WorldWideScience

Sample records for bridges and culverts

  1. Road Bridges and Culverts, Road Culvert Inventory, Published in 2007, Tippecanoe County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2007. It is described as 'Road Culvert Inventory'. Data...

  2. Road Bridges and Culverts, MDTA Culverts, Culverts on John F. Kennedy Highway (I95), Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Throughway, Francis Scott Key Bridge, Bay bridge, Nice Bridge, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described...

  3. Wildlife use of existing culverts and bridges in North Central Pennsylvania

    OpenAIRE

    Brudin, Carl O. III

    2003-01-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PENNDOT) District 3-0 initiated a study in North Central Pennsylvania evaluating existing bridges and culverts for use as underpasses by wildlife. This project was a two-phase study to investigate animal passage through existing drainage box culverts, arch culverts and bridges on existing highway systems. The objective of this study was to (1) determine whether wildlife are using existing structures as passageways based on wildlife sign and remot...

  4. Road Bridges and Culverts, Bridges layers located in GIS and Transportation database., Published in unknown, City of Roswell, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Bridges layers located in GIS and Transportation database.'. Data by this publisher are...

  5. Road Bridges and Culverts, 2006 2' contours; autocad dwg, Published in unknown, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset as of unknown. It is described as '2006 2' contours; autocad dwg'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane...

  6. Road Bridges and Culverts, Published in 2005, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Brown County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2005. Data by this...

  7. Road Bridges and Culverts, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Linn County GIS Mapping Dept..

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. Data by this...

  8. Road Bridges and Culverts, Published in unknown, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Forsyth County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate...

  9. Road Bridges and Culverts, Bridge inventory, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described...

  10. Road Bridges and Culverts, Bridge Centerlines for MGRC Service Area, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Middle Georgia RC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as...

  11. Road Bridges and Culverts, 2006 2' contours; autocad dwg, bridge layer, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. It is described...

  12. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and surfacing, and road property damaged (accounts XX-17-10 to XX-18-12 inclusive, 21-17-13 to 21-18-16 inclusive, XX-17-17, XX-18-17, XX-17-48, and XX-18-48). 1242.15 Section...

  13. Railroad Bridges and Culverts, MGRC Service Region, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Middle Georgia RC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as...

  14. Road Bridges and Culverts, Published in 2000, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, City of Americus & Sumter County, GA GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2000....

  15. Road Bridges and Culverts, All system and non-system bridges in Dickinson County along with sufficiency ratings, Published in 2007, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Dickinson County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It...

  16. Road Bridges and Culverts, Bridges linework as developed during 1996 planimetric and orthoimagery project., Published in 1996, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Vilas County Land Information/Mapping.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 1996. It is described...

  17. Outside Operation Survey Points of Expressway Reconstruction and Extension Bridge Culvert%高速公路改扩建桥涵外业勘察要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鑫

    2012-01-01

    结合沈铁高速公路的特点,着重介绍了桥涵外业勘察的重点内容,为高速公路的改扩建设计提供有利的设计依据。%Combined with the features of Shentie Expressway,the key contents of outside operation survey of bridge culvert is introduced emphatically,providing advantageous design basis for expressway reconstruction and extension design.

  18. 神华巴准铁路桥涵工程关键管理技术%Key Techniques for Management of Bridge and Culvert Projects of Batuta-Zhungeer Railway,Shenhua Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛

    2015-01-01

    神华巴准铁路桥涵工程体量庞大,技术标准要求高,沿线地形和工程地质情况复杂多变,冬季严寒漫长,桥涵工程施工和管理难度大。项目建设中以设计、施工、安全和质量管理为抓手,做好特殊地区桥涵的设计深度,严格执行施工组织设计,优化设计变更;加强对上跨既有铁路施工、高墩施工、旧桥基础防冲刷处理、风沙地区桩基施工以及T 梁预制和架设等重点工程的技术管理工作;严格执行《本质安全管理体系》,加强临近既有线、U 形谷斜坡桩基施工的安全管理工作;率先引入第三方检测制度,在桥梁施工、混凝土材料以及 T 梁生产中积极引入新技术、新工艺、新材料及新设备,多种手段加强工程质量控制。目前,巴准铁路已开通试运营。%The construction and management of the bridge and culvert projects of Batuta‐Zhun‐geer Railway ,Shenhua Group are challenging since the proportions of the bridges and culverts ac‐counting for the whole railway are high ,the technical standards set for the projects are demanding , the topographic and geological conditions along the railway are complicated and variable and the winter seasons in the area where the railway is located are severely cold and long .In the construc‐tion of the projects ,the design ,construction ,safety and quality management was taken as the im‐portant starting point ,the proper depth of the design of the bridges and culverts in the special area was required to be achieved ,the construction organization design was required to be strictly imple‐mented and the design variations were required to be optimized wherever necessary .The technical management of the critical works ,such as the construction of the bridges spanning the existing railways and the high‐rise piers ,the scouring protection treatment of the old bridge foundations , the construction of the pile foundations in the

  19. The effects of water flow and temperature on thermal regime around a culvert built on permafrost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loriane Prier; Guy Dor; CR Burn

    2014-01-01

    Temperature and water flow through a culvert beneath the Alaska Highway near Beaver Creek, Yukon, were measured at hourly intervals between June and October 2013. These data were used to simulate the effect of the culvert on the thermal regime of the road embankment and subjacent permafrost. A 2-D thermal model of the embankment and permafrost was developed with TEMP/W and calibrated using field observations. Empirical relations were obtained between water tem-peratures at the entrance to the culvert, flow into the culvert, and water temperatures inside the structure. Water temper-atures at the entrance and inside the culvert had a linear relation, while water temperatures inside the culvert and water flow were associated by a logarithmic relation. A multiple linear regression was used to summarize these relations. From this relationship, changes in the flow rate and water temperatures at the entrance of the culvert were simulated to obtain pre-dicted water temperatures in the culvert. The temperatures in the culvert were used in the thermal model to determine their effects on the ground thermal regime near the culvert. Variation of ±10%in water flow rate had no impact on the thermal regime underneath the culvert. Variation of water temperature at the entrance of the culvert had a noticeable influence on the thermal regime. A final simulation was conducted without insulation beneath the culvert. The thaw depth was 30 cm with insulation, and 120 cm without insulation, illustrating the importance of insulation to the ground thermal regime.

  20. Full Scale Tests and Structural Evaluation of Soil-Steel Flexible Culverts for High-Speed Railways

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Andreas; Sundquist, Håkan; Karoumi, Raid

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, results from full-scale tests on a corrugated soil-steel flexible culvert for railway traffic are presented. The bridge was instrumented with strain gauges, accelerometers and displacement gauges, measuring the response from passing trains. The aim of the measurement campaign was to gain knowledge of the dynamic behaviour due to train induced vibrations, both of the bridge structure and the overlying railway embankment. From the measured data, the load distribution and soil-sti...

  1. 公路桥涵汽车用电子限高报警系统(Ⅰ)——电子限高报警装置的原理与基本要求%Electronic Height Limit Alarm System of Highway Bridge Culvert Automobile(Ⅰ)——principle and essential requirements of electronic height limit alarm device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长生

    2011-01-01

    公路桥涵车用电子限高报警装置,是一种防止超高车辆撞坏桥涵的自动检测报警装置。文中描述这种专用电子限高装置的工作原理、基本要求以及常用的激光检测器与红外检测器的性能,为下一步进行设计公路桥涵车用电子限高报警装置提供必要的理论依据。%Electronic height limit alarm device of highway bridge culvert vehicle is an automatic detection and alarm device that prevents bridge and culver being destroyed by high vehicles.The working principles and essential requirements of the special device together with the performance of laser and infrared detectors commonly used were described in this paper,which could provide necessary theoretical basis for the design of electronic height limit alarm device applied in highway bridge culvert vehicles.

  2. 铁路营业线桥涵施工测斜技术研究及变形机制分析*%Study on Inclinometer Technology for Bridge and Culvert Construction on Operating Railway Line and Analysis of Deformation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任高峰; 张卅卅; 胡仲春; 刘永成

    2014-01-01

    在铁路营业线桥涵施工中,采用人工挖孔桩上架设便梁作为施工加固体系,通过在南京宁启线某标段的下穿顶进涵施工中的实际运用,介绍了测斜仪的工作原理及应用,总结了测斜技术在铁路营业线桥涵施工中出现的若干关键问题,并分别从测斜管的布置、埋设、精度分析、采集频率、数据处理、预警预报等方面进行探讨,总结人工挖孔桩在土体开挖过程中及列车静、动荷载影响下的变形机制及位移规律,优化开挖施工方案,提高铁运及施工的安全性。%In the bridge and culvert construction on operating railway line, the buttress-girder temporary support system is used as the construction reinforcement. This paper introduces the application and working principle of portable digital inclinometer through the practical application in culvert jacking construction under somewhere on Nanjing Ningqi existing railway line. This paper summarizes a number of key issues of inclinometer technology in bridge and culvert construction on operating railway line and discusses from the aspects of the layout of inclinometer tube, laying design, accuracy analysis, collection frequency, data processing, early warning and forecasting;analyzes the deformation mechanism and displacement rule of manual hole digging pile under the impact of soil excavation and trains’ static and dynamic load, which optimizes the excavation and construction program, improves the safety of railway transportation.

  3. 78 FR 5715 - Construction and Maintenance-Culvert Pipe Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... (39 FR 35152). According to Sec. 635.117(d), as in effect in 1974, Appendix A * * * sets forth the... installations. On September 10, 1976, this section was redesignated as 23 CFR 635.411 (41 FR 36204) and remained.... To implement this provision, the FHWA issued a final rule on November 15, 2006 (71 FR 66450),...

  4. Dealing With Uncertainty When Assessing Fish Passage Through Culvert Road Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gregory B.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, Byron J.; Straight, Carrie A.; Hagler, Megan M.; Peterson, James T.

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the passage of aquatic organisms through culvert road crossings has become increasingly common in efforts to restore stream habitat. Several federal and state agencies and local stakeholders have adopted assessment approaches based on literature-derived criteria for culvert impassability. However, criteria differ and are typically specific to larger-bodied fishes. In an analysis to prioritize culverts for remediation to benefit imperiled, small-bodied fishes in the Upper Coosa River system in the southeastern United States, we assessed the sensitivity of prioritization to the use of differing but plausible criteria for culvert impassability. Using measurements at 256 road crossings, we assessed culvert impassability using four alternative criteria sets represented in Bayesian belief networks. Two criteria sets scored culverts as either passable or impassable based on alternative thresholds of culvert characteristics (outlet elevation, baseflow water velocity). Two additional criteria sets incorporated uncertainty concerning ability of small-bodied fishes to pass through culverts and estimated a probability of culvert impassability. To prioritize culverts for remediation, we combined estimated culvert impassability with culvert position in the stream network relative to other barriers to compute prospective gain in connected stream habitat for the target fish species. Although four culverts ranked highly for remediation regardless of which criteria were used to assess impassability, other culverts differed widely in priority depending on criteria. Our results emphasize the value of explicitly incorporating uncertainty into criteria underlying remediation decisions. Comparing outcomes among alternative, plausible criteria may also help to identify research most needed to narrow management uncertainty.

  5. Brook trout passage performance through culverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Bergeron, Normand

    2016-01-01

    Culverts can restrict access to habitat for stream-dwelling fishes. We used passive integrated transponder telemetry to quantify passage performance of >1000 wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) attempting to pass 13 culverts in Quebec under a range of hydraulic and environmental conditions. Several variables influenced passage success, including complex interactions between physiology and behavior, hydraulics, and structural characteristics. The probability of successful passage was greater through corrugated metal culverts than through smooth ones, particularly among smaller fish. Trout were also more likely to pass at warmer temperatures, but this effect diminished above 15 °C. Passage was impeded at higher flows, through culverts with steep slopes, and those with deep downstream pools. This study provides insight on factors influencing brook trout capacity to pass culverts as well as a model to estimate passage success under various conditions, with an improved resolution and accuracy over existing approaches. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate passage success of other species, with implications for connectivity of the riverscape.

  6. Effect of soil properties on stability of soil--steel culverts

    OpenAIRE

    SUTUBADI, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh; KHATIBI, Behnam Rahrou

    2013-01-01

    Soil-steel structures have been used as an alternative to short span concrete and steel bridges for years because they have some advantages regarding their construction methods, maintenance costs, and construction time. Several researchers have performed experimental and numerical studies about the behavior of these structures under dead loads and crossing live loads. In this study, to investigate the variations of soil properties on the stability of a culvert, we tried to simulate a soil...

  7. Necropsy Report - Eaastern Pipistrelle Box Culvert I-55 Grenada, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Necropsy report of a eastern pipisttrelle tricolored bat found dead in a box culvert along I55, near Grenada, MS provides no indication of whitenose syndrome.

  8. Studies of fish passage through culverts in Montana

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Matt; Cahoon, Joel; Burford, Drake; McMahon, Tom; Stein, Otto

    2005-01-01

    Road crossings that utilize culverts on fish-bearing streams can impede fish passage in several ways. The most common impediments include large outlet drops, insufficient water depths, and excessive velocity. High velocities can act as passage barriers, especially for fish that migrate during high-flow periods of the year such as westslope cutthroat trout and Yellowstone cutthroat trout. We performed a basin-wide culvert study to investigate fish passage across a large basin in Montana. A sec...

  9. Do culverts impact the movements of the endangered white-clawed crayfish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louca V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Culverts can impact the migration and dispersal of aquatic animals and result in population fragmentation, increasing the risk of local extinction for endangered species such as the white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. This study used radio telemetry and passive integrated transponder (PIT telemetry to determine whether existing and experimental covered culverts affect the upstream and downstream movements of adult white-clawed crayfish. Daily crayfish movement rates did not differ significantly between an unlit 363-m long culvert and open stream channel sections. Crayfish moved into dark, covered sections volitionally. However, limited upstream movement occurred at sudden transitions of bed height or smooth-concrete box culvert sections with fast flow, suggesting partial barrier effects. In the 20-m long experimental in-stream culvert, also dark, but with natural stream bed, 70% of radio-tagged crayfish released downstream entered the culvert, as did 60% of those released upstream. Overall 35% passed through, with similar numbers in each direction. We conclude that dark culverts up to several hundred metres do not inhibit dispersal of white-clawed crayfish, provided stream slope, bed type and water velocity are amenable for movement and refuge. Care is required to ensure that culverts are bioengineered to ensure that average water velocity is sufficiently low and local hydraulic variation high, the bed and/or sidewalls contain refuge structures, and there are no cross-channel steps in bed level. Smooth-bedded box culverts are unlikely to be suitable for white-clawed crayfish.

  10. Assessing Juvenile Salmonid Passage Through Culverts: Field Research in Support of Protocol Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Greg D.; Evans, Nathan R.; Pearson, Walter H.; Southard, John A.

    2001-10-30

    The primary goal of our research this spring/ summer was to refine techniques and examine scenarios under which a standardized protocol could be applied to assess juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch) passage through road culverts. Field evaluations focused on capture-mark- recapture methods that allowed analysis of fish movement patterns, estimates of culvert passability, and potential identification of cues inducing these movements. At this stage, 0+ age coho salmon fry 30 mm to 65 mm long (fork length) were the species and age class of interest. Ultimately, the protocol will provide rapid, statistically rigorous methods for trained personnel to perform standardized biological assessments of culvert passability to a number of juvenile salmon species. Questions to be addressed by the research include the following: ? Do hydraulic structures such as culverts restrict habitat for juvenile salmonids? ? How do existing culverts and retrofits perform relative to juvenile salmonid passage? ? Do some culvert characteristics and hydraulic conditions provide better passage than others? ? Does the culvert represent a barrier to certain size classes of fish? Recommendations addressed issues of study site selection, initial capture, marking, recapture/observations, and estimating movement.

  11. Characterization of Turbulent Open Channel Flow in a Full-Scale Spiral Corrugated Culvert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guensch, Greg R.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Tritico, Hans; Pearson, Walter H.

    2004-02-26

    A micro-Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) was used to characterize the three-dimensional velocity and turbulence characteristics in a full-scale culvert with spiral corrugations. The culvert was set up in a test bed constructed to examine juvenile salmon passage success in various culvert types. The test culvert was 12.2 m long and 1.83m in diameter, and set at a 1.14% slope. The corrugations were 2.54 cm deep by 7.62 cm peak to peak with a 5° right-handed pitch. Tailwater elevation was adjustable with a stop-log system and was set slightly above the water surface level at the culvert exit. Cross-sectional grids of ADV measurements were taken at discharges of 28, 57, 113, 227, and 453 lps at 9 locations within the culvert barrel and just inside the headwater and tailwater tanks. Results indicated that the spiral corrugations induced asymmetries in the velocity and turbulence distributions. These asymmetries caused a Reduced Velocity Zone (RVZ) on the right side of the culvert as seen looking upstream, which could aid small fish during upstream passage. Velocity and turbulence levels in the RVZ were found to be less than in mid channel or on the left side of the culvert, and the difference became greater at increased flow rates. Lateral and vertical velocity components were very small relative to the axial component, while lateral and vertical turbulence intensities were comparable to the axial component. Inlet loss coefficients were calculated as well and ranged from 0.32 to 0.42. Relationships between the average velocity and the velocity and turbulence intensity in the RVZ were developed, which may be useful for evaluating whether the barrel of a culvert is passable for juvenile fish.

  12. Integral Abutment and Jointless Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian-Claudiu Comisu

    2005-01-01

    Integral bridges, or integral abutment and jointless bridges, as they are more commonly known in the USA, are constructed without any movement joints between spans or between spans and abutments. Typically these bridges have stub-type abutments supported on piles and continuous bridge deck from one embankment to the other. Foundations are usually designed to be small and flexible to facilitate horizontal movement or rocking of the support. Integrally bridges are simple or multiple span ones t...

  13. 填土高度、跨径对盖板涵涵台结构的影响%The Filling Height and Span Effect on the Slab Culvert Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽飞

    2014-01-01

    本文针对盖板涵设计,讨论了填土高度、跨径对涵台结构的影响。结果表明:在一定范围内,填土高度越大,对结构受力越有利。但超过该范围,填土高度越大,对结构受力越不利。跨径大对涵台结构受力有利,但对盖板结构受力不利。%In view of the slab culvert design, this article discusses the influence of fil ing height and span of culvert structure. The results show that within a certain range, the greater of the fil ing height, the bet er for the structure stress. But if over the range, the greater of the fil ing height, the worse to the structure stress. Large span is benefit for the culvert structure stress, but bad for the flat structure.

  14. Evaluation on load-carrying capacity for corroded RC box-culvert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses effects of reinforcing steel corrosion structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) structures based on experimental results. We conducted a series of full-scale cyclic loading tests on RC box-culvert specimens that were artificially corroded by stay current corrosion. As a result, the initial rigidity and maximum strength were maintained under the condition of slight corrosion. On the other hand, deformation capacity decreased with the increase of corrosion degree. This shows that the locally material deterioration has a minor effect on structural performance of RC box-culverts, which is characterized as a redundant structure. (author)

  15. Bottom ash from fluidising bed boilers as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Chemical and geotechnical characterisation; Pannsand som kringfyllnadsmaterial foer fjaerrvaermeroergravar. Kemisk och geoteknisk karaktaerisering av fluidbaeddsand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Roger; Rogbeck, Jan; Suer, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Bottom ashes from fluid bed boilers have been characterised, both geotechnically and chemically, in order to investigate the possibility to use them as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Bottom ashes from both biofuel boilers and waste boilers are represented in this project. The companies which ashes have been characterised are Sundsvall Energi AB, Sydkraft OestVaerme AB, Sydkraft MaelarVaerme AB, Eskilstuna Miljoe och Energi, Stora Enso Fors, Soederenergi and Fortum Vaerme. A total of ten ashes have been analysed where three ashes originates from Sundsvall Energi AB, two from Sydkraft OestVaerme AB and one from the each of the remaining companies. The chemical analyses have been performed both on fresh ashes and on ashes aged for three months. The geotechnical analyses performed are grain size distribution, packing abilities and permeability. Chemical analyses performed are total content, available content, leaching tests (leaching both by shaking method and column procedure) and organic analyses (PAH, EOX, TOC, dioxin and fenol). The geotechnical analyses show that the ashes fulfils the demands that are put on the filler material used in district heating pipe culverts. When using the ashes in applications, light compaction should be performed due to the risk of crushing the material which may cause an increased amount of fine material. The leachability of fine material is larger than for coarse material. The ashes are relatively insensitive to precipitation. Bio fuel based bottom ashes have a lower content of environmental affecting substances than waste fuel based ashes. This is also shown in the leaching analyses. The leaching water from fresh ashes contains a higher concentration of leachable components than aged ashes. When aged the pH in the ashes decreases due to carbon uptake and hydration and this makes metals as Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn less mobile. On the other hand, an increase in leachability of Sb, Mo and SO{sub 4} is shown when the ashes

  16. Environmental life cycle assessment comparison between two bridge types: reinforced concrete bridge and steel composite bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2013-01-01

    The concept of sustainable construction has attracted an increased attention. Bridge infrastructures and their belonged construction activities consume considerable material and energy, which is responsible for large environmental burdens. However, the environmental assessment of bridges has not...... been integrated into the decision-making process. This paper presents a systematic LCA method for quantifying the environmental impacts for bridges. The comparison study is performed between a reinforced concrete bridge and a steel bridge as an alternative design, with several key maintenance and EOL...... scenarios outlined. LCA study is performed with the ReCiPe methodology with life cycle inventories data from public database. Five selected mid-point level impact categories and the energy consumption are presented. The result shows that the steel bridge has a better environmental performance due to the...

  17. Cause analysis of cracks in circulating water culvert of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the widespread cracks discovered in the reinforced-concrete circulating water culvert of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, cause analysis for the cracks is made in terms of construction and design. It is concluded that the cracks mainly resulted from shrinkage and temperature. Corresponding countermeasures are put forward thereafter for reference of similar projects

  18. Bridge Creek IMW database - Bridge Creek Restoration and Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek is thought to be limiting a population of ESA-listed steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A logical restoration...

  19. Bridge Number and Conway Products

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Ryan C.

    2007-01-01

    Schubert proved that, given a composite link $K$ with summands $K_{1}$ and $K_{2}$, the bridge number of $K$ satisfies the following equation: $$\\beta(K)=\\beta(K_{1})+\\beta(K_{2})-1.$$ In ``Conway Produts and Links with Multiple Bridge Surfaces", Scharlemann and Tomova proved that, given links $K_{1}$ and $K_{2}$, there is a Conway product $K_{1}\\times_{c}K_{2}$ such that $$\\beta(K_{1}\\times_{c} K_{2}) \\leq \\beta(K_{1}) + \\beta(K_{2}) - 1$$ In this paper, we define the generalized Conway prod...

  20. Bridging history and social psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Yamamoto, Koji

    2012-01-01

    This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social psycholog......This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social...... psychologists can benefit from engaging with historical sources by being able to contextualise their findings and enrich their theoretical models. It is not only that all social and psychological phenomena have a history but this history is very much part of present-day and future developments. On the other...

  1. Optimum selection on bridge erection with floating crane in East China Sea Bridge and Hangzhou Bay Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunquan Qin; Pu Zhou; Youheng Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction With the rapid development of China′s economy, many bridges will be built over the Chinese coastal waters of Pacific Ocean. Among them, construction of East China Sea Bridge has been commenced in June 2001, and will be completed at the end of 2005, Hangzhou Bay Bridge was also started to construct in June 2003(Fig. 1). These two ultralong bridges are designed as twin expressway bridges standing side by side each carries a 3-lane one-way carriageway. The total width is 31.5m and 33.0m respectively. East China Sea Bridge starts from Nanhui District, Shanghai and extends to the Yangshan Deep Water Port Area, which is located at one of the Qiqu Islands. The total length of the bridge is about 31.0 km, in which 25 km are on the sea, and 22 km is in the unnavigable region. Hangzhou Bay Bridge across the mouth of Qiantang River.

  2. Theory of water and charged liquid bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawetz, K

    2012-08-01

    The phenomenon of liquid bridge formation due to an applied electric field is investigated. A solution of a charged catenary is presented, which allows one to determine the static and dynamical stability conditions where charged liquid bridges are possible. The creeping height, the bridge radius and length, as well as the shape of the bridge are calculated showing an asymmetric profile, in agreement with observations. The flow profile is calculated from the Navier-Stokes equation leading to a mean velocity, which combines charge transport with neutral mass flow and which describes recent experiments on water bridges. PMID:23005849

  3. Open top culverts as an alternative drainage system to minimize ecological effects in earth roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Jose L.; Elorrieta, Jose; Robredo, Jose C.; García, Ricardo; García, Fernando; Gimenez, Martin C.

    2013-04-01

    During the last fifteen years a research team from School of Forestry at the Technical University of Madrid (Spain) has developed several competitive research projects regarding forest roads and open top culverts. A first approach was established with a prototype of 7 meters length in a hydraulic channel at the laboratory determining main parameters of different open top culverts in relation to different sizes of gravels and the self washing properties relationship with different slopes up to 8 %. The curves obtained may help to properly install these drainage systems avoiding maintenance costs. In addition more targeted pilot studies were developed in different forest earth roads in center and north Spain. The construction of the stations under study was financed by the U.P.M and the R&D National Plan. The main outcomes relates the low variation of humidity in a 20 m. wide range at both sides of the open top culverts and several considerations relating the angle of installation, the spacing of such drainage systems and the benefits against rilling along the roads. Also the erosion produced downhill was established and some construction methods to avoid adverse ecological effects. The diffusion of results includes congresses and a small booklet with a great acceptance in forestry services. Also a patent (ES 2 262 437) of an advanced model has been registered.

  4. Bridges and wildlife: issues and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Marion

    2003-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) owns over 3,000 steel and concrete bridges, many of which are occupied by wildlife. Species documented occupying bridges range from birds of prey, such as ospreys, peregrines and owls, to mammals such as raccoons, bats and bushy tailed wood rats. While the bridges are playing an important role in providing habitat for wildlife, their presence can also lead to costly project delays. Project Objective The project objective is to develop ...

  5. Bridging Block and Bundesen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Consciousness seems to present a special challenge for scientific investigation. Much research has been done on the so-called "easy" aspects of consciousness such as perception, attention, and memory. The "hard problem", however, still seems to elude scientific methods. In this paper I argue that...... some fields in cognitive science are already gaining ground on the hard problem. An interesting model is Claus Bundesen‘s (1990) Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) that seems to be compatible with Ned Block‘s (1995) distinction between access consciousness and phenomenal consciousness. TVA proposes a two...

  6. Bridge engineering handbook construction and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Fah

    2014-01-01

    Over 140 experts, 14 countries, and 89 chapters are represented in the second edition of the Bridge Engineering Handbook. This extensive collection highlights bridge engineering specimens from around the world, contains detailed information on bridge engineering, and thoroughly explains the concepts and practical applications surrounding the subject.Published in five books: Fundamentals, Superstructure Design, Substructure Design, Seismic Design, and Construction and Maintenance, this new edition provides numerous worked-out examples that give readers step-by-step design procedures, includes c

  7. Axisymmetric long liquid bridges stability and resonances

    OpenAIRE

    Meseguer Ruiz, José; Sanz Andres, Angel Pedro; Perales Perales, José Manuel

    1990-01-01

    In this paper mathematical expressions for minimum-volume stability limits and resonance frequencies of axisymmetric long liquid bridges are presented. These expressions are valid for a wide range of liquid bridge configurations, accounting for ef-fects like unequal disks and axial microgravity in the case of minimum-volume stability limits,and unequal disks, axial microgravity,non-zero viscosity and liquid bridge volume different from the cylindrical one in the case of resonance frequenc...

  8. Building bridgesand accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Lyn Evans, the LHC project leader, was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) to celebrate his role not just in building accelerators, but also in building bridges between nations. He was one of four notables honoured at the event on Friday 5 June, coinciding with the University’s 450th Anniversary. Lyn Evans arriving at the ceremony with Archbishop Desmond Tutu. "It was a big surprise when I found out I’d been nominated," recounts Evans, "but it was an even bigger surprise to find out with whom I’d been nominated". At the ceremony Evans was awarded the honorary doctorate along with three others: Archbishop Desmond Tutu, who was acclaimed for his fight against apartheid in South Africa, Mary Robinson, first woman president of Ireland and former United Nations’ high commissioner of human rights, and Pascal Lamy, Director-General of the World Trade Organization. The award ceremony, known as the �...

  9. Structural performance evaluation on aging underground reinforced concrete structures. Part 3. Evaluation on load carrying capacity for RC box-culvert with corroded reinforcing bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to assess damage mechanism for RC box-culvert with corroded reinforcing bars and to evaluate effects of reinforcing steel corrosion on load carrying capacity based on experimental results. We conducted a series of full-scale cyclic loading tests on RC box-culvert specimens that were artificially corroded by stay current corrosion. In experimental results, maximum strength of the box-culverts with corroded reinforcing bars shows slight decrease under the condition of maximum corrosion ratio 15%, and the locally material deterioration has minor effect on ultimate strength of RC box-culverts. It was because that plastic hinges were developed if steel yielding or shear cracks occurred around the corner parts and the loads were redistributed from the damage parts to the other parts. Then, as an application of experimental results, we developed relationships between the structural performance of RC box-culverts and chloride induced deterioration progress as is widely accepted in maintenance practice for civil engineering reinforced concrete structures. As a result, the degradation ratio of deformation capacity became larger than that of maximum strength with the increase of corrosion degree. Moreover, stayed as that of in sound condition except deterioration stage, while the minimum degradation ratio of shear strength in acceleration stage to that in initiation stage was approximately 85%. (author)

  10. Bridge Management Systems:present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1997-01-01

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way.

  11. Numerical analysis of dynamic response of vehicle–bridge coupled system on long-span continuous girder bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipeng An

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To systematically study the vehicle–bridge coupled dynamic response and its change rule with different parameters, a vehicle model with seven degrees of freedom was built and the total potential energy of vehicle space vibration system was deduced. Considering the stimulation of road roughness, the dynamic response equation of vehicle–bridge coupled system was established in accordance with the elastic system principle of total potential energy with stationary value and the “set-in-right-position” rule. On the basis of the self-compiled Fortran program and bridge engineering, the dynamic response of long-span continuous girder bridge under vehicle load was studied. This study also included the calculation of vehicle impact coefficient, evaluation of vibration comfort, and analysis of dynamic response parameters. Results show the impact coefficient changes with lane number and is larger than the value calculated by the “general code for design of highway bridges and culverts (China”. The Dieckmann index of bridge vibration is also related to lane number, and the vibration comfort evaluation is good in normal conditions. The relevant conclusions from parametric analyses have practical significance to dynamic design and daily operation of long-span continuous girder bridges in expressways. Safety and comfort are expected to improve significantly with further control of the vibration of vehicle–bridge system.

  12. Bridge and brick motifs in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Yuan; Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Cheng, Chia-Ying; Hsieh, Ji-Lung

    2007-04-01

    Acknowledging the expanding role of complex networks in numerous scientific contexts, we examine significant functional and topological differences between bridge and brick motifs for predicting network behaviors and functions. After observing similarities between social networks and their genetic, ecological, and engineering counterparts, we identify a larger number of brick motifs in social networks and bridge motifs in the other three types. We conclude that bridge and brick motif content analysis can assist researchers in understanding the small-world and clustering properties of network structures when investigating network functions and behaviors.

  13. Bridge weigh-in-motion on steel orthotropic decks and application to bridge assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Bernard; Ieng, Sio Song; SCHMIDT, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    Bridge weigh-in-motion uses an instrumented bridge as a scale to weigh vehicles. Several types of bridges may be used, if being sensitive to wheel or axle loads. Here some strains of steel orthotropic deck bridges are measured by extensometers and analyzed by software, to calculate axle loads and gross vehicle weights. Between 2009 and 2011, several large scale tests were done on the Millau viaduct (France), the tallest cable stayed bridge in the world. These tests showed that the system meet...

  14. Signal and noise in bridging PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaler David S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a variant of the standard PCR reaction termed bridging, or jumping, PCR the primer-bound sequences are originally on separate template molecules. Bridging can occur if, and only if, the templates contain a region of sequence similarity. A 3' end of synthesis in one round of synthesis that terminates in this region of similarity can prime on the other. In principle, Bridging PCR (BPCR can detect a subpopulation of one template that terminates synthesis in the region of sequence shared by the other template. This study considers the sensitivity and noise of BPCR as a quantitative assay for backbone interruptions. Bridging synthesis is also important to some methods for computing with DNA. Results In this study, BPCR was tested over a 328 base pair segment of the E. coli lac operon and a signal to noise ratio (S/N of approximately 10 was obtained under normal PCR conditions with Taq polymerase. With special precautions in the case of Taq or by using the Stoffel fragment the S/N was improved to 100, i.e. 1 part of cut input DNA yielded the same output as 100 parts of intact input DNA. Conclusions In the E. coli lac operator region studied here, depending on details of protocol, between 3 and 30% per kilobase of final PCR product resulted from bridging. Other systems are expected to differ in the proportion of product that is bridged consequent to PCR protocol and the sequence analyzed. In many cases physical bridging during PCR will have no informational consequence because the bridged templates are of identical sequence, but in a number of special cases bridging creates, or, destroys, information.

  15. Human Errors and Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, A. S.

    Human errors are divided in two groups. The first group contains human errors, which effect the reliability directly. The second group contains human errors, which will not directly effect the reliability of the structure. The methodology used to estimate so-called reliability distributions on...... basis of reliability profiles for bridges without human errors are extended to include bridges with human errors. The first rehabilitation distributions for bridges without and with human errors are combined into a joint first rehabilitation distribution. The methodology presented is illustrated for...

  16. Bridge Aesthetics and Structural Honesty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In bridges the overall form must be chosen with due respect to the transmission of forces if efficient structures shall be created, The design must therefore be governed by experienced structural engineers - in some cases assisted by aesthetic advisers on specific issues. Some basic requirements ...

  17. Bridging the Chasm between Policymakers and Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to lessen the tension which often exists between educators and policymakers, this article discusses each sector's world and then offers suggestions on how to construct bridges between these worlds so that mutual goals may be attained. (JL)

  18. POINT ESTIMATES OF THE SEISMIC RESPONSE OF A BURIED RC BOX CULVERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKIHITO HATA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In performance-based seismic design, the variation in response induced by soil heterogeneity is of great interest. To evaluate this, Monte-Carlo simulation is the most capable and accurate method, but generally involves high computational cost. A method to reduce the computation efficiently while maintaining accuracy is required. In this study, the Monte-Carlo simulation of the seismic response analysis of a reinforced concrete (RC box culvert buried in the ground, is conducted considering the inhomogeneous shear stiffness of the surrounding soil. The results show that the response of the box culvert varies depending on local variation in soil stiffness, and the shear force response of the walls in particular, depends on small scale local variations. Sixteen typical soil profiles which produce a large variation in response to shear force were selected. It was confirmed the sixteen soil profiles could approximate variations in response to shear force calculated using a full Monte-Carlo simulation and could be used as candidates for point estimates.

  19. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-50 Stormwater Runoff Culvert, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-04-15

    The 100-F-50 waste site, part of the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit, is a steel stormwater runoff culvert that runs between two railroad grades in the south-central portion of the 100-F Area. The culvert exiting the west side of the railroad grade is mostly encased in concrete and surrounded by a concrete stormwater collection depression partially filled with soil and vegetation. The drain pipe exiting the east side of the railroad grade embankment is partially filled with soil and rocks. The 100-F-50 stormwater diversion culvert confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to no action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  20. Bridging radiation policy and science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientists, regulators, and policy makers from five continents and 20 countries reached consensus on a number of conclusions and recommendations regarding low-level ionizing radiation exposures at an international conference, 'Bridging Radiation Policy and Science,' at the Airlie Center in Warrenton, Virginia, 1-5 December 1999. The goal of the conference was to develop strategies for formulating national and international policy based on current scientific information in the context of economic, political, and social concerns. Specifically, attendees explored how to establish public policies with respect to radiation protection in view of the scientific uncertainties of the effects of low-level radiation [<100 millisievert (mSv)]. Conference participants agreed that science will not likely answer in the near future fundamental questions about the shape of the dose-response curve and mechanisms of effects of radiation at low doses. The conference endorsed the quest for a prudent and coherent radiation policy based on the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) 'evolving global framework'. The Conference participants agreed upon the following recommendations: Policy discussions on the regulation of radiation sources delivering low-level radiation should include references to natural background radiation. The conference supports the evolving global framework of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the safe use of radiation. The conference supports further development and evaluation of the ideas associated with the proposal on controllable dose. No radiation dose is below regulatory concern but certain levels should be below regulatory action, and appropriate dose levels should be established. Fundamental questions about the shape of the dose-response curve and mechanisms of effects of radiation at low doses are unlikely to be answered in the near future. Scientific research, including molecular and cellular radiobiology studies are critical in order

  1. Differing Levels of Forestry Best Management Practices at Stream Crossing Structures Affect Sediment Delivery and Installation Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forestry best management practices (BMPs are used to reduce sedimentation from forest stream crossings. Three BMP treatments (BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+ were applied to three forest road stream crossings (bridge, culvert, and ford. BMP− did not meet existing BMP guidelines, BMP-std met standard recommendations, and BMP+ treatments exceeded recommendations. Following BMP applications, three simulated rainfall intensities (low, medium, and high were applied in order to evaluate sediment delivery from crossing type and BMP level. During rainfall simulation, sediment concentrations (mg/L were collected with automated samplers and discharge (L/s was estimated to calculate total sediment loading. Costs of stream crossings and BMP levels were also quantified. Mean sediment associated with the three stream crossings were 3.38, 1.87, and 0.64 Mg for the BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+ levels, respectively. Ford, culvert, and bridge crossings produced 13.04, 12.95, and 0.17 Mg of sediment during construction, respectively. BMP enhancement was more critical for sediment control at the culvert and ford crossings than at the bridge. Respective costs for BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+ levels were $5,368, $5,658, and $5,858 for the bridge; $3,568, $4,166 and $4,595 for the culvert; and $180, $420 and $1,903 for the ford. Costs and sediment values suggest that current standard BMP levels effectively reduce stream sediment while minimizing costs.

  2. Assessment of a Bridge WIM System on Integral Concrete Bridges and on Steel Orthotropic Decks

    OpenAIRE

    Ieng, Sio Song; SCHMIDT, Franziska; ROMBONI, Frédéric; Jacob, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Bridge-Weigh-In-Motion uses bridges as a scale to weigh vehicles. Practically, this is done by measuring the strains in that bridge, and relating them to the weight and dimensions of a truck called “calibration trucks” whose shape and axle weights are well known. This article summarizes different B-WIM experiments the institute IFSTTAR (formerly called LCPC) realized and the lessons drawn from this experience. First, the system has been tested on frame-type bridges with integral s...

  3. Assessment of impact of mass movements on the upper Tayyah valley's bridge along Shear escarpment highway, Asir region (Saudi Arabia) using remote sensing data and field investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, A. M.; Al-Kathery, M.; Pradhan, B.

    2015-01-01

    Escarpment highways, roads and mountainous areas in Saudi Arabia are facing landslide hazards that are frequently occurring from time to time causing considerable damage to these areas. Shear escarpment highway is located in the north of the Abha city. It is the most important escarpment highway in the area, where all the light and heavy trucks and vehicle used it as the only corridor that connects the coastal areas in the western part of the Saudi Arabia with the Asir and Najran Regions. More than 10 000 heavy trucks and vehicles use this highway every day. In the upper portion of Tayyah valley of Shear escarpment highway, there are several landslide and erosion potential zones that affect the bridges between tunnel 7 and 8 along the Shear escarpment Highway. In this study, different types of landslides and erosion problems were considered to access their impacts on the upper Tayyah valley's bridge along Shear escarpment highway using remote sensing data and field investigation. These landslides and erosion problems have a negative impact on this section of the highway. Results indicate that the areas above the highway and bridge level between bridge 7 and 8 have different landslides including planar, circular, rockfall failures and debris flows. In addition, running water through the gullies cause different erosional (scour) features between and surrounding the bridge piles and culverts. A detailed landslides and erosion features map was created based on intensive field investigation (geological, geomorphological, and structural analysis), and interpretation of Landsat image 15 m and high resolution satellite image (QuickBird 0.61 m), shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM 90 m), geological and topographic maps. The landslides and erosion problems could exhibit serious problems that affect the stability of the bridge. Different mitigation and remediation strategies have been suggested to these critical sites to minimize and/or avoid these problems in the future.

  4. MINERAL BRIDGES OF NACRE AND ITS EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凡; 白以龙

    2001-01-01

    Nacre, or mother-of-pearl, is a kind of composites of aragonite platelets sandwiched between organic materials. Its excellent mechanical properties are thought to stem from the microarchitecture that is traditionally described as a "brick and mortar" arrangement. In this paper, a new microstructure, referred to as mineral bridge in the biomineralization, is directly observed in the organic matrix layers (mortar) of nacre. This is an indication that the organic matrix layer of nacre should be treated as a three-dimensional interface and the microarchitecture of nacre ought to be considered as a "brick-bridge-mortar" structure rather than the traditional one. Experiments and analyses show that the mineral bridges not only improve the mechanical properties of the organic matrix layers but also play an important role in the pattern of the crack extension in nacre.

  5. Review on the Construction Technology of Railway Jacking Culvert%铁路顶进涵施工技术综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锐祺

    2015-01-01

    本文以青阜线增建二线工程为例,简单介绍了工程的框架涵预制,对便梁施工的防护以及铁路工程的涵体顶进等施工工序进行了相关分析和介绍,并提出一些控制质量措施和安全措施,对有关铁路营业线框架涵顶进的施工技术有很好的指导意义,为相关的铁路工作人员提供了一定的参考。%in this paper, through specific examples on the top of the railway into the culvert construction technology further explanation and analysis, With Qing Fu line additional second-line project as an example, a brief introduc⁃tion on theframe culvert prefabrication of the project is made, the protection ofbeam construction and culvert jack⁃ingand other construction processes ofrailway engineering are carried out with relative analysis and introduction, and put somequality control measures and safety measures are proposed, which has good guiding significance for related⁃construction technology ofrailway business line frame culvert, and provides certain referencefor related railwaystaff.

  6. Building Bridges, Robots, and High Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Fiona; Corbett, Charlotte; Palo, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an after-school program at the Horace Mann School for the Deaf (HMS), the oldest public day school for deaf students in the United States, where almost half of the student body imagined and created bridge and robotic machines. The Deaf Robotics Engineering and Math Team, or the DREAM Team club, included HMS students in…

  7. Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy H.M. Sembel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Some concerns in the field of Business Management regarding the gap between theory and practice have been raised by practitioners and academicians. This keynote speech describes some lessons learned from the academic literature regarding this gap (whether the gap really exists, and if it exists, whether it needs to be bridged or closed, and how to bridge or close this gap, and shares the author's personal and professional experiences of living as both an academician and a practitioner. The main findings of this article are: (1 Yes the gap exists, however, it has to be viewed in a wider perspective to really understand the situation; (2 The gap in a specific area is bad and should become our concern, but in other areas it should not; (3 There are some ways to bridge or close the negative gap; (4 There exists hybrid career opportunities to become professionals that work both as an academician and a practitioner; (5 This new breed of hybrid professionals has a huge potential to bridge the bad theory-practice gap.

  8. Characterization and electrical modeling of semiconductors bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, K.D. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Wackerbarth, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Semiconductor bridges (SCBs) are finding increased use as initiators for explosive and pyrotechnic devices. They offer advantages in reduced voltage and energy requirements, coupled with excellent safety features. The design of explosive systems which implement either SCBs or metal bridgewires can be facilitated through the use of electrical simulation software such as the PSpice{reg_sign} computer code. A key component in the electrical simulation of such systems is an electrical model of the bridge. This report has two objectives: (1) to present and characterize electrical data taken in tests of detonators which employ SCBs with BNCP as the explosive powder; and (2) to derive appropriate electrical models for such detonators. The basis of such models is a description of the resistance as a function of energy deposited in the SCB. However, two important features which must be added to this are (1) the inclusion of energy loss through such mechanisms as ohmic heating of the aluminum lands and heat transfer from the bridge to the surrounding media; and (2) accounting for energy deposited in the SCB through heat transfer to the bridge from the explosive powder after the powder ignites. The modeling procedure is entirely empirical; i.e., models for the SCB resistance and the energy gain and loss have been estimated from experimental data taken over a range of firing conditions. We present results obtained by applying the model to the simulation of SCB operation in representative tests.

  9. Diode-quad bridge for reactive transducers and FM discriminators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D. R.; Dimeff, J.

    1972-01-01

    Diode-quad bridge circuit was developed for use with pressure-sensitive capacitive transducers, liquid-level measuring devices, proximity deflection sensors, and inductive displacement sensors. It may also be used as FM discriminator and as universal impedance bridge.

  10. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a... polymethylmethacrylate, intended to make a temporary prosthesis, such as a crown or bridge, for use until a...

  11. New Philosophy in Steel Bridge Design and Frabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Henkle, David

    2014-01-01

    The foremost parameters in the design of any structure are safety and cost. The SEBD (simplified economical bridge design) concept meets and exceeds all conditions of safety but with an added benefit of cost savings over more conventional design procedures for steel bridges. Comparative analysis indicates that cost saving as much as 10 percent of the bridge cost can be realized. Learn about SEBD and how you can apply it to steel bridge design and fabrication. Contact InformationTele: 574-2...

  12. 305 Building 2 ton bridge crane and monorail assembly analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analyses in the appendix of this document evaluate the integrity of the existing bridge crane structure, as depicted on drawing H-3-34292, for a bridge crane and monorail assembly with a load rating of 2 tons. This bridge crane and monorail assembly is a modification of a 1 1/2 ton rated manipulator bridge crane which originally existed in the 305 building

  13. Bridging the Gap: Linking Simulation and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, Paul E.; Carsley, John; Stoudt, Mark R.; Hovanski, Yuri

    2012-09-01

    The Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) which is a key enabler for the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership, announced in 2011 by U.S. President Barack Obama, was established to accelerate the development and deployment of advanced materials. The MGI is driven by the need to "bridge the gap" between (I) experimental results and computational analysis to enable the rapid development and validation of new mateirals, and (II) the processes required to convert these materials into useable goods.

  14. Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Marincola Francesco M; Van Eperen Laura; Strohm Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Abstract There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media. Given the traditional and internet-based sourc...

  15. Bridging environmental mixtures and toxic effects

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Sarah E.; Smith, Brian W.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2012-01-01

    BRIDGES is a bioanalytical tool that combines passive sampling with the embryonic zebrafish developmental toxicity bioassay to provide a quantitative measure of the toxicity of bioavailable complex mixtures. Passive sampling devices (PSDs), which sequester and concentrate bioavailable organic contaminants from the environment, were deployed in the Willamette and Columbia Rivers within and outside of the Portland Harbor Superfund site in Portland, Oregon. Six sampling events were conducted in ...

  16. Bridge Inspections and Being an ERC

    OpenAIRE

    Hoernschemeyer, Keith; Miller, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will discuss recent changes to the County Bridge Inspection Program from the perspective of both the FHWA and INDOT. We will also discuss the responsibilities of the local public agency’s (LPA’s) employee in responsible charge (ERC) with respect to managing this program. As this course is a yearly requirement, all county ERCs are encouraged to attend. Pre-registering is strongly encouraged by e-mailing your contact information to .

  17. A modular steel freeway bridge: design concept and earthquake resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenburg, W H; McCallen, D B; Murray, R C

    1995-04-14

    A modular multilane steel freeway bridge has been constructed from surplus railroad flatcar decks. It can be erected on-site in a few days' time. It has been built and static-load tested for emergency freeway bridge repair. This inexpensive modular bridge may also have broad application around the world for low-cost bridges in areas where funds are limited. On the basis of static-load testing performed by the California Department of Transportation and computer dynamic analysis, this simple modular-design concept has the potential of providing a strong bridge that can withstand the severe aftershocks expected immediately after a major earthquake. PMID:17814794

  18. Excitation of Arch and Suspension Bridges by Subwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Hiwatashi

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A force generation method using a subwire for arch and suspension bridges is proposed. The subwire is connected to the arch or the cable of the bridge through rollers. The uniform force produced by pulling and releasing the pretensioned subwires acts on the bridge as an externalforce. A new device called “the resonance force generator” is also developed to excite the bridges by applying a small force. To verify the proposed concept, a stress ribbon bridge was excited with the resonance force generator.

  19. Excitation of Arch and Suspension Bridges by Subwires

    OpenAIRE

    Noriaki Hiwatashi; Yoji Mizuta; Yutaka Ishihara; Itio Hirai

    1993-01-01

    A force generation method using a subwire for arch and suspension bridges is proposed. The subwire is connected to the arch or the cable of the bridge through rollers. The uniform force produced by pulling and releasing the pretensioned subwires acts on the bridge as an externalforce. A new device called “the resonance force generator” is also developed to excite the bridges by applying a small force. To verify the proposed concept, a stress ribbon bridge was excited with the resonance force ...

  20. Bridging intuitive and analytical thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Leron, Uri; Arcavi, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The observation that the human mind operates in two distinct thinking modes – intuitive and analytical – has occupied psychological and educational researchers for several decades now. Cognitive and social psychologists have done an extensive experimental and theoretical work on the two modes of...... thinking, much of it under the umbrella of the so-called Dual-Process Theory, where the intuitive and analytical modes has been called System 1 and System 2, respectively. (Gilovich et al, 2002; Kahnemann, 2002; Kahneman, 2011, Evans & Frankish, 2009.) Much of the relevant research in psychology and in...... mathematics education has focused on the explanatory power of intuitive thinking as source of errors and misconceptions in human behavior, decision making, reasoning, and problem solving (e.g., Fischbein, 1987, Stavy & Tirosh, 2000; Leron & Hazzan, 2006, 2009), but in this article the emphasis is more on the...

  1. Jointless and Smoother Bridges: Behavior and Design of Piles

    OpenAIRE

    Frosch, Robert J; Chovichien, Voraniti; Durbin, Katrinna; Fedroff, David

    2006-01-01

    Integral abutment bridges have been used in the United States for decades. By eliminating expensive expansion joints, the piles supporting the end bent accommodate the total thermal movement of the bridge. Currently, integral bridges are designed based upon experience, and a rational design specification has not been developed. Furthermore, the interaction of the abutment, pile, and soil remains uncertain. A better understanding regarding the behavior of this system is needed. The objective o...

  2. Bridging Animal and Human Models

    OpenAIRE

    Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M.; Crabbe, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Genetics play an important role in the development and course of alcohol abuse, and understanding genetic contributions to this disorder may lead to improved preventative and therapeutic strategies in the future. Studies both in humans and in animal models are necessary to fully understand the neurobiology of alcoholism from the molecular to the cognitive level. By dissecting the complex facets of alcoholism into discrete, well-defined phenotypes that are measurable in both human populations ...

  3. Bridging experiments, models and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carusi, Annamaria; Burrage, Kevin; Rodríguez, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    study aims at informing strategies for validation by elucidating the complex interrelations among experiments, models, and simulations in cardiac electrophysiology. We describe the processes, data, and knowledge involved in the construction of whole ventricular multiscale models of cardiac...... electrophysiology. Our analysis reveals that models, simulations, and experiments are intertwined, in an assemblage that is a system itself, namely the model-simulation-experiment (MSE) system. We argue that validation is part of the whole MSE system and is contingent upon 1) understanding and coping with sources...

  4. Bridging Corporate and Organizational Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cornelissen, Joep

    2011-01-01

    The theory and practice of corporate communication is usually driven by other disciplinary concerns than the field of organizational communication. However, its particular mind-set focusing on wholeness and consistency in corporate messages increasingly influence the domain of contemporary...... organizational communication as well. We provide a formative and critical review of research on corporate communication as a platform for highlighting crucial intersections with select research traditions in organizational communication to argue for a greater integration between these two areas of research....... Following this review, we relax the assumptions underlying traditional corporate communication research and show how these dimensions interact in organizational and communication analysis, thus, demonstrating the potential for a greater cross-fertilization between the two areas of research. This cross...

  5. Field Tests and Simulation of Lion-Head River Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Min Fang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lion-Head River Bridge is a twin bridge in parallel position. The east-bounded was designed and constructed as a traditional prestress concrete box girder bridge with pot bearings; and the west-bounded was installed with seismic isolation devices of lead rubber bearings. The behavior of the isolated bridge is compared with that of the traditional bridge through several field tests including the ambient vibration test, the force vibration test induced by shakers, the free vibration test induced by a push and fast release system, and the truck test. The bridges suffered from various extents of damage due to the Chi-Chi and the Chi-I earthquakes of great strength during the construction and had been retrofitted. The damage was reflected by the change of the bridges' natural frequencies obtained from the ambient vibration tests. The models of the two bridges are simulated by the finite element method based on the original design drawings. Soil-structure interaction was also scrutinized in this study. The simulation was then modified based on the results from the field tests. Dynamic parameters of bridges are identified and compared with those from theoretical simulation. The efficiency is also verified to be better for an isolated bridge.

  6. Case studies on construction works of short span bridges in Kenya; Kenya kyowakoku ni okeru chusho kyoryo koji no jirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurino, S. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    In the Republic of Kenya, problems are how to build bridges over small rivers, not big rivers, and what bridge types to choose for reduction in cost. Concrete bridges under the direct control of the Government construction office are 15m at the longest, and they are directly founded on the hard basement after a little excavation. In formulating construction plans, it is necessary to take climate into account, such that there is but a small amount of precipitation and that it concentrates in the rainy season. The first stage of bridge building involves the construction of low-cost structures which enable river-crossing except in the rainy season. This first-stage concept is worth deliberation when it is known that there are semiarid regions where river-crossing is prohibited due to high water levels in the rainy season but for approximately two weeks a year. In the second stage, permanent structures are required, serviceable even in the high water level season. In the third stage, it is necessary to construct bridges conforming to the road assuring excellent trafficability. For reduction in the cost of small bridge construction, drift types, culvert types, and temporary bridges like Bailey bridges are important choices. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Bridges analysis, design, structural health monitoring, and rehabilitation

    CERN Document Server

    Bakht, Baidar

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a valuable guide for practicing bridge engineers and graduate students in structural engineering; its main purpose is to present the latest concepts in bridge engineering in fairly easy-to-follow terms. The book provides details of easy-to-use computer programs for: ·      Analysing slab-on-girder bridges for live load distribution. ·      Analysing slab and other solid bridge components for live load distribution. ·      Analysing and designing concrete deck slab overhangs of girder bridges under vehicular loads. ·      Determining the failure loads of concrete deck slabs of girder bridges under concentrated wheel loads. In addition, the book includes extensive chapters dealing with the design of wood bridges and soil-steel bridges. Further, a unique chapter on structural health monitoring (SHM) will help bridge engineers determine the actual load carrying capacities of bridges, as opposed to their perceived analytical capacities. The chapter addressing structures...

  8. Construction and control technology of the main bridge superstructure of Sutong Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong; Luo Chenbin; Zhang Yongtao; You Xinpeng

    2009-01-01

    The Sutong Yangtze River Bridge (short as Sutong Bridge) is now the largest span cable-stayed bridge in the world. The construction of the superstructure of the middle bridge covered several stages including erection of the big block girders for the side span, assistant span and tower area, erection of standard girders and closure of the middle span. The big block girders were hoisted by a floating crane, and the standard girders were hoisted by a double crane system on the deck. The pushing assistant method was adopted for the middle span closure construction. Furthermore, key technologies and innovative methods used in the processes of girder erection and cable assemblage in all stages were expatiated systematically. An all-stage self- adaptive geometry control method was used in the construction process. By accurately controlling the unstressed dimensions and shape of all structural components in each step, and realization that the control system and the controlled system adapt to each other, the goal was to make control of the final line shape and inner force of the bridge structure achievable. Two solutions, including GPS based and total station based dynamic geometry monitoring systems, were used to resolve the measure problem under the wide-range of wind-induced vibrations in the long cantilever state. Finally, research on the wind-induced vibration of the superstructure during the construction period was executed. Buffeting response analysis to the longest single and double cantilever states were carried out. The analysis and evaluation of wind resistance safety of the main girders under the longest single cantilever state was made, and corresponding wind resistance measures were suggested. The as-built geometric error and cable force error were controlled in a required design range, and this whole technological achievement can be a benchmark for construction of other large span cable-stayed bridges in the future.

  9. Markovian Bridges: Weak continuity and pathwise constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Chaumont, Loïc; Uribe Bravo, Gerónimo

    2009-01-01

    A Markovian bridge is a probability measure taken from a disintegration of the law of an initial part of the path of a Markov process given its terminal value. As such, Markovian bridges admit a natural parameterization in terms of the state space of the process. In the context of Feller processes with continuous transition densities, we construct by weak convergence considerations the only versions of Markovian bridges which are weakly continuous with respect to their parameter. We use this ...

  10. Bridging physics and biology teaching through modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Anne-Marie; Couch, Brian A.; Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hinko, Kathleen A.; Caballero, Marcos D.

    2014-05-01

    As the frontiers of biology become increasingly interdisciplinary, the physics education community has engaged in ongoing efforts to make physics classes more relevant to life science majors. These efforts are complicated by the many apparent differences between these fields, including the types of systems that each studies, the behavior of those systems, the kinds of measurements that each makes, and the role of mathematics in each field. Nonetheless, physics and biology are both sciences that rely on observations and measurements to construct models of the natural world. In this article, we propose that efforts to bridge the teaching of these two disciplines must emphasize shared scientific practices, particularly scientific modeling. We define modeling using language common to both disciplines and highlight how an understanding of the modeling process can help reconcile apparent differences between the teaching of physics and biology. We elaborate on how models can be used for explanatory, predictive, and functional purposes and present common models from each discipline demonstrating key modeling principles. By framing interdisciplinary teaching in the context of modeling, we aim to bridge physics and biology teaching and to equip students with modeling competencies applicable in any scientific discipline.

  11. PREVALENCE OF MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING BY CORONARY ANGIOGRAM: ANALYSIS AND SIGNIFICANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhas Ranjan; Debasish; Divia Paul

    2015-01-01

    Out of nine hundred and eighty seven (987) coronary angiogram reports , in the present study we analysed the prevalence and distribution of bridging segments. The co - relation of these tunnelled segments with diseased and non - diseased coronary arteries and cardiac dominance were also assessed. Myocardial bridging was exclusively confined to LAD predominantly in the midsegmentG of nondiseased arteries in right dominant circulation. Although bridging provides...

  12. Myocardial bridges: morphological and functional aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    A.G. Ferreira; Trotter, S E; König, B; Décourt, L V; Fox, K; Olsen, E G

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the arrangement of myocardial bridges. DESIGN--A necropsy study of 90 consecutive hearts (56 male, 34 female). RESULTS--Myocardial bridges, either single or multiple, were seen in 50 (55.6%) of the 90 hearts. The left anterior descending artery was the most commonly affected artery. Thirty five of the 50 hearts which contained in total 41 muscle bridges were dissected further with a magnifying glass. Two different types of muscle bridges could be identified. Thirty one of...

  13. Electron Transfer rate between a electrode and a bridged redox

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, A. V. B.; Mishra, A. K.; Schmickler, W.

    2009-01-01

    We derive an explict bias dependent expression for electron transfer reaction rate from a solvated redox to a electrode through a bridged molecule of arbitrary length. The interaction of the solvated redox with the solvent is modelled as a classical harmonic oscillator bath. The effect of competing process, namely resonance tunneling between redox and bridge and the solvation of the redox is investigated. Plots were produced for the case of 5 atom bridge. Our analysis shows that for certain s...

  14. Civil and environmental engineering faculty members to serve as principal investigators on bridge project

    OpenAIRE

    Daniilidi, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Is there a doctor in the house to check on this bridge? A bridge is like a living organism. It requires frequent health check-ups and maintenance, and its lifespan is 50 years on the average. With limited resources and an aging bridge population, bridge owners need reliable information on bridge health in order to manage their bridge inventory efficiently and economically. Although the tragic bridge collapse in Minneapolis in the summer of 2007 was not attributed to poor maintenance, everyone...

  15. Metallicity and Physical Conditions in the Magellanic Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner, N.; Howk, J. C.; Keenan, Francis; J. V. Smoker

    2008-01-01

    We present a new analysis of the diffuse gas in the Magellanic Bridge (RA>3h) based on HST/STIS E140M and FUSE spectra of 2 early-type stars lying within the Bridge and a QSO behind it. We derive the column densities of HI (from Ly\\alpha), NI, OI, ArI, SiII, SII, and FeII of the gas in the Bridge. Using the atomic species, we determine the first gas-phase metallicity of the Magellanic Bridge, [Z/H]=-1.02+/-0.07 toward one sightline, and -1.7

  16. Structural behavior and design criteria for bridge strengthening by tied arch. Comparison with network arch bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela, Matías A.; Casas Rius, Joan Ramon

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on a new strengthening method of continuous bridges with several spans that present extensive damage in their foundation/piers due to scour and erosion. The method consists on the construction of a new upper steel arch with a network hanger's arrangement over the original deck with the aim to hang the existing deck to the new arch. The deck is acting as a tie in the new structural configuration. This allows to remove the damaged foundations/piers, deriving on an arch bridge...

  17. Measurement evaluation and FEM simulation of bridge dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Andreas; Malm, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse the effects of train induced vibrations in a steel Langer beam bridge. A case study of a bridge over the river Ljungan in Ånge has been made by analysing measurements and comparing the results with a finite element model in ABAQUS. The critical details of the bridge are the hangers that are connected to the arches and the main beams. A stabilising system has been made in order to reduce the vibrations which would lead to increased life length of the bridge...

  18. Bridge? What's a Bridge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsche, George

    1996-01-01

    Considers the metaphor of the "bridge" as it applies to Russian-language courses at the university level. The article examines broader curricular issues of technology, innovation, and outside pressures on language teaching. (22 references) (CK)

  19. Bridging Innovation and Curriculum in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fenzhi; Kolmos, Anette; Du, Xiangyun

    2010-01-01

    As innovation is seen as a key factor in economic competitiveness, graduates who can contribute to and participate in innovation are in great need.. Higher education is confronted with the demands that the curriculum practice and learning environments should facilitate innovation and competences...... for innovation. Problem and project based learning has been seen as a strategy for renewing the teaching practice and the learning environment by integrating the competence demands of the curriculum and of work life during the process of education. However, the integrations of innovation into...... curriculum are minor in the problem and project based learning (PBL) literature. Based on theoretical reflections and practical cases in Aalborg University (Denmark), this article presents the basis of PBL knowledge and curriculum conceptualization, and explores a case experience which bridges innovation and...

  20. Tsunamis: bridging science, engineering and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kânoğlu, U; Titov, V; Bernard, E; Synolakis, C

    2015-10-28

    Tsunamis are high-impact, long-duration disasters that in most cases allow for only minutes of warning before impact. Since the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, there have been significant advancements in warning methodology, pre-disaster preparedness and basic understanding of related phenomena. Yet, the trail of destruction of the 2011 Japan tsunami, broadcast live to a stunned world audience, underscored the difficulties of implementing advances in applied hazard mitigation. We describe state of the art methodologies, standards for warnings and summarize recent advances in basic understanding, and identify cross-disciplinary challenges. The stage is set to bridge science, engineering and society to help build up coastal resilience and reduce losses. PMID:26392618

  1. Bridging Physics and Biology Teaching through Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskinson, Anne-Marie; Zwickl, Benjamin M; Hinko, Kathleen; Caballero, Marcos D

    2013-01-01

    As the frontiers of biology become increasingly interdisciplinary, the physics education community has engaged in ongoing efforts to make physics classes more relevant to life sciences majors. These efforts are complicated by the many apparent differences between these fields, including the types of systems that each studies, the behavior of those systems, the kinds of measurements that each makes, and the role of mathematics in each field. Nonetheless, physics and biology are both fundamental sciences that rely on observations and measurements to construct models of the natural world. In the present theoretical article, we propose that efforts to bridge the teaching of these two disciplines must emphasize shared scientific practices, particularly scientific modeling. We define modeling using language common to both disciplines and highlight how an understanding of the modeling process can help reconcile apparent differences between physics and biology. We elaborate how models can be used for explanatory, pre...

  2. Experimental and Analytical Investigations of Piles and Abutments of Integral Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Arsoy, Sami

    2000-01-01

    Bridges without expansion joints are called "integral bridges." Eliminating joints from bridges crates concerns for the piles and the abutments of integral bridges because the abutments and the piles are subjected to temperature-induced cyclic lateral loads. As temperatures change daily and seasonally, the lengths of integral bridges increase and decrease, pushing the abutment against the approach fill and pulling it away. As a result the bridge superstructure, the abutment, the approach f...

  3. Optimal, Generic Planning of Maintenance and Inspection of Steel Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue damage is an important deterioration mechanism for steel bridges. This paper describes a simplified and generic approach for reliability and risk based inspection planning of fatigue sensitive structural details. Fatigue sensitive details are categorized according to their loading...... welded connections in steel bridges....

  4. Managing concrete bridges: Methods for reducing costs and user inconveniences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents experiences from modern bridge maintenance management, which has been forced to develop new and cost-efficient approaches in order to cope with the increase in overall deterioration of the aging bridge stock, the growing requirements to accessibility and the decreasing budgets...

  5. Vibration characteristics and damage detection in a suspension bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Wasanthi R.; Thambiratnam, David P.; Chan, Tommy H. T.; Nguyen, Theanh

    2016-08-01

    Suspension bridges are flexible and vibration sensitive structures that exhibit complex and multi-modal vibration. Due to this, the usual vibration based methods could face a challenge when used for damage detection in these structures. This paper develops and applies a mode shape component specific damage index (DI) to detect and locate damage in a suspension bridge with pre-tensioned cables. This is important as suspension bridges are large structures and damage in them during their long service lives could easily go un-noticed. The capability of the proposed vibration based DI is demonstrated through its application to detect and locate single and multiple damages with varied locations and severity in the cables of the suspension bridge. The outcome of this research will enhance the safety and performance of these bridges which play an important role in the transport network.

  6. Comparison of Ferry Boat and Highway Bridge Energy Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne D. Cottrell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger ferries serve a variety of transport needs in the U.S., such as providing vital links across bodies of water, and supplementing highway bridges. In some cases in which there is a ferry connection but no bridge, a bridge would be impractical; in other cases, a bridge might be feasible. The paper compares the energy consumption of ferries and motor vehicles on bridges, to determine which link is more fuel efficient. One finding is that limited data are available on ferry boat fuel consumption: despite there being 208 ferry boat operators in the U.S. as of 2008, only eight were providing energy use data to the National Transit Database. Examinations of three of the systems found that the passenger-MPG of the ferries ranged from 2.61 to 14.00 (1.11 to 5.95 km/L, while that of the motor vehicles on adjacent highway bridge connections ranged from 25.34 to 32.45 (10.77 to 13.79 km/L. Data from the eight systems are used to develop a ferry MPG model. The model is used to show that the Ryer Island and Charles Hall Ferries are less fuel efficient than hypothetical bridges in those locations. The fuel efficiencies and consumptions of the ferries would equal those of motor vehicles on the bridges, however, if smaller vessels were used, and if the frequency of service was reduced.

  7. Use of UHPC in Bridge Structures: Material Modeling and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Gunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC is a promising new class of concrete material that is likely to make a significant contribution to addressing the challenges associated with the load capacity, durability, sustainability, economy, and environmental impact of concrete bridge infrastructures. This paper focuses on the material modeling of UHPC and design of bridge girders made of UHPC. A two-phase model used for modeling the behavior of UHPC was briefly discussed, and the model was implemented in a preliminary design case study. Based on the implemented design and the reported use of UHPC in bridge applications, the advantages, limitations, and future prospects of UHPC bridges were discussed, highlighting the need for innovative research and design to make optimum use of the favorable properties of the material in bridge structures.

  8. Solving Topological and Geometrical Constraints in Bridge Feature Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Weibing; SONG Liangliang; PAN Guoshuai

    2008-01-01

    The capacity that computer can solve more complex design problem was gradually increased.Bridge designs need a breakthrough in the current development limitations, and then become more intelli-gent and integrated. This paper proposes a new parametric and feature-based computer aided design (CAD) models which can represent families of bridge objects, includes knowledge representation, three-dimensional geometric topology relationships. The realization of a family member is found by solving first the geometdc constraints, and then the topological constraints. From the geometric solution, constraint equations are constructed. Topology solution is developed by feature dependencies graph between bridge objects. Finally, feature parameters are proposed to drive bridge design with feature parameters. Results from our implementation show that the method can help to facilitate bridge design.

  9. Floating and flying ferrofluid bridges induced by external magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rongchao; Zhou, Yixin; Liu, Jing

    2015-04-01

    A ferrofluid is a mixture that exhibits both magnetism and fluidity. This merit enables the ferrofluid to be used in a wide variety of areas. Here we show that a floating ferrofluid bridge can be induced between two separated boards under a balanced external magnetic field generated by two magnets, while a flying ferrofluid bridge can be induced under an unbalanced external magnetic field generated by only one magnet. The mechanisms of the ferrofluid bridges were discussed and the corresponding mathematical equations were also established to describe the interacting magnetic force between the ferro particles inside the ferrofluid. This work answered a basic question that, except for the well-known floating water bridges that are related to electricity, one can also build up a liquid bridge that is related to magnetism.

  10. Combined Differential and Static Pressure Sensor based on a Double-Bridged Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Casper; Jespersen, S.T.; Krog, J.P.; Christensen, C.; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2005-01-01

    A combined differential and static silicon microelectromechanical system pressure sensor based on a double piezoresistive Wheatstone bridge structure is presented. The developed sensor has a conventional (inner) bridge on a micromachined diaphragm and a secondary (outer) bridge on the chip...

  11. Documenting the Construction of a Plain Concrete Bridge Deck and an Internally Cured Bridge Deck

    OpenAIRE

    Di Bella, Carmelo; Schlitter, John; Carboneau, Neal; Weiss, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Durable and long lasting concrete is important, especially for bridge decks, which are susceptible to premature cracking and corrosion of the reinforcing steel. To increase the durability of the concrete and its service life, many transportation agencies use high-strength concretes. However, high-strength concretes often have problems with early age cracking due to shrinkage. These cracks can then open a path for chloride ions (found in road salts) to reach the reinforcing steel. The results ...

  12. Metallicity and Physical Conditions in the Magellanic Bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Lehner, N; Keenan, F P; Smoker, J V

    2008-01-01

    We present a new analysis of the diffuse gas in the Magellanic Bridge (RA>3h) based on HST/STIS E140M and FUSE spectra of 2 early-type stars lying within the Bridge and a QSO behind it. We derive the column densities of HI (from Ly\\alpha), NI, OI, ArI, SiII, SII, and FeII of the gas in the Bridge. Using the atomic species, we determine the first gas-phase metallicity of the Magellanic Bridge, [Z/H]=-1.02+/-0.07 toward one sightline, and -1.7<[Z/H]<-0.9 toward the other one, a factor 2 or more smaller than the present-day SMC metallicity. Using the metallicity and N(HI), we show that the Bridge gas along our three lines of sight is ~70-90% ionized, despite high HI columns, logN(HI)=19.6-20.1. Possible sources for the ongoing ionization are certainly the hot stars within the Bridge, hot gas (revealed by OVI absorption), and leaking photons from the SMC and LMC. From the analysis of CII*, we deduce that the overall density of the Bridge must be low (<0.03-0.1 cm^-3). We argue that our findings combined ...

  13. Control of switched reluctance motors using asymmetric half bridge and full bridge drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the control of current and torque at different speed of the SRM (Switched Reluctance Motor) from the motor constructional properties, mathematical model equations, operating principle and power converter topology. The SRM has gained popularity in industry with the fact that it is simple to construct. The other advantages are its rugged construction, low maintenance cost and ability to operate over a wide speed range at constant power. The merits of SRMs are outshined by its innate torque ripple issue, acoustic noise and above all the requirement of expensive control. This paper also discusses the operation and simulation of SRM along with power drive model. In this paper motor mathematical model is simulated with two conventional power converter topologies, asymmetric half bridge converter-and symmetric full bridge converter. Torque and current relationship is observed to find out which drive is suitable for smooth torque operation and have better current control at different speeds. The apparent cost difference is also discussed and it is found that full bridge drive is more suitable for general purpose solution in industry with bearable increase in cost. (author)

  14. Molecular Biogeochemistry: Bridging Impressionism and Surrealism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A.

    2009-12-01

    The history of environmental change is preserved over long time-scales in the structures and stable isotopic composition of biomarker lipids. To date, the connections between species diversity, biosynthetic diversity, and total lipid diversity remain poorly understood; yet understanding these relationships is a necessary prerequisite to accurate interpretation of paleoclimatic and paleoecological signals. Methods drawn from molecular microbiology provide one avenue to bridge this knowledge gap. A model system for studying such relationships is the distribution of microbial terpenoid lipids known as hopanoids. The primary enzyme for synthesis of hopanoids is squalene-hopene cyclase (SHC), and the phylogenetic relationships between most known SHCs and their corresponding species are congruent. The environmental diversity of hopanoid lipid structures, however, includes biosynthetic steps which may depend both on environmental growth conditions and on rates of biotic and abiotic degradation. Statistical methods for relating compound distributions to phylogenetic diversity are needed to provide insight into the dominant controlling factor(s). They may reveal whether sedimentary lipid profiles primarily reflect environmental conditions or microbial community composition. Together the molecular and geochemical data can help to paint the big picture.

  15. Model bridging chimera state and explosive synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiyun; Bi, Hongjie; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Jinming; Liu, Zonghua

    2016-07-01

    Global synchronization and partial synchronization are the two distinctive forms of synchronization in coupled oscillators and have been well studied in recent decades. Recent attention on synchronization is focused on the chimera state (CS) and explosive synchronization (ES), but little attention has been paid to their relationship. Here we study this topic by presenting a model to bridge these two phenomena, which consists of two groups of coupled oscillators, and its coupling strength is adaptively controlled by a local order parameter. We find that this model displays either CS or ES in two limits. In between the two limits, this model exhibits both CS and ES, where CS can be observed for a fixed coupling strength and ES appears when the coupling is increased adiabatically. Moreover, we show both theoretically and numerically that there are a variety of CS basin patterns for the case of identical oscillators, depending on the distributions of both the initial order parameters and the initial average phases. This model suggests a way to easily observe CS, in contrast to other models having some (weak or strong) dependence on initial conditions.

  16. PREVALENCE OF MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING BY CORONARY ANGIOGRAM: ANALYSIS AND SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhas Ranjan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Out of nine hundred and eighty seven (987 coronary angiogram reports , in the present study we analysed the prevalence and distribution of bridging segments. The co - relation of these tunnelled segments with diseased and non - diseased coronary arteries and cardiac dominance were also assessed. Myocardial bridging was exclusively confined to LAD predominantly in the midsegmentG of nondiseased arteries in right dominant circulation. Although bridging provides an atheroprotective milieu , it even h arboured atherosclerosis proximal to it. Significantly altering coronary macro and micromechanics it plays a significant role behind genesis of coronary ischemia and its management.

  17. Bridging the divide between science and journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eperen, Laura; Marincola, Francesco M; Strohm, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media.Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings. PMID:20219123

  18. Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media. Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings.

  19. Technology and organization in bridge construction by using movable scaffolding system

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The thesis presents construction of a bridge presented on a case study of the Šumljak bridge. The bridge is located on the motorway section Razdrto-Vipava characterized by an extremely complexe morphology and geology, which makes the bridge location one of the most demanding parts to be bridged within the Slovenian National Highway Construction Programme. The "S" shaped bridge axis dictates the use of the field by field construction method on mechanized movable scaffolding. This technology en...

  20. Definition and segmentation of BioMedBridges stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Brooksbank, Cath; Alfarez, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The success of BioMedBridges will depend on outreach and inreach to diverse groups of stakeholders. This deliverable report describes the use of a survey to define the broad stakeholder groups with whom BioMedBridges needs to engage, and to collect information on how the individual ESFRI-BMS RIs currently engage with these groups. We wanted to know who these stakeholders are, how the RIs are currently engaging with them, and what aspects of BioMedBridges the respondents felt we should be cons...

  1. Myocardial bridges: their clinical implications and prognostic signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 980 consecutive selective coronary angiograms performed, nine patients had myocardial bridges of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. The overall prevalence of myocardial bridge was 0.92%. Among these patients, three patients had coronary artery disease, while six cases were isolated myocardial muscle bridges. With respect to functional abnormality, three had grade III milking effect, three had grade II and three had grade I milking effect. The indications for coronary angiograms were typical chest pain in seven cases and a typical chest pain in two cases. Their clinical and laboratory investigations are presented with literature review. (author)

  2. Thermal Bridges in Building Construction - Measurements and Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    The thesis investigates detailed calculation methods for evaluating heat loss through building envelope constructions, or more specific, thermal bridges. First a detailed description of the calculation methods, i.e. both calculation programs and guidelines, for calculating typical thermal bridges...... detailed calculations in more operational and applicable projecting tools, e.g. thermal bridge catalogues or U-value tables....... in building envelope constructions is given. After this a validation of both programs and guidelines is presented. The validation is performed by comparing calculated U-values with Guarded Hot Box measurements. The last part of the thesis discusses the possibilities of utilising the results of...

  3. Light Bridge in a Developing Active Region. II. Numerical Simulation of Flux Emergence and Light Bridge Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Toriumi, Shin; Katsukawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Light bridges, the bright structure dividing umbrae in sunspot regions, show various activity events. In Paper I, we reported on analysis of multi-wavelength observations of a light bridge in a developing active region (AR) and concluded that the activity events are caused by magnetic reconnection driven by magnetconvective evolution. The aim of this second paper is to investigate the detailed magnetic and velocity structures and the formation mechanism of light bridges. For this purpose, we analyze numerical simulation data from a radiative magnetohydrodynamics model of an emerging AR. We find that a weakly-magnetized plasma upflow in the near-surface layers of the convection zone is entrained between the emerging magnetic bundles that appear as pores at the solar surface. This convective upflow continuously transports horizontal fields to the surface layer and creates a light bridge structure. Due to the magnetic shear between the horizontal fields of the bridge and the vertical fields of the ambient pores,...

  4. Practice of One Health approaches: Bridges and barriers in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kim A. Kayunze; Angwara Kiwara; Eligius Lyamuya; Dominic M. Kambarage; Jonathan Rushton; Richard Coker; Richard Kock

    2014-01-01

    The practice of one health approaches in human and animal health programmes is influenced by type and scope of bridges and barriers for partnerships. It was thus essential to evaluate the nature and scope of collaborative arrangements among human, animal, and wildlife health experts in dealing with health challenges which demand inter-sectoral partnership. The nature of collaborative arrangement was assessed, and the respective bridges and barriers over a period of 12 months (July 20011 to Ju...

  5. Scale bridging in molecular simulation. Recurrent problems and current options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Carsten; Delle Site, Luigi

    2015-09-01

    Multiscale and multiphysics approaches have become an integral part of the molecular modeling and simulation toolbox and are used to attack various real-world problems that would be out of reach without these techniques. This special topics issue is devoted to a critical appraisal of some of the most popular scale bridging techniques for molecular simulation. It features regular articles and a "Discussion and Debate" section, in which experts in the field discuss specific articles and general aspects of scale bridging techniques.

  6. Suspension Bridges: A Merger of Physics, Engineering, and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the physical principles underlying the design of a small scale suspension bridge, including its types and strength calculations. Included are the working equation and two formulas for determining the load per unit length. (CC)

  7. Bridging the Gap between Instructional Design and Double Loop Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, Howard; Rusman, Ellen; Van Bruggen, Jan; Koper, Rob; Matera, Maristella

    2008-01-01

    Spoelstra, H., Rusman, E., Van Bruggen, J., Koper, R., & Matera, M. (2008). Bridging the Gap Between Instructional Design and Double-Loop Learning. International Journal of Web-Based Learning and Teaching Technologies, 3(1), 79-89.

  8. The Learning Research Cycle: Bridging Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuessy, Carol L.; Metty, Jane S.

    2007-10-01

    A science teacher and her mentor reflect on their participation in the Learning Research Cycle, a professional learning model that bridges research and practice in both university and public school contexts. Teachers do scientific research in scientists’ laboratories, then bridge their scientific experiences with the design of new classroom learning environments and teacher-driven educational research projects. Science students do scientific research via their teachers’ lessons that bridge laboratory research with classroom learning. Scientists and educational researchers bridge their research interests to create new questions centered on teaching and learning in authentic science learning environments. The authors engaged in this qualitative inquiry present their perspectives on “what goes on,” “what we have learned,” and “what it means to the larger community.”

  9. Dynamics and stability of a vertical water bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Namin, Reza Montazeri

    2013-01-01

    A vertical connection of water is formed when a high voltage electrode is dipped in and pulled out of a container of deionized water. We considered the formation, stability and dynamical characteristics of this vertical water bridge. For the first time in this field, we observed instabilities in the bridge that led to an oscillatory behaviour which is categorized in three dynamical regimes and supplied explanations on the physics behind these varied motions. We report the formation of macroscopic droplets during this motion, which their dynamics revealed that they are electrically charged. In some cases the droplets would be levitating when the electric force opposes the gravity. Also the steady bridge is thoroughly studied regarding its geometry and a set of quantitative data is presented using dimensionless numbers, which brings the possibility of direct quantitative comparison between theory and experiments. Our results shed light on the physics behind this phenomenon and the horizontal water bridge, which...

  10. Live-Load Testing and Finite-Element Analysis of a Steel Cantilever Deck Arched Pratt Truss Bridge for the Long-Term Bridge Performance Program

    OpenAIRE

    Laurendeau, Matthew P.

    2011-01-01

    The Long Term Bridge Performance (LTBP) program is an organization within the Federal Highway Administration that inspects, tests, analyzes, and observes, for an extended period of time, a variety of bridge types throughout the United States. Part of the program includes periodic testing of select bridges of a span of 20 years. The Kettle River Bridge located outside of Sandstone, Minnesota was selected for study due to its unique design. The Kettle River Bridge is a historical steel can...

  11. Segmental Bridges under Combined Torsion, Bending and Shear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄真; 刘西拉

    2003-01-01

    Segmental bridges with unbonded prestressed tendons have some advantages, such as the weather independence and the corrosion protection of prestressing tendons. This paper analyzed the behavior of a prestressed segmental bridge with unbonded tendons under combined loading of torsion, bending and shear. According to the experiment research, a modified skew bending model was developed to calculate the bearing capacity of segmental bridges subjected to combined bending, shear and torsion. The finite element method was used to investigate the deflection behaviors of such structure, also to check the theoretical model. The theoretical and FEM research resuits were compared favorably with the test results from Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany. Finally, suggestion for the design and construction of segmental bridges with external prestressing was made.

  12. The Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapse on Film and Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Don; Hook, Joseph; Doescher, Russell; Wolf, Steven

    2015-11-01

    This month marks the 75th anniversary of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapse. During a gale on Nov. 7, 1940, the bridge exhibited remarkable oscillations before collapsing spectacularly (Figs. 1-5). Physicists over the years have spent a great deal of time and energy studying this event. By using open-source analysis tools and digitized footage of the disaster, physics students in both high school and college can continue in this tradition. Students can watch footage of "Galloping Gertie," ask scientific questions about the bridge's collapse, analyze data, and draw conclusions from that analysis. Students should be encouraged to pursue their own investigations, but the question that drove our inquiry was this: "When physics classes watch modern video showing the oscillations and the free fall of the bridge fragments, are these scenes sped up, slowed down, or at the correct speed compared to what was observed by the eyewitnesses on Nov. 7, 1940?"

  13. Re(I) bridged porphyrin dyads, triads and tetrads

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Yedukondalu; M Ravikanth

    2011-03-01

    Porphyrin rings containing two meso-pyridyl groups either in cis or trans fashion can be used to construct Re(I) bridged multiporphyrin assemblies. The cis-dipyridyl porphyrins with various porphyrin cores such as N4, N3O, N3S, N2S2 have been used to react with Re(CO)5Cl in THF at refluxing temperature and constructed planar Re(I) bridged porphyrin dyads containing either one type of porphyrin subunit or two types of porphyrin subunits. The trans-dipyridyl porphyrins have been used to construct Re(I) bridged porphyrin squares. The porphyrin dyads have been explored for singlet-singlet energy transfer studies and porphyrin squares have been used for catalysis, chemical sensing, molecular sieving and photocurrent production studies. An overview of synthesis of Re(I) bridged porphyrin dyads, triads and tetrads and their interesting photophysical properties are highlighted in this paper.

  14. Service Life and Maintenance Modelling of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Recent research in the area of assessment and maintenance of reinforced concrete bridge decks is presented in this paper. Three definitions of service lifetime are introduced and the difficult problem of assessing the service life is discussed. A stochastic modelling of corrosion and corrosion cr...... cracking is introduced and the site dependency of corrosion is stressed. Finally, a recently developed optimal repair strategy for bridges is briefly explained....

  15. Fabrication and Visualization of Capillary Bridges in Slit Pore Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Broesch, David J.; Frechette, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    A procedure for creating and imaging capillary bridges in slit-pore geometry is presented. High aspect ratio hydrophobic pillars are fabricated and functionalized to render their top surfaces hydrophilic. The combination of a physical feature (the pillar) with a chemical boundary (the hydrophilic film on the top of the pillar) provides both a physical and chemical heterogeneity that pins the triple contact line, a necessary feature to create stable long but narrow capillary bridges. The subst...

  16. Bridging history and social psychology: what, how and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glăveanu, Vlad; Yamamoto, Koji

    2012-12-01

    This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other's work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social psychologists can benefit from engaging with historical sources by being able to contextualise their findings and enrich their theoretical models. It is not only that all social and psychological phenomena have a history but this history is very much part of present-day and future developments. On the other hand historians can enhance their analysis of historical sources by drawing upon the conceptual tools developed in social psychology. They can "test" these tools and contribute to their validation and enrichment from completely different perspectives. Most important, as contributions to this special issue amply demonstrate, psychology's "historical turn" has the potential to shed a new light on striking, yet underexplored, similarities between contemporary public spheres and their pre-modern counterparts. This issue thereby calls into question the dichotomy between traditional and de-traditionalized societies-a distinction that lies at the heart of many social psychology accounts of the world we live in. The present editorial will introduce and consider this act of bridging history and social psychology by focusing on three main questions: What is the bridge made of? How can the two disciplines be bridged? and Why we cross this interdisciplinary bridge? In the end a reflection on the future of this collaboration will be offered. PMID:22936390

  17. LINKING EAST AND WEST BANGLADESH: THE JAMUNA BRIDGE PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; GANGADHAR SHUKLA

    1997-01-01

    The Jamuna Bridge project is a case that illustrates an integrated approach to project appraisal. An integrated approach allows analysts to examine financial, economic, distributive, and risk analysis in conjunction with each other such that no single aspect is left to be examined in isolation. The economic analysis, which looks at the project’s impact on Bangladesh’s overall economy, presents a method of computing the real benefits of the bridge, including savings gained by passenger and fre...

  18. The calculation of noise from railway bridges and viaducts

    OpenAIRE

    Bewes, Oliver Guy

    2005-01-01

    Pandrol Rail Fastenings Limited are a designer and manufacturer of railway rail-fastening systems. As an organisation they have the capability to reduce the noise impact of bridges using resilient track components. They also have a commercial interest in providing such technology. Knowledge of the processes behind bridge noise is important to Pandrol in two ways; to aid the engineers within the organisation in the design of fastening systems and to demonstrate a state-of-the-ar...

  19. The Research of Application of the Looped Prestressed Tendons with Large Tonnage and Small Radius in the Anchorage Zone of Cable-stayed Bridge Tower%大吨位小半径环向预应力在斜拉桥索塔锚固区中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建阳; 徐国平; 刘丽; 朱正群

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays the large tonnage and small radius annular prestress system are applied in the anchorage region of large span cable-stayed bridge construction in our country. The application of this system has been a breakthrough of the Design Specification of Highway Bridge and Culvert. In this article, the application of this system applied in the anchorage region of cable-stayed bridge tower has been probed in close connection with the full-scale model test of the anchorage zone of the Wuhan Junshan Changjiang River Bridge.%目前我国大跨径斜拉桥索塔锚固区开始采用大吨位小半径环向预应力体系,该体系突破了现行《公路桥涵设计规范》的规定。结合武汉军山长江公路大桥索塔锚固区足尺模型试验及张拉工艺模型试验对该预应力体系在斜拉桥索塔锚固区中的应用作了深入的探讨。

  20. Myocardial Bridging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2016-02-01

    Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results. PMID:27074276

  1. Myocardial Bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

  2. Fabrication and visualization of capillary bridges in slit pore geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broesch, David J; Frechette, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    A procedure for creating and imaging capillary bridges in slit-pore geometry is presented. High aspect ratio hydrophobic pillars are fabricated and functionalized to render their top surfaces hydrophilic. The combination of a physical feature (the pillar) with a chemical boundary (the hydrophilic film on the top of the pillar) provides both a physical and chemical heterogeneity that pins the triple contact line, a necessary feature to create stable long but narrow capillary bridges. The substrates with the pillars are attached to glass slides and secured into custom holders. The holders are then mounted onto four axis microstages and positioned such that the pillars are parallel and facing each other. The capillary bridges are formed by introducing a fluid in the gap between the two substrates once the separation between the facing pillars has been reduced to a few hundred micrometers. The custom microstage is then employed to vary the height of the capillary bridge. A CCD camera is positioned to image either the length or the width of the capillary bridge to characterize the morphology of the fluid interface. Pillars with widths down to 250 µm and lengths up to 70 mm were fabricated with this method, leading to capillary bridges with aspect ratios (length/width) of over 100(1). PMID:24457446

  3. Fatigue and dynamics of secondary beams in steel railway bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Kanter, Peeter

    2014-01-01

    Many steel railway bridges in Europe are older than 50 years whilethey are subjected to higher loads than they were originally designedfor. As many of these bridges are approaching the end of their designlife it is crucial to carry out accurate fatigue assessments in order toensure their safety and keep them in service. Usually the influence ofdynamics on fatigue damage is taken into account using dynamicamplification factors from design codes whereas the actual influenceof dynamics has not b...

  4. Comparison of Internal and External Prestressing for Typical Highway Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    BURDET, Olivier; Badoux, Marc

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents an analytical comparison of the amount of prestressing required for two similar bridges, one with internal and the other with external prestressing. This comparison shows that bridges with external prestressing can become economically competitive for large girder depths. The detrimental effect of the smaller stress in the prestressing steel at the ultimate limit state is more than compensated by the thinner webs made possible by the absence of the ducts.

  5. Light Bridge in a Developing Active Region. I. Observation of Light Bridge and its Dynamic Activity Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Toriumi, Shin; Cheung, Mark C M

    2015-01-01

    Light bridges, the bright structures that divide the umbra of sunspots and pores into smaller pieces, are known to produce wide variety of activity events in solar active regions (ARs). It is also known that the light bridges appear in the assembling process of nascent sunspots. The ultimate goal of this series of papers is to reveal the nature of light bridges in developing ARs and the occurrence of activity events associated with the light bridge structures from both observational and numerical approaches. In this first paper, exploiting the observational data obtained by Hinode, IRIS, and Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), we investigate the detailed structure of the light bridge in NOAA AR 11974 and its dynamic activity phenomena. As a result, we find that the light bridge has a weak, horizontal magnetic field, which is transported from the interior by large-scale convective upflow and is surrounded by strong, vertical fields of adjacent pores. In the chromosphere above the bridge, a transient brightening ...

  6. Bridge Design on Dabaodang-Zhangqiao Section of the Baotou-Xi'an Railway%包西铁路通道大保当至张桥段桥梁设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐英

    2013-01-01

    包西铁路通道大保当至张桥段桥梁长度近101 km,桥址地形地貌复杂,主要存在沙漠地区、煤窑采空区、盐渍土地区及湿陷性黄土地区等不良地质;结合客货共线铁路设计特点,简要介绍桥涵工程概况、桥梁类型的选择、桥梁设计原则、不良地质对桥梁设计的影响;对新结构桥梁设计和重点桥梁也作了简述.%The total length of the bridges on Dabaodang-Zhangqiao section of the Baotou-Xi'an Railway is nearly 101 kilometers,and geological condition at these bridge sites is so complex that it contains lots of desert area,coal mined-out area,saline soil area,collapsible loess area and other unfavorable geologies.Combined with the characteristics of mixed passenger and freight railway,this article introduces project overview of the bridges and culverts,bridge type selection,bridge design principle and the effect of unfavorable geological condition on bridge design.In regard to the designs of new bridge structure and key bridge,the article also gives introduction briefly.

  7. On the distance dependence of electron transfer through molecular bridges and wires

    CERN Document Server

    Skourtis, S; Skourtis, Spiros; Nitzan, Abraham

    2002-01-01

    The dependence of electron transfer rates and yields in bridged molecular systems on the bridge length, and the dependence of the zero-bias conduction of molecular wires on wire length are discussed. Both phenomena are controlled by tunneling across the molecular bridge and are consequently expected to show exponential decrease with bridge length that is indeed often observed. Deviations from this exponential dependence for long bridges, in particular a crossover to a very weak dependence on bridge length were recently observed experimentally and discussed theoretically in terms of thermal relaxation and dephasing on the bridge. Here we discuss two other factors that potentially affect the bridge length dependence of these phenomena. First, in experiments initiated by an initial preparation of a non-stationary "donor" state the initial energy is not well defined. A small contribution from initially populated eigenstates that are of mostly bridge-level character may dominate transmission for long bridges, resu...

  8. On the distance dependence of electron transfer through molecular bridges and wires

    OpenAIRE

    Skourtis, Spiros; Nitzan, Abraham

    2002-01-01

    The dependence of electron transfer rates and yields in bridged molecular systems on the bridge length, and the dependence of the zero-bias conduction of molecular wires on wire length are discussed. Both phenomena are controlled by tunneling across the molecular bridge and are consequently expected to show exponential decrease with bridge length that is indeed often observed. Deviations from this exponential dependence for long bridges, in particular a crossover to a very weak dependence on ...

  9. Performance assessment of resistance bridges and multimeters used at CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic balancing ac resistance bridges, ASL F18 and F700, and HP 3458A millimetres are the measurement instruments used by Center for Measurement Standards (CMS) for the calibration of standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs), industrial platinum resistance thermometers (IPRTs), and liquid-in-glass thermometers (LIG) respectively. The inherent non-linearity of these measurement instruments could be a significant source of uncertainty and the absolute accuracy is especially critical to the primary instrument. A resistance bridge calibrator RBC 100, manufactured by 2K electronics, is a resistor network for the purpose of assessing their linearity and absolute accuracies of the foregoing thermometry bridges and meters. Each thirty-five normal measurements gives the linearity with 4.781 x 10-8, 4.982 x 10-7, and 6.371 x 10-5 Ω for F18, F700, and HP 3458A, however this deteriorates to 2.661 x 10-7 and 3.227 x 10-6 for two bridges while considering both normal and complementary data. Additionally, the possible contributions from the F18 bridge to the uncertainty of SPRT measurement at ITS-90 fixed points were investigated also

  10. Freestanding 3D supramolecular particle bridges: fabrication and mechanical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xing Yi; Phang, In Yee; Schönherr, Holger; Reinhoudt, David N; Vancso, G Julius; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2009-06-01

    Freestanding particle bridges with controlled composition and macroscopic robustness are demonstrated by the use of supramolecular nanoparticle assembly. Self-assembly of nanoparticles, templating, and supramolecular glue infiltration are combined to form stable and ordered three-dimensional polystyrene particle composites on a polydimethylsiloxane stamp. Freestanding hybrid polystyrene nanoparticle bridges are obtained by transfer printing of the hybrid structures onto topographically patterned substrates via host-guest interactions. The mechanical robustness and rigidity of the particle bridges can be controlled by manipulating the layer-by-layer cycles of supramolecular glues of gold nanoparticles and dendrimers. Atomic force microscopy-based microbending results, in particular the location and force-dependent deflection behavior, confirm that the particle bridge fulfills the classical supported-beam characteristics. As estimated from classical beam theory, the bending moduli of the particle bridges vary between 0.8 and 1.1 GPa, depending on the degree of filling by the supramolecular glues. Failure analysis on the particle structure indicates linear elastic behavior and a plastic deformation upon failure. PMID:19373830

  11. Comparative Study of Layout Schemes for Suohe River Culvert Aqueduct%索河涵洞式渡槽槽身方案比选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美斋; 杨顺群; 宋海印; 刘许超

    2011-01-01

    针对南水北调中线工程交叉渠系建筑物索河渡槽,充分考虑渡槽跨度大、流量大、结构复杂等特点,对比各种形式后提出矩形截面渡槽作为研究重点,并针对矩形截面,对比了双槽分缝外槽壁不加肋与双槽不分缝单隔墙两种槽身布置方案,采用大型通用计算程序ANSYS平台,开展两种方案槽身结构的三维空间有限元计算分析研究,结果表明双槽不分缝单隔墙方案具有工程量省、整体性好、整体应力变形水平较双槽分缝外槽壁不加肋方案小、拉应力满足设计要求的优点,但也具有底板端部不均匀沉降大的缺点.综合各结果,双槽不分缝单隔墙可作为南水北调中线工程索河渡槽的设计方案.%The aqueduct with rectangular cross-section was put forward as the research emphasis after comparing various forms and considering some characteristics such as the large aqueduct span, large flow and complicated structure according to SuoHe culvert aqueduct of South-to-north Water Diversion Project The scheme of dual culverts with joint without ribs and the one of dual culverts with a single wall without joint were contrasted,and the latter was chosen according to three-dimensional finite element analyses by ANSYS procedure. This scheme could save quantity and its integral performance is excellent And its integral stress and deformation level is better than the other scheme and its tensile stress meets the design requirements,but the uneven sedimentation is lager at the end of the baseplate. All in all, the scheme of dual culverts with a single wall without joint was chosen as the design scheme.

  12. Wind Resistant Design of Bridges in Japan Developments and Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Fujino, Yozo; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    For long-span bridges, wind action is a dominant factor in their safety and serviceability. A large number of long-span bridges have been built in Japan over the past 30 years, and tremendous amounts of research and technical development have been accomplished in wind resistant design. This book is a compilation of the results of active research and development. Wind resistant design standards generated in Japan are described in the first few chapters. Then comes information such as design wind speed, structural damping, wind tunnel tests, and analyses, which provide the basis of the design standards. Wind-induced vibrations and their control of girders, towers, cables, and other features are explained with examples of field measurements. Comprehensive listings of Japanese experience in vibration control are also presented. Because achieving particularly dynamic safety against wind is still not an easy task, these data and information will be valuable assets for the wind-engineering and bridge-engineering com...

  13. Risk based bridge data collection and asset management and the role of structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenzetter, Piotr; Bush, Simon; Henning, Theunis; McCarten, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Bridges are critical to the operation and functionality of the whole road networks. It is therefore essential that specific data is collected regarding bridge asset condition and performance, as this allows proactive management of the assets and associated risks and more accurate short and long term financial planning. This paper proposes and discusses a strategy for collection of data on bridge condition and performance. Recognizing that risk management is the primary driver of asset management, the proposed strategy prioritizes bridges for levels of data collection including core, intermediate and advanced. Individual bridges are seen as parts of wider networks and bridge risk and criticality assessment emphasizes bridge failure or underperformance risk in the network context. The paper demonstrates how more reliable and detailed data can assist in managing network and bridge risks and provides a rationale for application of higher data collection levels for bridges characterized by higher risk and criticality. As the bridge risk and/or criticality increases planned and proactive integration of structural health monitoring (SHM) data into asset management is outlined. An example of bridge prioritization for data collection using several bridges taken from a national highway network is provided using an existing risk and criticality scoring methodology. The paper concludes with a discussion on the role of SHM in data collection for bridge asset management and where SHM can make the largest impacts.

  14. Creep and shrinkage effects on integral abutment bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuswamy, Sivakumar

    Integral abutment bridges provide bridge engineers an economical design alternative to traditional bridges with expansion joints owing to the benefits, arising from elimination of expensive joints installation and reduced maintenance cost. The superstructure for integral abutment bridges is cast integrally with abutments. Time-dependent effects of creep, shrinkage of concrete, relaxation of prestressing steel, temperature gradient, restraints provided by abutment foundation and backfill and statical indeterminacy of the structure introduce time-dependent variations in the redundant forces. An analytical model and numerical procedure to predict instantaneous linear behavior and non-linear time dependent long-term behavior of continuous composite superstructure are developed in which the redundant forces in the integral abutment bridges are derived considering the time-dependent effects. The redistributions of moments due to time-dependent effects have been considered in the analysis. The analysis includes nonlinearity due to cracking of the concrete, as well as the time-dependent deformations. American Concrete Institute (ACI) and American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) models for creep and shrinkage are considered in modeling the time dependent material behavior. The variations in the material property of the cross-section corresponding to the constituent materials are incorporated and age-adjusted effective modulus method with relaxation procedure is followed to include the creep behavior of concrete. The partial restraint provided by the abutment-pile-soil system is modeled using discrete spring stiffness as translational and rotational degrees of freedom. Numerical simulation of the behavior is carried out on continuous composite integral abutment bridges and the deformations and stresses due to time-dependent effects due to typical sustained loads are computed. The results from the analytical model are compared with the

  15. Proton production, neutralisation and reduction in a floating water bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammer, Martina; Wexler, Adam D.; Kuntke, Philipp; Wiltsche, Helmar; Stanulewicz, Natalia; Lankmayr, Ernst; Woisetschläger, Jakob; Fuchs, Elmar C.

    2015-10-01

    This work reports on proton production, transport, reduction and neutralization in floating aqueous bridges under the application of a high dc voltage (‘floating water bridge’). Recently possible mechanisms for proton transfer through the bridge were suggested. In this work we visualize and describe the production of protons in the anolyte and their neutralization in the catholyte. Apart from that, protons are reduced to hydrogen due to electrolysis. Microbubbles are detached instantly, due to the electrohydrodynamic flow at the electrode surface. No larger, visible bubbles are formed and the system degasses through the bridge due to its higher local temperature. A detailed analysis of trace elements originating from beaker material, anode or the atmosphere is presented, showing that their influence on the overall conduction compared to the contribution of protons is negligible. Finally, an electrochemical rationale of high voltage electrolysis of low ionic strength solutions is presented.

  16. Bridging UX and web development better results through team integration

    CERN Document Server

    Moffett, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The divide between UX and Web development can be stifling. Bridging UX and Web Development prepares you to break down those walls by teaching you how to integrate with your team's developers. You examine the process from their perspective, discovering tools and coding principles that will help you bridge the gap between design and implementation. With these tried and true approaches, you'll be able to capitalize on a more productive work environment. Whether you're a novice UX professional finding your place in the software industry and looking to nail down your technical skills, or a seasone

  17. Lasers as a Bridge between Atomic and Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Matinyan, Sergei G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of optical and UV laser radiation to several topics in low-energy nuclear physics. We consider the laser-induced nuclear anti-Stokes transitions, the laser-assisted and the laser-induced internal conversion, and the Electron Bridge and Inverse Electron Bridge mechanisms as tools for deexciting and exciting of low-lying nuclear isomeric states. A study of the anomalous, by low-lying, nuclear isomeric states (on an example of the $^{229}$Th nucleus) is present...

  18. Bridging the gap between prep classes and freshman year

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Adam John

    2014-01-01

    One of the great strengths of the upper intermediate program at Sabancı University School of Languages is the extent to which it acts as a bridge between the preparatory English year and the kinds of lectures the students will be attending and the language they’ll be encountering when they progress to their freshman studies. A major part of this bridge is the series of lectures in mathematics and natural sciences (EMS) which the students attend for one hour a week and which form a percentage ...

  19. RECONSTRUCTION AND REINFORCEMENT OF BRIDGE ACROSS THE RIVER. SYLVA IN KUNGUR, RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ye. Heizn

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sylva Bridge at Kungur city is one of the oldest road bridges in Perm region, the West Urals, Russia. Its erection was begun in 1912 and was interrupted with the First World War and the further events in Russia. The bridge was opened only in 1931. For 75 years of bridge operation the most part of bridge constructions has been acquired plural damages, both mechanical and corrosion. After the bridge inspection in 2003 and according to the calculations of its capacity, the decision on reconstruction of the bridge was accepted. The purpose of rehabilitation was to replace the timber deck by steel orthotropic deck with asphalt pavement. A new deck was to be engaged in combined action with the existing metal structures with the help of socles with high-strength bolts. Due to this, the bridge carrying capacity was increased as required by the present standards. In 2006, after tests, the bridge was opened for traffic.

  20. Bridging between the Contemporary and the Vernacular architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Khidir, Omeima M.O.

    1998-01-01

    Tuti is an Island at the confluence of the Blue and the White Niles in Khartoum city, the capital of Sudan. The intention of this thesis is to design a bridge on the blue Nile which links the Contemporary world of Khartoum, the urban conurbation, to the Vernacular world of Tuti Island, the rural settlement. In addition, the project aims to provide a space that welcomes the bridge and to be a meeting plaza for both worlds. It is also intended to provide the Island with landmarks to be us...

  1. Effect of bridge on energy transfer and photoinduced charge separation in perylene-diimide-naphthalene-bisimide-hexathiophene based donor-bridge-acceptor triads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilley T.D.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy is performed to assess bridge effects on energy transfer and charge separation in molecular junctions. A short, conjugated bridge can facilitate charge separation from both donor and acceptor, whereas in longer bridges charge separation only occurs from the excited donor.

  2. Theory Development: A Bridge between Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Stephen; Devlin, James

    2010-01-01

    Theory development is an intentional process by which marriage and family counselors may bridge the gap between research and practice. The theory building process includes inductive and deductive forms of reasoning, qualitative and quantitative approaches to knowledge development, and diffusion of innovations. Grounded theory provides an…

  3. Bridging Science and Practice to Improve Patient Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdin, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    Replies to the comments by Tyron, Silverstein and Auerbach, and Raps on the author's original article. I was very pleased to read these comments about the priority of bridging research and clinical practice and to have the benefit of further perspectives on how this goal might be achieved. The article to which these comments were addressed…

  4. International Higher Education's Scholar-Practitioners: Bridging Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitwieser, Bernhard, Ed.; Ogden, Anthony, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of the professional who bridges both research and practice has been largely overlooked and at times even disregarded by the academic and administrative structures that govern activity in higher education today. In international higher education, the number of students who now engage in mobility and exchange has expanded globally, along…

  5. Building Bridges between Neuroscience, Cognition and Education with Predictive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Steve; Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    As the field of Mind, Brain, and Education seeks new ways to credibly bridge the gap between neuroscience, the cognitive sciences, and education, various connections are being developed and tested. This article presents a framework and offers examples of one approach, predictive modeling within a virtual educational system that can include…

  6. [Extension bridges. A bibliographic evaluation and the clinical indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irato, A; Garrone, P; Catapano, S; Carossa, S

    1990-11-01

    Extension bridges are a valid alternative to partial and implanted prostheses for the rehabilitation of small intercalary or distal lacunae. Following a critical review of published reports on the subject and the assessment of longitudinal studies, the authors examine the clinical parameters and technical procedures used to implement these prosthetic reconstructions. PMID:2084528

  7. Building More Solid Bridges between Buddhism and Western Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugamura, Genji; Haruki, Yutaka; Koshikawa, Fusako

    2007-01-01

    Introducing the ways of cultivating mental balance, B. A. Wallace and S. L. Shapiro attempted to build bridges between Buddhism and psychology. Their systematic categorization of Buddhist teachings and extensive review of empirical support from Western psychology are valuable for future study. However, it remains a matter of concern that some more…

  8. Information Geography: A Bridge between Engineering and the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the metaphor of engineering and the social sciences located on either side of a chasm and connected by the bridge of information geography. Information geography is not an integral part of engineering and is a new field within geography, a social science discipline. The specialty of information geography is one of the newest in…

  9. Herzog:A Bridge between Modernism and Postmodernism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽霞; 王宏; 史晓燕

    2013-01-01

    Herzog is one of Saul Bellow’s most successful novels, which laid a solid foundation for his winning the Oscar Award of Literature. This paper is intended to prove Herzog is a bridge between Modernism and Postmodernism by comparative study on the thematic and formal transformation of the whole novel based on textual analysis and Gerald Genette’s narratology theories.

  10. Designing for Anxiety Therapy, Bridging Clinical and Non-Clinical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Kramp, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    In this position paper we discuss, in terms of the concept of boundary objects, how a mobile application, the MIKAT.app, bridge between clinical intervention in anxiety therapy, and life and coping strategies outside the clinic and across phases of being a person suffering from, or having suffered...... from anxiety. Thereby, we hope to provide a counterpoint in the discussion on illness trajectories....

  11. Thermal bridges. Causes and impacts, information on reduction and avoidance; Waermebruecken. Ursachen und Auswirkungen, Hinweise zur Verringerung und Vermeidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feist, Wolfgang; Born, Rolf

    2012-11-15

    Thermal bridges increase the heat demand, affect the thermal comfort, facilitate mould cultures and cause structural damage. Many thermal bridges can be avoided by proper building construction details. At least the impact of thermal bridges can be avoided.

  12. Ship collisions against wind turbines, quays and bridge piers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    Analytical procedures are presented for analysis of the external dynamics of ship collisions against bottom supported flexible as well as rigid offshore structures such as wind turbine structures, quays and bridge piers. Based on the principles of conservation of momentum and energy algebraic...

  13. Matters of Taste: Bridging Molecular Physiology and the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangachari, P. K.; Rangachari, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Taste perception was the focus of an undergraduate course in the health sciences that bridged the sciences and humanities. A problem-based learning approach was used to study the biological issues, whereas the cultural transmutations of these molecular mechanisms were explored using a variety of resources (novels, cookbooks, and films). Multiple…

  14. Online Book Clubs: Bridges between Old and New Literacies Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharber, Cassandra

    2009-01-01

    In this Digital Literacies column, online book clubs are offered as one example of how to effectively bridge old and new literacy practices. These Internet-based book clubs capitalize on children's interest in new literacy practices while complementing, and hopefully encouraging, traditional reading practices. Examples from online book clubs…

  15. Bridging Developmental Systems Theory and Evolutionary Psychology Using Dynamic Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Panchanathan, Karthik; Clark Barrett, H.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between evolutionary psychologists and developmental systems theorists have been largely antagonistic. This is unfortunate because potential synergies between the two approaches remain unexplored. This article presents a method that may help to bridge the divide, and that has proven fruitful in biology: dynamic optimization. Dynamic…

  16. Collective Genius: Bridging the Gaps among Research, Innovation and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hair, Mary John

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on bridging the gaps among research, innovation, and practice. First, the author reflects on historical perspectives involving the use of research to improve education and serve the public good. Second, the author explores the current climate as reflected by three national reports highlighting future roles of…

  17. Bridging Implementation, Knowledge, and Ambition Gaps to Eliminate Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-22

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, director of CDC's Division of Tuberculosis Eliminatio,discusses bridging implementation, knowledge, and ambition gaps to eliminate tuberculosis.  Created: 2/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/2/2011.

  18. Venture Creation Programs: Bridging Entrepreneurship Education and Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackéus, Martin; Williams Middleton, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how university-based entrepreneurship programs, incorporating real-life venture creation into educational design and delivery, can bridge the gap between entrepreneurship education and technology transfer within the university environment. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review…

  19. A novel bridge scour monitoring and prediction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Michalis, Panagiotis; Zhang, Hanqing

    2015-04-01

    Earth's surface is continuously shaped due to the action of geophysical flows. Erosion due to the flow of water in river systems has been identified as a key problem in preserving ecological health but also a threat to our built environment and critical infrastructure, worldwide. As an example, it has been estimated that a major reason for bridge failure is due to scour. Even though the flow past bridge piers has been investigated both experimentally and numerically, and the mechanisms of scouring are relatively understood, there still lacks a tool that can offer fast and reliable predictions. Most of the existing formulas for prediction of bridge pier scour depth are empirical in nature, based on a limited range of data or for piers of specific shape. In this work, the use of a novel methodology is proposed for the prediction of bridge scour. Specifically, the use of an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is proposed to estimate the scour depth around bridge piers. In particular, various complexity architectures are sequentially built, in order to identify the optimal for scour depth predictions, using appropriate training and validation subsets obtained from the USGS database (and pre-processed to remove incomplete records). The model has five variables, namely the effective pier width (b), the approach velocity (v), the approach depth (y), the mean grain diameter (D50) and the skew to flow. Simulations are conducted with data groups (bed material type, pier type and shape) and different number of input variables, to produce reduced complexity and easily interpretable models. Analysis and comparison of the results indicate that the developed ANFIS model has high accuracy and outstanding generalization ability for prediction of scour parameters. The effective pier width (as opposed to skew to flow) is amongst the most relevant input parameters for the estimation. Training of the system to new bridge geometries and flow conditions can be achieved by

  20. Probabilistic seismic response and reliability assessment of isolated bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Carlo Marano

    2005-01-01

    Bridge seismic isolation strategy is based on the reduction of shear forces transmitted from the superstructure to the piers by two means: shifting natural period and earthquake input energy reduction by dissipation concentrated in protection devices. In this paper, a stochastic analysis of a simple isolated bridge model for different bridge and device parameters is conducted to assess the efficiency of this seismic protection strategy. To achieve this aim, a simple nonlinear softening constitutive law is adopted to model a wide range of isolation devices, characterized by only three essential mechanical parameters. As a consequence of the random nature of seismic motion, a probabilistic analysis is carried out and the time modulated Kanai-Tajimi stochastic process is adopted to represent the seismic action. The response covariance in the state space is obtained by solving the Lyapunov equation for a stochastic linearized system. After a sensitivity analysis, the failure probability referred to extreme displacement and the mean value of dissipated energy are assessed by using the introduced stochastic indices of seismic bridge protection efficiency. A parametric analysis for protective devices with different mechanical parameters is developed for a proper selection of parameters of isolation devices under different situations.

  1. Law, Ethics, and Social Justice: Commentary from the Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.

    2012-01-01

    Providing commentary on this "Journal of School Leadership's" special issue, "Constructing a Bridge Between Law and Social Justice: An Ethical Journey," has been not only a daunting task because of the complex nature of this topic but also a humbling experience because of the superior quality of these articles. At the same time, it is most…

  2. Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice: Voice of Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrani, Mehdi B.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the strategies that could be potentially employed in the Iranian ELT context to bridge the gap between research and practice. Data were collected through conducting a "focus group discussion" with a number of practitioner-researchers. The findings showed that to improve the relationship between…

  3. Programmevaluierung Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Warta, Katharina; Good, Barbara; Geyer, Anton

    2009-01-01

    BRIDGE is an initiative funded by the Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT) that aims to close the “funding gap” between basic and applied research in stand-alone projects with the primary objective of jointly developing the potential of basic and applied research. BRIDGE acts as an  umbrella structure under which the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and the  Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) coordinate two thematically open funding programmes: The ...

  4. Practice of One Health approaches: Bridges and barriers in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim A. Kayunze

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of one health approaches in human and animal health programmes is influenced by type and scope of bridges and barriers for partnerships. It was thus essential to evaluate the nature and scope of collaborative arrangements among human, animal, and wildlife health experts in dealing with health challenges which demand inter-sectoral partnership. The nature of collaborative arrangement was assessed, and the respective bridges and barriers over a period of 12 months (July 20011 to June 2012 were identified. The specific objectives were to: (1 determine the proportion of health experts who had collaborated with other experts of disciplines different from theirs, (2 rank the general bridges for and barriers against collaboration according to the views of the health experts, and (3 find the actual bridges for and barriers against collaboration among the health experts interviewed. It was found that 27.0% of animal health officers interviewed had collaborated with medical officers while 12.4% of the medical officers interviewed had collaborated with animal health experts. Only 6.7% of the wildlife officers had collaborated with animal health experts. The main bridges for collaboration were instruction by upper level leaders, zoonotic diseases of serious impacts, and availability of funding. The main barriers for collaboration were lack of knowledge about animal/human health issues, lack of networks for collaboration, and lack of plans to collaborate. This thus calls for the need to curb barriers in order to enhance inter-sectoral collaboration for more effective management of risks attributable to infectious diseases of humans and animals.

  5. MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING - CLINICAL AND ANGIOGRAPHIC PROFILE IN LAST 5 YEARS; A STUDY OF 129 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash S P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study : To assess the clinical and angiographical profile of myocardial bridging from consecutive coronary angiograms done over last 5 years at Medical college, Thiruvananthapuram. To assess the risk of cardiovascular events and the risk of accelerated atherosclerosis in isolated myocardial bridging. Methods : Consecutive coronary angiograms done at Medical college Thiruvananthapuram from 04/02/2005 to 31/03/2010 were reviewed for myocardial bridging. A total of 10492 coronary angiograms were reviewed. Myocardial bridges with systolic lumen reduction of more than 50% were considered for analysis. Quantitative coronary angiography (QCA was used for analysis. Clinical presentation as well as correlation with structural heart disease and coronary heart disease was assessed. Results: Incidence of myocardial bridges was 1.23%. Of the 129 patients with myocardial bridges 63 ( 48.8% had associated significant coronary artery disease. Remaining 66 (51.2% patients presented with isolated bridges. Out of these 66 patients with isolated myocardial bridges, 7 (10.6% patients presented with acute myocardial infarction and 3 (4.5% presented with cardiac arrhythmias. Of the 63 patients with significant coronary disease 11 (17.5% patients had single vessel disease and they had the culprit lesion and myocardial bridge seen in the same vessel. Most common location of myocardial bridge was mid LAD (64.9% followed by distal LAD (23.8%. Length of bridge was 20 mm in 35.7%. Mean percentage of systolic obliteration by the bridge was 74.5%. 100% systolic obliteration was seen in 7.79% of isolated bridges and in 9.79% of bridges with CAD. Among 120 rhuematic heart disease patients who underwent coronary angiogram, 10 (8.3% patients had myocardial bridging. 12.1% of all HCM patients who underwent coronary angiograms had myocardial bridging. Conclusion: Myocardial bridging can be lethal- can accelerate atherosclerosis, can precipitate acute MIs and life

  6. Coupled SPH-FE analysis for dynamic response of box culvert subjected to subsurface blast%土中爆炸作用下箱涵动力响应的SPH-FE耦合分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔溦; 宋慧芳; 张社荣

    2012-01-01

    A fully coupled numerical analysis technology is used to simulate the response of a large-scale box culvert under blast load, in which SPH method is adopted to model the near field medium, while FEM is used to model the far field soil and reinforced concrete box culvert. The results show that the damage position and degree are closely related to charge relative position to box culvert. There is an obvious difference among stress and deformation of box culvert under different detonation. Especially at the center position of the wall, there is an obvious effect of soil flow on reload and change of stress under different detonation. The final conclusion show that the coupled SPH-FE analysis technology can satisfy calculation efficiency and engineering requirements.%采用SPH与FE耦合的数值分析技术,SPH法用于模拟爆破近域土体,FE法用于模拟远场土体和钢筋混凝土箱涵,研究了土中爆炸作用下钢筋混凝土箱涵的动力响应.研究结果表明:箱涵损伤区域及损伤程度与土中爆炸位置密切相关 ;不同爆炸位置下箱涵受力和变形规律存在较大差异,尤其是边墙中间位置,受土体变形流动影响,爆炸位置的不同会引起明显的二次加载和拉压变化.SPH与FE耦合分析技术可以满足土中爆炸对结构物影响问题的计算效率和工程分析要求.

  7. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...

  8. Management Education: Classifying Business Curricula and Conceptualizing Transfers and Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Davar Rezania; Mike Henry

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, higher academic education has favoured acquisition of individualized conceptual knowledge over context-independent procedural knowledge. Applied degrees, on the other hand, favour procedural knowledge. We present a conceptual model for classifying a business curriculum. This classification can inform discussion around difficulties associated with issues such as assessment of prior learning, as well as transfers and bridges from applied degrees to baccalaureate degrees in busine...

  9. 49 CFR 1242.11 - Administration-bridges and buildings (account XX-19-03).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration-bridges and buildings (account XX... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.11 Administration—bridges and buildings (account XX... freight and passenger services: Tunnels and Subways: Running (XX-17-11) Switching (XX-18-11) Bridges...

  10. 77 FR 54652 - Draft Program Comment for Common Post-1945 Concrete and Steel Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... Comment for Common Post-1945 Concrete and Steel Bridges; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Advisory... and steel bridges. The FHWA is requesting comments on the proposed Program Comment. DATES: Submit... common post-1945 concrete and steel bridges. The FHWA is taking steps to inform the public and...

  11. Edges and Switches, Tunnels and Bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Eppstein, David; Mumford, Elena; Speckmann, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    Edge casing is a well-known method to improve the readability of drawings of non-planar graphs. A cased drawing orders the edges of each edge crossing and interrupts the lower edge in an appropriate neighborhood of the crossing. Certain orders will lead to a more readable drawing than others. We formulate several optimization criteria that try to capture the concept of a "good" cased drawing. Further, we address the algorithmic question of how to turn a given drawing into an optimal cased drawing. For many of the resulting optimization problems, we either find polynomial time algorithms or NP-hardness results.

  12. Edges and Switches, Tunnels and Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Eppstein, D; Kreveld, van, MJ Marc; Mumford, E Elena; Speckmann, B Bettina

    2007-01-01

    Edge casing is a well-known method to improve the readability of drawings of non-planar graphs. A cased drawing orders the edges of each edge crossing and interrupts the lower edge in an appropriate neighborhood of the crossing. Certain orders will lead to a more readable drawing than others. We formulate several optimization criteria that try to capture the concept of a "good" cased drawing. Further, we address the algorithmic question of how to turn a given drawing into an optimal cased dra...

  13. Bridging the divide : understanding and managing local opposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timm, D. [AIM PowerGen Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Anti-wind activists and concerned citizens are becoming increasingly organized, sophisticated and well-backed, yet opinion polls on public attitudes towards wind energy development consistently demonstrate strong support for wind power. This presentation discussed the need to understand and manage local opposition to wind power. This presentation included background information on this opposition and explained how to assess opponents potential. In order to bridge the divide, it was noted that it is important to understand the political climate of the area and local attitudes before going public with a project. Meeting with the opponents and timing are both critical. Methods to bridge the gap in knowledge and understanding include building support, motivating support, negotiating and educating, organizing tours to existing wind farms, and holding community events. Lastly, support and advocacy groups can also mobilize members to attend and provide testimony at public hearings, to contact local media, and to make presentations before other community organizations.

  14. Preliminary design and parametric study of 1400 m partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The preliminary design and parametric study of 1400 m partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge are described. Static per-formance of this new type of bridge is discussed. Compared with fully self-anchored cable-stayed bridge, its advantages in fin-ished state are summarized. Based on numerical calculation, effects of several structural parameters on static performance are presented.

  15. Microwave generation and complex microwave responsivity measurements on small Dayem bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O; Mygind, Jesper;

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the active properties of a Dayem micro-bridge at X-band frequencies is described. The bridge was mounted in a microwave cavity designed to match the bridge properly and the microwave output from the cavity was detected using a sensitive X-band spectrometer. Microwave power...

  16. Bridging the gap between science and decision making

    OpenAIRE

    von Winterfeldt, Detlof

    2013-01-01

    All decisions, whether they are personal, public, or business-related, are based on the decision maker’s beliefs and values. Science can and should help decision makers by shaping their beliefs. Unfortunately, science is not easily accessible to decision makers, and scientists often do not understand decision makers’ information needs. This article presents a framework for bridging the gap between science and decision making and illustrates it with two examples. The first example is a persona...

  17. Managing concrete bridges: Methods for reducing costs and user inconveniences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    . These approaches are focused on cost reductions, but must as well lead to a reduction of the user inconveniences (traffic delays, noise, dust) and to a reduction of the environmental impact. These approaches can be based on an assessment of the structures safety, which incorporates the inaccuracies in......The paper presents experiences from modern bridge maintenance management, which has been forced to develop new and cost-efficient approaches in order to cope with the increase in overall deterioration of the aging bridge stock, the growing requirements to accessibility and the decreasing budgets...... the condition assessments, the models and the predictions in the strategies and the cost estimations. This may lead to increased inspection frequencies, detailed simulations, monitoring and testing to be used as alternatives to extensive repairs, rehabilitations or strengthening. The approaches will...

  18. Performance of Bridge Decks and Girders with Lightweight Aggregate Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, J.A.; Olek, J.; Rolle, Eric Joseph; Manlone, Brian J.

    2000-01-01

    Structural lightweight concrete is a very versatile material and Haydite and Minergy lightweight aggregates can be utilized in the mixture development of concrete for use in girders and decks in bridges. More widespread use of lightweight aggregates (LWA) would result in savings in construction cost due to considerable dead load reduction. The materials phase of this research study evaluated the fresh concrete properties (slump, unit weight, and air content), the mechanical properties of ha...

  19. Price, Availability, and Youth Obesity: Evidence From Bridging the Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloupka, Frank J.; Powell, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    After a decade of analyzing environmental influences on substance use and its consequences among youth in the United States, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Bridging the Gap program has begun studying the effect of environmental factors on youth physical activity, diet, and weight outcomes. Much of this research has focused on access to food, as reflected by availability and price. Program researchers have documented disparities in access to healthy foods and opportunities for physical a...

  20. Building Bridges and Interfaces: Toward the Next Generation of UIMS

    OpenAIRE

    Hartson, H. Rex; Hix, Deborah

    1987-01-01

    User interface management systems (UIMS) have established themselves in both research and commercial arenas. We present several generations in UIMS evolution and discuss some problems of the early generations. In particular, we discuss the problems of a gap between methods used by behavioral scientists and computer scientists during the process of building interfaces. We present an empirical approach to begin bridging this gap and results of our preliminary observations: a human-computer int...

  1. Stress and noises of steel box girders in Sutong Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Tao; Chen Zhijian; Dong Xuewu

    2008-01-01

    Sutong Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 1 088 m.370 high-precision stress monitoring measured data show that in the process of hoisting the steel box girders,the stress of the main girders is in the fluctuant and complex state and many meteorological factors,such as sunshine radiation,temperature and wind,have important influence on the change of stress of the steel box girders.According to the real-time weather data,the stress data after the process of wavelet denoising from representative measuring points in different weather conditions is picked to estab-lish the stress response brought by meteorological factors with Layered Separation method,thereby basically eliminating the influence of meteorological factors on the stress of main girders,so that accurate and reliable stress data can be got for steel box girders adjustment and cable-tensioned construction control.

  2. Concrete bridge deck early problem detection and mitigation using robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Yi, Jingang; Basily, Basily; Duong, Trung; Kim, Jinyoung; Balaguru, Perumalsamy; Parvardeh, Hooman; Maher, Ali; Najm, Husam

    2015-04-01

    More economical management of bridges can be achieved through early problem detection and mitigation. The paper describes development and implementation of two fully automated (robotic) systems for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and minimally invasive rehabilitation of concrete bridge decks. The NDE system named RABIT was developed with the support from Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). It implements multiple NDE technologies, namely: electrical resistivity (ER), impact echo (IE), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and ultrasonic surface waves (USW). In addition, the system utilizes advanced vision to substitute traditional visual inspection. The RABIT system collects data at significantly higher speeds than it is done using traditional NDE equipment. The associated platform for the enhanced interpretation of condition assessment in concrete bridge decks utilizes data integration, fusion, and deterioration and defect visualization. The interpretation and visualization platform specifically addresses data integration and fusion from the four NDE technologies. The data visualization platform facilitates an intuitive presentation of the main deterioration due to: corrosion, delamination, and concrete degradation, by integrating NDE survey results and high resolution deck surface imaging. The rehabilitation robotic system was developed with the support from National Institute of Standards and Technology-Technology Innovation Program (NIST-TIP). The system utilizes advanced robotics and novel materials to repair problems in concrete decks, primarily early stage delamination and internal cracking, using a minimally invasive approach. Since both systems use global positioning systems for navigation, some of the current efforts concentrate on their coordination for the most effective joint evaluation and rehabilitation.

  3. Tubular Bridges for Bronchial Epithelial Cell Migration and Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Zani, Brett G.; Laura Indolfi; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biological processes from embryogenesis to tumorigenesis rely on the coordinated coalescence of cells and synchronized cell-to-cell communication. Intercellular signaling enables cell masses to communicate through endocrine pathways at a distance or by direct contact over shorter dimensions. Cellular bridges, the longest direct connections between cells, facilitate transfer of cellular signals and components over hundreds of microns in vitro and in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FIND...

  4. Cellular bridges: Routes for intercellular communication and cell migration

    OpenAIRE

    Zani, Brett G.; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2010-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is the basis of all biology in multicellular organisms, allowing evolution of complex forms and viability in dynamic environments. Though biochemical interactions occur over distances, physical continuity remains the most direct means of cellular interactions. Cellular bridging through thin cytoplasmic channels—plasmodesmata in plants and tunneling nanotubes in animals—creates direct routes for transfer of signals and components, even pathogens, between cells. Recen...

  5. Bridging the Gap Between Engineering Workforce Needs and Student Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Goold, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    This paper is inspired by the development of the proposed new technological university in Dublin; TU4Dublin is to become “Dublin’s Globally Engaged University” and is to be located at the nexus between learning and engagement (TU4Dublin, 2015). This study investigates engineering education in the context of career focused education. The main objective of this study is to investigate whether engineering students’ cognitive engagement benefits from bridging the gap between technical issues and ...

  6. Train–Bridge Interaction : Literature Review and Parameter Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Arvidsson, Therese

    2014-01-01

    New railway lines are continuously being constructed and existing lines are upgraded. Hence, there is a need for research directed towards efficient design of the supporting structures. Increasingly advanced calculation methods can be motivated, especially in projects where huge savings can be obtained from verifying that existing structures can safely support increased axle loads and higher speeds. This thesis treats the dynamic response of bridges under freight and passenger train loads. Th...

  7. Multidisciplinarity, Interdisciplinarity, and Bridging Disciplines: A Matter of Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Youngblood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bridging disciplines have much to teach regarding how to combine analytical tools to tackle problems and questions that cross traditional disciplinary boundaries. This article explores interdisciplinary aspects of two long established bridging disciplines--geography and anthropology--in order to consider what the relatively young undertaking labeled “interdisciplinary studies” can learn from their long existence. It considers the fallacy of nomothetic claim as well as the fruitful production of solutions by viewing process (methodology, not domain (academic turf, as the key to interdisciplinary success. Staking claim to interdisciplinarity is shown to be unproductive while finding the need for interdisciplinary approaches and following the mandates of that need strengthens both the disciplines and interdisciplinary studies.

  8. Life cycle and performance based seismic design of major bridges in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Lichu

    2007-01-01

    The idea of life cycle and performance based seismic design of major bridges is introduced.Based on the key components and non-key components of a bridge and the consideration of the inspectability,replaceability,reparability,controllability and retrofitability of the bridge components,different seismic design levels and expected performance objectives are suggested for the major bridges in China.The vulnerability analysis and progressive collapse analysis,as well as risk assessment,are also proposed to be the important issues to study in order to guide the seismic design of major bridges in the future.

  9. MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING AND SUDDEN DEATH: A CARE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juthika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35 year old man was brought to casualty block of the hospital in the month of April by his family members with complaints of sudden unconsciousness. The doctors after examination pronounced him brought dead on arrival. Autopsy revealed myocardi al bridging of the left anterior descending artery for a distance of 1.5cm , 3 cm below its origin and the depth was 0.4cm. The left diagonal artery was located (LAD into the myocardium for a distance of 1cm and the depth was 0.3cm .About 30 - 40% narrowing of the left anterior descending artery is present due to atherosclerosis just below its origin. Histopathological Examination revealed no ischemic changes. Toxicological analysis report of the viscera confirmed absence of common poisons and ethyl alcohol. The cause of death was given as acute coronary insufficiency due to myocardial bridging.

  10. Point process bridges and weak convergence of insider trading models

    OpenAIRE

    Cetin, Umut; Xing, Hao

    2013-01-01

    We construct explicitly a bridge process whose distribution, in its own filtration, is the same as the difference of two independent Poisson processes with the same intensity and its time $1$ value satisfies a specific constraint. This construction allows us to show the existence of Glosten-Milgrom equilibrium and its associated optimal trading strategy for the insider. In the equilibrium the insider employs a mixed strategy to randomly submit two types of orders: one type trades in the same ...

  11. Strengthening of a railway bridge with NSMR and CFRP tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Bennitz, Anders; Danielsson, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Strengthening of structures with CFRP is today considered an accepted method to upgrade concrete structures. In this paper two different CFRP strengthening systems are combined to give extended service life to a Swedish double-trough-double-track railway bridge, constructed in concrete with a 10 ....... Sensors on bars and tubes display proofs of utilization of the CFRP while displacement sensors and strain gauges on the steel reinforcement due to the small loads in the service limit state show minor effect....

  12. Nonlinear Dynamic Reliability of Coupled Stay Cables and Bridge Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear vibration can cause serious problems in long span cable-stayed bridges. When the internal resonance threshold is reached between the excitation frequency and natural frequency,large amplitudes occur in the cable. Based on the current situation of lacking corresponding constraint criteria, a model was presented for analyzing the dynamic reliability of coupling oscillation between the cable and tower in a cable-stayed bridge. First of all, in the case of cable sag, the d'Alembert principle is applied to studying the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the structure, and resonance failure interval of parametric oscillation is calculated accordingly. Then the dynamic reliability model is set up using the JC method. An application of this model has been developed for the preliminary design of one cable-stayed bridge located on Hai River in Tianjin, and time histories analysis as well as reliability indexes have been obtained. When frequency ratio between the cable and tower is approaching 1∶2, the reliability index is 0.98, indicating high failure probability. And this is consistent with theoretical derivation and experimental results in reference. This model, which is capable of computing the reliability index of resonance failure, provides theoretical basis for the establishment of corresponding rule.

  13. Capillary Breakup of a Liquid Bridge: Identifying Regimes and Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Computations of the breakup of a liquid bridge are used to establish the limits of applicability of similarity solutions derived for different breakup regimes. These regimes are based on particular viscous-inertial balances, that is different limits of the Ohnesorge number $Oh$. To accurately establish the transitions between regimes, the minimum bridge radius is resolved through four orders of magnitude using a purpose-built multiscale finite element method. This allows us to construct a quantitative phase diagram for the breakup phenomenon which includes the appearance of a recently discovered low-$Oh$ viscous regime. The method used to quantify the accuracy of the similarity solutions allows us to identify a number of previously unobserved features of the breakup, most notably an oscillatory convergence towards the viscous-inertial similarity solution. Finally, we discuss how the new findings open up a number of challenges for both theoretical and experimental analysis.

  14. IceBridge Data Management and Access Strategies at NSIDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, J.; Tanner, S.; Collins, J. A.; Lewis, S.; FitzGerrell, A.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Operation IceBridge (OIB) mission, initiated in 2009, collects airborne remote sensing measurements over the polar regions to bridge the gap between NASA's Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation satellite (ICESat) mission and the upcoming ICESat-2 mission in 2016. OIB combines an evolving mix of instruments to gather data on topography, ice and snow thickness, high-resolution photography, and other properties that are more difficult or impossible to measure via satellite. Once collected, these data are stored and made available at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) in Boulder, Colorado. To date, there are nearly 90 terabytes of data available, and there are about three more years of data collection left. The main challenges faced in data management at NSIDC are derived from the quantity and heterogeneity of the data. To deal with the quantity of data, the technical teams at NSIDC have significantly automated the data ingest, metadata generation, and other required data management steps. Heterogeneity of data and the evolution of the Operation over time make technical automation complex. To limit complexity, the IceBridge team has agreed to such practices as using specific data file formats, limiting file sizes, using specific filename templates, etc. These agreements evolve as Operation IceBridge moves forward. The metadata generated about the flights and the data collected thereon make the storage of the data more robust, and enable data discoverability. With so much metadata, users can search the vast collection with ease using specific parameters about the data they seek. An example of this in action is the IceBridge data portal developed at NSIDC, http://nsidc.org/icebridge/portal/. This portal uses the GPS data from the flights projected onto maps as well as other flight and instrument metadata to help the user find the exact data file they seek. This implementation is only possible with dependable data management beneath the surface. The data files

  15. Advanced assessment methods for elderly bridges. State-of-the-art and justification based on LCA

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano Chacón, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] Many of the existing bridges do not satisfy the structural requirements specified in design codes for new bridges. However, many of these bridges must remain in service and therefore decisions must be made in order to maintain their safety. In the design of new bridges, it is accepted “to be on the safe side” inherent in the standards; but for an assessment of an elderly bridge this procedure should be removed in order to have a more realistic understanding of the stat...

  16. Solvent-Exposed Salt Bridges Influence the Kinetics of α-Helix Folding and Unfolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuzelaar, Heleen; Tros, Martijn; Huerta-Viga, Adriana; van Dijk, Chris N; Vreede, Jocelyne; Woutersen, Sander

    2014-03-01

    Salt bridges are known to play an essential role in the thermodynamic stability of the folded conformation of many proteins, but their influence on the kinetics of folding remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of Glu-Arg salt bridges on the kinetics of α-helix folding using temperature-jump transient-infrared spectroscopy and steady-state UV circular dichroism. We find that geometrically optimized salt bridges (Glu(-) and Arg(+) are spaced four peptide units apart, and the Glu/Arg order is such that the side-chain rotameric preferences favor salt-bridge formation) significantly speed up folding and slow down unfolding, whereas salt bridges with unfavorable geometry slow down folding and slightly speed up unfolding. Our observations suggest a possible explanation for the surprising fact that many biologically active proteins contain salt bridges that do not stabilize the native conformation: these salt bridges might have a kinetic rather than a thermodynamic function. PMID:24634715

  17. Vibration analysis of medium and small span bridges subjected to mixed marshalling freight trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported several times that train derailment occurs when mixed marshalling freight trains traverse bridges at high speeds in China.This study aims to explain this phenomenon numerically based on the train-bridge coupling vibration theory and its associated computer program.The train-bridge vibration characteristic is analyzed by a computer program when mixed marshalling freight trains traverse 32-meter-span prestressed concrete simple beam bridges.The mechanism that dynamic responses of the bridges are prominent and that empty trains are inclined to derail are derived from the dynamic responses analysis.The analysis indicates that the significant differences of axle loads between heavy vehicles and empty vehicles produce periodic forced loadings of large amplitudes.These periodic loadings cause severe vibration of bridges.In turn,severe vibration of the bridges produces intensive counteraction to empty vehicles.

  18. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...

  19. Science and the Humanities: Bridging the Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepkowski, Wil

    1980-01-01

    Traces the recent history of humanities-based science since the publication of C. P. Snow's "Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution." Discusses the establishment of science, technology, and society programs in universities. Presents viewpoints of leading scientists and humanists, including Ilya Prigogine, Carl Rubino, T. S. Kuhn, and Michel…

  20. Bridging EO Research, Operations and Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarth, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Building flexible and responsive processing and delivery systems is key to getting EO information used by researchers, policy agents and the public. There are typically three distinct processes we tackle to get product uptake: undertake research, operationalise the validated research, and deliver information and garner feedback in an appropriate way. In many cases however, the gaps between these process elements are large and lead to poor outcomes. Good research may be "lost" and not adopted, there may be resistance to uptake by government or NGOs of significantly better operational products based on EO data, and lack of accessibility means that there is no use of interactive science outputs to improve cross disciplinary science or to start a dialog with citizens. So one of the the most important tasks, if we wish to have broad uptake of EO information and accelerate further research, is to link these processes together in a formal but flexible way. One of the ways to operationalize research output is by building a platform that can take research code and scale it across much larger areas. In remote sensing, this is typically a system that has access to current and historical corrected imagery with a processing pipeline built over the top. To reduce the demand on high level scientific programmers and allowing cross disciplinary researchers to hack and play and refine, this pipeline needs to be easy to use, collaborative and link to existing tools to encourage code experimentation and reuse. It is also critical to have efficient, tight integration with information delivery and extension components so that the science relevant to your user is available quickly and efficiently. The rapid expansion of open data licensing has helped this process, but building top-down web portals and tools without flexibility and regard for end user needs has limited the use of EO information in many areas. This research reports on the operalization of a scale independent time series

  1. Medicine and management. Bridging the cultural gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissick, W L

    1995-02-01

    Cost-effective health care requires the informed and intensive collaboration of medicine and management. Unfortunately, the two cultures tend to view the health care enterprise very differently. To physicians, the essence is individual physician-patient encounters, patient hospital days, nurse-patient contact hours, diagnoses, and procedures. To managers, the $1 trillion-plus colossus called health care is a challenge to corporate practices of finance, accounting, organization, planning, and personnel. The efforts of these two cultures to face medicine's dilemmas can result in conflict and confrontation--or in collaboration and synthesis. PMID:10140218

  2. Business and computing : Bridging the gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information systems, in the form of paper files or electronic files on computer systems and digital storage devices are employed in the oil industry to handle data from 3 basic infrastructures: accounting, geotechnical, and administration. The accounting function was the main driving force behind the development of the computer. The geotechnical data storage and manipulation infrastructure has its basis in signal recording and processing related to seismic acquisition and well logging. The administrative infrastructure deals with documents and not just data. Management in the oil industry needs two main kinds of useful information: reports about their organization and about the marketplace. Using an example of an oil and gas enterprise whose aim is to pursue low cost shallow gas to increase production levels, the basic business process is shown to relate to land and prospect inventory management, tightly controlled drilling methods, gathering system and production facility standardization, logistics and planning models, and strong transportation and marketing management. The role of the computer in this process is to yield information, that is, to provide coordinated, integrated, useful information that facilitates the processes essential to accomplish the business's objectives

  3. Building a bridge between AGU and SEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Louise; Bradford, John H.

    2012-05-01

    AGU and the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) complement each other in many ways. SEG is known for strength in applied geophysics and method development, while AGU is known for application of geophysics to broader scientific questions in Earth and atmospheric sciences. These boundaries are of course gray, and there is substantial and complementary overlap of interests, particularly among some disciplines; these include the study of passive and active source seismology, gravity and magnetic anomalies, and electrical and electromagnetic methodologies, as well as interest in the application of these methods to crustal structure, near- surface geophysics, geothermal exploration, and basin analysis. Facilitating communication between members of SEG and those of AGU has a significant impact on the geophysical sciences. The AGU-SEG Collaboration Committee (ASCC) was established as part of the AGUSEG Alliance Agreement, signed in 2010. In the agreement, ASCC was "charged with considering and making recommendations to the respective organizations regarding other areas of cooperation, such as joint workshops or programs and continuing- education courses." The first committee-wide meeting was held on 11 February 2011. Subsequent meetings are scheduled every 4-6 weeks.

  4. Bridging the Gap between Academics and Industry

    OpenAIRE

    O'Kane, Colm

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of close collaboration with industry for undergraduate design students have been repeatedly emphasised in the literature. This paper describes the operation of a design competition as a collaborative project between the DIT School of Manufacturing and Design Engineering and an external company. Small groups of design students were set a design brief and guided through the year by company representatives and by their academic supervisors. Along with giving an example of problem-ba...

  5. CPT in bridge foundation and embankment design

    OpenAIRE

    Braaten, Anne; Oset, Frode; Vaslestad, Jan

    1995-01-01

    The cone penetration test (CPT) has proved to be a valuable tool in obtaining design parameters for foundations especially in silty and sandy soils, and even in clay. This paper is submitted to the international symposium CPT'95 in Linkjøping, Sweden. It shows a few cases where CPT interpretations are compared with laboratory test results, and design calculations based on CPTs are compared with field observations and other design methods.

  6. Biorefinery, the bridge between agriculture and chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Scott, E.L.; Mooibroek, H.

    2005-01-01

    The depletion in fossil feedstocks, increasing oil prices and the ecological problems associated with CO2 emissions are forcing the development of alternative resources for energy (heat and electricity), transport fuels and chemicals: the replacement of fossil resources with CO2 neutral biomass. Whe

  7. Fundamental Concepts Bridging Education and the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Steve; Foisy, Lorie-Marlène Brault

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of papers have already discussed the relevance of brain research for education, the fundamental concepts and discoveries connecting education and the brain have not been systematically reviewed yet. In this paper, four of these concepts are presented and evidence concerning each one is reviewed. First, the concept of…

  8. Robotics: A Bridge for Education and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnat, Winifred I.

    Robotics (robot usage) is discussed from a historical perspective with regard to its role in employment and education. Part 1 examines the transition from an industrial to an information society and speculates what the future might hold, particularly in terms of employment. Part 2 gives a historical overview of the robotics industry and discusses…

  9. Giovanni: The Bridge between Data and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Suhung; Lynnes, Christopher; Kempler, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a web-based remote sensing and model data visualization and analysis system developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). This web-based tool facilitates data discovery, exploration and analysis of large amount of global and regional data sets, covering atmospheric dynamics, atmospheric chemistry, hydrology, oceanographic, and land surface. Data analysis functions include Lat-Lon map, time series, scatter plot, correlation map, difference, cross-section, vertical profile, and animation etc. Visualization options enable comparisons of multiple variables and easier refinement. Recently, new features have been developed, such as interactive scatter plots and maps. The performance is also being improved, in some cases by an order of magnitude for certain analysis functions with optimized software. We are working toward merging current Giovanni portals into a single omnibus portal with all variables in one (virtual) location to help users find a variable easily and enhance the intercomparison capability

  10. Bridging the gap between farmers and consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoin, Florence; Kristensen, Troels; Noe, Egon

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how different quality dimensions (safety, aesthetics, ethics and rooted ness) are created in food networks; how these qualities are transferred until the consumers; and how this process is supported by the organisation of the food network. Our postulate is th...... of organisations such as public label scheme, cooperate owned brand and direct sell from farmer to consumer. The results highlight the importance of the role of certification and personal commitment for the creation, and also for the mediation of added-value....... is that combining the quality and organisation dimensions and exploring the link between them will provide an interesting perspective for improving the sharing of values in food networks. This framework is applied to five case studies of “pasture-raised beef” food networks in France, representing a diversity...

  11. Organelle Structures: Bridging Strategy and Technological Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rob; Dekkers

    2002-01-01

    The shifting requirements as imposed on operations ma nagement require adjusting and tailoring the organisational structure to meet ma rket demands. However, translating these requirements directly into hierarchical structure will not ensure the integration of processes across organisational un its and guarantee desirable performance. Therefore, management and management li terature wonders: · How should we connect processes to the external environment within a strategi c framework · Which organisationa...

  12. Bridging the Gap Between Economics and Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gem Castillo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Economics and ecology are often presented as opposing disciplines. Both fields have strengths and weaknesses. A new transdisciplinary field, ecological economics, attempts to bring together the strengths of both disciplines with a vision for a sustainable future. In this paper, we focus on one particular concept championed by ecological economists, natural capital. In particular, our interest is on the institutionalization of this concept through the United Nation's Satellite System for Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA. SEEA is an international convention that incorporates natural resource accounting as a complement to the traditional System of National Accounts (SNA. In the case of boreal forests, the stocks and flows of forest resources can be assessed to determine prospects for sustainability. To provide a context for how natural resource accounting may be applied to boreal forests, we review the origin and purpose of natural resource accounting, summarize several cases in which natural resource accounting has been applied, and present an example of stocks and flows from Michigan's (United States boreal forest resources. Natural resource accounting work from Canada, Finland, Norway, and other countries with boreal forests should be compiled and analyzed to provide more insights regarding circumpolar forest conditions.

  13. Energy and Climate. Bridging the Geopolitical Gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is a 'hot' subject as an international political topic, and finding more superlatives about climate change after last year' presentation of Al Gore's Inconvenient Truths is difficult. At the 2009 UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen a successor has to be found to the present Kyoto Protocol. It is now generally recognized that man-made greenhouse gas emissions have a detrimental effect on the global climate, and emissions seem to increase even more rapidly than when the most pessimistic climate change scenarios are taken into account.1 Fossil energy use is mainly responsible for these emissions. However, despite increasing worldwide recognition that climate change is indeed a serious global problem and mounting rhetoric from political leaders, there is still little evidence that the fundamental changes needed to prevent the potential dangers of climate change are being addressed. This chapter argues that there are at least three geopolitical gaps that need to be closed in order to reach an effective agreement in Copenhagen in 2009. The gaps are closely related to the global political and economic structure of energy supply and demand. They concern a divide, firstly between the United States and Europe, secondly between industrialised and developing countries, and thirdly between fossil fuel exporting and importing countries.

  14. Xspect: bridging open hypermedia and XLink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, B.G.; Hansen, F.A.; Bouvin, N.O.

    to include another open hypermedia format, FOHM. The Xspect system, based on XSLT and Javascript, provides users with an interface to browse and merge linkbases. Xspect supports navigational hypermedia in the form of links inserted on the fly into Web pages, as well as guided tours presented as SVG...

  15. Phantom Recollection of Bridging and Elaborative Inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Murray; Spear, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    The phantom recollection model is a multiprocess analysis according to which memory judgments are collaboratively supported by one's recollection of an item in its context, a vaguer sense of stimulus familiarity, and the phantom recollection of the substance and even perceptual details of unstudied but related lures. Phantom recollection has…

  16. Bridging the Gap Between Stewards and Creators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert; Nolan, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    of business innovation. After researching the movement of Internet and computing pioneers among various organizations during a period between the early 1960s and the mid-1990s, the authors identified two distinct personality types that are both vital to successful technological innovation--but whose mindsets...

  17. Kisspeptins: bridging energy homeostasis and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, Juan M; Bentsen, Agnete H; Mikkelsen, Jens D;

    2010-01-01

    TOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and Crtc1 (Creb1-regulated transcription coactivator-1) as putative mediators for leptin regulation of Kiss1 expression, as well as the identification of other potential metabolic modulators of kisspeptin signaling, such as ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and melanin...

  18. Bridging the Linguistic and Affective Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westbrook, Peter Nils; Henriksen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale case study which follows an experienced Danish university lecturer during a tailor-made, one-to-one language course to improve her English language skills for lecturing, consisting of a five-week cycle of observed English-medium lectures and subsequent language...... feedback sessions. The study also includes a structured, in-depth interview with the informant, which yields very specific and rich data about how one lecturer feels about teaching in English, the informant’s own learning focus and the outcomes of a short language course. The aims of the study are fourfold......, namely: 1) to describe the informant’s motivation for taking an English course; 2) to compare her affective and perceived linguistic needs with her objective needs; 3) to follow her own language focus areas during the course; and 4) to identify any subjective or objective gains she achieved from the...

  19. Health informatics and modernisation: bridging the gap

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl Cowley; Lynette Daws; Beverley Ellis

    2003-01-01

    This pilot initiative uses an approach that focuses on improving the whole business of primary care, its processes and its people. The Health Informatics Programme for Coronary Heart Disease (HIP for CHD) addresses the two faces of clinical governance but has a prime focus on the development of learning organisations. The project has developed a methodology and an associated set of tools that it has tested and evaluated in a small number of pilot sites. The work of HIP for CHD is focused on c...

  20. Kisspeptins: bridging energy homeostasis and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, Juan M; Bentsen, Agnete H; Mikkelsen, Jens D;

    2010-01-01

    Body energy reserves and metabolic state are relevant modifiers of puberty onset and fertility; forms of metabolic stress ranging from persistent energy insufficiency to morbid obesity are frequently linked to reproductive disorders. The mechanisms for such a close connection between energy balance...... and reproduction have been the subject of considerable attention; however, our understanding of the neurobiological basis for this phenomenon is still incomplete. In mid 1990s, the adipose-hormone, leptin, was proven as an essential signal for transmitting metabolic information onto the centers...

  1. Mathematics and technologies: bridging diverse languages

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrita, Isabel

    2002-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects faced by the formal education system in Portugal is the existence of an increasing community of immigrants from the so-called eastern countries and from the PALOP (countries whit Portuguese as their official language). Very little is known about how different aspects of their culture may interfere with formal education in Portugal. In particular, how a deeper knowledge about their characteristic mathematical know-how, in formal and informal contexts may hel...

  2. Bridging the gap between wikipedia and academia

    OpenAIRE

    Jemielniak, Dariusz; Aibar,Eduard

    2016-01-01

    In this opinion piece, we would like to present a short literature review of perceptions and reservations towards Wikipedia in academia, address the common questions about overall reliability of Wikipedia entries, review the actual practices of Wikipedia usage in academia, and conclude with possible scenarios for a peaceful coexistence. Because Wikipedia is a regular topic of JASIST publications (Lim, 2009; Meseguer-Artola, Aibar, Llados, Minguillon, & Lerga, 2015; Mesgari, Okoli, Mehdi, ...

  3. Bridging Physics and Biology Teaching through Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Hoskinson, Anne-Marie; Couch, Brian A.; Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hinko, Kathleen; Caballero, Marcos D.

    2013-01-01

    As the frontiers of biology become increasingly interdisciplinary, the physics education community has engaged in ongoing efforts to make physics classes more relevant to life sciences majors. These efforts are complicated by the many apparent differences between these fields, including the types of systems that each studies, the behavior of those systems, the kinds of measurements that each makes, and the role of mathematics in each field. Nonetheless, physics and biology are both sciences t...

  4. DJ: Bridging Java and Deductive Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Andrew Brian

    2008-01-01

    Modern society is intrinsically dependent on the ability to manage data effectively. While relational databases have been the industry standard for the past quarter century, recent growth in data volumes and complexity requires novel data management solutions. These trends revitalized the interest in deductive databases and highlighted the need for column-oriented data storage. However, programming technologies for enterprise computing were designed for the relational data m...

  5. Bridging the Gap Between Economics and Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Gem Castillo; Larry Leefers

    1998-01-01

    Economics and ecology are often presented as opposing disciplines. Both fields have strengths and weaknesses. A new transdisciplinary field, ecological economics, attempts to bring together the strengths of both disciplines with a vision for a sustainable future. In this paper, we focus on one particular concept championed by ecological economists, natural capital. In particular, our interest is on the institutionalization of this concept through the United Nation's Satellite System for ...

  6. Microcognitive science: bridging experiential and neuronal microdynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Petitmengin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurophenomenology, as an attempt to combine and mutually enlighten neural and experiential descriptions of cognitive processes, has met practical difficulties which have limited its implementation into actual research projects. The main difficulty seems to be the disparity of the levels of description: while neurophenomenology strongly emphasizes the micro-dynamics of experience, at the level of brief mental events with very specific content, most neural measures have much coarser functional selectivity, because they mix functionally heterogeneous neural processes either in space or in time. We propose a new starting point for this neurophenomenology, based on a the recent development of human intra-cerebral EEG research to highlight the neural micro-dynamics of human cognition, with millimetric and millisecond precision and b a disciplined access to the experiential micro-dynamics, through specific elicitation techniques. This lays the foundation for a microcognitive science, the practical implementation of neurophenomenology to combine the neural and experiential investigations of human cognition at the subsecond level.

  7. Health informatics and modernisation: bridging the gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Cowley

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This pilot initiative uses an approach that focuses on improving the whole business of primary care, its processes and its people. The Health Informatics Programme for Coronary Heart Disease (HIP for CHD addresses the two faces of clinical governance but has a prime focus on the development of learning organisations. The project has developed a methodology and an associated set of tools that it has tested and evaluated in a small number of pilot sites. The work of HIP for CHD is focused on coronary heart disease but the methodology is equally applicable to other clinical areas. In particular, HIP for CHD provides an approach that allows the diverse strands of all of the National Service Frameworks to be handled in a joined-up way in primary care.

  8. Bridging User Requirements and Cultural Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadzilias, Elias; Carugati, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims at defining a framework for the design of e-Government services on cultural heritage. Starting from an analysis of three cases on digitisation of different types of cultural objects the author highlights the problems existing in the creation of e-services on cultural heritage....... These cases show the existence of four key issues in the development of this kind of information systems: digitisation, requirements engineering, standardisation and interoperability. The proposed framework addresses these issues focusing on the user requirements and the cultural object representation...

  9. Bridging genetic networks and queueing theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Arnon; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Yechiali, Uri

    2004-02-01

    One of the main challenges facing biology today is the understanding of the joint action of genes, proteins and RNA molecules, interwoven in intricate interdependencies commonly known as genetic networks. To this end, several mathematical approaches have been introduced to date. In addition to developing the analytical tools required for this task anew, one can utilize knowledge found in existing disciplines, specializing in the representation and analysis of systems featuring similar aspects. We suggest queueing theory as a possible source of such knowledge. This discipline, which focuses on the study of workloads forming in a variety of scenarios, offers an assortment of tools allowing for the derivation of the statistical properties of the inspected systems. We argue that a proper adaptation of modeling techniques and analytical methods used in queueing theory can contribute to the study of genetic regulatory networks. This is demonstrated by presenting a queueing-inspired model of a genetic network of arbitrary size and structure, for which the probability distribution function is derived. This model is further applied to the description of the lac operon regulation mechanism. In addition, we discuss the possible benefits stemming for queueing theory from the interdisciplinary dialogue with molecular biology-in particular, the incorporation of various dynamical behaviours into queueing networks.

  10. Bridging the Web and Digital Publishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herman, I.; Gylling, M.

    2015-01-01

    Although using advanced Web technologies at their core, e-books represent a parallel universe to everyday Web documents. Their production workflows, user interfaces, their security, access, or privacy models, etc, are all distinct. There is a lack of a vision on how to unify Digital Publishing and t

  11. Bridging the Gap between Audiology and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razack, Zaim Riza

    1995-01-01

    This article examines issues related to the provision of educational audiological services that are sensitive to the needs of a diverse population. The focus is on paradigm shifts from traditional clinical audiology to classroom-based educational audiology and use of a cyclical reflective process. Critical components of courses offered at York…

  12. Heavy Vector Triplets: Bridging Theory and Data

    CERN Document Server

    Pappadopulo, Duccio; Torre, Riccardo; Wulzer, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a model-independent strategy to study narrow resonances which we apply to a heavy vector triplet of the Standard Model (SM) group for illustration. The method is based on a simplified phenomenological Lagrangian which reproduces a large class of explicit models. Firstly, this allows us to derive robust model-independent phenomenological features and, conversely, to identify the peculiarities of different explicit realizations. Secondly, limits on cross-section times BR can be converted into bounds on a few relevant parameters in a fully analytic way, allowing for an interpretation in any given explicit model. Based on the available 8 TeV LHC analyses, we derive current limits and interpret them for vector triplets arising in weakly coupled (gauge) and strongly coupled (composite) extensions of the SM. We point out that a model-independent limit setting procedure must be based on purely on-shell quantities, like a cross-section times BR. Finite width effects altering the limits can be considerably...

  13. A bridge between decentralized and coordination control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komenda, Jan; Masopust, Tomáš

    Piscataway : IEEE, 2013 - (Basar, T.; Milenkovic, O.), s. 966-972 ISBN 978-1-4799-3409-6. [Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing. Monticello (US), 02.10.2013-03.10.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0517; GA ČR(CZ) GPP202/11/P028; GA MŠk LH13012 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : decentralized control * coordination control Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6736630

  14. A bridge between decentralized and coordination control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komenda, Jan; Masopust, Tomáš

    Piscataway : IEEE, 2013 - (Basar, T.; Milenkovic, O.), s. 966-972 ISBN 978-1-4799-3409-6. [Annual Allerton Conference on Communication , Control, and Computing. Monticello (US), 02.10.2013-03.10.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0517; GA ČR(CZ) GPP202/11/P028; GA MŠk LH13012 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : decentralized control * coordination control Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6736630

  15. High wall shear stress proximal to myocardial bridging and atherosclerosis: intracoronary ultrasound and pressure measurements.

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, J.; Erbel, R; Görge, G.; Haude, M; J. Meyer

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Studies have shown that myocardial bridging may prevent coronary atherosclerosis and that the segment proximal to the bridge is often sclerosed. The underlying mechanism is still unknown. METHODS--Intracoronary ultrasound and pressure measurements were performed in a patient with myocardial bridging in the left anterior descending coronary artery. A 3.5 F, 20 MHz probe was used to measure the change in cross sectional area of the lumen during the cardiac cycle. Intracoronary press...

  16. Fuzzy Based Decision Support System for Condition Assessment and Rating of Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Voggu; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Karusala, Ramanjaneyulu

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a knowledge based decision support system has been developed to efficiently handle the issues such as distress diagnosis, assessment of damages and condition rating of existing bridges towards developing an exclusive and robust Bridge Management System (BMS) for sustainable bridges. The Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES) diagnoses the distresses and finds the cause of distress in the bridge by processing the data which are heuristic and combined with site inspection results, laboratory test results etc. The coupling of symbolic and numeric type of data has been successfully implemented in the expert system to strengthen its decision making process. Finally, the condition rating of the bridge is carried out using the assessment results obtained from the KBES and the information received from the bridge inspector. A systematic procedure has been developed using fuzzy mathematics for condition rating of bridges by combining the fuzzy weighted average and resolution identity technique. The proposed methodologies and the decision support system will facilitate in developing a robust and exclusive BMS for a network of bridges across the country and allow the bridge engineers and decision makers to carry out maintenance of bridges in a rational and systematic way.

  17. Railroad Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Bridges-Rail in the United States According to The National Bridge Inspection Standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (23 CFR 650.3), a bridge isA...

  18. Myocarditis in athlete and myocardial bridge:An innocent bystander?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico; Quaranta; Emanuele; Guerra; Fabio; Sperandii; Francesco; De; Santis; Fabio; Pigozzi; Leonardo; Calò; Paolo; Borrione

    2015-01-01

    Myocarditis is a bacterial or viral inflammatory disease,often unnoticed or misdiagnosed.Athletes with myocarditis must stop practicing their activity since International medical Literature described some cases of sudden death.In the present report,we describe a case of an asymptomatic,apparently healthy,competitive athletes,who was diagnosed a myocarditis and as incidental finding a myocardial bridging.We focused the attention on the importance of anamnesis,electrocardiogram and athletes’ entourage for the diagnosis of such insidious pathologies and we evaluated the follow up,focusing the attention on electrocardiogram changes as well as on restitution ad integrum and prognosis,especially for the athletes.

  19. Pragmatism: A bridge between Anglo-American and Contintental Philosophy?

    OpenAIRE

    Grube, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, I will restrict myself to interpreting certain features of Margolis’ rich argument. I will discuss only those features that have a direct bearing on his thesis that pragmatism wins the three-sided contest between Anglo-American Philosophy, continental philosophy and pragmatism and, as such, can serve as a bridge to span the divide between Anglo-American and continental philosophy. Two mottoes Margolis utilizes serve as the vantage point of my discussion, viz. ’natural but not n...

  20. Bridging the Gap between Crisis Response Operations and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Khalil, Khaled M; Nazmy, Taymour T; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M

    2009-01-01

    There exist huge problems in the current practice of crisis response operations. Response problems are projected as a combination of failure in communication, failure in technology, failure in methodology, failure of management, and finally failure of observation. In this paper we compare eight crisis response systems namely: DrillSim [2, 13], DEFACTO [12, 17], ALADDIN [1, 6], RoboCup Rescue [11, 15], FireGrid [3, 8, 18], WIPER [16], D-AESOP [4], and PLAN C [14]. Comparison results will disclose the cause of failure of current crisis response operations (the response gap). Based on comparison results; we provide recommendations for bridging this gap between response operations and systems.

  1. Winnicott and Arendt: bridging potential and political spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMothe, Ryan

    2014-04-01

    In this article, the author seeks to bridge analytic theory, which is used as an interpretive framework to understand patients' psychic lives, and political philosophy, which accounts for individuals living a life in common as citizens. Specifically, I address how we can understand the relation between the psychosocial space of a parent(s) and child interaction, which becomes part of the child's psychic life, and the political space between and within citizens. The underlying claim is that there is a correlation between political space and the space between parent and child. I use an emended version of Donald Winnicott's concept of potential space and political philosopher Hannah Arendt's notion of the space of appearances to suggest connections between the consulting room and political space. PMID:24731048

  2. Research development of digital maintenance and management system for long-span cable-stayed bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yuan; HUANG Qiao; SUN Yong-ming

    2009-01-01

    Digital cable-stayed bridge maintenance and management system (DCBMS) was developed for the need of maintenance and management of long-span cable-stayed bridges. In this paper, the major functions and theoretical application of eight modules were systematically stated with the background of Harbin Songhua River cable-stayed bridge, which include data management module, inspection and measurement module, assessment module, finite element analysis module, disease diagnosis and prediction module, maintenance module, query module and help module. By analyzing and calculating the data from manual inspection database, basic database and health monitoring subsystem, DCBMS can accomplish the functions like life prediction, disease diagnosis, comprehensive assessment, maintenance and management of bridges. Therefore, the maintenance and management of long-span cable-stayed bridges can be made digital, professional and scientific. By running this system, a real-time and specific technical guidance can be provided for the maintainers and managers of longspan cable-stayed bridges.

  3. MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING AND SUDDEN DEATH: A CARE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Juthika; Prasenjit; De, Antara; Pradipta Narayan

    2015-01-01

    A 35 year old man was brought to casualty block of the hospital in the month of April by his family members with complaints of sudden unconsciousness. The doctors after examination pronounced him brought dead on arrival. Autopsy revealed myocardi al bridging of the left anterior descending artery for a distance of 1.5cm , 3 cm below its origin and the depth was 0.4cm. The left diagonal artery was located (LAD) into the myocardium for a distance of 1cm and the depth ...

  4. Bridging the Gap: Adaptive Games and Student-Centered VLEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Blanco, Ángel; Torrente, Javier; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Fernández-Manjón, Baltasar

    The widely used e-learning technology is facing new challenges such as how to produce student-centered systems that can be adapted to the needs of each student. Those objectives should be met in a standard compliant way to simplify general adoption. In this context, educational videogames are proposed as an ideal medium to facilitate adaptation and tracking of the students’ performance for assessment purposes. However, there are still barriers between the gaming and e-learning worlds preventing their mutual interaction. In this paper we propose a middleware to bridge this gap, integrating adaptive educational videogames in e-learning environments with a special focus on the ongoing standardization efforts.

  5. 涵洞式渡槽结构理论分析研究%Analytical in estigation of reinforced concrete culvert aqueduct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈爱玖; 解伟; 赵中极; 赵平

    2001-01-01

    利用三维有限元对涵洞式渡槽进行结构分析,根据结构特征、地质条件和结构材料的力学参数,对结构进行分析,得到应力和变形规律,为渡槽设计提供了可靠依据.%The structure of culvert aqueduct was analyzed in details by finite element. Based on structural characteristics,geological condition and mechanical paramenters of structure material, the equeduct is simplified to a three dimensional liner body. The ultimate bearing limit states of aqueduct structure is analyzed. The results obtained in this paper provied reliable basis for aqueduct design.

  6. Bridge number, Heegaard genus and non-integral Dehn surgery

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Kenneth L; Luecke, John

    2012-01-01

    We show there exists a linear function w: N->N with the following property. Let K be a hyperbolic knot in a hyperbolic 3-manifold M admitting a non-longitudinal S^3 surgery. If K is put into thin position with respect to a strongly irreducible, genus g Heegaard splitting of M then K intersects a thick level at most 2w(g) times. Typically, this shows that the bridge number of K with respect to this Heegaard splitting is at most w(g), and the tunnel number of K is at most w(g) + g-1.

  7. Bridged bis-BODIPYs: their synthesis, structures and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Praseetha E; Das, Sudipta; Lone, Mohsin Y; Jha, Prakash C; Mori, Shigeki; Gupta, Iti

    2015-10-21

    A series of bis-BODIPYs 1-6 bridged via thiophene, furan, N-alkylcarbazole, triphenyl-amine, para- and meta-phenylene groups have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. The change in the spectroscopic properties of bis-BODIPYs upon varying the size of spacers was studied. X-ray crystal structures of three bis-BODIPYs containing triphenylamine, para- and meta-phenylene bridges were solved. Intermolecular C(H)π and ππ stacking interactions were observed in solid state structures of three bis-BODIPYs. The dihedral angles between the spacer unit and two boron-dipyrrin units were lower in all three compounds as compared to their corresponding monomers. This suggests increased interactions between the two boron-dipyrrin units in molecules which are in turn reflected in the anodic shifts in their reduction potentials. DFT studies indicated effective electronic interactions between spacers and two boron dipyrrin units in all the bis-BODIPYs. The calculated HOMO-LUMO gap was found to be lower for bis-BODIPY having bulky carbazole spacers and higher for bis-BODIPY having smaller furan spacers. Changing the spacer size clearly affected the spectroscopic properties of the bis-BODIPYs and red shifted absorption and emission maxima were observed for bis-BODIPYs with furan and thiophene spacers as compared to bis-BODIPYs with phenylene or bulky aromatic spacers. PMID:26373792

  8. Diagnostic value of CT angiography in myocardial bridge and mural coronary artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the clinical value of CT angiography (CTA) in diagnosis of myocardial bridge and mural coronary artery. Methods: Three hundred twenty-seven patients were performed 64 slices CT angiography to observe myocardial bridge, and evaluate the stenosis of mural coronary artery.All cases with myocardial bridge received coronary arteriongraphy and comparison. Results: Fifty-seven cases with 66 myocardial bridge segments were found, with mean length (4.72 ± 0.93) mm, mean thickness (2.04 ± 0.62) mm, the mean stenosis of mural coronary artery was (33 ± 20)%. Twenty-nine cases with 35 myocardial bridge segments were found by coronary arteriongraphy, the difference between them has statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion: CTA can clearly show myocardial bridge and mural coronary artery, and it has important significance in clinical diagnosis compared with traditional coronary arteriongraphy. (authors)

  9. Bridge Damage Severity Quantification Using Multipoint Acceleration Measurement and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang-jo Chun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of bridges as a result of ageing is a serious problem in many countries. To prevent the failure of these deficient bridges, early damage detection which helps us to evaluate the safety of bridges is important. Therefore, the present research proposed a method to quantify damage severity by use of multipoint acceleration measurement and artificial neural networks. In addition to developing the method, we developed a cheap and easy-to-make measurement device which can be made by bridge owners at low cost and without the need for advance technical skills since the method is mainly intended to apply to small to midsized bridges. In addition, the paper gives an example application of the method to a weathering steel bridge in Japan. It can be shown from the analysis results that the method is accurate in its damage identification and mechanical behavior prediction ability.

  10. PERCENTAGE INCIDENCE, MORPHOLOGY AND MORPHOMETRY OF MYOCARDIAL BRIDGES: A CADAVERIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha. M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Myocardial bridging is the term used when a segment of major epicardial coronary artery runs intramuscularly under the tunnel formed by fibers of myocardium that bridges instead of it’s normal or routine epicardial path. In the literature there are varying reports on clinical implications of myocardial bridges from protection against atherosclerosis to myocardial ischemia, as well as leading to infarction and sudden cardiac death. Materials and Methods: 150 adult formalin fixed human hearts which were available in the department of Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, S.V.Medical College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India. These hearts were dissected and observed for the presence, location, type, number and direction of myocardial bridges and their association with coronary dominance. With the help of digital calipers morphometric parameters (length, width& thickness of myocardial bridges and length of blood vessel underneath the myocardial bridge were measured, noted and photographs were taken. Results: The overall incidence of myocardial bridges was 20.6%( 31/150. Among these 18.6% (28/31 were on left anterior descending (LAD artery and 2% (03/31 were on posterior interventricular (PIV artery. The direction of muscle fibers in the bridges were oblique to the direction of the coronary vessels in majority of cases. Length, width and thickness of myocardial bridges were in the range of 12 – 69.7mm, 3.74 – 8.6mm and1.3 – 3.87mmrespectively. Conclusions: Myocardial bridges may be associated with wide range of clinical problems. Contraction of myocardial bridge may results in vascular compression and myocardial ischemia. Knowledge on morphology and morphometric details of myocardial bridges facilitates cardiologists in diagnosis, planning therapeutic strategies and prognostic predictions.

  11. The Extended Ionized Halos and Bridge of the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnarao, Dhanesh; Smart, Brianna; Haffner, L. Matthew; Barger, Kathleen; Madsen, Gregory J.; Hill, Alex S.; Gaensler, Bryan M.

    2016-01-01

    The Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) has revealed ubiquitous ionized emission throughout the gas complexes formed by the dynamic history of the Magellanic Clouds. We present an overview of the immediate environment around the galaxies themselves, including ionized halos of the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC & LMC) as well as the bridge of material between them. Using WHAM, Barger et al. (2013) found Hα emission extending throughout and beyond H I in the Bridge. We add these new maps of the SMC and LMC to provide the first complete view of the diffuse ionized gas near the interacting system. At R ~ 30,000, WHAM can cleanly separate diffuse emission at Magellanic velocities from the Milky Way and terrestrial sources to the limit of atmospheric line confusion (~ 10s of mR). We find that ionized gas extends at least 5° beyond the traditional boundary of the SMC when compared to recent deep-imaging surveys (e.g., MCELS; Smith et al. 2005). The diffuse ionized emission extent is similar to the neutral gas extent as traced by 21 cm emission. We compare the kinematic signatures between the neutral and ionized components throughout the region. Comprehensive multi-wavelength surveys are also underway to examine how physical parameters and ionization processes vary in these extended systems. WHAM research and operations are supported through NSF Award AST-1108911.

  12. On the Performance of Super-Long Integral Abutment Bridges: Parametric Analyses and Design Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The concept of "integral abutment bridge" has recently become a topic of remarka-ble interest among bridge engineers, not only for newly built bridges but also during refurbishment processes. The system constituted by the substructure and the superstructure can achieve a composite action responding as a single structural unit; the elimination of expansion joint and bearings on the abutments, greatly reduce the construction and maintenance costs. To maximize the benefits from integral abutment...

  13. Stress and deformation state of suspension steel bridges with rigid cables

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorjeva, Tatjana

    2007-01-01

    Suspension bridges possess a number of advantages, allowing overlapping average and large spans. The basic disadvantage of suspension bridges can be considered their increased deformability, particularly under the action of non-symmetrical and local loads. Deformability depends, in general, on the kinematical character of displacements of a flexible suspension cable. Required rigidity of suspension bridges is achieved, by increasing the height, and consequently the weight of a stiffening gird...

  14. Integrated System of Structural Health Monitoring and Intelligent Management for a Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to construct structural health monitoring systems for large important bridges. Zhijiang Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge that was built recently over the Hangzhou Qiantang River (the largest river in Zhejiang Province. The length of Zhijiang Bridge is 478 m, which comprises an arched twin-tower space and a twin-cable plane structure. As an example, the present study describes the integrated system of structural health monitoring and intelligent management for Zhijiang Bridge, which comprises an information acquisition system, data management system, evaluation and decision-making system, and application service system. The monitoring components include the working environment of the bridge and various factors that affect bridge safety, such as the stress and strain of the main bridge structure, vibration, cable force, temperature, and wind speed. In addition, the integrated system includes a forecasting and decision-making module for real-time online evaluation, which provides warnings and makes decisions based on the monitoring information. From this, the monitoring information, evaluation results, maintenance decisions, and warning information can be input simultaneously into the bridge monitoring center and traffic emergency center to share the monitoring data, thereby facilitating evaluations and decision making using the system.

  15. PERCENTAGE INCIDENCE, MORPHOLOGY AND MORPHOMETRY OF MYOCARDIAL BRIDGES: A CADAVERIC STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha. M; T. Jayachandra Pillai; L. Anandakumar; V. Subhadra Devi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Myocardial bridging is the term used when a segment of major epicardial coronary artery runs intramuscularly under the tunnel formed by fibers of myocardium that bridges instead of it’s normal or routine epicardial path. In the literature there are varying reports on clinical implications of myocardial bridges from protection against atherosclerosis to myocardial ischemia, as well as leading to infarction and sudden cardiac death. Materials and Methods: 150 adult formalin fix...

  16. MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING - CLINICAL AND ANGIOGRAPHIC PROFILE IN LAST 5 YEARS; A STUDY OF 129 CASES

    OpenAIRE

    Abhilash S P; Krishna Kumar B; Praveen Velappan; PrabhaniniGupta; Sunita Viswanathan; A. George Koshy

    2010-01-01

    Aims of study : To assess the clinical and angiographical profile of myocardial bridging from consecutive coronary angiograms done over last 5 years at Medical college, Thiruvananthapuram. To assess the risk of cardiovascular events and the risk of accelerated atherosclerosis in isolated myocardial bridging. Methods : Consecutive coronary angiograms done at Medical college Thiruvananthapuram from 04/02/2005 to 31/03/2010 were reviewed for myocardial bridging. A total of 10492 coronary angiogr...

  17. Bats and Bridges: promoting Species Conservation through Early Multi-Agency Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, Zachary O.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this process is to promote species conservation and environmental enhancements for the OTIA III State Bridge Delivery Program. Bat habitat enhancements applied in the field throughout the state will be presented as an example of these efforts. The OTIA III State Bridge Delivery Program is part of the Oregon Department of Transportation’s 10-year, $3 billion Oregon Transportation Investment Act program. OTIA funds will repair or replace hundreds of bridges, pave and mai...

  18. Effects of CFRP Strengthening on Dynamic and Fatigue Responses of Composite Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of CFRP strengthening on dynamic and fatigue responses of composite bridge using finite element program ABAQUS. Dynamic and fatigue responses of composite bridge due to truck load based on AASHTO standard are investigated. Two types of CFRP strengthening techniques, CFRP sheets and CFRP deck, are applied to both the damaged and undamaged bridges. For the case of damaged bridge, two through-thickness crack sizes, 3 mm and 6 mm in depth, are assumed at midspan...

  19. Effects of CFRP Strengthening on Dynamic and Fatigue Responses of Composite Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittisak Kuntiyawichai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of CFRP strengthening on dynamic and fatigue responses of composite bridge using finite element program ABAQUS. Dynamic and fatigue responses of composite bridge due to truck load based on AASHTO standard are investigated. Two types of CFRP strengthening techniques, CFRP sheets and CFRP deck, are applied to both the damaged and undamaged bridges. For the case of damaged bridge, two through-thickness crack sizes, 3 mm and 6 mm in depth, are assumed at midspan of the steel girders. Furthermore, effects of the number of steel girders on the dynamic and fatigue responses are also considered. The results show that the maximum responses of composite bridges occur for dual lane cases. By using CFRP as a strengthening material, the maximum stress and deflection of the steel girders reduce and consequently increase the fatigue life of the girders. After introducing initial crack into the steel girders of the composite bridges, the fatigue life of the bridges is dramatically reduced. However, the overall performance of the damaged composite bridge can be improved by using CFRP, albeit with less effectiveness. Therefore, if cracks are found, steel welding must be performed before strengthening the composite bridge by CFRP.

  20. Atherosclerosis and myocardial bridging: Not a benign combination. An autopsy case report

    OpenAIRE

    Thej, M. J.; Kalyani, R.; Kiran, J

    2012-01-01

    Myocardial bridging is a congenital coronary anomaly with a variety of clinical manifestations. Traditionally, myocardial bridging has been considered a benign condition, but some cases of myocardial ischemia, infarction and sudden cardiac death due to myocardial bridging have been reported. Various studies have suggested that in their intramyocardial segments, these vessels are protected from obstructive atherosclerosis, with atherosclerosis being present in the proximal part of the artery. ...

  1. Structural health monitoring of a railway truss bridge using vibration-based and ultrasonic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results of in situ investigation of a railway truss bridge in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM). Three experimental methods are examined. Dynamic responses of the bridge recorded by strain gauges are confronted with alternative ways of acquisition using piezoelectric patch sensors and ultrasonic probeheads. All types of sensors produce similar output. Also the corresponding responses of the numerical model of the bridge match experimental data

  2. Bridge data – what do we collect and how do we use it?

    OpenAIRE

    Bennetts, John; Vardanega, Paul; Taylor, Colin; Denton, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The organisations responsible for managing bridge assets in the United Kingdom collect large quantities of data on their bridges. A primary aspiration in the collection of asset data is that it can be processed into useful information that can inform decisions about future management of structures and enhance industry best practice. To enable this, bridge managers must take care to specify appropriate parameters to be recorded, in conjunction with a practical recording interval. In addition, ...

  3. Sustainable Bridge Procurement Considering Life-Cycle Cost, Life-Cycle Assessment and Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use to...... procure the most “sustainable” (lifecycle-efficient) bridge through a fair design-build (D-B) tendering process, considering all the main aspects: life-cycle cost (LCC), service life-span, aesthetic demands and environmental impacts (LCA)....

  4. Phonon scattering and thermal conductance properties in two coupled graphene nanoribbons modulated with bridge atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phonon scattering and thermal conductance properties have been studied in two coupled graphene nanoribbons connected by different bridge atoms by using density functional theory in combination with non-equilibrium Green's function approach. The results show that a wide range of thermal conductance tuning can be realized by changing the chemical bond strength and atom mass of the bridge atoms. It is found that the chemical bond strength (bridge atom mass) plays the main role in phonon scattering at low (high) temperature. A simple equation is presented to describe the relationship among the thermal conductance, bridge atom, and temperature.

  5. The novel generating algorithm and properties of hybrid-P-ary generalized bridge functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we develop novel non-sine functions, named hybrid-P-ary generalized bridge functions, based on the copy and shift methods. The generating algorithm of hybrid-P-ary generalized bridge functions is introduced based on the hybrid-P-ary generalized Walsh function's copy algorithm. The main property, product property, is also discussed. This function may be viewed as the generalization of the theory of bridge functions. And a lot of non-sine orthogonal functions are the special subset of these novel functions. The hybrid-P-ary generalized bridge functions can be used to search many unknown non-sine functions by defining different parameters.

  6. Influence of vehicles on bridge flutter and galloping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Stanislav; Buljac, A.; Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Kozmar, H.

    New Taipei City : Tamkang University, 2015. s. 3-6 ISBN N Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : vehicle-wind bridge system * Kao-Pin Hsi Bridge * aeroelastic derivatives Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering http://www.wind.org.tw/epaper/vj-attachment/2016/02/attach44.pdf

  7. Translation: Bridging the Gap, or Creating a Gap to Bridge? Reflections on the Role of Translation in Bridging and/or Widening the Gap between Different Cultures with Particular Reference to Religion and Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Abdel Azim ElShiekh

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the problems involved in the Translation of culturally, politically and/or religiously Charged Words and Expressions with particular reference to religion and politics. Most translators and translation scholars are probably familiar with the concept of translation as a major tool used to bridge the gap between different cultures. Nevertheless, is that always the case? Does translation always help bridge the gap, or does it, sometimes at least, widen it, if not e...

  8. Random vibration analysis of train-bridge under track irregularities and traveling seismic waves using train-slab track-bridge interaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Wen-Tao; Yu, Zhi-Wu; Chen, Ling-Kun; Lou, Ping

    2015-04-01

    The frequent use of bridges in high-speed railway lines greatly increases the probability that trains are running on bridges when earthquakes occur. This paper investigates the random vibrations of a high-speed train traversing a slab track on a continuous girder bridge subjected to track irregularities and traveling seismic waves by the pseudo-excitation method (PEM). To derive the equations of motion of the train-slab track-bridge interaction system, the multibody dynamics and finite element method models are used for the train and the track and bridge, respectively. By assuming track irregularities to be fully coherent random excitations with time lags between different wheels and seismic accelerations to be uniformly modulated, non-stationary random excitations with time lags between different foundations, the random load vectors of the equations of motion are transformed into a series of deterministic pseudo-excitations based on PEM and the wheel-rail contact relationship. A computer code is developed to obtain the time-dependent random responses of the entire system. As a case study, the random vibration characteristics of an ICE-3 high-speed train traversing a seven-span continuous girder bridge simultaneously excited by track irregularities and traveling seismic waves are analyzed. The influence of train speed and seismic wave propagation velocity on the random vibration characteristics of the bridge and train are discussed.

  9. A bridge between conceptual frameworks sciences, society and technology studies

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book analyzes scientific problems within the history of physics, engineering, chemistry, astronomy and medicine, correlated with technological applications in the social context. When and how is tension between disciplines explicitly practised? What is the conceptual bridge between science researches and the organization of technological researches in the development of  industrial applications?  The authors explain various ways in which the sciences allowed advanced modelling on the one hand, and the development of new technological ideas on the other hand. An emphasis on the role played by mechanisms, production methods and instruments bestows a benefit on historical and scientific discourse: theories, institutions, universities, schools for engineers, social implications as well.  Scholars from different traditions discuss the emerging style of thinking in methodology and, in theoretical perspective, aim to gather and re-evaluate the current thinking on this subject. It brings together contribution...

  10. Concept of Information as a Bridge between Mind and Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin J. Schroeder

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the special role of the concept of information understood in terms of the one-many categorical opposition in building a bridge between mind and brain. This particular choice of the definition of information allows unification of the main two manifestations of information implicitly present in literature, the selective and the structural. It is shown that the concept of information formulated this way together with the concept of information integration can be used to explain the unity of conscious experience, and furthermore to resolve several fundamental problems such as understanding the experiential aspect of consciousness without getting into homunculus fallacy, defending free will from mechanistic determinism, and explaining symbolic representation and aesthetical experience. The dual character of selective and structural manifestations opens the way between the orthodox information scientific description of the brain in terms of the former, and description of mind in terms of the latter.

  11. Parallels between wind and crowd loading of bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobie, Allan; Morgenthal, Guido; Abrams, Danny; Prendergast, John

    2013-06-28

    Parallels between the dynamic response of flexible bridges under the action of wind and under the forces induced by crowds allow each field to inform the other. Wind-induced behaviour has been traditionally classified into categories such as flutter, galloping, vortex-induced vibration and buffeting. However, computational advances such as the vortex particle method have led to a more general picture where effects may occur simultaneously and interact, such that the simple semantic demarcations break down. Similarly, the modelling of individual pedestrians has progressed the understanding of human-structure interaction, particularly for large-amplitude lateral oscillations under crowd loading. In this paper, guided by the interaction of flutter and vortex-induced vibration in wind engineering, a framework is presented, which allows various human-structure interaction effects to coexist and interact, thereby providing a possible synthesis of previously disparate experimental and theoretical results. PMID:23690640

  12. VOFilter, Bridging Virtual Observatory and Industrial Office Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, C; Genova, F; Quinn, P; Zhao, Y; Cui, Chen-zhou; Dolensky, Markus; Genova, Francoise; Quinn, Peter; Zhao, Yong-heng

    2005-01-01

    VOFilter is an XML based filter developed by the Chinese Virtual Observatory project to transform tabular data files from VOTable format into OpenDocument format. VOTable is an XML format defined for the exchange of tabular data in the context of the Virtual Observatory (VO). It is the first Proposed Recommendation defined by International Virtual Observatory Alliance, and has obtained wide support from both the VO community and many Astronomy projects. OpenOffice.org is a mature, open source, front office applications suite with the advantage of native support of industrial standard OpenDocument XML file format. Using the VOFilter, VOTable files can be loaded in OpenOffice.org Calc, a spreadsheet application, and then displayed and analyzed as other spreadsheet files. Here, the VOFilter acts as a connector, bridging the coming VO with current industrial office applications. Virtual Observatory and technical background of the VOFilter are introduced. Its workflow, installation and usage are presented. Existin...

  13. Bridging the gap: strategies to integrate classroom and clinical learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Lisa Sue; Robinia, Kristi

    2014-08-01

    Nursing students often feel their classroom (didactic) learning and clinical (practice) experiences are disconnected which can lead to a rejection of academe and dissatisfaction with the profession. This classroom/clinical divide may be exacerbated because of the increased use of part-time clinical faculty, who are often isolated from their didactic peers. If clinical faculty, either novice or experienced, are disconnected from didactic faculty, is it any wonder students feel their learning is fragmented? The purpose of this paper is to discuss strategies to help bridge the gap between didactic and clinical learning. Specific integration strategies for faculty are presented using examples from a baccalaureate adult nursing didactic course and its related clinical course. The role of a clinical coordinator in facilitating course integration and support for part-time clinical faculty is described. Ideas for using technology to enhance learning and suggestions to promote socialization to decrease faculty isolation are also discussed. PMID:24674949

  14. Six new projects will bridge gap between CERN and society

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Rassat, Knowledge Transfer Group

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge Transfer Fund awarded over six hundred thousand Swiss francs to six projects in 2016.   Computer racks at the CERN Data Centre, the heart of CERN’s entire scientific, administrative, and computing infrastructure. CERN has awarded funding to six new projects with the aim to bridge the gap between technology and society. Over 600,000 CHF (€ 542,766) of capital was granted through its competitive Knowledge Transfer Fund (KT Fund). The fund is issued as part of CERN’s goal to maximize its overall impact on society. The selected projects cover new applications for CERN technology in a broad range of fields beyond high-energy physics, ranging from cancer diagnostics and aerospace applications, to next-generation cloud computing, radiation safety, and digital preservation. The technologies were developed at CERN as part of the variety of high-energy physics needs, and arise from several research departments: Engineering, Information Technology, Be...

  15. Community garden: A bridging program between formal and informal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Datta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Community garden activities can play a significant role in bridging formal and informal learning, particularly in urban children’s science and environmental education. It promotes relational methods of learning, discussing, and practicing that will integrate food security, social interactions, community development, environmental activism, and cultural integration. Throughout the last five years of my community garden activities, I have learned that community garden-based practices adhere to particular forms of agency: embracing diversity, sharing power, and trust building as a part of everyday learning. My auto-ethnographic study provides valuable insights for environmental educators whose goals include, incorporating ethnic diversity as well as engaging children in research, ultimately leading to community action.

  16. Hybrid Supramolecular and Colloidal Hydrogels that Bridge Multiple Length Scales**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeček, Emma-Rose; McKee, Jason R; Tan, Cindy S Y; Nykänen, Antti; Kettunen, Marjo; Laine, Janne; Ikkala, Olli; Scherman, Oren A

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites were constructed based on colloidal nanofibrillar hydrogels with interpenetrating supramolecular hydrogels, displaying enhanced rheological yield strain and a synergistic improvement in storage modulus. The supramolecular hydrogel consists of naphthyl-functionalized hydroxyethyl cellulose and a cationic polystyrene derivative decorated with methylviologen moieties, physically cross-linked with cucurbit[8]uril macrocyclic hosts. Fast exchange kinetics within the supramolecular system are enabled by reversible cross-linking through the binding of the naphthyl and viologen guests. The colloidal hydrogel consists of nanofibrillated cellulose that combines a mechanically strong nanofiber skeleton with a lateral fibrillar diameter of a few nanometers. The two networks interact through hydroxyethyl cellulose adsorption to the nanofibrillated cellulose surfaces. This work shows methods to bridge the length scales of molecular and colloidal hybrid hydrogels, resulting in synergy between reinforcement and dynamics. PMID:25772264

  17. Three-dimensional terminally attached self-avoiding walks and bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study terminally attached self-avoiding walks (SAWs) and bridges on the simple cubic lattice, both by series analysis and Monte Carlo methods. We provide strong numerical evidence supporting a scaling relation between SAWs, bridges, and terminally attached SAWs, and posit that a corresponding amplitude ratio is a universal quantity. (paper)

  18. Three-dimensional terminally attached self-avoiding walks and bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clisby, Nathan; Conway, Andrew R.; Guttmann, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    We study terminally attached self-avoiding walks (SAWs) and bridges on the simple cubic lattice, both by series analysis and Monte Carlo methods. We provide strong numerical evidence supporting a scaling relation between SAWs, bridges, and terminally attached SAWs, and posit that a corresponding amplitude ratio is a universal quantity.

  19. Three-dimensional terminally attached self-avoiding walks and bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Clisby, Nathan; Conway, Andrew R; Guttmann, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    We study terminally attached self-avoiding walks and bridges on the simple cubic lattice, both by series analysis and Monte Carlo methods. We provide strong numerical evidence supporting a scaling relation between self-avoiding walks, bridges, and terminally attached self-avoiding walks, and posit that a corresponding amplitude ratio is a universal quantity.

  20. Development, analysis, and control of the inductor-converter bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inductor-converter bridge (ICB) is a solid state dc-ac-dc power converter system for bidirectional, controllable, energy transfer between two high Q magnet coils. The ICB is suitable for supplying large pulsed power to such magnets as the superconducting equilibrium field (EF) coil of the proposed tokamak power reactors, from another superconducting energy storage coil. This report presents work on the analysis and control of the ICB system. The process of energy transfer between the coils is explained on the basis of a simple one line equivalent circuit. This circuit is the topological dual of the one line diagram of the nonsalient pole synchoronous generator, connected to the infinite bus through its synchronous reactance. The changes in the average power, average coil currents, and voltages, as functions of time, are calculated by the conventional Fourier method of analysis

  1. Compressed self-avoiding walks, bridges and polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Nicholas R.; Guttmann, Anthony J.; Jensen, Iwan; Lawler, Gregory F.

    2015-11-01

    We study various self-avoiding walks (SAWs) which are constrained to lie in the upper half-plane and are subjected to a compressive force. This force is applied to the vertex or vertices of the walk located at the maximum distance above the boundary of the half-space. In the case of bridges, this is the unique end-point. In the case of SAWs or self-avoiding polygons, this corresponds to all vertices of maximal height. We first use the conjectured relation with the Schramm-Loewner evolution to predict the form of the partition function including the values of the exponents, and then we use series analysis to test these predictions. Dedicated to R J Baxter, for his 75th birthday.

  2. Compressed self-avoiding walks, bridges and polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study various self-avoiding walks (SAWs) which are constrained to lie in the upper half-plane and are subjected to a compressive force. This force is applied to the vertex or vertices of the walk located at the maximum distance above the boundary of the half-space. In the case of bridges, this is the unique end-point. In the case of SAWs or self-avoiding polygons, this corresponds to all vertices of maximal height. We first use the conjectured relation with the Schramm–Loewner evolution to predict the form of the partition function including the values of the exponents, and then we use series analysis to test these predictions. (paper)

  3. Collaborative Professional Development in Chemistry Education Research: Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szteinberg, Gabriela; Balicki, Scott; Banks, Gregory; Clinchot, Michael; Cullipher, Steven; Huie, Robert; Lambertz, Jennifer; Lewis, Rebecca; Ngai, Courtney; Weinrich, Melissa; Talanquer, Vicente; Sevian, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Professional development that bridges gaps between educational research and practice is needed. However, bridging gaps can be difficult because teachers and educational researchers often belong to different Communities of Practice, as their activities, goals, and means of achieving those goals often differ. Meaningful collaboration among teachers…

  4. Biaxial Behavior of Ultra-High Performance Concrete and Untreated UHPC Waffle Slab Bridge Deck Design and Testing

    OpenAIRE

    D'Alessandro, Kacie Caple

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) was evaluated as a potential material for future bridge deck designs. Material characterization tests took place to identify potential challenges in mixing, placing, and curing UHPC. Biaxial testing was performed to evaluate behavior of UHPC in combined tension and compression stress states. A UHPC bridge deck was designed to perform similarly to a conventional concrete bridge deck, and a single unit bridge deck section was tested to evaluate the desi...

  5. Vibration tests on dismounted bridge beams and effects of deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at describing the tests campaign carried out on five precast bonded post-tensioned concrete bridge beams, recently dismounted after a service life of 50 years. The girders were part of the deck of a recently dismounted viaduct of an Italian motorway. The beams showed different deterioration levels, mainly due to the different exposure to corrosive agents. The test campaign were designed for evaluating the residual load bearing capacity of the members. Dynamic measurements were acquired before and after the static tests by using different excitation sources. This experimental research highlights that the natural frequencies of the beams can be used as a predictor of the ultimate bending moment of an existing structure.

  6. Tuning interaction in dinuclear ruthenium complexes : HOMO versus LUMO mediated superexchange through azole and azine bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, Wesley; Hage, R; Vos, Johannes G.

    2006-01-01

    In this review the interaction between metal centers in dinuclear complexes based on azole and azine containing bridging ligands is reviewed. The focus of the review is on the manner in which the interaction pathway can be manipulated by variations in the nature of both the direct bridging unit and

  7. Myocardial Bridging: Contemporary Understanding of Pathophysiology with Implications for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Corban, Michel T.; Hung, Olivia Y; Eshtehardi, Parham; Rasoul-Arzrumly, Emad; McDaniel, Michael; Mekonnen, Girum; Timmins, Lucas H.; Lutz, Jerre; Guyton, Robert A; Samady, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Patients with myocardial bridges are often asymptomatic but this anomaly may be associated with exertional angina, acute coronary syndromes, cardiac arrhythmias, syncope or even sudden cardiac death. This review presents our understanding of the pathophysiology of myocardial bridging and describes prevailing diagnostic modalities and therapeutic options for this challenging clinical entity.

  8. Bridging the Gap Between the ESL Curriculum and the Reading Curriculum in the Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Margaret

    The basic classroom reading program and the English as a Second Language Program (ESL) in the elementary school are related, yet a gap exists between them. It is suggested that the gap can be bridged in several ways: by bilingual education, through an individualized language experience approach, and by a process called "Bridge English." Bridge…

  9. Effects of bridge cable surface roughness and cross-sectional distortion on aerodynamic force coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoni, G.; Georgakis, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations to date have assumed that bridge cables can be modeled as ideal circular cylinders and the associated aerodynamic coefficients are invariant with the wind angle-of-attack. On the other hand, bridge cables are normally characterized by local alterations ...

  10. Bridging Home: Building Relationships between Immigrant and Long-Time Resident Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden-Peterson, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is rising evidence that relationships that bridge between immigrants and long-time residents are critical to immigrant integration and to the overall heath of communities. The processes by which this bridging social capital is built are not well understood. Schools in new immigrant destinations, as spaces in which diverse youth…

  11. The Structure and Mechanical Properties of Bridge Steel Weldings With Glass-Steel Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzalev, V. N.; Semukhin, B. S.; Danilov, V. I.

    2016-04-01

    A new technology is developed for welding multi-span bridge constructions. The mechanical properties and structure of the low-carbon bridge steel welds have been studied. The welding parameters and application of steel-glass liners provide for long-term service of steel constructions in conformity with the welding industry specifications.

  12. Economical bridge solutions based on innovative composite dowels and integrated abutments ecobridge

    CERN Document Server

    Băncilă, Radu

    2015-01-01

    This book is an outcome of the research project “ECOBRIDGE – Demonstration of ECOnomical BRIDGE solutions based on innovative composite dowels and integrated abutments – RFCS – CT 2010-00024”, which has been co-funded by the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (R.F.C.S.) of the European Community. The main topics of the book are the following: design of integral bridges, innovative composite dowels for the shear transmission, construction of bridges, structural analysis of bridges and monitoring. The book joins the technical experience and the contributions of the involved research partners. The technical content of all the papers is present-day in the field of the design, construction and monitoring of innovative composite bridges. The efficient design and construction improve and consolidate the market position of steel construction and steel producing industry. In addition, the advanced forms of construction are contributing to savings in material and energy consumption for the structure during prod...

  13. Stone bridges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana

    Prague : Institute of theoretical and applied mechanics AS CR, v.v.i, 2011 - (Drdácký, M.; Binda, L.; Hennen, I.; Kőpp, C.; Lanza, L.), s. 122-129 ISBN 978-80-86246-37-6 Grant ostatní: evropská komise(XE) CHEF-SSPI-044251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : flood * stone bridge * cultural heritage Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  14. Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge with CFRP Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the scope of CFRP cables in cable-stayed bridges is studied by establishing a numerical model of a 1400-m span of the same. The mechanical properties and characteristics of CFRP stay cables and of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are here subjected to comprehensive analysis. The anomalies in the damping properties of free vibration, nonlinear parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration between steel cables and CFRP cables are determined. The structural stiffness, wind resistance and traffic vibration of the cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are also analyzed. It was found that the static performances of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and steel cables are basically the same. The natural frequencies of CFRP cables do not coincide with the major natural frequencies of the cable-stayed bridge, so the likelihood of CFRP cable-bridge coupling vibration is minuscule. For CFRP cables, the response amplitudes of both parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration are smaller than those of steel cables. It can be concluded from the research that the use of CFRP cables does not change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration. Therefore, they can be used in long-span cable-stayed bridges with an excellent mechanical performance.

  15. Dynamic test and finite element model updating of bridge structures based on ambient vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of bridge structures are the basis of structural dynamic response and seismic analysis,and are also an important target of health condition monitoring.In this paper,a three-dimensional finite-element model is first established for a highway bridge over a railroad on No.312 National Highway.Based on design drawings,the dynamic characteristics of the bridge are studied using finite element analysis and ambient vibration measurements.Thus,a set of data is selected based on sensitivity analysis and optimization theory;the finite element model of the bridge is updated.The numerical and experimental results show that the updated method is more simple and effective,the updated finite element model can reflect the dynamic characteristics of the bridge better,and it can be used to predict the dynamic response under complex external forces.It is also helpful for further damage identification and health condition monitoring.

  16. Numerical and Experimental Study of Free Vibration Characteristics of a Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi Jianmin; Wang Yuanhan; Zhu Hongping

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to understand the dynamic behavior of a cable-stayed bridge,using both numerical and experimental analysis. A three-dimensionai finite element model for the bridge was developed for the free vibration analysis and the ambient vibration properties of the bridge were determined through field testing. The experimental and numerical results of natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes were compared, and the high accuracy between them shows that the 3D model is capable of approximately representing the dynamic behavior of the bridge and the use of ambient vibration survives in future testing of the bridge. These dynamic characteristics can be used as the basis for updating the finite element model and also for global damage detection.

  17. To the question of reliability and durability ballastless deck of bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Prystynskaya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The principal causes of operational defects in bridge ballastless deck plates are considered in the article. The drawbacks of these plates construction that prevent from achieving a higher level of bridge framework reliability and durability have been analysed.

  18. Electron transfer through time dependent bridges: Differences between Franck-Condon and Born-Oppenheimer breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider tunneling-mediated electron transfer through time dependent bridges. An approach is developed for computing corrections to the time dependent tunneling matrix element that arise from the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer Adiabatic approximation. Differences between Franck-Condon and Born-Oppenheimer breakdown are discussed in the context of bridge-mediated tunneling

  19. Identification and Level 1 Damage Detection of the Z24 Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.; Cantieni, R.

    2001-01-01

    A series of 15 progressive damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case with a relatively large number of sensors. Changes in frequencies, damping ratios and MAC values were determined. An...

  20. Extracellular Disulfide Bridges Serve Different Purposes in Two Homologous Chemokine Receptors, CCR1 and CCR5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rummel, Pia Cwarzko; Thiele, Stefanie; Hansen, Laerke Smidt;

    2013-01-01

    interact with residues in the main binding crevice, we show that the 7TM-conserved bridge is essential for all types of ligand-mediated activation, whereas the chemokine-conserved bridge is dispensable for small-molecule activation in CCR1. However, in striking contrast to previous studies in other......In addition to the 7TM receptor-conserved disulfide bridge between transmembrane helix (TM) 3 and extracellular loop (ECL) 2, chemokine receptors contain a disulfide bridge between the N-terminus and what previously was believed to be ECL-3. Recent crystal- and NMR-structures of CXCR4 and CXCR1......, combined with structural analysis of all endogenous chemokine receptors indicate that this chemokine receptor-conserved bridge in fact connects the N-terminus to the top of TM-7. By employing chemokine ligands that mainly target extracellular receptor regions and small molecule ligands that predominantly...

  1. Designing of support zones of concrete bridges to withstand action of static and dynamic load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorijević Milan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented some of the acquired experiences in designing and construction of bridge structures in several countries, with a special attention to the analysis of support zones and expansion joints behavior of a number of road bridges. During destruction or damage of bridges, there is a small probability, but still there, that the human lives might be endangered (Kobe, Japan 17th January 1995; what is likely, however, is that it will be very difficult to help the injured in the region. Considering that the characteristics of removal of supports has a great influence on the behavior of the entire bridge structure, the design of support joints and connections must be paid due attention. In the recent decades, efforts are made to enhance research of all engineering structure, and thus the bridge structures and their weak points.

  2. Acute myocardial infarction related to smoke inhalation and myocardial bridging.

    OpenAIRE

    McCabe, M J; Weston, C. F.; Fraser, A G

    1992-01-01

    A previously healthy 26 year old woman who was exposed to smoke during a house fire developed acute anterior myocardial infarction complicated by ventricular fibrillation. Subsequent left ventriculography confirmed anterior infarction, but coronary arteriography was normal apart from myocardial bridging over a segment of the left anterior descending artery. The development of acute myocardial infarction in this patient suggests that, in the presence of bridging, carbon monoxide inhalation may...

  3. Batch production of single-crystal diamond bridges and cantilevers for microelectromechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of single-crystal diamond offers a way to achieve extreme semiconductor and mechanical properties of diamond for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). However, current diamond MEMS devices are limited to polycrystalline or nanocrystalline films. In this paper, we report on the batch fabrication and mechanical operation of single-crystal diamond bridges/cantilevers. The bending of these bridges/cantilevers is achieved by nanoindentation with atomic force microscopy. The resonant vibration of the cantilevers is demonstrated by using a piezoelectric actuation method with direct optical readout. These bridges/cantilevers exhibit high-quality single crystal. The maximum measured Young's modulus of the diamond bridges/cantilevers is more than 1000 GPa. The air gap between the diamond bridges/cantilevers and the substrate guarantees the application of single-crystal diamond to the MEMS.

  4. The "Why" and "Where" of the Tappan Zee Bridge: A Lesson in Site Location, Physical Geography, and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jerry T.; Cantrill, Jeremy; Kearse, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Bridges are some of the most majestic features in the American landscape. For classrooms, the bridge serves as an important component of one of the main themes of geography: movement. One bridge, north of Manhattan and crossing the Hudson River, is the Tappan Zee. One aspect that stands out in a way that does not at all appear reasonable: the…

  5. Key focal areas for bridging the fields of aging and disability: findings from the growing older with a disability conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Vishaya; Putnam, Michelle; Spindel, Andria

    2012-10-01

    Based upon research presented at the 2011 Festival of International Conferences on Caregiving, Disability, Aging and Technology (FICCDAT)-and specifically the Growing Older with a Disability (GOWD) conference, this paper identifies areas where bridging building between aging and disability is needed to support older adults aging into or with disabilities. Five focal areas emerged: 1) The Need to Forward Bridging Between Aging and Disability Sectors, 2) Theoretical Frameworks of Individual Aging that Facilitate Bridging, 3) Bridging through Consumer Participation and Involvement, 4) Bridging Through Knowledge Transfer and 5) Bridging Opportunities in Long-Term Supports and Services and Assistive Technologies. Discussion of themes is provided within both international and Canadian contexts, reflecting the interests of FICCDAT and GOWD organizers in discussing how to improve bridging in Canada. Findings from this report form the basis of the Toronto Declaration on Bridging Aging and Disability Policy, Practice, and Research. PMID:23593057

  6. Revisit of I35W Bridge Collapse: A preliminary analysis at 2007 and conclusions today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    August 1st of 2007, 6:05PM, the interstate highway I35W Bridge in the City Minneapolis, Minnesota, collapsed suddenly. The 8 traffic-lane, 1000-foot-long deck of the 1907-foot-long bridge fell into Mississippi River within seconds, resulted in 13 fatalities and 145 injuries. This paper is based on a report of a preliminary analysis of this disaster, which was submitted to the related administrative agencies at the September of 2007. By comparing the results in that report with the materials' evidences of National Safety Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) official investigation and recent in-depth analyses, it seems that the issues addressed in this earlier analysis may still have certain significance for the safety assessment of those similarly-structured steel bridges today. A bridge's service life is 75 years or longer. According to a NTSB's document, there are more than hundreds this kind of bridges still on service.

  7. Theoretical and experimental study on shear lag effect of partially cable-stayed bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gao-feng; XU Hong

    2005-01-01

    In order to resolve the traffic congestion problem, many cable-stayed bridges are designed with a large width to span ratio. This results in significant shear lag effect to cause nonuniform stress distribution along the flanges of the beam of bridge.This paper reports study on the shear lag effect of the Lanzhou Xiaoxihu Yellow River Bridge. A 3D finite element model of the bridge was developed and finite element analysis (FEA) was done to obtain the theoretical results. To evaluate the theoretical results, a scaled model was made to conduct static test in laboratory. The experiment results accorded with the results obtained by FEA. It is proved that FEA is an effective method to predict shear lag effect of bridges of this type.

  8. New bridge circuit-type detector to measure precise resistance change of strain gauge at low temperature and magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Ohashi, Masashi; Kishii, Nobuya; Tateno, Shota

    2016-01-01

    We report a new highly accurate and versatile bridge-circuit-type detector that has a simple structure and demonstrates a low degree of error for measurements of thermal expansion and magnetostriction by the strain gauge method. As an example, a commercial physical property measurement system (PPMS) is combined with a compact bridge-circuit box. Thermal expansion and magnetostriction are calculated from the resistance of the bridge and bridge voltage, measured by the operation of a standard P...

  9. 76 FR 72957 - 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap... Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of... conference information, visit the Trauma Spectrum Conference Web site at...

  10. Effect of Interstock Bridge Grafting on Fruit Quality at Harvest and During Storage of Four Apple Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Samad; McNeil, D. L.; M. M. Bunker; Khan, Z U

    1999-01-01

    Fruit from interstock bridge grafted trees had significantly higher brix and seed number in both seasons. Bridge grafted trees had significantly smaller fruit and reduced L:D ration in the second season only. Fruit from M9 bridge grafted trees were significantly firmer in both seasons. In the second season (95/96) fruit from trees with M9 interstock were significantly smaller and had a higher flesh firmness, brix value and seed number. Fruit from interstock bridge grafted trees had significan...

  11. Nuwe Woordeboek sonder Grense: A Typological and Communicative Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Steyn

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: Within the South African lexicographical context, there have been several pleas for Afrikaans learner's and school dictionaries that incorporate innovative strategies and provide for specific identified target users and their particular problems. Nuwe Woordeboek sonder Grense (NWSG is an Afrikaans learner's dictionary that is aimed at a specific group of users, can be used for text reception and text production and forms part of an established textbook series. Through new strategies and adaptations, this dictionary tries to form a bridge between different typological categories and to be a functional instrument for use in the classroom. In accordance with the theo-retical formulation of dictionary functions, NWSG tries to further communication through initial support in and eventual assimilation of the foreign language. In this article, theoretical insights regarding learner's dictionaries as well as practical examples from NSWG are combined to illus-trate the possibilities of a more user-friendly product.

    Keywords: LEARNER'S DICTIONARY, USERS, TYPOLOGY, BRIDGE LANGUAGE, TEXT RECEPTION, MACROSTRUCTURE, TEXT PRODUCTION, MICRO-ARCHITECTURE, FRAME STRUCTURE

    *****

    OPSOMMING: Nuwe Woordeboek sonder Grense: 'n Tipologiese en kommu-nikatiewe brug. Binne die Suid-Afrikaanse leksikografiese konteks is daar reeds verskeie pleidooie gerig vir Afrikaanse aanleerder- en skoolwoordeboeke wat vernuwende strategieë inkor-poreer en vir spesifieke, geïdentifiseerde teikengebruikers en hul eiesoortige probleme voorsiening maak. Nuwe Woordeboek sonder Grense (NWSG is 'n Afrikaanse aanleerderwoordeboek wat op 'n spesifieke groep leerders gerig is, vir teksresepsie en teksproduksie gebruik kan word en deel van 'n gevestigde handboekreeks uitmaak. Dié woordeboek probeer om deur nuwe strategieë en aan-passings 'n brug te vorm tussen verskillende tipologiese kategorieë en 'n funksionele gebruiks-instrument in die klaskamer te wees. In

  12. Fatigue and Fracture Library for the Inspection, Evaluation, and Repair of Vehicular Steel Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Fish, Phil; Schroeder, Curtis; Connor, Robert J.; Sauser, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Of all the limit states that affect the performance of steel bridges, fatigue and fracture are often misunderstood when it comes to design, inspection, and repair/retrofit. Although there is a wealth of research and case studies of failures related to cracking in the literature, few civil engineering programs offer any courses that spend more than a lecture or two on these topics. There are even fewer courses or credible reference manuals available on the repair and retrofit of steel bridges ...

  13. Pathology, appraisal, repair and management of old prestressed concrete beam and slab bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Godart, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The beam and slab bridges named in France VIPP are viaducts with multiple single spans made of prestressed concrete beams that are precast on site and post-tensioned, and then assembled transversely by prestress. A great number of those bridges were built in France at the beginning of the development of the prestressing technique. Some of them present strong losses of prestress related to the corrosion or the rupture of tendons. After a presentation of the pathology and its various causes, th...

  14. Life-Cycle Monitoring of Long-Span PSC Box Girder Bridges through Distributed Sensor Network: Strategies, Methods, and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zheheng Chen; Tong Guo; Shengyou Yan

    2015-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) has attracted much attention in recent years, which enables early warnings of structural failure, condition assessments, and rational maintenance/repair strategies. In the context of bridges, many long-span steel bridges in China have been installed with the SHM systems; however, the applications of the SHM in prestressed concrete (PSC) bridges are still rather limited. On the other hand, the PSC box girder bridges are extensively used in highway and railway...

  15. Dynamic analysis of soil-steel composite bridges for high speed railway traffic : Case study of a bridge in Märsta, using field measurements and FE-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mellat, Peyman

    2012-01-01

    Soil-steel composite bridge refers to structures where a buried flexible corrugated steel pipe works in composite action with the surrounding soil. These structures are being increasingly used in road and railway projects as an alternative to standard type bridges, e.g. short- and medium span concrete beam- and portal frame bridges. On account of their economic advantage and short and easy construction operation, soil-steel composite bridges are getting more popular as railway crossings locat...

  16. Face-centered-cubic large-pore periodic mesoporous organosilicas with unsaturated and aromatic bridging groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Manik; Manchanda, Amanpreet S; Zhuang, Jianqin; Kruk, Michal

    2012-06-12

    Large-pore ethenylene-bridged (-CH═CH-) and phenylene-bridged (-C(6)H(4)-) periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) with face-centered-cubic structure (Fm3m symmetry) of spherical mesopores were synthesized at 7 °C at low acid concentration (0.1 M HCl) using Pluronic F127 triblock copolymer surfactant in the presence of aromatic swelling agents (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, xylenes-isomer mixture, and toluene). In particular, this work reports an unprecedented block-copolymer-templated well-ordered ethenylene-bridged PMO with cubic structure of spherical mesopores and an unprecedented block-copolymer-templated face-centered cubic phenylene-bridged PMO, which also has an exceptionally large unit-cell size and pore diameter. The unit-cell parameters of 30 and 25 nm and the mesopore diameters of 14 and 11 nm (nominal BJH-KJS pore diameters of 12-13 and 9 nm) were obtained for ethenylene-bridged and phenylene-bridged PMOs, respectively. Under the considered reaction conditions, the unit-cell parameters and pore diameters were found to be similar when the three different methyl-substituted benzene swelling agents were employed, although the degree of structural ordering appeared to improve for phenylene-bridged PMOs in the sequence of decreased number of methyl groups on the benzene ring. PMID:22607203

  17. Matters of taste: bridging molecular physiology and the humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangachari, P K; Rangachari, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Taste perception was the focus of an undergraduate course in the health sciences that bridged the sciences and humanities. A problem-based learning approach was used to study the biological issues, whereas the cultural transmutations of these molecular mechanisms were explored using a variety of resources (novels, cookbooks, and films). Multiple evaluation procedures were used: problem summaries and problem-solving exercises (tripartite problem-solving exercise) for the problem-based learning component and group tasks and individual exercises for the cultural issues. Self-selected groups chose specific tasks from a prescribed list of options (setting up a journal in molecular gastronomy, developing an electronic tongue, designing a restaurant for synesthetes, organizing a farmers' market, marketing a culinary tour, framing hedonic scales, exploring changing tastes through works of art or recipe books, and crafting beers for space travel). Individual tasks were selected from a menu of options (book reviews, film reviews, conversations, creative writing, and oral exams). A few guest lecturers (wine making, cultural anthropology, film analysis, and nutritional epidemiology) added more flavor. The course was rated highly for its learning value (8.5 ± 1.2, n = 62) and helped students relate biological mechanisms to cultural issues (9.0 ± 0.9, n = 62). PMID:26628651

  18. Bridging the Gap: Possible Roles and Contributions of Representational Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Hubbard

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Memory for the position of a moving target is often displaced in the direction of anticipated motion, and this has been referred to as representational momentum. Such displacement might aid spatial localization by bridging the gap between perception and action, and might reflect a second-order isomorphism between subjective consequences of environmentally invariant physical principles and the functional architecture of mental representation that can be modulated by an observer’s expectations (e.g., that a moving target will change its heading or by the presence of nontarget stimuli (e.g., landmarks. Representational momentum and related types of displacement reflect properties of the world and properties of mental representation, and so a consideration of representational momentum and related types of displacement contribute an important component of contemporary psychophysics, and also broaden the reach of psychophysics to include numerous topics not usually considered within psychophysics (e.g., naive physics, boundary extension, flash-lag effect, aesthetics, mental imagery.

  19. Bridge between public perception and expert assessment of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of the brief consisted of a comprehensive review of literature, selective interviews of available representative parties, and categorization of the spectrum of opinions. Analysis of the information thus obtained included identification of reconcilable and irreconcilable differences among the opinions and indication of possible ways to bridge some of the differences. Opinions were generally found to be best categorized as the pro, neutral, and contra opinions associated with experts and the public. The primary issues separating the opposing groups appear to be the following: 1) the required input for probabilistic risk analysis of accidents; 2) the evaluation of what constitutes an acceptable risk; 3) the evaluation of potential long-term consequences; 4) the general need for nuclear energy; and 5) the long-term risk to public health. Among the above issues, potential for reconciliation was found only for the first two, while the latter issues, because of the relatively short history of the industry and paucity of knowledge on relevant factors, were found difficult to reconcile without expansion of our present knowledge and data base. Reconciliation, generally, was proposed through augmentation of communication among the opposing groups through the availability of appropriate fora and development of a general spirit of good intention for a common cause: mankind's ultimate well-being

  20. Dynamic characterization and damage detection in the I-40 bridge over the Rio Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Baker, W.E.; Bell, T.M.; Cone, K.M.; Darling, T.W.; Duffey, T.A.; Eklund, A.; Migliori, A.

    1994-06-01

    In the 1960`s and 1970`s over 2500 bridges were built in the U.S. with a design similar to those on Interstate 40 over the Rio Grande in Albuquerque, New Mexico. These bridges were built without structural redundancy and typically have only two plate girders carrying the entire dead and live loads. Failure of either girder is assumed to produce catastrophic failure of the bridge, hence these bridges are referred to as fracture-critical bridges. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) have provided funds to New Mexico State University (NMSU) through the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department (NMSH&TD) and The Alliance For Transportation Research (ATR) for evaluation and testing of the existing fracture critical bridges over the Rio Grande. Because the 1-40 bridges over the Rio Grande were to be razed during the summer of 1993, the investigators were able to introduce simulated fatigue cracks, similar to those observed in the field, into the structure in order to test various damage identification methods and to observe the changes in load paths through the structure caused by the cracking. To support this research effort, NMSU contracted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform experimental modal analyses, and to develop experimentally verified numerical models of the bridge. Scientists from the LANL`s Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group (P-10) applied state-of-the-art sensors and data acquisition software to the modal tests. Engineers from the LANL`s Advanced Engineering Technology Group (MEE-13) conducted ambient and forced vibration tests to verify detailed and simplified finite element models of the bridge. Forced vibration testing was done in conjunction with engineers from Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) who provided and operated a hydraulic shaker.

  1. Advanced bridge (interferometric) phase and amplitude noise measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rubiola, E; Rubiola, Enrico; Giordano, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of the close-to-the-carrier noise of rf and microwave devices is a relevant issue in time and frequency metrology and in some fields of electronics, physics and optics. While phase noise is the main concern, amplitude noise is often of interest. The highest sensitivity is achieved with the bridge (interferometric) method, which consists of the amplification and synchronous detection of the noise sidebands after suppressing the carrier by vector subtraction of an equal signal. A substantial progress in understanding the flicker noise mechanism of the interferometer results in new schemes that improve by 20--30 dB the sensitivity at low Fourier frequencies. The article provides the complete theory and detailed design criteria, and reports on the implementation of a prototype. In real-time measurements, a background noise of -175 -180 dBrad^2/Hz has been obtained at f=1 Hz off the 100 MHz carrier. Exploiting correlation and averaging in similar conditions, the sensitivity exceeds -185 dBrad^2/Hz ...

  2. Traceability and retrievability: Documentation, the bridge from science to compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this day of regulatory compliance, the fact that good science was practiced and documented is, in and of itself, not enough to assure a successful licensing or permitting result. A new level of documentation, that clearly walks a non-project reviewer through the traceability of all activities and decisions is required for successful acceptance of scientific results. Compliance reviewers (whether the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), etc.) expect to verify the results of the scientific and program activities without the physical presence of the person or persons that conducted the activity. Traceability of activities and associated decisions through the retrieval of all associated records is a must. This presentation is based on lessons learned from the various quality assurance (QA) audits and program reviews of Sandia National Laboratories, Nuclear Waste Management Programs Center, scientific and programmatic documentation. The authors build a bridge from science to compliance from lessons learned. Here now is a somewhat fictional rendition of actual scientific testing and compliance support activities

  3. Tests and assessments of NDT methods for concrete bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Juergen; Krause, M.; Wiggenhauser, Herbert

    1998-03-01

    A research project is described involving a comparison of different non-destructive test methods for concrete bridges. A cooperative test series was started with the aim to compare and evaluate the performance and benefits of the latest technical developments in this field. For this purpose test specimens with localized defects were produced. Different modifications of radar, ultrasonic-echo and impact-echo methods were investigated. Including two- and three- dimensional reconstruction models. The experiments were accompanied by numerical simulation of the propagation of sound waves and microwaves. The results showed that the radar and the ultrasonic methods were efficient tools to locate the tendon ducts accurately if the reinforcing bars were not to narrowly spaced. The ultrasonic imaging methods were capable of identifying injection and compaction faults in a blind test. The good performance of the impact-echo method with regard to locating tendon ducts which was claimed in several publications could not be validated in the present investigations. The simulation models provided valuable information on how to improve the experimental test program and its evaluation.

  4. Bridging the Macroscopic and Atomistic Descriptions of the Electrocaloric Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, I.; Lisenkov, S.

    2012-04-01

    First-principles-based simulations are used to simulate the electrocaloric effect (ECE) in Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 alloys. In analogy with experimental studies we simulate the effect directly and indirectly (via the use of Maxwell thermodynamics). Both direct and indirect simulations utilize the same atomistic framework that allows us to compare them in a systematic way and with an atomistic precision for the very first time. Such precise comparison allows us to provide a bridge between the atomistic and macroscopic descriptions of the ECE and identify the factors that may critically compromise or even destroy their equivalence. Our computational data reveal the intrinsic features of ECE in ferroelectrics with multiple ferroelectric transitions and confirm the potential of these materials to exhibit giant electrocaloric response. The coexistence of negative and positive ECE in one material as well as an unusual field-driven transition between them is predicted, explained at an atomistic level, and proposed as a potential way to enhance the electrocaloric efficiency.

  5. Science communication: Bridging the gap between theory and practise

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The 6th Public Communication of Science and Technology network conference will be held at CERN on 1-3 Febraury 2001. Scientists and communication professionals will analyse the state of the art of science communication and the new perception people have about science in the media from newspapers to the Web.   Will communication be able to bridge the gap between Science and Society? What is the impact of science communication on the public? How do novel means of communications change the perception of science for the general public? These and other interesting questions will be addressed at the 6th Public Communication of Science and Technology Meeting, to be held at CERN on 1-3 February 2001. More than 250 people from all over the world are expected to attend the conference which will be an important meeting place for communication professionals covering the social, political, technical and cultural aspects of science and technology communication. Georges Boixader after Gary Larsson. The conferenc...

  6. Bridge over troubled gas: clusters and associations under the SMC and LMC tidal stresses

    CERN Document Server

    Bica, E; Bonatto, C; Garcia-Dias, R; Kerber, L; Dias, B; Barbuy, B; Balbinot, E

    2015-01-01

    We obtained SOAR telescope B and V photometry of 14 star clusters and 2 associations in the Bridge tidal structure connecting the LMC and SMC. These objects are used to study the formation and evolution of star clusters and associations under tidal stresses from the Clouds. Typical star clusters in the Bridge are not richly populated and have in general relatively large diameters (~30-35 pc), being larger than Galactic counterparts of similar age. Ages and other fundamental parameters are determined with field-star decontaminated photometry. A self-consistent approach is used to derive parameters for the most-populated sample cluster NGC 796 and two young CMD templates built with the remaining Bridge clusters. We find that the clusters are not coeval in the Bridge. They range from approximately a few Myr (still related to optical HII regions and WISE and Spitzer dust emission measurements) to about 100-200 Myr. The derived distance moduli for the Bridge objects suggests that the Bridge is a structure connecti...

  7. Decision support system for integrating remote sensing in bridge condition assessment and preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Arthur; Brooks, Colin; Harris, Devin; Ahlborn, Tess; Vaghefi, Khatereh

    2012-04-01

    Since the National Bridge Inventory (NBI) was first conducted, structural health monitoring (SHM) of U.S. bridge infrastructure has consisted largely of time and labor-intensive surveys with subjective results. In-situ and embedded sensors, while more reliable and accurate, can be costly and in many cases infeasible for SHM because they require installation in hard-to-reach places or during construction. Remote sensing (RS) technologies such as radar, electrooptical imaging and laser scanning may offer an innovative, cost-effective method of monitoring the dynamic conditions of U.S. bridges in real-time. While some RS techniques may be costly for state agencies to deploy on their own, RS imagery is available through government agencies or commercial vendors for moderate or no cost. How can disparate RS datasets be integrated with one another and with inventory data in a way that is meaningful to bridge asset management decision makers? This paper discusses the development and functionality of the Bridge Condition Decision Support System (DSS), a web-based asset management tool for bridge managers and inspectors. The DSS seamlessly merges bridge metrics from RS data with NBI inventory data allowing decision makers to compare up-to-date bridge condition metrics from multiple inputs as a time series. It enables analysis of RS and inventory data available through user-friendly web services which can also expose virtually unlimited server-side data processing. Using open-source software, the authors developed a scalable, spatially-aware bridge condition database with a fast and flexible server application programming interface (API) and a cross-browser compatible web mapping application written in Javascript.

  8. Confirming criticality safety of TRU waste with neutron measurements and risk analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The criticality safety of 239Pu in 55-gallon drums stored in TRU waste containers (culverts) is confirmed using NDA neutron measurements and risk analyses. The neutron measurements yield a 239Pu mass and keff for a culvert, which contains up to 14 drums. Conservative probabilistic risk analyses were developed for both drums and culverts. Overall 239Pu mass estimates are less than a calculated safety limit of 2800 g per culvert. The largest measured keff is 0.904. The largest probability for a critical drum is 6.9 x 10-8 and that for a culvert is 1.72 x 10-7. All examined suspect culverts, totaling 118 in number, are appraised as safe based on these observations

  9. Building Carbon Bridges on and between Fullerenes in Helium Nanodroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnokutski, Serge A; Kuhn, Martin; Kaiser, Alexander; Mauracher, Andreas; Renzler, Michael; Bohme, Diethard K; Scheier, Paul

    2016-04-21

    We report the observation of sequential encounters of fullerenes with C atoms in an extremely cold environment. Experiments were performed with helium droplets at 0.37 K doped with C60 molecules and C atoms derived from a novel, pure source of C atoms. Very high-resolution mass spectra revealed the formation of carbenes of the type C60(C:)n with n up to 6. Bridge-type bonding of the C adatoms to form the known dumbbell C60═C═C60 also was observed. Density functional theory calculations were performed that elucidated the carbene character of the C60(C:)n species and their structures. Mass spectra taken in the presence of water impurities and in separate experiments with added H2 also revealed the formation of the adducts C60Cn(H2O)n and C60Cn(H2)n probably by H-OH and H-H bond insertion, respectively, and nonreactivity for the dumbell. So C adatoms that form carbenes C60(C:)n can endow pristine C60 with a higher chemical reactivity. PMID:27043313

  10. Building Carbon Bridges on and between Fullerenes in Helium Nanodroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of sequential encounters of fullerenes with C atoms in an extremely cold environment. Experiments were performed with helium droplets at 0.37 K doped with C60 molecules and C atoms derived from a novel, pure source of C atoms. Very high-resolution mass spectra revealed the formation of carbenes of the type C60(C:)n with n up to 6. Bridge-type bonding of the C adatoms to form the known dumbbell C60=C=C60 also was observed. Density functional theory calculations were performed that elucidated the carbene character of the C60(C:)n species and their structures. Mass spectra taken in the presence of water impurities and in separate experiments with added H2 also revealed the formation of the adducts C60Cn(H2O)n and C60Cn(H2)n probably by H–OH and H–H bond insertion, respectively, and nonreactivity for the dumbell. So C adatoms that form carbenes C60(C:)n can endow pristine C60 with a higher chemical reactivity. PMID:27043313

  11. Bridging the gap between health care professionals and communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Hartley

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Bridging the gap between health care professionals and communities is a difficult task. It involves establishing a culture of community participation and improving the process of communication between the two groups. Effective communication between these groups is not easy. The people concerned often speak different languages, have different levels of education and competence, different priorities in life and generally understand things differently. In addition, the greatest proportion of communication is transmitted non-verbally, through gestures, facial expressions and ‘body language’. This is important for two reasons. Firstly, any feelings of pity, superiority, frustration, dismissal or respect, will almost certainly be transmitted through these alternative modes of communication, they carry much more powerful messages than those contained in what is said. Secondly, many of these non-verbal messages, with the major exception of speech intonation, are visual and are therefore missed by people who cannot see well enough to pick them up. This combines to give an effective recipe for communication breakdown.

  12. Generalized Gaussian Bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Sottinen, Tommi

    2012-01-01

    A generalized bridge is the law of a stochastic process that is conditioned on linear functionals of its path. We consider two types of representations of such bridges: orthogonal and canonical. In the canonical representation the filtrations and the linear spaces generated by the bridge process and the original process coincide. In the orthogonal representation the bridge is constructed from the entire path of the underlying process. The orthogonal representation is given for any continuous Gaussian process but the canonical representation is given only for so-called prediction-invertible Gaussian processes. Finally, we apply the canonical bridge representation to insider trading by interpreting the bridge from an initial enlargement of filtration point of view.

  13. 49 CFR 237.73 - Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-dimension loads. 237.73 Section 237.73 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Bridges § 237.73 Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads. (a) Each track owner... exceed the capacity or dimensions of its bridges. (b) The instructions regarding weight shall...

  14. Concrete bridge prioritization system

    OpenAIRE

    Kesselring, Debbie Anne

    1995-01-01

    An alternative method of prioritization for concrete bridge maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation activities is required due to the inability of the current system to manage the increasing nmnber of aging concrete bridges. The Concrete Bridge Prioritization System was proposed because of its ability to address the critical technical parameters of safety and cost benefit in prioritization of funding and work allocation. The analysis includes four parts, service life assessment, s...

  15. Soft-switching PWM full-bridge converters topologies, control, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, Xinbo

    2014-01-01

    Soft-switching PWM full-bridge converters have been widely used in medium-to-high power dc-dc conversions for topological simplicity, easy control and high efficiency. Early works on soft-switching PWM full-bridge converter by many researchers included various topologies and modulation strategies.  However, these works were scattered, and the relationship among these topologies and modulation strategies had not been revealed. This book intends to describe systematically the soft-switching techniques for pulse-width modulation (PWM) full-bridge converters, including the topologies, control and

  16. Structures and energetics of carbon bridged C60 clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structures and energetics of carbon bridged C60 clusters (C 60)nCm have been studied by simulated annealing technique within the tight-binding molecular-dynamics. The ''sp2 addition'' ball-and-chain dimers exhibit odd-even alternations over the number of chain atoms, with the dimers containing even chain atoms more stable against dissociation than their immediate neighbors containing odd chain atoms. In addition to the usual ''sp2 addition'' dimers, a pentagon-linked C121 isomer and a hexagon-linked C122 isomer are also found to be stable. Based on our tight-binding calculations, trimers and larger clusters can be simply regarded as being made up of independent or weakly interacting dimers, if the C-C60 joints on a single cage are not too close to each other. Large C60 clusters connected by chains each containing only one or two carbon atoms have similar stability to that of constituent dimers, indicating the possibility to form stable C60-carbon polymers. (orig.)

  17. Temperature and flow fields in a high prandtl number liquid bridge under microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature and flow fields of high prandtl number liquid bridge with surface deformation have been investigated under microgravity by a developed numerical model, and numerical simulations have been carried out based on the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the energy conservation equation on a staggered grid. In numerical calculations, the free surface deformation and the effects of ambient air are considered. The surface deformation of liquid bridge is monitored by level set method of mass conservation to capture two phase interfaces. Simultaneously, results of temperature and flow fields in liquid bridge are given.

  18. Electronic structure and spectra of binuclear bridged nitrosyl ruthenium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The B3LYP method in the LanL2DZ basis set was used to carry out geometry optimization for the binuclear bridged complexes [RuCl4(NO)(μ-Pyz)Ru(P)(CO)]-, [Ru(Bipy)2(NO)(μ-Pyz)Ru(NH3)5]5+, and [(NC)Ru(Py)4(μ-CN)Ru(Py)4NO]3+ (Pyz is pyrazine; P is porphinate). The electronic spectra of the complexes were calculated by the TDDFT and CINDO-CI methods with allowance for solvation effects. The ground-state electronic configurations of the two ruthenium atoms in these compounds were shown to be different. Among the lower excited states of all complexes, states with essentially weakened Ru-NO bonds were found. The strong absorption in the visible region of the spectrum of [Ru(Py)4NO-CN-Ru(Py)4CN]3+ is due to the interfragment electron transfer RuII → {RuNO} accompanied by weakening of the bond between nitrogen oxide and the complex

  19. Fuzzy communities and the concept of bridgeness in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepusz, Tamás; Petróczi, Andrea; Négyessy, László; Bazsó, Fülöp

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of fuzzy community detection in networks, which complements and expands the concept of overlapping community structure. Our approach allows each vertex of the graph to belong to multiple communities at the same time, determined by exact numerical membership degrees, even in the presence of uncertainty in the data being analyzed. We create an algorithm for determining the optimal membership degrees with respect to a given goal function. Based on the membership degrees, we introduce a measure that is able to identify outlier vertices that do not belong to any of the communities, bridge vertices that have significant membership in more than one single community, and regular vertices that fundamentally restrict their interactions within their own community, while also being able to quantify the centrality of a vertex with respect to its dominant community. The method can also be used for prediction in case of uncertainty in the data set analyzed. The number of communities can be given in advance, or determined by the algorithm itself, using a fuzzified variant of the modularity function. The technique is able to discover the fuzzy community structure of different real world networks including, but not limited to, social networks, scientific collaboration networks, and cortical networks, with high confidence. PMID:18351915

  20. Self-assembly of bridged silsesquioxanes: modulating structural evolution via cooperative covalent and noncovalent interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creff, Gaelle; Pichon, Benoît P; Blanc, Christophe; Maurin, David; Sauvajol, Jean-Louis; Carcel, Carole; Moreau, Joël J E; Roy, Pascale; Bartlett, John R; Man, Michel Wong Chi; Bantignies, Jean-Louis

    2013-05-01

    The self-assembly of a bis-urea phenylene-bridged silsesquioxane precursor during sol-gel synthesis has been investigated by in situ infrared spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and light scattering. In particular, the evolution of the system as a function of processing time was correlated with covalent interactions associated with increasing polycondensation and noncovalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding. A comprehensive mechanism based on the hydrolysis of the phenylene-bridged organosilane precursor prior to the crystallization of the corresponding bridged silsesquioxane via H-bonding and subsequent irreversible polycondensation is proposed. PMID:23574041

  1. Solvent-Exposed Salt Bridges Influence the Kinetics of alpha-Helix Folding and Unfolding

    OpenAIRE

    Meuzelaar, Heleen; Tros, Martijn; Huerta-Viga, Adriana; Chris N. van Dijk; Vreede, Jocelyne; Woutersen, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Salt bridges are known to play an essential role in the thermodynamic stability of the folded conformation of many proteins, but their influence on the kinetics of folding remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of Glu-Arg salt bridges on the kinetics of α-helix folding using temperature-jump transient-infrared spectroscopy and steady-state UV circular dichroism. We find that geometrically optimized salt bridges (Glu– and Arg+ are spaced four peptide units apart, and the Glu/...

  2. Bridging the gap between low and high mass dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Duncan; Graham, Alister; Foster, Caroline; Hau, G; Benson, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    While the dark matter content within the most massive giant and smallest dwarf galaxies has been probed -- spanning a range of over one million in mass -- an important observational gap remains for galaxies of intermediate mass. This gap covers K band magnitudes of approximately -16 > M_K > -18 (for which dwarf galaxies have B--K ~ 2). On the high mass side of the gap are dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies, that are dominated by stars in their inner regions. While the low mass side includes dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies that are dark matter-dominated and ultra compact dwarf (UCD) objects that are star-dominated. Evolutionary pathways across the gap have been suggested but remain largely untested because the `gap' galaxies are faint, making dynamical measurements very challenging. With long exposures on the Keck telescope using the ESI instrument we have succeeded in bridging this gap by measuring the dynamical mass for five dwarf galaxies with M_K ~ -17.5 (M_B ~ --15.5). With the exception of our brightest dwa...

  3. Sub-Nyquist Sampling: Bridging Theory and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mishali, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Sampling theory encompasses all aspects related to the conversion of continuous-time signals to discrete streams of numbers. The famous Shannon-Nyquist theorem has become a landmark in the development of digital signal processing. In modern applications, an increasingly number of functions is being pushed forward to sophisticated software algorithms, leaving only those delicate finely-tuned tasks for the circuit level. In this paper, we review sampling strategies which target reduction of the ADC rate below Nyquist. Our survey covers classic works from the early 50's of the previous century through recent publications from the past several years. The prime focus is bridging theory and practice, that is to pinpoint the potential of sub-Nyquist strategies to emerge from the math to the hardware. In that spirit, we integrate contemporary theoretical viewpoints, which study signal modeling in a union of subspaces, together with a taste of practical aspects, namely how the avant-garde modalities boil down to concr...

  4. The literacy gaps bridge-building strategies for English language learners and standard English learners

    CERN Document Server

    Soto, Ivannia M

    2009-01-01

    Build bridges of support so English language learners and standard English learners can learn alongside their peers! This comprehensive, research-based guide helps teachers bridge multiple gaps and promote learning for English language learners (ELLs) and standard English learners (SELs). The authors provide strategies, examples, and tools to address: The gap between students and texts: covering word recognition, background knowledge, comprehension, and academic language development The gap between students and teachers: including sociocultural differences between teachers and students and tea

  5. Modal Identification and Damage Detection on a Concrete Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle; Zhang, Lingmi

    2007-01-01

    As a part of a research project co-founded by the European Community, a series of 15 damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case. A dense array of instruments allowed the identification o...... objective is to show the application of the FDD method as an efficient way to perform health monitoring of civil engineering structures. The modal properties, frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes for the different damage cases were compared with those for the undamaged bridge....

  6. Orstein-Uhlenbeck bridge and applications to Markov semigroups

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goldys, B.; Maslowski, Bohdan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 10 (2008), s. 1738-1767. ISSN 0304-4149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/07/0237 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : UO Bridge * Markov semigroups * hyperboundedness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.068, year: 2008

  7. Student assistantships: bridging the gap between student and doctor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crossley JGM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available James GM Crossley,1,2 Pirashanthie Vivekananda-Schmidt1 1University of Sheffield School of Medicine, Sheffield, 2Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Chesterfield, UK Abstract: In 2009, the General Medical Council UK (GMC published its updated guidance on medical education for the UK medical schools – Tomorrow's Doctors 2009. The Council recommended that the UK medical schools introduce, for the first time, a clinical placement in which a senior medical student, “assisting a junior doctor and under supervision, undertakes most of the duties of an F1 doctor”. In the UK, an F1 doctor is a postgraduation year 1 (PGY1 doctor. This new kind of placement was called a student assistantship. The recommendation was considered necessary because conventional UK clinical placements rarely provided medical students with opportunities to take responsibility for patients – even under supervision. This is in spite of good evidence that higher levels of learning, and the acquisition of essential clinical and nontechnical skills, depend on students participating in health care delivery and gradually assuming responsibility under supervision. This review discusses the gap between student and doctor, and the impact of the student assistantship policy. Early evaluation indicates substantial variation in the clarity of purpose, setting, length, and scope of existing assistantships. In particular, few models are explicit on the most critical issue: exactly how the student participates in care and how supervision is deployed to optimize learning and patient safety. Surveys indicate that these issues are central to students' perceptions of the assistantship. They know when they have experienced real responsibility and when they have not. This lack of clarity and variation has limited the impact of student assistantships. We also consider other important approaches to bridging the gap between student and doctor. These include supporting the

  8. Correlation between Depth of Myocardial Bridging and Coronary Angiography Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Myocardial bridging (MB) is a congenital anomaly in which a segment of coronary artery is surrounded by myocardium. Purpose: To investigate the correlation between muscle thickness over the tunneled coronary artery (depth) in MB and the presence of milking effect (ME) and systolic narrowing ratio in catheter angiography (CA). Material and Methods: The records of 36 patients who underwent a coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and following CA examination for suspicious ischemic coronary artery disease, between March 2005 and September 2007, were retrospectively evaluated. According to the depth of MB on CTA, patients were grouped into four groups: group 1, <1 mm; group 2, 1- <2 mm; group 3, 2- <4 mm; group 4, =4 mm. The presence of milking effect, systolic narrowing ratio, and atherosclerotic stenosis at CA were recorded. CTA and CA results were then compared to evaluate the correlation. Results: In total, ME was found in 15 arteries at CA (42%). There was no ME in group 1; it was present in 11% of group 2, 67% of group 3, and 100% of group 4. Starting from group 3, the percentage of likelihood of seeing the milking effect was 77%, and the percentage of systolic narrowing was between 30 and 70%. There was a significant correlation between depth of MB and systolic narrowing (P<0.01), while no significant correlation between length of MB and systolic narrowing was found (P=0.32). In seven of the 36 patients (group 1, 0; group 2, 1; group 3, 3; group 4, 3), clinical findings were related to pure MB. Conclusion: The depth of MB is positively related to coronary narrowing and clinical ischemic findings

  9. Correlation between Depth of Myocardial Bridging and Coronary Angiography Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmali, M.; Soylu, K.; Gulel, O.; Bayrak, I.K.; Koprulu, D.; Diren, H.B.; Celenk, C. (Dept. of Radiology and Dept. of Cardiology, Ondokuz Mayis Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey))

    2008-10-15

    Background: Myocardial bridging (MB) is a congenital anomaly in which a segment of coronary artery is surrounded by myocardium. Purpose: To investigate the correlation between muscle thickness over the tunneled coronary artery (depth) in MB and the presence of milking effect (ME) and systolic narrowing ratio in catheter angiography (CA). Material and Methods: The records of 36 patients who underwent a coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and following CA examination for suspicious ischemic coronary artery disease, between March 2005 and September 2007, were retrospectively evaluated. According to the depth of MB on CTA, patients were grouped into four groups: group 1, <1 mm; group 2, 1- <2 mm; group 3, 2- <4 mm; group 4, =4 mm. The presence of milking effect, systolic narrowing ratio, and atherosclerotic stenosis at CA were recorded. CTA and CA results were then compared to evaluate the correlation. Results: In total, ME was found in 15 arteries at CA (42%). There was no ME in group 1; it was present in 11% of group 2, 67% of group 3, and 100% of group 4. Starting from group 3, the percentage of likelihood of seeing the milking effect was 77%, and the percentage of systolic narrowing was between 30 and 70%. There was a significant correlation between depth of MB and systolic narrowing (P<0.01), while no significant correlation between length of MB and systolic narrowing was found (P=0.32). In seven of the 36 patients (group 1, 0; group 2, 1; group 3, 3; group 4, 3), clinical findings were related to pure MB. Conclusion: The depth of MB is positively related to coronary narrowing and clinical ischemic findings

  10. Habits: bridging the gap between personhood and personal identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils-Frederic Wagner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In philosophy, the criteria for personhood (PH at a specific point in time (synchronic, and the necessary and sufficient conditions of personal identity (PI over time (diachronic are traditionally separated. Hence, the transition between both timescales of a person’s life remains largely unclear. Personal habits reflect a decision-making (DM process that binds together synchronic and diachronic timescales. Despite the fact that the actualization of habits takes place synchronically, they presuppose, for the possibility of their generation, time in a diachronic sense. The acquisition of habits therefore rests upon PI over time; that is, the temporal extension of personal decisions is the necessary condition for the possible development of habits. Conceptually, habits can thus be seen as a bridge between synchronic and diachronic timescales of a person’s life. In order to investigate the empirical mediation of this temporal linkage, we draw upon the neuronal mechanisms underlying DM; in particular on the distinction between internally and externally guided DM. Externally guided DM relies on external criteria at a specific point in time (synchronic; on a neural level, this has been associated with lateral frontal and parietal brain regions. In contrast, internally guided DM is based on the person’s own preferences that involve a more longitudinal and thus diachronic timescale, which has been associated with the brain’s intrinsic activity. Habits can be considered to reflect a balance between internally and externally guided DM, which implicates a particular temporal balance between diachronic and synchronic elements, thus linking two different timescales. Based on such evidence, we suggest a habit-based neurophilosophical approach of PH and PI by focusing on the empirically-based linkage between the synchronic and diachronic elements of habits. By doing so, we propose to link together what philosophically has been described and analyzed

  11. Bridging and Bonding Social Capital: which type is good for economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Smulders, Sjak

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we develop a model of growth and social capital, and test it using data from the European Value Survey (EVS). Following Putnam’s distinction between bonding and bridging social capital, we model social capital as participation in two types of social networks: first, closed networks of family and friends, and, second, open networks that bridge different communities. Agents have a preference for social interaction, which they trade off against material well-being. Participation in...

  12. Clinical and Radiological Evaluation after Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Using Suture Bridge Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Won; Seo, Dong Wook; Bae, Kyoung Wan; Choy, Won Sik

    2013-01-01

    Background We retrospectively assessed the clinical outcomes and investigated risk factors influencing retear after arthroscopic suture bridge repair technique for rotator cuff tear through clinical assessment and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA). Methods Between January 2008 and April 2011, sixty-two cases of full-thickness rotator cuff tear were treated with arthroscopic suture bridge repair technique and follow-up MRA were performed. The mean age was 56.1 years, and mean follow-up per...

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of flow and mass transfer in electrohydrodynamic liquid bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Wexler, Adam D; Fuchs, Elmar C; Woisetschläger, Jakob; Reiter, Gert; Fuchsjäger, Michael; Reiter, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Here we report on the feasibility and use of magnetic resonance imaging based methods to the study of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) liquid bridges. High speed tomographic recordings through the longitudinal axis of water bridges were used to characterize the mass transfer dynamics, mixing, and flow structure. By filling one beaker with heavy water and the other with light water it was possible to track the spread of the proton signal throughout the total liquid volume. The mixing kinetics are different depending on where the light nuclei are located and proceeds faster when the anolyte is light water. Distinct flow and mixing regions are identified in the fluid volumes and it is shown that the EHD flow at the electrodes can be counteracted by the density difference between water isotopes. MR phase contrast imaging reveals that within the bridge section two separate counter propagating flows pass one above the other in the bridge.

  14. Tomographic and numerical studies of polymer bridges between two optical fibers for telecommunication applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Michal; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Parat, Vincent; Baethge, Gregory; Michalska, Aneta; Dahmani, Brahim; Ottevaere, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    We present the tomographic study of the refractive index distribution in polymer bridges between two optical fibers. Detailed refractive index maps are needed in order to improve the technological process for manufacturing those bridges and to achieve a lower return loss. At first, the technological process of the fabrication of bridges through photopolymerization is presented. The interferometric measurements of reference fibers used to produce those bridges and two series of microbridges are performed experimentally in the visible (VIS; 632.8 nm) and infrared (IR; 1550 nm) wavelength regions. The relation between the VIS and IR results is determined, which allows performing tomographic measurements in more accurate conditions in the VIS spectrum. The experimentally obtained refractive index distributions in the microbridges are used for modeling the insertion and return losses, which are compared with the real loss obtained for the produced microbridges. This knowledge will be used for better understanding the manufacturing process and its further optimization.

  15. 76 FR 30320 - Public Scoping Meeting and Preparation of Environmental Impact Statement for Luce Bayou...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... jurisdictional wetlands, and the construction of structures that may affect navigable waters. Federal..., berms, chain link perimeter fencing, flow control structures, and metering stations. e. Box culverts...

  16. Bridge Assessment and Health Monitoring with Distributed Long-Gauge FBG Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Chunfeng Wan; Wan Hong; Jianxun Liu; Zhishen Wu; Zhaodong Xu; Shu Li

    2013-01-01

    Most sensors for structural testing and health monitoring are “point” sensors which strongly limit the ability to correct damage detection and structural assessment. In this paper, long-gauge FBG sensor which can sense the whole area within the gauge length is introduced. Bridge assessment and health monitoring with the microstrain distribution acquired by the distributed long-gauge FBG sensor are also studied. Experiments were conducted and application to a real prestressed box bridge was al...

  17. Activating efficiency of Ca2+ and cross-bridges as measured by phosphate analog release.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, M.; Takemori, S

    2001-01-01

    To assess the activating efficiency of Ca2+ and cross-bridges, the release rates of phosphate analogs from skinned fibers were estimated from the recovery of contractility and that of stiffness. Estimations were performed based on the assumptions that contractility was indicative of the population of analog-free myosin heads and that stiffness reflected the population of formed cross-bridges. Aluminofluoride (AlFx) and orthovanadate (Vi) were used as phosphate analogs with mechanically skinne...

  18. Analysis and Comparison Based on Component Stress Factor of Dual Active Bridge and Isolated Full Bridge Boost Converters for Bidirectional Fuel Cells Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Zhang, Zhe;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis and comparison of isolated topologies for bidirectional fuel cell systems. The analyzed topologies are the dua l active bridge (DAB) and the isolated full bridge boost converter (IFBBC). The analysis is performed based on the component stress factor (CSF). Results...... highlight that the DAB has lower CSF than the IFBBC for narrow converter operating points. On the other hand the IFBBC presents a more homogeneous CSF over the entire converter operating range. Finally, experimental results obtained from a 30-80 V 80 A 6 kW 40 kHz IFBBC are presented. The converter achieves...

  19. 鸭绿江界河公路大桥主桥桥型方案比选%Comparison and Selection of Proposed Bridge Types for Main Bridge of Yalu Boundary River Highway Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宏业; 于传君

    2013-01-01

    The Yalu Boundary River Highway Bridge is an important international project connecting China and DPR Korea. In the light of the actual project conditions at the bridge site, two proposed bridge types for the main bridge of the bridge were compared, i. e. a steel box girder cable-stayed bridge with double pylons and double cable planes (the span arrangement being (86 + 229 + 636 + 229 + 86) m and the pylons being the H-shape concrete structures to be cast in situ) and a steel and concrete composite girder cable-stayed bridge with double pylons and double cable planes (the span arrangement being (87 + 228 + 636 + 228 + 87) m and the pylons being the inverted Y-shape concrete structures to be cast in situ). The plane link program Doctor Bridge V3. 2. 0 was used to respectively set up the finite element models for the two bridge types, the global mechanical behavior of the two bridges at completion and operation stages were analyzed and the construction convenience, durability and economy were analyzed as well. The results of the analysis show that the structural mechanical behavior of the steel box girder cable-stayed bridge is more advantageous, the construction is more convenient, the construction time schedule is shorter and the seismic performance is better and therefore the box girder bridge having 5 spans, double pylons and double planes is finally selected.%鸭绿江界河公路大桥是连接朝鲜的跨国性重要工程,结合桥址处实际工程条件,选取双塔双索面钢箱梁斜拉桥[跨径布置为(86+229+636+229+86)m,采用现浇H形桥塔]和双塔双索面钢-混结合梁斜拉桥[跨径布置为(87+228+636+228+87)m,采用现浇倒Y形桥塔]2种桥型方案进行比选.采用平面杆系程序桥梁博士V3.2.0分别建立2种方案的有限元模型,按整体成型对桥梁成桥阶段及运营阶段进行整体受力分析,并对2种方案的施工便利性、耐久性及经济性进行对比分析.分析结果表明,钢箱梁斜拉桥结

  20. Comparative Research of Extra-large-span Cable-stayed Bridge with Steel Truss Girder and Steel Box Girder

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Manjiang; Bai Zhizhou; Chen Dewei

    2015-01-01

    To research structural performance of extra-large-span cable-stayed bridge under different section forms, with the engineering background of a 800m main-span cable-stayed bridge with steel truss girder, the cable-stayed bridge with steel box girder is designed according to the current bridge regulations when two bridges are designed in an ultimate state of the carrying capacity, so the maximum stress and minimum stress of the stress envelope diagram are substantially the same. A comprehensive...

  1. Bridging patterns : An approach to bridge gaps between SE and HCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E; van Welie, M; Bosch, J

    2006-01-01

    Adding usability improving solutions during late stage development is to some extent restricted by the software architecture. However, few software engineers and human-computer interaction engineers are aware of this important constraint and as a result avoidable rework is frequently necessary. In t

  2. Evaluation of the Correlation Between Myocardial Bridging and Atherosclerotic Changes in Coronary Artery Segment Proximal to the Bridge by 64-Slice Multidetector CT Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Hoodeshenas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The aim of this study was"nto evaluate the prevalance and characteristics of myocardial bridging (MB and to assess the correlation"nbetween atherosclerosis and MB."nMaterials and Methods: Retrospective evaluation"nof 2790 coronary angiograms were obtained by 64-"nslice multidetector CT. The prevalance, length, depth,"nprecise of MB location and concomitant atherosclerosis"nproximal to tunneled segment were evaluated. The"ngroup of subjects with MB was compared with the"ncontrol group (subjects without MB."nResults: Of the 2790 subjects, 548 (19.64% were"nfound to have MB. MB was present equally in men"nand women. The tunneled segment was intact in"nall subjects. A negative significant correlation was"nfound between the presence of MB and severity of"natherosclerosis in the proximal segment of the coronary"nartery (p<0.001; df=2×2=42.75. The mid LAD was the"nmost common coronary artery involved. The severity"nof atherosclerosis in the part proximal to the tunneled"nsegment correlated with the thickness of bridge"n(p=0.035, but no significant correlation was found"nwith the length of the bridged segment (p=0.431."nConclusion: The myocardial bridge not only does not"npredispose to the development of atherosclerosis in"nthe coronary artery segment proximal to the bridge,"nbut may also be a protective factor.

  3. Bridging in contaminated transformer oil under DC and AC electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two experimental set up have been established to investigate the bridging effect between two electrodes with different potentials under ac and dc voltages. This paper will explain the full details of the experimental setup and the results. These experiments carried out on pressboard particles under three different levels of ac and dc voltages. Several contamination levels have been investigated. Optical images of particle accumulation have been recorded along with associated conduction current measurement during experiments. At higher voltages the rate of bridge formation is increased along with an associated current increase. The major differences between ac and dc bridges are the shapes of the particle accumulation. The bridge formation rate for ac is slower than dc

  4. Nano-catalysts: Bridging the gap between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Functionalized nanoparticles have emerged as sustainable alternatives to conventional materials, as robust, high-surface-area heterogeneous catalyst supports. We envisioned a catalyst system, which can bridge the homogenous and heterogeneous system. Postsynthetic surface modifica...

  5. On the Compatibility Between Quantum and Relativistic Effects in an Electromagnetic Bridge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Auci, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The Dipolar Electromagnetic Source (DEMS) model, based on the Poynting Vector Conjecture, conduces in Bridge Theory to a derivation of the Lorentz transformation connecting pairs of events. The results prove a full compatibility between quantum and relativistic effects.

  6. The first synthesis and X-ray crystallographic analysis of an oxygen-bridged planarized triphenylborane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Yuichi; Suzuki, Takatsugu; Miyata, Yasuo; Kita, Hiroshi; Funaki, Kenji; Oi, Shuichi

    2016-06-01

    An oxygen-bridged planarized triphenylborane has been successfully synthesized. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that the molecule has a complete planarized structure and the shortest C-B bonds among the triarylboranes synthesized to date. PMID:27161278

  7. Seismic bridge pier analysis for pile foundation by force and displacement based approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Singh NP.R.; Vinayak Hemant Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Seismic analysis of bridge pier supported on pile foundation requires consideration of soil-pile-structure (kinematic and inertial) interactions. This paper presents the design forces generated for bridge piers with varying height and constant diameter for medium and soft soils in earthquake probability zones considering contribution of soil-pile-structure interactions by developed analytical approaches. The results have shown that the difference in base sh...

  8. Behavior of Concrete Bridge Decks and Slabs Reinforced with Epoxy Coated Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Hendy Oetih; Ramirez, J A

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-four slab specimens with splices and transverse steel were tested in the laboratory to evaluate the structural performance of concrete bridge decks reinforced with epoxy-coated steel. Thirty specimens were tested under fatigue loading, and four were tested monotonically. Evaluations were made by comparing the performance of uncoated bar concrete specimens with that of epoxy-coated specimens under service and ultimate load conditions. In addition, a field evaluation of six bridges wa...

  9. Chemically modified heparins inhibit fibrinogen-bridged indirect adhesion between tumor cells and platelets

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Sheng; Liu, Yan; Jiao, Yang; Min WEI; ZENG, XIANLU

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between platelets and tumor cells is critical for the hematogenous metastasis of tumor cells. We recently reported that fibrinogen was capable of bridging and enhancing the interaction of platelets and tumor cells under conditions of physical shear force. In the present study, we aimed to detect the effects of 8 chemically modified heparins on the binding of fibrinogen to platelets or tumor cells using flow cytometry assays, as well as the fibrinogen-bridged adhesion of platel...

  10. Nonlinear Seismic Response Analysis of Curved and Skewed Bridge System with Spherical Bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Linzell, Daniel G.; Junwon Seo; Jong Wan Hu

    2013-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) modeling approach to investigate nonlinear seismic response of a curved and skewed bridge system is proposed. The approach is applied to a three-span curved and skewed steel girder bridge in the United States. The superstructure is modeled using 3D frame elements for the girders, truss elements for the cross-frames, and equivalent frame elements to represent the deck. Spherical bearings are modeled with zero-length elements coupled with hysteretic material models. Non...

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of flow and mass transfer in electrohydrodynamic liquid bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Adam D. Wexler; Drusova, Sandra; Fuchs, Elmar C; Woisetschläger, Jakob; Reiter, Gert; Fuchsjäger, Michael; Reiter, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Here we report on the feasibility and use of magnetic resonance imaging based methods to the study of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) liquid bridges. High speed tomographic recordings through the longitudinal axis of water bridges were used to characterize the mass transfer dynamics, mixing, and flow structure. By filling one beaker with heavy water and the other with light water it was possible to track the spread of the proton signal throughout the total liquid volume. The mixing kinetics are dif...

  12. Foam-film-stabilized liquid bridge networks in evaporative lithography and wet granular matter

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2013-04-23

    Evaporative lithography using latex particle templates is a novel approach for the self-assembly of suspension-dispersed nanoparticles into ordered microwire networks. The phenomenon that drives the self-assembly process is the propagation of a network of interconnected liquid bridges between the template particles and the underlying substrate. With the aid of video microscopy, we demonstrate that these liquid bridges are in fact the border zone between the underlying substrate and foam films vertical to the substrate, which are formed during the evaporation of the liquid from the suspension. The stability of the foam films and thus the liquid bridge network stability are due to the presence of a small amount of surfactant in the evaporating solution. We show that the same type of foam-film-stabilized liquid bridge network can also propagate in 3D clusters of spherical particles, which has important implications for the understanding of wet granular matter. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Membrane bridging and hemifusion by denaturated Munc18.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xu

    Full Text Available Neuronal Munc18-1 and members of the Sec1/Munc18 (SM protein family play a critical function(s in intracellular membrane fusion together with SNARE proteins, but the mechanism of action of SM proteins remains highly enigmatic. During experiments designed to address this question employing a 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD fluorescence de-quenching assay that is widely used to study lipid mixing between reconstituted proteoliposomes, we observed that Munc18-1 from squid (sMunc18-1 was able to increase the apparent NBD fluorescence emission intensity even in the absence of SNARE proteins. Fluorescence emission scans and dynamic light scattering experiments show that this phenomenon arises at least in part from increased light scattering due to sMunc18-1-induced liposome clustering. Nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism data suggest that, although native sMunc18-1 does not bind significantly to lipids, sMunc18-1 denaturation at 37 °C leads to insertion into membranes. The liposome clustering activity of sMunc18-1 can thus be attributed to its ability to bridge two membranes upon (perhaps partial denaturation; correspondingly, this activity is hindered by addition of glycerol. Cryo-electron microscopy shows that liposome clusters induced by sMunc18-1 include extended interfaces where the bilayers of two liposomes come into very close proximity, and clear hemifusion diaphragms. Although the physiological relevance of our results is uncertain, they emphasize the necessity of complementing fluorescence de-quenching assays with alternative experiments in studies of membrane fusion, as well as the importance of considering the potential effects of protein denaturation. In addition, our data suggest a novel mechanism of membrane hemifusion induced by amphipathic macromolecules that does not involve formation of a stalk intermediate.

  14. Comparative Research of Extra-large-span Cable-stayed Bridge with Steel Truss Girder and Steel Box Girder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Manjiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To research structural performance of extra-large-span cable-stayed bridge under different section forms, with the engineering background of a 800m main-span cable-stayed bridge with steel truss girder, the cable-stayed bridge with steel box girder is designed according to the current bridge regulations when two bridges are designed in an ultimate state of the carrying capacity, so the maximum stress and minimum stress of the stress envelope diagram are substantially the same. A comprehensive comparison is given to two types of bridge on the aspect of static force, natural vibration frequency, stability, economic performance and so on. Analysis results provide future reference for the large-span cable-stayed bridge to select between the steel truss girder and the steel box girder.

  15. The Future of the Technologies of Shell and spatial Structures. Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Samartín, Avelino

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this lecture is try to predict the future of this important type of spatial structures. In this way the activities of the different IASS Technical Working Groups can be stimulated and coordinated in order to play a more relevant role in this future. To grasp a possible evolution of bridges it is convenient a reflection on the bridge history and on their present situation, particularly in relation to the different existing achievements.

  16. Myocardial bridging causing ischemia and recurrent chest pain: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Abdou Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Myocardial bridging is present when a segment of a major epicardial coronary artery runs intramurally through the myocardium. It usually has a benign prognosis, but in some cases myocardial ischemia, infarction and sudden cardiac death have been reported. We are here reporting a case of myocardial bridging which was complicated with recurrent chest pain and transient ST-segment elevation during exercise treadmill test. Case presentation A 40 year-old-man presented with rec...

  17. Static and fatigue investigation of second generation steel free bridge decks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines the static and fatigue behavior of two different cast-in-place second generation steel-free bridge decks, which are: hybrid carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP); and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and steel strap design. Although cast monolithically, the first deck slab was divided into three segments with different reinforcement configurations. All three segments were tested under a 222kN cyclic loading to investigate fatigue behavior. The second bridge deck comprised an internal panel and two cantilevers and was equipped with a civionics system. The internal panel static test that this paper deals with is useful in the development of fatigue theory derived from fatigue testing of the first bridge deck. Test results form the cyclic loading of the first bridge deck indicated that the cross-sectional area of the reinforcement used in the test bridge deck can be reduced by 40% based on the reinforcement provided in the deck under service loads. The hybrid system also reduced the development of longitudinal crack widths to approximately 0.4 mm under service conditions, compared to the cracks that occurred approximately halfway between adjacent bridge girders that were determined to be roughly 1 mm in several first generation steel-free bridge decks constructed in Canada. Civionics, also discussed in the paper, is a new term coined from Civil-Electronics, which is the application of electronics to civil structures. The Civionics Specifications (2004) developed by ISIS Canada researchers are a helpful design tool for engineers and contractors to develop civionics and structural health monitoring systems for civil infrastructure that will last the lifetime of a structure. The use of civionics for the second test bridge deck ensured the survival of 100% of the 63 internal sensors throughout the rigors of the construction and casting of the deck. (author)

  18. Damage Identification of Bridge Based on Modal Flexibility and Neural Network Improved by Particle Swarm Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Hanbing Liu; Gang Song; Yubo Jiao; Peng Zhang; Xianqiang Wang

    2014-01-01

    An approach to identify damage of bridge utilizing modal flexibility and neural network optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO) is presented. The method consists of two stages; modal flexibility indices are applied to damage localizing and neural network optimized by PSO is used to identify the damage severity. Numerical simulation of simply supported bridge is presented to demonstrate feasibility of the proposed method, while comparative analysis with traditional BP network is for its...

  19. Dynamic analysis of the train-bridge interaction: an accurate and efficient numerical method

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, A.; Neves, Sérgio; Calcada, R.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of railway bridges carrying high-speed trains can be analyzed with or without the consideration of the vehicle's own structure. However, due to the amount of kinetic energy carried at high speeds, the train may interact significantly with the bridge, especially when resonance occurs. Equally important is the riding comfort and the stability of the track and train cars, which are usually the most critical limit states in the design of this type of structures...

  20. Fouling control mechanisms of demineralized water backwash: Reduction of charge screening and calcium bridging effects

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng

    2011-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the ionic environment on the charge of colloidal natural organic matter (NOM) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes (charge screening effect) and the calcium adsorption/bridging on new and fouled membranes (calcium bridging effect) by measuring the zeta potentials of membranes and colloidal NOM. Fouling experiments were conducted with natural water to determine whether the reduction of the charge screening effect and/or calcium bridging effect by backwashing with demineralized water can explain the observed reduction in fouling. Results show that the charge of both membranes and NOM, as measured by the zeta potential, became more negative at a lower pH and a lower concentration of electrolytes, in particular, divalent electrolytes. In addition, calcium also adsorbed onto the membranes, and consequently bridged colloidal NOM and membranes via binding with functional groups. The charge screening effect could be eliminated by flushing NOM and membranes with demineralized water, since a cation-free environment was established. However, only a limited amount of the calcium bridging connection was removed with demineralized water backwashes, so the calcium bridging effect mostly could not be eliminated. As demineralized water backwash was found to be effective in fouling control, it can be concluded that the reduction of the charge screening is the dominant mechanism for this. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Feasibility and Costs of Natural Gas as a Bridge to Deep Decarbonization in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. D.; McJeon, H. C.; Muratori, M.; Shi, W.

    2015-12-01

    Achieving emissions reductions consistent with a 2 degree Celsius global warming target requires nearly complete replacement of traditional fossil fuel combustion with near-zero carbon energy technologies in the United States by 2050. There are multiple technological change pathways consistent with this deep decarbonization, including strategies that rely on renewable energy, nuclear, and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. The replacement of coal-fired power plants with natural gas-fired power plants has also been suggested as a bridge strategy to achieve near-term emissions reduction targets. These gas plants, however, would need to be replaced by near-zero energy technologies or retrofitted with CCS by 2050 in order to achieve longer-term targets. Here we examine the costs and feasibility of a natural gas bridge strategy. Using the Global Change Assessment (GCAM) model, we develop multiple scenarios that each meet the recent US Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to reduce GHG emissions by 26%-28% below its 2005 levels in 2025, as well as a deep decarbonization target of 80% emissions reductions below 1990 levels by 2050. We find that the gas bridge strategy requires that gas plants be retired on average 20 years earlier than their designed lifetime of 45 years, a potentially challenging outcome to achieve from a policy perspective. Using a more idealized model, we examine the net energy system costs of this gas bridge strategy compared to one in which near-zero energy technologies are deployed in the near tem. We explore the sensitivity of these cost results to four factors: the discount rate applied to future costs, the length (or start year) of the gas bridge, the relative capital cost of natural gas vs. near-zero energy technology, and the fuel price of natural gas. The discount rate and cost factors are found to be more important than the length of the bridge. However, we find an important interaction as well. At low discount rates

  2. The application and advantages of multi-slice CT in the diagnosis of myocardial bridging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the ability of electrocardiogram-gated multislice CT (MSCT) in the diagnosis of myocardial bridging. Methods: Fifty-one patients (82 coronary arteries) with suspected coronary artery disease underwent multi-detector row CT, conventional coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasonography as well. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MSCT for the detection of myocardial bridging were determined. The interobserver agreement was calculated by using Cohen's Kappa test. Results: A total of 26 tunneled arteries exclusively located near the middle segment of left anterior descending coronary artery were found by coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasonography. Compared to the invasive methods, MSCT correctly detected 23 of 26 myocardial bridges with a sensitivity of 88% (23/26), specificity of 96% (52/54) and accuracy of 94% (75/80). The Kappa value for overall interobserver variation was 0. 62. Two myocardial bridges diagnosed by MSCT were missed with the invasive method. With the results of invasive and non-invasive methods combined as the standard of reference, the overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MSCT in detecting myocardial bridging were 89% (25/28) , 91% (21/23), and 90% (46/51), respectively. Conclusion: As a non-invasive imaging modality, MSCT is feasible and reliable in the detection of myocardial bridging. (authors)

  3. Big data and high-performance analytics in structural health monitoring for bridge management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alampalli, Sharada; Alampalli, Sandeep; Ettouney, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) can be a vital tool for effective bridge management. Combining large data sets from multiple sources to create a data-driven decision-making framework is crucial for the success of SHM. This paper presents a big data analytics framework that combines multiple data sets correlated with functional relatedness to convert data into actionable information that empowers risk-based decision-making. The integrated data environment incorporates near real-time streams of semi-structured data from remote sensors, historical visual inspection data, and observations from structural analysis models to monitor, assess, and manage risks associated with the aging bridge inventories. Accelerated processing of dataset is made possible by four technologies: cloud computing, relational database processing, support from NOSQL database, and in-memory analytics. The framework is being validated on a railroad corridor that can be subjected to multiple hazards. The framework enables to compute reliability indices for critical bridge components and individual bridge spans. In addition, framework includes a risk-based decision-making process that enumerate costs and consequences of poor bridge performance at span- and network-levels when rail networks are exposed to natural hazard events such as floods and earthquakes. Big data and high-performance analytics enable insights to assist bridge owners to address problems faster.

  4. 桥型与环境的协调%The Coordination of Bridge Type and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖鸿华; 陶斌铮

    2013-01-01

      阐述了桥梁造型与环境的关系,不同桥型的形态特征以及与环境的协调。强调了在桥梁桥梁的设计不应只考虑桥承受荷载的能力,同时应考虑其造型及其与环境的协调。%This paper describes the relationship between bridge type with environment, the morphological characteristics of the different bridge type, as well as coordination with the environment. Stressed that it should not only be considered bridge load capacity in the design of bridge, taking into account its type and its harmony with the environment.

  5. Development of a wireless strain node and the software to monitor fracture-critical bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasl, Jeremiah; Samaras, Vasileios; Reichenbach, Matt; Helwig, Todd; Wood, Sharon L.; Potter, David; Lindenberg, Richard; Frank, Karl

    2012-04-01

    Real-time, monitoring systems can enhance the bridge inspection process by providing data for estimating the health of the bridge and potentially notifying bridge owners of problems between inspection visits. A low-power, wireless, strain data acquisition device has recently been developed to acquire dynamic strain data. Strain gages can be used to monitor the number and size of stress cycles in fatigue-sensitive members. From the cycle count, Palmgren-Miner's rule can be used to determine an effective stress range. The remaining fatigue life can then be calculated and compared to existing conditions and the age of the bridge. Because damage is expected to escalate over time, more frequent inspections may be needed when a bridge approaches its fatigue life. The strain node can be programmed in LabVIEW WSN to detect critical events or perform a rainflow analysis. To aid in system interaction, a software interface will be designed to allow for automated processing and transmission of data to a cloud server, thereby allowing engineers and bridge owners to access the data from anywhere so as to make informed decisions when prioritizing inspections. This paper will present the development of the strain node and the software interface.

  6. Application of Composite Structures in Bridge Engineering. Problems of Construction Process and Strength Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaga, Kazimierz; Furtak, Kazimierz

    2015-03-01

    Steel-concrete composite structures have been used in bridge engineering from decades. This is due to rational utilisation of the strength properties of the two materials. At the same time, the reinforced concrete (or prestressed) deck slab is more favourable than the orthotropic steel plate used in steel bridges (higher mass, better vibration damping, longer life). The most commonly found in practice are composite girder bridges, particularly in highway bridges of small and medium spans, but the spans may reach over 200 m. In larger spans steel truss girders are applied. Bridge composite structures are also employed in cable-stayed bridge decks of the main girder spans of the order of 600, 800 m. The aim of the article is to present the cionstruction process and strength analysis problems concerning of this type of structures. Much attention is paid to the design and calculation of the shear connectors characteristic for the discussed objects. The authors focused mainly on the issues of single composite structures. The effect of assembly states on the stresses and strains in composite members are highlighted. A separate part of problems is devoted to the influence of rheological factors, i.e. concrete shrinkage and creep, as well as thermal factors on the stresses and strains and redistribution of internal forces.

  7. Fatigue stress monitoring and analyses for steel box girder of Runyang Suspension Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying WANG; Zhaoxia LI; Baijian WU

    2008-01-01

    The monitoring of fatigue stress of steel bridge is a key issue of bridge health monitoring and safety assessment. This paper aims to find out the strain history features of the girder components of Runyang Suspension Bridge (RYSB) under vehicle and environmental loading during its first year of service based on the strain-history data recorded by structural health monitoring system installed in the bridge. The fatigue stress spectrums of steel box girders under normal traffic load, heavy trucks and typhoon loads were studied as well as the correlation between varying strain and temperature based on real-time monitoring of temperature histories. The results show that, monitoring on local strain in health monitoring systems of RYSB can effectively provide the information on fatigue stresses. The range of the equivalent fatigue stress on the monitoring location of the bridge is currently low, mainly due to varying traffic loading and temper-ature. There exists significant correlation between varying temperature and mean value of fatigue stress. Effect of the passing of heavy trucks on bridge fatigue is quite signifi-cant since the value of the cumulative fatigue damage generated by heavy trucks is 10 to 100 times larger than that by normal traffic. Therefore, the effect on fatigue cumulative damage due to heavy trucks or overloaded vehicles needs to be monitored and paid much attention to.

  8. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps are...

  9. Long term angiographic and clinical follow up in patients with stent implantation for symptomatic myocardial bridging

    OpenAIRE

    Haager, P; Schwarz, E.; Dahl, J.; Klues, H; Reffelmann, T; Hanrath, P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess long term results of coronary stent implantation in patients with symptomatic myocardial bridging.
METHODS—Intracoronary stent implantation was performed within the intramural course of the left anterior descending coronary artery in 11 patients with objective signs of myocardial ischaemia and absence of other cardiac disorders. All had myocardial bridging of the central portion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Quantitative coronary angiography was performe...

  10. Bridge joint fabrication and validation for SST-1 PF coil winding pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Upendra, E-mail: upendra@ipr.res.in; Sharma, A.N.; Patel, D.; Doshi, K.; Varmora, P.; Khristi, Y.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Prototype of bridge type joints fabricated and validated successfully. • Bridge type joints fabricated and validated on one of the SST-1 PF#3T coil successfully. • Joint resistance was measured with precision nano volt meter and PXI based data acquisition system. • Leak tightness of joint box was better than 3 × 10{sup −6} Pa m{sup 3} s{sup −1}. • The measured joint resistance of bridge type joint was ∼1.6 nano ohm. - Abstract: A novel concept of bridge joint for Poloidal field (PF) magnet of SST-1 with damaged winding pack has been realized. This joint has been fabricated on 5th and 6th layers of PF#3T coil winding pack (WP) after validation at 10 kA at liquid helium temperature of 4.2 K in current lead test chamber. The joint resistance of bridge joint was measured ∼1.6 nΩ at flat top DC current of 10 kA. This type of joint could be economically useful for revival of a shorted and damaged WP superconducting PF magnets of Tokamaks. In this paper, details of bridge joint design, fabrication and validations are discussed.

  11. Effects of structural characterizations on fragility functions of bridges subject to seismic shaking and lateral spreading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zhang; Yili Huo; Scott J.Brandenberg; Pirooz Kashighandi

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the seismic vulnerability of different classes of typical bridges in California when subjected to seismic shaking or liquefaction-induced lateral spreading.The detailed structural configurations in terms of superstructure type,connection,continuity at support and foundation type,etc.render different damage resistant capability.Six classes of bridges are established based on their anticipated failure mechanisms under earthquake shaking.The numerical models that are capable of simulating the complex soil-structure interaction effects,nonlinear behavior of columns and connections are developed for each bridge class.The dynamic responses are obtained using nonlinear time history analyses for a suite of 250 earthquake motions with increasing intensity.An equivalent static analysis procedure is also implemented to evaluate the vulnerability of the bridges when subjected to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading.Fragility functions for each bridge class are derived and compared for both seismic shaking (based on nonlinear dynamic analyses) and lateral spreading (based on equivalent static analyses) for different performance states.The study finds that the fragility functions due to either ground shaking or lateral spreading show significant correlation with the structural characterizations,but differences emerge for ground shaking and lateral spreading conditions.Structural properties that will mostly affect the bridges' damage resistant capacity are also idantified.

  12. Dynamic and Fatigue Analysis of an 18th Century Steel Arch Bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the 'Oran-Tlemcen' railway line realization project (159 km), several bridges were built by the Railroads Algerian West Company. 7 km from the east of Tlemcen city, this railway line must cross a very broken mountainous collar, that's why the French engineer 'Gustave Eiffel' was solicited to construct a 68 m length bridge. In 1890, an arch steel truss bridge was realized. The bridge presents 300 m of apron curvature radius and, currently, is considered as one of the most important monuments of the Algerian historical heritage. Considering the age of the bridge and the evolution of the railway loads in time, it was essential to check the good behavior of the studied structure. For that, analyses to verify the physical and mechanical properties of the growth iron members are made. A finite element model of the bridge was built and numerical simulations were drawn. The structural vibration conducted analysis permit to understand the behavior of this particular structure, then to evaluate (in detail) the rate of the structure fatigue

  13. Efforts to Bridge the Gap between Research and Practice in Social Work: Precedents and Prospects: Keynote Address at the Bridging the Gap Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Allen

    2015-01-01

    This keynote address discusses previous and ongoing efforts to reduce the persistent gap between research and practice in social work and offers recommendations for further bridging that gap. Key among those recommendations is the need to conduct descriptive outcome studies of efforts to adapt research-supported interventions in everyday practice…

  14. Structure-borne noise of railway composite bridge: Numerical simulation and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaozhen; Liu, Quanmin; Pei, Shiling; Song, Lizhong; Zhang, Xun

    2015-09-01

    In order to investigate the characteristics of the noise from steel-concrete composite bridges under high-speed train loading, a model used to predict the bridge-borne noise is established and validated through a field experiment. The numerical model for noise prediction is developed based on the combination of spatial train-track-bridge coupled vibration theory and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). Firstly, train-track-bridge coupled vibration is adopted to obtain the velocity time history of the bridge deck vibration. Then, the velocity time history is transferred into frequency domain through FFT to serve as the vibratory energy of SEA deck subsystems. Finally, the transmission of the vibratory energy is obtained by solving the energy balance equations of SEA, and the sound radiation is computed using the vibro-acoustic theory. The numerically computed noise level is verified by a field measurement. It is determined that the dominant frequency of steel-concrete composite bridge-borne noise is 20-1000 Hz. The noise from the bottom flange of steel longitudinal girder is less than other components in the whole frequency bands, while the noise from web of steel longitudinal girder is dominant in high frequency range above 315 Hz. The noise from concrete deck dominates in low-frequency domain ranges from 80 Hz to 160 Hz.

  15. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  16. The floating water bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled in two glass beakers which are in contact, a stable water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge. A detailed experimental analysis reveals static and dynamic structures as well as heat and mass transfer through this bridge

  17. Bridging the divide between genomic science and indigenous peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bette; Roffenbender, Jason; Collmann, Jeff; Cherry, Kate; Bitsói, LeManuel Lee; Bassett, Kim; Evans, Charles H

    2010-01-01

    The new science of genomics endeavors to chart the genomes of individuals around the world, with the dual goals of understanding the role genetic factors play in human health and solving problems of disease and disability. From the perspective of indigenous peoples and developing countries, the promises and perils of genomic science appear against a backdrop of global health disparity and political vulnerability. These conditions pose a dilemma for many communities when attempting to decide about participating in genomic research or any other biomedical research. Genomic research offers the possibility of improved technologies for managing the acute and chronic diseases that plague their members. Yet, the history of particularly biomedical research among people in indigenous and developing nations offers salient examples of unethical practice, misuse of data, and failed promises. This dilemma creates risks for communities who decide either to participate or not to participate in genomic science research. Some argue that the history of poor scientific practice justifies refusal to join genomic research projects. Others argue that disease poses such great threats to the well-being of people in indigenous communities and developing nations that not participating in genomic research risks irrevocable harm. Thus, some communities particularly among indigenous peoples have declined to participate as subjects in genomic research. At the same time, some communities have begun developing new guidelines, procedures, and practices for engaging with the scientific community that offer opportunities to bridge the gap between genomic science and indigenous and/or developing communities. Four new approaches warrant special attention and further support: consulting with local communities; negotiating the complexities of consent; training members of local communities in science and health care; and training scientists to work with indigenous communities. Implicit is a new

  18. Formation and base hydrolysis of oxidimethaneamine bridges in CoIII-amine complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Bernd; Neis, Christian; Zaschka, Anton; Romba, Jens; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Hegetschweiler, Kaspar

    2013-10-21

    cis-[CoL2](3+) (1a(3+)), trans-[CoL2](3+) (2a(3+)), cis-[Co(MeL)2](3+) (1b(3+)), and trans-[Co(MeL)2](3+) (2b(3+)), L = 1,4-diazepan-6-amine (daza) and MeL = 6-methyl-1,4-diazepan-6-amine (Medaza), were allowed to react as templates in acetonitrile with paraformaldehyde and triethylamine. Several Co(III) complexes, where two adjacent amino groups of two ligand moieties are interlinked by an oxidimethaneamine bridge, were obtained. Connection of a primary with a secondary amino group (prim-sec bridging) was found to be predominant. The singly and doubly bridged daza- and Medaza-derivatives 7a(3+), 9a(3+) and 7b(3+), 9b(3+) were characterized by crystal-structure analysis. The bridging process resulted in a slight lengthening of the mean Co-N distance, a red shift of the A1g-T1g transition, and an increase of the Co(III)/Co(II) reduction potential. Several minor components, which could be only partially separated by chromatographic methods, were also formed. The daza-derivatives 6a(3+) (prim-prim bridged) and 10a(3+) (bidentate coordination of one daza frame) formed in small quantities. The Medaza derivatives 3b(3+) and 4b(3+) (trans configuration of the Medaza frames, with additional pending carbinolamino groups), and 8b(3+) (with a methylideneimino group) represent intermediates of the condensation process. Their structure was again corroborated by X-ray diffraction. All bridged species (6a(3+), 7a(3+), 7b(3+), 8b(3+), 9a(3+), 9b(3+), and 10a(3+)) exhibited exclusively a cis orientation of the two diazepane frames, even if the trans configured 2a(3+) or 2b(3+) were used as starting materials. Molecular mechanics calculations indicate that in the bridged species with a trans configuration steric strain is substantially more pronounced. In alkaline aqueous media, 9a(3+) and 9b(3+) revealed a complete degradation of the bridges whereby the original 1a(3+) and 1b(3+) reformed. The pseudo-first-order rate constant k(obs) of the degradation reaction was found to depend

  19. Vibration monitoring of long bridges and their expansion joints and seismic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islami Kleidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a number of recently installed Structural Health Monitoring (SHM systems: a on a 2km double suspension bridge; b on a long railway viaduct that has experienced cracking; and c on a steel arch bridge in a seismically active area. Damage detection techniques have been applied based on high-frequency measurements of vibrations, pressure and strain, enabling a proper understanding of the structures’ behaviour to be gained. The diverse range of applications presented, designed in collaboration with structure owners and design engineers, includes damage detection on expansion joints of suspension bridges, crack analysis and correlation with accelerations of high-speed trains, and high-frequency performance monitoring of seismic devices. These case studies, based on both static and dynamic approaches, demonstrate the usefulness and ease of use of such systems, and the enormous gains in efficiency they offer.

  20. Analysis, prediction, and case studies of early-age cracking in bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSafty, Adel; Graeff, Matthew K.; El-Gharib, Georges; Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Mike Jackson, N.

    2016-06-01

    Early-age cracking can adversely affect strength, serviceability, and durability of concrete bridge decks. Early age is defined as the period after final setting, during which concrete properties change rapidly. Many factors can cause early-age bridge deck cracking including temperature change, hydration, plastic shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, and drying shrinkage. The cracking may also increase the effect of freeze and thaw cycles and may lead to corrosion of reinforcement. This research paper presents an analysis of causes and factors affecting early-age cracking. It also provides a tool developed to predict the likelihood and initiation of early-age cracking of concrete bridge decks. Understanding the concrete properties is essential so that the developed tool can accurately model the mechanisms contributing to the cracking of concrete bridge decks. The user interface of the implemented computer Excel program enables the user to input the properties of the concrete being monitored. The research study and the developed spreadsheet were used to comprehensively investigate the issue of concrete deck cracking. The spreadsheet is designed to be a user-friendly calculation tool for concrete mixture proportioning, temperature prediction, thermal analysis, and tensile cracking prediction. The study also provides review and makes recommendations on the deck cracking based mainly on the Florida Department of Transportation specifications and Structures Design Guidelines, and Bridge Design Manuals of other states. The results were also compared with that of other commercially available software programs that predict early-age cracking in concrete slabs, concrete pavement, and reinforced concrete bridge decks. The outcome of this study can identify a set of recommendations to limit the deck cracking problem and maintain a longer service life of bridges.

  1. Analysis, prediction, and case studies of early-age cracking in bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSafty, Adel; Graeff, Matthew K.; El-Gharib, Georges; Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Mike Jackson, N.

    2016-05-01

    Early-age cracking can adversely affect strength, serviceability, and durability of concrete bridge decks. Early age is defined as the period after final setting, during which concrete properties change rapidly. Many factors can cause early-age bridge deck cracking including temperature change, hydration, plastic shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, and drying shrinkage. The cracking may also increase the effect of freeze and thaw cycles and may lead to corrosion of reinforcement. This research paper presents an analysis of causes and factors affecting early-age cracking. It also provides a tool developed to predict the likelihood and initiation of early-age cracking of concrete bridge decks. Understanding the concrete properties is essential so that the developed tool can accurately model the mechanisms contributing to the cracking of concrete bridge decks. The user interface of the implemented computer Excel program enables the user to input the properties of the concrete being monitored. The research study and the developed spreadsheet were used to comprehensively investigate the issue of concrete deck cracking. The spreadsheet is designed to be a user-friendly calculation tool for concrete mixture proportioning, temperature prediction, thermal analysis, and tensile cracking prediction. The study also provides review and makes recommendations on the deck cracking based mainly on the Florida Department of Transportation specifications and Structures Design Guidelines, and Bridge Design Manuals of other states. The results were also compared with that of other commercially available software programs that predict early-age cracking in concrete slabs, concrete pavement, and reinforced concrete bridge decks. The outcome of this study can identify a set of recommendations to limit the deck cracking problem and maintain a longer service life of bridges.

  2. Aerodynamics of bridge hangers in smooth and turbulent flow and implications on aeroelastic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demartino, Cristoforo; Ricciardelli, Francesco; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2015-01-01

    an extruded High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE) circular sheath [1]. In the last 20 years, several bridge cable manufacturers have introduced surface modifications on HDPE sheath in order to reduce the drag and to ensure the aerodynamic stability in all climatic conditions. In the case of plain HDPE...... sheaths, although manufacturers put in place all efforts to obtain smooth, perfectly circular sections, superficial irregularities such as roughness, labeling and ovalling make the aerodynamic behaviour deviate from that of perfect circular cylinder. The imperfections are the result of the manufacturing......The aerodynamics of circular cylinders featuring geometric imperfections, such as bridge cables, has received much attention in recent years due to the recognition that such imperfections can be the cause of large amplitude vibrations. Bridge cables are usually made of strands or wires protected by...

  3. Non-destructive inspection protocol for reinforced concrete barriers and bridge railings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinforced concrete highway barriers and bridge railings serve to prevent errant vehicles from departing the travel way at grade separations. Despite the important role that they play in maintaining safety and their ubiquitous nature, barrier inspection rarely moves beyond visual inspection. In August 2008, a tractor-trailer fatally departed William Preston Lane, Jr. Memorial Bridge after it dislodged a section of the bridge barrier. Investigations following the accident identified significant corrosion of the anchor bolts attaching the bridge railing to the bridge deck. As a result of the information gathered during its investigation of the accident, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) made recommendations to the Federal Highway Administration concerning Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of concrete bridge railings. The Center for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center in McLean, VA is currently evaluating feasibility of using four technologies - ground penetrating radar (GPR), ultrasonic pulse-echo, digital radiography and infrared thermal imaging methods to develop bridge inspection methods that augment visual inspections, offer reliable measurement techniques, and are practical, both in terms of time and cost, for field inspection work. Controlled samples containing predefined corrosion levels in reinforcing steel were embedded at barrier connection points for laboratory testing. All four NDE techniques were used in the initial phase I testing. An inspection protocol for detecting and measuring the corrosion of reinforced steel embedded in the anchorage system will be developed as part of phase II research. The identified technologies shall be further developed for field testing utilizing a structure with a barrier in good condition and a structure with a barrier in poor condition

  4. Non-destructive inspection protocol for reinforced concrete barriers and bridge railings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintakunta, Satish R.; Boone, Shane D.

    2014-02-01

    Reinforced concrete highway barriers and bridge railings serve to prevent errant vehicles from departing the travel way at grade separations. Despite the important role that they play in maintaining safety and their ubiquitous nature, barrier inspection rarely moves beyond visual inspection. In August 2008, a tractor-trailer fatally departed William Preston Lane, Jr. Memorial Bridge after it dislodged a section of the bridge barrier. Investigations following the accident identified significant corrosion of the anchor bolts attaching the bridge railing to the bridge deck. As a result of the information gathered during its investigation of the accident, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) made recommendations to the Federal Highway Administration concerning Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of concrete bridge railings. The Center for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center in McLean, VA is currently evaluating feasibility of using four technologies - ground penetrating radar (GPR), ultrasonic pulse-echo, digital radiography and infrared thermal imaging methods to develop bridge inspection methods that augment visual inspections, offer reliable measurement techniques, and are practical, both in terms of time and cost, for field inspection work. Controlled samples containing predefined corrosion levels in reinforcing steel were embedded at barrier connection points for laboratory testing. All four NDE techniques were used in the initial phase I testing. An inspection protocol for detecting and measuring the corrosion of reinforced steel embedded in the anchorage system will be developed as part of phase II research. The identified technologies shall be further developed for field testing utilizing a structure with a barrier in good condition and a structure with a barrier in poor condition.

  5. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  6. Integration of computer imaging and sensor data for structural health monitoring of bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The condition of civil infrastructure systems (CIS) changes over their life cycle for different reasons such as damage, overloading, severe environmental inputs, and ageing due normal continued use. The structural performance often decreases as a result of the change in condition. Objective condition assessment and performance evaluation are challenging activities since they require some type of monitoring to track the response over a period of time. In this paper, integrated use of video images and sensor data in the context of structural health monitoring is demonstrated as promising technologies for the safety of civil structures in general and bridges in particular. First, the challenges and possible solutions to using video images and computer vision techniques for structural health monitoring are presented. Then, the synchronized image and sensing data are analyzed to obtain unit influence line (UIL) as an index for monitoring bridge behavior under identified loading conditions. Subsequently, the UCF 4-span bridge model is used to demonstrate the integration and implementation of imaging devices and traditional sensing technology with UIL for evaluating and tracking the bridge behavior. It is shown that video images and computer vision techniques can be used to detect, classify and track different vehicles with synchronized sensor measurements to establish an input–output relationship to determine the normalized response of the bridge

  7. Grey cast iron as construction material of bridges from the 18th and 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rabiega

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many bridges and railroad viaducts, which have been operated at the western and southern regions of Poland, were erected at the end ofthe 18th or beginning of the 19th century. In recent years they undergo overhauls and renovations requiring familiarity with the construction materials they have been made of. It is necessary for estimation of their load capacity (possible reinforcements and determining their suitability for further utilisation. Among the materials in the old bridges the puddled steels and cast irons predominate. Aim of the work is identification and documentation of microstructure and selected properties of the cast irons used for production of parts for the bridge in Łażany, the Old Mieszczański Bridge in Wrocław, the hanging bridge in Ozimek, as well as the columnar piers of the railroad viaduct in Wrocław. Using the methods of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as the results of hardness measurements and chemical analysis, it has been shown that the objects have been built of grey cast iron with flake graphite having the ferritic-pearlitic or pearlitic matrix. The diversification of their chemical analysis resulting from the type, size and geometry of the cast parts was indicated.The tested materials fulfil requirements of the contemporary standards related to grey cast irons of the EN-GJL-100 and EN-GJL-150grades.

  8. Endodontics pastes formulated with copaiba oil: action on oral microbiota and dentin bridge formation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gosuen Gonçalves Dias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the effect of pastes formulated with calcium hydroxide P.A. and different vehicles (saline solution - paste A and Copaifera langsdorffii Desfon oil - paste B on oral microorganisms and dentin bridge formation in dogs. The antimicrobial action of the pastes and their components was analysed by the minimum inhibitory concentration in agar gel technique. The components were diluted and tested on fifteen standard strains of microorganisms associated with endodontic diseases. The microorganisms were cultivated and after incubation data was analysed using One-Way ANOVA and Turkey's test (P≤0.05. Four superior incisors of ten animals were used to evaluate dentin bridge formation. Two incisors were capped with paste A (GA and two with paste B (GB. After 90 days, the teeth were extracted for histological analysis and the degree of dentin bridge formation evaluated. Data was analysed by the Kruskal-Wallis test (P<0.05. The pastes and their components were classified in the following decreasing order of antimicrobial action: calcium hydroxide P.A., paste A, paste B and Copaifera langsdorffii Desfon oil. Calcium hydroxide P.A. showed significantly higher antimicrobial action than the pastes or their vehicles. No significant difference was observed between the two pastes in dentin bridge formation. Based on the microorganisms studied, it can be concluded that the pastes analysed showed similar antimicrobial potential but differed significantly from their individual components. No significant difference was observed in dentin bridge formation between the different pastes tested.

  9. Extension of semi-analytical approach to determine natural frequencies and mode shapes of multi-span orthotropic bridge deck

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaiguia, Abdelouahab; Fisli, Y.; Ellagoune, S.; et al

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends a single equation, semi-analytical approach for three-span bridges to multispan ones for the rapid and precise determination of natural frequencies and natural mode shapes of an orthotropic, multi-span plate. This method can be used to study the dynamic interaction between bridges and vehicles. It is based on the modal superposition method taking into account intermodal coupling to determine natural frequencies and mode shapes of a bridge deck. In this paper, a four- and a ...

  10. Tidal Energy Conversion Installation at an Estuarine Bridge Site: Resource Evaluation and Energy Production Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnik, M.; Gagnon, I.; Baldwin, K.; Bell, E.

    2015-12-01

    The "Living Bridge" project aims to create a self-diagnosing, self-reporting "smart bridge" powered by a local renewable energy source, tidal energy - transforming Memorial Bridge, a vertical lift bridge over the tidal Piscataqua River connecting Portsmouth, NH and Kittery, ME, into a living laboratory for researchers, engineers, scientists, and the community. The Living Bridge project includes the installation of a tidal turbine at the Memorial Bridge. The energy converted by the turbine will power structural health monitoring, environmental and underwater instrumentation. Utilizing locally available tidal energy can make bridge operation more sustainable, can "harden" transportation infrastructure against prolonged grid outages and can demonstrate a prototype of an "estuarine bridge of the future". A spatio-temporal tidal energy resource assessment was performed using long term bottom-deployed Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) at two locations: near the planned deployment location in 2013-14 for 123 days and mid-channel in 2007 for 35 days. Data were evaluated to determine the amount of available kinetic energy that can be converted into usable electrical energy on the bridge. Changes in available kinetic energy with ebb/flood and spring/neap tidal cycles and electrical energy demand were analyzed. The target deployment site exhibited significantly more energetic ebb tides than flood tides, which can be explained by the local bathymetry of the tidal estuary. A system model is used to calculate the net energy savings using various tidal generator and battery bank configurations. Different resource evaluation methodologies were also analyzed, e.g., using a representative ADCP "bin" vs. a more refined, turbine-geometry-specific methodology, and using static bin height vs. bin height that move w.r.t. the free surface throughout a tidal cycle (representative of a bottom-fixed or floating turbine deployment, respectively). ADCP operating frequencies and bin

  11. Coupled Vibration of Long-Span Railway Curved Girder Bridges and Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Deshan; Li Qiao

    2005-01-01

    The structure of a long curved girder bridge is represented with a three-dimensional curved finite element model. Each 4-axle vehicle is modeled by a dynamic system of 35 degrees of freedom. The random irregularities of the track are generated from a power spectral density function under the given track condition. The dynamic interaction between the bridge and train is realized through the contact forces between the wheels and track. Then based on these models, the coupled equations of motion are solved by applying the time-integration and iteration techniques to the coupled system. The proposed formulation and the associated computer program are then applied to a real curved girder bridge. The dynamic responses of the bridge-vehicle system and the derailments and offload factors related to the riding and running safeties of vehicles are computed. The results show that the formulation presented in this paper can well predict dynamic behaviors of both bridge and train with reasonable computation efforts.

  12. Cleavage, incomplete inversion, and cytoplasmic bridges in Gonium pectorale (Volvocales, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Hitoshi; Ota, Shuhei; Inouye, Isao

    2013-09-01

    Multicellularity arose several times in evolution of eukaryotes. The volvocine algae have full range of colonial organization from unicellular to colonies, and thus these algae are well-known models for examining the evolution and mechanisms of multicellularity. Gonium pectorale is a multicellular species of Volvocales and is thought to be one of the first small colonial organisms among the volvocine algae. In these algae, a cytoplasmic bridge is one of the key traits that arose during the evolution of multicellularity. Here, we observed the inversion process and the cytoplasmic bridges in G. pectorale using time-lapse, fluorescence, and electron microscopy. The cytoplasmic bridges were located in the middle region of the cell in 2-, 4-, 8-, and 16-celled stages and in inversion stages. However, there were no cytoplasmic bridges in the mature adult stage. Cytoplasmic bridges and cortical microtubules in G. pectorale suggest that a mechanism of kinesin-microtubule machinery similar to that in other volvocine algae is responsible for inversion in this species. PMID:23455615

  13. 75 FR 49408 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Bridges AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... corrections and editorial, organizational, and conforming amendments and these changes will have no...(c), and the word ``evidence'' with ``information'' in Sec. 116.01(d). This change has no...

  14. Metal concentrations and distribution in paint waste generated during bridge rehabilitation in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhan; Axe, Lisa; Jahan, Kauser; Ramanujachary, Kandalam V; Kochersberger, Carl

    2015-09-01

    Between 1950 and 1980, lead and chromium along with other metals have been used in paint coatings to protect bridges from corrosion. In New York State with 4500 bridges in 11 Regions 2385 of the bridges have been rehabilitated and subsequently repainted after 1989 when commercial use of lead based paint was prohibited. The purpose of this research was to address the concentration and distribution of trace metals in the paint waste generated during bridge rehabilitation. Using hypothesis testing and stratified sampling theory, a representative sample size of 24 bridges from across the state was selected that resulted in 117 paint waste samples. Field portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) analysis revealed metal concentrations ranged from 5 to 168,090 mg kg(-1) for Pb, 49,367 to 799,210 mg kg(-1) for Fe, and 27 to 425,510 mg kg(-1) for Zn. Eighty percent of the samples exhibited lead concentrations greater than 5000 mg kg(-1). The elevated iron concentrations may be attributed to the application of steel grit as an abrasive blasting material routinely used by state Departments of Transportation in the paint removal process. Other metals including Ba and Cr were observed in the paint waste as well. As a result of the paint formulation, metals were found to be associated in the paint waste (Pb correlated with Cr (r=0.85)). The elevated metal concentrations observed raises concern over the potential impact of leaching from this waste stream. PMID:25955694

  15. Matrix-based system reliability method and applications to bridge networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a matrix-based system reliability (MSR) method, one can estimate the probabilities of complex system events by simple matrix calculations. Unlike existing system reliability methods whose complexity depends highly on that of the system event, the MSR method describes any general system event in a simple matrix form and therefore provides a more convenient way of handling the system event and estimating its probability. Even in the case where one has incomplete information on the component probabilities and/or the statistical dependence thereof, the matrix-based framework enables us to estimate the narrowest bounds on the system failure probability by linear programming. This paper presents the MSR method and applies it to a transportation network consisting of bridge structures. The seismic failure probabilities of bridges are estimated by use of the predictive fragility curves developed by a Bayesian methodology based on experimental data and existing deterministic models of the seismic capacity and demand. Using the MSR method, the probability of disconnection between each city/county and a critical facility is estimated. The probability mass function of the number of failed bridges is computed as well. In order to quantify the relative importance of bridges, the MSR method is used to compute the conditional probabilities of bridge failures given that there is at least one city disconnected from the critical facility. The bounds on the probability of disconnection are also obtained for cases with incomplete information

  16. Equilibrium of the floating water bridge: a theoretical and experimental study

    CERN Document Server

    Namin, Reza Montazeri

    2013-01-01

    The floating water bridge is the phenomenon of suspension of a water thread between two beakers with a high voltage applied in between. The equilibrium of this system is investigated assuming both the surface tension force and the tension caused by the electric field within the dielectric material. It was shown experimentally that the deflection of the bridge and its diameter are not independent; this fact was not explained before and in the current paper we show that the effect of surface tension in equilibrium of the bridge would explain it. The deflection of the bridge was calculated theoretically and was experimented, and quantitative agreement was shown while previous theories did not match with the experiments. Also the equilibrium of the bridge in the longitudinal direction is studied, explaining the main effect of the electric field and assuming water as a conductive to calculate the electric field. The non-uniform electric filed is suggested to be an important issue in this case. The conditions at th...

  17. GFRP seismic strengthening and structural heath monitoring of Portage Creek Bridge concrete columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Located in Victoria British Columbia (BC), Canada, the Portage Creek Bridge is a 124m long, three-span structure with a reinforced concrete piers and abutments on H piles. The bridge was designed prior to the introduction of current bridge seismic design codes and construction practices. Therefore it was not designed to resist the earthquake forces as required by today's standards. The bridge is on a route classified as a Municipal Disaster Route scheduled to be retrofitted to prevent collapse during a design seismic event, with a return period of 475 years (i.e., an event with 105 probability of exceedance in 50 years). Conventional materials and methods were used to retrofit most of the bridge. The dynamic analysis of the bridge predicted the two tall columns of Pier No. 1 will form plastic hinges under an earthquake resulting an additional shear to the short columns of Pier No. 2. A non-liner static pushover analysis indicated the short columns will not be able to form plastic hinges prior to failure in shear. The innovative solution of Fiber Reinforced Polymer wraps (FRPs) was chosen to strengthen the short columns for shear without increasing the moment capacity. The FRP wraps and the bridge were instrumented as one of 36 demonstration projects across Canada sponsored by ISIS (Intelligent Sensing for Innovative Structure) Canada, federally funded Network of Centers of Excellence, to access the performance of FRP and the use of FOS (Fiber Optic Sensors) for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The two columns of the bridge pier were strengthened with GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer) wraps with eight bi-directional rosette type strain gauges and four long gauge fiber optic sensors attached to the outer layer of the wraps. In addition, two 3-D Crossbow accelerometers are installed on the pier cap above the columns and a traffic web-cam mounted above the deck at the pier location. The data is collected through high sped internet line to an interactive web page

  18. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis of two suspension bridges in Istanbul, Turkey to near- and far-fault ground motion

    OpenAIRE

    Çavdar, Ö.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the near-fault and far-fault ground motion effects on the probabilistic sensitivity dynamic responses of two suspension bridges in Istanbul. Two different types of suspension bridges are selected to investigate the near-fault (NF) and far-fault (FF) ground motion effects on the bridge sensitivity responses. NF and FF strong ground motion records, which have approximately identical peak ground accelerations, of the Kocaeli (1999) earthquake are selected for ...

  19. X-ray Emission from the Taffy (VV254) Galaxies and Bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Appleton, Philip; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Wang, Junfeng; Peterson, Bradley; Lisenfeld, Ute; Alatalo, Katherine; Guillard, Pierre; Boulanger, Francois; Cluver, Michelle; Gao, Yu; Helou, George; Ogle, Patrick; Struck, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    We present the first X-ray observations of the Taffy galaxies (UGC 12914/5) with the Chandra observatory, and detect soft X-ray emission in the region of the gas-rich, radio-continuum-emitting Taffy bridge. The results are compared to Herschel observations of dust and diffuse [CII] line-emitting gas. The diffuse component of the Taffy bridge has an X-ray luminosity of L(X) (0.5-8keV) =5.4 x 10^39 erg s^-1, which accounts for 19% of the luminosity of the sum for the two galaxies. The total mass in hot gas is (0.8--1.3) x 10^8 M_sun, which is approximately 1% of the total (HI~+~H2) gas mass in the bridge, and ~11% of the mass of warm molecular hydrogen discovered by Spitzer. The soft X-ray and dense CO-emitting gas in the bridge have offset distributions, with the X-rays peaking along the north-western side of the bridge in the region where stronger far-IR dust and diffuse [CII] gas is observed by Herschel. We detect nine Ultra Luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in the system, the brightest of which is found in the ...

  20. Art History in Education: Students and Teachers Bridging Artworlds and Lifeworlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeon, Penny

    1994-01-01

    Examines the work of Jurgen Habermas and Arthur Danto and develops a conceptual structure that views art education as an interpretive and reflective network that bridges school and life experiences. Contends that visual arts contribute to the development of reflective capacities. (CFR)

  1. High energy x-ray radiography and computed tomography of bridge pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge pins were used in the hanger assemblies for some multi-span steel bridges built prior to the 1980's, and are sometimes considered fracture critical elements of a bridge. During a test on a bridge conducted by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), ultrasonic field inspection results indicated that at least two pins contained cracks. Several pins were removed and selected for further examination. This provided an excellent opportunity to learn more about these pins and the application of x-ray systems at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as well as to learn more about the application of different detectors recently obtained by LLNL. Digital radiographs and computed tomography (CT) were used to characterize the bridge pins, using a LINAC x-ray source with a 9-MV bremsstrahlung spectrum. We will describe the performance of two different digital radiographic detectors. One is a detector system frequently used at LLNL consisting of a scintillator glass optically coupled to a CCD camera. The other detector is a new amorphous silicon detector recently acquired by LLNL

  2. parametric modeling and computing of multi-tower suspension bridge based on ANSYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhaoxiang; Zhao An; Song Jianyong; Yang Yun

    2012-01-01

    Based on FEM (finite element method) program ANSYS and the OpenGL graphics, this paper develops the parametric modeling module and the computing module of the multi-tower suspension bridge, the modules being embedded into the ANSYS system, and the parametric modeling module parameters can be entered by way of interface, which can fast establish a multi-tower suspension bridge model. Calculation module can establish load conditions for the features of road bridge and specifications, in which multiple conditions can be defined and solved automatically. Postprocessing part of the solution also serves the results of the subtotals and selects the output, so that the results of the output and finishing work have become more convenient and easier, and also the results can be saved in word, excel and other different file types.

  3. Simulation of the vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process and the development of light-weight composite bridging

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Marc J.

    2008-01-01

    A continued desire for increased mobility in the aftermath of natural disasters, or on the battlefield, has lead to the need for improved light-weight bridging solutions. This research investigates the development of a carbon/ epoxy composite bridging system to meet the needs for light-weight bridging. The research focuses on two main topics. The first topic is that of processing composite structures and the second is the design and testing of these structures. In recent years the Vacuum Assi...

  4. Life-Cycle Monitoring of Long-Span PSC Box Girder Bridges through Distributed Sensor Network: Strategies, Methods, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring (SHM has attracted much attention in recent years, which enables early warnings of structural failure, condition assessments, and rational maintenance/repair strategies. In the context of bridges, many long-span steel bridges in China have been installed with the SHM systems; however, the applications of the SHM in prestressed concrete (PSC bridges are still rather limited. On the other hand, the PSC box girder bridges are extensively used in highway and railway systems and premature damage of these bridges is often reported, resulting in considerable maintenance and/or replacement costs. First, this paper presents a state-of-art review on the SHM of long-span PSC bridges. Monitoring strategies, methods, and previous applications for these bridges are summarized and discussed. In order to well capture the behavior of the bridge during its whole life and to maximize the use of sensors, a life-cycle monitoring strategy is proposed, in which the sensor layout is determined according to requirements for construction monitoring, completion test, and in-service monitoring. A case study is made on a three-span PSC box girder bridge in China. The system configuration, sensor layout, and data communications, and so forth, are presented. The up-to-date monitored structural responses are analyzed and compared with the design values.

  5. Organizational and Occupational Commitment in Relation to Bridge Employment and Retirement Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David A.; McIntosh, Barbara R.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the antecedents to retirement and bridge employment is important to older-aged adults who seek ways to smoothly transition to full retirement, and to organizations that benefit from retaining their highly skilled and most experienced workers, especially in occupations for which labor shortages are projected. We tested the effects of…

  6. National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NBI is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 600,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate Highways,...

  7. I35W collapse, rebuild, and structural health monitoring - challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During evening rush hour traffic on August 1, 2007, the major interstate highway bridge carrying I35W over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis catastrophically failed, tragically taking the lives of thirteen people and injuring many more. The steel truss bridge, constructed in 1967, was undergoing deck reconstruction during the collapse, and was estimated to carry more than 140,000 vehicles daily. This tragedy generated great interest in employment of structural health monitoring systems. The I35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge, a post-tensioned concrete box bridge constructed to replace the collapsed steel truss bridge, contains over 500 instruments to monitor the structural behavior. Numerical models of the bridge are being developed and calibrated to the collected data obtained from truck load tests and thermal effects. The data obtained over the first few years of monitoring are being correlated with the calibrated models and used to develop the baseline bridge behavior. This information is being used to develop a system to monitor and interpret the long-term behavior of the bridge. This paper describes the instrumentation, preliminary results from the data and model calibration, the plan for developing long-term monitoring capabilities, and the challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems. In addition, opportunities and directions for future research required to fully realize the objectives of structural health monitoring are described.

  8. Bridge technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. As LANs have proliferated, new technologies and system concepts have come to the fore. One of the key issues is how to interconnect networks. One means of interconnection is to use a 'bridge'. Other competing technologies are repeaters, routers, and gateways. Bridges permit traffic isolation, connect network segments together and operate at the MAC layer. Further, because they operate at the MAC layer, they can handle a variety of protocols such as TCP/IP, SNA, and X.25. This report focuses on the specific technology of bridging two netw

  9. Seismic fragility analysis of typical pre-1990 bridges due to near- and far-field ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Araliya; Razzaghi, Mehran S.; Jara, José; Varum, Humberto

    2016-03-01

    Bridge damages during the past earthquakes caused several physical and economic impacts to transportation systems. Many of the existing bridges in earthquake prone areas are pre-1990 bridges and were designed with out of date regulation codes. The occurrences of strong motions in different parts of the world show every year the vulnerability of these structures. Nonlinear dynamic time history analyses were conducted to assess the seismic vulnerability of typical pre-1990 bridges. A family of existing concrete bridge representative of the most common bridges in the highway system in Iran is studied. The seismic demand consists in a set of far-field and near-field strong motions to evaluate the likelihood of exceeding the seismic capacity of the mentioned bridges. The peak ground accelerations (PGAs) were scaled and applied incrementally to the 3D models to evaluate the seismic performance of the bridges. The superstructure was assumed to remain elastic and the nonlinear behavior in piers was modeled by assigning plastic hinges in columns. In this study the displacement ductility and the PGA are selected as a seismic performance indicator and intensity measure, respectively. The results show that pre-1990 bridges subjected to near-fault ground motions reach minor and moderate damage states.

  10. Knowledge-Based Systems for the Assessment and Management of Bridge Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miyamoto, A.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Yan, B.

    2004-01-01

    aim of this paper is to summarize the finding of up-to-date research articles concerning the application of knowledge-based systems to assessment and management of structures and to illustrate the potential of such systems in the structural engineering. Two modern bridge management systems (BMS's) are......It is becoming an important social problem to make maintenance and rehabilitation of existing infrastructures such as bridges, buildings, etc. The kernel of such structure management is to develop a method of safety assessment on items which include remaining life and load carrying capacity. The...... presented in the paper. The first is a BMS to assess the performance and derive optimal strategies for inspection and maintenance of concrete structures using reliability based and knowledge based systems. The second is the concrete bridge rating expert system (BREX) to evaluate the performance of existing...

  11. Effect of nonlinearity of restrainer and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Changfeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During an earthquake, the nonlinearity of the bridge structure mainly occurs at the supports, bridge piers and restrainers. When entering nonlinear stage, members of the bridge structure affect the elasto-plastic seismic response of the whole structure to a certain extent; for multi-span continuous bridges, longitudinal restrainers can be installed on the movable piers to optimise the distribution of seismic force and enable the movable piers to bear a certain amount of seismic effect. In order to evaluate the effect of nonlinearity of restrainer and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge, analytical models of continuous girder bridge structure considering the nonlinearity of movable supports, restrainers and bridge piers were built and the nonlinear time history analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of nonlinearity of restraining devices and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge. Relevant structural measures and recommendation were made to reduce the seismic response of the fixed piers of the continuous girder bridge.

  12. Bridge ice accretion and de- and anti-icing systems: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth; Georgakis, Christos

    turn lead to severe financial losses. This paper presents a review of the different de- and anti-icing techniques, already developed or in development, which could be applied to bridge cables or pylons. Furthermore, the fundamentals of icing caused by freezing precipitation and in-cloud icing are...

  13. Experimental Study on Shear Lag Effect of Partial Cable-Stayed Bridge and Elasto-Plastic Seismic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gao-feng; XU Hong; CHEN Xing-chong

    2005-01-01

    The project of Xiaoxihu Yellow River Bridge in Lanzhou is chosen as partial cable-stayed bridge. To get the shear lag effect and anti-earthquake performance of the actual bridge under various loading conditions, organic glass scaled model was adopted to have an experiment and a theory research at one time. The experiment result is the basically same as the theory calculation which proves the FEA method can well calculate shear lag effect and dynamical performance. As a result, because the bridge is located in a seismic area of 8 degree, an elasto-plastic seismic checking is performed by customized FEA program in this paper.

  14. Structure and dynamics of a salt-bridge model system in water and DMSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze, S.; Bakker, H. J.

    2015-06-01

    We study the interaction between the ions methylguanidinium and trifluoroacetate dissolved in D2O and dimethylsulfoxide with linear infrared spectroscopy and femtosecond two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. These ions constitute model systems for the side chains of arginine and glutamic and aspartic acid that are known to form salt bridges in proteins. We find that the salt-bridge formation of methylguanidinium and trifluoroacetate leads to a significant acceleration of the vibrational relaxation dynamics of the antisymmetric COO stretching vibration of the carboxyl moiety of trifluoroacetate. Salt-bridge formation has little effect on the rate of the spectral fluctuations of the CN stretching vibrations of methylguanidinium. The anisotropy of the cross peaks between the antisymmetric COO stretching vibration of trifluoroacetate and the CN stretching vibrations of methylguanidinium reveals that the salt-bridge is preferentially formed in a bidentate end-on configuration in which the two C=O groups of the carboxylate moiety form strong hydrogen bonds with the two -NH2 groups of methylguanidinium.

  15. Damage investigation of girder bridges under the Wenchuan earthquake and corresponding seismic design recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianzhong; Peng Tianbo; Xu yan

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of girder bridges on National Highway 213 and the Doujiangyan-Wenchuan expressway after the Wenchuan earthquake showed that typical types of damage included:span collapses due to unseating at expansion joints;shear key failure;and damage of the expansion joint due to the slide-induced large relative displacement between the bottom of the girder and the top of the laminated-rubber bearing.This slide,however,can actually act as a form of isolation for the substructure,and as a result,the piers and foundation of most of the bridges on state route 213 suffered minor damage.The exception was the Baihua Bridge,which suffered severe damage.Corresponding seismic design recommendations are presented based on this investigation.

  16. Fabrication and parameters calculation of room temperature terahertz detector with micro-bridge structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Weizhi; Gou, Jun; Wu, Zhiming; Jiang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Room temperature terahertz (THz) detector indicates great potentials in imaging application because of real-time, compact bulk and unique spectral characteristics. Different dimension THz detectors based on micro-bridge structure were designed and simulated to get optimizing microbolometer parameters from the simulation results of membrane temperature changing and THz absorption. Those microbolometers were fabricated with complex semiconductor process and three dimension deformations of micro-bridges were obtained by laser scanning confocal microscope to identify the focal plane array micro-bridge design. The noise equivalent power of THz detector achieves 123 pW/Hz1/2 and average response time of the detector is 6.7 ms, which is suitable for the application of active THz imaging.

  17. Push-pull flexibly-bridged bis(haloBODIPYs): solvent and spacer switchable red emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, César; Bañuelos, Jorge; Arbeloa, Teresa; Maroto, Beatriz L; Moreno, Florencio; Agarrabeitia, Antonia R; Ortiz, María J; López-Arbeloa, Iñigo; de la Moya, Santiago

    2016-08-01

    A series of uncommon bis(BODIPYs), involving a flexible bridge linking the BODIPY α-positions and key functionalities to efficiently give an electronic push-pull effect, has been synthesized, as well as photophysically and structurally studied. It is demonstrated that the designed push-pull effect efficiently enables intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) processes upon photoexcitation, with the generated low-lying ICT state being the main deactivation channel from the locally excited state and, hence, ruling the fluorescence response. Noticeably, this response is modulated by the solvent polarity, and also by the bridge structure. Regarding this, BINOL- and BINAM-based bridges are found to promote an interesting unprecedented solvent-switchable dual emission from the ICT state with high Stokes shifts, triggering a significant bright red emission in less polar media. PMID:27378499

  18. HOMO- AND COPOLYMERIZATION OF ETHYLENE CATALYZED BY ANSA-METALLOCENES WITH DOUBLY HETERO-BRIDGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yang; Wei-dong Yan; Xiao-li Shen; Bin Mu; Bai-quan Wang

    2008-01-01

    Three ansa-metallocenes (Me2C)(Me2Si)Cp2TiCl2 (1), [(CH2)5C](Me2Si)Cp2TiCl2 (2) and (Me2C)(Me2Si)Cp2ZrCl2 (3) with larger dihedral angles and longer distance from metal to the center of Cp planes were synthesized and used as catalysts for ethylene polymerization in the presence of methylaluminoxane (MAO). In the case of ethylene polymerization, compared the feature structures of unbridged metallocenes,singly bridged metallocenes and doubly bridged metallocenes 1, 2, 3, there exhibit the relationship between structural characteristics and the catalytic properties with behavior of polymers. And the view that the dimensions of the short dimethylsilylene and isopropylidene bridges of metallocene 3 do not match the co-ordination requirement of the larger zirconium atom can also explain the result for ethylene polymerization. Catalyzed by complexes 1 and 2 respectively, the copolymerizations of ethylene with 1-hexene, 1-octene,especially the long chain α-olefins (1-tetradecene,1-hexadecene) were investigated, and showed high incorporations and comonomer effects in almost all the examples. The melting points of the copolymers are approximately 4%-31% below those of the homopolymers, and the enthalpies of fusion decrease greatly due to the lower crystallinity. The microstructures of the copolymer were analyzed with 13C-NMR to determine the comonomer sequence distributions and number-average sequence lengths. Comparison between results for the complexes 1 and 2 with different bridging groups respectively showed that the nature of the bridge has a significant effect on both the incorporation and sequence distribution of the α-olefin. Because of the bridges in ansa-metallocene complexes, the copolymerization behavior was different in using catalyst I and catalyst 2.

  19. A multi-scale sensing and diagnosis system combining accelerometers and gyroscopes for bridge health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a multi-scale sensing and diagnosis system combining accelerometers and gyroscopes for bridge health monitoring. Since the damage metric estimated from acceleration measurement is insensitive to damage near the hinged support of a bridge, the damage diagnosis performance is limited near the support region. However, the performance can be improved by using two or more complementary data measured from multi-scale sensing. To more effectively diagnose the integrity of an overall bridge structure, angular velocity is complementary to acceleration, because of its high sensitivity to damage near the hinged support. This study proposes a multi-scale sensing and diagnosis system for bridge health monitoring based on a two-step approach. First, the damage diagnosis based on acceleration measurement is performed on the whole structure by using deflection estimated by modal flexibility. Next, the angular-velocity-based damage diagnosis is additionally carried out to localize missed damage by the acceleration-based approach near the hinged support. For validating the feasibility of the proposed system, a series of numerical and experimental studies on a simply supported beam model was performed. It was found that the multiple damages (one is near the center and another is near the support) can be successfully localized by the proposed multi-scale sensing and diagnosis system, while the damage near the support was missed by a conventional damage metric estimated from acceleration measurements. (paper)

  20. D0 Silicon Upgrade: End Calorimeter Transfer Bridge Design and Installation Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North Endcap Calorimeter (NEC) is to be moved from the clean room to the north sidewalk in preparation for the final installation on the DO detector center beam. In order to make this move, the cable bridge must be 'flattened' and the NEC lifted to move over it. The detector is moved west, approximately 24 feet, while the moveable counting house remains stationary. This movement allows the cable bridge to 'flatten' i.e. become horizontal. The cable bridge lowering is steadied and stabilized by 7.5 ton hoist mounted on the moveable counting house. By moving the detector to lower the bridge, a vacancy has been created in the pit that must be filled to the level of the clean room rail elevation. This filler will consist of concrete shield blocks, stacked in two rows. These rows are spaced appropriately to match the wheel base of the EC transporter. A steel plate is placed on top of each row of shield blocks and leveled to the elevation of the clean room rails. Steel plates will be installed and leveled on the north sidewalk similar to those used on the south sidewalk for the CC installation. These plates are used as rails for the Hilman rollers, bearing surfaces for shim blocks used during lifting and anchors for holding the transporter extension units and the transfer bridge. After the plates are installed, the transfer bridge is put in place, spanning the cable bridge, shimmed and leveled. The transporter extension units are positioned next to the transfer bridge on the north sidewalk. With the completion of this prep work, the actual transfer of the NEC from the clean room can begin. The NEC is pulled from the clean room with the same mechanism (cyl. and chain) that was used for the CC and the pull anchor point will be located at the end of the concrete blocks. The NEC will come out of the north west door in the clean room and move along the temporary rail plates in the pit until it is in line with the transfer bridge. At this point the NEC is ready to be

  1. Reinforcement and numerical analysis on the corbel of a half-through arch bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Bi-hai; WANG Yuan-han; CHENG Hong-guang; MIAO Yu

    2009-01-01

    Corbels support the crossbeams of half-through arch bridges. They are prone to cracking easily due to their characteristics and complicated loading conditions. Based on a practical diagnosis of a bridge crossbeam, we bonded steel plates onto bridge corbels to strengthen them. We carried out a numerical analysis on the effectiveness of the reinforcement by using the commercial software ANSYS. The numerical analysis shows that the stresses near the section break increased slightly, but the variation amplitude was small and all the stresses were within an allowable range. The loading test indicates that it is feasible to strengthen the corbel with vertical bonded steel plates. Therefore, the reinforcement is effective and economical. This reinforcement method is suitable for this type of corbel and can be applied in similar cases.

  2. Construction and Design of Post-Tensioned Pearl-Chain Bridges using SL-Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov

    2016-01-01

    a filling layer of lower stiffness above the arches to level the road surface. The present Ph.D. thesis is part of a larger development project about Pearl‐Chain Bridges funded by Innovationsfonden. The project also included another Ph.D. study about the developed materials used in Pearl‐Chain Bridges......, and numerical modelling. Despite of high levels of normal force in PC‐Bridges, the result showed that a Mesnager inspired hinge type had a response similar to what was predicted in the literature. A specially designed saddle bearing also had elastic and plastic rotational resistance, but this hinge type......) A test to fracture to observe the ductility in the system, and fracture type. The collapse occurred after two plastic hinges were formed in the 3/8, and 5/8 points of the span. Several warnings signs were observed when approaching the maximum loading....

  3. CURRENT PERSPECTIVES OF POTTER'S GLOBAL BIOETHICS AS A BRIDGE BETWEEN CLINICAL (PERSONALIZED) AND PUBLIC HEALTH ETHICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turina, Iva Sorta-Bilajac; Brkljacić, Morana; Grgas-Bile, Cecilija; Gajski, Domagoj; Racz, Aleksandar; Cengić, Tomislav

    2015-12-01

    In the context of modern scientific and technological developments in biomedicine and health care, and the potential consequences of their application on humans and the environment, Potter's global bioethics concept resurfaces. By actualizing Potter's original thoughts on individual bioethical issues, the universality of two of his books, which today represent the backbone of the world bioethical literature, "Bioethics--Bridge to the Future" and "Global Bioethics: Building on the Leopold Legacy", is emphasized. Potter's global bioethics today can legitimately be viewed as a bridge between clinical personalized ethics on the one hand and ethics of public health on the other. PMID:27017727

  4. To the problem of cross-bridge tension in steady muscle shortening and lengthening

    CERN Document Server

    Kokshenev, Valery B

    2009-01-01

    Despite the great success of the Huxley sliding filament model proposed half a century ago for actin-myosin linkages (cross-bridges), it fails to explain the force-velocity behavior of stretching skeletal muscles. Huxley's two-state kinetic equation for cross-bridge proportions is therefore reconsidered and a new solution to the problem of steady muscle eccentric and concentric contractions is reported. When the second law of statistical thermodynamics is applied to cross-bridge proportions, the weakly bound states appear to be correlated to the strongly bound states via structural and kinetic intrinsic muscle characteristics. The explicit force-velocity curve fits the empirical tension-velocity data on frog muscle shortening using only one adjustable parameter, while the Huxley model employed four parameters.

  5. Enhanced extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through arrays of bridged nanohole pairs and their sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2014-01-01

    Extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through arrays of gold nanoholes was studied with light across the visible to the near-infrared spectrum. The EOT effect was found to be improved by bridging pairs of nanoholes due to the concentration of the electromagnetic field in the slit between the holes. The geometrical shape and separation of the holes in these pairs of nanoholes affected the intensity of the transmission and the wavelength of resonance. Changing the geometrical shapes of these nanohole pairs from triangles to circles to squares leads to increased transmission intensity as well as red-shifting resonance wavelengths. The performance of bridged nanohole pairs as a plasmonic sensor was investigated. The bridged nanohole pairs were able to distinguish methanol, olive oil and microscope immersion oil for the different surface plasmon resonance in transmission spectra. Numerical simulation results were in agreement with experimental observations. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  6. A New Uniform Phase Bridge Functional: Test and Its Application to Non-uniform Phase Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shi-Qi; CHEN Hong; ZHANG Xiao-Qi

    2003-01-01

    A new bridge functional as a function of indirect correlation function was proposed, which was basedon analysis on the asymptotic behavior of the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation system and a series expansion whoserenormalization resulted in an adjustable parameter determined by the thermodynamics consistency condition. Theproposed bridge functional was tested by applying it to bulk hard sphere and hard core Yukawa fluid for the predictionof structure and thermodynamics properties based on the OZ equation. As an application, the present bridge functionalwas employed for non-uniform fluid of the above two kinds by means of the density functional theory methodology, theresulting density distribution profiles were in good agreement with the available computer simulation data.

  7. Structural and functional characterization of the conserved salt bridge in mammalian paneth cell alpha-defensins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengren, K Johan; Daly, Norelle L; Fornander, Liselotte M;

    2006-01-01

    )-Crp4 peptide, in which a conserved Glu(15) residue was replaced by Asp. Structural analysis of the two peptides confirms the involvement of this Glu in a conserved salt bridge that is removed in the mutant because of the shortened side chain. Despite disruption of this structural feature, the peptide...... variant retains a well defined native fold because of a rearrangement of side chains, which result in compensating favorable interactions. Furthermore, salt bridge-deficient Crp4 mutants were tested for bactericidal effects and resistance to proteolytic degradation, and all of the variants had similar...... bactericidal activities and stability to proteolysis. These findings support the conclusion that the function of the conserved salt bridge in Crp4 is not linked to bactericidal activity or proteolytic stability of the mature peptide....

  8. CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge: Two Institutional Networks Increasing Diversity in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Impey, Chris David; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe two programs, CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge, with the common mission of increasing participation of groups traditionally underrepresented in astronomy, through summer research opportunities, in the case of CAMPARE, scholarships in the case of Cal-Bridge, and significant mentoring in both programs, leading to an increase in their numbers successfully pursuing a PhD in the field.In 6 years, the CAMPARE program has sent 62 students, >85% from underrepresented groups, to conduct summer research at one of twelve major research institutions in California, Arizona, and Wyoming. The graduation rate among CAMPARE scholars is 97%, and of the 37 CAMPARE scholars who have graduated with a Bachelor's degree, almost 60% (21) have completed or are pursuing graduate education in astronomy or a related field, at institutions including UCLA, USC, UC Riverside, Stanford, Univ. of Rochester, Georgia Tech, Kent State, Indiana Univ., Univ. of Oregon, Syracuse, and the Fisk-Vanderbilt Master's-to-PhD program. The Cal-Bridge program is a CSU-UC Bridge program comprised of faculty form 5 University of California (UC), 8 California State University (CSU), and 8 California Community College (CCC) campuses in Southern California. Cal-Bridge provides much deeper mentoring and professional development experiences over the last two years of undergraduate and first year of graduate school to students from this diverse network of higher education institutions. Cal-Bridge Scholars benefit from financial support, intensive, joint mentoring by CSU and UC faculty, professional development workshops, and exposure to research opportunities at the participating UC campuses.

  9. Solute-solvent cavity and bridge functions. I. Varying size of the solute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present the results of the extensive molecular simulations of solute-solvent cavity and bridge functions. The mixtures of Lennard-Jones solvent with Lennard-Jones solute at infinite dilution are considered for different solute-solvent size ratios—up to 4:1. The Percus-Yevick and hypernetted chain closures deviate substantially from simulation results in the investigated temperature and density ranges. We also find that the behavior of the indirect and cavity correlation functions is non-monotonous within the hard-core region, but the latter can be successfully approximated by mean-field theory if the solute-solvent interaction energy is divided into repulsive and attractive contribution, according to Weeks-Chandler-Andersen theory. Furthermore, in spite of the non-monotonous behavior of logarithm of the cavity function and the indirect correlation function, their difference, i.e., the bridge function remains constant within the hard-core region. Such behavior of the bridge and indirect correlation functions at small distances and for small values of indirect correlation function is well known from the Duh-Haymet plots, where the non-unique relationship results in loops of the bridge function vs. indirect correlation function graphs. We show that the same pathological behavior appears also when distance is small and indirect correlation function is large. We further show that the unique functional behavior of the bridge function can be established when bridge is represented as a function of the renormalized, repulsive indirect correlation function

  10. Repair and Strengthening Assessment of Existing Bridges Based on Time-Dependent Reliability Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓燕; 黄承逵; 孙保沭

    2004-01-01

    The strategy on repair and strengthening of existing bridges based on time-dependent reliability was analyzed with the maximum expected benefit as the objective function. A sample of risk-ranking decision was illustrated based on updated inspection information with 35 survival age. The effect of improvement of live loads and difference of repair methods on time-dependent reliability of existing bridges are considered. The results show that the decision method can be used in real project, with the cost of failure consequence and the risk of failure considered.

  11. Simple bridge detector for use with a low-temperature capacitance thermometer, and thermometer performance limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prober, D E

    1979-03-01

    A simple high-resolution bridge circuit for use with a glass-ceramic capacitance thermometer is described. This circuit allows a linear readout of capacitance changes and has better than 1 mK resolution and short-term stability. Performance limits of the thermometer itself are also reported. Irreproducibility of thermometer calibration upon thermal cycling can be as large as 0.3 K, and changes in the calibration slope dC/dT are also observed. The bridge circuit described partially compensates for these shifts in dC/dT. PMID:18699517

  12. Synthesis and spectral and redox properties of three triply bridged complexes of ruthenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobet, A.; Curry, M.E.; Evans, H.T.; Meyer, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Syntheses are described for the ligand-bridged complexes [(tpm)RuIII(??-O)(??-L)2RuIII(tpm) n+ (L = O2P(O)(OH), n = 0 (1); L = O2CO, n = 0 (2); L = O2CCH3, n = 2 (3); tpm is the tridentate, facial ligand tris(1-pyrazolyl)methane. The X-ray crystal structure of [(tpm)Ru(??-O)(??-O2P(O)(OH))2Ru(tpm)]??8H 2O was determined from three-dimensional X-ray counter data. The complex crystallizes in the trigonal space group P3221 with three molecules in a cell of dimensions a = 18.759 (4) A?? and c = 9.970 (6) A??. The structure was refined to a weighted R factor of 0.042 based on 1480 independent reflections with I ??? 3??(I). The structure reveals that the complex consists of two six-coordinate ruthenium atoms that are joined by a ??-oxo bridge (rRU-O = 1.87 A??; ???RuORu = 124.6??) and two ??-hydrogen phosphato bridges (average rRu-O = 2.07 A??) which are capped by two tpm ligands. The results of cyclic voltammetric and coulometric experiments show that the complexes undergo both oxidative and reductive processes in solution. Upon reduction, the ligand-bridged structure is lost and the monomer [(tpm)Ru(H2O)3]2+ appears quantitatively. All three complexes are diamagnetic in solution. The diamagnetism is a consequence of strong electronic coupling between the low-spin d5 Ru(III) metal ions through the oxo bridge and the relatively small Ru-O-Ru angle. ?? 1989 American Chemical Society.

  13. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  14. Crack mitigation in concrete bridge decks through experimental analysis and computer modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Douglas M.

    Bridge deck cracking can cause deterioration of bridge decks, leading to a shorter life span and poor performance. Throughout the US, cracking has been identified as a problem, with transverse cracking along the deck at regular spacings being the most prominent type. This problem is usually caused by drying shrinkage within the concrete. The material properties, restraint, and distances without expansion joints all affect the crack pattern within the deck. This study will delve into the reasons that bridge decks crack, the strains that are associated with drying shrinkage, and possible methods for abating its effects. The research is divided into two parts, the first being laboratory experimentation, which was conducted through the use of two 7 ft. x 10 ft. experimental concrete bridge bays. Each bay was instrumented with strain and temperature gages throughout the deck and girders, which collected data for six months. The first deck was poured with a control concrete mix used currently in Illinois. The second deck was poured with a type K expansive concrete, which could battle the effects of shrinkage. For both decks, the results suggest a compressive strain throughout the rebar and along the top surface of the concrete, except for the locations where cracks are found (at these locations the strain slopes upward into tension). The strain in the type K deck, though, was notably less than that in the control deck and the onset of cracking was delayed by three weeks, giving the indication of an improvement over the current mix design. The second portion of the research was focused on using a finite element model to replicate the bridge bay and study the results. Equivalent temperature loading was used to apply the shrinkage loads recorded during the experimental portion of the research. The model was then expanded to encompass a full-scale bridge and in order to provide some insight into shrinkage strain in the real world. The end goal is to help alleviate cracking

  15. Seismic evaluation of K basin bridge cranes (HOI-320 ampersand HOI-418) and supporting structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safety Class 1 100-K fuel storage basins are vulnerable to impact damage if a bridge crane were to fall during a seismic event. The pupose of this report is to address the adequacy of the K Basin bridge cranes to resist a seismic-induced fall. The approach used to demonstrate adequacy against falling, was to evaluate the crane structural components relative to requirements specified in ASME NOG-1, Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes. Additionally, wheel lift-off and the adequacy of the crane supporting structure, are addressed. Seismic adequacy of the mechanical hoist equipment is not addressed in this report

  16. Analytical Study of Vertical and Torsional Free Vibration of Cable Supported Bridge Decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Daniel J.

    The superposition method is employed to obtain an analytical type solution for the free vibration of cable supported bridge decks. Each pair of vertical elastic cables is considered to impart a vertical force to the deck by means of a rigid cross-member passing transversely beneath it. Rigid knife-edge support encountered at bridge towers is handled as well. In this introductory study the deck is treated as a thin isotropic plate. Any number of support cable pairs, of any stiffness, may be handled. Inter cross-member distances are referred to as spans. Free vibration eigenvalues and mode shapes are presented for three and four span illustrative cases.

  17. Bridging a cultural gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-09-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes—aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics—is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a potential bridging programme, this paper aims at demonstrating that the gap can be bridged, by presenting an ongoing modular bridging programme especially designed for the diverse types of student populations in teachers training colleges. We also present here some innovative teaching and assessment methods that were judged essential for the success of these programmes—focusing mainly on the "Questionnaire Based Instruction Method". Finally we suggest directions of follow up and research.

  18. Drainage Structure Datasets and Effects on LiDAR-Derived Surface Flow Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruopu Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With extraordinary resolution and accuracy, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs have been increasingly used for watershed analyses and modeling by hydrologists, planners and engineers. Such high-accuracy DEMs have demonstrated their effectiveness in delineating watershed and drainage patterns at fine scales in low-relief terrains. However, these high-resolution datasets are usually only available as topographic DEMs rather than hydrologic DEMs, presenting greater land roughness that can affect natural flow accumulation. Specifically, locations of drainage structures such as road culverts and bridges were simulated as barriers to the passage of drainage. This paper proposed a geospatial method for producing LiDAR-derived hydrologic DEMs, which incorporates data collection of drainage structures (i.e., culverts and bridges, data preprocessing and burning of the drainage structures into DEMs. A case study of GIS-based watershed modeling in South Central Nebraska showed improved simulated surface water derivatives after the drainage structures were burned into the LiDAR-derived topographic DEMs. The paper culminates in a proposal and discussion of establishing a national or statewide drainage structure dataset.

  19. Evaluation of the Correlation Between Myocardial Bridging and Atherosclerotic Changes in Coronary Artery Segment Proximal to the Bridge by 64-Slice Multidetector CT Scan

    OpenAIRE

    Safa Hoodeshenas; Abbas Arjmand Shabestari

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: The aim of this study was"nto evaluate the prevalance and characteristics of myocardial bridging (MB) and to assess the correlation"nbetween atherosclerosis and MB."nMaterials and Methods: Retrospective evaluation"nof 2790 coronary angiograms were obtained by 64-"nslice multidetector CT. The prevalance, length, depth,"nprecise of MB location and concomitant atherosclerosis"nproximal to tunneled segment were evaluated. The"ngroup of...

  20. D4.2 Guideline for Load and Resistance Assessment of Existing European Railway Bridges - Sustainable Bridges - Assessment for future traffic demands and longer lives

    OpenAIRE

    EUROPEAN COMMISSION

    2007-01-01

    The bridge assessment in many aspects is very similar to the bridge design. The same basic principles lie at the heart of the process. Nevertheless, an important difference lies in the fact when a bridge is being designed, an element of conservatism is generally a good thing that can be achieved with very little additional costs. When a bridge is being assessed, it is important to avoid unnecessarily conservative measures because of the financial implications that may follow the decision of r...

  1. Bridging and bonding interactions in higher education: social capital and students’ academic and professional identity formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dorthe H.; Jetten, Jolanda

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that graduates’ achievements depend in important ways on their opportunities to develop an academic and a professional identity during their studies. Previous research has shown that students’ socio-economic status (SES) and social capital prior to entering university affects their ability to obtain these identities in higher education. However, what is less well understood is whether social capital that is built during university studies shapes identity development, and if so, whether the social capital gained during university years impacts on academic and professional identity differently. In a qualitative study, we interviewed 26 Danish and 11 Australian university students about their social interaction experiences, their opportunities to develop bonding capital as well as bridging capital, and their academic and professional identity. Findings show that while bonding social capital with co-students facilitated academic identity formation, such social capital does not lead to professional identity development. We also found that the development of bridging social capital with educators facilitated students’ professional identity formation. However, bonding social capital among students stood in the way of participating in bridging interaction with educators, thereby further hindering professional identity formation. Finally, while students’ parental background did not affect the perceived difficulty of forming professional identity, there was a tendency for students from lower SES backgrounds to be more likely to make internal attributions while those from higher SES backgrounds were more likely to make external attributions for the failure to develop professional identity. Results point to the importance of creating opportunities for social interaction with educators at university because this facilitates the generation of bridging social capital, which, in turn, is essential for students’ professional identity

  2. Bridging and bonding interactions in higher education: social capital and students' academic and professional identity formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dorthe H; Jetten, Jolanda

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that graduates' achievements depend in important ways on their opportunities to develop an academic and a professional identity during their studies. Previous research has shown that students' socio-economic status (SES) and social capital prior to entering university affects their ability to obtain these identities in higher education. However, what is less well understood is whether social capital that is built during university studies shapes identity development, and if so, whether the social capital gained during university years impacts on academic and professional identity differently. In a qualitative study, we interviewed 26 Danish and 11 Australian university students about their social interaction experiences, their opportunities to develop bonding capital as well as bridging capital, and their academic and professional identity. Findings show that while bonding social capital with co-students facilitated academic identity formation, such social capital does not lead to professional identity development. We also found that the development of bridging social capital with educators facilitated students' professional identity formation. However, bonding social capital among students stood in the way of participating in bridging interaction with educators, thereby further hindering professional identity formation. Finally, while students' parental background did not affect the perceived difficulty of forming professional identity, there was a tendency for students from lower SES backgrounds to be more likely to make internal attributions while those from higher SES backgrounds were more likely to make external attributions for the failure to develop professional identity. Results point to the importance of creating opportunities for social interaction with educators at university because this facilitates the generation of bridging social capital, which, in turn, is essential for students' professional identity development. PMID

  3. It Began with Hypatia and Ada: Helping Girls Bridge the Technology Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniel D.

    1996-01-01

    Examines causes of female negativity towards technology and presents ways to improve female attitudes and increase involvement in technology education. Discusses the bridging of the gender gap to allow females and males to achieve equality in technology fields. Describes online resources, television programs, and groups that promote female…

  4. Facebook Use and Social Capital: To Bond, To Bridge, or to Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min-Woo; D'Angelo, Jonathan; McLeod, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    This study employs the uses and gratification approach to investigate how different forms of Facebook use are linked to bridging social capital and bonding social capital. A survey of 152 college students was conducted to address research questions and to test hypotheses. Factor analysis identified six unique uses and gratifications: (a)…

  5. Modal analysis of a concrete highway bridge: Structural calculations and vibration-based results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, S.; Veerman, R.P.; Koenders, E.A.B.; Knobbe, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the field of civil infrastructure, Structural Health Monitoring systems are implemented more and more frequently with the aim to safeguard the safety and service-life of structures such as bridges and tunnels. Changes in the integrity of the material and/or structural properties of this class of

  6. Bridging East and West : The Establishment of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in the United States Foreign Policy of Bridge Building, 1964-1972.

    OpenAIRE

    Riska-Campbell, Leena

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation examines the foreign policies of the United States through the prism of science and technology. In the focal point of scrutiny is the policy establishing the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and the development of the multilateral part of bridge building in American foreign policy during the 1960s and early 1970s. After a long and arduous negotiation process, the institute was finally established by twelve national member organizations from the fol...

  7. Embedded Electromechanical Impedance and Strain Sensors for Health Monitoring of a Concrete Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dansheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT is one of the piezoelectric smart materials, which has direct and converse piezoelectric effects and can serve as an active electromechanical impedance (EMI sensor. The design and fabrication processes of EMI sensors embedded into concrete structures are presented briefly. Subsequently, finite element modeling and modal analysis of a continuous rigid frame bridge are implemented by using ANSYS and MIDAS and validated by the field test results. Uppermost, a health monitoring technique by employing the embedded EMI and strain sensors is proposed in this paper. The technique is not based on any physical model and is sensitive to incipient structural changes for its high frequency characteristics. A practical study on health monitoring of the continuous rigid frame bridge is implemented based on the EMI and strain signatures. In this study, some EMI and strain sensors are embedded into the box-sectional girders. The electrical admittances of distributed EMI active sensors and the strains of concrete are measured when the bridge is under construction or in operation. Based on the electrical admittance and strain measurements, the health statuses of the continuous rigid frame bridge are monitored and evaluated successfully in the construction and operation stages using a root-mean-square deviation (RMSD index.

  8. Bridging Literacy and Equity: The Essential Guide to Social Equity Teaching. Language & Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Althier M.; Edwards, Patricia A.; McMillon, Gwendolyn Thompson

    2012-01-01

    "Bridging Literacy and Equity" synthesizes the essential research and practice of social equity literacy teaching in one succinct, user-friendly volume. Extraordinary K-12 teachers show us what social equity literacy teaching looks like and how it advances children's achievement. Chapters identify six key dimensions of social equity teaching that…

  9. Virtual Communities of Practice: Bridging Research and Practice Using Web 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Laura A.; Koston, Zoe; Quartley, Marjorie; Adsit, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A significant dilemma for the health and human service professions continues to be the question of how best to bridge the divide between academic research and practice. Communities of practice have traditionally been a vehicle for collaborative research and for information exchange (Moore, 2008). Through collaboration, communities of practice have…

  10. Measurements and analysis of vibrations at Virilla Bridge, national route N° 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Navarro-Henríquez

    2015-06-01

    The measurements allowed quantifying the vibration magnitudes and deformation in various sections of the bridge, on condition of vehicular traffic service (environmental performance. The experimental results are compared with computational analytical modeling of the structure and also with national and international standards.

  11. Bridging Bilingual and Special Education: Opportunities for Transformative Change in Teacher Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Alberto M.; Brandon, Regina R.; Cadiero-Kaplan, Karen; Ramírez, Pablo C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the design and performance of ALAS (Acquisition of Language Skills and Academic Literacy) Teacher Education Project designed to bridge Biliteracy and Special Education teacher preparation. ALAS was designed by faculty in two higher education departments engaged in teacher preparation to respond to California's need for…

  12. Mechanism and Dynamics of Charge Transfer in Donor-Bridge-Acceptor Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorczak-Vos, N.

    2016-01-01

    Photoinduced charge transfer in organic materials is a fundamental process in various biological and technological areas. Donor-bridge-acceptor (DBA) molecules are used as model systems in numerous theoretical and experimental work to systematically study and unravel the underlying mechanisms of cha

  13. Sea Ice Thickness, Freeboard, and Snow Depth products from Operation IceBridge Airborne Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, N. T.; Farrell, S. L.; Studinger, M.; Galin, N.; Harbeck, J. P.; Lindsay, R.; Onana, V. D.; Panzer, B.; Sonntag, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The study of sea ice using airborne remote sensing platforms provides unique capabilities to measure a wide variety of sea ice properties. These measurements are useful for a variety of topics including model evaluation and improvement, assessment of satellite retrievals, and incorporation into climate data records for analysis of interannual variability and long-term trends in sea ice properties. In this paper we describe methods for the retrieval of sea ice thickness, freeboard, and snow depth using data from a multisensor suite of instruments on NASA's Operation IceBridge airborne campaign. We assess the consistency of the results through comparison with independent data sets that demonstrate that the IceBridge products are capable of providing a reliable record of snow depth and sea ice thickness. We explore the impact of inter-campaign instrument changes and associated algorithm adaptations as well as the applicability of the adapted algorithms to the ongoing IceBridge mission. The uncertainties associated with the retrieval methods are determined and placed in the context of their impact on the retrieved sea ice thickness. Lastly, we present results for the 2009 and 2010 IceBridge campaigns, which are currently available in product form via the National Snow and Ice Data Center

  14. Sudden lateral asymmetry and torsional oscillations of section models of suspension bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, R. H.; Davis, F. M.

    2007-11-01

    Cable-supported bridges typically exhibit minimal torsional motion under traffic and wind loads. If symmetry of the bridge about the deck's centerline is suddenly lost, such as by the failure of one or more cables or hangers (suspenders), torsional motion of the deck may grow and angles of twist may become large. The initiation of the disastrous torsional oscillations of the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge involved a sudden lateral asymmetry due to loosening of a cable band at midspan. The effects of these types of events on two-degree-of-freedom and four-degree-of-freedom section models of suspension bridges are analyzed. Vertical and rotational motions of the deck, along with vertical motions of the cables, are considered. A harmonic vertical force and an aerodynamic moment proportional to angular velocity are applied to the deck. Resistance is provided by translational and rotational springs and dashpots. Flutter instability and large oscillations occur under the aerodynamic moment, which provides "negative damping." In order to model the occurrence of limit cycles, nonlinear damping of the van der Pol type is included in one case, and nonlinear stiffness of the hangers in others. The frequencies of the limit cycles are compared to the natural frequencies of the system.

  15. A predictive Bayesian approach to the design and analysis of bridging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, A Lawrence; Jin, Tian; Zhang, Li Xin; Wang, William W B

    2012-09-01

    Pharmaceutical product development culminates in confirmatory trials whose evidence for the product's efficacy and safety supports regulatory approval for marketing. Regulatory agencies in countries whose patients were not included in the confirmatory trials often require confirmation of efficacy and safety in their patient populations, which may be accomplished by carrying out bridging studies to establish consistency for local patients of the effects demonstrated by the original trials. This article describes and illustrates an approach for designing and analyzing bridging studies that fully incorporates the information provided by the original trials. The approach determines probability contours or regions of joint predictive intervals for treatment effect and response variability, or endpoints of treatment effect confidence intervals, that are functions of the findings from the original trials, the sample sizes for the bridging studies, and possible deviations from complete consistency with the original trials. The bridging studies are judged consistent with the original trials if their findings fall within the probability contours or regions. Regulatory considerations determine the region definitions and appropriate probability levels. Producer and consumer risks provide a way to assess alternative region and probability choices. [Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the Publisher's online edition of the Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics for the following free supplemental resource: Appendix 2: R code for Calculations.]. PMID:22946940

  16. Feasibility of Building Bridges between School and Homes in Developing ESL Literacy: The SPIRE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    BavaHarji, Madhubala; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni; Bhar, Sareen Kaur

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a feasible framework for building bridges between schools and homes to develop five year olds ESL literacy skills, using storybooks as a springboard. A reading program, i.e. Smart Partnership in Reading in English (SPIRE) was designed in response to the government's aspiration to raise literacy rates to 100% by 2020 and the…

  17. Multisystemic Therapy: Bridging the Gap between University- and Community-Based Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henggeler, Scott W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Proposes two theory- and empirically-based explanations for the emergent success of multisystemic therapy (MST) in community settings. First, MST may have demonstrated success because it bridges the gap between university-based psychotherapy studies and their community-based counterparts. Second, its favorable outcomes may exemplify the successful…

  18. Capacitance bridge detector and signal lock for ion cyclotron resonance spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jeffrey; Drzaic, Paul S.; Foster, Robert F.; Wetzel, Donna M.; Brauman, John I.; Uppal, Jack S.; Staley, Ralph H.

    1987-08-01

    The design and operational characteristics of a capacitance bridge detector and accompanying signal lock system are presented. The signal lock is especially well suited for the measurement of small changes in ion concentration during photochemical experiments, thereby alleviating problems caused by resonant frequency shifts.

  19. Authenticity in Learning for the Twenty-First Century: Bridging the Formal and the Informal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, David; Lee, Shu-Shing; Lim, Kenneth Y. T.

    2012-01-01

    The paper attempts to bridge informal and formal learning by leveraging on affordance structures associated with informal environments to help learners develop social, cognitive, and metacognitive dispositions that can be applied to learning in classrooms. Most studies focus on either learning in formal or informal contexts, but this study seeks…

  20. Bridging Programs for Aborigines Wishing to Study Science and Mathematics in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treagust, David F.; And Others

    Most Aboriginal people in Australia lack the background qualifications to enter higher education courses in science and mathematics. In 1984, the Western Australian Institute of Technology (WAIT) (now Curtin University of Technology) developed a project which created and evaluated bridging courses for Aboriginal people seeking to gain access into…