridge in playing its role and serving its function depends on its management. The Directorate General of Highways of the Ministry of Public Work has used a system to manage bridges known as the Bridge Management System (BMS). The system allows a systematic plan and provides a uniform procedure for all bridge operation activities on the national and provincial level. Data from Implementation Ag...

  16. Field performance of timber bridges. 4, Graves Crossing stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Wacker; M. A. Ritter

    The Graves Crossing bridge was constructed October 1991 in Antrim County, Michigan, as part of the demonstration timber bridge program sponsored by the USDA Forest Service. The bridge is a two-span continuous, stress-laminated deck superstructure and it is 36-ft long and 26-ft wide. The bridge is one of the first stress-laminated deck bridges to be built of sawn lumber...

  17. Survival analysis on bridges for modeling bridge replacement and evaluating bridge performance

    OpenAIRE

    Beng, Si Soon; Matsumoto, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    A sustainable civil infrastructure is a prerequisite for achieving sustainability in infrastructure development. However, the finite lifetime of infrastructure indicates a latent mass-maintenance problem in some countries which had experienced mass-construction of infrastructure during high economic growth. To achieve optimal infrastructure management for overcoming this mass-maintenance problem, life prediction of infrastructure is indispensable. Hence, in this research, bridg...

  18. Analysis of Investment Feasibility to Pedestrian Bridge in Muara Teweh - Jingah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laode Abd. Rahman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to analyze the needs of the construction of the Crossing Bridge of Muara Teweh - Jingah. The type of the research including the applied research was research concerning the application of theory to solve certain problems. The location of this research was at the Bridge Crossing of Muara Teweh - Jingah in North Barito District. Data analysis technique was feasibility study. The result of the research showed that 1 the construction of the Crossing Bridge of Muara Teweh - Jingah is needed to reduce the traffic density the traffic of the daily transportation in the development area has an effort to balance the traffic volume with road capacity in order to avoid LOS decrease and increase peoples prosperity level 2 the celebration of the construction of Muara Teweh - Jingah Crossing Bridge in terms of technical and economic and cultural aspects is stated to have fulfilled the feasibility 3 the feasibility of bridge development in terms of economic and cultural aspects is fulfilled because the value of BCR is greater than 1.0 and interest rate that is applicable is equal to 12 in 2015. Finally the bridge construction is feasible to be implemented.

  19. Cosmic emergy based ecological systems modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Chen, G. Q.; Ji, X.

    2010-09-01

    Ecological systems modelling based on the unified biophysical measure of cosmic emergy in terms of embodied cosmic exergy is illustrated in this paper with ecological accounting, simulation and scenario analysis, by a case study for the regional socio-economic ecosystem associated with the municipality of Beijing. An urbanized regional ecosystem model with eight subsystems of natural support, agriculture, urban production, population, finance, land area, potential environmental impact, and culture is representatively presented in exergy circuit language with 12 state variables governing by corresponding ecodynamic equations, and 60 flows and auxiliary variables. To characterize the regional socio-economy as an ecosystem, a series of ecological indicators based on cosmic emergy are devised. For a systematic ecological account, cosmic exergy transformities are provided for various dimensions including climate flows, natural resources, industrial products, cultural products, population with educational hierarchy, and environmental emissions. For the urban ecosystem of Beijing in the period from 1990 to 2005, ecological accounting is carried out and characterized in full details. Taking 2000 as the starting point, systems modelling is realized to predict the urban evolution in a one hundred time horizon. For systems regulation, scenario analyses with essential policy-making implications are made to illustrate the long term systems effects of the expected water diversion and rise in energy price.

  20. Strengthening Bridges with Prestressed CFRP Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwowski, Tomasz; Żółtowski, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    Limitation of bridge's carrying bearing capacity due to aging and deterioration is a common problem faced by road administration and drivers. Rehabilitation of bridges including strengthening may be applied in order to maintain or upgrade existing bridge parameters. The case studies of strengthening of two small bridges with high modulus prestressed CFRP strips have been presented in the paper. The first one - reinforced concrete slab bridge - and the other - composite steel-concrete girder bridge - have been successfully upgraded with quite new technology. In both cases the additional CFRP reinforcement let increasing of bridge carrying capacity from 15 till 40 metric tons. The CFRP strip prestressing system named Neoxe Prestressing System (NPS), developed by multi-disciplinary team and tested at full scale in Rzeszow University of Technology, has been also described in the paper.

  1. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening......Vibration of a bridge structure due to the passage of vehicles is an important consideration in the design of bridges. Further, a common problem in bridge engineering practice in these years is the upgrading of minor highway bridges (=5-20 m) to carry heavier loads partly due to a tendency...... the numerical models for the mathematical models of the vehicles and the bridge from which the load amplification factors can be estimated assuming that the dynamic parameters of the vehicles and the modal parameters of the bridge are known....

  2. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  3. Informational Entropy and Bridge Scour Estimation under Complex Hydraulic Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Alonso; Link, Oscar; Fiorentino, Mauro; Samela, Caterina; Manfreda, Salvatore

    2017-04-01

    Bridges are important for society because they allow social, cultural and economic connectivity. Flood events can compromise the safety of bridge piers up to the complete collapse. The Bridge Scour phenomena has been described by empirical formulae deduced from hydraulic laboratory experiments. The range of applicability of such models is restricted by the specific hydraulic conditions or flume geometry used for their derivation (e.g., water depth, mean flow velocity, pier diameter and sediment properties). We seek to identify a general formulation able to capture the main dynamic of the process in order to cover a wide range of hydraulic and geometric configuration, allowing to extend our analysis in different contexts. Therefore, exploiting the Principle of Maximum Entropy (POME) and applying it on the recently proposed dimensionless Effective flow work, W*, we derived a simple model characterized by only one parameter. The proposed Bridge Scour Entropic (BRISENT) model shows good performances under complex hydraulic conditions as well as under steady-state flow. Moreover, the model was able to capture the evolution of scour in several hydraulic configurations even if the model contains only one parameter. Furthermore, results show that the model parameter is controlled by the geometric configurations of the experiment. This offers a possible strategy to obtain a priori model parameter calibration. The BRISENT model represents a good candidate for estimating the time-dependent scour depth under complex hydraulic scenarios. The authors are keen to apply this idea for describing the scour behavior during a real flood event. Keywords: Informational entropy, Sediment transport, Bridge pier scour, Effective flow work.

  4. Ecological risk assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suter, Glenn W; Barnthouse, L. W. (Lawrence W)

    2007-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment is commonly applied to the regulation of chemicals, the remediation of contaminated sites, the monitoring of importation of exotic organisms, the management of watersheds...

  5. Ecological Exposure Research: Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of ecological exposure water research, including invasive species, Functional Process Zones (FPZs), biomarkers, pharmaceuticals in water, headwater streams, DNA barcoding, wetland ecosystem services, and sediment remediation.

  6. [Cultural regionalization for Coptis chinensis based on 3S technology platform Ⅰ. Study on growth suitability for Coptis chinensis based on ecological factors analysis by Maxent and ArcGIS model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Yang, Yan-Fang; Song, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Huang, Lu-Qi; Wu, He-Zhen

    2016-09-01

    At the urgent request of Coptis chinensis planting,growth suitability as assessment indicators for C. chinensis cultivation was proposed and analyzed in this paper , based on chemical quality determination and ecological fators analysis by Maxent and ArcGIS model. Its potential distribution areas at differernt suitability grade and regionalization map were formulated based on statistical theory and growth suitability theory. The results showed that the most suitable habitats is some parts of Chongqing and Hubei province, such as Shizhu, Lichuan, Wulong, Wuxi, Enshi. There are seven ecological factor is the main ecological factors affect the growth of Coptidis Rhizoma, including altitude, precipitation in February and September and the rise of precipitation and altitude is conducive to the accumulation of total alkaloid content in C. chinensis. Therefore, The results of the study not only illustrates the most suitable for the surroundings of Coptidis Rhizoma, also helpful to further research and practice of cultivation regionalization, wild resource monitoring and large-scale cultivation of traditional Chinese medicine plants. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Melanoma and immunotherapy bridge 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Nanda, Vashisht G. Y.; Peng, Weiyi; Hwu, Patrick; Davies, Michael A.; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Fattore, Luigi; Malpicci, Debora; Aurisicchio, Luigi; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio; Croce, Carlo M.; Mancini, Rita; Spranger, Stefani; Gajewski, Thomas F; Wang, Yangyang; FERRONE, SOLDANO

    2016-01-01

    Table of contents MELANOMA BRIDGE 2015 KEYNOTE SPEAKER PRESENTATIONS Molecular and immuno-advances K1 Immunologic and metabolic consequences of PI3K/AKT/mTOR activation in melanoma Vashisht G. Y. Nanda, Weiyi Peng, Patrick Hwu, Michael A. Davies K2 Non-mutational adaptive changes in melanoma cells exposed to BRAF and MEK inhibitors help the establishment of drug resistance Gennaro Ciliberto, Luigi Fattore, Debora Malpicci, Luigi Aurisicchio, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Carlo M. Croce, Rita Mancin...

  8. Inspection Strategies for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In this paper an optimal inspection strategy for concrete bridges based on periodic routine and detailed inspections is presented. The failure mode considered is corrosion of the reinforcement due to chlorides. A simple modelling of the corrosion and of the inspection strategy is presented....... The optimal inspection strategy is determined from an optimization problem, where the design variables are time intervals between detailed inspections and the concrete cover. The strategy is illustrated on a simple structure, namely a reinforced concrete beam....

  9. Severe ASR damaged concrete bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonio Barbosa, Ricardo; Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and University of Southern Denmark (SDU) have conducted several full-scale experiments with severe ASR deteriorated bridges. This paper presents few and preliminary results from both the shear tests and the measuring of the material properties. The shear test...... show that the shear capacity is almost unaffected of ASR despite significant reduction in compressive concrete strength. Furthermore, measurements show a significant tensile reinforcement strain developed due to ASR expansion....

  10. Bridging boundaries: CORBA in perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, Vinny; Baker, Sean; Nixon, Paddy

    1997-01-01

    peer-reviewed peer-reviewed applications that cross the boundaries of different computing machines, operating systems, and programming languages are increasingly the norm. As a result, the need for what might be called ???bridging technologies??? to develop software that works across heterogeneous environments has become more compelling. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture is one such technology that is both robust and commercially available. CORBA essentially describes...

  11. Bridging boundaries: CORBA in perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, Vinny

    1997-01-01

    PUBLISHED pplications that cross the boundaries of different computing machines, operating systems, and programming languages are increasingly the norm. As a result, the need for what might be called ?bridging technologies? to develop software that works across heterogeneous environments has become more compelling. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture is one such technology that is both robust and commercially available. CORBA essentially describes how client app...

  12. Electronic shearography for bridge inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathi, Debashis; Maji, Arup K.

    1995-04-01

    Electronic shearography (ES) is a laser based non-destructive testing method that has the potential to be developed into a commercial bridge monitoring technique. The primary advantage of ES over other similar techniques like electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) is its decreased sensitivity to in-plane rigid body movement and vibrations. Bridge inspection with ES has proven to be a daunting task so far. The main problem has been the inability of the method to handle the large deflections and vibrations that might be expected in a typical bridge subjected to normal service loads. Earlier research has shown that the extent of in-plane movement that can be tolerated by the system is dependent on the speckle size. The speckle size also affects the fringe quality by imposing resolution requirements on the imaging device. This article shall undertake the study of speckle size as a function of the focal length of the imaging lens, object distance and illumination wavelength using high resolution holographic film and a high magnification optical microscope.

  13. Developing a visualized cultural knowledge transfer proto-type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa suffers from a loss of valuable cultural knowledge, which has been a foundation for the coming generations’ survival and cultural self-awareness. By transferring cultural knowledge contexts into 3D visualizations, we prototyped and evaluated a system to bridge the gap...

  14. [Towards understanding human ecology in nursing practice: a concept analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Truc; Alderson, Marie

    2010-06-01

    Human ecology is an umbrella concept encompassing several social, physical, and cultural elements existing in the individual's external environment. The pragmatic utility method was used to analyze the "human ecology" concept in order to ascertain the conceptual fit with nursing epistemology and to promote its use by nurses in clinical practice. Relevant articles for the review were retrieved from the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and CSA databases using the terms "human ecology," "environment," "nursing," and "ecology." Data analysis revealed that human ecology is perceived as a theoretical perspective designating a complex, multilayered, and multidimensional system, one that comprises individuals and their reciprocal interactions with their global environments and the subsequent impact of these interactions upon their health. Human ecology preconditions include the individuals, their environments, and their transactions. Attributes of this concept encompass the characteristics of an open system (e.g., interdependence, reciprocal).

  15. Cultural Change: The How and the Why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnum, Michael E W; Grossmann, Igor

    2017-11-01

    More than half a century of cross-cultural research has demonstrated group-level differences in psychological and behavioral phenomena, from values to attention to neural responses. However, cultures are not static, with several specific changes documented for cultural products, practices, and values. How and why do societies change? Here we juxtapose theory and insights from cultural evolution and social ecology. Evolutionary approaches enable an understanding of the how of cultural change, suggesting transmission mechanisms by which the contents of culture may change. Ecological approaches provide insights into the why of cultural change: They identify specific environmental pressures, which evoke shifts in psychology and thereby enable greater precision in predictions of specific cultural changes based on changes in ecological conditions. Complementary insights from the ecological and cultural evolutionary approaches can jointly clarify the process by which cultures change. We end by discussing the relevance of cultural change research for the contemporary societal shifts and by highlighting several critical challenges and future directions for the emerging field of cross-temporal research on culture and psychology.

  16. Bridging cultural and social divides for indigenous health in Peru ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-02-01

    Feb 1, 2017 ... As the mother of three children under the age of 12, Raquel Tello faces the difficulty of providing healthy meals on a daily basis to her family in Huallhua, a tiny farming community in Peru's Andes Mountains. Although child malnutrition and anemia rates have generally dropped in Peru over the past ...

  17. Bridging the Cultural Communication Gap Between America and Its Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-19

    in combat, homosexuals to serve openly and reinstating the draft, need to be reevaluated and examined for merit and validity from the perspective of...administrators to develop a collaborative campaign to further assist students. Fewer and fewer schools are teaching military history. Adolescents are...orientation. Allowing homosexuals to serve openly and allowing female soldiers who are physically qualified to serve in combat roles would leverage

  18. Studies on the influence of Microcystis aeruginosa on the ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... investigating the influence of different levels of M. aeruginosa on the water quality and fish production of carp culture ponds. ... Key words: Cyanobacteria, algal blooms, Microcystis, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish production, carp culture ponds. ..... The ecology of a temple tank containing a permanent ...

  19. Audubon Ecology Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    The materials in the set include a student reader "The Story of Ecology," a leaders' guide, and a large, pictorial wall chart. The student reader is divided into 10 units relating to a definition of ecology, the sun and life, air and the water cycle, major divisions of the earth, plants and food chains, distribution of plants and animals,…

  20. CAREERS IN ECOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many non-scientists treat "ecology" and "environmentalism" as roughly interchangeable words, thus the word "ecologist" commonly has come to signify a particular part of the political spectrum. As used in the scientific community and in this presentation, however, ecology is loos...

  1. Ecology of Bacillaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandic-Mulec, Ines; Stefanic, Polonca; Van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Driks, A.; Eichenberger, P.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the family Bacillaceae are among the most robust bacteria on Earth, which is mainly due to their ability to form resistant endospores. This trait is believed to be the key factor determining the ecology of these bacteria. However, they also perform fundamental roles in soil ecology (i.e.,

  2. Terrestrial Ecology Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James W., Ed.; Hall, James A., Ed.

    This collection of study units focuses on the study of the ecology of land habitats. Considered are such topics as map reading, field techniques, forest ecosystem, birds, insects, small mammals, soils, plant ecology, preparation of terrariums, air pollution, photography, and essentials of an environmental studies program. Each unit contains…

  3. Ecological Soil Screening Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Eco-SSL derivation process is used to derive a set of risk-based ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSLs) for many of the soil contaminants that are frequently of ecological concern for plants and animals at hazardous waste sites.

  4. Dynamics in artifact ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2012-01-01

    artifacts influence the use of others. Understanding this interplay becomes more and more essential for interaction design as our artifact ecologies grow. This paper continues a recent discourse on artifact ecologies. Through interviews with iPhone users, we demonstrate that relationships between artifacts...

  5. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ecological Soil Screening Level (Eco-SSL) Work Group, composed of scientists and risk assessors from EPA, Environment Canada, DOE, Army, Navy, Air Force, states, industry, academia, and consulting companies, has been working on the development of scientifically sound, ecologi...

  6. Teaching Ecology in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverev, I.D.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a translation from a Russian language pamphlet on ecology education in the Soviet Union. Written by the director of the Laboratory for Nature Conservation Education in Moscow, the article discusses the emerging interest in ecology in Soviet schools, the relationship between human society and the environment, and the need to imbue students…

  7. Developments in Numerical Ecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methods, fractal theory, path analysis, spatial analysis and a series of ... Indeed, it should be recommended reading for Masters and Doctoral ... technique chosen. In short, this book is truly about the integrated methodology of numerical ecology, and not about the perhaps paradoxical field of theoretical ecology. As the ...

  8. Madurese cultural communication approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmawan, A.; Aji, G. G.; Mutiah

    2018-01-01

    Madura is a tribe with a cultural entity influenced by the ecological aspect and Madurese people. Assessing Madurese culture cannot be separated from the relation of society and ecological aspects that form the characteristics of Madura culture. Stereotypes of Madurese include a stubborn attitude, and carok or killing as a problem solving. On the other hand, Madurese are known to be inclusive, religious, and hardworking. The basic assumption is that the ecological conditions in Madura also shape the social and cultural life of the Madurese. Therefore, judging the Madurese cannot just be seen from a single event only. Moreover, the assessment only focuses on Madurese violence and disregards their structure and social aspects. Assessing Madura culture as a whole can explain the characteristics of Madurese community. According Hofstede culture is a characteristic mindset and perspective of individuals or groups of society in addressing a distinguished life. These differences distinguish individuals from others, or one country to the other. According to Hofstede to be able to assess the culture can be explained by four dimensions namely, individualism-collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity-femininity and power distance. The method used in this research is a case study. The Result is Madurese classified collectivism can be viewed from the pattern of settlements called kampong meji. Madurese can be classified into low and high uncertainty avoidance. the power distance for the Madurese is classified as unequally or there is a distance of power based on social groups. The element of masculinity of the Madurese is shown to be found when the earnestness of work.

  9. Graduate students navigating social-ecological research: insights from the Long-Term Ecological Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydne Record

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary, collaborative research capable of capturing the feedbacks between biophysical and social systems can improve the capacity for sustainable environmental decision making. Networks of researchers provide unique opportunities to foster social-ecological inquiry. Although insights into interdisciplinary research have been discussed elsewhere, they rarely address the role of networks and often come from the perspectives of more senior scientists. We have provided graduate student perspectives on interdisciplinary degree paths from within the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER Network. Focusing on data from a survey of graduate students in the LTER Network and four self-identified successful graduate student research experiences, we examined the importance of funding, pedagogy, research design and development, communication, networking, and culture and attitude to students pursuing social-ecological research. Through sharing insights from successful graduate student approaches to social-ecological research within the LTER Network, we hope to facilitate dialogue between students, faculty, and networks to improve training for interdisciplinary scientists.

  10. Cultural evolutionary theory: How culture evolves and why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanza, Nicole; Kolodny, Oren; Feldman, Marcus W

    2017-07-24

    Human cultural traits-behaviors, ideas, and technologies that can be learned from other individuals-can exhibit complex patterns of transmission and evolution, and researchers have developed theoretical models, both verbal and mathematical, to facilitate our understanding of these patterns. Many of the first quantitative models of cultural evolution were modified from existing concepts in theoretical population genetics because cultural evolution has many parallels with, as well as clear differences from, genetic evolution. Furthermore, cultural and genetic evolution can interact with one another and influence both transmission and selection. This interaction requires theoretical treatments of gene-culture coevolution and dual inheritance, in addition to purely cultural evolution. In addition, cultural evolutionary theory is a natural component of studies in demography, human ecology, and many other disciplines. Here, we review the core concepts in cultural evolutionary theory as they pertain to the extension of biology through culture, focusing on cultural evolutionary applications in population genetics, ecology, and demography. For each of these disciplines, we review the theoretical literature and highlight relevant empirical studies. We also discuss the societal implications of the study of cultural evolution and of the interactions of humans with one another and with their environment.

  11. Road Bridges and Culverts, Bridge dataset only includes bridges maintained by Johnson County Public Works in the unincorporated areas, Published in Not Provided, Johnson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Road Bridges and Culverts dataset current as of unknown. Bridge dataset only includes bridges maintained by Johnson County Public Works in the unincorporated areas.

  12. Predictive systems ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Matthew R; Bithell, Mike; Cornell, Stephen J; Dall, Sasha R X; Díaz, Sandra; Emmott, Stephen; Ernande, Bruno; Grimm, Volker; Hodgson, David J; Lewis, Simon L; Mace, Georgina M; Morecroft, Michael; Moustakas, Aristides; Murphy, Eugene; Newbold, Tim; Norris, K J; Petchey, Owen; Smith, Matthew; Travis, Justin M J; Benton, Tim G

    2013-11-22

    Human societies, and their well-being, depend to a significant extent on the state of the ecosystems that surround them. These ecosystems are changing rapidly usually in response to anthropogenic changes in the environment. To determine the likely impact of environmental change on ecosystems and the best ways to manage them, it would be desirable to be able to predict their future states. We present a proposal to develop the paradigm of predictive systems ecology, explicitly to understand and predict the properties and behaviour of ecological systems. We discuss the necessary and desirable features of predictive systems ecology models. There are places where predictive systems ecology is already being practised and we summarize a range of terrestrial and marine examples. Significant challenges remain but we suggest that ecology would benefit both as a scientific discipline and increase its impact in society if it were to embrace the need to become more predictive.

  13. When logic fails ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Dale R

    2008-03-01

    Ecology plays an important role in society, informing policy and management decisions across a variety of issues. As such, regularities in processes would indicate higher levels of predictive outcomes and would reduce the amount of research required for specific issues that policy makers need addressed. Scientific laws are considered the pinnacle of success and usefulness in addressing regularities or universal truths. Ecology studies complex interactions of individuals with unique behaviors, making the identification of laws problematic. Two equations, Malthusian growth and the logistic equation, continue to receive attention and are frequently cited as exemplar laws in ecology. However, an understanding of scientific laws shows that neither are good candidates for law status. In this paper, I will discuss why ecology is not well structured for scientific laws, as they are currently understood. Finally, I will consider alternative proposals for the role of laws in ecology and alternate forms of laws that may be applicable.

  14. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    share the characteristics of site specificity. However, this article will consider the artwork in a broader context by re-examining how sound installations relate to the urban environment. For that purpose, this article brings together ecology terms from acoustic ecology of the sound theories...... of the 1970s while developing them into recent definitions of ecology in urban studies. Finally, we unfold our framing of urban sound ecologies with three case analyses: a sound intervention in Berlin, a symphony for wind instruments in Copenhagen and a video walk in a former railway station in Kassel....... The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  15. What is dental ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The human glanze, the experience of environmental distress and the ‘Affordance’ of nature: Toward a phenomenology of the ecological crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, V.

    2015-01-01

    The problem we face today is that there is a huge gap between our ethical judgments about the ecological crisis on the one hand and our ethical behavior according to these judgments on the other. In this article, we ask to what extent a phenomenology of the ecological crisis enables us to bridge

  17. Ecological approach in constructing residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Ružica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As a concept sustainable development has evolved over the past two decades from a concept closely associated with the biophysical environment to become much more complex, embracing social, cultural, economic political and esthetic phenomenon, which are invariably in mutual interaction, so they influence sustainability of natural environment. The very notion of "sustainable" we are meeting today in almost all significance areas of human activities. Contemporary planning, projecting and building techniques undoubtedly implied integration of goals of environmental prevention with goals of socio-economic development, all with respecting the esthetic standards. This paper represents experience from foreign praxis. Project defines and resolves objectives from social, economical, morphological and ecological aspects. Most important is aspect of Ecological Optimisation, which consists of main components: energy use optimization, water concept, exemplary waste management concept and ecological soil management.

  18. TINNITUS WHAT AND WHERE: AN ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Donald Searchfield

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is an interaction of the environment, cognition and plasticity. The connection between the individual with tinnitus and their world seldom receives attention in neurophysiological research. As well as changes in cell excitability, an individual’s culture and beliefs, work and social environs may all influence how tinnitus is perceived. In this review an ecological framework for current neurophysiological evidence is considered. The model defines tinnitus as the perception of an auditory object in the absence of an acoustic event. It is hypothesized that following deafferentation: adaptive feature extraction, schema and semantic object formation processes lead to tinnitus in a manner predicted by Adaptation Level Theory (1, 2. Evidence from physiological studies are compared to the tenants of the proposed ecological model. The consideration of diverse events within an ecological context may unite seemingly disparate neurophysiological models.

  19. Thermal bridges - calculations, thermal bridge values and impact on energy consumption; Kuldebroer - Beregning, kuldebroverdier og innvirkning paa energibruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Thue, Jan Vincent; Blom, Peter; Dalehaug, Arvid; Aurlien, Tormod; Grynning, Steinar; Uvsloekk, Sivert

    2008-07-01

    This report presents the following: Definition of thermal bridge; Possible consequences of thermal bridges; Methods to decide thermal bridge value, inclusive by numerical calculation; Thermal bridge values for different constructions; A proposal for dynamic Thermal bridge atlas. The project report shows thermal bridge values for different constructions such as window insertion, transition between wall/ceiling, wall/floor, corners and ridge. Thermal bridge values for different kind of floor such as concrete, LECA and hollow core. (AG). refs., figs., tabs

  20. The ecology of dust: local- to global-scale perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Field, Jason P [UA; Belnap, Jayne [NON LANL; Breshears, David D [UA; Neff, Jason [CU; Okin, Gregory S [UCLA; Painter, Thomas H [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Ravi, Sujith [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Reheis, Marith C [UCLA; Reynolds, Richard L [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    Emission and redistribution of dust due to wind erosion in drylands drives major biogeochemical dynamics and provides important aeolian environmental connectivity at scales from individual plants up to the global scale. Yet, perhaps because most relevant research on aeolian processes has been presented in a geosciences rather than ecological context, most ecological studies do not explicitly consider dust-driven processes. To bridge this disciplinary gap, we provide a general overview of the ecological importance of dust, examine complex interactions between wind erosion and ecosystem dynamics from the plant-interspace scale to regional and global scales, and highlight specific examples of how disturbance affects these interactions and their consequences. Changes in climate and intensification of land use will both likely lead to increased dust production. To address these challenges, environmental scientists, land managers and policy makers need to more explicitly consider dust in resource management decisions.