WorldWideScience

Sample records for bridges and culverts

  1. VT Short Structures - Bridges and Culverts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Inspection data for structures (bridge and culvert) between 6 feet and 20 feet in length inspected on State road system. Stewards: Information Technology, Data...

  2. VT Long Structures - Bridges and Culverts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Inspection data for structures (bridge and culvert) greater than 20 feet in length inspected on both State and local road systems. Stewards: Information Technology,...

  3. Road Bridges and Culverts, MDTA Culverts, Culverts on John F. Kennedy Highway (I95), Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Throughway, Francis Scott Key Bridge, Bay bridge, Nice Bridge, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described...

  4. Road Bridges and Culverts, Bridges layers located in GIS and Transportation database., Published in unknown, City of Roswell, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Bridges layers located in GIS and Transportation database.'. Data by this publisher are...

  5. Road Bridges and Culverts, 2006 2' contours; autocad dwg, Published in unknown, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset as of unknown. It is described as '2006 2' contours; autocad dwg'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane...

  6. Road Bridges and Culverts, Bridges, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Lafayette County Land Records.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. It is...

  7. Road Bridges and Culverts, Highway Culverts, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Lafayette County Land Records.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. It is...

  8. Road Bridges and Culverts, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, North Georgia Regional Development Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. Data by this...

  9. Road Bridges and Culverts, Published in 2005, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Brown County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2005. Data by this...

  10. Road Bridges and Culverts, Points documenting bridge class, road carry, and intersecting feature, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Allegany County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described...

  11. Road Bridges and Culverts, Bridge inventory, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described...

  12. Road Bridges and Culverts, County Maintained Bridges, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Lumpkin County, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described...

  13. Railroad Bridges and Culverts, All railroad bridges for the state of Michigan, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Office of Shared Solutions.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2009. It is...

  14. Road Bridges and Culverts, Road Bridges point, lines, polygons in Iredell County, NC, Published in 2005, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Iredell County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2005. It is described...

  15. Road Bridges and Culverts, Bridges - digitized from 2008 aerials by Furgro Earthdata, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described...

  16. Road Bridges and Culverts, Lyon County Bridges, Published in 2010, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, City of Emporia/Lyon County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. It is described...

  17. Road Bridges and Culverts, 2006 2' contours; autocad dwg, bridge layer, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. It is described...

  18. Road Bridges and Culverts, Culverts - cross drains were collected via GPS for drainage project, Published in 2005, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. It is described...

  19. Road Bridges and Culverts, Road Structures, Published in 2005, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Iowa Department of Transportation.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2005. It is described...

  20. Road Bridges and Culverts, Misc. Arcs (Bridge): Part of 2005 Planimetry-Topography layers., Published in 2005, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washington County GIS Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2005. It is described...

  1. Research on the small bridge and culvert foundation in permafrost regions of Hulunbuir%呼伦贝尔市永冻土地区小桥涵基础研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周成龙; 焦同战

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of mastering the information of hydrology,geology,weather and so on accurately,simulating the temperature-field by integrating the basic theory of engineering cryopedology,land hydrology,groundwater dynamics and thermodynamics,and through the typicality experimental study,the rules and methods of the construction of the highway bridges and culverts in seasonal frozen earth regions are summarized,which can guide the construction of the small bridge and culvert in the frozen earth area such as Hulunbuir and provide theoretical basis to the construction of highway,railway,bridge and culvert foundation and building foundation.%在准确掌握冻土区水文、地质、气象等资料的基础上,综合工程冻土学、陆地水文学、地下水动力学、热力学的基础理论进行温度场数值模拟,并通过典型性试验研究,总结出在季冻土地区进行公路桥涵建设的规律和方法,为在呼伦贝尔及类似冻土地区进行小桥涵施工提供指导,并进一步为在高寒地区公路、铁路桥涵基础、房屋建筑基础提供理论依据。

  2. The effects of water flow and temperature on thermal regime around a culvert built on permafrost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loriane Prier; Guy Dor; CR Burn

    2014-01-01

    Temperature and water flow through a culvert beneath the Alaska Highway near Beaver Creek, Yukon, were measured at hourly intervals between June and October 2013. These data were used to simulate the effect of the culvert on the thermal regime of the road embankment and subjacent permafrost. A 2-D thermal model of the embankment and permafrost was developed with TEMP/W and calibrated using field observations. Empirical relations were obtained between water tem-peratures at the entrance to the culvert, flow into the culvert, and water temperatures inside the structure. Water temper-atures at the entrance and inside the culvert had a linear relation, while water temperatures inside the culvert and water flow were associated by a logarithmic relation. A multiple linear regression was used to summarize these relations. From this relationship, changes in the flow rate and water temperatures at the entrance of the culvert were simulated to obtain pre-dicted water temperatures in the culvert. The temperatures in the culvert were used in the thermal model to determine their effects on the ground thermal regime near the culvert. Variation of ±10%in water flow rate had no impact on the thermal regime underneath the culvert. Variation of water temperature at the entrance of the culvert had a noticeable influence on the thermal regime. A final simulation was conducted without insulation beneath the culvert. The thaw depth was 30 cm with insulation, and 120 cm without insulation, illustrating the importance of insulation to the ground thermal regime.

  3. 78 FR 5715 - Construction and Maintenance-Culvert Pipe Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... 12630. Executive Order 12988 (Civil Justice Reform) This action meets applicable standards in sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) of Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform, to minimize litigation, eliminate..., Transportation, Highways and roads, Culvert material types. Issued on: January 17, 2013. Victor M....

  4. Culvert Analysis Program Graphical User Interface 1.0--A preprocessing and postprocessing tool for estimating flow through culvert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. Nathan

    2013-01-01

    The peak discharge of a flood can be estimated from the elevation of high-water marks near the inlet and outlet of a culvert after the flood has occurred. This type of discharge estimate is called an “indirect measurement” because it relies on evidence left behind by the flood, such as high-water marks on trees or buildings. When combined with the cross-sectional geometry of the channel upstream from the culvert and the culvert size, shape, roughness, and orientation, the high-water marks define a water-surface profile that can be used to estimate the peak discharge by using the methods described by Bodhaine (1968). This type of measurement is in contrast to a “direct” measurement of discharge made during the flood where cross-sectional area is measured and a current meter or acoustic equipment is used to measure the water velocity. When a direct discharge measurement cannot be made at a streamgage during high flows because of logistics or safety reasons, an indirect measurement of a peak discharge is useful for defining the high-flow section of the stage-discharge relation (rating curve) at the streamgage, resulting in more accurate computation of high flows. The Culvert Analysis Program (CAP) (Fulford, 1998) is a command-line program written in Fortran for computing peak discharges and culvert rating surfaces or curves. CAP reads input data from a formatted text file and prints results to another formatted text file. Preparing and correctly formatting the input file may be time-consuming and prone to errors. This document describes the CAP graphical user interface (GUI)—a modern, cross-platform, menu-driven application that prepares the CAP input file, executes the program, and helps the user interpret the output

  5. Centrifugal and Analytical Modeling of a Buried Flexible Culvert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-31

    buckling (Allgood et al., 1968, Luscher 1966, Whitman et al., 1962). Since the failure mode of the culvert is controlled by the geometry and the...University, December. Luscher , U. (1966): "Buckling of Soil-Surrounded Tubes". Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE, Vol. 92, No. SM6...1960, pp. 389-397 Whitman, R.V. and Luscher . U. (1962): "Basic Experiment of Soil-Structure Interaction", Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations

  6. Fort Leonard Wood Culvert and Flagpole: Historic American Engineering Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    the cantonment area. Between 1943 and 1945, over 250 German prisoners built drainage struc- tures, retaining walls, sidewalks and parks, some of which...concepts fa- miliar to all soldiers. The compounds each had an elected leader from the ranks of the POW companies making up each compound. The company...viaducts, culverts, weirs, sidewalks , and walls. There are 30 noncon- tributing elements to the German POW Stonework Historic District. ERDC/CERL SR-11-3

  7. Movement and survival of an amphibian in relation to sediment and culvert design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, R.K; Lowe, W.H.; Hossack, Blake R.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat disturbance from stream culverts can affect aquatic organisms by increasing sedimentation or forming barriers to movement. Land managers are replacing many culverts to reduce these negative effects, primarily for stream fishes. However, these management actions are likely to have broad implications for many organisms, including amphibians in small streams. To assess the effects of culverts on movement and survival of the Idaho giant salamander (Dicamptodon aterrimus), we used capture-mark-recapture surveys and measured sediment in streams with 2 culvert types (i.e., unimproved culverts, improved culverts) and in streams without culverts (i.e., reference streams). We predicted culverts would increase stream sediment levels, limit movement, and reduce survival of Idaho giant salamanders. We also determined the effect of sediment levels on survival of salamanders because although sediment is often associated with distribution and abundance of stream amphibians, links with vital rates remain unclear. To estimate survival, we used a spatial Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) model that explicitly incorporated information on movement, eliminating bias in apparent survival estimated from traditional (i.e., non-spatial) CJS models caused by permanent emigration beyond the study area. To demonstrate the importance of using spatial data in studies of wildlife populations, we compared estimates from the spatial CJS to estimates of apparent survival from a traditional CJS model. Although high levels of sediment reduced survival of salamanders, culvert type was unrelated to sediment levels or true survival of salamanders. Across all streams, we documented only 15 movement events between study reaches. All movement events were downstream, and they occurred disproportionately in 1 stream, which precluded measuring the effect of culvert design on movement. Although movement was low overall, the variance among streams was high enough to bias estimates of apparent survival

  8. Geometry and intensity based culvert detection in mobile laser scanning point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; Hyyppa, Juha

    2010-11-01

    Mobile laser scanning (MLS), which recently has been developing so quickly as a promising technology for mapping and remote sensing (RS), offers a good means to measure the fundamental geographic data, e.g. culverts, for urban planning and road engineering. This study as the first try presents a new automatic method to detect culverts in MLS point clouds, in which actually only partial characterization of this category of objects can be presented due to the restricted scanning zenith of MLS. The schematic is based on the raster-form of the data, and the digital terrain models (DTMs) with multi-leveled resolutions are first yielded by local minimum filtering. Then, the common layout of the expanded areas containing culverts is generalized as the theoretical basis, and the schematic components are derived to deploy the concrete judgment. The geometry and intensity information about culverts are both utilized to determine the real locations from coarse- to fine-scales. Numerical analysis based on the real-measured MLS data at the Espoonlahti test site has basically validated the proposed approach. Concretely, the statistical errors of the retrieved lengths and widths of the pedestrian culverts are less than 9% and 16% compared to the real ones individually, notwithstanding the inner heights innately in-accessible.

  9. Hydraulic Evaluation of Culvert Valves at Eisenhower and Snell Locks, St. Lawrence Seaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 5- 7 Hydraulic Evaluation of Culvert Valves at Eisenhower and Snell Locks, St. Lawrence Seaway Co as ta l a nd H...client/default. ERDC/CHL TR-15-7 June 2015 Hydraulic Evaluation of Culvert Valves at Eisenhower and Snell Locks, St. Lawrence Seaway...ERDC/CHL TR-15-7 ii Abstract The aged, double-skin-plate valves of the Eisenhower and Snell Locks on the St. Lawrence Seaway are being replaced

  10. An Analysis of Stream Culvert Fish Passage on the Navy Railroad Line between Bremerton and Shelton, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; Miller, Martin C.; Southard, John A.

    2004-10-25

    The Navy railroad service line runs between Shelton, Bremerton, and Silverdale, and is used by the Navy to transfer freight to its facilities. It is also used by commercial clients to ship service items and bulk cargo for municipalities along portions of the route. Culverts of various size and construction convey streams and stormwater runoff under the railroad line. These allow transfer of water and, in some cases allow for passage of juvenile and adult salmon into waters upstream of the culverts. As part of this project, 21 culverts along a 34-mile reach (Shelton to Bremerton) of this railroad were surveyed to evaluate their function and ability to allow salmon to utilize the streams. The culverts and attached watersheds were evaluated using criteria developed by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife to assign a Priority Index (PI) to barriers present on each fish-bearing stream. The PI is a relative numeric rating indicator, assigned using consistent criteria related to the degree of potential habitat gained by removing barriers and improving the function of the watershed. Of the 21 culverts evaluated, five were found to be complete fish-passage barriers and six were found to be partial barriers, primarily to juvenile salmon. Three of these culverts had PI ratings above 10 and five others had ratings between 7 and 10. Corrective action can be taken based on any PI rating, but the WDFW normally assigns lower priority to projects with PI scores lower than 15. Several of the stream and culverts had previously been evaluated for structural integrity and function and have been scheduled for repair. A narrative indicating the condition of the culvert has been prepared as well as a table indicating the PI scores and a summary of recommendations for action for each culvert.

  11. Implementation of Structures in the CMS:Part 3, Culvert

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    describes the mathematical formulation and numerical implementation of a culvert in the Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ) operated through the Surface...wetland application in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. Figure 1. (a) Circular culvert, and (b) rectangular culvert. COASTAL MODELING SYSTEM : The CMS ...this application the same CMS model was adopted, culvert structures configured in the system , and a 50-day simulation was conducted. The

  12. Study on dynamic response of embedded long span corrugated steel culverts using scaled model shaking table tests and numerical analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A series of scaled-model shaking table tests and its simulation analyses using dynamic finite element method were performed to clarify the dynamic behaviors and the seismic stability of embedded corrugated steel culverts due to strong earthquakes like the 1995 Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake. The dynamic strains of the embedded culvert models and the seismic soil pressure acting on the models due to sinusoidal and random strong motions were investigated. This study verified that the corrugated culvert model was subjected to dynamic horizontal forces (lateral seismic soil pressure) from the surrounding ground,which caused the large bending strains on the structure; and that the structures do not exceed the allowable plastic deformation and do not collapse completely during strong earthquake like Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake. The results obtained are useful for design and construction of embedded long span corrugated steel culverts in seismic regions.

  13. Potential-scour assessments and estimates of maximum scour at selected bridges in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, E.E.

    1995-01-01

    The results of potential-scour assessments at 130 bridges and estimates of maximum scour at 10 bridges in Iowa are presented. All of the bridges evaluated in the study are constructed bridges (not culverts) that are sites of active or discontinued streamflow-gaging stations and peak-stage measurement sites. The period of the study was from October 1991 to September 1994.

  14. Longitudinal habitat disruption in Neotropical streams: fish assemblages under the influence of culverts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Mariano

    Full Text Available This study assessed differences in fish assemblages existing upstream and downstream two types of culverts, one on each of two different Neotropical streams. We analyzed the composition and structure of the ichthyofauna and tested for spatial patterns. Fish sampling was carried out monthly between November 2009 and October 2010 using different fishing gears. We collected 2,220 fish of 33 species; 901 in stretches of the Lopeí stream - circular culvert and 1,310 in stretches of the Pindorama stream - box culvert. Fish abundance was similar in upstream and downstream stretches of the circular culvert, whereas it was slightly higher in the upstream than downstream stretch for the box culvert. Characiformes predominated in the upstream stretch of both culverts. On the other hand, Siluriformes was abundant in the downstream stretch of the circular culvert, with similar abundance in the stretches of the box culvert. Species richness and diversity (Shannon-Weiner Index were higher in the downstream stretch of the circular culvert, but they were similar in both stretches of the box culvert. The most abundant species were Astyanax altiparanae, A. paranae, A. fasciatus, Ancistrus sp., and Hypostomus sp. The last two species were more abundant in the downstream stretch of the circular culvert, and similar in stretches of the box culvert. Our study indicated variations in the species abundance, richness, and diversity between upstream and downstream stretches in particular of the circular culvert in the Lopeí stream, suggesting that fish movements are restrained more intensively in this culvert, especially for Siluriformes. The drop in the circular culvert outlet probably created passage barriers especially for those fish that has no ability to jump, where downstream erosion could lead to culvert perching. Studies on appropriate road crossing design or installation are fundamental whereas improvements in these structures can restore the connectivity of

  15. Land Management Agencies: Restoring Fish Passage Through Culverts on Forest Service and BLM Lands in Oregon and Washington Could Take Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    2,645 4,805 $331,042 aAccording to the Forest Service, the Umpqua , Wallow-Whitman, and Colville national forests did not provide estimates because...Action 20 Agency Comments 20 Appendix I Barrier Culvert Information by Bureau of Land Management District Office and National Forest 22 Bureau of Land...of public lands, managed by 9 regional offices that are responsible for supervising the operations of 155 national forests . BLM and the Forest Service

  16. Do culverts impact the movements of the endangered white-clawed crayfish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louca V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Culverts can impact the migration and dispersal of aquatic animals and result in population fragmentation, increasing the risk of local extinction for endangered species such as the white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. This study used radio telemetry and passive integrated transponder (PIT telemetry to determine whether existing and experimental covered culverts affect the upstream and downstream movements of adult white-clawed crayfish. Daily crayfish movement rates did not differ significantly between an unlit 363-m long culvert and open stream channel sections. Crayfish moved into dark, covered sections volitionally. However, limited upstream movement occurred at sudden transitions of bed height or smooth-concrete box culvert sections with fast flow, suggesting partial barrier effects. In the 20-m long experimental in-stream culvert, also dark, but with natural stream bed, 70% of radio-tagged crayfish released downstream entered the culvert, as did 60% of those released upstream. Overall 35% passed through, with similar numbers in each direction. We conclude that dark culverts up to several hundred metres do not inhibit dispersal of white-clawed crayfish, provided stream slope, bed type and water velocity are amenable for movement and refuge. Care is required to ensure that culverts are bioengineered to ensure that average water velocity is sufficiently low and local hydraulic variation high, the bed and/or sidewalls contain refuge structures, and there are no cross-channel steps in bed level. Smooth-bedded box culverts are unlikely to be suitable for white-clawed crayfish.

  17. Analysis of Anticorrosion Technology of Bridge and Culvert Structures Concrete of Qinghai Chage Expressway Project in Saline Soil Area%青海察格高速公路项目工程桥涵构造物砼盐渍土地区防腐技术的分析借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁学英

    2012-01-01

    The northwest region of China is more extensive areas of saline land distribution, which is characterized by particularly severe of saline soil corrosion. The persecution role of the high concentrations intergranular brine or saline soil on pouring concrete highway is very strong. The sulfuric acid, salt and chloride in saline soil area has chemical action with cement, but also can bring damage caused by the physical role. Because the salt crystals is expanded in the wet and dry parts of structure and results in the crack in road concrete, it reduces the service life of the road to a large extent. So, except the relevant rules and norms of road construction in saline soil area, the corrosion resistance of concrete also should be paid great attention to and the special corresponding measures should be taken when conditions permit to mitigate and even eradicate the destructive effects of corrosion on highway structures.%我国的西北部是盐碱地分布比较广泛的地区,其特点就是盐渍土的腐蚀尤其严重.高浓度晶间卤水或者盐渍土壤对由混凝土浇筑的高速公路的的迫害作用相当强.这样的盐渍土地区环境中的硫酸、盐和氯盐和水泥石极易发生化学作用,而且还有物理作用造成的破坏,因为盐类结晶在结构的干湿变化部位基因膨胀,造成公路混凝土开裂,很大程度的减少了公路的使用寿命.所以说,对于盐渍土地区的公路建设各有关规定和规范之外,还须对混凝土地防腐性能给予高度关注,在条件许可时采取特殊对应措施,减轻乃至根除腐蚀对公路构筑物的破坏作用.

  18. Feasibility of culvert IED detection using thermal neutron activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Anthony A.; McFee, John E.; Clifford, Edward T. H.; Andrews, Hugh Robert; Mosquera, Cristian; Roberts, William C.

    2012-06-01

    Bulk explosives hidden in culverts pose a serious threat to the Canadian and allied armies. Culverts provide an opportunity to conceal insurgent activity, avoid the need for detectable surface disturbances, and limit the applicability of conventional sub-surface sensing techniques. Further, in spite of the large masses of explosives that can be employed, the large sensor{target separation makes detection of the bulk explosive content challeng- ing. Defence R&D Canada { Sueld and Bubble Technology Industries have been developing thermal neutron activation (TNA) sensors for detection of buried bulk explosives for over 15 years. The next generation TNA sensor, known as TNA2, incorporates a number of improvements that allow for increased sensor-to-target dis- tances, making it potentially feasible to detect large improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in culverts using TNA. Experiments to determine the ability of TNA2 to detect improvised explosive devices in culverts are described, and the resulting signal levels observed for relevant quantities of explosives are presented. Observations conrm that bulk explosives detection using TNA against a culvert-IED is possible, with large charges posing a detection challenge at least as dicult as that of a deeply buried anti-tank landmine. Because of the prototype nature of the TNA sensor used, it is not yet possible to make denitive statements about the absolute sensitivity or detection time. Further investigation is warranted.

  19. Field Experience with Lock Culvert Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    interesting accounts regarding their lock culvert valves. ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY Eisenhower and Snell Locks. The valves on the Eisenhower and Snell Locks...Tainter Valve Design Lift, ft Eisenhower St. Lawrence Seaway 80 x 860 12 x 14 21.0 DSP 43 Snell St. Lawrence Seaway 80 x 860 12 x 14 21.0 3 DSP, 1 VF 49...vertical-frame valves were furnished to the SLSDC in January 2011, and one was installed in the south filling-valve location at Snell Lock. An option

  20. 箱涵在小型水利工程中的应用%Application of box culvert in small water conservancy projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林治鑫; 吴有坤

    2015-01-01

    箱涵在小型水利工程中应用广泛,可以作为堤防、排水沟和小桥涵等建筑物。箱涵在小型水利工程中,具有过流能力强、结构稳定、承载能力高、基础处理简单等特点。本文对小型箱涵结构设计、施工、过流量计算、清淤等进行了详细介绍,供同类工程参考。%Box culvert is widely used in small water conservancy projects, which can be used as dyke, drainage ditch, small bridges and culverts and other buildings. Box culvert is characterized by strong overflow capability, stable structure, high bearing capacity, simple foundation treatment, etc. in small water conservancy projects. In the paper, small box culvert structure design, construction, overflow calculation, dredging, etc. are introduced in detail as reference for similar projects.

  1. Application of a multistate model to estimate culvert effects on movement of small fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, J.R.; Hagler, M.M.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    While it is widely acknowledged that culverted road-stream crossings may impede fish passage, effects of culverts on movement of nongame and small-bodied fishes have not been extensively studied and studies generally have not accounted for spatial variation in capture probabilities. We estimated probabilities for upstream and downstream movement of small (30-120 mm standard length) benthic and water column fishes across stream reaches with and without culverts at four road-stream crossings over a 4-6-week period. Movement and reach-specific capture probabilities were estimated using multistate capture-recapture models. Although none of the culverts were complete barriers to passage, only a bottomless-box culvert appeared to permit unrestricted upstream and downstream movements by benthic fishes based on model estimates of movement probabilities. At two box culverts that were perched above the water surface at base flow, observed movements were limited to water column fishes and to intervals when runoff from storm events raised water levels above the perched level. Only a single fish was observed to move through a partially embedded pipe culvert. Estimates for probabilities of movement over distances equal to at least the length of one culvert were low (e.g., generally ???0.03, estimated for 1-2-week intervals) and had wide 95% confidence intervals as a consequence of few observed movements to nonadjacent reaches. Estimates of capture probabilities varied among reaches by a factor of 2 to over 10, illustrating the importance of accounting for spatially variable capture rates when estimating movement probabilities with capture-recapture data. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate temporal variability in stream fish passage at culverts (e.g., in relation to streamflow variability) and to thereby better quantify the degree of population fragmentation caused by road-stream crossings with culverts. ?? American Fisheries Society 2009.

  2. Assessing Juvenile Salmonid Passage Through Culverts: Field Research in Support of Protocol Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Greg D.; Evans, Nathan R.; Pearson, Walter H.; Southard, John A.

    2001-10-30

    The primary goal of our research this spring/ summer was to refine techniques and examine scenarios under which a standardized protocol could be applied to assess juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch) passage through road culverts. Field evaluations focused on capture-mark- recapture methods that allowed analysis of fish movement patterns, estimates of culvert passability, and potential identification of cues inducing these movements. At this stage, 0+ age coho salmon fry 30 mm to 65 mm long (fork length) were the species and age class of interest. Ultimately, the protocol will provide rapid, statistically rigorous methods for trained personnel to perform standardized biological assessments of culvert passability to a number of juvenile salmon species. Questions to be addressed by the research include the following: ? Do hydraulic structures such as culverts restrict habitat for juvenile salmonids? ? How do existing culverts and retrofits perform relative to juvenile salmonid passage? ? Do some culvert characteristics and hydraulic conditions provide better passage than others? ? Does the culvert represent a barrier to certain size classes of fish? Recommendations addressed issues of study site selection, initial capture, marking, recapture/observations, and estimating movement.

  3. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  4. Analysis of brook trout spatial behavior during passage attempts in corrugated culverts using near-infrared illumination video imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Normand E.; Constantin, Pierre-Marc; Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    We used video recording and near-infrared illumination to document the spatial behavior of brook trout of various sizes attempting to pass corrugated culverts under different hydraulic conditions. Semi-automated image analysis was used to digitize fish position at high temporal resolution inside the culvert, which allowed calculation of various spatial behavior metrics, including instantaneous ground and swimming speed, path complexity, distance from side walls, velocity preference ratio (mean velocity at fish lateral position/mean crosssectional velocity) as well as number and duration of stops in forward progression. The presentation summarizes the main results and discusses how they could be used to improve fish passage performance in culverts.

  5. Estimates for Pu-239 loadings in burial ground culverts based on fast/slow neutron measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.; Hochel, R.C.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Sigg, R.A.

    1989-08-15

    This report provides guideline estimates for Pu-239 mass loadings in selected burial ground culverts. The relatively high recorded Pu-239 contents of these culverts have been appraised as suspect relative to criticality concerns, because they were assayed only with the solid waste monitor (SWM) per gamma-ray counting. After 1985, subsequent waste was also assayed with the neutron coincidence counter (NCC), and a comparison of the assay methods showed that the NCC generally yielded higher assays than the SWM. These higher NCC readings signaled a need to conduct non-destructive/non-intrusive nuclear interrogations of these culverts, and a technical team conducted scoping measurements to illustrate potential assay methods based on neutron and/or gamma counting. A fast/slow neutron method has been developed to estimate the Pu-239 in the culverts. In addition, loading records include the SWM assays of all Pu-239 cuts of some of the culvert drums and these data are useful in estimating the corresponding NCC drum assays from NCC vs SWM data. Together, these methods yield predictions based on direct measurements and statistical inference.

  6. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst......The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... groups, the sociology of work needs to develop a better understanding of the way in which linguistic diversity influences the formation of social capital, i.e. resources such as the trust and reciprocity inherent in social relations in such workplaces. Drawing on theories about intergroup contact...

  7. On the Culvert Transformation Method of Risk-elimination and Strengthening in Small (2) Type Reservoir%小2型水库除险加固中的涵管改造方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周云雄

    2015-01-01

    There are safety concerns such as aging, leaking in culvert pipe used in small (2) the type reservoirs that were built around 1950 after running decade. In order to protect and utilize the existing water resources, this paper discussed culvert transformation method of risk-elimination and strengthening in small (2) type reservoir through the project example, thus more economic effectively eliminated hidden danger, made the water conveyance system efficient and stable, achieved the result of increase income and reduce expenditure, and fully ensured the drinking water and irrigation water demand.%在1950年左右建设的小(2)型水库,经过几十年运行,大部分水库的涵管存在老化、漏水等安全隐患,为保护和利用现有水资源,通过工程实例,探讨小(2)型水库除险加固时涵管的改造方法,从而更经济有效地排除隐患,使输水系统高效稳定,达到开源节流的效果,充分保证饮水和灌溉用水需求。

  8. Bottom ash from fluidising bed boilers as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Chemical and geotechnical characterisation; Pannsand som kringfyllnadsmaterial foer fjaerrvaermeroergravar. Kemisk och geoteknisk karaktaerisering av fluidbaeddsand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Roger; Rogbeck, Jan; Suer, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Bottom ashes from fluid bed boilers have been characterised, both geotechnically and chemically, in order to investigate the possibility to use them as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Bottom ashes from both biofuel boilers and waste boilers are represented in this project. The companies which ashes have been characterised are Sundsvall Energi AB, Sydkraft OestVaerme AB, Sydkraft MaelarVaerme AB, Eskilstuna Miljoe och Energi, Stora Enso Fors, Soederenergi and Fortum Vaerme. A total of ten ashes have been analysed where three ashes originates from Sundsvall Energi AB, two from Sydkraft OestVaerme AB and one from the each of the remaining companies. The chemical analyses have been performed both on fresh ashes and on ashes aged for three months. The geotechnical analyses performed are grain size distribution, packing abilities and permeability. Chemical analyses performed are total content, available content, leaching tests (leaching both by shaking method and column procedure) and organic analyses (PAH, EOX, TOC, dioxin and fenol). The geotechnical analyses show that the ashes fulfils the demands that are put on the filler material used in district heating pipe culverts. When using the ashes in applications, light compaction should be performed due to the risk of crushing the material which may cause an increased amount of fine material. The leachability of fine material is larger than for coarse material. The ashes are relatively insensitive to precipitation. Bio fuel based bottom ashes have a lower content of environmental affecting substances than waste fuel based ashes. This is also shown in the leaching analyses. The leaching water from fresh ashes contains a higher concentration of leachable components than aged ashes. When aged the pH in the ashes decreases due to carbon uptake and hydration and this makes metals as Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn less mobile. On the other hand, an increase in leachability of Sb, Mo and SO{sub 4} is shown when the ashes

  9. Study on Dynamic Response and Scope of the Transition between Culvert and Subgrade in Beijing-Shanghai High-speed Railway%京沪高速铁路路涵过渡段动态响应特征及影响范围研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田亚护; 陈茂; 沈宇鹏; 杜嘉俊; 蔡小培

    2014-01-01

    针对高速铁路的桥涵与临近路基由于存在材料和沉降的差异形成的刚度和几何不平顺,对路涵过渡段的动态响应和影响范围进行研究。本文建立“车辆-轨道-过渡段”垂向耦合动力模型,研究过渡段路基的动态响应特征,并与京沪高速铁路廊坊段路涵过渡段现场实测值进行对比。结果表明,当运行速度小于300 km/h 时,过渡段基床动应力、加速度、垂向位移等随速度增加而增大;在300 km/h 时动应力、加速度出现最大值,动位移随行车速度呈线性增大;从动应力、加速度的影响范围看,运行速度在300 km/h 以下时路涵过渡段影响范围为20~25 m,300 km/h 及以上时,过渡段长度达到30~35 m。当设计速度超过300 km/h 时,应适当加长路涵过渡段长度。%According to the situation that there are stiffness and geometrical irregularities in the transition between subgrade and culvert /bridge due to the differences in material and deformation,researches on transition be-tween culvert and subgrade are carried out.In this paper,the vertical coupling dynamic model of vehicle-track-transitional section was built to sudy the characteristics of dynamic responses in transitional section between culvert and subgrade.Then,the results of the model were comparied with field tests of conducted in the Lang-fang segment of the Beijing-Shanghai High-speed Railway Line.The results show as follows:When a train runs at a speed lower than 300 km/h,the dynamic stress,acceleration and vertical displacement in transition increase with raizing of the train speed;when at the speed of 300 km/h,the dynamic stress and acceleration reach the maximum and the dynamic displacement increases linearly with raizing of the train speed;referting to the influence scope of the dynamic stress and acceleration in the transitional section,it covers 20 ~ 25 m at the speeds of 300 km/h and less and extends to 30 ~ 35 m at the speeds of higher than 300

  10. Bridge Creek IMW database - Bridge Creek Restoration and Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek is thought to be limiting a population of ESA-listed steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A logical restoration approach...

  11. Imaging Buried Culverts Using Ground Penetrating Radar: Comparing 100 MHZ Through 1 GHZ Antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Aziz, A.; Stewart, R. R.; Green, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    *Aziz, A A aabdulaziz@uh.edu Allied Geophysical Lab, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston, TX, USA Stewart, R R rrstewart@uh.edu Allied Geophysical Lab, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston, TX, USA *Green, S L slgreen@yahoo.com Allied Geophysical Lab, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston, TX, USA A 3D ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey, using three different frequency antennae, was undertaken to image buried steel culverts at the University of Houston's La Marque Geophysical Observatory 30 miles south of Houston, Texas. The four culverts, under study, support a road crossing one of the area's bayous. A 32 m by 4.5 m survey grid was designed on the road above the culverts and data were collected with 100 MHz, 250 MHz, and 1 GHz antennae. We used an orthogonal acquisition geometry for the three surveys. Inline sampling was from 1.0 cm to 10 cm (from 1 GHz to 100 MHz antenna) with inline and crossline spacings ranging from 0.2 m to 0.5 m. We used an initial velocity of 0.1 m/ns (from previous CMP work at the site) for the display purposes. The main objective of the study was to analyze the effect of different frequency antennae on the resultant GPR images. We are also interested in the accuracy and resolution of the various images, in addition to developing an optimal processing flow.The data were initially processed with standard steps that included gain enhancement, dewow and temporal-filtering, background suppression, and 2D migration. Various radar velocities were used in the 2D migration and ultimately 0.12 m/ns was used. The data are complicated by multipathing from the surface and between culverts (from modeling). Some of this is ameliorated via deconvolution. The top of each of the four culverts was evident in the GPR images acquired with the 250 MHz and 100 MHz antennas. For 1 GHz, the top of the culvert was not clear due to the signal's attenuation. The 250 MHz

  12. Culverts in paved roads as suitable passages for Neotropical fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Makrakis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Improperly installed or poorly maintained culverts can pose a serious threat to fish by disrupting their habitat and endangering spawning success. Road culverts that are not designed for fish passage frequently can become obstacles. This can be especially problematic for migratory species, but can lead to fragmentation of resident populations as well. This study evaluated 40 culverts of 29 sites within a 25-km radius from Toledo city, Paraná State, southern Brazil, with respect to their likely effects on movement of the local ichthyofauna. We collected data on the shape and length of culverts, culvert material, waterfall height, water column depth, slope, and estimated flow velocity. Culverts were categorized by level of barrier risk for upstream migration: high, medium, low, and impassable, as well as the type of barrier posed (fall height, depth, length and velocity. Most of culverts analyzed were considered potential barriers to fish movement, with 45% classified as impassible, 45% as high risk, 10% as medium risk, and no culverts as low risk. Brazilian culverts as fishways will require additional monitoring and studies to corroborate the premises proposed in the present study. Road culvert projects that are properly built and maintained will be able to simultaneously improve function of roadways and protect fish populations.Bueiros incorretamente instalados ou mal conservados podem representar uma séria ameaça para os peixes por fragmentar o seu habitat e comprometer o sucesso da desova. Bueiros em estradas que não são projetados para passagem de peixes freqüentemente tornam-se obstáculos. Isso pode ser especialmente problemático para as espécies migratórias, mas também pode levar à fragmentação das populações de peixes residentes. Este estudo avaliou 29 locais com 40 bueiros dentro de um raio de 25 km de Toledo, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil, com relaç��o aos seus prováveis efeitos sobre a movimentação da

  13. Environmental life cycle assessment comparison between two bridge types: reinforced concrete bridge and steel composite bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2013-01-01

    not been integrated into the decision-making process. This paper presents a systematic LCA method for quantifying the environmental impacts for bridges. The comparison study is performed between a reinforced concrete bridge and a steel bridge as an alternative design, with several key maintenance and EOL...... scenarios outlined. LCA study is performed with the ReCiPe methodology with life cycle inventories data from public database. Five selected mid-point level impact categories and the energy consumption are presented. The result shows that the steel bridge has a better environmental performance due...... to the recycling strategy, while the initial material manufacture is the most dominant phase that contributes large environmental impact in both design solutions....

  14. The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge and the Storebælt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    With the completion of the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge and the Storebælt East Bridge the development of the suspension bridge technology in the 20th century has manifested itself in two impressive structures. With the present echnology may bridges of similar (and also more modest) dimensions...... will undoubtedly be built far into the next century. For bridges going beyond the spans of existing bridges it is, however, likely that new concepts will be developed....

  15. Comparison between Modern Violin Bridge and Baroque Violin Bridge by Photoelastic Observation and Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, Akihiro

    2004-05-01

    A comparison between the modern bridge and the baroque bridge of the violin by photoelastic observation was carried out. The relationship between the stress part and the hole is symmetric in the modern and baroque bridges. The measured spectral envelopes of baroque bridges are similar to those of modern bridges in D- or G-strings, and have peaks at a frequency higher than those of modern bridges in E-string. The visualization method as used in this study may provide hints for the design of violin bridges.

  16. Performance analysis of LAN bridges and routers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajare, Ankur R.

    1991-01-01

    Bridges and routers are used to interconnect Local Area Networks (LANs). The performance of these devices is important since they can become bottlenecks in large multi-segment networks. Performance metrics and test methodology for bridges and routers were not standardized. Performance data reported by vendors is not applicable to the actual scenarios encountered in an operational network. However, vendor-provided data can be used to calibrate models of bridges and routers that, along with other models, yield performance data for a network. Several tools are available for modeling bridges and routers - Network II.5 was used. The results of the analysis of some bridges and routers are presented.

  17. Optimum selection on bridge erection with floating crane in East China Sea Bridge and Hangzhou Bay Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunquan Qin; Pu Zhou; Youheng Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction With the rapid development of China′s economy, many bridges will be built over the Chinese coastal waters of Pacific Ocean. Among them, construction of East China Sea Bridge has been commenced in June 2001, and will be completed at the end of 2005, Hangzhou Bay Bridge was also started to construct in June 2003(Fig. 1). These two ultralong bridges are designed as twin expressway bridges standing side by side each carries a 3-lane one-way carriageway. The total width is 31.5m and 33.0m respectively. East China Sea Bridge starts from Nanhui District, Shanghai and extends to the Yangshan Deep Water Port Area, which is located at one of the Qiqu Islands. The total length of the bridge is about 31.0 km, in which 25 km are on the sea, and 22 km is in the unnavigable region. Hangzhou Bay Bridge across the mouth of Qiantang River.

  18. Parabolic metamaterials and Dirac bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, D. J.; Movchan, N. V.; Movchan, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    A new class of multi-scale structures, referred to as `parabolic metamaterials' is introduced and studied in this paper. For an elastic two-dimensional triangular lattice, we identify dynamic regimes, which corresponds to so-called `Dirac Bridges' on the dispersion surfaces. Such regimes lead to a highly localised and focussed unidirectional beam when the lattice is excited. We also show that the flexural rigidities of elastic ligaments are essential in establishing the `parabolic metamaterial' regimes.

  19. Beginning Course Surveys: Bridges for Knowing and Bridges for Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Starr-Glass

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of a participant survey, administered at the outset of an online course, can provide information useful in the management of the learning environment and in its subsequent redesign. Such information can clarify participants’ prior experience, expectations, and demographics. But the very act of enquiring about the learner also signals the instructor’s social presence, relational interest, and desire to enter into an authentic dialogue. This study examines the use of participant surveys in online management courses. The first section discusses the informational bridges that this instrument provides. The second section considers survey responses to open-ended questions dealing with student sentiments. This analysis suggests that the survey plays a valuable part in accentuating social presence and in initiating relational bridges with participants.

  20. Bridges and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-15

    2-80010 and 2-2-80111. These measurements should be accomplished in each system stowage and transport configuration (truck, trailer, and pallet...required embankment conditions including level, longitudinal/side slope, racked , and bank height differential requirements. Each designated crossing...paragraphs or tables. 4.13 Transportability . 4.13.1 Method . a. As listed in TOP 1-2-50023, plan to test all of the system stowage and

  1. Open top culverts as an alternative drainage system to minimize ecological effects in earth roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Jose L.; Elorrieta, Jose; Robredo, Jose C.; García, Ricardo; García, Fernando; Gimenez, Martin C.

    2013-04-01

    During the last fifteen years a research team from School of Forestry at the Technical University of Madrid (Spain) has developed several competitive research projects regarding forest roads and open top culverts. A first approach was established with a prototype of 7 meters length in a hydraulic channel at the laboratory determining main parameters of different open top culverts in relation to different sizes of gravels and the self washing properties relationship with different slopes up to 8 %. The curves obtained may help to properly install these drainage systems avoiding maintenance costs. In addition more targeted pilot studies were developed in different forest earth roads in center and north Spain. The construction of the stations under study was financed by the U.P.M and the R&D National Plan. The main outcomes relates the low variation of humidity in a 20 m. wide range at both sides of the open top culverts and several considerations relating the angle of installation, the spacing of such drainage systems and the benefits against rilling along the roads. Also the erosion produced downhill was established and some construction methods to avoid adverse ecological effects. The diffusion of results includes congresses and a small booklet with a great acceptance in forestry services. Also a patent (ES 2 262 437) of an advanced model has been registered.

  2. Bridging, brokerage and betweenness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Martin G.; Valente, Thomas W.

    2017-01-01

    Valente and Fujimoto (2010) proposed a measure of brokerage in networks based on Granovetter’s classic work on the strength of weak ties. Their paper identified the need for finding node-based measures of brokerage that consider the entire network structure, not just a node’s local environment. The measures they propose, aggregating the average change in cohesion for a node’s links, has several limitations. In this paper we review their method and show how the idea can be modified by using betweenness centrality as an underpinning concept. We explore the properties of the new method and provide point, normalized, and network level variations. This new approach has two advantages, first it provides a more robust means to normalize the measure to control for network size, and second, the modified measure is computationally less demanding making it applicable to larger networks. PMID:28239229

  3. Bridging, brokerage and betweenness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Martin G; Valente, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Valente and Fujimoto (2010) proposed a measure of brokerage in networks based on Granovetter's classic work on the strength of weak ties. Their paper identified the need for finding node-based measures of brokerage that consider the entire network structure, not just a node's local environment. The measures they propose, aggregating the average change in cohesion for a node's links, has several limitations. In this paper we review their method and show how the idea can be modified by using betweenness centrality as an underpinning concept. We explore the properties of the new method and provide point, normalized, and network level variations. This new approach has two advantages, first it provides a more robust means to normalize the measure to control for network size, and second, the modified measure is computationally less demanding making it applicable to larger networks.

  4. Bridging Block and Bundesen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    that some fields in cognitive science are already gaining ground on the hard problem. An interesting model is Claus Bundesen‘s (1990) Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) that seems to be compatible with Ned Block‘s (1995) distinction between access consciousness and phenomenal consciousness. TVA proposes a two......-part stochastic model where 1) every stimulus is given a weight in terms of belonging to a certain visual category and 2) every stimulus then enters a race for a place in a limited-capacity visual short-term memory store. TVA seems to be a good model to describe access consciousness; by expanding this model......Consciousness seems to present a special challenge for scientific investigation. Much research has been done on the so-called "easy" aspects of consciousness such as perception, attention, and memory. The "hard problem", however, still seems to elude scientific methods. In this paper I argue...

  5. Bridging, brokerage and betweenness

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Martin G.; Thomas W. Valente

    2015-01-01

    Valente and Fujimoto (2010) proposed a measure of brokerage in networks based on Granovetter’s classic work on the strength of weak ties. Their paper identified the need for finding node-based measures of brokerage that consider the entire network structure, not just a node’s local environment. The measures they propose, aggregating the average change in cohesion for a node’s links, has several limitations. In this paper we review their method and show how the idea can be modified by using be...

  6. Bridging, brokerage and betweenness

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Martin G.; Thomas W. Valente

    2015-01-01

    Valente and Fujimoto (2010) proposed a measure of brokerage in networks based on Granovetter’s classicwork on the strength of weak ties. Their paper identified the need for finding node-based measures ofbrokerage that consider the entire network structure, not just a node’s local environment. The measuresthey propose, aggregating the average change in cohesion for a node’s links, has several limitations.In this paper we review their method and show how the idea can be modified by using ...

  7. Dynamics and Statics of Nonaxisymmetric Liquid Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Resnick, Andrew H.; Slobozhanin, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigation of the stability of nonaxisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric bridges contained between equal and unequal radii disks as a function of Bond and Weber number with emphasis on the transition from unstable axisymmetric to stable nonaxisymmetric shapes, are conducted. Numerical analysis of the stability of nonaxisymmetric bridges between unequal disks for various orientations of the gravity vector is performed. Experimental and theoretical investigation of large (nonaxisymmetric) oscillations and breaking of liquid bridges are also conducted.

  8. Buddha and the bridging relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rahul

    2008-01-01

    The chapter reviews a classical Indian model of consciousness found in the Abhidhamma, a collection of seven treatises in the Pali Canon Tipitaka. The model was based on observations made during advanced vipassana practice, a first-person method taught by the Buddha. The climax of the model consists in the elucidation of 24 'Bridging Relations' causally linking the stream of consciousness, its contents and associated physical events. Review of such a model based on a specialized first-person technique could prove to be a resource of useful ideas providing directions for further research.

  9. Bridge engineering handbook construction and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Fah

    2014-01-01

    Over 140 experts, 14 countries, and 89 chapters are represented in the second edition of the Bridge Engineering Handbook. This extensive collection highlights bridge engineering specimens from around the world, contains detailed information on bridge engineering, and thoroughly explains the concepts and practical applications surrounding the subject.Published in five books: Fundamentals, Superstructure Design, Substructure Design, Seismic Design, and Construction and Maintenance, this new edition provides numerous worked-out examples that give readers step-by-step design procedures, includes c

  10. Bridging history and social psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Yamamoto, Koji

    2012-01-01

    This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social psycholog......This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social...... psychologists can benefit from engaging with historical sources by being able to contextualise their findings and enrich their theoretical models. It is not only that all social and psychological phenomena have a history but this history is very much part of present-day and future developments. On the other...... hand historians can enhance their analysis of historical sources by drawing upon the conceptual tools developed in social psychology. They can “test” these tools and contribute to their validation and enrichment from completely different perspectives. Most important, as contributions to this special...

  11. Fish Movement Ecology in High Gradient Headwater Streams: Its Relevance to Fish Passage Restoration through Stream Culvert Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert L.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Restoration of fish passage through culvert barriers has emerged as a major issue in the Pacific Northwest and nationwide. The problem has many dimensions, including the huge number of potential barriers, uncertainty about which structures are actually barriers, the benefits and risks involved with restoration, and the financial costs and timelines. This report attempts to address what we call 'thinking outside of the pipe' in terms of fish passage information needs. This means understanding the value of each potential passage restoration project in the context of other possible projects, and to view individual restoration projects within a larger landscape of habitats and population processes. In this report we provide a brief review of some essential characteristics of animal movement and examples from a focal group of fishes in Washington State: salmon, trout, and char. While several other fishes and many other species use streams where culvert passage barriers may occur, it is the salmonids that are by far the most widespread and in most cases extending furthest into the headwaters of stream networks in Washington. We begin this report by outlining some basic characteristics of animal movement and then apply that foundation to the case of salmonid fishes. Next we consider the consequences of disrupting fish movement with human-constructed barriers, such as culverts. Finally, this body of evidence is summarized and we propose a short list of what we view as high priority information needs to support more effective restoration of fish passage through culverts.

  12. Building bridgesand accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Lyn Evans, the LHC project leader, was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) to celebrate his role not just in building accelerators, but also in building bridges between nations. He was one of four notables honoured at the event on Friday 5 June, coinciding with the University’s 450th Anniversary. Lyn Evans arriving at the ceremony with Archbishop Desmond Tutu. "It was a big surprise when I found out I’d been nominated," recounts Evans, "but it was an even bigger surprise to find out with whom I’d been nominated". At the ceremony Evans was awarded the honorary doctorate along with three others: Archbishop Desmond Tutu, who was acclaimed for his fight against apartheid in South Africa, Mary Robinson, first woman president of Ireland and former United Nations’ high commissioner of human rights, and Pascal Lamy, Director-General of the World Trade Organization. The award ceremony, known as the �...

  13. Numerical analysis of dynamic response of vehicle–bridge coupled system on long-span continuous girder bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipeng An

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To systematically study the vehicle–bridge coupled dynamic response and its change rule with different parameters, a vehicle model with seven degrees of freedom was built and the total potential energy of vehicle space vibration system was deduced. Considering the stimulation of road roughness, the dynamic response equation of vehicle–bridge coupled system was established in accordance with the elastic system principle of total potential energy with stationary value and the “set-in-right-position” rule. On the basis of the self-compiled Fortran program and bridge engineering, the dynamic response of long-span continuous girder bridge under vehicle load was studied. This study also included the calculation of vehicle impact coefficient, evaluation of vibration comfort, and analysis of dynamic response parameters. Results show the impact coefficient changes with lane number and is larger than the value calculated by the “general code for design of highway bridges and culverts (China”. The Dieckmann index of bridge vibration is also related to lane number, and the vibration comfort evaluation is good in normal conditions. The relevant conclusions from parametric analyses have practical significance to dynamic design and daily operation of long-span continuous girder bridges in expressways. Safety and comfort are expected to improve significantly with further control of the vibration of vehicle–bridge system.

  14. Light-weight aluminium bridges and bridge decks. An overview of recent applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Kluyver, D. de

    2008-01-01

    The last decades have shown a large increase in the application of aluminium alloys for light-weight bridges. For bridge construction, aluminium alloys have some specific advantages, but also some points of attention. This paper deals with some recent projects of aluminium bridges, and for these pro

  15. A Statistical Observation of Crowns and Bridges in 1988 Part 2 : Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 賢一; 小坂, 茂; 柳田, 史城; 稲生, 衡樹; 大島, 俊明; 高橋, 喜博; 岩井, 啓三; 甘利, 光治; 中根, 卓

    1991-01-01

    A study was made of 207 bridges which had been fabricated for patients at the Prosthodontic Clinic of Matsumoto Dental College during 1988. Some of results were as follows; 1) 47.3% of the patients were males and 52.7% were females. 2) 92.8% of the patients were between 20 and 69 years old. 3) 65.2%of the bridges were fabricated as 3-unit bridges. 4) 77.8% were fabricated as 1-pontic bridges. 5) There were fewer bridge retainers for the lower anterior segment than for other segments. 6) 52.3%...

  16. Signal and noise in bridging PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaler David S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a variant of the standard PCR reaction termed bridging, or jumping, PCR the primer-bound sequences are originally on separate template molecules. Bridging can occur if, and only if, the templates contain a region of sequence similarity. A 3' end of synthesis in one round of synthesis that terminates in this region of similarity can prime on the other. In principle, Bridging PCR (BPCR can detect a subpopulation of one template that terminates synthesis in the region of sequence shared by the other template. This study considers the sensitivity and noise of BPCR as a quantitative assay for backbone interruptions. Bridging synthesis is also important to some methods for computing with DNA. Results In this study, BPCR was tested over a 328 base pair segment of the E. coli lac operon and a signal to noise ratio (S/N of approximately 10 was obtained under normal PCR conditions with Taq polymerase. With special precautions in the case of Taq or by using the Stoffel fragment the S/N was improved to 100, i.e. 1 part of cut input DNA yielded the same output as 100 parts of intact input DNA. Conclusions In the E. coli lac operator region studied here, depending on details of protocol, between 3 and 30% per kilobase of final PCR product resulted from bridging. Other systems are expected to differ in the proportion of product that is bridged consequent to PCR protocol and the sequence analyzed. In many cases physical bridging during PCR will have no informational consequence because the bridged templates are of identical sequence, but in a number of special cases bridging creates, or, destroys, information.

  17. Bridge Aesthetics and Structural Honesty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In bridges the overall form must be chosen with due respect to the transmission of forces if efficient structures shall be created, The design must therefore be governed by experienced structural engineers - in some cases assisted by aesthetic advisers on specific issues. Some basic requirements...

  18. 77 FR 112 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Construction and Development Point Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... included non-numeric requirements to: Implement erosion and sediment controls; Stabilize soils; Manage..., water from culvert sites and caissons at bridge construction sites that was impounded in a baffled... (grab sample, flow or time-weighted composite, continuous turbidity measurement, etc.);...

  19. Differing Levels of Forestry Best Management Practices at Stream Crossing Structures Affect Sediment Delivery and Installation Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forestry best management practices (BMPs are used to reduce sedimentation from forest stream crossings. Three BMP treatments (BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+ were applied to three forest road stream crossings (bridge, culvert, and ford. BMP− did not meet existing BMP guidelines, BMP-std met standard recommendations, and BMP+ treatments exceeded recommendations. Following BMP applications, three simulated rainfall intensities (low, medium, and high were applied in order to evaluate sediment delivery from crossing type and BMP level. During rainfall simulation, sediment concentrations (mg/L were collected with automated samplers and discharge (L/s was estimated to calculate total sediment loading. Costs of stream crossings and BMP levels were also quantified. Mean sediment associated with the three stream crossings were 3.38, 1.87, and 0.64 Mg for the BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+ levels, respectively. Ford, culvert, and bridge crossings produced 13.04, 12.95, and 0.17 Mg of sediment during construction, respectively. BMP enhancement was more critical for sediment control at the culvert and ford crossings than at the bridge. Respective costs for BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+ levels were $5,368, $5,658, and $5,858 for the bridge; $3,568, $4,166 and $4,595 for the culvert; and $180, $420 and $1,903 for the ford. Costs and sediment values suggest that current standard BMP levels effectively reduce stream sediment while minimizing costs.

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-50 Stormwater Runoff Culvert, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-04-15

    The 100-F-50 waste site, part of the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit, is a steel stormwater runoff culvert that runs between two railroad grades in the south-central portion of the 100-F Area. The culvert exiting the west side of the railroad grade is mostly encased in concrete and surrounded by a concrete stormwater collection depression partially filled with soil and vegetation. The drain pipe exiting the east side of the railroad grade embankment is partially filled with soil and rocks. The 100-F-50 stormwater diversion culvert confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to no action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  1. MINERAL BRIDGES OF NACRE AND ITS EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凡; 白以龙

    2001-01-01

    Nacre, or mother-of-pearl, is a kind of composites of aragonite platelets sandwiched between organic materials. Its excellent mechanical properties are thought to stem from the microarchitecture that is traditionally described as a "brick and mortar" arrangement. In this paper, a new microstructure, referred to as mineral bridge in the biomineralization, is directly observed in the organic matrix layers (mortar) of nacre. This is an indication that the organic matrix layer of nacre should be treated as a three-dimensional interface and the microarchitecture of nacre ought to be considered as a "brick-bridge-mortar" structure rather than the traditional one. Experiments and analyses show that the mineral bridges not only improve the mechanical properties of the organic matrix layers but also play an important role in the pattern of the crack extension in nacre.

  2. Images Bridging Home and Academic Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Sophia

    Often students are unable to draw upon their personal worlds and individual experiences to enrich their writing, suggesting a disparity between home and academic cultures. In light of this apparent disparity, teachers must try to bridge the gap, a task that is possible when the teacher focuses on the germinal, emotional, and unifying qualities of…

  3. Lock Culvert Valves; Hydraulic Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station and U.S. Army Engineer Districts, St. Paul and Walla Walla . The prototype data suggest that the...been issued (U.S. Army Engineer District, Walla Walla 1955). 4.4.2 Lock No. 19 Lock 19 has a lift of 38.2 ft and flow is controlled with 14.5- by...Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. U.S. Army Engineer District, Walla Walla . 1955. Synchronization of lock filling valves, McNary Lock

  4. Dynamics and statics of nonaxisymmetric and symmetric liquid bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Resnick, Andrew H.; Kaukler, William F.; Zhang, Yiqiang

    1994-01-01

    This program of theoretical and experimental ground-based research focuses on the understanding of the dynamics and stability limits of nonaxisymmetric and symmetric liquid bridges. There are three basic objectives: First, to determine the stability limits of nonaxisymmetric liquid bridges held between non-coaxial parallel disks, Second, to examine the dynamics of nonaxisymmetric bridges and nonaxisymmetric oscillations of initially axisymmetric bridges. The third objective is to experimentally investigate the vibration sensitivity of liquid bridges under terrestrial and low gravity conditions. Some of these experiments will require a low gravity environment and the ground-based research will culminate in a definitive flight experiment.

  5. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  6. Resin-Bonded Bridges in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Johannes Hilbrandt van der

    1988-01-01

    In this thesis in vitro and in vivo studies on the clinical application of resin-bonded bridges are described and discussed. The development of different types of resin-bonded bridges is described in chapter 1. The bridges are often made by boding a cast metal retainer fitted with and artificial too

  7. Bridging the Gap: Linking Simulation and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, Paul E.; Carsley, John; Stoudt, Mark R.; Hovanski, Yuri

    2012-09-01

    The Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) which is a key enabler for the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership, announced in 2011 by U.S. President Barack Obama, was established to accelerate the development and deployment of advanced materials. The MGI is driven by the need to "bridge the gap" between (I) experimental results and computational analysis to enable the rapid development and validation of new mateirals, and (II) the processes required to convert these materials into useable goods.

  8. Hydraulic bridges in unsaturated coarse granular media: Influence of bridge size and conductivity on flow through clasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Jeevan A.; Nicholl, Michael J.

    2016-10-01

    Unsaturated flow in coarse granular media must pass through hydraulic bridges (e.g., pendular water, porous connections) that form a physical connection between adjoining clasts. Previous studies suggest that volumetric flow through a porous clast (Q) will be linearly dependent on the cross-sectional area of the hydraulic bridges, and understate the importance of bridge conductivity. Numerical simulations were performed to explore steady-state flow through a spherical clast with identical bridges located at the top and bottom. The cross-sectional area of the bridges relative to that of the clast (Ar) was varied across six orders of magnitude. The ratio of hydraulic conductivity between bridges and clasts (Kb/Kc) was varied across 12 orders of magnitude to consider resistive, neutral, and conductive bridges. Results show that hydraulic bridges place a primary control on both Q and flux distribution within the clast. For neutral and conductive bridges (Kb/Kc ≥1), Ar is the dominant factor in determining Q, while Kb/Kc is the primary control for resistive bridges (Kb/Kc < 1). For all bridges, Q shows a non-linear dependency on both Ar and Kb/Kc. The intra-clast flow distribution shifts outwards as Ar increases. Conductive bridges promote this process and resistive bridges impede it.

  9. 新疆某水电站引水渠排洪涵洞修补加固方案%Culvert Repair Reinforcement Scheme of a Certain Hydropower Station Diversion Channels in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      新疆某水电站引水渠的跨洪沟箱涵由于顶板和底板配筋不足,使得正截面受弯承载力和斜截面受剪承载力不够,导致排洪箱涵顶板和底板出现受弯和受剪裂缝。通过对箱涵裂缝进行细致的调查,提出了修补方案,并对箱涵结构内力、配筋及过洪能力等进行了复核计算,使得箱涵结构满足安全运行要求。%A certain hydropower station diversion channels across hong ditch of Xinjiang box culvert caused by a lack of roof and floor reinforcement, makes the flexural bearing capacity of normal section and inclined section shear bearing ca-pacity is not enough, lead to having box culvert top and bottom of the bending and shear cracks. Through the detailed in-vestigation, and cracks in box culvert repair scheme is proposed, and the internal forces of box culvert structure, reinforce-ment calculation and flood capacity and so on has carried on the review, makes the box culvert structure satisfies the re-quirement of safe operation.

  10. Bridging experiments, models and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carusi, Annamaria; Burrage, Kevin; Rodríguez, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    Computational models in physiology often integrate functional and structural information from a large range of spatiotemporal scales from the ionic to the whole organ level. Their sophistication raises both expectations and skepticism concerning how computational methods can improve our understan...... that contributes to defining the specific aspects of cardiac electrophysiology the MSE system targets, rather than being only an external test, and that this is driven by advances in experimental and computational methods and the combination of both....... of biovariability; 2) testing and developing robust techniques and tools as a prerequisite to conducting physiological investigations; 3) defining and adopting standards to facilitate the interoperability of experiments, models, and simulations; 4) and understanding physiological validation as an iterative process...... understanding of living organisms and also how they can reduce, replace, and refine animal experiments. A fundamental requirement to fulfill these expectations and achieve the full potential of computational physiology is a clear understanding of what models represent and how they can be validated. The present...

  11. Bridging intuitive and analytical thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Leron, Uri; Arcavi, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    and in mathematics education has focused on the explanatory power of intuitive thinking as source of errors and misconceptions in human behavior, decision making, reasoning, and problem solving (e.g., Fischbein, 1987, Stavy & Tirosh, 2000; Leron & Hazzan, 2006, 2009), but in this article the emphasis is more...

  12. Bridging classical and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, D.; Seifert, F.; Chao, L. S.; Li, S.; Newell, D. B.; Pratt, J. R.; Williams, C.; Schlamminger, S.

    2016-10-01

    Using a watt balance and a frequency comb, a mass-energy equivalence is derived. The watt balance compares mechanical power measured in terms of the meter, the second, and the kilogram to electrical power measured in terms of the volt and the ohm. A direct link between mechanical action and the Planck constant is established by the practical realization of the electrical units derived from the Josephson and the quantum Hall effects. By using frequency combs to measure velocities and acceleration of gravity, the unit of mass can be realized from a set of three defining constants: the Planck constant h, the speed of light c, and the hyperfine splitting frequency of 133Cs.

  13. Bridging Corporate and Organizational Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cornelissen, Joep

    2011-01-01

    The theory and practice of corporate communication is usually driven by other disciplinary concerns than the field of organizational communication. However, its particular mind-set focusing on wholeness and consistency in corporate messages increasingly influence the domain of contemporary...... organizational communication as well. We provide a formative and critical review of research on corporate communication as a platform for highlighting crucial intersections with select research traditions in organizational communication to argue for a greater integration between these two areas of research....... Following this review, we relax the assumptions underlying traditional corporate communication research and show how these dimensions interact in organizational and communication analysis, thus, demonstrating the potential for a greater cross-fertilization between the two areas of research. This cross...

  14. Field Tests and Simulation of Lion-Head River Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Min Fang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lion-Head River Bridge is a twin bridge in parallel position. The east-bounded was designed and constructed as a traditional prestress concrete box girder bridge with pot bearings; and the west-bounded was installed with seismic isolation devices of lead rubber bearings. The behavior of the isolated bridge is compared with that of the traditional bridge through several field tests including the ambient vibration test, the force vibration test induced by shakers, the free vibration test induced by a push and fast release system, and the truck test. The bridges suffered from various extents of damage due to the Chi-Chi and the Chi-I earthquakes of great strength during the construction and had been retrofitted. The damage was reflected by the change of the bridges' natural frequencies obtained from the ambient vibration tests. The models of the two bridges are simulated by the finite element method based on the original design drawings. Soil-structure interaction was also scrutinized in this study. The simulation was then modified based on the results from the field tests. Dynamic parameters of bridges are identified and compared with those from theoretical simulation. The efficiency is also verified to be better for an isolated bridge.

  15. Bridges analysis, design, structural health monitoring, and rehabilitation

    CERN Document Server

    Bakht, Baidar

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a valuable guide for practicing bridge engineers and graduate students in structural engineering; its main purpose is to present the latest concepts in bridge engineering in fairly easy-to-follow terms. The book provides details of easy-to-use computer programs for: ·      Analysing slab-on-girder bridges for live load distribution. ·      Analysing slab and other solid bridge components for live load distribution. ·      Analysing and designing concrete deck slab overhangs of girder bridges under vehicular loads. ·      Determining the failure loads of concrete deck slabs of girder bridges under concentrated wheel loads. In addition, the book includes extensive chapters dealing with the design of wood bridges and soil-steel bridges. Further, a unique chapter on structural health monitoring (SHM) will help bridge engineers determine the actual load carrying capacities of bridges, as opposed to their perceived analytical capacities. The chapter addressing structures...

  16. Construction and control technology of the main bridge superstructure of Sutong Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong; Luo Chenbin; Zhang Yongtao; You Xinpeng

    2009-01-01

    The Sutong Yangtze River Bridge (short as Sutong Bridge) is now the largest span cable-stayed bridge in the world. The construction of the superstructure of the middle bridge covered several stages including erection of the big block girders for the side span, assistant span and tower area, erection of standard girders and closure of the middle span. The big block girders were hoisted by a floating crane, and the standard girders were hoisted by a double crane system on the deck. The pushing assistant method was adopted for the middle span closure construction. Furthermore, key technologies and innovative methods used in the processes of girder erection and cable assemblage in all stages were expatiated systematically. An all-stage self- adaptive geometry control method was used in the construction process. By accurately controlling the unstressed dimensions and shape of all structural components in each step, and realization that the control system and the controlled system adapt to each other, the goal was to make control of the final line shape and inner force of the bridge structure achievable. Two solutions, including GPS based and total station based dynamic geometry monitoring systems, were used to resolve the measure problem under the wide-range of wind-induced vibrations in the long cantilever state. Finally, research on the wind-induced vibration of the superstructure during the construction period was executed. Buffeting response analysis to the longest single and double cantilever states were carried out. The analysis and evaluation of wind resistance safety of the main girders under the longest single cantilever state was made, and corresponding wind resistance measures were suggested. The as-built geometric error and cable force error were controlled in a required design range, and this whole technological achievement can be a benchmark for construction of other large span cable-stayed bridges in the future.

  17. The Bridge and the Troll Underneath: Summer Bridge Programs and Degree Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Daniel; Attewell, Paul

    2014-01-01

    College graduation rates in the United States are low in both real and relative terms. This has left all stakeholders looking for novel solutions while perhaps ignoring extant but underused programs. This article examines the effect of "summer bridge" programs, which have students enroll in coursework prior to beginning their first full…

  18. Bridges of the sella turcica - anatomy and topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzat, Janusz; Mroz, Izabela; Marchewka, Justyna

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents anatomy and topography of the inconstant osseous bridges that may occur in the sella turcica region. The interclinoid bridge and the caroticoclinoid bridge can be formed in consequence of abnormal ossification of the dural folds or disturbances in development of the sphenoid bone. Their presence may be of clinical importance because of potential influence on the neurovascular structures passing in the vicinity of the clinoid processes of the sphenoid bone.

  19. Minimum depth of soil cover above long-span soil-steel railway bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Morteza; Zakeri, Jabbar Ali; Abdulrazagh, Parisa Haji

    2013-12-01

    Recently, soil-steel bridges have become more commonly used as railway-highway crossings because of their economical advantages and short construction period compared with traditional bridges. The currently developed formula for determining the minimum depth of covers by existing codes is typically based on vehicle loads and non-stiffened panels and takes into consideration the geometrical shape of the metal structure to avoid the failure of soil cover above a soil-steel bridge. The effects of spans larger than 8 m or more stiffened panels due to railway loads that maintain a safe railway track have not been accounted for in the minimum cover formulas and are the subject of this paper. For this study, two-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses of four low-profile arches and four box culverts with spans larger than 8 m were performed to develop new patterns for the minimum depth of soil cover by considering the serviceability criterion of the railway track. Using the least-squares method, new formulas were then developed for low-profile arches and box culverts and were compared with Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code formulas. Finally, a series of three-dimensional (3D) finite element FE analyses were carried out to control the out-of-plane buckling in the steel plates due to the 3D pattern of train loads. The results show that the out-of-plane bending does not control the buckling behavior of the steel plates, so the proposed equations for minimum depth of cover can be appropriately used for practical purposes.

  20. Bridging Innovation and Curriculum in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fenzhi; Kolmos, Anette; Du, Xiangyun

    2010-01-01

    As innovation is seen as a key factor in economic competitiveness, graduates who can contribute to and participate in innovation are in great need.. Higher education is confronted with the demands that the curriculum practice and learning environments should facilitate innovation and competences...... for innovation. Problem and project based learning has been seen as a strategy for renewing the teaching practice and the learning environment by integrating the competence demands of the curriculum and of work life during the process of education. However, the integrations of innovation into curriculum...... are minor in the problem and project based learning (PBL) literature. Based on theoretical reflections and practical cases in Aalborg University (Denmark), this article presents the basis of PBL knowledge and curriculum conceptualization, and explores a case experience which bridges innovation and PBL...

  1. 33 CFR 118.110 - Daymarks and lateral lighting on bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bridges. 118.110 Section 118.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.110 Daymarks and lateral lighting on bridges. (a... through bridges with U.S. aids to navigation system lateral marks and lights installed on...

  2. Experimental and Analytical Investigations of Piles and Abutments of Integral Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Arsoy, Sami

    2000-01-01

    Bridges without expansion joints are called "integral bridges." Eliminating joints from bridges crates concerns for the piles and the abutments of integral bridges because the abutments and the piles are subjected to temperature-induced cyclic lateral loads. As temperatures change daily and seasonally, the lengths of integral bridges increase and decrease, pushing the abutment against the approach fill and pulling it away. As a result the bridge superstructure, the abutment, the approach f...

  3. Bridging Physics and Biology Teaching through Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskinson, Anne-Marie; Zwickl, Benjamin M; Hinko, Kathleen; Caballero, Marcos D

    2013-01-01

    As the frontiers of biology become increasingly interdisciplinary, the physics education community has engaged in ongoing efforts to make physics classes more relevant to life sciences majors. These efforts are complicated by the many apparent differences between these fields, including the types of systems that each studies, the behavior of those systems, the kinds of measurements that each makes, and the role of mathematics in each field. Nonetheless, physics and biology are both fundamental sciences that rely on observations and measurements to construct models of the natural world. In the present theoretical article, we propose that efforts to bridge the teaching of these two disciplines must emphasize shared scientific practices, particularly scientific modeling. We define modeling using language common to both disciplines and highlight how an understanding of the modeling process can help reconcile apparent differences between physics and biology. We elaborate how models can be used for explanatory, pre...

  4. Tsunamis: bridging science, engineering and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kânoğlu, U; Titov, V; Bernard, E; Synolakis, C

    2015-10-28

    Tsunamis are high-impact, long-duration disasters that in most cases allow for only minutes of warning before impact. Since the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, there have been significant advancements in warning methodology, pre-disaster preparedness and basic understanding of related phenomena. Yet, the trail of destruction of the 2011 Japan tsunami, broadcast live to a stunned world audience, underscored the difficulties of implementing advances in applied hazard mitigation. We describe state of the art methodologies, standards for warnings and summarize recent advances in basic understanding, and identify cross-disciplinary challenges. The stage is set to bridge science, engineering and society to help build up coastal resilience and reduce losses.

  5. Switchbacks and the Bridge to Nowhere

    CERN Document Server

    Susskind, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    This paper is in three parts: Part 1 explains the relevance of Einstein-Rosen bridges for one-sided black holes. Like their two-sided counterparts, one-sided black holes are connected to ERBs whose growth tracks the increasing complexity of the quantum state. Quantitative solutions for one-sided ERBs are presented in the appendix. Part 2 calls attention to the work of Nielsen and collaborators on the geometry of quantum complexity. This geometric formulation of complexity provides a valuable tool for studying the evolution of complexity for systems such as black holes. Part 3 applies the Nielsen approach to geometrize two related black hole quantum phenomena: the rapid mixing of information through fast-scrambling; and the time dependence of the complexity of precursors, in particular the switchback effect.

  6. Vibration characteristics and damage detection in a suspension bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Wasanthi R.; Thambiratnam, David P.; Chan, Tommy H. T.; Nguyen, Theanh

    2016-08-01

    Suspension bridges are flexible and vibration sensitive structures that exhibit complex and multi-modal vibration. Due to this, the usual vibration based methods could face a challenge when used for damage detection in these structures. This paper develops and applies a mode shape component specific damage index (DI) to detect and locate damage in a suspension bridge with pre-tensioned cables. This is important as suspension bridges are large structures and damage in them during their long service lives could easily go un-noticed. The capability of the proposed vibration based DI is demonstrated through its application to detect and locate single and multiple damages with varied locations and severity in the cables of the suspension bridge. The outcome of this research will enhance the safety and performance of these bridges which play an important role in the transport network.

  7. Solving Topological and Geometrical Constraints in Bridge Feature Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Weibing; SONG Liangliang; PAN Guoshuai

    2008-01-01

    The capacity that computer can solve more complex design problem was gradually increased.Bridge designs need a breakthrough in the current development limitations, and then become more intelli-gent and integrated. This paper proposes a new parametric and feature-based computer aided design (CAD) models which can represent families of bridge objects, includes knowledge representation, three-dimensional geometric topology relationships. The realization of a family member is found by solving first the geometdc constraints, and then the topological constraints. From the geometric solution, constraint equations are constructed. Topology solution is developed by feature dependencies graph between bridge objects. Finally, feature parameters are proposed to drive bridge design with feature parameters. Results from our implementation show that the method can help to facilitate bridge design.

  8. Prosthetic rehabilitation using adhesive bridge and fixed-fixed bridge on the maxilla and telescopic crown overdenture on mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Sulistiawaty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic rehabilitation is the rehabilitation process of masticatory and esthetics function for patients missing teeth and alveolar bone by means of manufacture and installation of dentures. The prosthetic rehabilitation commonly used include denture adhesive bridge, fixed-fixed bridge, as well as telescopic overdenture. Adhesive bridge is bridge denture consisting of single pontic and two retainer wings attached to the abutment using cement or resin. Fixed-fixed bridge is a bridge denture with rigid connectors on both ends of the pontics, whereas the telescopic crown Overdenture is a removable denture that uses linked precision on the original tooth in the form of primary coping on abutment and secondary coping on the denture. To expose the procedures of prosthetic rehabilitation using adhesive bridge and fixed-fixed bridge on the maxilla and telescopic crown Overdenture on mandible. Male patients aged 32 years came with complaints of difficulty to chew food because he had lost some teeth behind. In the maxilla, teeth are lost in the region of 15 and 16 performed by making the fixed-fixed bridge with abutment teeth 14 and 17. Loss of teeth in the region of 26, performed the manufacture of adhesive bridge with a box preparation on the occlusal 25 and 27. In the mandible, tooth loss in the region of 36,37,46, and 47 performed manufacture of telescopic crown Overdenture with primer coping on the teeth 35.38, 45, and 48 and the secondary coping on a metal frame. Prosthetic rehabilitation especially in the case of loss of back teeth is very important because with the denture patients can chew properly and maintain the stomatognathic system.

  9. Analysis of resonance mechanism and conditions of train bridge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H.; Zhang, N.; Guo, W. W.

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, the resonance mechanism and conditions of train-bridge system are investigated through theoretical derivations, numerical simulations and experimental data analyses. The resonant responses of the bridge induced by moving trains are classified into three types according to different resonance mechanisms: the first is related to the periodical actions of moving load series of the vertical weights, lateral centrifugal and wind forces of vehicles; the second is induced by the loading rate of moving load series of vehicles; the third is owing to the periodically loading of the swing forces of the train vehicles excited by track irregularities and wheel hunting movements. The vehicle resonance is induced by the periodical action of regular arrangement of bridge spans and their deflections. The resonant conditions are proposed and the corresponding resonant train speeds are determined. The application scopes of resonance conditions are discussed. The resonance of the train-bridge system is affected by the span, total length, lateral and vertical stiffness of the bridge, the compositions of the train, and the axle arrangements and natural frequencies of the vehicles. The resonant train speeds for some bridges are estimated and are compared with the critical train speeds obtained from the dynamic simulation of train-bridge interaction model or from the field measurements.

  10. Technology transfer — bridging space and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Students of Technology Transfer Design Project Team (ISU Summer Session 1997)

    Strategies, policies and methods by which technologies can be cross-fertilized between the space and non-space sectors were examined by students of the design project "Technology Transfer — Bridging Space and Society". This project was undertaken by students attending the 1997 10th Anniversary Summer Session Program of the International Space University. General issues relating to transfer of technology were discussed including definitions and mechanisms (push, pull, interactive and pro-active). As well as looking at case studies and the impact of national policies on space agencies, the design project also sought to look at technology transfer on a country-by-country basis, selecting various countries for scrutiny and reporting on their technology transfer status. The project report shows how transfer of technology varies between nations and when analyzed with the case studies identifies the general strategies, policies and methods in use and how they can be improved. Finally, the report seeks to recommend certain issues to governments, space agencies and industrial organizations to facilitate the transfer of technology. These include the development of a generic metrics system and the implementation of better appropriate procedures and mechanisms for a positive diffusion process between space and non-space sectors.

  11. Field Testing and Load Rating of a Short-Span Thermoplastic Bridge System, Bridge T-8519

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    defined as elastoplastic , meaning it had primarily elastic behavior com- bined with time-dependent fluid properties as well. Allowable stress and...degradation or damage must be considered in future load ratings. ERDC/GSL TR-10-48 38 References AASHTO. 2003. Manual for the condition evaluation... damage or deterioration. Often, bridges are rated poorly because of inaccurate representations of the structural geometry or because the material and/or

  12. The receptor RAGE: Bridging inflammation and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Jochen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE is a single transmembrane receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is mainly expressed on immune cells, neurons, activated endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, bone forming cells, and a variety of cancer cells. RAGE is a multifunctional receptor that binds a broad repertoire of ligands and mediates responses to cell damage and stress conditions. It activates programs responsible for acute and chronic inflammation, and is implicated in a number of pathological diseases, including diabetic complications, stroke, atheriosclerosis, arthritis, and neurodegenerative disorders. The availability of Rage knockout mice has not only advanced our knowledge on signalling pathways within these pathophysiological conditions, but also on the functional importance of the receptor in processes of cancer. Here, we will summarize molecular mechanisms through which RAGE signalling contributes to the establishment of a pro-tumourigenic microenvironment. Moreover, we will review recent findings that provide genetic evidence for an important role of RAGE in bridging inflammation and cancer.

  13. Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media. Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings.

  14. Stargate GTM: Bridging Descriptor and Activity Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Héléna A; Baskin, Igor I; Marcou, Gilles; Horvath, Dragos; Varnek, Alexandre

    2015-11-23

    Predicting the activity profile of a molecule or discovering structures possessing a specific activity profile are two important goals in chemoinformatics, which could be achieved by bridging activity and molecular descriptor spaces. In this paper, we introduce the "Stargate" version of the Generative Topographic Mapping approach (S-GTM) in which two different multidimensional spaces (e.g., structural descriptor space and activity space) are linked through a common 2D latent space. In the S-GTM algorithm, the manifolds are trained simultaneously in two initial spaces using the probabilities in the 2D latent space calculated as a weighted geometric mean of probability distributions in both spaces. S-GTM has the following interesting features: (1) activities are involved during the training procedure; therefore, the method is supervised, unlike conventional GTM; (2) using molecular descriptors of a given compound as input, the model predicts a whole activity profile, and (3) using an activity profile as input, areas populated by relevant chemical structures can be detected. To assess the performance of S-GTM prediction models, a descriptor space (ISIDA descriptors) of a set of 1325 GPCR ligands was related to a B-dimensional (B = 1 or 8) activity space corresponding to pKi values for eight different targets. S-GTM outperforms conventional GTM for individual activities and performs similarly to the Lasso multitask learning algorithm, although it is still slightly less accurate than the Random Forest method.

  15. Integrated optical sensors using micromechanical bridges and cantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaodong; Frankena, Hans J.

    1993-03-01

    Micromechanical bridges and cantilevers sensitive to external forces have been fabricated upon Si substrates. They are used as optical waveguides and part of sensor circuits. The waveguides consist of sandwiched layers of an SiO2 buffer, an Al2O3 waveguide and an SiO2 cover. The bridges and cantilevers with very small dimensions such as 100 micrometers in length, 5 micrometers in width and 2.5 micrometers in thickness have been successfully produced. Such bridge- or cantilever-shaped waveguide structures have been applied in acoustic signal detection and noise monitoring. In this paper, the bridge and cantilever structures will be analyzed and experimental results on sound measurement will be presented.

  16. Dynamics and stability of a vertical water bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Namin, Reza Montazeri

    2013-01-01

    A vertical connection of water is formed when a high voltage electrode is dipped in and pulled out of a container of deionized water. We considered the formation, stability and dynamical characteristics of this vertical water bridge. For the first time in this field, we observed instabilities in the bridge that led to an oscillatory behaviour which is categorized in three dynamical regimes and supplied explanations on the physics behind these varied motions. We report the formation of macroscopic droplets during this motion, which their dynamics revealed that they are electrically charged. In some cases the droplets would be levitating when the electric force opposes the gravity. Also the steady bridge is thoroughly studied regarding its geometry and a set of quantitative data is presented using dimensionless numbers, which brings the possibility of direct quantitative comparison between theory and experiments. Our results shed light on the physics behind this phenomenon and the horizontal water bridge, which...

  17. Bridging the gap between GCMs and CRMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Levi; Stevens, Bjorn; Hohenegger, Cathy

    2014-05-01

    Bridging the gap between GCMs and CRMs Radiative Convective Equilibrium (RCE) has proven to be a useful framework for process studies. In the past there has been little direct overlap of the studies made using General Circulation Models (GCMs), and Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs). GCMs use global or near global domain sizes with resolutions ranging from 300 km to 20 km, while CRMs normally use domains roughly equivalent to a single GCM grid cell and resolutions ranging from 5km to 0.1km. Here we study the atmosphere of a General Circulation Model (GCM) with boundary conditions that approximate Radiative Convective Equilibrium (RCE) across a range of domain sizes (from 45 % of the surface of the Earth to 500x500 km^2) and resolutions of 20 km and 10 km. To that aim we use the newly developed nonhydrostatic, primitive equation model named ICON with horizontally uniform insolation and ozone, no rotation, and a prescribed surface temperature. Comparison of the simulations leads to a better understanding of the mechanisms and assumptions that underlay the parameterizations of GCMs. Climate sensitivity and convective organization are the two physical processes we focus on with this study. Both of these processes are important components of a physical understanding of the Earth system. Convective organization strongly influences the mean state of the atmosphere and the various feedback responses to radiative perturbations. We compare changes in the TOA radiative imbalance which result from prescribed changes in the surface temperature across our simulations. This provides a direct calculation of the various feedback mechanisms. The magnitude of the influence these feedbacks have on a system is commonly diagnosed through the climate sensitivity. We examine the dependence on domain size and parameterization schemes of the convective organization and climate sensitivity. Initial results with two physics parameterization packages indicate that ICON provides a convenient

  18. Re(I) bridged porphyrin dyads, triads and tetrads

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Yedukondalu; M Ravikanth

    2011-03-01

    Porphyrin rings containing two meso-pyridyl groups either in cis or trans fashion can be used to construct Re(I) bridged multiporphyrin assemblies. The cis-dipyridyl porphyrins with various porphyrin cores such as N4, N3O, N3S, N2S2 have been used to react with Re(CO)5Cl in THF at refluxing temperature and constructed planar Re(I) bridged porphyrin dyads containing either one type of porphyrin subunit or two types of porphyrin subunits. The trans-dipyridyl porphyrins have been used to construct Re(I) bridged porphyrin squares. The porphyrin dyads have been explored for singlet-singlet energy transfer studies and porphyrin squares have been used for catalysis, chemical sensing, molecular sieving and photocurrent production studies. An overview of synthesis of Re(I) bridged porphyrin dyads, triads and tetrads and their interesting photophysical properties are highlighted in this paper.

  19. Segmental Bridges under Combined Torsion, Bending and Shear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄真; 刘西拉

    2003-01-01

    Segmental bridges with unbonded prestressed tendons have some advantages, such as the weather independence and the corrosion protection of prestressing tendons. This paper analyzed the behavior of a prestressed segmental bridge with unbonded tendons under combined loading of torsion, bending and shear. According to the experiment research, a modified skew bending model was developed to calculate the bearing capacity of segmental bridges subjected to combined bending, shear and torsion. The finite element method was used to investigate the deflection behaviors of such structure, also to check the theoretical model. The theoretical and FEM research resuits were compared favorably with the test results from Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany. Finally, suggestion for the design and construction of segmental bridges with external prestressing was made.

  20. The Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapse on Film and Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Don; Hook, Joseph; Doescher, Russell; Wolf, Steven

    2015-11-01

    This month marks the 75th anniversary of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapse. During a gale on Nov. 7, 1940, the bridge exhibited remarkable oscillations before collapsing spectacularly (Figs. 1-5). Physicists over the years have spent a great deal of time and energy studying this event. By using open-source analysis tools and digitized footage of the disaster, physics students in both high school and college can continue in this tradition. Students can watch footage of "Galloping Gertie," ask scientific questions about the bridge's collapse, analyze data, and draw conclusions from that analysis. Students should be encouraged to pursue their own investigations, but the question that drove our inquiry was this: "When physics classes watch modern video showing the oscillations and the free fall of the bridge fragments, are these scenes sped up, slowed down, or at the correct speed compared to what was observed by the eyewitnesses on Nov. 7, 1940?"

  1. Bridging history and social psychology: what, how and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glăveanu, Vlad; Yamamoto, Koji

    2012-12-01

    This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other's work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social psychologists can benefit from engaging with historical sources by being able to contextualise their findings and enrich their theoretical models. It is not only that all social and psychological phenomena have a history but this history is very much part of present-day and future developments. On the other hand historians can enhance their analysis of historical sources by drawing upon the conceptual tools developed in social psychology. They can "test" these tools and contribute to their validation and enrichment from completely different perspectives. Most important, as contributions to this special issue amply demonstrate, psychology's "historical turn" has the potential to shed a new light on striking, yet underexplored, similarities between contemporary public spheres and their pre-modern counterparts. This issue thereby calls into question the dichotomy between traditional and de-traditionalized societies-a distinction that lies at the heart of many social psychology accounts of the world we live in. The present editorial will introduce and consider this act of bridging history and social psychology by focusing on three main questions: What is the bridge made of? How can the two disciplines be bridged? and Why we cross this interdisciplinary bridge? In the end a reflection on the future of this collaboration will be offered.

  2. Myocardial Bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

  3. Scour and Scour Countermeasures at Bridge Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHIEW Yee-Meng

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines scour and scour countermeasures at bridge piers and abutments.Abutment scour is by far more complex than its counterpart associated with piers because of the possibility of the presence of a floodplain. Notwithstanding this, the mechanism of scour at both piers and abutments is very similar; moreover, the failure mechanisms associated with both armor-ing and flow-altering countermeasures are not very different. In rivers with a floodplain, abutment scour becomes much more complex. In cases where the abutment ends at or near to the flood-plain, it can initiate bank erosion, which clearly is an important erosion problem that is quite distinct from the customary scour at either an abutment in rivers without a floodplain or a pier. For this rea-son, abutment scour can be very site-specific while pier-scour is more generic in nature. To this end, the ability to identify the type of abutment scour that may form in a particular channel is closely related to an engineer's ability to propose devices for effective scour countermeasure.By summarizing research efforts on using riprap as a pier or abutment countermeasure over the past few decades, this paper highlights the deficiencies of riprap in arresting pier scour. To this end,different failure mechanisms are identified. They are shear failure, winnowing failure, edge failure,bedform-induced failure and bed-degradation induced failure. Each failure mechanism can singly or, more likely, combine to cause the eventual breakdown of the riprap layer. The study shows that a riprap layer is vulnerable to other failure mechanisms even though it is adequately designed against shear failure, rendering it ineffective in arresting scour.

  4. Double-composite rectangular truss bridge and its joint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel composite tubular truss bridge with concrete slab and concrete-filled rectangular chords. With concrete slab plus truss system and joints reinforced with concrete and Perfobond Leiste rib, double composite truss bridge proved to be a fairly suitable solution in negative moment area. Perfobond Leiste shear connector (PBL is widely implemented in the composite structure for its outstanding fatigue resistance. In this pilot bridge, Perfobond Leister ribs (PBR were installed in the truss girder's joints, which played double roles as shear connector and stiffener. An erection method and overall bridge structural analysis were then presented. Typical joints in the pilot bridge were selected to analyze the effect of PBR. Investigation of the effect of PBR in concrete-filled tubular joints was elaborated. Comparison has revealed that concrete-filled tubular joints with PBR have much higher constraint capability than joints without PBR. For rectangular tubular truss, the punching shear force of the concrete filled joint with PBR is approximately 43% larger than that of the joint without PBR. Fatigue performance of the joint installed with PBR was improved, which was found through analysis of the stress concentration factor of joint. The PBR installed in the joints mitigated the stress concentration factor in the chord face. Therefore, the advantages of this new type of bridge are demonstrated, including the convenience of construction using rectangular truss, innovative concept of structural design and better global and local performances.

  5. Finding Strong Bridges and Strong Articulation Points in Linear Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italiano, Giuseppe F.; Laura, Luigi; Santaroni, Federico

    Given a directed graph G, an edge is a strong bridge if its removal increases the number of strongly connected components of G. Similarly, we say that a vertex is a strong articulation point if its removal increases the number of strongly connected components of G. In this paper, we present linear-time algorithms for computing all the strong bridges and all the strong articulation points of directed graphs, solving an open problem posed in [2].

  6. Long span cable supported bridges - present technology and trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The activity within the field of long-span cable supported bridges has never been larger than at the end of the 20th century. The technology is well advanced to cope with the present challenges but it is also approaching its limits so if the trend towards ever increasing spans continues...... into the next century, further developments are required to ensure that the bridges will be stable, durable and constructible....

  7. Using weigh-in-motion data to determine bridge dynamic amplification factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalin Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic component of bridge traffic loading is commonly taken into account with a Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF – the ratio between the maximum dynamic and static load effects on a bridge. In the design codes, this factor is generally higher than in reality. While this is fine for new bridges that must account for various risks during their life-time, it imposes unnecessary conservativism into assessment of the existing well defined bridges. Therefore, analysis of existing bridges should apply more realistic DAF values. One way of obtaining them experimentally is by bridge weigh-in-motion (B-WIM measurements, which use an existing instrumented bridge or culvert to weigh all crossing vehicles at highway speeds. The B-WIM system had been equipped with two methods of obtaining an approximation to the static response of the. The first method uses the sum of influence lines. This method relies on accurate axle identification, the failure of which can have a large influence on the DAF value. The other method uses a pre-determined low-pass filter to remove the dynamic component of the measured signal; however an expert is needed to set the filter parameters. A new approach that tries to eliminate these two drawbacks has been developed. In this approach the parameters for the filter are determined automatically by fitting the filtered response to the sum of the influence lines. The measurement of DAF on a typical bridge site agrees with experiments performed in the ARCHES [1] project: dynamic amplification decreases as static loading increases.

  8. Bridge aerodynamics and aeroelasticity: A comparison of modeling schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teng; Kareem, Ahsan

    2013-11-01

    Accurate modeling of wind-induced loads on bridge decks is critical to ensure the functionality and survivability of long-span bridges. Over the last few decades, several schemes have emerged to model bridge behavior under winds from an aerodynamic/aeroelastic perspective. A majority of these schemes rely on the quasi-steady (QS) theory. This paper systematically compares and assesses the efficacy of five analytical models available in the literature with a new model presented herein. These models include: QS theory-based model, corrected QS theory-based model, linearized QS theory-based model, semi-empirical linear model, hybrid model, and the proposed modified hybrid model. The ability of these models to capture fluid memory and nonlinear effects either individually or collectively is examined. In addition, their ability to include the effects of turbulence in the approach flow on the bridge behavior is assessed. All models are compared in a consistent manner by utilizing the time domain approach. The underlying role of each model in capturing the physics of bridge behavior under winds is highlighted and the influence of incoming turbulence and its interaction with the bridge deck is examined. A discussion is included that focuses on a number of critical parameters pivotal to the effectiveness of corresponding models.

  9. 23 CFR 661.55 - How are BIA and Tribal owned IRR bridges inspected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are BIA and Tribal owned IRR bridges inspected? 661... AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.55 How are BIA and Tribal owned IRR bridges inspected? BIA and Tribally owned IRR bridges are inspected in accordance with 25 CFR...

  10. Light Bridge in a Developing Active Region. I. Observation of Light Bridge and its Dynamic Activity Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Toriumi, Shin; Cheung, Mark C M

    2015-01-01

    Light bridges, the bright structures that divide the umbra of sunspots and pores into smaller pieces, are known to produce wide variety of activity events in solar active regions (ARs). It is also known that the light bridges appear in the assembling process of nascent sunspots. The ultimate goal of this series of papers is to reveal the nature of light bridges in developing ARs and the occurrence of activity events associated with the light bridge structures from both observational and numerical approaches. In this first paper, exploiting the observational data obtained by Hinode, IRIS, and Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), we investigate the detailed structure of the light bridge in NOAA AR 11974 and its dynamic activity phenomena. As a result, we find that the light bridge has a weak, horizontal magnetic field, which is transported from the interior by large-scale convective upflow and is surrounded by strong, vertical fields of adjacent pores. In the chromosphere above the bridge, a transient brightening ...

  11. Knowledge integrated visual analysis system for in-depth management of bridge safety and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Dou, Wenwen; Vatcha, Rashna; Liu, Wanqiu; Chen, Shen-En; Lee, Seok-Won; Chang, Remco; Ribarsky, William

    2009-05-01

    Infrastructure safety affects millions of U.S citizens in many ways. Among all the infrastructures, the bridge plays a significant role in providing substantial economy and public safety. Nearly 600,000 bridges across the U.S are mandated to be inspected every twenty-four months. Although these inspections could generate great amount of rich data for bridge engineers to make critical maintenance decisions, processing these data has become challenging due to the low efficiency from those traditional bridge management systems. In collaboration with North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) and other regional DOT collaborators, we present our knowledge integrated visual analytics bridge management system. Our system aims to provide bridge engineers a highly interactive data exploration environment as well as knowledge pools for corresponding bridge information. By integrating the knowledge structure with visualization system, our system could provide comprehensive understandings of the bridge assets and enables bridge engineers to investigate potential bridge safety issues and make maintenance decisions.

  12. Implementation and Non-Destructive Evaluation of Composite Structural Shapes in the Tom's Creek Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, M. D.; J. Haramis; Lesko, John J.; Cousins, Thomas E.; J.C.Duke; Weyers, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    A bridge rehabilitation utilizing a hybrid fiber reinforced polymeric composite has been completed in Blacksburg, Virginia. This project involved replacing the superstructure in the Tom's Creek Bridge, a rural short-span traffic bridge with a timber deck and corroded steel girders, with a glue-laminated timber deck on composite girders. In order to verify the bridge design and to address construction issues prior to the rehabilitation, a full-scale mock-up of the bridge was built and tested i...

  13. Design and Construction of Operation Bridge for Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Choi, Jinbok; Lee, Jongmin; Oh, Jinho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The operation bridge contains a lower working deck mounted on a saddle that travels on rails. Upright members are mounted on the saddle to support the upper structure and two hoist monorails. The saddle contains an anti-derail system that is composed of seismic lugs and guide rollers. The operation bridge travels along the rails to transport the fuel assembly, irradiated object, and reactor components in the pools by using tools. Hoists are installed at the top girder. The hoist is suspended from the monorail by means of a motor driven trolley that runs along the monorail. Movements of hoist and trolley are controlled by using the control pendant switch. Processes of design and construction of the operation bridge for the research reactor are introduced. The operation bridge is designed under consideration of functions of handling equipment in the pool and operational limits for safety. Structural analysis is carried out to evaluate the structural integrity in the seismic events. Tests and inspections are also performed during fabrication and installation to confirm the function and safety of the operation bridge.

  14. Experimental evaluation and field implementation of FRP bridge deck modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woraphot Prachasaree

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Construction of highway bridge decks using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP composite deck and superstructuremodules in lieu of concrete decks has proven to be feasible. However, FRP’s are not widely accepted yet despite theirbenefits such as non-corrosiveness, higher strength to weight ratio, and better fatigue resistance than conventional materials.Lack of wider usage of FRP material is mainly attributed to the absence of: 1 standardized test procedures, 2 designspecifications, and 3 construction procedures. The higher initial cost is also inhibiting bridge engineers in selecting FRPmodules as highway bridge super structural systems.Implementation of FRP composites technology for highway bridge decks leads to higher safety and lower life cyclecosts. Significant ongoing research and development of FRP deck modules as illustrated herein, has proven to enhancedeck module properties in developing FRP modules with enhanced structural performance.Prodeck 4 is one such multicellular deck that was recently developed, and extensively evaluated for static and fatigueloads, and its response results are presented herein. From rigorous testing, it was concluded that Prodeck 4 could resistAASHTO HS 25 loading with maximum stringer spacing of 48 inches. This led to construction of two bridges (one in Ohioand other in West Virginia using Prodeck 4 as decking.

  15. Hydraulic and geomorphic monitoring of experimental bridge scour mitigation at selected bridges in Utah, 2003-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Terry A.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2006-01-01

    Unique bridge scour mitigation designs using concrete A-Jacks were developed by the Utah Department of Transportation and installed at the Colorado River Bridge at State Road 191 and the Green River Bridge at State Road 19. The U.S. Geological Survey monitored stream reaches at these sites by collecting streambed-topography and water-velocity data from 2003 through 2005. These data were acquired annually from a moving boat with an acoustic Doppler current profiler and a differential global positioning system. Raw unordered data were processed and readied for interpolation into organized datasets with DopplerMacros, a set of computer programs. Processed streambed topography data were geostatistically interpolated by using Ordinary Kriging, and inverse distance weighting interpolation was used in the development of the two-dimensional velocity datasets. These organized datasets of topography and velocity were developed for each survey of the two bridge sites. A comparison of the riverbed topography data for each survey was done. An increase in bed elevation related to the installation of the A-Jacks scour countermeasures is evident at the Colorado River Bridge at State Road 191. The three topographic datasets acquired after the installation at the Green River Bridge at State Road 19 show few changes.

  16. Preparation and Investigation of Monodentate and Bridging Pyrazole Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Wynne

    2004-01-01

    Complexes of pyrazole-derived ligands are very popular due to the ability of the pyrazolato anion to form bridged polymetallic compounds in which the metals are held close enough to react with small molecules or facilitate magnetic exchange. The preparation of monodentate pyrazole and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (DMHpz) nickel species and the…

  17. Risk based bridge data collection and asset management and the role of structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenzetter, Piotr; Bush, Simon; Henning, Theunis; McCarten, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Bridges are critical to the operation and functionality of the whole road networks. It is therefore essential that specific data is collected regarding bridge asset condition and performance, as this allows proactive management of the assets and associated risks and more accurate short and long term financial planning. This paper proposes and discusses a strategy for collection of data on bridge condition and performance. Recognizing that risk management is the primary driver of asset management, the proposed strategy prioritizes bridges for levels of data collection including core, intermediate and advanced. Individual bridges are seen as parts of wider networks and bridge risk and criticality assessment emphasizes bridge failure or underperformance risk in the network context. The paper demonstrates how more reliable and detailed data can assist in managing network and bridge risks and provides a rationale for application of higher data collection levels for bridges characterized by higher risk and criticality. As the bridge risk and/or criticality increases planned and proactive integration of structural health monitoring (SHM) data into asset management is outlined. An example of bridge prioritization for data collection using several bridges taken from a national highway network is provided using an existing risk and criticality scoring methodology. The paper concludes with a discussion on the role of SHM in data collection for bridge asset management and where SHM can make the largest impacts.

  18. Wind Resistant Design of Bridges in Japan Developments and Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Fujino, Yozo; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    For long-span bridges, wind action is a dominant factor in their safety and serviceability. A large number of long-span bridges have been built in Japan over the past 30 years, and tremendous amounts of research and technical development have been accomplished in wind resistant design. This book is a compilation of the results of active research and development. Wind resistant design standards generated in Japan are described in the first few chapters. Then comes information such as design wind speed, structural damping, wind tunnel tests, and analyses, which provide the basis of the design standards. Wind-induced vibrations and their control of girders, towers, cables, and other features are explained with examples of field measurements. Comprehensive listings of Japanese experience in vibration control are also presented. Because achieving particularly dynamic safety against wind is still not an easy task, these data and information will be valuable assets for the wind-engineering and bridge-engineering com...

  19. Bridges over troubled waters: education and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Daniel; Coch, Donna

    2006-04-01

    Recently there has been growing interest in and debate about the relation between cognitive neuroscience and education. Our goal is to advance the debate beyond both recitation of potentially education-related cognitive neuroscience findings and the claim that a bridge between fields is chimerical. In an attempt to begin a dialogue about mechanisms among students, educators, researchers and practitioner-scientists, we propose that multiple bridges can be built to make connections between education and cognitive neuroscience, including teacher training, researcher training and collaboration. These bridges--concrete mechanisms that can advance the study of mind, brain and education--will benefit both educators and cognitive neuroscientists, who will gain new perspectives for posing and answering crucial questions about the learning brain.

  20. Torsional stiffness degradation and aerostatic divergence of suspension bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. T.; Ge, Y. J.; Yang, Y. X.

    2013-07-01

    The mechanism of aerostatic torsional divergence (ATD) of long-span suspension bridges is investigated. A theoretical analysis on the basis of a generalized model is presented, showing that the vertical motion of a bridge deck is crucial to the torsional stiffness of the whole suspended system, and that the vertical motion of either cable with a magnitude beyond a certain threshold could result in a sudden degradation of the torsional stiffness of the system. This vertical motion-induced degradation of stiffness is recognized as the main reason for the ATD. Long-span suspension bridges are susceptible to such a type of divergence, especially when they are immersed in turbulent wind fields. The divergences that occur in turbulent wind fields differ significantly from those in smooth wind fields, and the difference is well explained by the generalized model that the loosening of any one cable could result in the vanishing of the part of stiffness provided by the whole cable system. The mechanism revealed in this paper leads to a definition of the critical wind speed of the ATD in a turbulent flow; that is, the one resulting in a vertical motion so large as to loosen either cable to a stressless state. Numerical results from the nonlinear finite-element (FE) analysis of the Xihoumen suspension bridge, in conjunction with observations from wind tunnel tests on an aero-elastic full bridge model, are in support of the viewpoint presented in this study.

  1. Comparisons of bridges flutter derivatives and generalized ones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuyou XU; Airong CHEN; Zhe ZHANG; Cailiang HUANG

    2009-01-01

    The causes of the nonlinearity of self-excited aerodynamic force of bridge are interpreted from such two aspects as amplitude and wind velocity. The concept of "generalized flutter derivative" is proposed, and its physical meaning is illustrated. The graphs of the general-ized flutter derivatives of plate and Sutong Bridge section model are plotted. The characteristics of all generalized flutter derivatives are compared and analyzed, and their superiorities are verified. The results indicate that the physical meaning of generalized flutter derivatives are more explicit compared to the traditional ones. It is more convenient to understand the nonlinearity properties of self-excited aerodynamic force of bridge according to the generalized flutter derivatives graphs with the wind velocity as the horizontal coordinate.

  2. The vaded ego state and the invisible bridging induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Ego state therapy is based on the assumption that personality is composed of parts. When people switch from 1 state to another, they take their ego identification with them, while their levels of affect, intellect, confidence, and skill change. A vaded ego state has become overwhelmed by fear or rejection such that when it becomes executive, it interferes with normal function and emotional stability. The angst these states carry are the root cause of psychological addictions, OCD, panic disorder, PTSD, a sense of unworthiness of love, extreme competitiveness, and much more. The invisible bridge is an induction technique that uses the somatic experience of the vaded state to provide a focus for hypnotic induction and a bridge to the original sensitizing event that vaded the previously normal state. This article contextualizes the vaded state within abnormal psychology and describes the invisible bridge induction.

  3. Creep and shrinkage effects on integral abutment bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuswamy, Sivakumar

    Integral abutment bridges provide bridge engineers an economical design alternative to traditional bridges with expansion joints owing to the benefits, arising from elimination of expensive joints installation and reduced maintenance cost. The superstructure for integral abutment bridges is cast integrally with abutments. Time-dependent effects of creep, shrinkage of concrete, relaxation of prestressing steel, temperature gradient, restraints provided by abutment foundation and backfill and statical indeterminacy of the structure introduce time-dependent variations in the redundant forces. An analytical model and numerical procedure to predict instantaneous linear behavior and non-linear time dependent long-term behavior of continuous composite superstructure are developed in which the redundant forces in the integral abutment bridges are derived considering the time-dependent effects. The redistributions of moments due to time-dependent effects have been considered in the analysis. The analysis includes nonlinearity due to cracking of the concrete, as well as the time-dependent deformations. American Concrete Institute (ACI) and American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) models for creep and shrinkage are considered in modeling the time dependent material behavior. The variations in the material property of the cross-section corresponding to the constituent materials are incorporated and age-adjusted effective modulus method with relaxation procedure is followed to include the creep behavior of concrete. The partial restraint provided by the abutment-pile-soil system is modeled using discrete spring stiffness as translational and rotational degrees of freedom. Numerical simulation of the behavior is carried out on continuous composite integral abutment bridges and the deformations and stresses due to time-dependent effects due to typical sustained loads are computed. The results from the analytical model are compared with the

  4. Proton production, neutralisation and reduction in a floating water bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammer, Martina; Wexler, Adam D.; Kuntke, Philipp; Wiltsche, Helmar; Stanulewicz, Natalia; Lankmayr, Ernst; Woisetschläger, Jakob; Fuchs, Elmar C.

    2015-10-01

    This work reports on proton production, transport, reduction and neutralization in floating aqueous bridges under the application of a high dc voltage (‘floating water bridge’). Recently possible mechanisms for proton transfer through the bridge were suggested. In this work we visualize and describe the production of protons in the anolyte and their neutralization in the catholyte. Apart from that, protons are reduced to hydrogen due to electrolysis. Microbubbles are detached instantly, due to the electrohydrodynamic flow at the electrode surface. No larger, visible bubbles are formed and the system degasses through the bridge due to its higher local temperature. A detailed analysis of trace elements originating from beaker material, anode or the atmosphere is presented, showing that their influence on the overall conduction compared to the contribution of protons is negligible. Finally, an electrochemical rationale of high voltage electrolysis of low ionic strength solutions is presented.

  5. Bridging UX and web development better results through team integration

    CERN Document Server

    Moffett, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The divide between UX and Web development can be stifling. Bridging UX and Web Development prepares you to break down those walls by teaching you how to integrate with your team's developers. You examine the process from their perspective, discovering tools and coding principles that will help you bridge the gap between design and implementation. With these tried and true approaches, you'll be able to capitalize on a more productive work environment. Whether you're a novice UX professional finding your place in the software industry and looking to nail down your technical skills, or a seasone

  6. On railway culvert foundation settlement in saline land area%盐渍土地区铁路涵洞基础沉降分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志彪

    2015-01-01

    According to the actual project, based on the practice of newly-built local railway of Xitieshan-North Huobuxun, key technology study is performed on foundation handling under the conditions of lake sand subsoil in the special geological conditions ( high salt saturated fine sand) of reinforced concrete box culvert. Culverts original ground handling method is gravel pile foundation, design changes due to geological reasons and construction conditions, pieces replacement is adopted. The two culverts foundation reinforcement methods adopted were analyzed based on the settlement deformation data, in-situ test and soil parameters. The numeri-cal simulation computation is made by using finite element software to analyze culvert settlement variation in different load conditions for foundation treatment of saline land area, which can provide important technical in-formation for similar project.%根据实际工程,以新建锡铁山至北霍布逊地方铁路为依托,针对位于该地区特殊地质条件(高含盐饱和细砂土)下钢筋混凝土箱型涵的修建,开展对青海北霍布逊湖区高含盐饱和细砂土地基条件下涵洞地基处理的关键技术研究。涵洞原地基处理方式为碎石桩基础,后因地质原因及施工条件做出设计变更,采取片石换填的地基处理方式。应用实际观测到的涵洞的沉降变形资料和涵身现场的原位测试、查阅相关资料及反演得到的土性参数,对涵洞采取的两种地基加固方式进行对比分析,并利用有限元软件对其进行数值模拟运算,分析涵洞在不同荷载工况下的沉降变化规律,为盐渍土地区工程的地基处理提供了重要的技术资料。

  7. Theory Development: A Bridge between Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Stephen; Devlin, James

    2010-01-01

    Theory development is an intentional process by which marriage and family counselors may bridge the gap between research and practice. The theory building process includes inductive and deductive forms of reasoning, qualitative and quantitative approaches to knowledge development, and diffusion of innovations. Grounded theory provides an…

  8. Comparison of aerodynamic characteristics of pentagonal and hexagonal shaped bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md. Naimul; Katsuchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Hitoshi; Nishio, Mayuko

    2016-07-01

    Aerodynamics of the long-span bridge deck should be well understood for an efficient design of the bridge system. For practical bridges various deck shapes are being recommended and adopted, yet not all of their aerodynamic behaviors are well interpreted. In the present study, a numerical investigation was carried out to explore the aerodynamic characteristics of pentagonal and hexagonal shaped bridge decks. A relative comparison of steady state aerodynamic responses was made and the flow field was critically analyzed for better understanding the aerodynamic responses. It was found that the hexagonal shaped bridge deck has better aerodynamic characteristics as compared to the pentagonal shaped bridge deck.

  9. Building Bridges between Neuroscience, Cognition and Education with Predictive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Steve; Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    As the field of Mind, Brain, and Education seeks new ways to credibly bridge the gap between neuroscience, the cognitive sciences, and education, various connections are being developed and tested. This article presents a framework and offers examples of one approach, predictive modeling within a virtual educational system that can include…

  10. New Concepts in Fish Ladder Design: Analysis of Barriers to Upstream Fish Migration, Volume IV of IV, Investigation of the Physical and Biological Conditions Affecting Fish Passage Success at Culverts and Waterfalls, 1982-1984 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Patrick D.; Orsborn, John F.

    1985-08-01

    A synopsis of the project components was prepared to provide an overview for persons who are not fisheries scientists or engineers. This short report can be used also by technical persons who are interested in the scope of the project, and as a summary of the three main reports. The contents includes an historical perspective on fishway design which provides the basis for this project. The major project accomplishments and significant additions to the body of knowledge about the analysis and design of fishways are discussed. In the next section the research project organization, objectives and components are presented to familiarize the reader with the scope of this project. The summary report concludes with recommendations for assisting in the enhancement and restoration of fisheries resources from the perspective of fish passage problems and their solution. Promising research topics are included.

  11. Information Geography: A Bridge between Engineering and the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the metaphor of engineering and the social sciences located on either side of a chasm and connected by the bridge of information geography. Information geography is not an integral part of engineering and is a new field within geography, a social science discipline. The specialty of information geography is one of the newest in…

  12. Probabilistic inspection and maintenance for concrete bridge structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    Due to a variety of physical and chemical processes, concrete bridges as well as other civil engineering structures deteriorate and may reach, after some time, a minimum acceptable level of performance. At that point in time maintenance (including inspection, repair and replacement) has to be carrie

  13. Bridges and Barriers: Adolescent Perceptions of Student-Teacher Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Rebecca Munnell; Horner, Christy Galletta; Colditz, Jason B.; Wallace, Tanner LeBaron

    2013-01-01

    In urban secondary schools where underpreparation and dropping out are real world concerns, students understand that their relationships with teachers affect their learning. Using descriptive coding and thematic analysis of focus group data, we explore adolescents' perceptions of the "bridges" that foster and the "barriers"…

  14. Designing for Anxiety Therapy, Bridging Clinical and Non-Clinical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Kramp, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    In this position paper we discuss, in terms of the concept of boundary objects, how a mobile application, the MIKAT.app, bridge between clinical intervention in anxiety therapy, and life and coping strategies outside the clinic and across phases of being a person suffering from, or having suffered...

  15. Herzog:A Bridge between Modernism and Postmodernism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽霞; 王宏; 史晓燕

    2013-01-01

    Herzog is one of Saul Bellow’s most successful novels, which laid a solid foundation for his winning the Oscar Award of Literature. This paper is intended to prove Herzog is a bridge between Modernism and Postmodernism by comparative study on the thematic and formal transformation of the whole novel based on textual analysis and Gerald Genette’s narratology theories.

  16. Service Life and Maintenance Modelling of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Recent research in the area of assessment and maintenance of reinforced concrete bridge decks is presented in this paper. Three definitions of service lifetime are introduced and the difficult problem of assessing the service life is discussed. A stochastic modelling of corrosion and corrosion...

  17. Venture Creation Programs: Bridging Entrepreneurship Education and Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackéus, Martin; Williams Middleton, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how university-based entrepreneurship programs, incorporating real-life venture creation into educational design and delivery, can bridge the gap between entrepreneurship education and technology transfer within the university environment. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review…

  18. Online Book Clubs: Bridges between Old and New Literacies Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharber, Cassandra

    2009-01-01

    In this Digital Literacies column, online book clubs are offered as one example of how to effectively bridge old and new literacy practices. These Internet-based book clubs capitalize on children's interest in new literacy practices while complementing, and hopefully encouraging, traditional reading practices. Examples from online book clubs…

  19. Bridging Implementation, Knowledge, and Ambition Gaps to Eliminate Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-22

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, director of CDC's Division of Tuberculosis Eliminatio,discusses bridging implementation, knowledge, and ambition gaps to eliminate tuberculosis.  Created: 2/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/2/2011.

  20. Bridging Geography and Education for Sustainable Development: A Korean Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, Douglas R.; Tschapka, Johannes M.

    2017-01-01

    There is an apparent disconnect between geography and education for sustainable development (ESD), with geography underrepresented in publications and curricula related to sustainability though the discipline embraces the need to foment positive change. To bridge this schism, this article introduces advances in education for sustainable…

  1. Equilibrium morphologies and effective spring constants of capillary bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaatmaja, Halim; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2010-12-21

    We theoretically study the behavior of a liquid bridge formed between a pair of rigid and parallel plates. The plates are smooth, they may either be homogeneous or decorated by circular patches of more hydrophilic domains, and they are generally not identical. We calculate the mechanical equilibrium distance of the liquid bridge as a function of liquid volume, contact angle, and radius of the chemical domain. We show that a liquid bridge can be an equilibrium configuration as long as the sum of the contact angles at the two walls is larger than 180°. When comparisons are possible, our results agree well with recent analytical and molecular dynamics simulation results. We also derive the effective spring constant of the liquid bridge as it is perturbed from its equilibrium distance. The spring constant diverges when the sum of the contact angles is 180° and is finite otherwise. The value of the spring constant decreases with increasing contact angle and volume, and the rate at which it decreases depends strongly on the properties of the two plates.

  2. Statistical consideration and challenges in bridging study of personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meijuan

    2015-01-01

    Applications of personalized medicine are becoming increasingly prominent. A well-characterized market-ready companion diagnostic assay (CDx) is often desired for patient enrollment in device-drug pivotal clinical trial(s) so that Food and Drug Administration can ensure that appropriate clinical and analytical validation studies are planned and carried out for CDx. However, such a requirement may be difficult or impractical to accomplish. A clinical trial assay (CTA) instead of CDx may be used for patient enrollment in the clinical trial. A concordance study (or bridging study) will be required to assess the agreement between CDx and CTA in order to bridge the clinical data (e.g. overall survival) from CTA to CDx and to evaluate the drug efficacy in CDx intended use population. In this article, we will discuss statistical challenges in study design and data analysis for bridging study. Particularly, we aimed to provide statistical methods on how to estimate the drug efficacy in CDx intended use population using results from bridging study and CTA-drug pivotal clinical trial.

  3. MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING - CLINICAL AND ANGIOGRAPHIC PROFILE IN LAST 5 YEARS; A STUDY OF 129 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash S P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study : To assess the clinical and angiographical profile of myocardial bridging from consecutive coronary angiograms done over last 5 years at Medical college, Thiruvananthapuram. To assess the risk of cardiovascular events and the risk of accelerated atherosclerosis in isolated myocardial bridging. Methods : Consecutive coronary angiograms done at Medical college Thiruvananthapuram from 04/02/2005 to 31/03/2010 were reviewed for myocardial bridging. A total of 10492 coronary angiograms were reviewed. Myocardial bridges with systolic lumen reduction of more than 50% were considered for analysis. Quantitative coronary angiography (QCA was used for analysis. Clinical presentation as well as correlation with structural heart disease and coronary heart disease was assessed. Results: Incidence of myocardial bridges was 1.23%. Of the 129 patients with myocardial bridges 63 ( 48.8% had associated significant coronary artery disease. Remaining 66 (51.2% patients presented with isolated bridges. Out of these 66 patients with isolated myocardial bridges, 7 (10.6% patients presented with acute myocardial infarction and 3 (4.5% presented with cardiac arrhythmias. Of the 63 patients with significant coronary disease 11 (17.5% patients had single vessel disease and they had the culprit lesion and myocardial bridge seen in the same vessel. Most common location of myocardial bridge was mid LAD (64.9% followed by distal LAD (23.8%. Length of bridge was 20 mm in 35.7%. Mean percentage of systolic obliteration by the bridge was 74.5%. 100% systolic obliteration was seen in 7.79% of isolated bridges and in 9.79% of bridges with CAD. Among 120 rhuematic heart disease patients who underwent coronary angiogram, 10 (8.3% patients had myocardial bridging. 12.1% of all HCM patients who underwent coronary angiograms had myocardial bridging. Conclusion: Myocardial bridging can be lethal- can accelerate atherosclerosis, can precipitate acute MIs and life

  4. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...

  5. Probabilistic seismic response and reliability assessment of isolated bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Carlo Marano

    2005-01-01

    Bridge seismic isolation strategy is based on the reduction of shear forces transmitted from the superstructure to the piers by two means: shifting natural period and earthquake input energy reduction by dissipation concentrated in protection devices. In this paper, a stochastic analysis of a simple isolated bridge model for different bridge and device parameters is conducted to assess the efficiency of this seismic protection strategy. To achieve this aim, a simple nonlinear softening constitutive law is adopted to model a wide range of isolation devices, characterized by only three essential mechanical parameters. As a consequence of the random nature of seismic motion, a probabilistic analysis is carried out and the time modulated Kanai-Tajimi stochastic process is adopted to represent the seismic action. The response covariance in the state space is obtained by solving the Lyapunov equation for a stochastic linearized system. After a sensitivity analysis, the failure probability referred to extreme displacement and the mean value of dissipated energy are assessed by using the introduced stochastic indices of seismic bridge protection efficiency. A parametric analysis for protective devices with different mechanical parameters is developed for a proper selection of parameters of isolation devices under different situations.

  6. Practice of One Health approaches: Bridges and barriers in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim A. Kayunze

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of one health approaches in human and animal health programmes is influenced by type and scope of bridges and barriers for partnerships. It was thus essential to evaluate the nature and scope of collaborative arrangements among human, animal, and wildlife health experts in dealing with health challenges which demand inter-sectoral partnership. The nature of collaborative arrangement was assessed, and the respective bridges and barriers over a period of 12 months (July 20011 to June 2012 were identified. The specific objectives were to: (1 determine the proportion of health experts who had collaborated with other experts of disciplines different from theirs, (2 rank the general bridges for and barriers against collaboration according to the views of the health experts, and (3 find the actual bridges for and barriers against collaboration among the health experts interviewed. It was found that 27.0% of animal health officers interviewed had collaborated with medical officers while 12.4% of the medical officers interviewed had collaborated with animal health experts. Only 6.7% of the wildlife officers had collaborated with animal health experts. The main bridges for collaboration were instruction by upper level leaders, zoonotic diseases of serious impacts, and availability of funding. The main barriers for collaboration were lack of knowledge about animal/human health issues, lack of networks for collaboration, and lack of plans to collaborate. This thus calls for the need to curb barriers in order to enhance inter-sectoral collaboration for more effective management of risks attributable to infectious diseases of humans and animals.

  7. An association between sella turcica bridging and dental transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Rosalia; Farella, Mauro; Cobourne, Martyn T

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine any association between tooth transposition and bridging of the sella turcica, given the evidence of common embryonic origins associated with these structures and a genetic basis underlying these two conditions. Clinical records of subjects demonstrating dental transposition and normal controls were collected from several hospital orthodontic departments and specialist orthodontic practices. All cases and controls were documented with good quality lateral cephalometric radiographs and dental panoramic tomograms (DPTs). The study sample consisted of 21 Caucasian subjects (7 males and 14 females; mean age 14.5 years; SD 2.2 years), demonstrating either maxillary or mandibular dental transposition. The control group, matched for age and gender to the study sample, comprised 70 Caucasians (31 males and 39 females; mean age 13.8 years; SD 1.8 years) without dental anomalies randomly selected from subjects referred for orthodontic treatment within the same departments. The extent of sella turcica bridging was quantified from each profile radiograph using comparative measurement of length and diameter. Sella turcica bridging was found more frequently in subjects diagnosed with dental transposition than in the controls, with the difference being statistically significant [chi-square=7.4; degrees of freedom (df)=2; P=0.025; Fisher's exact test; P=0.042]. The increased frequency of complete and partial bridging of the sella turcica in subjects with dental transposition provides further evidence of a genetic basis to this condition. As calcification and bridging of this region can present during early childhood, it may act as a useful diagnostic predictor of susceptibility to local dental problems.

  8. Ditches and Drainage Structures, Culverts - cross drains were collected using a GPS for drainage basin project. Ditches are planned for the future., Published in 2005, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Ditches and Drainage Structures dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. It is...

  9. 高压旋喷注浆法在处理涵洞地基中的应用%High pressure jet grouting method in treatment of culvert application foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世波

    2013-01-01

      结合朔黄铁路扩能改造K132+808.5段钢筋混凝土盖板箱涵中的地基处理工程,详细介绍高压旋喷注浆法在处理涵洞地基中的施工特点与加固效果,包括桩的平面布置、水泥浆配制、注浆量及注浆压力、施工工艺与现场检测效果评价等.结果表明,采用高压旋喷注浆法处理涵洞软土地基可操作性强、加固效果且经济性良好,可为今后相似工程中的涵洞地基处理提供实际参考与施工依据.%In connection with the foundation treatment engineering of reinforced concrete cover plate culvert in the capacity expansion and revamp of K132+808.5 section of Shuo-Huang Railway, this paper expounds the characteristics and reinforcement effect of the high pressure jet grouting method in treatment of culvert foundation, including the pile layout, making up of cement slurry, quantity and pressure of grouting, construction process and effect evaluation of on-site examination and so on. Results show that the high pressure jet grouting method has stronger operability, nicer reinforcement effect and economic efficiency in the treatment of soft soil foundation of a culvert, which offers real referential values and construction bases for foundation treatment in a culvert in similar projects.

  10. A study of lateral orifice jet of side-port longitudinal culvert filling and emptying system of ship lock%船闸闸墙廊道侧支孔射流研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎贤访; 李云; 王勇

    2011-01-01

    Hydraulic model of lateral orifice jet is set up.Velocity distribution of the vertical axial surface of lateral orifice jet is measured with PIV system in different discharges under non-threshold and with-threshold conditions.The velocity distribution laws of lateral orifice jet are summarized and summed up through methods such as dividing flow field structure and extracting flow field cross section.Based on the experimental results, the on-way curves of maximum velocity of the cross-section and the relative height of maximum velocity point under non-threshold condition are protracted.The shapes of jet centerlines are drawn under with-threshold condition, and the approximate formula for calculating velocity along jet centerline is given.%建立侧支孔射流水力学物理模型,使用PIV测速仪测量了多组流量条件下侧支孔射流无槛工况和设槛工况孔前垂向中轴面的流速分布,通过划分流场结构和提取流场断面等方法,归纳和总结了侧支孔射流的流速分布规律.根据试验结果得出了无槛工况断面最大流速和断面最大流速点相对高度的沿程变化曲线,绘制了设槛工况槛后射流中心线,拟合得出了沿射流中心线的速度计算公式.

  11. Emission and absorption spectra of some bridged 1,5-benzodiazepines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, J. M.; Pathirana, R. N.; Stibbard, J. H. A.

    Absorption spectra in neutral and acidic media are reported for a series of bridged 1,5-benzodiazepines, which are unable to tautomerize. Comparison is made with non-bridged 1,5-benzodiazepines capable of tautomeric rearrangement. Both bridged and non-bridged 1,5-benzodiazepines are essentially non-fluorescent due to the "proximity effect" of interaction between singlet ηπ* and ππ* states of similar energy, a phenomenon previously recognised in six-membered nitrogen heterocycles.

  12. 33 CFR 88.09 - Temporary exemption from light and shape requirements when operating under bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and shape requirements when operating under bridges. 88.09 Section 88.09 Navigation and Navigable... Temporary exemption from light and shape requirements when operating under bridges. A vessel's navigation lights and shapes may be lowered if necessary to pass under a bridge....

  13. Einstein-Rosen Bridges and the Characteristic Properties of Gravitational Lensing by Them

    OpenAIRE

    Shatskiy, A.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that Einstein-Rosen bridges (wormholes) hypothetical objects that topologically connect separate locations in the Universe can be static solutions of the Einstein equations. The corresponding equations for bridges are reduced to a form convenient for their analysis and numerical solution. The matter forming the bridge must have a sufficiently hard and anisotropic equation of state. Our results are compared with a previously known analytic solution for a bridge, which is a special ...

  14. 77 FR 54652 - Draft Program Comment for Common Post-1945 Concrete and Steel Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... Bridges AGENCIES: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to issue Program Comment for Common Post-1945 Concrete and Steel Bridges; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Advisory... and steel bridges. The FHWA is requesting comments on the proposed Program Comment. DATES:...

  15. 26 CFR 1.597-4 - Bridge Banks and Agency Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Bridge Banks and Agency Control. 1.597-4 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Savings Banks, Etc. § 1.597-4 Bridge Banks and Agency Control. (a) Scope. This section provides rules that apply to a Bridge Bank or other Institution under Agency...

  16. Securities and banking: bridges and walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between banking and securities activities in the light of financial market developments (securitisation, institutionalization of investment, emergence of complex financial instruments, conglomeration and consolidation, with particular reference to Europe. The enhanced links between banking and securitiesbusinesses have generated increased and new risks to financial institutions. However, banks' stability remains crucial for the stability of the financial system as a whole, because of their unique role as provider of liquidity. The paper also addresses the implications of the banking-securities combination for regulatory and supervisory arrangements. The exporting of prudential requirements traditional in banking (such as capital ratios into the securities field, and the importing of securities regulation (such as transparency requirements into the banking sector, can be deemed mutually beneficial. As regards supervision, there is a need to monitor the continued effectiveness of the current framework. This entails strengthening co-operation both at the national level and on a cross-border basis among sectoral supervisors in the micro-prudential field, and between them and central banks in the macro-prudential field.

  17. Preliminary design and parametric study of 1400 m partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The preliminary design and parametric study of 1400 m partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge are described. Static per-formance of this new type of bridge is discussed. Compared with fully self-anchored cable-stayed bridge, its advantages in fin-ished state are summarized. Based on numerical calculation, effects of several structural parameters on static performance are presented.

  18. 76 FR 63346 - Environmental Impact Statement, Tappan Zee Bridge/I-287 Corridor Project (Rockland and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Administration Environmental Impact Statement, Tappan Zee Bridge/I-287 Corridor Project (Rockland and Westchester... preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Tappan Zee Bridge/I-287 Corridor project... Port Chester, Westchester County, New York including the Tappan Zee Bridge over the Hudson River....

  19. Managing concrete bridges: Methods for reducing costs and user inconveniences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents experiences from modern bridge maintenance management, which has been forced to develop new and cost-efficient approaches in order to cope with the increase in overall deterioration of the aging bridge stock, the growing requirements to accessibility and the decreasing budgets....... These approaches are focused on cost reductions, but must as well lead to a reduction of the user inconveniences (traffic delays, noise, dust) and to a reduction of the environmental impact. These approaches can be based on an assessment of the structures safety, which incorporates the inaccuracies...... in the condition assessments, the models and the predictions in the strategies and the cost estimations. This may lead to increased inspection frequencies, detailed simulations, monitoring and testing to be used as alternatives to extensive repairs, rehabilitations or strengthening. The approaches will in other...

  20. Slow Tech: The Bridge between Computer Ethics and Business Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Patrignani, Norberto; Whitehouse, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Part 1: Society, Social Responsibility, Ethics and ICT; International audience; This paper addresses the difficult task of implementing the concept of Slow Tech, that is, information and communication technology (ICT) that is good, clean and fair, in a business environment. It investigates the democratic, environmental, and social challenges currently facing ICT vendors. More specifically, it examines the opportunities available for these companies to use Slow Tech as a bridging mechanism bet...

  1. Community garden: A bridging program between formal and informal learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan Datta

    2016-01-01

    Community garden activities can play a significant role in bridging formal and informal learning, particularly in urban children’s science and environmental education. It promotes relational methods of learning, discussing, and practicing that will integrate food security, social interactions, community development, environmental activism, and cultural integration. Throughout the last five years of my community garden activities, I have learned that community garden-based practices adhere to ...

  2. Heavy Axion on Sark Bridge Between Higgs and Technicolor Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, P. H.; Yanagida, T.

    It is shown how imposition of Peccei-Quinn symmetry leads to a heavy axion and strong constraints in the sark model. The axion and sark masses are derived. Analysis of chiral symmetry breaking leads to mass formulae for pseudo-Goldstone bosons; the lightest is between 44 and 125 GeV. A general picture which bridges between the sark model and a technicolor model, in terms of a new angle, is proposed.

  3. Stress and noises of steel box girders in Sutong Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Tao; Chen Zhijian; Dong Xuewu

    2008-01-01

    Sutong Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 1 088 m.370 high-precision stress monitoring measured data show that in the process of hoisting the steel box girders,the stress of the main girders is in the fluctuant and complex state and many meteorological factors,such as sunshine radiation,temperature and wind,have important influence on the change of stress of the steel box girders.According to the real-time weather data,the stress data after the process of wavelet denoising from representative measuring points in different weather conditions is picked to estab-lish the stress response brought by meteorological factors with Layered Separation method,thereby basically eliminating the influence of meteorological factors on the stress of main girders,so that accurate and reliable stress data can be got for steel box girders adjustment and cable-tensioned construction control.

  4. Neuroscience and education: prime time to build the bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Mariano; Peña, Marcela; Goldin, Andrea P; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-04-01

    As neuroscience gains social traction and entices media attention, the notion that education has much to benefit from brain research becomes increasingly popular. However, it has been argued that the fundamental bridge toward education is cognitive psychology, not neuroscience. We discuss four specific cases in which neuroscience synergizes with other disciplines to serve education, ranging from very general physiological aspects of human learning such as nutrition, exercise and sleep, to brain architectures that shape the way we acquire language and reading, and neuroscience tools that increasingly allow the early detection of cognitive deficits, especially in preverbal infants. Neuroscience methods, tools and theoretical frameworks have broadened our understanding of the mind in a way that is highly relevant to educational practice. Although the bridge's cement is still fresh, we argue why it is prime time to march over it.

  5. Life cycle and performance based seismic design of major bridges in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Lichu

    2007-01-01

    The idea of life cycle and performance based seismic design of major bridges is introduced.Based on the key components and non-key components of a bridge and the consideration of the inspectability,replaceability,reparability,controllability and retrofitability of the bridge components,different seismic design levels and expected performance objectives are suggested for the major bridges in China.The vulnerability analysis and progressive collapse analysis,as well as risk assessment,are also proposed to be the important issues to study in order to guide the seismic design of major bridges in the future.

  6. Concrete bridge deck early problem detection and mitigation using robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Yi, Jingang; Basily, Basily; Duong, Trung; Kim, Jinyoung; Balaguru, Perumalsamy; Parvardeh, Hooman; Maher, Ali; Najm, Husam

    2015-04-01

    More economical management of bridges can be achieved through early problem detection and mitigation. The paper describes development and implementation of two fully automated (robotic) systems for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and minimally invasive rehabilitation of concrete bridge decks. The NDE system named RABIT was developed with the support from Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). It implements multiple NDE technologies, namely: electrical resistivity (ER), impact echo (IE), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and ultrasonic surface waves (USW). In addition, the system utilizes advanced vision to substitute traditional visual inspection. The RABIT system collects data at significantly higher speeds than it is done using traditional NDE equipment. The associated platform for the enhanced interpretation of condition assessment in concrete bridge decks utilizes data integration, fusion, and deterioration and defect visualization. The interpretation and visualization platform specifically addresses data integration and fusion from the four NDE technologies. The data visualization platform facilitates an intuitive presentation of the main deterioration due to: corrosion, delamination, and concrete degradation, by integrating NDE survey results and high resolution deck surface imaging. The rehabilitation robotic system was developed with the support from National Institute of Standards and Technology-Technology Innovation Program (NIST-TIP). The system utilizes advanced robotics and novel materials to repair problems in concrete decks, primarily early stage delamination and internal cracking, using a minimally invasive approach. Since both systems use global positioning systems for navigation, some of the current efforts concentrate on their coordination for the most effective joint evaluation and rehabilitation.

  7. Bridge estimators and the adaptive Lasso under heteroscedasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Dette, Holger; Wagener, Jens

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate penalized least squares methods in linear regression models with heteroscedastic error structure. It is demonstrated that the basic properties with respect to model selection and parameter estimation of bridge estimators, Lasso and adaptive Lasso do not change if the assumption of homoscedasticity is violated. However, these estimators do not have oracle properties in the sense of Fan and Li (2001). In order to address this problem we introduce weighted penaliz...

  8. Impact echo data from bridge deck testing: Visualization and interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Gucunski, N.; Slabaugh, G.G.; Wang, Z; Fang, T.; A. Maher

    2008-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the condition of bridges leads to their economic management. Ultrasonic seismic methods can be successfully used for this purpose through evaluation of changes in material characteristics and detection of the development of defects and zones of deterioration. The impact echo (IE) method is of special benefit in evaluation of corrosion-induced deck delamination, due to the method's nondestructive nature, speed of evaluation, and ability to detect delaminated zones at var...

  9. Thermal Bridges in Building Construction - Measurements and Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    in building envelope constructions is given. After this a validation of both programs and guidelines is presented. The validation is performed by comparing calculated U-values with Guarded Hot Box measurements. The last part of the thesis discusses the possibilities of utilising the results of detailed...... calculations in more operational and applicable projecting tools, e.g. thermal bridge catalogues or U-value tables....

  10. Particulate templates and ordered liquid bridge networks in evaporative lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Kwek, Jin W; Tang, Xiaosong; O'Shea, Sean J; Chan, Derek Y C

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the properties of latex particle templates required to optimize the development of ordered liquid bridge networks in evaporative lithography. These networks are key precursors in the assembly of solutions of conducting nanoparticles into large, optically transparent, and conducting microwire networks on substrates (Vakarelski, I. U.; Chan, D. Y. C.; Nonoguchi, T.; Shinto, H.; Higashitani, K. Phys. Rev. Lett., 2009, 102, 058303). An appropriate combination of heat treatment and oxygen plasma etching of a close-packed latex particle monolayer is shown to create open-spaced particle templates which facilitates the formation of ordered fully connected liquid bridge networks that are critical to the formation of ordered microwire networks. Similar results can also be achieved if non-close-packed latex particle templates with square or honeycomb geometries are used. The present results have important implications for the development of the particulate templates to control the morphology of functional microwire networks by evaporative lithography.

  11. Using BIM to Improve the Design and Construction of Bridge Projects: A Case Study of a Long-span Steel-box Arch Bridge Project

    OpenAIRE

    Wenping Liu; Hongling Guo; Heng Li; Yan Li

    2014-01-01

    More and more mega-complex bridge projects are being or will be built worldwide. At the same time, the design and construction of such projects involve more and more challenges, e.g., complex structural designs, complicated construction environments, etc. This research study aims to apply BIM (Building Information Modelling) to bridge projects to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of design and construction. Through the analysis of the characteristics of bridge projects and relevant, as...

  12. Nonlinear Dynamic Reliability of Coupled Stay Cables and Bridge Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear vibration can cause serious problems in long span cable-stayed bridges. When the internal resonance threshold is reached between the excitation frequency and natural frequency,large amplitudes occur in the cable. Based on the current situation of lacking corresponding constraint criteria, a model was presented for analyzing the dynamic reliability of coupling oscillation between the cable and tower in a cable-stayed bridge. First of all, in the case of cable sag, the d'Alembert principle is applied to studying the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the structure, and resonance failure interval of parametric oscillation is calculated accordingly. Then the dynamic reliability model is set up using the JC method. An application of this model has been developed for the preliminary design of one cable-stayed bridge located on Hai River in Tianjin, and time histories analysis as well as reliability indexes have been obtained. When frequency ratio between the cable and tower is approaching 1∶2, the reliability index is 0.98, indicating high failure probability. And this is consistent with theoretical derivation and experimental results in reference. This model, which is capable of computing the reliability index of resonance failure, provides theoretical basis for the establishment of corresponding rule.

  13. Study of Nonlinear Seismic Response and TMD Primary Control of the Cable-Stayed Bridge Section of the Third Macao-Taipa Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Xiaohong; Li Li

    2004-01-01

    The practical design of the cable-stayed bridge of the 3rd Macao-Taipa bridge is investigated by the finite element analysis program ANSYS, and 3-D elements BEAM188 and BEAM4 are adopted to create a dynamic calculation model. In order to analyze the material nonlinear seismic response of the cable-stayed bridge, the nonlinear behaviors of the ductile plastic hinges of the bridge towers are taken into account by employing the nonlinear rotational spring element COMBIN40. To simulate a major earthquake, three earthquake records were chosen using a wave-choosing program and input into the bridge structure along longitudinal and transversal directions. Comparisons of the linear and nonlinear seismic responses of the cable-stayed bridge are performed. In addition, a study of TMD primary control is carried out using element MASS21 and element COMBIN14, and it is indicated that the effects of mitigation monitoring are evident.

  14. Bridges in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Ang-Kun; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    A bridge in a graph is an edge whose removal disconnects the graph and increases the number of connected components. We calculate the fraction of bridges in a wide range of real-world networks and their randomized counterparts. We find that real networks typically have more bridges than their completely randomized counterparts, but very similar fraction of bridges as their degree-preserving randomizations. We define a new edge centrality measure, called bridgeness, to differentiate the importance of a bridge in damaging a network. We find that certain real networks have very large average and variance of bridgeness compared to their degree-preserving randomizations and other real networks. Finally, we offer an analytical framework to calculate the bridge fraction and average bridgeness for uncorrelated random networks with arbitrary degree distributions.

  15. Random Decrement and Regression Analysis of Traffic Responses of Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    The topic of this paper is the estimation of modal parameters from ambient data by applying the Random Decrement technique. The data from the Queensborough Bridge over the Fraser River in Vancouver, Canada have been applied. The loads producing the dynamic response are ambient, e.g. wind, traffic...... and small ground motion. The Random Decrement technique is used to estimate the correlation function or the free decays from the ambient data. From these functions, the modal parameters are extracted using the Ibrahim Time Domain method. The possible influence of the traffic mass load on the bridge...... of the analysis using the Random Decrement technique are compared with results from an analysis based on fast Fourier transformations....

  16. Random Decrement and Regression Analysis of Traffic Responses of Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    1996-01-01

    The topic of this paper is the estimation of modal parameters from ambient data by applying the Random Decrement technique. The data fro the Queensborough Bridge over the Fraser River in Vancouver, Canada have been applied. The loads producing the dynamic response are ambient, e. g. wind, traffic...... and small ground motion. The random Decrement technique is used to estimate the correlation function or the free decays from the ambient data. From these functions, the modal parameters are extracted using the Ibrahim Time domain method. The possible influence of the traffic mass load on the bridge...... of the analysis using the Random decrement technique are compared with results from an analysis based on fast Fourier transformations....

  17. A structural bridge between alternant and non-alternant hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Francis Langler

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple set of trimethylene-substituted even, fully-pi-bonded, non-alternant monocycles is shown to have several key features in common with acyclic, even alternant polyenes at the Hückel level. These non-alternant molecules provide a bridge between alternant and non-alternant hydrocarbons. This topic might serve as a useful addition to Hückel theory courses targeted at senior undergraduate students.

  18. Einstein-Rosen Bridges and the Characteristic Properties of Gravitational Lensing by Them

    CERN Document Server

    Shatskiy, A

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that Einstein-Rosen bridges (wormholes) hypothetical objects that topologically connect separate locations in the Universe can be static solutions of the Einstein equations. The corresponding equations for bridges are reduced to a form convenient for their analysis and numerical solution. The matter forming the bridge must have a sufficiently hard and anisotropic equation of state. Our results are compared with a previously known analytic solution for a bridge, which is a special case of the general solution in the framework of general relativity. The deflection of photons by the bridge (gravitational lensing) is studied.

  19. Bragg grating fiber optic sensing for bridges and other structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measures, Raymond M.; Alavie, A. Tino; Maaskant, Robert; Huang, Shang Yuan; LeBlanc, Michel

    1994-09-01

    We have demonstrated that fiber optic intracore Bragg grating sensors are able to measure the strain relief experienced over an extended period of time by both steel and carbon composite tendons within the concrete deck support girders of a recently constructed two span highway bridge. This is the first bridge in the world to test the prospects of using carbon fiber composite tendons to replace steel tendons. This unique set of measurements was accomplished with an array of 15 Bragg grating fiber optic sensors that were embedded within the precast concrete girders during their construction. We have also demonstrated that these same sensors can measure the change in the internal strain within the girders associated with both static and dynamic loading of the bridge with a truck. We are now studying the ability of Bragg grating fiber optic sensors to measure strong strain gradients and thereby provide a warning of debonding of any Bragg grating sensor from its host structure...one of the most important failure modes for any fiber optic strain sensor.

  20. Acquisition and Analysis of Dynamic Responses of a Historic Pedestrian Bridge using Video Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Michael; Ghosh, Bidisha; Schoefs, Franck; O'Donnell, Deirdre; Wright, Robert; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2015-07-01

    Video based tracking is capable of analysing bridge vibrations that are characterised by large amplitudes and low frequencies. This paper presents the use of video images and associated image processing techniques to obtain the dynamic response of a pedestrian suspension bridge in Cork, Ireland. This historic structure is one of the four suspension bridges in Ireland and is notable for its dynamic nature. A video camera is mounted on the river-bank and the dynamic responses of the bridge have been measured from the video images. The dynamic response is assessed without the need of a reflector on the bridge and in the presence of various forms of luminous complexities in the video image scenes. Vertical deformations of the bridge were measured in this regard. The video image tracking for the measurement of dynamic responses of the bridge were based on correlating patches in time-lagged scenes in video images and utilisinga zero mean normalisedcross correlation (ZNCC) metric. The bridge was excited by designed pedestrian movement and by individual cyclists traversing the bridge. The time series data of dynamic displacement responses of the bridge were analysedto obtain the frequency domain response. Frequencies obtained from video analysis were checked against accelerometer data from the bridge obtained while carrying out the same set of experiments used for video image based recognition.

  1. Experimental analysis of vehicle-bridge interaction using a wireless monitoring system and a two-stage system identification technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhee; Lynch, Jerome P.

    2012-04-01

    Deterioration of bridges under repeated traffic loading has called attention to the need for improvements in the understanding of vehicle-bridge interaction. While analytical and numerical models have been previously explored to describe the interaction that exists between a sprung mass (i.e., a moving vehicle) and an elastic beam (i.e., bridge), comparatively less research has been focused on the experimental observation of vehicle-bridge interaction. A wireless monitoring system with wireless sensors installed on both the bridge and moving vehicle is proposed to record the dynamic interaction between the bridge and vehicle. Time-synchronized vehicle-bridge response data is used within a two-stage system identification methodology. In the first stage, the free-vibration response of the bridge is used to identify the dynamic characteristics of the bridge. In the second stage, the vehicle-bridge response data is used to identify the time varying load imposed on the bridge from the vehicle. To test the proposed monitoring and system identification strategy, the 180 m long Yeondae Bridge (Icheon, Korea) was selected. A dense network of wireless sensors was installed on the bridge while wireless sensors were installed on a multi-axle truck. The truck was driven across the bridge at constant velocity with bridge and vehicle responses measured. Excellent agreement between the measured Yeondae Bridge response and that predicted by an estimated vehicle-bridge interaction model validates the proposed strategy.

  2. Solvent-Exposed Salt Bridges Influence the Kinetics of α-Helix Folding and Unfolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuzelaar, Heleen; Tros, Martijn; Huerta-Viga, Adriana; van Dijk, Chris N; Vreede, Jocelyne; Woutersen, Sander

    2014-03-06

    Salt bridges are known to play an essential role in the thermodynamic stability of the folded conformation of many proteins, but their influence on the kinetics of folding remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of Glu-Arg salt bridges on the kinetics of α-helix folding using temperature-jump transient-infrared spectroscopy and steady-state UV circular dichroism. We find that geometrically optimized salt bridges (Glu(-) and Arg(+) are spaced four peptide units apart, and the Glu/Arg order is such that the side-chain rotameric preferences favor salt-bridge formation) significantly speed up folding and slow down unfolding, whereas salt bridges with unfavorable geometry slow down folding and slightly speed up unfolding. Our observations suggest a possible explanation for the surprising fact that many biologically active proteins contain salt bridges that do not stabilize the native conformation: these salt bridges might have a kinetic rather than a thermodynamic function.

  3. Determination of the bridge maintenance and rehabilitation priority scale in kabupaten Pinrang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdin, Asrul; Kristiawan, S. A.; Dewi, Handayani

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to get the support system to help stakeholders and the decision makers in the determination of priorities the maintenance and rehabilitation of the Bridge.The location of the study is done in Kabupaten Pinrang. Bridge damage value is specified using assessment standard Bridge Management System (BMS). There are 13 Bridges by details as follows: good condition with the condition 1 in 6 Bridge, damaged with the condition two as many as five fruit Bridges and there are two Bridges by value condition of three which means need handling rehabilitation. From our observation examination Bridges and it has been obtained the results of then afterward determined the priority scale by using the method Analytic Hierarchy Process. The discussion or interview of 27 respondents in completion question to determines the priorities of handling bridges by three (3) criteria and three sub- criteria with weights each: a condition of damage with weights 0,491 or amounting to 49,1 % followed by criteria policy with weights 0,324 % then criteria volume traffic weight of 0,185 or 18.5 %. Based on the results of this can be concluded that the implementation of a method of Analytic Hierarchy Processing is effective in determining the scale of priorities for the stakeholders. Having acquired value bridge condition and weights of the assessment results of the, then is needed to Analysis of spatial use application ArcGIS to obtain information condition Bridge Map.

  4. IceBridge Data Management and Access Strategies at NSIDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, J.; Tanner, S.; Collins, J. A.; Lewis, S.; FitzGerrell, A.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Operation IceBridge (OIB) mission, initiated in 2009, collects airborne remote sensing measurements over the polar regions to bridge the gap between NASA's Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation satellite (ICESat) mission and the upcoming ICESat-2 mission in 2016. OIB combines an evolving mix of instruments to gather data on topography, ice and snow thickness, high-resolution photography, and other properties that are more difficult or impossible to measure via satellite. Once collected, these data are stored and made available at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) in Boulder, Colorado. To date, there are nearly 90 terabytes of data available, and there are about three more years of data collection left. The main challenges faced in data management at NSIDC are derived from the quantity and heterogeneity of the data. To deal with the quantity of data, the technical teams at NSIDC have significantly automated the data ingest, metadata generation, and other required data management steps. Heterogeneity of data and the evolution of the Operation over time make technical automation complex. To limit complexity, the IceBridge team has agreed to such practices as using specific data file formats, limiting file sizes, using specific filename templates, etc. These agreements evolve as Operation IceBridge moves forward. The metadata generated about the flights and the data collected thereon make the storage of the data more robust, and enable data discoverability. With so much metadata, users can search the vast collection with ease using specific parameters about the data they seek. An example of this in action is the IceBridge data portal developed at NSIDC, http://nsidc.org/icebridge/portal/. This portal uses the GPS data from the flights projected onto maps as well as other flight and instrument metadata to help the user find the exact data file they seek. This implementation is only possible with dependable data management beneath the surface. The data files

  5. Liquid bridge force between two unequal-sized spheres or a sphere and a plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You chuan Chen; Yong zhi Zhao; Hong li Gao; Jin yang Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Liquid bridge force acting between wet particles is an important property in particle characterization.This paper deals with liquid bridge force between either two unequal-sized spherical particles or a sphere and a flat plate under conditions where gravitational effect arising from bridge distortion is negligible.In order to calculate the force of the liquid bridge efficiently and accurately,expressions of liquid configuration and liquid bridge force were derived by building a mechanical model,which assumes the liquid bridge to be circular in shape between either two unequal-sized spheres or a sphere and a plane.To assess the accuracy of the numerical results of the calculated liquid bridge forces,they were compared to the published experimental data.

  6. Vibration analysis of medium and small span bridges subjected to mixed marshalling freight trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported several times that train derailment occurs when mixed marshalling freight trains traverse bridges at high speeds in China.This study aims to explain this phenomenon numerically based on the train-bridge coupling vibration theory and its associated computer program.The train-bridge vibration characteristic is analyzed by a computer program when mixed marshalling freight trains traverse 32-meter-span prestressed concrete simple beam bridges.The mechanism that dynamic responses of the bridges are prominent and that empty trains are inclined to derail are derived from the dynamic responses analysis.The analysis indicates that the significant differences of axle loads between heavy vehicles and empty vehicles produce periodic forced loadings of large amplitudes.These periodic loadings cause severe vibration of bridges.In turn,severe vibration of the bridges produces intensive counteraction to empty vehicles.

  7. Tungsten bridge for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David A.; Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Blewer, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    A tungsten bridge device for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials is disclosed. The device is fabricated on a silicon-on-sapphire substrate which has an insulating bridge element defined therein using standard integrated circuit fabrication techniques. Then, a thin layer of tungsten is selectively deposited on the silicon bridge layer using chemical vapor deposition techniques. Finally, conductive lands are deposited on each end of the tungsten bridge layer to form the device. It has been found that this device exhibits substantially shorter ignition times than standard metal bridges and foil igniting devices. In addition, substantially less energy is required to cause ignition of the tungsten bridge device of the present invention than is required for common metal bridges and foil devices used for the same purpose.

  8. Computer Simulation of Dynamic Interactions Between Vehicle and Long Span Box Girder Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Gong; Moe S.Cheung

    2008-01-01

    Moving vehicle loads,associated with roadway traffic can induce significant dynamic effects on the structural behaviours of bridges,especially for long-span bridges.The main objective of current research is to study traffic induced dynamic responses of long-span box-girder bridges.The finite element method has been employed in this study to obtain a three-dimensional mathematical model for the bridge system.For vehicle-bridge dynamic interaction analysis,the vehicle is modeled as a more realistic three-axle,six-wheel system,and the corresponding dynamic interaction equations have been derived.The bridge-vehicle inter- action is affected by many factors.The current study has been focused on such factors as:vehicle speed, vehicle damping ratio,multiple traffic lanes,mass ratio of vehicle and bridge,and dynamic characteristics of bridge.Case studies have been conducted to investigate these factors by using several box girder bridge examples including Confederation Bridge,the longest box girder bridge in the world.

  9. A simple model for DNA bridging proteins and bacterial or human genomes: bridging-induced attraction and genome compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.; Brackley, C. A.; Cook, P. R.; Marenduzzo, D.

    2015-02-01

    We present computer simulations of the phase behaviour of an ensemble of proteins interacting with a polymer, mimicking non-specific binding to a piece of bacterial DNA or eukaryotic chromatin. The proteins can simultaneously bind to the polymer in two or more places to create protein bridges. Despite the lack of any explicit interaction between the proteins or between DNA segments, our simulations confirm previous results showing that when the protein-polymer interaction is sufficiently strong, the proteins come together to form clusters. Furthermore, a sufficiently large concentration of bridging proteins leads to the compaction of the swollen polymer into a globular phase. Here we characterise both the formation of protein clusters and the polymer collapse as a function of protein concentration, protein-polymer affinity and fibre flexibility.

  10. Analysis and Comparison Based on Component Stress Factor of Dual Active Bridge and Isolated Full Bridge Boost Converters for Bidirectional Fuel Cells Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Zhang, Zhe;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis and comparison of isolated topologies for bidirectional fuel cell systems. The analyzed topologies are the dua l active bridge (DAB) and the isolated full bridge boost converter (IFBBC). The analysis is performed based on the component stress factor (CSF). Results ...

  11. Bridging EO Research, Operations and Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarth, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Building flexible and responsive processing and delivery systems is key to getting EO information used by researchers, policy agents and the public. There are typically three distinct processes we tackle to get product uptake: undertake research, operationalise the validated research, and deliver information and garner feedback in an appropriate way. In many cases however, the gaps between these process elements are large and lead to poor outcomes. Good research may be "lost" and not adopted, there may be resistance to uptake by government or NGOs of significantly better operational products based on EO data, and lack of accessibility means that there is no use of interactive science outputs to improve cross disciplinary science or to start a dialog with citizens. So one of the the most important tasks, if we wish to have broad uptake of EO information and accelerate further research, is to link these processes together in a formal but flexible way. One of the ways to operationalize research output is by building a platform that can take research code and scale it across much larger areas. In remote sensing, this is typically a system that has access to current and historical corrected imagery with a processing pipeline built over the top. To reduce the demand on high level scientific programmers and allowing cross disciplinary researchers to hack and play and refine, this pipeline needs to be easy to use, collaborative and link to existing tools to encourage code experimentation and reuse. It is also critical to have efficient, tight integration with information delivery and extension components so that the science relevant to your user is available quickly and efficiently. The rapid expansion of open data licensing has helped this process, but building top-down web portals and tools without flexibility and regard for end user needs has limited the use of EO information in many areas. This research reports on the operalization of a scale independent time series

  12. Business and computing : Bridging the gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, B.; Coles, F.C. [Applied Terravision Systems Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-06-01

    Information systems, in the form of paper files or electronic files on computer systems and digital storage devices are employed in the oil industry to handle data from 3 basic infrastructures: accounting, geotechnical, and administration. The accounting function was the main driving force behind the development of the computer. The geotechnical data storage and manipulation infrastructure has its basis in signal recording and processing related to seismic acquisition and well logging. The administrative infrastructure deals with documents and not just data. Management in the oil industry needs two main kinds of useful information: reports about their organization and about the marketplace. Using an example of an oil and gas enterprise whose aim is to pursue low cost shallow gas to increase production levels, the basic business process is shown to relate to land and prospect inventory management, tightly controlled drilling methods, gathering system and production facility standardization, logistics and planning models, and strong transportation and marketing management. The role of the computer in this process is to yield information, that is, to provide coordinated, integrated, useful information that facilitates the processes essential to accomplish the business's objectives.

  13. Business and computing : Bridging the gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, B.; Coles, F.C. [Applied Terravision Systems Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-06-01

    Information systems, in the form of paper files or electronic files on computer systems and digital storage devices are employed in the oil industry to handle data from 3 basic infrastructures: accounting, geotechnical, and administration. The accounting function was the main driving force behind the development of the computer. The geotechnical data storage and manipulation infrastructure has its basis in signal recording and processing related to seismic acquisition and well logging. The administrative infrastructure deals with documents and not just data. Management in the oil industry needs two main kinds of useful information: reports about their organization and about the marketplace. Using an example of an oil and gas enterprise whose aim is to pursue low cost shallow gas to increase production levels, the basic business process is shown to relate to land and prospect inventory management, tightly controlled drilling methods, gathering system and production facility standardization, logistics and planning models, and strong transportation and marketing management. The role of the computer in this process is to yield information, that is, to provide coordinated, integrated, useful information that facilitates the processes essential to accomplish the business`s objectives.

  14. Building a bridge between AGU and SEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Louise; Bradford, John H.

    2012-05-01

    AGU and the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) complement each other in many ways. SEG is known for strength in applied geophysics and method development, while AGU is known for application of geophysics to broader scientific questions in Earth and atmospheric sciences. These boundaries are of course gray, and there is substantial and complementary overlap of interests, particularly among some disciplines; these include the study of passive and active source seismology, gravity and magnetic anomalies, and electrical and electromagnetic methodologies, as well as interest in the application of these methods to crustal structure, near- surface geophysics, geothermal exploration, and basin analysis. Facilitating communication between members of SEG and those of AGU has a significant impact on the geophysical sciences. The AGU-SEG Collaboration Committee (ASCC) was established as part of the AGUSEG Alliance Agreement, signed in 2010. In the agreement, ASCC was "charged with considering and making recommendations to the respective organizations regarding other areas of cooperation, such as joint workshops or programs and continuing- education courses." The first committee-wide meeting was held on 11 February 2011. Subsequent meetings are scheduled every 4-6 weeks.

  15. Fundamental Concepts Bridging Education and the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Steve; Foisy, Lorie-Marlène Brault

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of papers have already discussed the relevance of brain research for education, the fundamental concepts and discoveries connecting education and the brain have not been systematically reviewed yet. In this paper, four of these concepts are presented and evidence concerning each one is reviewed. First, the concept of…

  16. Action Research: Bridging Service and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkavy, Ira; Puckett, John; Romer, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Action research is an approach to knowledge generation that can strengthen communities and institutions and is ideally suited to the advancement of academically-based service learning. Presents the history and goals of this approach to service learning, defining current challenges, providing examples from three action research projects responding…

  17. Platelets: bridging hemostasis, inflammation, and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenne, C N; Urrutia, R; Kubes, P

    2013-06-01

    Although the function of platelets in the maintenance of hemostasis has been studied in great detail, more recent evidence has highlighted a central role for platelets in the host inflammatory and immune responses. Platelets by virtue of their large numbers and their ability to rapidly release a broad spectrum of immunomodulatory cytokines, chemokines, and other mediators act as circulating sentinels. Upon detection of a pathogen, platelets quickly activate and begin to drive the ensuing inflammatory response. Platelets have the ability to directly modulate the activity of neutrophils (phagocytosis, oxidative burst), endothelium (adhesion molecule and chemokine expression), and lymphocytes. Due to their diverse array of adhesion molecules and preformed chemokines, platelets are able to adhere to leukocytes and facilitate their recruitment to sites of tissue damage or infection. Furthermore, platelets directly participate in the capture and sequestration of pathogens within the vasculature. Platelet-neutrophil interactions are known to induce the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to either bacterial or viral infection, and platelets have been shown to internalize pathogens, sequestering them in engulfment vacuoles. Finally, emerging data indicate that platelets also participate in the host immune response by directly killing infected cells. This review will highlight the central role platelets play in the initiation and modulation of the host inflammatory and immune responses.

  18. Xspect: bridging open hypermedia and XLink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, B.G.; Hansen, F.A.; Bouvin, N.O.

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the XLink format in comparison with other linking formats. The comparison is based on Xspect, an implementation of XLink. Xspect handles transformation between an open hypermedia format (OHIF) and XLink, and the paper discusses this isomorphic transformation and generalises...... it to include another open hypermedia format, FOHM. The Xspect system, based on XSLT and Javascript, provides users with an interface to browse and merge linkbases. Xspect supports navigational hypermedia in the form of links inserted on the fly into Web pages, as well as guided tours presented as SVG. Xspect...

  19. Bridging the Gap Between Planning and Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari K.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Planning research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) has often focused on problems where there are cascading levels of action choice and complex interactions between actions. In contrast. Scheduling research has focused on much larger problems where there is little action choice, but the resulting ordering problem is hard. In this paper, we give an overview of M planning and scheduling techniques, focusing on their similarities, differences, and limitations. We also argue that many difficult practical problems lie somewhere between planning and scheduling, and that neither area has the right set of tools for solving these vexing problems.

  20. Organelle Structures: Bridging Strategy and Technological Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rob; Dekkers

    2002-01-01

    The shifting requirements as imposed on operations ma nagement require adjusting and tailoring the organisational structure to meet ma rket demands. However, translating these requirements directly into hierarchical structure will not ensure the integration of processes across organisational un its and guarantee desirable performance. Therefore, management and management li terature wonders: · How should we connect processes to the external environment within a strategi c framework · Which organisationa...

  1. Markov bridges, bisection and variance reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Hobolth, Asger

    Time-continuous Markov jump processes is a popular modelling tool in disciplines ranging from computational finance and operations research to human genetics and genomics. The data is often sampled at discrete points in time, and it can be useful to simulate sample paths between the datapoints....... In this paper we firstly consider the problem of generating sample paths from a continuous-time Markov chain conditioned on the endpoints using a new algorithm based on the idea of bisection. Secondly we study the potential of the bisection algorithm for variance reduction. In particular, examples are presented...... where the methods of stratification, importance sampling and quasi Monte Carlo are investigated....

  2. Bridging the gap between farmers and consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoin, Florence; Kristensen, Troels; Noe, Egon

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how different quality dimensions (safety, aesthetics, ethics and rooted ness) are created in food networks; how these qualities are transferred until the consumers; and how this process is supported by the organisation of the food network. Our postulate is th...

  3. Bridging Formal and Informal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Bradley S.; Larson, Kim; Krehbiel, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-school time programs that provide science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational content are promising approaches to develop skills and abilities in students. These programs may potentially inspire students with engaging hands-on, minds-on activities that encourages their natural curiosity around STEM content areas.…

  4. Bridging fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, Ben N. G.

    2008-01-01

    Development of new fluorescent probes and fluorescence microscopes has led to new ways to study cell biology. With the emergence of specialized microscopy units at most universities and research centers, the use of these techniques is well within reach for a broad research community. A major breakth

  5. Inclusive design: Bridging theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, A.H.M.; Neerincx, M.A.; Jong, J.G.M. de

    2013-01-01

    Large groups in society lack the necessary skills to be sufficiently self-reliant and are in need of personal assistance. These groups could be supported by information and information technology (ICT), but only if this technology is designed to fit their (cognitive) abilities. Inclusive design theo

  6. Kisspeptins: bridging energy homeostasis and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, Juan M; Bentsen, Agnete H; Mikkelsen, Jens D;

    2010-01-01

    of rapamycin) and Crtc1 (Creb1-regulated transcription coactivator-1) as putative mediators for leptin regulation of Kiss1 expression, as well as the identification of other potential metabolic modulators of kisspeptin signaling, such as ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)....

  7. 33 CFR 116.45 - Submission of bids, approval of award, guaranty of cost, and partial payments for bridges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... award, guaranty of cost, and partial payments for bridges eligible for funding under the Truman-Hobbs... SECURITY BRIDGES ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.45 Submission of bids, approval of award, guaranty of cost, and partial payments for bridges eligible for funding under the...

  8. Automatic lexical classification: bridging research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Anna

    2010-08-13

    Natural language processing (NLP)--the automatic analysis, understanding and generation of human language by computers--is vitally dependent on accurate knowledge about words. Because words change their behaviour between text types, domains and sub-languages, a fully accurate static lexical resource (e.g. a dictionary, word classification) is unattainable. Researchers are now developing techniques that could be used to automatically acquire or update lexical resources from textual data. If successful, the automatic approach could considerably enhance the accuracy and portability of language technologies, such as machine translation, text mining and summarization. This paper reviews the recent and on-going research in automatic lexical acquisition. Focusing on lexical classification, it discusses the many challenges that still need to be met before the approach can benefit NLP on a large scale.

  9. Bridging the Linguistic and Affective Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westbrook, Peter Nils; Henriksen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale case study which follows an experienced Danish university lecturer during a tailor-made, one-to-one language course to improve her English language skills for lecturing, consisting of a five-week cycle of observed English-medium lectures and subsequent language...... feedback sessions. The study also includes a structured, in-depth interview with the informant, which yields very specific and rich data about how one lecturer feels about teaching in English, the informant’s own learning focus and the outcomes of a short language course. The aims of the study are fourfold......, namely: 1) to describe the informant’s motivation for taking an English course; 2) to compare her affective and perceived linguistic needs with her objective needs; 3) to follow her own language focus areas during the course; and 4) to identify any subjective or objective gains she achieved from...

  10. Kisspeptins: bridging energy homeostasis and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, Juan M; Bentsen, Agnete H; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2010-01-01

    of rapamycin) and Crtc1 (Creb1-regulated transcription coactivator-1) as putative mediators for leptin regulation of Kiss1 expression, as well as the identification of other potential metabolic modulators of kisspeptin signaling, such as ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)....... and reproduction have been the subject of considerable attention; however, our understanding of the neurobiological basis for this phenomenon is still incomplete. In mid 1990s, the adipose-hormone, leptin, was proven as an essential signal for transmitting metabolic information onto the centers governing puberty...... and reproduction; yet, the ultimate mode of action of leptin on GnRH neurons has remained contentious for years. More recently, kisspeptins, a family of neuropeptides encoded by the Kiss1 gene, have emerged as conduits for the metabolic regulation of reproduction and putative effectors of leptin actions on Gn...

  11. Bridging the Gap Between Stewards and Creators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert; Nolan, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    effectively may be impaired. The authors suggest eight guidelines for managing steward-creator conflict more successfully. These guidelines include (1) Keep talented creators around, although they can be difficult to manage; (2) balance the influence of stewards and creators in the organization, so neither......Many technology-intensive companies today depend on employees with specialized technical skills, and managers may not fully understand the work these employees do. Moreover, managers and technical employees may have very different worldviews, and their worldviews may conflict during the process...... often clash. The authors dub these two types stewards and creators. An organization's stewards are usually managers; their goal is the careful allocation of the organization's resources, with an aim of achieving an optimal return on investment. Creators, on the other hand, are often skilled, specialized...

  12. Bridging Resilience Engineering and Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2010-06-01

    There has been strong interest in the new and emerging field called resilience engineering. This field has been quick to align itself with many existing safety disciplines, but it has also distanced itself from the field of human reliability analysis. To date, the discussion has been somewhat one-sided, with much discussion about the new insights afforded by resilience engineering. This paper presents an attempt to address resilience engineering from the perspective of human reliability analysis (HRA). It is argued that HRA shares much in common with resilience engineering and that, in fact, it can help strengthen nascent ideas in resilience engineering. This paper seeks to clarify and ultimately refute the arguments that have served to divide HRA and resilience engineering.

  13. A bridge between chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Kazuya; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2006-08-01

    Chemical biology is an interdisciplinary field that is undergoing rapid expansion around the globe. Recently, the Japanese Society for Chemical Biology sponsored its inaugural scientific meeting to discuss research at the interface of chemistry and biology.

  14. China and India: Bridging the Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE HAILIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The simultaneous rise of China and India, the world's two most popu-lous nations, is rightly regarded as one of the most eye-catching devel-opments in the international arena over the past two decades.

  15. Fuzzy Based Decision Support System for Condition Assessment and Rating of Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Voggu; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Karusala, Ramanjaneyulu

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a knowledge based decision support system has been developed to efficiently handle the issues such as distress diagnosis, assessment of damages and condition rating of existing bridges towards developing an exclusive and robust Bridge Management System (BMS) for sustainable bridges. The Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES) diagnoses the distresses and finds the cause of distress in the bridge by processing the data which are heuristic and combined with site inspection results, laboratory test results etc. The coupling of symbolic and numeric type of data has been successfully implemented in the expert system to strengthen its decision making process. Finally, the condition rating of the bridge is carried out using the assessment results obtained from the KBES and the information received from the bridge inspector. A systematic procedure has been developed using fuzzy mathematics for condition rating of bridges by combining the fuzzy weighted average and resolution identity technique. The proposed methodologies and the decision support system will facilitate in developing a robust and exclusive BMS for a network of bridges across the country and allow the bridge engineers and decision makers to carry out maintenance of bridges in a rational and systematic way.

  16. Fuzzy Based Decision Support System for Condition Assessment and Rating of Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Voggu; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Karusala, Ramanjaneyulu

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a knowledge based decision support system has been developed to efficiently handle the issues such as distress diagnosis, assessment of damages and condition rating of existing bridges towards developing an exclusive and robust Bridge Management System (BMS) for sustainable bridges. The Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES) diagnoses the distresses and finds the cause of distress in the bridge by processing the data which are heuristic and combined with site inspection results, laboratory test results etc. The coupling of symbolic and numeric type of data has been successfully implemented in the expert system to strengthen its decision making process. Finally, the condition rating of the bridge is carried out using the assessment results obtained from the KBES and the information received from the bridge inspector. A systematic procedure has been developed using fuzzy mathematics for condition rating of bridges by combining the fuzzy weighted average and resolution identity technique. The proposed methodologies and the decision support system will facilitate in developing a robust and exclusive BMS for a network of bridges across the country and allow the bridge engineers and decision makers to carry out maintenance of bridges in a rational and systematic way.

  17. The Bioinorganic Bridge Between Life and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.; Wolfe-Simon, F.

    2008-12-01

    Nearly half the Earth's surface is covered by oligotrophic oceans in which life struggles to survive. These barren ecosystems do not lack water or sunshine, nor the bulk biological elements H, C and O. Instead, they are deficient in one or more of the other elements necessary for life. Hence, the distribution of life on Earth is captive, in part, to the distribution of the 20 or so "bioessential" nutrient elements that are critical components of DNA, RNA, proteins and other biomolecules. Having substantially unraveled this relationship in today's oceans, biogeochemists are beginning to consider how it has evolved over the ~ 4 billion year history of life. A growing body of evidence suggests that major evolutionary transitions are shaped by changes in the availability of bioessential metals. The most striking example is the ecological diversification of eukaryotes. Fossil evidence suggests that this transition roughly coincides with oxygenation of the deep sea, and hence with a hypothetical increase in Cu and Zn coupled to a decrease in Fe in the oceans (Saito et al., 2003). Bioinformatic analyses of protein metal binding sites encoded in whole genomes reveal that the "metallomes" of eukaryotes are systematically enriched in Zn, and depleted in Fe, Mn and Co, compared to those of prokaryotes (DuPont et al., 2006). Arguably, then, eukaryotes rose to ecological prominence because of the advent of oceans that favored organisms with eukaryotic stoichiometry. We are exploring this concept mechanistically by investigating the biochemical responses of representative eukaryotic green algae and cyanobacteria to chronic Fe-deficiency. We observed the intracellular Cu quota of the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii increase under chronic Fe-deficiency. This shift occurs because green algae replace key Fe proteins involved in photosynthetic electron transfer (e.g., cytochrome c6) with analogous Cu-based proteins (e.g., plastocyanin). In contrast, we found that the

  18. Railroad Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Bridges-Rail in the United States According to The National Bridge Inspection Standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (23 CFR 650.3), a bridge isA...

  19. Stealing Bread and Sleeping Beneath Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frej Klem

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses the concept of indirect discrimination, arguing first that existing conceptualizations are unsatisfactory and second that it is best understood as equal treatment that is disadvantageous to the discriminatees because of their group membership. I explore four ways of further r...

  20. Bridging the Web and Digital Publishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herman, I.; Gylling, M.

    2015-01-01

    Although using advanced Web technologies at their core, e-books represent a parallel universe to everyday Web documents. Their production workflows, user interfaces, their security, access, or privacy models, etc, are all distinct. There is a lack of a vision on how to unify Digital Publishing and t

  1. Bridging User Requirements and Cultural Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadzilias, Elias; Carugati, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims at defining a framework for the design of e-Government services on cultural heritage. Starting from an analysis of three cases on digitisation of different types of cultural objects the author highlights the problems existing in the creation of e-services on cultural heritage. T....... Dynamic content exchange requires the use of a prescriptive framework for the development of cultural heritage websites. This chapter provides such a framework using observation from concrete applications and knowledge of information systems development methodologies....

  2. Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Bridge Design in the Netherlands: Architectural Challenges toward Innovative, Sustainable, and Durable Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Joris Smits

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs) in architectural and structural bridge design in the Netherlands. The challenges and opportunities of this relatively new material, both for the architect and the engineer, are discussed. An inventory of recent structural solutions in FRP is included, followed by a discussion on architectural FRP applications derived from the architectural practice of the author and of other pioneers.

  3. Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Bridge Design in the Netherlands: Architectural Challenges toward Innovative, Sustainable, and Durable Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris Smits

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs in architectural and structural bridge design in the Netherlands. The challenges and opportunities of this relatively new material, both for the architect and the engineer, are discussed. An inventory of recent structural solutions in FRP is included, followed by a discussion on architectural FRP applications derived from the architectural practice of the author and of other pioneers.

  4. The interaction between the atmosphere and curing concrete bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Gary S.

    The long-term durability of concrete can be compromised by excessive concrete temperatures or temperature gradients and lack of moisture during the first few days after placement. Because the concrete binder components undergo temperature-dependent hydration reactions during this period, atmospheric and construction conditions influence the ultimate concrete quality. To understand this interaction, curing concrete bridge energy balances were estimated with meteorological techniques and calorimetry and model experiments were performed. The agreement of concrete hydration heat estimates from the energy balances, calorimetry experiments, and model simulations validates our methodology and results. In Chapter 2, we estimate from meteorological measurements and techniques the energy balances of four curing concrete bridge decks. One challenge is to determine fluxes from small surfaces (largest horizontal dimension exchange coefficients for small areas is developed. Chapter 3, we improve with calorimetry experiments a simple bimolecular heat generation expression for hydrating binder. We show that this expression, with a new parameterization accounting for retarder effects on hydration rates, simulates temperatures to within 2°C and 72 h heat generation (˜265 kJ kg-1) to within 10% of the observed. In Chapter 4, we present models developed with the field and laboratory work and show that the highest concrete temperatures occur at high initial concrete temperatures and air temperatures and humidities, and at low wind speeds and cloud cover fractions. Peak bridge concrete temperatures can exceed 60°C. Large concrete temperature gradients (˜2°C cm-1 ) occur at the concrete top surface and the support beam top. An application of the 1D model with input from a weather forecast model predicts concrete temperatures within 2°C of the observed and so is a suitable operational model.

  5. Chromosome Bridges Maintain Kinetochore-Microtubule Attachment throughout Mitosis and Rarely Break during Anaphase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Pampalona

    Full Text Available Accurate chromosome segregation during cell division is essential to maintain genome stability, and chromosome segregation errors are causally linked to genetic disorders and cancer. An anaphase chromosome bridge is a particular chromosome segregation error observed in cells that enter mitosis with fused chromosomes/sister chromatids. The widely accepted Breakage/Fusion/Bridge cycle model proposes that anaphase chromosome bridges break during mitosis to generate chromosome ends that will fuse during the following cell cycle, thus forming new bridges that will break, and so on. However, various studies have also shown a link between chromosome bridges and aneuploidy and/or polyploidy. In this study, we investigated the behavior and properties of chromosome bridges during mitosis, with the idea to gain insight into the potential mechanism underlying chromosome bridge-induced aneuploidy. We find that only a small number of chromosome bridges break during anaphase, whereas the rest persist through mitosis into the subsequent cell cycle. We also find that the microtubule bundles (k-fibers bound to bridge kinetochores are not prone to breakage/detachment, thus supporting the conclusion that k-fiber detachment is not the cause of chromosome bridge-induced aneuploidy. Instead, our data suggest that while the microtubules bound to the kinetochores of normally segregating chromosomes shorten substantially during anaphase, the k-fibers bound to bridge kinetochores shorten only slightly, and may even lengthen, during anaphase. This causes some of the bridge kinetochores/chromosomes to lag behind in a position that is proximal to the cell/spindle equator and may cause the bridged chromosomes to be segregated into the same daughter nucleus or to form a micronucleus.

  6. Chromosome Bridges Maintain Kinetochore-Microtubule Attachment throughout Mitosis and Rarely Break during Anaphase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampalona, Judit; Roscioli, Emanuele; Silkworth, William T; Bowden, Brent; Genescà, Anna; Tusell, Laura; Cimini, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation during cell division is essential to maintain genome stability, and chromosome segregation errors are causally linked to genetic disorders and cancer. An anaphase chromosome bridge is a particular chromosome segregation error observed in cells that enter mitosis with fused chromosomes/sister chromatids. The widely accepted Breakage/Fusion/Bridge cycle model proposes that anaphase chromosome bridges break during mitosis to generate chromosome ends that will fuse during the following cell cycle, thus forming new bridges that will break, and so on. However, various studies have also shown a link between chromosome bridges and aneuploidy and/or polyploidy. In this study, we investigated the behavior and properties of chromosome bridges during mitosis, with the idea to gain insight into the potential mechanism underlying chromosome bridge-induced aneuploidy. We find that only a small number of chromosome bridges break during anaphase, whereas the rest persist through mitosis into the subsequent cell cycle. We also find that the microtubule bundles (k-fibers) bound to bridge kinetochores are not prone to breakage/detachment, thus supporting the conclusion that k-fiber detachment is not the cause of chromosome bridge-induced aneuploidy. Instead, our data suggest that while the microtubules bound to the kinetochores of normally segregating chromosomes shorten substantially during anaphase, the k-fibers bound to bridge kinetochores shorten only slightly, and may even lengthen, during anaphase. This causes some of the bridge kinetochores/chromosomes to lag behind in a position that is proximal to the cell/spindle equator and may cause the bridged chromosomes to be segregated into the same daughter nucleus or to form a micronucleus.

  7. A Comparison of Limb-Socket Kinematics of Bone-Bridging and Non-Bone-Bridging Wartime Transtibial Amputations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    This flap was a full thickness periosteal flap with small pieces of cortical bone adherent to the flap. A tibial bevel was created to reshape the...technique, the tibial perios teum was preserved to help build a reconstructive bone bridge across the distal parts of the tibia and fibula. The periosteum...the fibula and the tibia. The tibial osteoperiosteal flap was then sutured in place with absorbable suture. Meticulous attention was paid to the

  8. Myocarditis in athlete and myocardial bridge:An innocent bystander?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico; Quaranta; Emanuele; Guerra; Fabio; Sperandii; Francesco; De; Santis; Fabio; Pigozzi; Leonardo; Calò; Paolo; Borrione

    2015-01-01

    Myocarditis is a bacterial or viral inflammatory disease,often unnoticed or misdiagnosed.Athletes with myocarditis must stop practicing their activity since International medical Literature described some cases of sudden death.In the present report,we describe a case of an asymptomatic,apparently healthy,competitive athletes,who was diagnosed a myocarditis and as incidental finding a myocardial bridging.We focused the attention on the importance of anamnesis,electrocardiogram and athletes’ entourage for the diagnosis of such insidious pathologies and we evaluated the follow up,focusing the attention on electrocardiogram changes as well as on restitution ad integrum and prognosis,especially for the athletes.

  9. Research development of digital maintenance and management system for long-span cable-stayed bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yuan; HUANG Qiao; SUN Yong-ming

    2009-01-01

    Digital cable-stayed bridge maintenance and management system (DCBMS) was developed for the need of maintenance and management of long-span cable-stayed bridges. In this paper, the major functions and theoretical application of eight modules were systematically stated with the background of Harbin Songhua River cable-stayed bridge, which include data management module, inspection and measurement module, assessment module, finite element analysis module, disease diagnosis and prediction module, maintenance module, query module and help module. By analyzing and calculating the data from manual inspection database, basic database and health monitoring subsystem, DCBMS can accomplish the functions like life prediction, disease diagnosis, comprehensive assessment, maintenance and management of bridges. Therefore, the maintenance and management of long-span cable-stayed bridges can be made digital, professional and scientific. By running this system, a real-time and specific technical guidance can be provided for the maintainers and managers of longspan cable-stayed bridges.

  10. Bridging the Gap between Crisis Response Operations and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Khalil, Khaled M; Nazmy, Taymour T; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M

    2009-01-01

    There exist huge problems in the current practice of crisis response operations. Response problems are projected as a combination of failure in communication, failure in technology, failure in methodology, failure of management, and finally failure of observation. In this paper we compare eight crisis response systems namely: DrillSim [2, 13], DEFACTO [12, 17], ALADDIN [1, 6], RoboCup Rescue [11, 15], FireGrid [3, 8, 18], WIPER [16], D-AESOP [4], and PLAN C [14]. Comparison results will disclose the cause of failure of current crisis response operations (the response gap). Based on comparison results; we provide recommendations for bridging this gap between response operations and systems.

  11. Bridging developmental systems theory and evolutionary psychology using dynamic optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenhuis, Willem E; Panchanathan, Karthik; Clark Barrett, H

    2013-07-01

    Interactions between evolutionary psychologists and developmental systems theorists have been largely antagonistic. This is unfortunate because potential synergies between the two approaches remain unexplored. This article presents a method that may help to bridge the divide, and that has proven fruitful in biology: dynamic optimization. Dynamic optimization integrates developmental systems theorists' focus on dynamics and contingency with the 'design stance' of evolutionary psychology. It provides a theoretical framework as well as a set of tools for exploring the properties of developmental systems that natural selection might favor, given particular evolutionary ecologies. We also discuss limitations of the approach.

  12. Winnicott and Arendt: bridging potential and political spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMothe, Ryan

    2014-04-01

    In this article, the author seeks to bridge analytic theory, which is used as an interpretive framework to understand patients' psychic lives, and political philosophy, which accounts for individuals living a life in common as citizens. Specifically, I address how we can understand the relation between the psychosocial space of a parent(s) and child interaction, which becomes part of the child's psychic life, and the political space between and within citizens. The underlying claim is that there is a correlation between political space and the space between parent and child. I use an emended version of Donald Winnicott's concept of potential space and political philosopher Hannah Arendt's notion of the space of appearances to suggest connections between the consulting room and political space.

  13. Bridges between Dynamic Doxastic and Doxastic Temporal Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Benthem, Johan; Dégremont, Cédric

    This paper builds bridges between the two main families of modal logics of belief change, both based on plausibility pre-orders: dynamic doxastic logics computing stepwise updates, and temporal doxastic logics describing global system evolutions. Following earlier results linking dynamic-epistemic and epistemic-temporal logics, we prove representation theorems showing under which conditions a doxastic temporal model can be represented as the stepwise evolution of a doxastic model under successive 'priority updates'. This allows for merges, where, in particular, the notion of a 'temporal protocol' defining a global information process (for instance of communication or learning) can be introduced into the more local dynamic perspective.

  14. Bridging the Gap: Adaptive Games and Student-Centered VLEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Blanco, Ángel; Torrente, Javier; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Fernández-Manjón, Baltasar

    The widely used e-learning technology is facing new challenges such as how to produce student-centered systems that can be adapted to the needs of each student. Those objectives should be met in a standard compliant way to simplify general adoption. In this context, educational videogames are proposed as an ideal medium to facilitate adaptation and tracking of the students’ performance for assessment purposes. However, there are still barriers between the gaming and e-learning worlds preventing their mutual interaction. In this paper we propose a middleware to bridge this gap, integrating adaptive educational videogames in e-learning environments with a special focus on the ongoing standardization efforts.

  15. Conductive bridging random access memory—materials, devices and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozicki, Michael N.; Barnaby, Hugh J.

    2016-11-01

    We present a review and primer on the subject of conductive bridging random access memory (CBRAM), a metal ion-based resistive switching technology, in the context of current research and the near-term requirements of the electronics industry in ultra-low energy devices and new computing paradigms. We include extensive discussions of the materials involved, the underlying physics and electrochemistry, the critical roles of ion transport and electrode reactions in conducting filament formation and device switching, and the electrical characteristics of the devices. Two general cation material systems are given—a fast ion chacogenide electrolyte and a lower ion mobility oxide ion conductor, and numerical examples are offered to enhance understanding of the operation of devices based on these. The effect of device conditioning on the activation energy for ion transport and consequent switching speed is discussed, as well as the mechanisms involved in the removal of the conducting bridge. The morphology of the filament and how this could be influenced by the solid electrolyte structure is described, and the electrical characteristics of filaments with atomic-scale constrictions are discussed. Consideration is also given to the thermal and mechanical environments within the devices. Finite element and compact modelling illustrations are given and aspects of CBRAM storage elements in memory circuits and arrays are included. Considerable emphasis is placed on the effects of ionizing radiation on CBRAM since this is important in various high reliability applications, and the potential uses of the devices in reconfigurable logic and neuromorphic systems is also discussed.

  16. Diversifying the Midwifery Workforce: Inclusivity, Culturally Sensitive Bridging, and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Holliday; Wilson-Mitchell, Karline

    2016-11-01

    Midwifery educators and regulators in Canada have begun to address diversity, equity, and inclusion in admission processes and program curricula. Populations served by midwives value internationally educated midwives from their countries of origin. The International Midwifery Pre-Registration Program at Ryerson University in Toronto, Ontario, provides assessment, midwifery workplace orientation, and accelerated education for internationally educated midwives on behalf of the regulatory College of Midwives of Ontario. Between 2003 and 2015, midwives from 41 countries participated in the bridging program, and 214 (80%) successfully completed the program and qualified for licensure. Of these 214 graduates, 100% passed the Canadian Midwifery Registration Examination and 193 (90%) were employed full time as midwives within 4 months of graduation. The program curriculum enables the integration of these midwives into health care workplaces utilizing innovative approaches to assessment and competency enhancement. Critical to the bridging process are simulation-based practices to develop effective psychomotor learning, virtual and real primary care community placements, and coaching in empathetic, client-centered communication. Cultural sensitivity is embedded into the multiple assessment and learning modalities, and addresses relevant barriers faced by immigrant midwives in the workplace. Findings from the 13 years of the program may be applicable to increase diversity in other North American midwifery settings. This article describes the process, content, outcomes, and findings of the program. Midwifery educators and regulators may consider the utility of these approaches for their settings.

  17. Use of pilot-controlled horizontal drilling for a culvert under the Danube near the town of Aschach; Einsatz gesteuerter Horizontalbohrtechnik zur Unterduekerung der Donau bei Aschach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek, H. [Ferngas AG, Linz (Austria)

    1998-10-01

    The challenge involved in the `Donaudueker Aschach` (Aschach sub-Danube Culvert) project was that of drilling through the river bed in an exceptionally difficult geological structure. Tunnelling started in Aschach, and the drill emerged from the soil precisely on target after 470 m at the connecting point close to Feldkirchen. A 200 mm diameter steel pipe was installed into this boring without any hindrance to road and river traffic, and construction between Aschach and Feldkirchen was successfully completed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Herausforderung beim Bauvorhaben `Donaudueker Aschach` war die Durchbohrung des Flussbettes in einer aeusserst schwierigen geologischen Struktur. In Aschach wurde mit der Tunnelbohrung begonnen und punktgenau tauchte nach 470 m der Bohrkopf an der Anschlussstelle Feldkirchen aus dem Erdreich auf. Ohne Verkehrs- und Schiffahrtsbeeintraechtigung wurde in die Bohrung ein Stahlrohr mit 200 mm Durchmesser eingezogen und der Bau zwischen Aschach und Feldkirchen erfolgreich durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  18. GPS Dynamic Monitoring Experiment and Result Analysis of Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    For the sake of timely appraising the working condition of the bridge, measuring the dynamic characteristics of the bridge structure is very important and necessary. A GPS dynamic monitoring test was carried out in the Wuhan Baishazhou Bridge, which is one of the longest span cable-stayed bridges having been built in China. This paper introduces the experimental implementing scheme and data processing method. The vibration characteristics of the middle span of cable-stayed bridge are availably obtained by use of the spectral analytic approach. The measuring results are very identical to the theoretical designed values. The research demonstrates that, with GPS receiver of the high sampling rate and suitable data processing method, the vibration characteristics of the bridge structure can be determined with high accuracy.

  19. Development and Practical Application of a Bridge Management System (J-BMS in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaho Miyamoto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new bridge management system (J-BMS. It is integrated with a concrete bridge rating expert system that can be used to evaluate the serviceability of existing concrete bridges. The proposed J-BMS not only evaluates the performance of bridges, but also offers a rehabilitation strategy based on a combination of maintenance cost minimization and quality maximization. In this system, the genetic algorithm (GA technique was used to search for an approximation of the optimal maintenance plan. This was constructed using Visual Basic and the C language. Furthermore, this paper examines the results of applying this system to some in-service bridges and the results of questionnaire surveys of experts. A comparison of these results shows that this system can accurately predict optimal maintenance planning, as well as bridge rating.

  20. 40 CFR 745.228 - Accreditation of training programs: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accreditation of training programs: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. 745.228 Section 745.228 Protection of... of training programs: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures....

  1. Integrated system of structural health monitoring and intelligent management for a cable-stayed bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Wang, Xu; Sun, Dezhang; Xie, Xu

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to construct structural health monitoring systems for large important bridges. Zhijiang Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge that was built recently over the Hangzhou Qiantang River (the largest river in Zhejiang Province). The length of Zhijiang Bridge is 478 m, which comprises an arched twin-tower space and a twin-cable plane structure. As an example, the present study describes the integrated system of structural health monitoring and intelligent management for Zhijiang Bridge, which comprises an information acquisition system, data management system, evaluation and decision-making system, and application service system. The monitoring components include the working environment of the bridge and various factors that affect bridge safety, such as the stress and strain of the main bridge structure, vibration, cable force, temperature, and wind speed. In addition, the integrated system includes a forecasting and decision-making module for real-time online evaluation, which provides warnings and makes decisions based on the monitoring information. From this, the monitoring information, evaluation results, maintenance decisions, and warning information can be input simultaneously into the bridge monitoring center and traffic emergency center to share the monitoring data, thereby facilitating evaluations and decision making using the system.

  2. Shear distortion and failure of capillary bridges. Wetting information beyond contact angle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2013-06-25

    Water capillary bridges are prepared that span hydrophilic pinning features on parallel opposing smooth, flat, and hydrophobic surfaces. These bridges are distorted by shearing the parallel plates at a low rate. The capillary bridges lengthen and distort to balance Laplace pressure (equilibrate mean curvature) as the features are separated and eventually rupture at a distance that is a function of the liquid volume, the advancing and receding contact angles of the surfaces, the separation between the parallel surfaces, and in particular, the shape and orientation of the hydrophilic pinning features. Two modes of capillary bridge failure are observed: (1) tensile, in which the capillary bridge breaks to form sessile drops on both the upper and lower surfaces, and (2) sessile, in which sessile capillary bridge rupture occurs on one surface to form a puddle (contact-line-distorted sessile drop) on the feature and a retained capillary bridge spanning the hydrophobic surface and the hydrophilic feature on the opposing surface. The shape and orientation of the features control the mode of capillary bridge failure as well as the distribution of water between the two separate sessile drops or the retained capillary bridge and the puddle.

  3. 23 CFR 661.35 - What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for use on BIA and Tribally owned IRR bridges, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BIA and Tribally owned IRR bridges, and non-BIA owned IRR bridges? 661.35 Section 661.35 Highways... RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.35 What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for use on BIA and Tribally owned IRR bridges, and non-BIA owned IRR bridges? (a) Up to 80 percent of the available...

  4. Characterisation of a Selection of AC and DC Resistance Bridges for Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J. V.; Gray, J.; Veltcheva, R. I.

    2016-11-01

    Accurate resistance bridges are used to measure the ratio between the resistance of standard platinum resistance thermometers and a reference (standard) resistor at the level of microkelvin in temperature terms and as such play a critical role in the realisation and dissemination of the ITS-90. For AC bridges, the ratio test unit has been available for some time, and for both AC and DC bridges, the increasing availability of resistance bridge calibrators based on combinatorial calibration has increased the ease with which the accuracy and linearity of resistance bridges may be determined, under conditions which provide a realistic representation of the actual measurement set-up. In this study, the performance of 14 resistance bridges, which were available for testing at NPL, consisting of a range of manufacturers and types, has been evaluated and expressed in terms of the standard deviation of the bridge errors over a given range of ratios, namely s. In general, the bridges are found to comply with the manufacturers' specifications. The uncertainty of s has also been determined using Monte Carlo techniques and is found to be of the order of 10 % of s for most bridge types.

  5. Stability and motion of liquid bridges between non-parallel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataei, Mohammadmehdi; Chen, Huanchen; Tang, Tian; Amirfazli, Alidad

    2015-11-01

    Squeezing and stretching liquid bridges formed by approaching upper surface to a sessile drop deposited on a lower surface, is frequently observed in nature and industry, e.g. printing. However, most literature focuses on liquid bridges between two parallel surfaces. In practice, bridges can also be formed between surfaces with an angle αbetween them. Here, the effect of α on the stability and motion of the bridge was studied experimentally. Different pairs of surfaces from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, along with different contact angle hysteresis (CAH) values, were used to study the effect of surface contact angle (SCA) and CAH on the bridge stability and motion. Unlike bridges between parallel surfaces, a stable bridge may not be formed when α is larger than a threshold value αc. Instead, when bridge forms, it can undergo unstable movement towards the ends of surfaces. Shown in this study, αc is governed by both SCA and CAH (typically missed in literature). Also, during the squeezing and stretching cycles, because of α , bulk motion of the liquid bridge along the surfaces can be observed. The direction and magnitude of the bulk motion is found to be related to SCA, CAH and α. NSERC, XEROX Inc.

  6. Real-time seismic monitoring of the integrated cape girardeau bridge array and recorded earthquake response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the state of the art, real-time and broad-band seismic monitoring network implemented for the 1206 m [3956 ft] long, cable-stayed Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge in Cape Girardeau (MO), a new Mississippi River crossing, approximately 80 km from the epicentral region of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. The bridge was designed for a strong earthquake (magnitude 7.5 or greater) during the design life of the bridge. The monitoring network comprises a total of 84 channels of accelerometers deployed on the superstructure, pier foundations and at surface and downhole free-field arrays of the bridge. The paper also presents the high quality response data obtained from the network. Such data is aimed to be used by the owner, researchers and engineers to assess the performance of the bridge, to check design parameters, including the comparison of dynamic characteristics with actual response, and to better design future similar bridges. Preliminary analyses of ambient and low amplitude small earthquake data reveal specific response characteristics of the bridge and the free-field. There is evidence of coherent tower, cable, deck interaction that sometimes results in amplified ambient motions. Motions at the lowest tri-axial downhole accelerometers on both MO and IL sides are practically free from any feedback from the bridge. Motions at the mid-level and surface downhole accelerometers are influenced significantly by feedback due to amplified ambient motions of the bridge. Copyright ASCE 2006.

  7. Identification and characterization of RBM44 as a novel intercellular bridge protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokuko Iwamori

    Full Text Available Intercellular bridges are evolutionarily conserved structures that connect differentiating germ cells. We previously reported the identification of TEX14 as the first essential intercellular bridge protein, the demonstration that intercellular bridges are required for male fertility, and the finding that intercellular bridges utilize components of the cytokinesis machinery to form. Herein, we report the identification of RNA binding motif protein 44 (RBM44 as a novel germ cell intercellular bridge protein. RBM44 was identified by proteomic analysis after intercellular bridge enrichment using TEX14 as a marker protein. RBM44 is highly conserved between mouse and human and contains an RNA recognition motif of unknown function. RBM44 mRNA is enriched in testis, and immunofluorescence confirms that RBM44 is an intercellular bridge component. However, RBM44 only partially localizes to TEX14-positive intercellular bridges. RBM44 is expressed most highly in pachytene and secondary spermatocytes, but disappears abruptly in spermatids. We discovered that RBM44 interacts with itself and TEX14 using yeast two-hybrid, mammalian two-hybrid, and immunoprecipitation. To define the in vivo function of RBM44, we generated a targeted deletion of Rbm44 in mice. Rbm44 null male mice produce somewhat increased sperm, and show enhanced fertility of unknown etiology. Thus, although RBM44 localizes to intercellular bridges during meiosis, RBM44 is not required for fertility in contrast to TEX14.

  8. Identification and Characterization of RBM44 as a Novel Intercellular Bridge Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamori, Tokuko; Lin, Yi-Nan; Ma, Lang; Iwamori, Naoki; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Intercellular bridges are evolutionarily conserved structures that connect differentiating germ cells. We previously reported the identification of TEX14 as the first essential intercellular bridge protein, the demonstration that intercellular bridges are required for male fertility, and the finding that intercellular bridges utilize components of the cytokinesis machinery to form. Herein, we report the identification of RNA binding motif protein 44 (RBM44) as a novel germ cell intercellular bridge protein. RBM44 was identified by proteomic analysis after intercellular bridge enrichment using TEX14 as a marker protein. RBM44 is highly conserved between mouse and human and contains an RNA recognition motif of unknown function. RBM44 mRNA is enriched in testis, and immunofluorescence confirms that RBM44 is an intercellular bridge component. However, RBM44 only partially localizes to TEX14-positive intercellular bridges. RBM44 is expressed most highly in pachytene and secondary spermatocytes, but disappears abruptly in spermatids. We discovered that RBM44 interacts with itself and TEX14 using yeast two-hybrid, mammalian two-hybrid, and immunoprecipitation. To define the in vivo function of RBM44, we generated a targeted deletion of Rbm44 in mice. Rbm44 null male mice produce somewhat increased sperm, and show enhanced fertility of unknown etiology. Thus, although RBM44 localizes to intercellular bridges during meiosis, RBM44 is not required for fertility in contrast to TEX14. PMID:21364893

  9. The novel generating algorithm and properties of hybrid-P-ary generalized bridge functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we develop novel non-sine functions, named hybrid-P-ary generalized bridge functions, based on the copy and shift methods. The generating algorithm of hybrid-P-ary generalized bridge functions is introduced based on the hybrid-P-ary generalized Walsh function's copy algorithm. The main property, product property, is also discussed. This function may be viewed as the generalization of the theory of bridge functions. And a lot of non-sine orthogonal functions are the special subset of these novel functions. The hybrid-P-ary generalized bridge functions can be used to search many unknown non-sine functions by defining different parameters.

  10. Bridge ice accretion and de- and anti-icing systems: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth; Georgakis, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Blocks of ice or snow falling from bridge members can cause traffic accidents, direct damages to passing vehicles, and generally place human safety at risk. Consequently, the lack of successful de- or anti-icing measures may result in bridge closure, which leads to traffic hindrance that can...

  11. Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taizhou Bridge lies between Taizhou, Zhenjiang and Changzhou City in Jiangsu Province. The total length of Taizhou Bridge is 62.088 kin. The whole line is designed by freeway codes with six lanes in two directions. The wholeinvestment is 9.37 billion RMB and the planned construction duration is 5.5 years. The main bridge crossing the Yangtze River is a continuous three-pylon two-span suspension bridge with the main span of 1 080 m. The bridge system is realized for the first time and ranks first in the world until now.

  12. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...... Belgrade), Leo Pekkala (Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media/MEKU), Julie Uldam (Network on Civic Engagement and Social Innovation) and Gabriella Velics (Community Media Forum Europe)....

  13. Mathematical bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu; Tetiva, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Building bridges between classical results and contemporary nonstandard problems, Mathematical Bridges embraces important topics in analysis and algebra from a problem-solving perspective. Blending old and new techniques, tactics and strategies used in solving challenging mathematical problems, readers will discover numerous genuine mathematical gems throughout that will heighten their appreciation of the inherent beauty of mathematics. Most of the problems are original to the authors and are intertwined in a well-motivated exposition driven by representative examples. The book is structured to assist the reader in formulating and proving conjectures, as well as devising solutions to important mathematical problems by making connections between various concepts and ideas from different areas of mathematics. Instructors and educators teaching problem-solving courses or organizing mathematics clubs, as well as motivated mathematics students from high school juniors to college seniors, will find Mathematical Bri...

  14. A bridge between conceptual frameworks sciences, society and technology studies

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book analyzes scientific problems within the history of physics, engineering, chemistry, astronomy and medicine, correlated with technological applications in the social context. When and how is tension between disciplines explicitly practised? What is the conceptual bridge between science researches and the organization of technological researches in the development of  industrial applications?  The authors explain various ways in which the sciences allowed advanced modelling on the one hand, and the development of new technological ideas on the other hand. An emphasis on the role played by mechanisms, production methods and instruments bestows a benefit on historical and scientific discourse: theories, institutions, universities, schools for engineers, social implications as well.  Scholars from different traditions discuss the emerging style of thinking in methodology and, in theoretical perspective, aim to gather and re-evaluate the current thinking on this subject. It brings together contribution...

  15. Formation and rupture of capillary bridges in atomic scale friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barel, Itay; Filippov, Aleksander E.; Urbakh, M.

    2012-10-01

    While formation of capillary bridges significantly contributes to the adhesion and friction at micro- and nanoscales, many key aspects of dynamics of capillary condensation and its effect on friction forces are still not well understood. Here, by analytical model and numerical simulations, we address the origin of reduction of friction force with velocity and increase of friction with temperature, which have been experimentally observed under humid ambient conditions. These observations differ significantly from the results of friction experiments carried out under ultrahigh vacuum, and disagree with predictions of thermal Prandtl-Tomlinson model of friction. Our calculations demonstrate what information on the kinetics of capillary condensation can be extracted from measurements of friction forces and suggest optimal conditions for obtaining this information.

  16. Bridging Innate and Adaptive Antitumor Immunity Targeting Glycans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashov, Anastas; Monzavi-Karbassi, Bejatolah; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Effective immunotherapy for cancer depends on cellular responses to tumor antigens. The role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in T-cell recognition and T-cell receptor repertoire selection has become a central tenet in immunology. Structurally, this does not contradict earlier findings that T-cells can differentiate between small hapten structures like simple glycans. Understanding T-cell recognition of antigens as defined genetically by MHC and combinatorially by T cell receptors led to the “altered self” hypothesis. This notion reflects a more fundamental principle underlying immune surveillance and integrating evolutionarily and mechanistically diverse elements of the immune system. Danger associated molecular patterns, including those generated by glycan remodeling, represent an instance of altered self. A prominent example is the modification of the tumor-associated antigen MUC1. Similar examples emphasize glycan reactivity patterns of antigen receptors as a phenomenon bridging innate and adaptive but also humoral and cellular immunity and providing templates for immunotherapies. PMID:20617150

  17. Cultural psychology as a bridge between anthropology and cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A

    2012-07-01

    The theory and methods of cultural psychology begin with the assumption that psychological processes are socioculturally and historically grounded. As such, they offer a new approach for understanding the diversity of human functioning because they (a) question the presumed neutrality of the majority group perspective; (b) take the target's point-of-view (i.e., what it means to be a person in a particular context); (c) assume that there is more than one viable way of being a competent or effective person; and (d) provide a road map for understanding and reducing social inequities. As illustrated in this essay, a cultural psychological approach provides a bridge between anthropology and the cognitive sciences, and in so doing it offers an alternative set of explanations and interventions for group differences.

  18. Bridging emotion theory and neurobiology through dynamic systems modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marc D

    2005-04-01

    Efforts to bridge emotion theory with neurobiology can be facilitated by dynamic systems (DS) modeling. DS principles stipulate higher-order wholes emerging from lower-order constituents through bidirectional causal processes--offering a common language for psychological and neurobiological models. After identifying some limitations of mainstream emotion theory, I apply DS principles to emotion-cognition relations. I then present a psychological model based on this reconceptualization, identifying trigger, self-amplification, and self-stabilization phases of emotion-appraisal states, leading to consolidating traits. The article goes on to describe neural structures and functions involved in appraisal and emotion, as well as DS mechanisms of integration by which they interact. These mechanisms include nested feedback interactions, global effects of neuromodulation, vertical integration, action-monitoring, and synaptic plasticity, and they are modeled in terms of both functional integration and temporal synchronization. I end by elaborating the psychological model of emotion-appraisal states with reference to neural processes.

  19. Practical applications of asset management and comakership business models for FRP bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebastian, R.

    2012-01-01

    Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) material and the associated technologies for bridge construction and refurbishment have been proven to be durable and sustainable. Much research and a number of recent projects have demonstrated that FRP bridges can also be cost-effective, provided that the cost and be

  20. VOFilter, Bridging Virtual Observatory and Industrial Office Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, C; Genova, F; Quinn, P; Zhao, Y; Cui, Chen-zhou; Dolensky, Markus; Genova, Francoise; Quinn, Peter; Zhao, Yong-heng

    2005-01-01

    VOFilter is an XML based filter developed by the Chinese Virtual Observatory project to transform tabular data files from VOTable format into OpenDocument format. VOTable is an XML format defined for the exchange of tabular data in the context of the Virtual Observatory (VO). It is the first Proposed Recommendation defined by International Virtual Observatory Alliance, and has obtained wide support from both the VO community and many Astronomy projects. OpenOffice.org is a mature, open source, front office applications suite with the advantage of native support of industrial standard OpenDocument XML file format. Using the VOFilter, VOTable files can be loaded in OpenOffice.org Calc, a spreadsheet application, and then displayed and analyzed as other spreadsheet files. Here, the VOFilter acts as a connector, bridging the coming VO with current industrial office applications. Virtual Observatory and technical background of the VOFilter are introduced. Its workflow, installation and usage are presented. Existin...

  1. Campus suicide prevention: bridging paradigms and forging partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, David J; Denmark, Adryon Burton

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities are increasingly recognizing the need to expand suicide-prevention efforts beyond the standard, clinical-intervention paradigm of suicide prevention, which relies on referral to, and treatment by, mental health services. These services frequently struggle, however, to provide effective, comprehensive care. After reviewing findings that support the need to adopt a broader, problem-focused paradigm, the article provides a framework for bridging this paradigm with the clinical-intervention approach and for conceptualizing a full continuum of preventive interventions. For each level of intervention (ranging from the individual to the ecological), we describe the goals and methods used, and provide examples to illustrate the role of psychiatrists and other campus mental health providers in the collaborative partnerships that must form to support a comprehensive, campus-wide suicide-prevention strategy.

  2. The Impact of Community Bonding and Bridging Social Capital on Educational Performance in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menahem, Gila

    2011-01-01

    The study examines two issues of the relationship between social capital and educational performance: the different effects of bridging and bonding social capital on urban educational performance and the contextual effects of social capital. The main argument states that bonding and bridging social capital are differently related to educational…

  3. Six new projects will bridge gap between CERN and society

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Rassat, Knowledge Transfer Group

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge Transfer Fund awarded over six hundred thousand Swiss francs to six projects in 2016.   Computer racks at the CERN Data Centre, the heart of CERN’s entire scientific, administrative, and computing infrastructure. CERN has awarded funding to six new projects with the aim to bridge the gap between technology and society. Over 600,000 CHF (€ 542,766) of capital was granted through its competitive Knowledge Transfer Fund (KT Fund). The fund is issued as part of CERN’s goal to maximize its overall impact on society. The selected projects cover new applications for CERN technology in a broad range of fields beyond high-energy physics, ranging from cancer diagnostics and aerospace applications, to next-generation cloud computing, radiation safety, and digital preservation. The technologies were developed at CERN as part of the variety of high-energy physics needs, and arise from several research departments: Engineering, Information Technology, Be...

  4. Community garden: A bridging program between formal and informal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Datta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Community garden activities can play a significant role in bridging formal and informal learning, particularly in urban children’s science and environmental education. It promotes relational methods of learning, discussing, and practicing that will integrate food security, social interactions, community development, environmental activism, and cultural integration. Throughout the last five years of my community garden activities, I have learned that community garden-based practices adhere to particular forms of agency: embracing diversity, sharing power, and trust building as a part of everyday learning. My auto-ethnographic study provides valuable insights for environmental educators whose goals include, incorporating ethnic diversity as well as engaging children in research, ultimately leading to community action.

  5. Apical aneurysm and myocardial bridging in a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: association or consequence of the myocardial bridging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Anthony; Hilpert, Loic; Hédoire, Francois; Saloux, Eric; Gomes, Sophie; Pellissier, Arnaud; Scanu, Patrice; Champ-Rigot, Laure; Milliez, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The identification of high-risk patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains a challenging issue, since major risk factors sometimes lack specificity. We report the case of a patient with HC and association of apical aneurysm and myocardial bridging who had been initially not implanted because she had only one major risk factor. She subsequently experienced a sustained ventricular tachycardia that finally motivated the implantation. We conclude that it is never an easy decision to implant a preventive implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Nevertheless, additional criteria for a better selection of patients who would benefit from an ICD implant are certainly useful.

  6. Bridging global and local quantum quenches in conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Xueda

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement evolutions after a global quantum quench and a local quantum quench in 1+1 dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs) show qualitatively different behaviors, and are studied within two different setups. In this work, we bridge global and local quantum quenches in (1+1)-d CFTs in the same setup, by studying the entanglement evolution from a specific inhomogeneous initial state. By utilizing conformal mappings, this inhomogeneous quantum quench is analytically solvable. It is found that the entanglement evolution shows a global quantum quench feature in the short time limit, and a local quantum quench feature in the long time limit. The same features are observed in single-point correlation functions of primary fields. We provide a clear physical picture for the underlying reason.

  7. Dinuclear 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tacn) complexes of cobalt(III) with amido and tacn bridges. Synthesis, characterization and reversible acid-accelerated bridge cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Glerup, Jørgen; Gumm, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Amido-bridged dinuclear cobalt(III) complexes with 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tacn) were synthesized from [Co(tacn)(O3SCF3)3] by treatment with potassium amide in liquid ammonia at 100 degrees C. Two isomeric triply bridged complexes, [(tacn)Co(mu-NH2)3Co(tacn)]3+ and [(tacn)Co(mu-NH2)2[mu-tacn(-H)......Amido-bridged dinuclear cobalt(III) complexes with 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tacn) were synthesized from [Co(tacn)(O3SCF3)3] by treatment with potassium amide in liquid ammonia at 100 degrees C. Two isomeric triply bridged complexes, [(tacn)Co(mu-NH2)3Co(tacn)]3+ and [(tacn)Co(mu-NH2)2[mu...

  8. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  9. Heterogeneous ice nucleation: bridging stochastic and singular freezing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Niedermeier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous ice nucleation, a primary pathway for ice formation in the atmosphere, has been described alternately as being stochastic, in direct analogy with homogeneous nucleation, or singular, with ice nuclei initiating freezing at deterministic temperatures. We present an idealized model that bridges these stochastic and singular descriptions of heterogeneous ice nucleation. This "soccer ball" model treats statistically similar particles as being covered with surface sites (patches of finite area characterized by different nucleation barriers, but with each surface site following the stochastic nature of ice embryo formation. The model provides a phenomenological explanation for seemingly contradictory experimental results obtained in our research groups. We suggest that ice nucleation is fundamentally a stochastic process but that for realistic atmospheric particle populations this process can be masked by the heterogeneity of surface properties. Full evaluation of the model will require experiments with well characterized ice nucleating particles and the ability to vary both temperature and waiting time for freezing.

  10. Bridging the Gap between Linked Data and the Semantic Desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groza, Tudor; Drăgan, Laura; Handschuh, Siegfried; Decker, Stefan

    The exponential growth of the World Wide Web in the last decade brought an explosion in the information space, which has important consequences also in the area of scientific research. Finding relevant work in a particular field and exploring the links between publications is currently a cumbersome task. Similarly, on the desktop, managing the publications acquired over time can represent a real challenge. Extracting semantic metadata, exploring the linked data cloud and using the semantic desktop for managing personal information represent, in part, solutions for different aspects of the above mentioned issues. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for bridging these three directions with the overall goal of alleviating the information overload problem burdening early stage researchers. Our application combines harmoniously document engineering-oriented automatic metadata extraction with information expansion and visualization based on linked data, while the resulting documents can be seamlessly integrated into the semantic desktop.

  11. A Train-Bridge Dynamic Interaction Analysis Method and Its Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The train-bridge dynamic interaction problem began with the development of railway technology, and requires an evaluation method for bridge design in order to ensure the safety and stability of the bridge and the running train. This problem is studied using theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and experimental study. In the train-bridge dynamic interaction system proposed in this paper, the train vehicle model is established by the rigid-body dynamics method, the bridge model is established by the finite element method, and the wheel/rail vertical and lateral interaction are simulated by the corresponding assumption and the Kalker linear creep theory, respectively. Track irregularity, structure deformation, wind load, collision load, structural damage, foundation scouring, and earthquake action are regarded as the excitation for the system. The train-bridge dynamic interaction system is solved by inter-history iteration. A case study of the dynamic response of a CRH380BL high-speed train running through a standard-design bridge in China is discussed. The dynamic responses of the vehicle and of the bridge subsystems are obtained for speeds ranging from 200 km·h−1 to 400 km·h−1, and the vibration mechanism are analyzed.

  12. Study of the aerostatic and aerodynamic stability of super long-span cable-stayed bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xinjun; Sun Hailing

    2014-01-01

    With the increase of span length,the bridge tends to be more flexible,and the wind stability be-comes an important problem for the design and construction of super long-span cable-stayed bridges. By taking a super long-span cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 1 400 m as example,the aerostatic and aerodynamic stability of the bridge are investigated by three-dimensional nonlinear aerostatic and aerodynamic stability analy-sis,and the results are compared with those of a suspension bridge with a main span of 1 385 m,and from the aspect of wind stability,the feasibility of using cable-stayed bridge in super long-span bridge with a main span above 1 000 m is discussed. In addition,the influences of design parameters including the depth and width of the girder,the tower structure,the tower height-to-span ratio,the side-to-main span ratio,the auxiliary piers in the side span and the anchorage system of stay cables,etc on the aerostatic and aerodynamic stability of su-per long-span cable-stayed bridges are investigated numerically;the key design parameters are pointed out,and also their reasonable values are proposed.

  13. Cranial dural arteriovenous shunts. Part 1. Anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltsavias, Gerasimos; Parthasarathi, Venkatraman; Aydin, Emre; Al Schameri, Rahman A; Roth, Peter; Valavanis, Anton

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins aiming to elucidate aspects related to the cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae. Data from relevant articles on the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins were identified using one electronic database, supplemented by data from selected reference texts. Persisting fetal pial-arachnoidal veins correspond to the adult bridging veins. Relevant embryologic descriptions are based on the classic scheme of five divisions of the brain (telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon). Variation in their exact position and the number of bridging veins is the rule and certain locations, particularly that of the anterior cranial fossa and lower posterior cranial fossa are often neglected in prior descriptions. The distal segment of a bridging vein is part of the dural system and can be primarily involved in cranial dural arteriovenous lesions by constituting the actual site of the shunt. The veins in the lamina cribriformis exhibit a bridging-emissary vein pattern similar to the spinal configuration. The emissary veins connect the dural venous system with the extracranial venous system and are often involved in dural arteriovenous lesions. Cranial dural shunts may develop in three distinct areas of the cranial venous system: the dural sinuses and their interfaces with bridging veins and emissary veins. The exact site of the lesion may dictate the arterial feeders and original venous drainage pattern.

  14. Chemical bridges for enhancing hydrogen storage by spillover and methods for forming the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T.; Li, Yingwei; Qi, Gongshin; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J.

    2012-12-25

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a source of hydrogen atoms, a receptor, and a chemical bridge formed between the source and the receptor. The chemical bridge is formed from a precursor material. The receptor is adapted to receive hydrogen spillover from the source.

  15. Tuning interaction in dinuclear ruthenium complexes : HOMO versus LUMO mediated superexchange through azole and azine bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, Wesley; Hage, R; Vos, Johannes G.

    2006-01-01

    In this review the interaction between metal centers in dinuclear complexes based on azole and azine containing bridging ligands is reviewed. The focus of the review is on the manner in which the interaction pathway can be manipulated by variations in the nature of both the direct bridging unit and

  16. Myocardial Bridging: Contemporary Understanding of Pathophysiology with Implications for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshtehardi, Parham; Rasoul-Arzrumly, Emad; McDaniel, Michael; Mekonnen, Girum; Timmins, Lucas H.; Lutz, Jerre; Guyton, Robert A; Samady, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Patients with myocardial bridges are often asymptomatic but this anomaly may be associated with exertional angina, acute coronary syndromes, cardiac arrhythmias, syncope or even sudden cardiac death. This review presents our understanding of the pathophysiology of myocardial bridging and describes prevailing diagnostic modalities and therapeutic options for this challenging clinical entity. PMID:24583304

  17. 23 CFR 650.411 - Procedures for bridge replacement and rehabilitation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Rehabilitation Program § 650.411 Procedures for bridge replacement and rehabilitation projects. (a) Consideration... the State to the Secretary in accordance with 23 CFR part 630, subpart A Federal-Aid Programs... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for bridge replacement and...

  18. Synthesis of bridged diketopiperazines by using the persistent radical effect and a formal synthesis of bicyclomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatov, Tynchtyk; Pohl, Radek; Císařová, Ivana; Jahn, Ullrich

    2015-10-01

    A conceptually new and unified approach to diverse bridged diketopiperazines (DKPs) with widely variable ring sizes was developed by taking advantage of the persistent radical effect. This method enables synthesis of the core structures of bridged DKP alkaloids and was applied to a formal synthesis of the antibiotic bicyclomycin.

  19. Economical bridge solutions based on innovative composite dowels and integrated abutments ecobridge

    CERN Document Server

    Băncilă, Radu

    2015-01-01

    This book is an outcome of the research project “ECOBRIDGE – Demonstration of ECOnomical BRIDGE solutions based on innovative composite dowels and integrated abutments – RFCS – CT 2010-00024”, which has been co-funded by the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (R.F.C.S.) of the European Community. The main topics of the book are the following: design of integral bridges, innovative composite dowels for the shear transmission, construction of bridges, structural analysis of bridges and monitoring. The book joins the technical experience and the contributions of the involved research partners. The technical content of all the papers is present-day in the field of the design, construction and monitoring of innovative composite bridges. The efficient design and construction improve and consolidate the market position of steel construction and steel producing industry. In addition, the advanced forms of construction are contributing to savings in material and energy consumption for the structure during prod...

  20. 钢筋混凝土桥墩承载力计算方法讨论%Discussion of Computing Methods for Bearing Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Piers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林上顺

    2015-01-01

    在我国山区公路桥梁工程中,钢筋混凝土高桥墩较为常见。对国内外钢筋混凝土高桥墩承载力计算方法进行分析与比较,发现我国公路桥涵设计规范的计算方法还存在不合理之处,且偏于不安全。为此,提出钢筋混凝土高桥墩承载力计算需要进一步研究的内容。%In highway bridge projects in mountainous area of China reinforced concrete high bridge piers are common.This paper analyzes and compares computing methods for bearing capacity of reinforced concrete high bridge piers at home and abroad and finds out that the computing methods in desing codes for China national highway bridges and culverts are irrational and unsafe .For this reasons , the paper proposes the conents to be further researched in computation of bearing capacity of reinforced concrete high brdige piers .

  1. Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge with CFRP Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the scope of CFRP cables in cable-stayed bridges is studied by establishing a numerical model of a 1400-m span of the same. The mechanical properties and characteristics of CFRP stay cables and of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are here subjected to comprehensive analysis. The anomalies in the damping properties of free vibration, nonlinear parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration between steel cables and CFRP cables are determined. The structural stiffness, wind resistance and traffic vibration of the cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are also analyzed. It was found that the static performances of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and steel cables are basically the same. The natural frequencies of CFRP cables do not coincide with the major natural frequencies of the cable-stayed bridge, so the likelihood of CFRP cable-bridge coupling vibration is minuscule. For CFRP cables, the response amplitudes of both parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration are smaller than those of steel cables. It can be concluded from the research that the use of CFRP cables does not change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration. Therefore, they can be used in long-span cable-stayed bridges with an excellent mechanical performance.

  2. Dynamic test and finite element model updating of bridge structures based on ambient vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of bridge structures are the basis of structural dynamic response and seismic analysis,and are also an important target of health condition monitoring.In this paper,a three-dimensional finite-element model is first established for a highway bridge over a railroad on No.312 National Highway.Based on design drawings,the dynamic characteristics of the bridge are studied using finite element analysis and ambient vibration measurements.Thus,a set of data is selected based on sensitivity analysis and optimization theory;the finite element model of the bridge is updated.The numerical and experimental results show that the updated method is more simple and effective,the updated finite element model can reflect the dynamic characteristics of the bridge better,and it can be used to predict the dynamic response under complex external forces.It is also helpful for further damage identification and health condition monitoring.

  3. Flutter Derivatives Identification and Aerodynamic Performance of an Optimized Multibox Bridge Deck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhida Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The bridge deck sections used for long-span suspension bridges have evolved through the years, from the compact box deck girders geometrical configurations to twin-box and three-box bridge decks sections. The latest generation of split and multiple-box bridge decks proved to have better aerodynamic behavior; thus further optimization methods are sought for such geometrical configurations. A new type of multibox bridge deck, consisting of four aerodynamically shaped deck boxes, two side decks for the traffic lanes and two middle decks for the railway traffic, connected between them by stabilizing beams, was tested in the wind tunnel for identifying the flutter derivatives and to verify the aerodynamic performance of the proposed multibox deck. Aerodynamic static force coefficients were measured for the multibox bridge deck model, scaled 1 : 80, for Reynolds numbers up to 5.1 × 105, under angles of attack between −8° and 8°. Iterative Least Squares (ILS method was employed for identifying the flutter derivatives of the multibox bridge deck model, based on the results obtained from the free vibration tests and based on the frequency analysis the critical flutter wind speed for the corresponding prototype of the multibox bridge was estimated at 188 m/s.

  4. Numerical and Experimental Study of Free Vibration Characteristics of a Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi Jianmin; Wang Yuanhan; Zhu Hongping

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to understand the dynamic behavior of a cable-stayed bridge,using both numerical and experimental analysis. A three-dimensionai finite element model for the bridge was developed for the free vibration analysis and the ambient vibration properties of the bridge were determined through field testing. The experimental and numerical results of natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes were compared, and the high accuracy between them shows that the 3D model is capable of approximately representing the dynamic behavior of the bridge and the use of ambient vibration survives in future testing of the bridge. These dynamic characteristics can be used as the basis for updating the finite element model and also for global damage detection.

  5. Optimizing selection of bridge raft based on fuzzy matter-element model and combination weighting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Feng; Shao Fei; Wang Jianping; Li Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    It' s a necessary selection to support the maneuver across Yangtze River by floating bridge constructed by portable steel bridge and civilian ships. It is a comprehensive index for the scheme of bridge raft, containing a variety of technical factors and uncertainties. The optimization is the selection in the constructing time, quantity of equipments and man power. Based on the calculation result of bridge rafts, an evaluating system is established, consisting of index of spacing between interior bays, raft length, truss numbers, operation difficulty and maximal bending stress. A fuzzy matter element model of optimizing selection of bridge rafts was built up by combining quantitative analysis with qualitative analysis. The method of combination weighting was used to calculate the value of weights index to reduce the subjective randomness. The sequence of schemes and the optimization resuh were gained finally based on euclid approach degree. The application result shows that it is simple and practical.

  6. Identification and Level 1 Damage Detection of the Z24 Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.; Cantieni, R.

    2001-01-01

    A series of 15 progressive damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case with a relatively large number of sensors. Changes in frequencies, damping ratios and MAC values were determined...

  7. To the question of reliability and durability ballastless deck of bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Prystynskaya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The principal causes of operational defects in bridge ballastless deck plates are considered in the article. The drawbacks of these plates construction that prevent from achieving a higher level of bridge framework reliability and durability have been analysed.

  8. Fatigue crack identification and lifetime prediction for steel bridge deck structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pahlavan, P.L.; Pijpers, R.J.M.; Hakkesteegt, H.C.; Jansen, T.H.; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue, as the governing degradation mechanism in steel bridge decks, can lead to non-inspectable cracks under the welded intersections of stiffeners to the deck plate. As a result, estimation of the remaining service life and optimization of the maintenance program of steel bridge decks become a g

  9. Designing of support zones of concrete bridges to withstand action of static and dynamic load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorijević Milan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented some of the acquired experiences in designing and construction of bridge structures in several countries, with a special attention to the analysis of support zones and expansion joints behavior of a number of road bridges. During destruction or damage of bridges, there is a small probability, but still there, that the human lives might be endangered (Kobe, Japan 17th January 1995; what is likely, however, is that it will be very difficult to help the injured in the region. Considering that the characteristics of removal of supports has a great influence on the behavior of the entire bridge structure, the design of support joints and connections must be paid due attention. In the recent decades, efforts are made to enhance research of all engineering structure, and thus the bridge structures and their weak points.

  10. Combined Differential and Static Pressure Sensor based on a Double-Bridged Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Casper; Jespersen, S.T.; Krog, J.P.;

    2005-01-01

    A combined differential and static silicon microelectromechanical system pressure sensor based on a double piezoresistive Wheatstone bridge structure is presented. The developed sensor has a conventional (inner) bridge on a micromachined diaphragm and a secondary (outer) bridge on the chip...... substrate. A novel approach is demonstrated with a combined measurement of outputs from the two bridges, which results in a combined deduction of both differential and static media pressure. Also following this new approach, a significant improvement in differential pressure sensor accuracy is achieved....... Output from the two bridges depends linearly on both differential and absolute (relative to atmospheric pressure) media pressure. Furthermore, the sensor stress distributions involved are studied by three-dimensional finite-element (FE) stress analysis. Furthermore, the FE analysis evaluates current...

  11. Key focal areas for bridging the fields of aging and disability: findings from the growing older with a disability conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishaya Naidoo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Based upon research presented at the 2011 Festival of International Conferences on Caregiving, Disability, Aging and Technology (FICCDAT-and specifically the Growing Older with a Disability (GOWD conference, this paper identifies areas where bridging building between aging and disability is needed to support older adults aging into or with disabilities. Five focal areas emerged: 1 The Need to Forward Bridging Between Aging and Disability Sectors, 2 Theoretical Frameworks of Individual Aging that Facilitate Bridging, 3 Bridging through Consumer Participation and Involvement, 4 Bridging Through Knowledge Transfer and 5 Bridging Opportunities in Long-Term Supports and Services and Assistive Technologies. Discussion of themes is provided within both international and Canadian contexts, reflecting the interests of FICCDAT and GOWD organizers in discussing how to improve bridging in Canada. Findings from this report form the basis of the Toronto Declaration on Bridging Aging and Disability Policy, Practice, and Research.

  12. The "Why" and "Where" of the Tappan Zee Bridge: A Lesson in Site Location, Physical Geography, and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jerry T.; Cantrill, Jeremy; Kearse, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Bridges are some of the most majestic features in the American landscape. For classrooms, the bridge serves as an important component of one of the main themes of geography: movement. One bridge, north of Manhattan and crossing the Hudson River, is the Tappan Zee. One aspect that stands out in a way that does not at all appear reasonable: the…

  13. Linear and Non-linear Analysis of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Bridge Deck due to Vehicle Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Chaitali; Mandal, Bibekananda

    2015-06-01

    The present work deals with linear and nonlinear static analysis of fibre reinforced plastics composite bridge deck structures using the finite element method. The nonlinear static analysis has been carried out considering geometric nonlinearity. The analysis of bridge deck has been carried out under vehicle load as specified by IRC Class B wheel load classification. The formulation has been carried out using the finite element software package ANSYS 14.0 and the SHELL281 element is used to model the bridge deck. The bridge deck has also been modeled as a plate stiffened with closely spaced hollow box sections and a computer code is developed based on this formulation. The results obtained from the present formulation are compared with those available in the published literature. A parametric study on the stiffened bridge deck has also been carried out with varying dimensions of the stiffeners under vehicle loads.

  14. Einstein-Rosen "Bridge" Revisited and Lightlike Thin-Shell Wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Guendelman, Eduardo; Pacheva, Svetlana; Stoilov, Michail

    2016-01-01

    We study in some detail the properties of the mathematically correct formulation of the classical Einstein-Rosen "bridge" as proposed in the original 1935 paper, which was shown in a series of previous papers of ours to represent the simplest example of a static spherically symmetric traversable lightlike thin-shell wormhole. Thus, the original Einstein-Rosen "bridge" is not equivalent to the concept of the dynamical and non-traversable Schwarzschild wormhole, also called "Einstein-Rosen bridge" in modern textbooks on general relativity. The original Einstein-Rosen "bridge" requires the presence of a special kind of "exotic" matter source located on its throat which was shown to be the simplest member of the previously introduced by us class of lightlike membranes. We introduce and exploit the Kruskal-Penrose description of the original Einstein-Rosen "bridge". In particular, we explicitly construct closed timelike geodesics on the pertinent Kruskal-Penrose manifold.

  15. Long Span Bridges in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The first Scandinavian bridge with a span of more than 500 m was the Lillebælt Suspension Bridge opened to traffic in 1970.Art the end of the 20th century the longest span of any European bridge is found in the Storebælt East Bridge with a main span of 1624 m. Also the third longest span in Europe...... is found in Scandinavia - the 1210 m span of the Höga Kusten Bridge in Sweden.The Kvarnsund Bridge in Norway was at the completion in 1991 the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world, and the span of 530 m is still thge longest for cable-stayed bridges in concrete. The Øresund Bridge with its sapn of 490...... m is the longest among cable-stayed bridges for both road and railway traffic....

  16. Theoretical and experimental study on shear lag effect of partially cable-stayed bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gao-feng; XU Hong

    2005-01-01

    In order to resolve the traffic congestion problem, many cable-stayed bridges are designed with a large width to span ratio. This results in significant shear lag effect to cause nonuniform stress distribution along the flanges of the beam of bridge.This paper reports study on the shear lag effect of the Lanzhou Xiaoxihu Yellow River Bridge. A 3D finite element model of the bridge was developed and finite element analysis (FEA) was done to obtain the theoretical results. To evaluate the theoretical results, a scaled model was made to conduct static test in laboratory. The experiment results accorded with the results obtained by FEA. It is proved that FEA is an effective method to predict shear lag effect of bridges of this type.

  17. Using BIM to Improve the Design and Construction of Bridge Projects: A Case Study of a Long-span Steel-box Arch Bridge Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available More and more mega-complex bridge projects are being or will be built worldwide. At the same time, the design and construction of such projects involve more and more challenges, e.g., complex structural designs, complicated construction environments, etc. This research study aims to apply BIM (Building Information Modelling to bridge projects to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of design and construction. Through the analysis of the characteristics of bridge projects and relevant, associated problems, a BIM-based solution to improving design and construction is developed, including conceptual design optimization, detailed design optimization, the optimization of construction sequences, construction scheduling, construction management, and construction process monitoring. Furthermore, a real-life bridge project is presented to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the BIM-aided approach to design and construction. It is shown that BIM has the potential to improve the design and construction of bridge projects. It is expected that this research could contribute to the extensive application of BIM in mega-complex bridge projects to aid in design and construction in the future.

  18. 76 FR 72957 - 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap... Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of... conference information, visit the Trauma Spectrum Conference Web site at...

  19. Study and Application of Highway Bridge-erecting Machine JQC40A%JQC40A型公路架桥机的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党春太; 叶文

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces advanced bridge-erecting structure with taking beam laterally,bridge-erecting program and the work situation.Development trend of highway bridge-erecting machine in the future in China is predicted.

  20. Recent Research and Applications of Numerical Simulation for Dynamic Response of Long-Span Bridges Subjected to Multiple Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiwei Chen; Bo Chen

    2014-01-01

    Many long-span bridges have been built throughout the world in recent years but they are often subject to multiple types of dynamic loads, especially those located in wind-prone regions and carrying both trains and road vehicles. To ensure the safety and functionality of these bridges, dynamic responses of long-span bridges are often required for bridge assessment. Given that there are several limitations for the assessment based on field measurement of dynamic responses, a promising approach...

  1. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes....

  2. Generalization and extensions of capillary thinning driven self-assembly of nanostructured air-bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabba, Santosh

    In Harfenist's brush-on method (Nano Lett., 2004, 4, 1931), polymer dissolved in a volatile solvent is manually brushed over an array of micro-machined pillars, which causes the self assembly of arrays of air-bridges, often of nanometer diameter. This study considers ways to extend the brush-on method by incorporating new materials and new reactions that self-assemble into air-bridges. The study also considers ways to broaden the complexity of device fabrication built up on self assembled air-bridges. These developments include (1) A number of different functional polymeric materials (biocompatible, biodegradable, nanocomposite and amphiphilic copolymers) at different mass fractions and molecular weights are used for demonstrating the applicability of drawing fiber air-bridges by brush-on. Fiber air-bridges with a diameter as small as 20 nm spanning an air gap of 1 mum are fabricated. (2) Considering molecular weight and concentration, it is demonstrated that brush-on can be successful of low concentrations of 1 wt % (10x lower than previously reported) if 5x higher molecular weight polymers are used than previously reported. This is significant both in working with polymers that have low solubility or for solutions of lower viscosities. The viscosity only needs to be large at the later stages of capillary thinning. This is achieved by strain hardening that occurs for highly entangled polymers and polymers of sufficient molecular weight that can entangle at low concentrations. (3) Enzymatic biopolymerization is used for the first time to self assemble highly ordered arrays of air-bridges by brush-on. When fibrinogen solutions are brushed over a thrombin primed surface, or monomeric actin over a KCI primed array, fiber air-bridges are formed, sometimes reaching diameters as small as 16 nm. The uniformity in diameter of one hand-brushed array of 358 parallel fibrin air-bridges was 36.4 nm (6.8 nm standard deviation). (4) Rather than brushing liquid polymers onto an

  3. Steel structure (bridge and building); Doboku/kenchiku bun`ya ni okeru yosetsu gijutsu no tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukazawa, M. [Yokogawa Bridge Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-05

    In this article, the trends of welding engineering are discussed in two groups, namely bridges and steel frames. First of all, in the field of bridges, as the themes of technical innovation of steel bridges, the challenge to build long span bridges, coping with new structural forms, and rationalization of general bridges are selected. Concerning very long bridges, considerable elongation of its spans and technological development for materials, design, construction and erection relating to improvement of profitability become inevitable. Besides, in addition to the functions of bridges, the bridges playing the roles of environmental and/or artistic structures become many, thereby the cases of using welding for the site joints increase. As the measure for rationalize bridge construction, it is to reduce steel weight and working costs for increasing profitability, and the progress of welding technology therefor has been observed. With regard to the manufacture of bridge portions in a factory, labor saving, automatization and robotization of in-house welding have been made, and bridge maintenance as well as pursuance of attaining the state of maintenance free are also important. The trend that the bridge load is becoming larger and enhancement of earthquake resistance are also important. Regarding steel frames, functionalization of steel, making steel very thick, various automatization of manufacturing, and pursuance of earthquake resistant safety are being made. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Aerodynamics of bridge hangers in smooth and turbulent flow and implications on aeroelastic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demartino, Cristoforo; Ricciardelli, Francesco; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2015-01-01

    by an extruded High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE) circular sheath [1]. In the last 20 years, several bridge cable manufacturers have introduced surface modifications on HDPE sheath in order to reduce the drag and to ensure the aerodynamic stability in all climatic conditions. In the case of plain HDPE sheaths......, of mechanical damage occurring during transport and installation, as well as of the ageing process due to the exposure to environmental factors. Few experimental works are already available dealing with the effects of imperfections on the aerodynamics of bridge cables. For example, Matteoni and Georgakis...... of a full scale yawed bridge cable section model, for varying Reynolds numbers and wind angles-of-attack, using passive dynamic wind tunnel tests. They demonstrated that the in-plane aerodynamic damping of a bridge cable section and the overall dynamic response are strongly affected by changes in the angle...

  5. 3D-FEM and histomorphology of mandibular reconstruction with the titanium functionally dynamic bridging plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller-Götzburg, P; Pleschberger, M; Rammerstorfer, F G; Krenkel, C

    2009-12-01

    Biomechanical investigation of the mandible is difficult due to the complex geometrical structure. A three-dimensional finite element model of the mandible and masticatory muscles was produced with approximately 23,000 hexahedral elements. On this model, mesial and distal portions of the jaw were resected and bridged with a buccal and/or caudally positioned bridging plate. The plate was fixed caudal or buccal to the mandible. The defect was left as it was or reconstructed with an exactly fitting transplant defined as bone. The jaw was loaded at a predefined point. The changes in stresses and deformations of bone, the transplant and the bridging plate were analysed. In the caudally positioned bridging plate, finite element analysis showed lesser stresses around the fixation screws of the bridging plate. During reconstruction of the lateral defect, the buccal (ramus)-caudal (corpus) position of the bridging plate showed fewer stresses and deformations than purely buccal positioning. The caudal position of the bridging plate has biomechanical advantages and facilitates fixation of the plate, and fixation of a bone graft on the jaw stumps. Histomorphological investigations, 12 weeks and 7 years after reconstruction, show partial osseous integration or transformation of autologous iliac crest transplants.

  6. Development and simulation of microfluidic Wheatstone bridge for high-precision sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipulya, N. D.; Konakov, S. A.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    In this work we present the results of analytical modeling and 3D computer simulation of microfluidic Wheatstone bridge, which is used for high-accuracy measurements and precision instruments. We propose and simulate a new method of a bridge balancing process by changing the microchannel geometry. This process is based on the “etching in microchannel” technology we developed earlier (doi:10.1088/1742-6596/681/1/012035). Our method ensures a precise control of the flow rate and flow direction in the bridge microchannel. The advantage of our approach is the ability to work without any control valves and other active electronic systems, which are usually used for bridge balancing. The geometrical configuration of microchannels was selected based on the analytical estimations. A detailed 3D numerical model was based on Navier-Stokes equations for a laminar fluid flow at low Reynolds numbers. We investigated the behavior of the Wheatstone bridge under different process conditions; found a relation between the channel resistance and flow rate through the bridge; and calculated the pressure drop across the system under different total flow rates and viscosities. Finally, we describe a high-precision microfluidic pressure sensor that employs the Wheatstone bridge and discuss other applications in complex precision microfluidic systems.

  7. Dynamic characterization and damage detection in the I-40 bridge over the Rio Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Baker, W.E.; Bell, T.M.; Cone, K.M.; Darling, T.W.; Duffey, T.A.; Eklund, A.; Migliori, A.

    1994-06-01

    In the 1960`s and 1970`s over 2500 bridges were built in the U.S. with a design similar to those on Interstate 40 over the Rio Grande in Albuquerque, New Mexico. These bridges were built without structural redundancy and typically have only two plate girders carrying the entire dead and live loads. Failure of either girder is assumed to produce catastrophic failure of the bridge, hence these bridges are referred to as fracture-critical bridges. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) have provided funds to New Mexico State University (NMSU) through the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department (NMSH&TD) and The Alliance For Transportation Research (ATR) for evaluation and testing of the existing fracture critical bridges over the Rio Grande. Because the 1-40 bridges over the Rio Grande were to be razed during the summer of 1993, the investigators were able to introduce simulated fatigue cracks, similar to those observed in the field, into the structure in order to test various damage identification methods and to observe the changes in load paths through the structure caused by the cracking. To support this research effort, NMSU contracted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform experimental modal analyses, and to develop experimentally verified numerical models of the bridge. Scientists from the LANL`s Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group (P-10) applied state-of-the-art sensors and data acquisition software to the modal tests. Engineers from the LANL`s Advanced Engineering Technology Group (MEE-13) conducted ambient and forced vibration tests to verify detailed and simplified finite element models of the bridge. Forced vibration testing was done in conjunction with engineers from Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) who provided and operated a hydraulic shaker.

  8. Magnitudes of muscle activation of spine stabilizers, gluteals, and hamstrings during supine bridge to neutral position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W; Hartman, James P; Murphy, Brooke A; Rundle, Ashley M; Ugorowski, Jenna M; Hollman, John H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the magnitude of selective core muscle activation during supine bridging to neutral exercises (three on a stable and three on an unstable surface). Surface EMG analysis was performed on the lumbar multifidus, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, and hamstrings from 13 male and 13 female subjects. Lumbar multifidus recruitment was not influenced by exercise or condition and ranged between 29.2 and 35.9% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Peak gluteus medius activation (42.0% MVIC) occurred in unstable single-leg bridge. Maximum recruitment of gluteus maximus (32.6% MVIC) appeared during stable single-leg bridge. Peak hamstring activation (59.6% MVIC) occurred during stable double-leg hamstring curl. Regardless of condition, hamstrings demonstrated high (51.9-59.6% MVIC) muscle recruitment during double-leg hamstring curls compared with the single-leg bridge or double-leg bridge. Various supine bridging to neutral exercises activated the hamstrings at levels conducive to strengthening, whereas recruitment of lumbar multifidus, gluteus medius, and gluteus maximus promoted endurance training. Clinically, we were unable to conclude the unstable support surface was preferable to the stable surface for boosting muscle recruitment of spine stabilizers, gluteals, and hamstring muscles during supine bridge to neutral position.

  9. Ethanol production in Brazil: a bridge between science and industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lucio Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the last 40 years, several scientific and technological advances in microbiology of the fermentation have greatly contributed to evolution of the ethanol industry in Brazil. These contributions have increased our view and comprehension about fermentations in the first and, more recently, second-generation ethanol. Nowadays, new technologies are available to produce ethanol from sugarcane, corn and other feedstocks, reducing the off-season period. Better control of fermentation conditions can reduce the stress conditions for yeast cells and contamination by bacteria and wild yeasts. There are great research opportunities in production processes of the first-generation ethanol regarding high-value added products, cost reduction and selection of new industrial yeast strains that are more robust and customized for each distillery. New technologies have also focused on the reduction of vinasse volumes by increasing the ethanol concentrations in wine during fermentation. Moreover, conversion of sugarcane biomass into fermentable sugars for second-generation ethanol production is a promising alternative to meet future demands of biofuel production in the country. However, building a bridge between science and industry requires investments in research, development and transfer of new technologies to the industry as well as specialized personnel to deal with new technological challenges.

  10. Ethanol production in Brazil: a bridge between science and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mario Lucio; Paulillo, Silene Cristina de Lima; Godoy, Alexandre; Cherubin, Rudimar Antonio; Lorenzi, Marcel Salmeron; Giometti, Fernando Henrique Carvalho; Bernardino, Claudemir Domingues; Amorim Neto, Henrique Berbert de; Amorim, Henrique Vianna de

    2016-12-01

    In the last 40 years, several scientific and technological advances in microbiology of the fermentation have greatly contributed to evolution of the ethanol industry in Brazil. These contributions have increased our view and comprehension about fermentations in the first and, more recently, second-generation ethanol. Nowadays, new technologies are available to produce ethanol from sugarcane, corn and other feedstocks, reducing the off-season period. Better control of fermentation conditions can reduce the stress conditions for yeast cells and contamination by bacteria and wild yeasts. There are great research opportunities in production processes of the first-generation ethanol regarding high-value added products, cost reduction and selection of new industrial yeast strains that are more robust and customized for each distillery. New technologies have also focused on the reduction of vinasse volumes by increasing the ethanol concentrations in wine during fermentation. Moreover, conversion of sugarcane biomass into fermentable sugars for second-generation ethanol production is a promising alternative to meet future demands of biofuel production in the country. However, building a bridge between science and industry requires investments in research, development and transfer of new technologies to the industry as well as specialized personnel to deal with new technological challenges.

  11. 49 CFR 213.353 - Turnouts, crossovers, and lift rail assemblies or other transition devices on moveable bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... other transition devices on moveable bridges. 213.353 Section 213.353 Transportation Other Regulations... rail assemblies or other transition devices on moveable bridges. (a) In turnouts and track crossings... other transition devices on moveable bridges, the track owner shall prepare an inspection...

  12. Influence of central buckle on suspension bridge dynamic characteristics and driving comfort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王达; 邓扬; 刘扬

    2015-01-01

    The central buckle, which is often used in a suspension bridge, can improve bridges’ performance in the actual operation condition. The influence of the central buckle on natural vibration characteristics and bridge-deck driving comfort of a long-span suspension bridge is studied by using a case study of Siduhe Suspension Bridge in China. Based on the finite element software ANSYS and independently complied program, the influence of the central buckle on the structure force-applied characteristics of a long-span suspension bridge has been explored. The results show that the huge increases of natural frequencies can result in the presence of central buckles because of the increases of bending and torsional rigidities. The central buckle basically makes the stiffening girders and cables within the triangular area covered as a relatively approximate rigid area. Hence, the central buckle can reduce the torsional displacement of the main girder. However, the increases of bending and torsional rigidities have little influence on the impact factor, which is obtained by using vehicle-bridge coupled vibration analysis. This means that the central buckle has little effect on the comfort indices. In addition, it is found that the central buckle can enhance the bridge deck’s driving stability due to the decrease of the torsional displacements of the main girder.

  13. TEX14 is essential for intercellular bridges and fertility in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Michael P.; Yan, Wei; Wu, Meng-Hsieh; Lin, Yi-Nan; Agno, Julio E.; Sharma, Manju; Braun, Robert E.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2006-01-01

    Cytokinesis in somatic cells concludes with the formation of a midbody, which is abscised to form individual daughter cells. In contrast, germ cell cytokinesis results in a permanent intercellular bridge connecting the daughter cells through a large cytoplasmic channel. During spermatogenesis, proposed roles for the intercellular bridge include germ cell communication, synchronization, and chromosome dosage compensation in haploid cells. Although several essential components of the midbody have recently been identified, essential components of the vertebrate germ cell intercellular bridge have until now not been described. Herein, we show that testis-expressed gene 14 (TEX14) is a novel protein that localizes to germ cell intercellular bridges. In the absence of TEX14, intercellular bridges are not observed by using electron microscopy and other markers. Spermatogenesis in Tex14−/− mice progresses through the transit amplification of diploid spermatogonia and the expression of early meiotic markers but halts before the completion of the first meiotic division. Thus, TEX14 is required for intercellular bridges in vertebrate germ cells, and these studies provide evidence that the intercellular bridge is essential for spermatogenesis and fertility. PMID:16549803

  14. Bridging the gap between building science and design studios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papamichael, Konstantinos; Pal, Vineeta

    2002-02-06

    Design studios and building science courses have been conducted independent of each other, mainly due to a lack of tools that allow quick and easy consideration of building science criteria, such as comfort and energy requirements, during the design process. Existing tools are not user-friendly and their use requires significant effort in gaining familiarity with the input requirements, understanding the modeling assumptions and interpreting the output. This paper is about the Building Design Advisor (BDA), an evolving computer-based tool intended to bridge the gap between design studios and building science considerations by addressing the above-mentioned limitations of existing tools. BDA allows automatic preparation of input files to multiple simulation tools while the user is working in a CAD environment. BDA automatically activates the relevant simulation tools when the user selects performance parameters to be computed and provides the results in a graphical form, allowing comparison of multiple design options with respect to multiple performance criteria. The paper includes considerations for the use of the BDA in the design studio and ends with a description of the current development efforts and future plans.

  15. Matters of taste: bridging molecular physiology and the humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangachari, P K; Rangachari, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Taste perception was the focus of an undergraduate course in the health sciences that bridged the sciences and humanities. A problem-based learning approach was used to study the biological issues, whereas the cultural transmutations of these molecular mechanisms were explored using a variety of resources (novels, cookbooks, and films). Multiple evaluation procedures were used: problem summaries and problem-solving exercises (tripartite problem-solving exercise) for the problem-based learning component and group tasks and individual exercises for the cultural issues. Self-selected groups chose specific tasks from a prescribed list of options (setting up a journal in molecular gastronomy, developing an electronic tongue, designing a restaurant for synesthetes, organizing a farmers' market, marketing a culinary tour, framing hedonic scales, exploring changing tastes through works of art or recipe books, and crafting beers for space travel). Individual tasks were selected from a menu of options (book reviews, film reviews, conversations, creative writing, and oral exams). A few guest lecturers (wine making, cultural anthropology, film analysis, and nutritional epidemiology) added more flavor. The course was rated highly for its learning value (8.5 ± 1.2, n = 62) and helped students relate biological mechanisms to cultural issues (9.0 ± 0.9, n = 62).

  16. Bridging groundwater models and decision support with a Bayesian network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Masterson, John P.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2013-01-01

    Resource managers need to make decisions to plan for future environmental conditions, particularly sea level rise, in the face of substantial uncertainty. Many interacting processes factor in to the decisions they face. Advances in process models and the quantification of uncertainty have made models a valuable tool for this purpose. Long-simulation runtimes and, often, numerical instability make linking process models impractical in many cases. A method for emulating the important connections between model input and forecasts, while propagating uncertainty, has the potential to provide a bridge between complicated numerical process models and the efficiency and stability needed for decision making. We explore this using a Bayesian network (BN) to emulate a groundwater flow model. We expand on previous approaches to validating a BN by calculating forecasting skill using cross validation of a groundwater model of Assateague Island in Virginia and Maryland, USA. This BN emulation was shown to capture the important groundwater-flow characteristics and uncertainty of the groundwater system because of its connection to island morphology and sea level. Forecast power metrics associated with the validation of multiple alternative BN designs guided the selection of an optimal level of BN complexity. Assateague island is an ideal test case for exploring a forecasting tool based on current conditions because the unique hydrogeomorphological variability of the island includes a range of settings indicative of past, current, and future conditions. The resulting BN is a valuable tool for exploring the response of groundwater conditions to sea level rise in decision support.

  17. Real-Time Seismic Monitoring of Thenewcape Girardeau (mo) Bridge and Recorded Earthquake Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    çelebi, Mehmet

    This paper introduces the state of the art, real-time and broad-band seismic monitoring network implemented for the 1206 m [3956 ft] long, cable-stayed Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge in Cape Girardeau (MO), a new Mississippi River crossing, approximately 80 km from the epicentral region of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. Design of the bridge accounted for the possibility of a strong earthquake (magnitude 7.5 or greater) during the design life of the bridge. The monitoring network consists of a superstructure and two free-field arrays and comprises a total of 84 channels of accelerometers deployed on the superstructure, pier foundations and free-field in the vicinity of the bridge. The paper also introduces the high quality response data obtained from the network. Such data is aimed to be used by the owner, researchers and engineers to (1) assess the performance of the bridge, (2) check design parameters, including the comparison of dynamic characteristics with actual response, and (3) better design future similar bridges. Preliminary analyses of low-amplitude ambient vibration data and that from a small earthquake reveal specific response characteristics of this new bridge and the free-field in its proximity. There is coherent tower-cabledeck interaction that sometimes results in amplified ambient motions. Also, while the motions at the lowest (tri-axial) downhole accelerometers on both MO and IL sides are practically free-from any feedback from the bridge, the motions at the middle downhole and surface accelerometers are significantly influenced by amplified ambient motions of the bridge.

  18. VOFilter: Bridging Virtual Observatory and Industrial Office Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Zhou Cui; Markus Dolensky; Peter Quinn; Yong-Heng Zhao; Fran(c)oise Genova

    2006-01-01

    VOFilter is an XML based filter developed by the Chinese Virtual Observatory project to transform tabular data files from VOTable format into OpenDocument format.VOTable is an XML format defined for the exchange of tabular data in the context of the Virtual Observatory (VO). It is the first Proposed Recommendation defined by International Virtual Observatory Alliance, and has obtained wide support from both the VO community and many Astronomy projects. OpenOffice.org is a mature, open source, and front office application suite with the advantage of native support of industrial standard OpenDocument XML file format. Using the VOFilter, VOTable files can be loaded in OpenOffice.org Calc,a spreadsheet application, and then displayed and analyzed as other spreadsheet files. Here,the VOFilter acts as a connector, bridging the coming VO with current industrial office applications. We introduce Virtual Observatory and technical background of the VOFilter. Its workflow, installation and usage are presented. Existing problems and limitations are also discussed together with the future development plans.

  19. Science communication: Bridging the gap between theory and practise

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The 6th Public Communication of Science and Technology network conference will be held at CERN on 1-3 Febraury 2001. Scientists and communication professionals will analyse the state of the art of science communication and the new perception people have about science in the media from newspapers to the Web.   Will communication be able to bridge the gap between Science and Society? What is the impact of science communication on the public? How do novel means of communications change the perception of science for the general public? These and other interesting questions will be addressed at the 6th Public Communication of Science and Technology Meeting, to be held at CERN on 1-3 February 2001. More than 250 people from all over the world are expected to attend the conference which will be an important meeting place for communication professionals covering the social, political, technical and cultural aspects of science and technology communication. Georges Boixader after Gary Larsson. The conferenc...

  20. A comparison between bridges and force-chains in photoelastic disk packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Cai, Shuxiao; Hu, Zunpeng; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-07

    In a dense granular material, force-chains form naturally as a backbone to support an external load. Due to the limitation of experimental techniques, the determination of the force-chain network in 3D packing is rather difficult, requiring a precise measurement of contact forces between particles. For 3D packing under gravity, it has long been proposed that bridges form as load-bearing structures. Identification of a bridge is relatively easy, requiring only the geometric information of particles. Although both concepts have existed for years, their relationship remains elusive. In this study, we aim towards resolving such a connection by comparing bridges and force-chains in packing of photoelastic disks. No direct correspondence between bridges and force-chains is observed. In addition, when a bridge grows longer, its probability of being a force-chain or part of the force-chain network decreases exponentially. Nonetheless, both are consistent in distinguishing certain properties of packing of strong hysteresis. To test the load-bearing assumption of bridges, stresses of particles in/out of bridges are analysed and compared and only minor differences are found.

  1. Soft-switching PWM full-bridge converters topologies, control, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, Xinbo

    2014-01-01

    Soft-switching PWM full-bridge converters have been widely used in medium-to-high power dc-dc conversions for topological simplicity, easy control and high efficiency. Early works on soft-switching PWM full-bridge converter by many researchers included various topologies and modulation strategies.  However, these works were scattered, and the relationship among these topologies and modulation strategies had not been revealed. This book intends to describe systematically the soft-switching techniques for pulse-width modulation (PWM) full-bridge converters, including the topologies, control and

  2. Bridging Innate and Adaptive Antitumor Immunity Targeting Glycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas Pashov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective immunotherapy for cancer depends on cellular responses to tumor antigens. The role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC in T-cell recognition and T-cell receptor repertoire selection has become a central tenet in immunology. Structurally, this does not contradict earlier findings that T-cells can differentiate between small hapten structures like simple glycans. Understanding T-cell recognition of antigens as defined genetically by MHC and combinatorially by T cell receptors led to the “altered self” hypothesis. This notion reflects a more fundamental principle underlying immune surveillance and integrating evolutionarily and mechanistically diverse elements of the immune system. Danger associated molecular patterns, including those generated by glycan remodeling, represent an instance of altered self. A prominent example is the modification of the tumor-associated antigen MUC1. Similar examples emphasize glycan reactivity patterns of antigen receptors as a phenomenon bridging innate and adaptive but also humoral and cellular immunity and providing templates for immunotherapies.

  3. Psychoanalysis, a bridge between attachment research and neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Mario

    2008-06-01

    Attachment theory and neurobiology are at the forefront of scientific research, particularly in the area of child psychiatry. Several authors have encountered a surprising isomorphism between findings in these areas and concepts central in psychoanalysis. The author postulates that attachment theory is an outcome of the history of the transformation of the old concept of libido now applied interpersonally. The author also postulates that the neurobiology of attachment mediates but does not substitute psychoanalysis for the final understanding of the human bond. Findings in both fields, attachment theory and psychobiology, often compellingly lead to psychoanalytic concepts; on the other hand, the neurobiology of the psyche does not make full sense without the wealth of research conducted by psychoanalysts during the 20th century. The concept of seduction in particular, in its broad sense, is akin to mirroring and attachment and a useful tool in this regard. Although some cling to the idea of the purity of psychoanalysis and see these kin areas as a threat to its integrity, the author believes that psychoanalysis, serving as a bridge between them, can only be enriched by their empirical and experimental outcomes. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis (2008) 68, 148-155. doi:10.1057/ajp.2008.4.

  4. Bridge Crossing Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-07

    Requirement BCS Computer-controlled hydraulic actuation system to impart simulated crossing loads on an entire bridge structure undergoing fatigue test ...structure. Bridge test site with prepared embankments corresponding to the span and bank condition requirements of the bridge under test Conduct real...Center (AEC). (5) Sample size and number of crossings required. The number of required simulated crossings to conduct fatigue testing per the

  5. Bridging the gap between health care professionals and communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Hartley

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Bridging the gap between health care professionals and communities is a difficult task. It involves establishing a culture of community participation and improving the process of communication between the two groups. Effective communication between these groups is not easy. The people concerned often speak different languages, have different levels of education and competence, different priorities in life and generally understand things differently. In addition, the greatest proportion of communication is transmitted non-verbally, through gestures, facial expressions and ‘body language’. This is important for two reasons. Firstly, any feelings of pity, superiority, frustration, dismissal or respect, will almost certainly be transmitted through these alternative modes of communication, they carry much more powerful messages than those contained in what is said. Secondly, many of these non-verbal messages, with the major exception of speech intonation, are visual and are therefore missed by people who cannot see well enough to pick them up. This combines to give an effective recipe for communication breakdown.

  6. Bridging the gap between eye tracking and crowdsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Pierre; Mäki, Toni; Skodras, Evangelos; Hupont, Isabelle; Hirth, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Visual attention constitutes a very important feature of the human visual system (HVS). Every day when watching videos, images or browsing the Internet, people are confronted with more information than they are able to process, and analyze only part of the information in front of them. In parallel, crowdsourcing has become a particularly hot topic, enabling to scale subjective experiments to a large crowd with diversity in terms of nationalities, social background, age, etc. This paper describes a novel framework with the aim to bridge these two fields, by providing a new way of measurements of user's experience in a subjective crowdsourcing experiment. This study goes beyond self-reported methods, and provide a new kind of information for the context of crowdsourcing: visual attention. The results show that it is possible to estimate visual attention, in a non-intrusive manner and without using self-reported methods or specialized equipment, with a precision as high as 14.1% in the horizontal axis and 17.9% in the vertical axis. This accuracy is sufficient for many kinds of measurements that can be efficiently executed only in non-controlled environments..

  7. Bridging data across studies using frequentist and Bayesian estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Lipkovich, Ilya; Marchenko, Olga

    2017-01-01

    In drug development programs, an experimental treatment is evaluated across different populations and/or disease types using multiple studies conducted in countries around the world. In order to show the efficacy and safety in a specific population, a bridging study may be required. There are therapeutic areas for which enrolling patients to a trial is very challenging. Therefore, it is of interest to utilize the available historical information from previous studies. However, treatment effect may vary across different subpopulations/disease types; therefore, directly utilizing outcomes from historical studies may result in a biased estimation of treatment effect under investigation in the target trial. In this article, we propose novel approaches using both frequentist and Bayesian frameworks that allow borrowing information from historical studies while accounting for relevant patient's covariates via a propensity-based weighting. We evaluate the operating characteristics of the proposed methods in a simulation study and demonstrate that under certain conditions these methods may lead to improved estimation of a treatment effect.

  8. Sustainable Bridge Infrastructure Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use...... to procure the most “sustainable” (lifecycle-efficient) bridge through a fair design-build (D-B) tendering process, considering all the main aspects: life-cycle cost (LCC), service life-span, aesthetic demands and environmental impacts (LCA)....

  9. The literacy gaps bridge-building strategies for English language learners and standard English learners

    CERN Document Server

    Soto, Ivannia M

    2009-01-01

    Build bridges of support so English language learners and standard English learners can learn alongside their peers! This comprehensive, research-based guide helps teachers bridge multiple gaps and promote learning for English language learners (ELLs) and standard English learners (SELs). The authors provide strategies, examples, and tools to address: The gap between students and texts: covering word recognition, background knowledge, comprehension, and academic language development The gap between students and teachers: including sociocultural differences between teachers and students and tea

  10. Sub-Nyquist Sampling: Bridging Theory and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mishali, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Sampling theory encompasses all aspects related to the conversion of continuous-time signals to discrete streams of numbers. The famous Shannon-Nyquist theorem has become a landmark in the development of digital signal processing. In modern applications, an increasingly number of functions is being pushed forward to sophisticated software algorithms, leaving only those delicate finely-tuned tasks for the circuit level. In this paper, we review sampling strategies which target reduction of the ADC rate below Nyquist. Our survey covers classic works from the early 50's of the previous century through recent publications from the past several years. The prime focus is bridging theory and practice, that is to pinpoint the potential of sub-Nyquist strategies to emerge from the math to the hardware. In that spirit, we integrate contemporary theoretical viewpoints, which study signal modeling in a union of subspaces, together with a taste of practical aspects, namely how the avant-garde modalities boil down to concr...

  11. Modal Identification and Damage Detection on a Concrete Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.; Zhang, L.

    2002-01-01

    As a part of a research project co-founded by the European Community, a series of 15 damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case. A dense array of instruments allowed the identification...... is to show the application of the FDD-method as an efficient way to perform health monitoring of civil engineering structures. The modal properties, frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes for the different damage cases were compared with those for the undamaged bridge....

  12. Modal Identification and Damage Detection on a Concrete Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle; Zhang, Lingmi

    2007-01-01

    As a part of a research project co-founded by the European Community, a series of 15 damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case. A dense array of instruments allowed the identification...... is to show the application of the FDD method as an efficient way to perform health monitoring of civil engineering structures. The modal properties, frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes for the different damage cases were compared with those for the undamaged bridge....

  13. Research and application of non-clay low damage temporary bridging drilling/completion fluids system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Following the basic theory of protecting gas-reservoirs from damage with the temporary bridging technology,inert calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles,whose diameter is consistent with the size of pores or apertures in the reservoir,were selected as the bridging agent,and modified resolvable starch was selected as filtration loss reducing particles to form the non-clay low damage temporary bridging drilling/completion fluids system (NLTDFS). Under the simulated condition of the well bottom during real drillin...

  14. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Grubelich, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  15. 西北戈壁滩地区冬期混凝土涵节预制质量监控%On quality inspection measures for concrete culvert section prefabricating during winter period gibi deserts of Northwest in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张选锋

    2014-01-01

    From the internal and external factors of concrete,the paper analyzes the reasons for the quality common diseases of the concrete cul-vert section prefabricating during winter period gibi deserts of Northwest in China,mainly explores the construction control measures,and illus-trates the construction difficulties and main points,construction organization and arrangement,and factual measures for the culvert prefabricating of winter period,so as to provide some scientific reference for construction.%从混凝土的内在因素与外界因素两个角度分析了西北戈壁滩地区冬期混凝土涵节预制的质量通病原因,着重对施工控制措施进行了探讨,阐述了冬期涵节预制的施工重难点、施工组织安排及具体措施,为顺利施工提供了科学依据。

  16. RESEARCH ON AUTOMATIC MONITORING TECHNIQUE OF PIPE REPLACED BY BOX CULVERT JACKING PROCESS%箱涵顶进置换管幕顶推过程自动测量技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘国荣; 宋蕴璞; 李怀锋; 张鹏

    2012-01-01

    结合上海金山既有铁路下顶进公路箱涵工程,介绍以自动全站仪为主的智能导向系统的原理及关键技术.实用表明,该系统在实际施工中具有可靠性强、系统运行稳定、测量精度高的特点,可以在恶劣的施工环境中正常运行.%Automatic real - time guidance measurement is the key to modern construction measurement. Nowa-days, in China the new underground 3D traffic engineering method of pipe replaced by box culvert jacking is used, but the manual measurement can not meet the requirement of real-time monitoring. So a set of Total Station-based intelligent automatic guidance system has been developed thus could achieve the measurement automatically and im-prove work efficiency greatly. The principle and key technology of this intelligent guidance system is introduced. In the same time, combined with successful application of culvert jacking highway in the existing railway project in Shanghai Jinshan, this system proved practical and excellent with higher reliability and accuracy.

  17. Recent Research and Applications of Numerical Simulation for Dynamic Response of Long-Span Bridges Subjected to Multiple Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many long-span bridges have been built throughout the world in recent years but they are often subject to multiple types of dynamic loads, especially those located in wind-prone regions and carrying both trains and road vehicles. To ensure the safety and functionality of these bridges, dynamic responses of long-span bridges are often required for bridge assessment. Given that there are several limitations for the assessment based on field measurement of dynamic responses, a promising approach is based on numerical simulation technologies. This paper provides a detailed review of key issues involved in dynamic response analysis of long-span multiload bridges based on numerical simulation technologies, including dynamic interactions between running trains and bridge, between running road vehicles and bridge, and between wind and bridge, and in the wind-vehicle-bridge coupled system. Then a comprehensive review is conducted for engineering applications of newly developed numerical simulation technologies to safety assessment of long-span bridges, such as assessment of fatigue damage and assessment under extreme events. Finally, the existing problems and promising research efforts for the numerical simulation technologies and their applications to assessment of long-span multiload bridges are explored.

  18. Recent research and applications of numerical simulation for dynamic response of long-span bridges subjected to multiple loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Chen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Many long-span bridges have been built throughout the world in recent years but they are often subject to multiple types of dynamic loads, especially those located in wind-prone regions and carrying both trains and road vehicles. To ensure the safety and functionality of these bridges, dynamic responses of long-span bridges are often required for bridge assessment. Given that there are several limitations for the assessment based on field measurement of dynamic responses, a promising approach is based on numerical simulation technologies. This paper provides a detailed review of key issues involved in dynamic response analysis of long-span multiload bridges based on numerical simulation technologies, including dynamic interactions between running trains and bridge, between running road vehicles and bridge, and between wind and bridge, and in the wind-vehicle-bridge coupled system. Then a comprehensive review is conducted for engineering applications of newly developed numerical simulation technologies to safety assessment of long-span bridges, such as assessment of fatigue damage and assessment under extreme events. Finally, the existing problems and promising research efforts for the numerical simulation technologies and their applications to assessment of long-span multiload bridges are explored.

  19. Transection of peripheral nerves, bridging strategies and effect evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJkema-Paassen, J; Jansen, K; Gramsbergen, A; Meek, MF

    2004-01-01

    Disruption of peripheral nerves due to trauma is a frequently Occurring clinical problem. Gaps in the nerve are bridged by guiding the regenerating nerves along autologous grafts or artificial guides. This review gives an overview oil the different methods of nerve repair techniques. Conventional su

  20. Strengthening of a railway bridge with NSMR and CFRP tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Bennitz, Anders; Danielsson, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Strengthening of structures with CFRP is today considered an accepted method to upgrade concrete structures. In this paper two different CFRP strengthening systems are combined to give extended service life to a Swedish double-trough-double-track railway bridge, constructed in concrete with a 10...

  1. Study Based on Bridge Health Monitoring System on Multihazard Load Combinations of Earthquake and Truck Loads for Bridge Design in the Southeast Coastal Areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhang Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to American LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, the current Chinese bridge design code is fully calibrated against gravity load and live load. Earthquake load is generally considered alone and has its own methodology, however, which is not covered in the code in a consistent probability-based fashion. Earthquake load and truck load are the main loads considered in the basis of bridge design in more than 70% of seismic areas in China. They are random processes, and their combination is the main subject of this paper. Seismic characteristics of southeast coastal areas of China are discussed and an earthquake probability curve is calculated through seismic risk analysis. Using measured truck load data from a Bridge Health Monitoring System, the multimodal characteristics of truck load are analyzed and a probability model for a time interval t is obtained by fitting results and reliability theory. Then, a methodology is presented to combine earthquake load and truck load on a probabilistic basis. To illustrate this method, truck load and earthquake load combinations are used. Results conceptually illustrate that truck load and earthquake load are not dominant in southeast coastal areas of China, but the effect of their combination is. This methodology quantitatively demonstrates that the design is controlled by truck load in most ranges; that is, truck load is more important to bridge design in the region.

  2. Deterministic and Probabilistic Analysis of NPP Communication Bridge Resistance Due to Extreme Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králik Juraj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiences from the deterministic and probability analysis of the reliability of communication bridge structure resistance due to extreme loads - wind and earthquake. On the example of the steel bridge between two NPP buildings is considered the efficiency of the bracing systems. The advantages and disadvantages of the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the structure resistance are discussed. The advantages of the utilization the LHS method to analyze the safety and reliability of the structures is presented

  3. Student assistantships: bridging the gap between student and doctor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crossley JGM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available James GM Crossley,1,2 Pirashanthie Vivekananda-Schmidt1 1University of Sheffield School of Medicine, Sheffield, 2Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Chesterfield, UK Abstract: In 2009, the General Medical Council UK (GMC published its updated guidance on medical education for the UK medical schools – Tomorrow's Doctors 2009. The Council recommended that the UK medical schools introduce, for the first time, a clinical placement in which a senior medical student, “assisting a junior doctor and under supervision, undertakes most of the duties of an F1 doctor”. In the UK, an F1 doctor is a postgraduation year 1 (PGY1 doctor. This new kind of placement was called a student assistantship. The recommendation was considered necessary because conventional UK clinical placements rarely provided medical students with opportunities to take responsibility for patients – even under supervision. This is in spite of good evidence that higher levels of learning, and the acquisition of essential clinical and nontechnical skills, depend on students participating in health care delivery and gradually assuming responsibility under supervision. This review discusses the gap between student and doctor, and the impact of the student assistantship policy. Early evaluation indicates substantial variation in the clarity of purpose, setting, length, and scope of existing assistantships. In particular, few models are explicit on the most critical issue: exactly how the student participates in care and how supervision is deployed to optimize learning and patient safety. Surveys indicate that these issues are central to students' perceptions of the assistantship. They know when they have experienced real responsibility and when they have not. This lack of clarity and variation has limited the impact of student assistantships. We also consider other important approaches to bridging the gap between student and doctor. These include supporting the

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Local Scour at Slender and Wide Bridge Piers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef I. Hafez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existing equations for predicting local scour at bridge piers suffer from overprediction of the scour depths which results in higher foundation costs. To tackle this problem, a mathematical model for predicting bridge pier scour is developed herein based on an energy balance theory. The present study equation was compared to commonly used bridge scour equations using scour field data in USA. The developed equation has several advantages among which we have the following: it adds to the understanding of the physics of bridge pier scour, is valid for slender and wide piers, does not suffer from overprediction of scour depths, addresses clear water and live bed scour, and includes the effects of various characteristics of the bed material such as specific gravity (or density, porosity, size, and angle of repose. In addition, the developed equation accounts for the debris effect and aids in the design of scour mitigation methods such as collars, side bars, slots, and pier protective piles.

  5. Recent research and applications of GPS based technology for bridge health monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Today,long-span bridges are being designed to be more flexible and to resist extensive impacts from changes in temperature,severe wind gusts and earthquake tremors. Structural responses (especially displacement) of bridge structures are becoming increasingly important for the finite element (FE) modal updating,structural response prediction and safety evaluation. Methods of global displacement sensing were developed for these needs. This paper presents an overview of current research and development activities in the field of bridge health monitoring using the global positioning system (GPS). The GPS monitoring technology and its accuracy assessment method are also briefly described. Finally,existing problems and promising research efforts in the GPS based bridge health monitoring are discussed.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of flow and mass transfer in electrohydrodynamic liquid bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Wexler, Adam D; Fuchs, Elmar C; Woisetschläger, Jakob; Reiter, Gert; Fuchsjäger, Michael; Reiter, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Here we report on the feasibility and use of magnetic resonance imaging based methods to the study of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) liquid bridges. High speed tomographic recordings through the longitudinal axis of water bridges were used to characterize the mass transfer dynamics, mixing, and flow structure. By filling one beaker with heavy water and the other with light water it was possible to track the spread of the proton signal throughout the total liquid volume. The mixing kinetics are different depending on where the light nuclei are located and proceeds faster when the anolyte is light water. Distinct flow and mixing regions are identified in the fluid volumes and it is shown that the EHD flow at the electrodes can be counteracted by the density difference between water isotopes. MR phase contrast imaging reveals that within the bridge section two separate counter propagating flows pass one above the other in the bridge.

  7. Habits: bridging the gap between personhood and personal identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils-Frederic eWagner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In philosophy, the criteria for personhood (PH at a specific point in time (synchronic, and the necessary and sufficient conditions of personal identity (PI over time (diachronic are traditionally separated. Hence, the transition between both timescales of a person’s life remains largely unclear. Personal habits reflect a decision-making (DM process that binds together synchronic and diachronic timescales. Despite the fact that the actualization of habits takes place synchronically, they presuppose, for the possibility of their generation, time in a diachronic sense. The acquisition of habits therefore rests upon PI over time; that is, the temporal extension of personal decisions is the necessary condition for the possible development of habits. Conceptually, habits can thus be seen as a bridge between synchronic and diachronic timescales of a person’s life. In order to investigate the empirical mediation of this temporal linkage, we draw upon the neuronal mechanisms underlying DM; in particular on the distinction between internally and externally guided DM. Externally guided DM relies on external criteria at a specific point in time (synchronic; on a neural level, this has been associated with lateral frontal and parietal brain regions. In contrast, internally guided DM is based on the person’s own preferences that involve a more longitudinal and thus diachronic timescale, which has been associated with the brain’s intrinsic activity. Habits can be considered to reflect a balance between internally and externally guided DM, which implicates a particular temporal balance between diachronic and synchronic elements, thus linking two different timescales. Based on such evidence, we suggest a habit-based neurophilosophical approach of PH and PI by focusing on the empirically-based linkage between the synchronic and diachronic elements of habits. By doing so, we propose to link together what philosophically has been described and analyzed

  8. 移动模架法在高速公路涵洞施工中的应用%Application of Mobile Scaffolding Method in Construction of Expressway Culvert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于盛彬

    2014-01-01

    Mobile scaffolding method has the characteristics of fast construction, simple process, low engi-neering cost, good quality of engineering, which is widely used in expressway construction. The article ex-pounds the advantages and disadvantages of the mobile scaffolding method. Combined with the engineer-ing example of the concrete culvert, it briefly discusses the application of mobile scaffolding method in the construction of expressway culvert, which can provide a reference for similar projects.%移动模架法具有施工快速、工艺简单、工程成本低、工程质量良好的特点,在高速公路施工中广泛应用。介绍移动模架法的优缺点,并结合具体的涵洞工程实例,简要探讨移动模架法在高速公路涵洞施工中的应用技术,可为类似工程提供参考。

  9. Probabilistic Fatigue Life Prediction of Bridge Cables Based on Multiscaling and Mesoscopic Fracture Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxiang Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue fracture of bridge stay-cables is usually a multiscale process as the crack grows from micro-scale to macro-scale. Such a process, however, is highly uncertain. In order to make a rational prediction of the residual life of bridge cables, a probabilistic fatigue approach is proposed, based on a comprehensive vehicle load model, finite element analysis and multiscaling and mesoscopic fracture mechanics. Uncertainties in both material properties and external loads are considered. The proposed method is demonstrated through the fatigue life prediction of cables of the Runyang Cable-Stayed Bridge in China, and it is found that cables along the bridge spans may have significantly different fatigue lives, and due to the variability, some of them may have shorter lives than those as expected from the design.

  10. Excitation energy transfer in donor-bridge-acceptor systems: a combined quantum-mechanical/classical analysis of the role of the bridge and the solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprasecca, Stefano; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2014-08-21

    The technical application of excitation energy transfer requires a fine control of the geometry of the system. This can be achieved by introducing a chemical bridge between the donor and acceptor moieties that can be tuned in its chemical properties and its length. In such donor-bridge-acceptor systems, however, the role of the bridge in enhancing or depleting the energy transfer efficiency is not easy to predict. Here we propose a computational strategy based on the combination of time-dependent density functional theory, polarizable molecular mechanics and continuum approaches. The resulting three-layer model when applied to the study of the energy transfer process in different porphyrin-based systems, each characterized by a specific donor/acceptor pair and various types of bridges, allows us to dissect the role of through-bond and through-space mechanisms and clarify their dependence on the nature and length of the bridge as well as on the presence of a solvent.

  11. Nano-catalysts: Bridging the gap between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Functionalized nanoparticles have emerged as sustainable alternatives to conventional materials, as robust, high-surface-area heterogeneous catalyst supports. We envisioned a catalyst system, which can bridge the homogenous and heterogeneous system. Postsynthetic surface modifica...

  12. Effects of bridge cable surface roughness and cross-sectional distortion on aerodynamic force coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoni, G.; Georgakis, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations to date have assumed that bridge cables can be modeled as ideal circular cylinders and the associated aerodynamic coefficients are invariant with the wind angle-of-attack. On the other hand, bridge cables are normally characterized by local alterations...... of their inherent surface roughness and shape, which might present a significant disturbance for the surrounding wind flow. The present study focuses on the experimental determination, based on static wind tunnel tests, of the aerodynamic coefficients of full-scale bridge cable section models both perpendicular...... and inclined to the flow, for varying wind angles-of-attack. The wind tunnel test results demonstrate that the aerodynamic coefficients of bridge cables can be significantly affected by the wind angle-of-attack....

  13. The Mutli-objective Optimized Design of Embedded C oncrete Culvert Based on Fluid-structure Couple%基于流固耦合的混凝土埋涵多目标优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛子煜; 陈瑛; 李志双

    2014-01-01

    钢筋混凝土埋涵优化设计是多场、多工况、多变量、多约束和多目标的复杂的离散变量优化问题。以南水北调东线穿黄工程滩地埋管为例,提出了基于流固耦合和极限状态分析的埋涵优化设计方法。用优化软件集成多目标遗传算法NSGA-Ⅱ、参数化流固耦合有限元模型和极限状态分析程序,以埋涵壁厚、钢筋直径、钢筋间距为设计变量,在满足尺寸约束、承载力极限状态约束、限裂约束、构造约束等条件下,以造价最省、裂缝宽度最小为目标函数,得到了多目标优化问题的Pareto最优解集。文章提出的优化设计方法可以自动运行,避免了不同地质、不同埋深的长线路埋涵的重复性手工建模,大大提高了设计分析效率。%The optimized design of the embedded concrete culvert is the complicated discrete variable one which features lots of fields, couples of conditions, many variables, various restrains and multi-objectives.In design of the embedded culverts at Tandi where the south-to-north water diversion project underpasses the Yellow River, for example, the optimized design method for the embedded culvert based on fluid-structure couple and limit state analysis is proposed.By application of the optimization software, the multi-objective ge-netic algorithm NSGA-II, the parameterization fluid-structure finite element model and the limit state analysis program are integrated. With such design variables of the wall thickness of the embedded culvert, reinforcement diameter and reinforcement spacing as well as with the objective function of minimum cost and crack width, the optimum solution set of Pareto of the multiple-objective optimization is derived in condition of satisfying size constrain, bearing capacity limit state restrain, limit crack restrain and structural constrain.The op-timization design method proposed in the paper can automatically run, avoiding the repeat model

  14. The cancer journey: bridging art therapy and museum education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, K; Carman, M; Fitch, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the application of art therapy in assisting cancer patients to visually express their cancer experience on several levels--physically, psychosocially, and spiritually. The art therapy/museum education program was developed in 1996 at the McMichael Canadian Art Collection in partnership with Toronto-Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre-Bayview Support Network. To date, the program has run for three rounds with 16 sessions in each round. The facilitator for all three rounds was a trained art therapist. The program provided an unique opportunity for an arts institution to serve the community at large by offering an artistic outlet in a peaceful, rural setting in contrast to a sterile hospital environment. The specific goals of the program and the general therapeutic benefits of art therapy are described. In addition, the effectiveness of an existential/phenomenological approach in not only serving the cancer population, but also bridging the two diverse disciplines--art therapy and museum education--is explored. It is suggested that an existential therapeutic approach promotes the confrontation and acceptance of death that is necessary in order to lead a more meaningful life. Moreover, a phenomenological approach promotes the act of "seeing" as an essential ingredient in gaining objectivity and bringing unconscious thoughts into consciousness. The importance of social and emotional support in the way of art therapy in addition to medical care is emphasized. Through art therapy, cancer patients are encouraged to discover ways to face pain and misfortune and be creative in their "art of living."

  15. Washington State Department of Transportation Bridge Maintenance and Inspection Guidance for Protected Terrestrial Species

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Marion

    2007-01-01

    Protected wildlife species that utilize the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) bridges and structures may be susceptible to impacts from routine maintenance and inspection activities. In response to community-driven concerns related to the conservation of protected terrestrial species and due to the lack of existing guidance for bridge related activities, WSDOT expanded their Highway Maintenance Environmental Compliance Guidance for Protected Terrestrial Species to include ...

  16. SAFETY ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT FOR BRIDGES HEALTH MONITORING WITH MONTE CARLO METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing requirements of building safety in the past few decades, healthy monitoring and risk assessment of structures is of more and more importance. Especially since traffic loads are heavier, risk Assessment for bridges are essential. In this paper we take advantage of Monte Carlo Methods to analysis the safety of bridge and monitoring the destructive risk. One main goal of health monitoring is to reduce the risk of unexpected damage of artificial objects

  17. 75 FR 62181 - Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... the NBI: steel, concrete, pre-stressed concrete, and other. The category ``other'' includes wood, timber, masonry, aluminum, wrought iron, cast iron, and other. Material type is the predominate type...

  18. Foam-film-stabilized liquid bridge networks in evaporative lithography and wet granular matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Marston, Jeremy O; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-04-23

    Evaporative lithography using latex particle templates is a novel approach for the self-assembly of suspension-dispersed nanoparticles into ordered microwire networks. The phenomenon that drives the self-assembly process is the propagation of a network of interconnected liquid bridges between the template particles and the underlying substrate. With the aid of video microscopy, we demonstrate that these liquid bridges are in fact the border zone between the underlying substrate and foam films vertical to the substrate, which are formed during the evaporation of the liquid from the suspension. The stability of the foam films and thus the liquid bridge network stability are due to the presence of a small amount of surfactant in the evaporating solution. We show that the same type of foam-film-stabilized liquid bridge network can also propagate in 3D clusters of spherical particles, which has important implications for the understanding of wet granular matter.

  19. Foam-film-stabilized liquid bridge networks in evaporative lithography and wet granular matter

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2013-04-23

    Evaporative lithography using latex particle templates is a novel approach for the self-assembly of suspension-dispersed nanoparticles into ordered microwire networks. The phenomenon that drives the self-assembly process is the propagation of a network of interconnected liquid bridges between the template particles and the underlying substrate. With the aid of video microscopy, we demonstrate that these liquid bridges are in fact the border zone between the underlying substrate and foam films vertical to the substrate, which are formed during the evaporation of the liquid from the suspension. The stability of the foam films and thus the liquid bridge network stability are due to the presence of a small amount of surfactant in the evaporating solution. We show that the same type of foam-film-stabilized liquid bridge network can also propagate in 3D clusters of spherical particles, which has important implications for the understanding of wet granular matter. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. Free vibrations of multi-girder and multi-cell box bridges with transverse deformations effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, E.; Frostig, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A general mathematical approach is developed for the free vibration behaviour analysis of multi-girder and multi-cell box bridges with a single or multi span, including the effects of the transverse deformations of the bridge cross-section. The governing equations of motion and the corresponding boundary and continuity conditions are derived via the variational principle of virtual work following Hamilton's principle. The model is general and valid for any boundary and continuity conditions, and is applicable for multi-girder bridges with longitudinal and cross beams and for multi-cell box bridges. The warping and the distortion of the bridge cross-section effects are included in the proposed model. Closed-form solutions of the governing equations are derived and the Newton-Raphson method is used to determine the eigenfrequencies. Numerical examples are presented to validate the proposed model, and are also used to examine the accuracy of other approximate models used in the analysis of bridges. The results of the proposed model are validated through comparison with three-dimensional finite element models. The results reveal that the transverse deformations decrease the magnitudes of the eigenfrequencies of the torsional mode shapes, as well as the high flexural modes.

  1. Bridging Theory and Practice in Teacher Education: Teaching Schools--A Bridge Too Far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, Sarah; Ramsaroop, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    The study reported on in this article stems from the Integrated Strategic Planning Framework for Teacher Education and Development in South Africa (2011). This framework proposes the establishment of teaching schools to strengthen teacher education. This article reports on a qualitative inquiry into the views of school-based personnel and the…

  2. Bridging patterns : An approach to bridge gaps between SE and HCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E; van Welie, M; Bosch, J

    2006-01-01

    Adding usability improving solutions during late stage development is to some extent restricted by the software architecture. However, few software engineers and human-computer interaction engineers are aware of this important constraint and as a result avoidable rework is frequently necessary. In t

  3. Stiffness and Strength of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Bridge Deck Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    This research investigates two principal characteristics that are of primary importance in Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bridge deck applications: STIFFNESS and STRENGTH. The research was undertaken by investigating the stiffness and strength characteristics of the multi-cellular FRP bridge deck systems consisting of pultruded FRP shapes. A systematic analysis procedure was developed for the stiffness analysis of multi-cellular FRP deck systems. This procedure uses the Method of Elasti...

  4. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  5. Fouling control mechanisms of demineralized water backwash: Reduction of charge screening and calcium bridging effects

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng

    2011-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the ionic environment on the charge of colloidal natural organic matter (NOM) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes (charge screening effect) and the calcium adsorption/bridging on new and fouled membranes (calcium bridging effect) by measuring the zeta potentials of membranes and colloidal NOM. Fouling experiments were conducted with natural water to determine whether the reduction of the charge screening effect and/or calcium bridging effect by backwashing with demineralized water can explain the observed reduction in fouling. Results show that the charge of both membranes and NOM, as measured by the zeta potential, became more negative at a lower pH and a lower concentration of electrolytes, in particular, divalent electrolytes. In addition, calcium also adsorbed onto the membranes, and consequently bridged colloidal NOM and membranes via binding with functional groups. The charge screening effect could be eliminated by flushing NOM and membranes with demineralized water, since a cation-free environment was established. However, only a limited amount of the calcium bridging connection was removed with demineralized water backwashes, so the calcium bridging effect mostly could not be eliminated. As demineralized water backwash was found to be effective in fouling control, it can be concluded that the reduction of the charge screening is the dominant mechanism for this. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Feasibility and Costs of Natural Gas as a Bridge to Deep Decarbonization in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. D.; McJeon, H. C.; Muratori, M.; Shi, W.

    2015-12-01

    Achieving emissions reductions consistent with a 2 degree Celsius global warming target requires nearly complete replacement of traditional fossil fuel combustion with near-zero carbon energy technologies in the United States by 2050. There are multiple technological change pathways consistent with this deep decarbonization, including strategies that rely on renewable energy, nuclear, and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. The replacement of coal-fired power plants with natural gas-fired power plants has also been suggested as a bridge strategy to achieve near-term emissions reduction targets. These gas plants, however, would need to be replaced by near-zero energy technologies or retrofitted with CCS by 2050 in order to achieve longer-term targets. Here we examine the costs and feasibility of a natural gas bridge strategy. Using the Global Change Assessment (GCAM) model, we develop multiple scenarios that each meet the recent US Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to reduce GHG emissions by 26%-28% below its 2005 levels in 2025, as well as a deep decarbonization target of 80% emissions reductions below 1990 levels by 2050. We find that the gas bridge strategy requires that gas plants be retired on average 20 years earlier than their designed lifetime of 45 years, a potentially challenging outcome to achieve from a policy perspective. Using a more idealized model, we examine the net energy system costs of this gas bridge strategy compared to one in which near-zero energy technologies are deployed in the near tem. We explore the sensitivity of these cost results to four factors: the discount rate applied to future costs, the length (or start year) of the gas bridge, the relative capital cost of natural gas vs. near-zero energy technology, and the fuel price of natural gas. The discount rate and cost factors are found to be more important than the length of the bridge. However, we find an important interaction as well. At low discount rates

  7. Physical Properties of the Magellanic Bridge Tidal Remnant through Mapped Hα, [SII], and [NII] Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Kathleen; Haffner, L. Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We present the first kinematically resolved [S II] λ6716 and [N II] λ6583 emission maps of the entire Magellanic Bridge that were observed with the Wisconsin Hα Mapper Telescope. Combining these maps with the complementary Hα maps of Barger et al. (2013), we explore the temperature, sulfur and nitrogen ionization state, and sources of the ionization of the warm-ionized gas in the Magellanic Bridge, the SMC-Tail, and the LMC-Bridge interface region. Within the Magellanic Bridge, we find that the low velocity (+100 to +200 km s-1 ) and the high velocity (+200 to +300 km s-1 ) gas have different properties, suggesting that it is composed of at least two separate and coherent filaments. Within the high-velocity filament, a high-velocity ridge of gas—with different properties from the high-velocity structure—extends along the high-latitude edge of the Hα SMC-Tail to low latitude edge LMC-Bridge interface. This ridge coincides with a strip of early-type stars, suggesting that these stars are influencing this gas. We further find that the properties of both the SMC-Tail and LMC-Bridge interface regions have similar properties and therefore are likely affected by similar ionization sources.

  8. Big data and high-performance analytics in structural health monitoring for bridge management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alampalli, Sharada; Alampalli, Sandeep; Ettouney, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) can be a vital tool for effective bridge management. Combining large data sets from multiple sources to create a data-driven decision-making framework is crucial for the success of SHM. This paper presents a big data analytics framework that combines multiple data sets correlated with functional relatedness to convert data into actionable information that empowers risk-based decision-making. The integrated data environment incorporates near real-time streams of semi-structured data from remote sensors, historical visual inspection data, and observations from structural analysis models to monitor, assess, and manage risks associated with the aging bridge inventories. Accelerated processing of dataset is made possible by four technologies: cloud computing, relational database processing, support from NOSQL database, and in-memory analytics. The framework is being validated on a railroad corridor that can be subjected to multiple hazards. The framework enables to compute reliability indices for critical bridge components and individual bridge spans. In addition, framework includes a risk-based decision-making process that enumerate costs and consequences of poor bridge performance at span- and network-levels when rail networks are exposed to natural hazard events such as floods and earthquakes. Big data and high-performance analytics enable insights to assist bridge owners to address problems faster.

  9. An Energy Bridge Too Far? Unconventional Natural Gas Innovations and Eurasia’s Energy Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Treaty Organization OPEC Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries OSCE Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe SCO...states’ principles or actions incense an authoritarian export nation.221 While the 1973 oil embargo may seem a tempting example of this fear, a gas- OPEC ...energy security. During this oil crisis, the United Kingdom was still subjected to OPEC pressure because BP followed the guidance of OPEC instead of

  10. Fatigue stress monitoring and analyses for steel box girder of Runyang Suspension Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying WANG; Zhaoxia LI; Baijian WU

    2008-01-01

    The monitoring of fatigue stress of steel bridge is a key issue of bridge health monitoring and safety assessment. This paper aims to find out the strain history features of the girder components of Runyang Suspension Bridge (RYSB) under vehicle and environmental loading during its first year of service based on the strain-history data recorded by structural health monitoring system installed in the bridge. The fatigue stress spectrums of steel box girders under normal traffic load, heavy trucks and typhoon loads were studied as well as the correlation between varying strain and temperature based on real-time monitoring of temperature histories. The results show that, monitoring on local strain in health monitoring systems of RYSB can effectively provide the information on fatigue stresses. The range of the equivalent fatigue stress on the monitoring location of the bridge is currently low, mainly due to varying traffic loading and temper-ature. There exists significant correlation between varying temperature and mean value of fatigue stress. Effect of the passing of heavy trucks on bridge fatigue is quite signifi-cant since the value of the cumulative fatigue damage generated by heavy trucks is 10 to 100 times larger than that by normal traffic. Therefore, the effect on fatigue cumulative damage due to heavy trucks or overloaded vehicles needs to be monitored and paid much attention to.

  11. Building Bridges: Experiential and Integrative Learning in a Canadian Women's Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Shoshana

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study of student experiences of a Walls to Bridges (W2B) class taught by Faculty of Social Work instructors in a Canadian women's prison. The Walls to Bridges (W2B) program is based on the U. S. Inside-Out Prison Exchange Program and brings students from the university together with students from the prison to study for a…

  12. Inhibitory Effect of Bridged Nucleosides on Thermus aquaticus DNA Polymerase and Insight into the Binding Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Kun Kim

    Full Text Available Modified nucleosides have the potential to inhibit DNA polymerases for the treatment of viral infections and cancer. With the hope of developing potent drug candidates by the modification of the 2',4'-position of the ribose with the inclusion of a bridge, efforts were focused on the inhibition of Taq DNA polymerase using quantitative real time PCR, and the results revealed the significant inhibitory effects of 2',4'-bridged thymidine nucleoside on the polymerase. Study on the mode of inhibition revealed the competitive mechanism with which the 2',4'-bridged thymidine operates. With a Ki value of 9.7 ± 1.1 μM, the 2',4'-bridged thymidine proved to be a very promising inhibitor. Additionally, docking analysis showed that all the nucleosides including 2',4'-bridged thymidine were able to dock in the active site, indicating that the substrate analogs reflect a structural complementarity to the enzyme active site. The analysis also provided evidence that Asp610 was a key binding site for 2',4'-bridged thymidine. Molecular dynamics (MD simulations were performed to further understand the conformational variations of the binding. The root-mean-square deviation (RMSD values for the peptide backbone of the enzyme and the nitrogenous base of the inhibitor stabilized within 0.8 and 0.2 ns, respectively. Furthermore, the MD analysis indicates substantial conformational change in the ligand (inhibitor as the nitrogenous base rotated anticlockwise with respect to the sugar moiety, complemented by the formation of several new hydrogen bonds where Arg587 served as a pivot axis for binding formation. In conclusion, the active site inhibition of Taq DNA polymerase by 2',4'-bridged thymidine suggests the potential of bridged nucleosides as drug candidates.

  13. Einstein-Rosen "Bridge" Revisited and Lightlike Thin-Shell Wormholes

    OpenAIRE

    Guendelman, Eduardo; Nissimov, Emil; Pacheva, Svetlana; Stoilov, Michail

    2016-01-01

    We study in some detail the properties of the mathematically correct formulation of the classical Einstein-Rosen "bridge" as proposed in the original 1935 paper, which was shown in a series of previous papers of ours to represent the simplest example of a static spherically symmetric traversable lightlike thin-shell wormhole. Thus, the original Einstein-Rosen "bridge" is not equivalent to the concept of the dynamical and non-traversable Schwarzschild wormhole, also called "Einstein-Rosen brid...

  14. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  15. BUILDING "BRIDGES" WITH QUALITY ASSURANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The papr describes how, rather than building "bridges" across centuries, quality assurance (QA) personnel have the opportunity to build bridges across technical disciplines, between public and private organizations, and between different QA groups. As reviewers and auditors of a...

  16. Syntheses and Structures of Binaphthyl-bridged Schiff Bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bin; LI Min-xiong; XU Shan-sheng; SONG Hai-bin; WANG Bai-quan

    2008-01-01

    The reaction ofdinaphthofuran with lithium in anhydrous diethyl ether led to a solution of the corresponding C,O-dilithiated intermediate which,upon treatment with DMF at -78 ℃,afforded,after hydrolysis,2'-hydroxy-1,1'-binaphthyl-2-carbaldehyde in a good yield.Then binaphthyl-bridged Schiff bases were prepared by the condensation of 2'-hydroxy-1,1'-binaphthyl-2-carbaldehyde with the corresponding aromatic amines.

  17. Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Organic Non-linear Optical Chromophores with Configurationally and Conformationally Locked Polyene Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    A modular, synthetic scheme was developed for versatile variation of donors, acceptors and polyene bridge length of NLO-chromophores. Configurational...and conformational rigidity of the polyene bridges were realized by making each set of adjacent double and single bond pair part of a fused...cylohexene ring. Substituent effects on the reactions leading to the establishment of the donor, elongation of the fused polyene bridge and the final

  18. 浅埋暗挖法穿越既有桥梁的施工风险控制%Risk control crossing the existing bridge with shallow tunnel construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正宇; 苏洁

    2012-01-01

    According to the possible risks during construction, this paper has established the risk control system of crossing the existing bridge which includes risk identification, risk evaluation, risk handling and risk monitoring by shallow tunnel construction. This system is used in the construction of underground culvert at Western Third Ring road crossing the Huayuan Bridge. The results prove that risk controlling system has managed to reach the expected goal and the operation of existing bridge is safe during the tunnel construction.%从施工中可能存在的风险出发,通过风险识别、风险评估、风险应对和风险监控4个方面建立浅埋暗挖隧道穿越既有桥梁施工风险控制体系,并将其应用于北京西三环暗挖穿越既有花园桥的施工过程.结果表明,穿越施工风险控制达到了预期的控制目标,实现了既有桥梁在隧道施工过程中的安全运营.

  19. Schools In Board - Bridging Arctic Research And Environmental Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D. G.; Barber, L.

    2008-12-01

    Schools on Board (www.arcticnet.ulaval.ca) was created in 2002 to address the outreach objectives of a network of Canadian scientists conducting research in the High Arctic. The program was piloted with great success with the 2004 research program called the Canadian Arctic Shelf Study (CASES). Since then, the S/B program continues as an integral outreach program of the Canadian Network of Centres of Excellence (NCE) known as ArcticNet. The primary objective of the program is to bridge Arctic climate change research with science and environmental education in the public school system. It is a vehicle for scientists and graduate students to share their research program with high schools and the general public. The program encourages schools to include Arctic Sciences into their science programs by linking Arctic research to existing curriculum, providing resources and opportunities to send high school students and teachers into the Arctic to participate in a science expedition on board the Canadian research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen. The field program is an adventure into Arctic research that exposes students and teachers to the objectives and methods of numerous science teams representing a number of research disciplines and institutions from across Canada and beyond. Face-to-face interactions with scientists of all levels (masters, PhD's, researchers, CRC chairs), hands-on experiences in the field and in the labs, and access to state-of-the-art scientific instrumentation, combine to create a powerful learning environment. In addition to hands-on research activities the program introduces participants to many aspects of Canada's North, including local knowledge related to climate change, culture, history, and politics - within the educational program on the ship and the planned visits to Northern communities. During International Polar Year (IPY) Schools on Board collaborated with international researchers and northern agencies from 11 countries to offer one

  20. CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge: Two Institutional Networks Increasing Diversity in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.

    2017-01-01

    We describe two programs, CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge, with the common mission of increasing participation of groups traditionally underrepresented in astronomy, through summer research opportunities, in the case of CAMPARE, scholarships in the case of Cal-Bridge, and significant mentoring in both programs, creating a national impact on their numbers successfully pursuing a PhD in the field.In 7 years, the CAMPARE program has sent 80 students, >80% from underrepresented groups, to conduct summer research at one of 14 major research institutions throughout the country. The graduation rate among CAMPARE scholars is 98%, and of the CAMPARE scholars who have graduated with a Bachelor’s degree, more than 60% have completed or are pursuing graduate education in astronomy or a related field, at institutions including UCLA, UC Riverside, UC Irvine, UC Santa Barbara, USC, Stanford, Univ. of Arizona, Univ. of Washington, and the Fisk-Vanderbilt Master’s-to-PhD program.Now entering its third year, the Cal-Bridge program is a CSU-UC Bridge program comprised of over 75 physics and astronomy faculty from 5 University of California (UC), 9 California State University (CSU), and 14 California Community College (CCC) campuses in Southern California. In the first three years, 22 Cal-Bridge Scholars have been selected, including 11 Hispanic, 3 African-American and 8 female students, 5 of whom are from URM groups. Nineteen (19) of the 22 Cal-Bridge Scholars are first-generation college students. The entire first cohort of 4 Cal-Bridge scholars was accepted to one or more PhD programs in astronomy or physics, including UC Irvine, UC Santa Cruz, UC Davis, Michigan State, and Georgia State Universities. The second cohort of 8 Cal-Bridge scholars is applying to graduate schools this fall.Cal-Bridge provides much deeper mentoring and professional development experiences over the last two years of undergraduate and first year of graduate school to students from this diverse network of higher

  1. Vibration monitoring of long bridges and their expansion joints and seismic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islami Kleidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a number of recently installed Structural Health Monitoring (SHM systems: a on a 2km double suspension bridge; b on a long railway viaduct that has experienced cracking; and c on a steel arch bridge in a seismically active area. Damage detection techniques have been applied based on high-frequency measurements of vibrations, pressure and strain, enabling a proper understanding of the structures’ behaviour to be gained. The diverse range of applications presented, designed in collaboration with structure owners and design engineers, includes damage detection on expansion joints of suspension bridges, crack analysis and correlation with accelerations of high-speed trains, and high-frequency performance monitoring of seismic devices. These case studies, based on both static and dynamic approaches, demonstrate the usefulness and ease of use of such systems, and the enormous gains in efficiency they offer.

  2. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  3. Science For Sendai - Bridging the gap between research and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, J.

    2015-12-01

    Disasters have an enormous cost in lives and livelihoods, but the use of rigorous evidence-based scientific approaches to minimise their impact remains poor. Vast amounts of science which could be readily applied for disaster risk reduction (DRR) is under-utilised, if used at all. Previous international agreements have failed to change this picture, but there is a clear call from the international community that the 2015 Sendai framework should make a difference; it is thus re-appraising how to bridge the chasm that exists between DRR relevant scientists and potential users of their research. There is widespread recognition of the need for risk affected countries and communities to engage in science-based decision-making, but several barriers, such as a lack of infrastructure or necessary skills, institutions, and enforcement of science-based policies require significant attention. There are now incentives for governments to respond: the framework has science embedded throughout and it sets-out national targets against which science uptake can be monitored; similarly, widening access to insurance also demands sound science. Advances such as open-data and models, increasing computational capacity, expanding networks, evolving diverse mobile technologies and the other multiple facets of the big data agenda, also should drive change. So, how does the scientific community need to adapt? Whilst vast amounts of 'DRR-relevant' science has been produced, too little of it can be readily used in DRR science. Much remains highly disciplinary and focused on analysis of limited distributions or single processes with a small number of agents; by contrast real-world DRR problems are commonly complex, with multiple drivers and uncertainties. There is a major need for a trans-disciplinary DRR-focused risk research agenda to evolve. Not only do research funders need to develop and resource risk research, but researchers themselves need to identify that focussing on the bigger risk

  4. 混凝土桥梁事故成因分析及加固策略%Causes of concrete bridge accidents and bridge reinforcement strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军军

    2014-01-01

    通过回顾过去几年发生的一些影响较大的钢筋混凝土梁桥事故,分析了这些事故的原因,最后阐述了对钢筋混凝土梁桥进行加固所常用的一些方法。%By reviewing some of the reinforced concrete girder bridge accidents which have significant impact in the past few years, analyzes the causes of these accidents , and finally expounds the reinforcement of reinforced concrete girder bridge with the commonly used methods .

  5. Analysis, prediction, and case studies of early-age cracking in bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSafty, Adel; Graeff, Matthew K.; El-Gharib, Georges; Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Mike Jackson, N.

    2016-06-01

    Early-age cracking can adversely affect strength, serviceability, and durability of concrete bridge decks. Early age is defined as the period after final setting, during which concrete properties change rapidly. Many factors can cause early-age bridge deck cracking including temperature change, hydration, plastic shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, and drying shrinkage. The cracking may also increase the effect of freeze and thaw cycles and may lead to corrosion of reinforcement. This research paper presents an analysis of causes and factors affecting early-age cracking. It also provides a tool developed to predict the likelihood and initiation of early-age cracking of concrete bridge decks. Understanding the concrete properties is essential so that the developed tool can accurately model the mechanisms contributing to the cracking of concrete bridge decks. The user interface of the implemented computer Excel program enables the user to input the properties of the concrete being monitored. The research study and the developed spreadsheet were used to comprehensively investigate the issue of concrete deck cracking. The spreadsheet is designed to be a user-friendly calculation tool for concrete mixture proportioning, temperature prediction, thermal analysis, and tensile cracking prediction. The study also provides review and makes recommendations on the deck cracking based mainly on the Florida Department of Transportation specifications and Structures Design Guidelines, and Bridge Design Manuals of other states. The results were also compared with that of other commercially available software programs that predict early-age cracking in concrete slabs, concrete pavement, and reinforced concrete bridge decks. The outcome of this study can identify a set of recommendations to limit the deck cracking problem and maintain a longer service life of bridges.

  6. Bridges and barriers to successful transitioning as perceived by adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarelli, Ellen; Ruttenberg, Jean; Segal, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this thematic content analysis we examined the expectations, and perceived facilitators of (referred to as bridges) and barriers to transition to community as reported by adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome. Participants were adolescents/young adults, ages 18-23 years were from the East Coast of the United States. Seventy percent of adolescents hoped for employment (n = 10). Thirty percent desired to find a partner and raise a family. Perceived barriers were: self-assessed behavioral problems, self-assessed associated features, other personal factors, and institutional factors. Bridges to facilitate transition were: accommodations in the community, cognitive abilities, personal qualities/strengths, and mentor's qualities.

  7. Non-destructive inspection protocol for reinforced concrete barriers and bridge railings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintakunta, Satish R.; Boone, Shane D.

    2014-02-01

    Reinforced concrete highway barriers and bridge railings serve to prevent errant vehicles from departing the travel way at grade separations. Despite the important role that they play in maintaining safety and their ubiquitous nature, barrier inspection rarely moves beyond visual inspection. In August 2008, a tractor-trailer fatally departed William Preston Lane, Jr. Memorial Bridge after it dislodged a section of the bridge barrier. Investigations following the accident identified significant corrosion of the anchor bolts attaching the bridge railing to the bridge deck. As a result of the information gathered during its investigation of the accident, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) made recommendations to the Federal Highway Administration concerning Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of concrete bridge railings. The Center for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center in McLean, VA is currently evaluating feasibility of using four technologies - ground penetrating radar (GPR), ultrasonic pulse-echo, digital radiography and infrared thermal imaging methods to develop bridge inspection methods that augment visual inspections, offer reliable measurement techniques, and are practical, both in terms of time and cost, for field inspection work. Controlled samples containing predefined corrosion levels in reinforcing steel were embedded at barrier connection points for laboratory testing. All four NDE techniques were used in the initial phase I testing. An inspection protocol for detecting and measuring the corrosion of reinforced steel embedded in the anchorage system will be developed as part of phase II research. The identified technologies shall be further developed for field testing utilizing a structure with a barrier in good condition and a structure with a barrier in poor condition.

  8. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  9. On maintenance strategies of roads and bridges%谈公路桥梁养护对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文峰

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes the meaning and aims of the road and bridge maintenance,illustrates factual maintenance measures of bridges and roads from the bridge beam maintenance,bridge pier maintenance,and deck maintenance,so as to prolong the life of roads and bridges and re-duce the times and cost of the roads and bridge maintenance by the maintenance measures.%分析了公路桥梁养护的意义及目的,从桥梁梁板养护、桥梁墩台养护、桥面铺装养护三方面,阐述了公路桥梁的具体养护措施,以延长公路桥梁的使用年限,减少公路桥梁修复的次数与成本。

  10. The Bridges of Taishun County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaJianhe

    2003-01-01

    The American film The Bridges of Madison County captured the imagination of many Chinese moviegoers with its bittersweet love story and scenes of rustic covered bridges. But the U.S. can't lay sole claim to such spectacular rural sights:China has its own county worldrenowned for unforgettable bridges.

  11. Mechanics model of additional longitudinal force transmission between bridges and continuously welded rails with small resistance fasteners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庆元; 周小林; 曾志平; 杨小礼

    2004-01-01

    A new mechanics model, which reveals additional longitudinal force transmission between the continuously welded rails and the bridges, is established on the fact that the influence of the mutual relative displacement among the rail, the sleeper and the beam is taken into account. An example is presented and numerical results are compared. The results show that the additional longitudinal forces calculated with the new model are less than those of the previous, especially in the case of the flexible pier bridges. The new model is also suitable for the analysis of the additional longitudinal force transmission between rails and bridges of ballastless track with small resistance fasteners without taking the sleeper displacement into account, and compared with the ballast bridges, the ballastless bridges have a much stronger additional longitudinal force transmission between the continuously welded rails and the bridges.

  12. Condition Assessment on Thermal Effects of a Suspension Bridge Based on SHM Oriented Model and Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to carry out the condition assessment on temperature distribution and thermal effects of a long span suspension bridge. The structural health monitoring (SHM oriented data analysis is first performed and several indices are developed to process the time-varying temperature, displacement, and strain responses. An analytical procedure based on heat transfer theory is presented to determine the temperature distributions within the bridge. The fine finite element models of the deck plate, the cross frame, and the bridge tower are constructed for thermal analysis. A new approach to the thermal-structural coupling analysis of long span bridges is proposed to examine the structural thermal effects. The feasibility and validity of the proposed data process method and the new approach for thermal-structural coupling analysis are examined through detailed numerical simulation. The numerical results are compared with the field measurement data obtained from the long-term monitoring system of the bridge and they show a very good agreement, in terms of temperature distribution in different time and in different seasons. This exercise verifies the accuracy of the heat transfer analysis employed and the effectiveness and validity of the proposed approaches for data processing and thermal-structural coupling analysis.

  13. Reinforced concrete bridges: effects due to corrosion and concrete young modulus variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. C. Mendes

    Full Text Available Most of the Brazilian bridges of federal road network are made of reinforced concrete and are more than 30 years old, with little information about the mechanical properties of their constitutive materials. Along the service life of these bridges much modification occurred on vehicles load and geometry and in design standard. Many of them show signs of concrete and steel deterioration and their stability conditions are unknown. With the aim of contributing to the structural evaluation of reinforced concrete bridges it was decided to analyze the stresses in reinforced concrete bridge sections to verify the effects due to reinforcement corrosion and variation of the concrete Young modulus on the stress distribution regarding several load patterns and cracking effects in a representative bridge of the Brazilian road network with different longitudinal reinforcement taxes and two concrete Young modulus, Ec and 0.5Ec, and with different percentage of reinforcement corrosion. The analysis considered two finite element models: frame and shell elements as well as solid elements. The results indicate that these variation effects are more significant in reinforcement bars than in concrete.

  14. Endodontics pastes formulated with copaiba oil: action on oral microbiota and dentin bridge formation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gosuen Gonçalves Dias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the effect of pastes formulated with calcium hydroxide P.A. and different vehicles (saline solution - paste A and Copaifera langsdorffii Desfon oil - paste B on oral microorganisms and dentin bridge formation in dogs. The antimicrobial action of the pastes and their components was analysed by the minimum inhibitory concentration in agar gel technique. The components were diluted and tested on fifteen standard strains of microorganisms associated with endodontic diseases. The microorganisms were cultivated and after incubation data was analysed using One-Way ANOVA and Turkey's test (P≤0.05. Four superior incisors of ten animals were used to evaluate dentin bridge formation. Two incisors were capped with paste A (GA and two with paste B (GB. After 90 days, the teeth were extracted for histological analysis and the degree of dentin bridge formation evaluated. Data was analysed by the Kruskal-Wallis test (P<0.05. The pastes and their components were classified in the following decreasing order of antimicrobial action: calcium hydroxide P.A., paste A, paste B and Copaifera langsdorffii Desfon oil. Calcium hydroxide P.A. showed significantly higher antimicrobial action than the pastes or their vehicles. No significant difference was observed between the two pastes in dentin bridge formation. Based on the microorganisms studied, it can be concluded that the pastes analysed showed similar antimicrobial potential but differed significantly from their individual components. No significant difference was observed in dentin bridge formation between the different pastes tested.

  15. Tidal Energy Conversion Installation at an Estuarine Bridge Site: Resource Evaluation and Energy Production Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnik, M.; Gagnon, I.; Baldwin, K.; Bell, E.

    2015-12-01

    The "Living Bridge" project aims to create a self-diagnosing, self-reporting "smart bridge" powered by a local renewable energy source, tidal energy - transforming Memorial Bridge, a vertical lift bridge over the tidal Piscataqua River connecting Portsmouth, NH and Kittery, ME, into a living laboratory for researchers, engineers, scientists, and the community. The Living Bridge project includes the installation of a tidal turbine at the Memorial Bridge. The energy converted by the turbine will power structural health monitoring, environmental and underwater instrumentation. Utilizing locally available tidal energy can make bridge operation more sustainable, can "harden" transportation infrastructure against prolonged grid outages and can demonstrate a prototype of an "estuarine bridge of the future". A spatio-temporal tidal energy resource assessment was performed using long term bottom-deployed Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) at two locations: near the planned deployment location in 2013-14 for 123 days and mid-channel in 2007 for 35 days. Data were evaluated to determine the amount of available kinetic energy that can be converted into usable electrical energy on the bridge. Changes in available kinetic energy with ebb/flood and spring/neap tidal cycles and electrical energy demand were analyzed. The target deployment site exhibited significantly more energetic ebb tides than flood tides, which can be explained by the local bathymetry of the tidal estuary. A system model is used to calculate the net energy savings using various tidal generator and battery bank configurations. Different resource evaluation methodologies were also analyzed, e.g., using a representative ADCP "bin" vs. a more refined, turbine-geometry-specific methodology, and using static bin height vs. bin height that move w.r.t. the free surface throughout a tidal cycle (representative of a bottom-fixed or floating turbine deployment, respectively). ADCP operating frequencies and bin

  16. 33 CFR 115.70 - Advance approval of bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advance approval of bridges. 115... BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.70 Advance approval of bridges. (a) The General Bridge Act of 1946 requires the approval of the location and plans of bridges...

  17. Coupled Vibration of Long-Span Railway Curved Girder Bridges and Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Deshan; Li Qiao

    2005-01-01

    The structure of a long curved girder bridge is represented with a three-dimensional curved finite element model. Each 4-axle vehicle is modeled by a dynamic system of 35 degrees of freedom. The random irregularities of the track are generated from a power spectral density function under the given track condition. The dynamic interaction between the bridge and train is realized through the contact forces between the wheels and track. Then based on these models, the coupled equations of motion are solved by applying the time-integration and iteration techniques to the coupled system. The proposed formulation and the associated computer program are then applied to a real curved girder bridge. The dynamic responses of the bridge-vehicle system and the derailments and offload factors related to the riding and running safeties of vehicles are computed. The results show that the formulation presented in this paper can well predict dynamic behaviors of both bridge and train with reasonable computation efforts.

  18. Field measurement on wind characteristic and buffeting response of the Runyang Suspension Bridge during typhoon Matsa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Field measurement on wind characteristic and buffeting response of existing bridge is of great value to the development of bridge wind engineering,and the structural health monitoring system(SHMS) em-ployed in many long-span bridges provide a research basis for the field measurement.In order to pro-vide reliable basis for wind resistant evaluation of Runyang Suspension Bridge(RSB),two anemome-ters and 85 accelerometers were installed in the SHMS of RSB.In August 2005,Typhoon Matsa crossed over Jiangsu,the SHMS timely recorded the typhoon and structural vibration responses.In this paper by using the time-frequency technique and statistical theory,the recorded data were analyzed to obtain the strong wind characteristics,the buffeting response characteristics of the cable and deck,and the variation of buffeting response RMS versus wind speed.Results obtained in this study can be em-ployed to validate the credibility of current buffeting response analysis theory techniques,and provide reference values for wind resistant evaluation of other long-span bridges.

  19. Field measurement on wind characteristic and buffeting response of the Runyang Suspension Bridge during typhoon Matsa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; LI AiQun; GUO Tong; XIE Jing

    2009-01-01

    Field measurement on wind characteristic and buffeting response of existing bridge is of great value to the development of bridge wind engineering, and the structural health monitoring system (SHMS) em-ployed in many long-span bridges provide a research basis for the field measurement. In order to pro-vide reliable basis for wind resistant evaluation of Runyang Suspension Bridge (RSB), two anemome-ters and 85 accelerometers were installed in the SliMS of RSB. In August 2005, Typhoon Matsa crossed over Jiangsu, the SHMS timely recorded the typhoon and structural vibration responses. In this paper by using the time-frequency technique and statistical theory, the recorded data were analyzed to obtain the strong wind characteristics, the buffeting response characteristics of the cable and deck, and the variation of buffeting response RMS versus wind speed. Results obtained in this study can be em-ployed to validate the credibility of current buffeting response analysis theory techniques, and provide reference values for wind resistant evaluation of other long-span bridges.

  20. Surgical outcome and clinical follow-up in patients with symptomatic myocardial bridging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiao-hong; WANG Shui-yun; XU Jian-ping; SONG Yun-hu; SUN Han-song; TANG Yue; DONG Chao; YANG Yue-jin; HU Sheng-shou

    2007-01-01

    Background Myocardial bridging with systolic compression of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) may be associated with myocardial ischaemia. The clinical outcome in patients with surgical treatment for symptomatic myocardial bridging remains undetermined. This study assessed the middle- and long-term results of surgical treatment for symptomatic myocardial bridging.Methods From 1997 to 2006, 37 463 patients received selective coronary angiography in the Fuwai Cardiovascular Hospital, Beijing, China. Of these, 484 patients had angiographic diagnosis of myocardial bridging. Of the 484 patients,35 underwent surgery for treatment of myocardial bridging with significant systolic arterial compression. Among the surgical treatment patients, 24 presented with other cardiac disorders, and the remaining 11 symptomatic patients with isolated myocardial bridging were included in the follow-up study.Results The angiographic prevalence of myocardial bridging was 1.3% in this study. The coronary angiographies of the 11 patients revealed myocardial bridging in the middle segment of LAD causing systolic compression ≥75% (ranging from 75% to 90%). The mean age of patients was 48.4 years. Surgical myotomy was performed in 3 patients and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 8 patients. Eight patients were operated on with an off-pump approach and 3 with a cardiopulmonary bypass technique after median sternotomy. Conversion to on-pump CABG surgery was necessary in 1 patient because of perforation of the right ventricle. The left internal mammary artery was used in all patients with CABG.The acute clinical success rate was 100% with respect to the absence of myocardial infarction, death or other major in-hospital complications. All of the patients were followed up clinically. The median follow-up was 35.3 months (range: 6 to 120 months). Nine patients were free from symptoms and one of them continued taking beta blockers. The remaining 2 patients with myotomy had

  1. Design and Construction of a 50m Single Span Ultra High Performance Ductile Concrete Composite Road Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voo - Yen Lei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A single span 50m long prestressed road bridge was constructed under Public Works Department in the State of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia contract recently. The bridge was constructed at a small village, Kampung Linsum, crossing a river, Sungai Linggi. To date, this bridge is the Malaysia first and may also be the world longest composite road bridge which made from ultra-high performance ductile concrete (UHPdC. This paper presents the feature of the UHPdC precast girder; brief in-sight of the manufacturing of the girder; the construction sequence of the bridge; the design method and lastly the environmental impact calculation. The midspan deflections of the bridge at different construction history were compared against the collected field data and it showed that the calculated values generally agree well with the field data.

  2. 75 FR 49408 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Bridges AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... corrections and editorial, organizational, and conforming amendments and these changes will have no... Property Rights. Civil Justice Reform This rule meets applicable standards in sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2)...

  3. Equilibrium of the floating water bridge: a theoretical and experimental study

    CERN Document Server

    Namin, Reza Montazeri

    2013-01-01

    The floating water bridge is the phenomenon of suspension of a water thread between two beakers with a high voltage applied in between. The equilibrium of this system is investigated assuming both the surface tension force and the tension caused by the electric field within the dielectric material. It was shown experimentally that the deflection of the bridge and its diameter are not independent; this fact was not explained before and in the current paper we show that the effect of surface tension in equilibrium of the bridge would explain it. The deflection of the bridge was calculated theoretically and was experimented, and quantitative agreement was shown while previous theories did not match with the experiments. Also the equilibrium of the bridge in the longitudinal direction is studied, explaining the main effect of the electric field and assuming water as a conductive to calculate the electric field. The non-uniform electric filed is suggested to be an important issue in this case. The conditions at th...

  4. Full scale monitoring of wind and traffic induced response of a suspension bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheynet Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a full-scale analysis of wind and traffic-induced vibrations of a long-span suspension bridge in complex terrain. Several wind and acceleration sensors have been installed along the main span on Lysefjord Bridge in Norway. In the present study, three days of continuous records are analysed. Traffic-induced vibrations are dominant at low and moderated wind speed, with non-negligible effects on the overall bridge response for heavy vehicles only. Traffic and wind-induced vibrations are compared in terms of root mean square of the acceleration response, and three simples approaches are proposed to isolate records dominated by wind-induced vibration. The first one relies on the separation of nocturnal and diurnal samples. The second one is based on the evaluation of the time-varying root mean square of the acceleration response. The last one evaluates the relative importance of the high frequency domain of the acceleration bridge response. It appears that traffic-induced vibrations may have to be taken into account for the buffeting analysis of long-span bridge under moderated wind.

  5. A Summary Review of Correlations between Temperatures and Vibration Properties of Long-Span Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Dong Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The shift of modal parameters induced by temperature fluctuation may mask the changes of vibration properties caused by structural damage and result in false structural condition identification. Thoroughly understanding the temperature effects on vibration properties of long-span bridges becomes an especially important issue before vibration-based damage detection methodologies are applied in real bridges. This paper presents an overview of current research activities and developments in the field of correlations between temperatures and vibration properties of long-span bridges. The theoretical derivation methods using classical structural dynamics and closed-form formulations are first briefly introduced. Then the trend analysis methods that are intended to extract the degree of variability in vibration property under temperature variation for different bridges by numerical analysis, laboratory test, or field monitoring are reviewed in detail. Following that, the development of quantitative models to quantify the temperature influence on vibration properties is discussed including the linear model, nonlinear model, and learning model. Finally, some promising research efforts for promoting the study of correlations between temperatures and vibration properties of long-span bridges are suggested.

  6. 76 FR 72423 - Bridging the Idea Development Evaluation Assessment and Long-Term Initiative and Total Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    .... FDA-2011-N-0780] Bridging the Idea Development Evaluation Assessment and Long-Term Initiative and Total Product Life Cycle Approaches for Evidence Development for Surgical Medical Devices and Procedures... entitled ``Bridging the Idea Development Evaluation Assessment and Long-Term Initiative and Total...

  7. Research on Selections of Bridge Site and Type of Hutiaoxia Jinsha River Bridge%虎跳峡金沙江大桥方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 陈克坚; 游励晖

    2013-01-01

    Research purposes:The Hutiaoxia Jinsha River Bridge is the key project of Lijiang-Xianggelila Railway and is located in the sensitive environmental and high seismic intensity region with the active fault.The reasonable bridge site and type should be selected for this bridge on consideration of the railway alignment,environment protection,topography,geological condition and the plan of hydraulic engineering on the midstream of the river.Research conclusions:(1)Using the deck type steel braced arch at the No.8 bridge site(416m) of the Hutaioxia Jinsha River Bridge is the best engineering plan.Using the steel truss suspension bridge at No.27 bridge site (98 + 660 +98 m) can remain the condition for the hydroelectric plan of river and can get the better economic and social benefits.(2) The deck type steel braced arch has features of the good load bearing capacity,good rigidity and nice looking and is suitable for the high mountain and deep valley area,but it produces the impact on the water storage and shipping under bridge because the arch rib is installed on bottom of the structure.(3) The steel truss suspension bridge has the features of the fine anti-seismic performance and good rigidity to meet the train requirement.(4) The research result can provide the reference to the type selection of the large span railway bridge in mountain and deep valley area.%研究目的:虎跳峡金沙江大桥为丽香铁路的重点控制性工程.大桥桥址位于环境敏感区、高烈度地震区及断裂发育带,需要综合线路走线、环保、地形、地质情况及金沙江中游水电开发规划的影响,选择虎跳峡金沙江大桥的合理桥位及桥式方案.研究结论:(1)虎跳峡金沙江大桥的8号桥位416 m上承式钢桁拱桥是最优的工程方案,27号桥位(98+660 +98)m钢桁梁悬索桥可以为规划中的水电开发预留条件,整体上经济、社会效应更好;(2)上承式钢桁拱桥承载能力高、刚度大、造型优美,适用于

  8. 山地城市高落差"嵌岩式跌水箱涵"排水系统设计%Design of Drainage System of Rock-socketed Water Drop Box Culverts with High Fall in Mountainous City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智; 余薇薇; 毕生兰; 张勤; 胡建; 陈杰云

    2011-01-01

    山地城市地形坡度较大、地面情况较复杂,排水管道系统上、下端落差大.在设计某排水管道系统时,综合考虑了当地地势、地质条件以及周边环境,在落差为43 m的"雨、污水瀑布"处采用钢筋混凝土嵌岩式跌水箱涵的方式将该处污水截流,末端连接架空球墨铸铁管将污水排至主干管.雨季部分雨水进入箱涵及管道,大部分雨水通过溢流堰溢出.设计充分利用了"雨、污水瀑布"冲刷形成的梯级岩石,采用"嵌岩式跌水箱涵"收集污水,从根本上改善了周边环境,为相关工程提供了设计参考.%In the mountainous cities, the terrain slope is steep, the ground is relatively complex,and the drainage pipe system has big ups and downs.After the comprehensive consideration of local topography, geology conditions and the surrounding environment, the design of a drainage pipe system adopts the reinforced concrete rock-socketed drop water box culverts at the rainwater and sewage waterfall with a drop of 43 m to intercept the sewage and drain it to the trunk pipe through overhead ductile iron pipes.In the rainy season, a part of rainwater enters the box culverts and the pipeline, and most rainwater overflows through the overflow weir.The design makes full use of stair-shaped rock formed by the rainwater and sewage waterfall, and the rock-socketed drop water box culverts is used to collect sewage, which can radically improve the surrounding environment and provides a reference to the relevant projects.

  9. Bridge Busters: The 397th Bombardment Group (Medium) and the B-26 Marauder in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    wounding many more. With rising tension in London, Churchill implored Eisenhower to increase attacks against V-Weapons targets. Eisenhower... artery from Cologne to the battle area. German forces repaired the bridge, requiring the Bridge Busters to return on 3 February. The results of that...Dusseldorf and Coblenz. Bridges such as Ahrweiler and Mayen were primary arteries for German troop movements. Ground commanders specifically

  10. Art History in Education: Students and Teachers Bridging Artworlds and Lifeworlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeon, Penny

    1994-01-01

    Examines the work of Jurgen Habermas and Arthur Danto and develops a conceptual structure that views art education as an interpretive and reflective network that bridges school and life experiences. Contends that visual arts contribute to the development of reflective capacities. (CFR)

  11. Study on Fatigue Behavior of Anchorage of Cable and Girder of Long Span Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A full scale model test is done and a FEM model is established toinvestigate the fatigue behavior of the Nancha cable-stayed bridge of the Nanjing Second Yangtz River Bridge, a long span steel bridge with a main span of 628 m. The results of test and FEM are analyzed and compared. It is shown that they are in good agreement. It is verified that the fatigue characteristic of the anchorage structure of cable and girder of the bridge satisfies the requirements specified by Chinese, British and American codes.

  12. High energy x-ray radiography and computed tomography of bridge pins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R E; Logan, C M; Martz, H E; Updike, E; Waters, A M

    1999-05-01

    Bridge pins were used in the hanger assemblies for some multi-span steel bridges built prior to the 1980's, and are sometimes considered fracture critical elements of a bridge. During a test on a bridge conducted by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), ultrasonic field inspection results indicated that at least two pins contained cracks. Several pins were removed and selected for further examination. This provided an excellent opportunity to learn more about these pins and the application of x-ray systems at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as well as to learn more about the application of different detectors recently obtained by LLNL. Digital radiographs and computed tomography (CT) were used to characterize the bridge pins, using a LINAC x-ray source with a 9-MV bremsstrahlung spectrum. We will describe the performance of two different digital radiographic detectors. One is a detector system frequently used at LLNL consisting of a scintillator glass optically coupled to a CCD camera. The other detector is a new amorphous silicon detector recently acquired by LLNL.

  13. Life-Cycle Monitoring of Long-Span PSC Box Girder Bridges through Distributed Sensor Network: Strategies, Methods, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring (SHM has attracted much attention in recent years, which enables early warnings of structural failure, condition assessments, and rational maintenance/repair strategies. In the context of bridges, many long-span steel bridges in China have been installed with the SHM systems; however, the applications of the SHM in prestressed concrete (PSC bridges are still rather limited. On the other hand, the PSC box girder bridges are extensively used in highway and railway systems and premature damage of these bridges is often reported, resulting in considerable maintenance and/or replacement costs. First, this paper presents a state-of-art review on the SHM of long-span PSC bridges. Monitoring strategies, methods, and previous applications for these bridges are summarized and discussed. In order to well capture the behavior of the bridge during its whole life and to maximize the use of sensors, a life-cycle monitoring strategy is proposed, in which the sensor layout is determined according to requirements for construction monitoring, completion test, and in-service monitoring. A case study is made on a three-span PSC box girder bridge in China. The system configuration, sensor layout, and data communications, and so forth, are presented. The up-to-date monitored structural responses are analyzed and compared with the design values.

  14. parametric modeling and computing of multi-tower suspension bridge based on ANSYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhaoxiang; Zhao An; Song Jianyong; Yang Yun

    2012-01-01

    Based on FEM (finite element method) program ANSYS and the OpenGL graphics, this paper develops the parametric modeling module and the computing module of the multi-tower suspension bridge, the modules being embedded into the ANSYS system, and the parametric modeling module parameters can be entered by way of interface, which can fast establish a multi-tower suspension bridge model. Calculation module can establish load conditions for the features of road bridge and specifications, in which multiple conditions can be defined and solved automatically. Postprocessing part of the solution also serves the results of the subtotals and selects the output, so that the results of the output and finishing work have become more convenient and easier, and also the results can be saved in word, excel and other different file types.

  15. Bridges and barriers to health: her story - Emirati women's health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Wendy Wilkins; Honein, Gladys

    2007-03-01

    Health care services in the United Arab Emirates have developed rapidly in the last 30 years fueled by oil revenues. These services have been planned and provided predominantly by non-nationals, with mixed success. The authors identify aspects of the health care system and the sociocultural environment that create both barriers and bridges to holistic health for Emirati women. Barriers include early/consanguineous marriage, frequent childbearing, polygamy, and care that is lacking in competence and cultural sensitivity. Bridges include Islam, folk medicine, cultural traditions, and the opportunity to travel abroad for health care. Maids are seen as both a barrier and bridge at different times. Recommendations for future improvements include listening to Emirati women and providing more gender-appropriate, holistic, and culturally congruent programs.

  16. Bridge technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. As LANs have proliferated, new technologies and system concepts have come to the fore. One of the key issues is how to interconnect networks. One means of interconnection is to use a 'bridge'. Other competing technologies are repeaters, routers, and gateways. Bridges permit traffic isolation, connect network segments together and operate at the MAC layer. Further, because they operate at the MAC layer, they can handle a variety of protocols such as TCP/IP, SNA, and X.25. This report focuses on the specific technology of bridging two netw

  17. Bridge Building and Other Possible Metaphors for Patching over Discrepancies between Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The next several pages are intended as a "Commentary" on the six target articles bundled together as a Special Issue of the "Journal of Cognition and Development"--literature reviews and research reports all intended to "build bridges" between the study of cognitive development in typical and atypical populations.

  18. Bridging Literary and Philosophical Genres: Judgement, Reflection and Education in Camus' "The Fall"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Both literature and philosophy, as genres of writing, can enable us to address important ontological, epistemological and ethical questions. One author who makes it possible for readers to bridge these two genres is Albert Camus. Nowhere is this more evident than in Camus' short novel, "The Fall". "The Fall", through the character and words of…

  19. Seismic fragility analysis of typical pre-1990 bridges due to near- and far-field ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Araliya; Razzaghi, Mehran S.; Jara, José; Varum, Humberto

    2016-03-01

    Bridge damages during the past earthquakes caused several physical and economic impacts to transportation systems. Many of the existing bridges in earthquake prone areas are pre-1990 bridges and were designed with out of date regulation codes. The occurrences of strong motions in different parts of the world show every year the vulnerability of these structures. Nonlinear dynamic time history analyses were conducted to assess the seismic vulnerability of typical pre-1990 bridges. A family of existing concrete bridge representative of the most common bridges in the highway system in Iran is studied. The seismic demand consists in a set of far-field and near-field strong motions to evaluate the likelihood of exceeding the seismic capacity of the mentioned bridges. The peak ground accelerations (PGAs) were scaled and applied incrementally to the 3D models to evaluate the seismic performance of the bridges. The superstructure was assumed to remain elastic and the nonlinear behavior in piers was modeled by assigning plastic hinges in columns. In this study the displacement ductility and the PGA are selected as a seismic performance indicator and intensity measure, respectively. The results show that pre-1990 bridges subjected to near-fault ground motions reach minor and moderate damage states.

  20. Simulating the Effects of Surface Roughness on Reinforced Concrete T Beam Bridge under Single and Multiple Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kalyankar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the application of the spatial system of finite element modeling for the vehicle-bridge interaction on reinforced concrete US Girder Bridge in order to obtain the effect of surface roughness. Single vehicle and multiple vehicles on reinforced concrete T beam bridge were studied with variable surface roughness profiles. The effects of six different surface roughness profiles (very good, good, measured, average, poor, and very poor were investigated for vehicle-bridge interaction. The values of the Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF were obtained for single and multiple vehicles on T Beam Bridge for different surface roughness profiles, along with the distances between the axles of heavy vehicle. It was observed that when the bridge has very good, good, measured, and average surface roughness, the DAF values for the single vehicle over the bridge were observed to be within acceptable limits specified by AASHTO. However, for the bridge with multiple vehicles only very good and measured surface roughness profiles showed a DAF and vehicle axle distances within the acceptable limits. From the current studies, it was observed that the spatial system showed reliable responses for predicting the behavior of the bridge under variable road surface roughness conditions and was reliable in vehicle axle detection, and therefore, it has a potential to be use for realistic simulations.

  1. Sustainable Bridges – A European Integrated Research Project – Background Overview and Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Elfgren, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    of energy and release of greenhouse gases. To help our society to be more sustainable, it is important to retain and use what we already have where possible, rather than investing in new structures. Instead of tearing down old, often beautiful, railway bridges and replacing them with new ones, we need...... to preserve and upgrade them by using better assessment, monitoring and strengthening methods. This was also the aim of the European Integrated Research Project “Sustainable Bridges – Assessment for Future Traffic Demands and Longer Lives” when it was accepted for funding by the European Commission in 2003...... the residual service lives of existing bridges by up to 25% 3. enhance management, repair and strengthening systems The project started in December 2003 and was finished in the end of 2007. A consortium consisting of 32 partners drawn from railway undertakings, consultants, contractors, research institutes...

  2. National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NBI is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 600,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate Highways,...

  3. Characterization of Spermatogonial Stem Cells Lacking Intercellular Bridges and Genetic Replacement of a Mutation in Spermatogonial Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells have a potential of gene therapy for regenerative medicine. Among various stem cells, spermatogonial stem cells have a unique characteristic in which neighboring cells can be connected by intercellular bridges. However, the roles of intercellular bridges for stem cell self-renewal, differentiation, and proliferation remain to be elucidated. Here, we show not only the characteristics of testis-expressed gene 14 (TEX14) null spermatogonial stem cells lacking intercellular bridges but...

  4. Effect of nonlinearity of restrainer and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Changfeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During an earthquake, the nonlinearity of the bridge structure mainly occurs at the supports, bridge piers and restrainers. When entering nonlinear stage, members of the bridge structure affect the elasto-plastic seismic response of the whole structure to a certain extent; for multi-span continuous bridges, longitudinal restrainers can be installed on the movable piers to optimise the distribution of seismic force and enable the movable piers to bear a certain amount of seismic effect. In order to evaluate the effect of nonlinearity of restrainer and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge, analytical models of continuous girder bridge structure considering the nonlinearity of movable supports, restrainers and bridge piers were built and the nonlinear time history analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of nonlinearity of restraining devices and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge. Relevant structural measures and recommendation were made to reduce the seismic response of the fixed piers of the continuous girder bridge.

  5. Experimental Study on Shear Lag Effect of Partial Cable-Stayed Bridge and Elasto-Plastic Seismic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gao-feng; XU Hong; CHEN Xing-chong

    2005-01-01

    The project of Xiaoxihu Yellow River Bridge in Lanzhou is chosen as partial cable-stayed bridge. To get the shear lag effect and anti-earthquake performance of the actual bridge under various loading conditions, organic glass scaled model was adopted to have an experiment and a theory research at one time. The experiment result is the basically same as the theory calculation which proves the FEA method can well calculate shear lag effect and dynamical performance. As a result, because the bridge is located in a seismic area of 8 degree, an elasto-plastic seismic checking is performed by customized FEA program in this paper.

  6. Use of FBG sensors for bridge structural monitoring and traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponero, Michele A.; Colonna, Danilo; Gruppi, Marco; Pallotta, Massimo; Salvadori, Robert

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes an application of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors devoted to both health monitoring of road bridge structures and traffic load monitoring. The ultimate aim of the application is the remote continuous monitoring of the structures, with real time acquisition of the dynamic and quasi-static deformations inferred by both the road traffic and the daily and seasonal thermal variations. A Fiber Bragg Grating network composed of 24 sensors has been installed on the bridge on the Po river of the 'A21 Torino Brescia' Italian Highway. The bridge is a concrete structure, and sensors are applied on various rebar components. The sensors were installed directly on the rebars, adopting a special technique specifically developed for permanent concrete embedding. An extensive data acquisition program is in progress with the aim of both health monitoring and in transit lorry weighing. Results are discussed and planned future work is presented.

  7. Bridging complexes of rare earth and cobalt cluster as catalyst precursors for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Shanghong; DU Dongping; BAI Fenghua; SU Haiquan

    2011-01-01

    Three new bridging complexes of rare earth and cobalt cluster were synthesized and characterized via ICP, IR and TG techniques.The structure of the complexes was speculated as: two rare earth atoms were bridged with four CF3COO-, and rare earth atoms were coordinated with cobalt carbonyl clusters to form a steady structure. Application of the complexes as the catalyst precursors was explored for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The study showed that the bridging complexes of rare earth and cobalt cluster had large molecular size and were difficult to enter pore path of γ-Al2O3, so they were dispersed on the surface of γ-A12O3 support. In addition, the performance of Co(Ce)/γ-Al2O3 was the best among the catalysts with complex as precursor and maintained 77.7% CO conversion at 220 ℃ for 80 operation hours.

  8. Rhodamine B induces long nucleoplasmic bridges and other nuclear anomalies in Allium cepa root tip cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dehong; Bai, Bing; Jiang, Donghua; Shi, Lin; Cheng, Shunchang; Tao, Dongbing; Ji, Shujuan

    2014-03-01

    The cytogenetic toxicity of rhodamine B on root tip cells of Allium cepa was investigated. A. cepa were cultured in water (negative control), 10 ppm methyl methanesulfonate (positive control), and three concentrations of rhodamine B (200, 100, and 50 ppm) for 7 days. Rhodamine B inhibited mitotic activity; increased nuclear anomalies, including micronuclei, nuclear buds, and bridged nuclei; and induced oxidative stress in A. cepa root tissues. Furthermore, a substantial amount of long nucleoplasmic bridges were entangled together, and some nuclei were simultaneously linked to several other nuclei and to nuclear buds with nucleoplasmic bridges in rhodamine B-treated cells. In conclusion, rhodamine B induced cytogenetic effects in A. cepa root tip cells, which suggests that the A. cepa root is an ideal model system for detecting cellular interactions.

  9. CAD/CAM systems available for the fabrication of crown and bridge restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, T; Hotta, Y

    2011-06-01

    Dental biomaterials are widely used in all areas of routine dental practice. There are mainly two methods for their application. Firstly, dental biomaterials are placed into living tissues, such as teeth, to fill the space. Secondly, dental devices such as crown and bridge restorations and dentures are fabricated using various materials to restore the morphology and function of the dentition. Crown and bridge restorations are one of the main treatment methods used by general practitioners to achieve lifelike restoration of form and function. The recent introduction of osseointegrated implants has expanded the application of crown and bridge restorations for partially edentulous patients. Mechanical durability and precision fit are mandatory requirements for crowns and bridges. The development of various casting alloys and precise casting systems has contributed to the successful use of metal-based restorations. However, patient requests for more aesthetic and biologically 'safe' materials has led to an increased demand for metal-free restorations. There is also a growing demand to provide all-ceramic restorations more routinely. New materials such as highly sintered glass, polycrystalline alumina, zirconia based materials and adhesive monomers, will assist dentists to meet this demand. In addition, new fabrication systems combined with computer-assisted fabrication systems (dental CAD/CAM) and various networks are now available. Dental technology was centred on lost-wax casting technology but we now face a revolution in crown and bridge fabrication. This article reviews the history and recent status of dental CAD/CAM, the application of CAD/CAM fabricated tooth-coloured glass ceramic crowns, and the application of all-ceramic crowns and bridges using CAD/CAM fabricated zirconia based frameworks.

  10. Damage investigation of girder bridges under the Wenchuan earthquake and corresponding seismic design recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianzhong; Peng Tianbo; Xu yan

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of girder bridges on National Highway 213 and the Doujiangyan-Wenchuan expressway after the Wenchuan earthquake showed that typical types of damage included:span collapses due to unseating at expansion joints;shear key failure;and damage of the expansion joint due to the slide-induced large relative displacement between the bottom of the girder and the top of the laminated-rubber bearing.This slide,however,can actually act as a form of isolation for the substructure,and as a result,the piers and foundation of most of the bridges on state route 213 suffered minor damage.The exception was the Baihua Bridge,which suffered severe damage.Corresponding seismic design recommendations are presented based on this investigation.

  11. Bathymetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers near St. Louis, Missouri, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Bathymetric surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, on the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers in the vicinity of 12 bridges at 7 highway crossings near St. Louis, Missouri, in October 2010. A multibeam echo sounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches ranging from 3,280 to 4,590 feet long and extending across the active channel of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. These bathymetric scans provide a snapshot of the channel conditions at the time of the surveys and provide characteristics of scour holes that may be useful in the development of predictive guidelines or equations for scour holes. These data also may be used by the Missouri Department of Transportation to assess the bridges for stability and integrity issues with respect to bridge scour.

  12. Structure and dynamics of a salt-bridge model system in water and DMSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze, S; Bakker, H J

    2015-06-01

    We study the interaction between the ions methylguanidinium and trifluoroacetate dissolved in D2O and dimethylsulfoxide with linear infrared spectroscopy and femtosecond two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. These ions constitute model systems for the side chains of arginine and glutamic and aspartic acid that are known to form salt bridges in proteins. We find that the salt-bridge formation of methylguanidinium and trifluoroacetate leads to a significant acceleration of the vibrational relaxation dynamics of the antisymmetric COO stretching vibration of the carboxyl moiety of trifluoroacetate. Salt-bridge formation has little effect on the rate of the spectral fluctuations of the CN stretching vibrations of methylguanidinium. The anisotropy of the cross peaks between the antisymmetric COO stretching vibration of trifluoroacetate and the CN stretching vibrations of methylguanidinium reveals that the salt-bridge is preferentially formed in a bidentate end-on configuration in which the two C=O groups of the carboxylate moiety form strong hydrogen bonds with the two -NH2 groups of methylguanidinium.

  13. The dynamics of polymer bridge formation and disruption and its effect on the bulk rheology of suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Prasad S; Berg, John C

    2012-12-11

    Bridge-flocculated colloidal gels are used in many important processes and products such as gel casting for advanced ceramics, precursor inks for 3D printing, and waste treatment strategies. An important aspect of polymer bridged gels that makes them excellent candidates for these applications is the precise control it affords for control of rheological properties. Recent studies have shown that adhesion between bridged surfaces increases with time as the number of polymer bridges formed grows. However, the consequences of the dynamics of these processes toward bulk rheological properties have not been studied. Here we investigate the link between the dynamics of polymer bridging and disruption and bulk rheology in dense colloidal silica particle suspensions flocculated by polyethylene oxide (PEO). Microscale pull-off force measurements using atomic force microscope (AFM) show that upon repeated disruption and establishment of bridged contact, the adhesion between the surfaces is reduced. During contact disruption, the polymer chains bridging the two surfaces are stretched leading to chain scission. On the re-establishment of contact, these fragmented polymer chains are unable to fully re-establish the adhesion. Macroscale measurements using oscillatory rheology show that this reduced adhesion results in reduction of both the storage modulus and the yield stress. If the slurry is subjected to high shear for long periods, polymer chain scission is amplified, and the fragmented polymer chains are unable to bridge the particles again, resulting in free-flowing slurries.

  14. Dynamic Bridge Response for a Bridge-friendly Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Šmilauer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A truck with controlled semi-active suspensions traversing a bridge is examined for benefits to the bridge structure. The original concept of a road-friendly truck was extended to a bridge-friendly vehicle, using the same optimization tools. A half-car model with two independently driven axles is coupled with simply supported bridges (beam, slab model with the span range from 5 m to 50 m. Surface profile of the bridge deck is either stochastic or in the shape of a bump or a pot in the mid-span. Numerical integration in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment solves coupled dynamic equations of motion with optimized truck suspensions. The rear axle generates the prevailing load and to a great extent determines the bridge response. A significant decrease in contact road-tire forces is observed and the mid-span bridge deflections are on average smaller, when compared to commercial passive suspensions. 

  15. Oxygen bridges between NiO nanosheets and graphene for improvement of lithium storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangmin; Wang, Da-Wei; Yin, Li-Chang; Li, Na; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2012-04-24

    Graphene has been widely used to dramatically improve the capacity, rate capability, and cycling performance of nearly any electrode material for batteries. However, the binding between graphene and these electrode materials has not been clearly elucidated. Here we report oxygen bridges between graphene with oxygen functional groups and NiO from analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy and confirm the conformation of oxygen bridges by the first-principles calculations. We found that NiO nanosheets (NiO NSs) are bonded strongly to graphene through oxygen bridges. The oxygen bridges mainly originate from the pinning of hydroxyl/epoxy groups from graphene on the Ni atoms of NiO NSs. The calculated adsorption energies (1.37 and 1.84 eV for graphene with hydroxyl and epoxy) of a Ni adatom on oxygenated graphene by binding with oxygen are comparable with that on graphene (1.26 eV). However, the calculated diffusion barriers of the Ni adatom on the oxygenated graphene surface (2.23 and 1.69 eV for graphene with hydroxyl and epoxy) are much larger than that on the graphene (0.19 eV). Therefore, the NiO NS is anchored strongly on the graphene through a C-O-Ni bridge, which allows a high reversible capacity and excellent rate performance. The easy binding/difficult dissociating characteristic of Ni adatoms on the oxygenated graphene facilitates fast electron hopping from graphene to NiO and thus the reversible lithiation and delithiation of NiO. We believe that the understanding of this oxygen bridge between graphene and NiO will lead to the development of other high-performance electrode materials.

  16. A Highly Accurate and Efficient Analytical Approach to Bridge Deck Free Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Gorman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The superposition method is employed to obtain an accurate analytical type solution for the free vibration frequencies and mode shapes of multi-span bridge decks. Free edge conditions are imposed on the long edges running in the direction of the deck. Inter-span support is of the simple (knife-edge type. The analysis is valid regardless of the number of spans or their individual lengths. Exact agreement is found when computed results are compared with known eigenvalues for bridge decks with all spans of equal length. Mode shapes and eigenvalues are presented for typical bridge decks of three and four span lengths. In each case torsional and non-torsional modes are studied.

  17. CURRENT PERSPECTIVES OF POTTER'S GLOBAL BIOETHICS AS A BRIDGE BETWEEN CLINICAL (PERSONALIZED) AND PUBLIC HEALTH ETHICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turina, Iva Sorta-Bilajac; Brkljacić, Morana; Grgas-Bile, Cecilija; Gajski, Domagoj; Racz, Aleksandar; Cengić, Tomislav

    2015-12-01

    In the context of modern scientific and technological developments in biomedicine and health care, and the potential consequences of their application on humans and the environment, Potter's global bioethics concept resurfaces. By actualizing Potter's original thoughts on individual bioethical issues, the universality of two of his books, which today represent the backbone of the world bioethical literature, "Bioethics--Bridge to the Future" and "Global Bioethics: Building on the Leopold Legacy", is emphasized. Potter's global bioethics today can legitimately be viewed as a bridge between clinical personalized ethics on the one hand and ethics of public health on the other.

  18. Experimental study of hollow rectangular bridge column performance under vertical and cyclically bilateral loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang; Du, Xiuli; Zhou, Yihui; Lee, George C.

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the seismic performance of hollow reinforced concrete (RC) bridge columns of rectangular cross section under constant axial load and cyclically biaxial bending, five specimens were tested. A parametric study is carried out for different axial load ratios, longitudinal reinforcement ratios and lateral reinforcement ratios. The experimental results showed that all tested specimens failed in the flexural failure mode and their ultimate performance was dominated by flexural capacity, which is represented by the rupture/buckling of tensile longitudinal rebars at the bottom of the bridge columns. Biaxial force and displacement hysteresis loops showed significant stiffness and strength degradations, and the pinching effect and coupling interaction effect of both directions severely decrease the structural seismic resistance. However, the measured ductility coefficient varying from 3.5 to 5.7 and the equivalent viscous damping ratio varying from 0.19 and 0.26 can meet the requirements of the seismic design. The hollow RC rectangular bridge columns with configurations of lateral reinforcement in this study have excellent performance under bidirectional earthquake excitations, and may be considered as a substitute for current hollow RC rectangular section configurations described in the Guideline for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges (JTG/T B02-01-2008). The length of the plastic hinge region was found to approach one sixth of the hollow RC rectangular bridge column height for all specimen columns, and it was much less than those specified in the current JTG/T. Thus, the length of the plastic hinge region is more concentrated for RC rectangular hollow bridge columns.

  19. Simulation of multivariate diffusion bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Finch, Samuel; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose simple methods for multivariate diffusion bridge simulation, which plays a fundamental role in simulation-based likelihood and Bayesian inference for stochastic differential equations. By a novel application of classical coupling methods, the new approach generalizes a previously...... proposed simulation method for one-dimensional bridges to the mulit-variate setting. First a method of simulating approzimate, but often very accurate, diffusion bridges is proposed. These approximate bridges are used as proposal for easily implementable MCMC algorithms that produce exact diffusion bridges...

  20. A New Uniform Phase Bridge Functional: Test and Its Application to Non-uniform Phase Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shi-Qi; CHEN Hong; ZHANG Xiao-Qi

    2003-01-01

    A new bridge functional as a function of indirect correlation function was proposed, which was basedon analysis on the asymptotic behavior of the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation system and a series expansion whoserenormalization resulted in an adjustable parameter determined by the thermodynamics consistency condition. Theproposed bridge functional was tested by applying it to bulk hard sphere and hard core Yukawa fluid for the predictionof structure and thermodynamics properties based on the OZ equation. As an application, the present bridge functionalwas employed for non-uniform fluid of the above two kinds by means of the density functional theory methodology, theresulting density distribution profiles were in good agreement with the available computer simulation data.

  1. To the problem of cross-bridge tension in steady muscle shortening and lengthening

    CERN Document Server

    Kokshenev, Valery B

    2009-01-01

    Despite the great success of the Huxley sliding filament model proposed half a century ago for actin-myosin linkages (cross-bridges), it fails to explain the force-velocity behavior of stretching skeletal muscles. Huxley's two-state kinetic equation for cross-bridge proportions is therefore reconsidered and a new solution to the problem of steady muscle eccentric and concentric contractions is reported. When the second law of statistical thermodynamics is applied to cross-bridge proportions, the weakly bound states appear to be correlated to the strongly bound states via structural and kinetic intrinsic muscle characteristics. The explicit force-velocity curve fits the empirical tension-velocity data on frog muscle shortening using only one adjustable parameter, while the Huxley model employed four parameters.

  2. Analysis of Deflection Problems of Large-span Continuous Rigid Frame Bridge and Prevention Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large-span continuous rigid frame bridge is a kind of common structural form in long-span bridges of our country, but one of the main diseases of these bridges is the excessive deflection in the mid-span, which seriously affects the safety of the structure. This paper makes a comprehensive analysis for the causes of the excessive deflection, and lists the commonly-used control measures in engineering. Simultaneously, new improvement measures and the comparative analysis of before-and-after improvements are put forward on this basis. However, these measures can be used to inhibit deflection in a certain extent, but cannot avoid the occurrence of deflection completely.

  3. Enhanced extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through arrays of bridged nanohole pairs and their sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2014-01-01

    Extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through arrays of gold nanoholes was studied with light across the visible to the near-infrared spectrum. The EOT effect was found to be improved by bridging pairs of nanoholes due to the concentration of the electromagnetic field in the slit between the holes. The geometrical shape and separation of the holes in these pairs of nanoholes affected the intensity of the transmission and the wavelength of resonance. Changing the geometrical shapes of these nanohole pairs from triangles to circles to squares leads to increased transmission intensity as well as red-shifting resonance wavelengths. The performance of bridged nanohole pairs as a plasmonic sensor was investigated. The bridged nanohole pairs were able to distinguish methanol, olive oil and microscope immersion oil for the different surface plasmon resonance in transmission spectra. Numerical simulation results were in agreement with experimental observations. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  4. Theoretical investigation on structure and electronic properties of Si-bridged π-conjugated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Eisuke; Matsui, Yasunori; Ikeda, Hiroshi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); The Research Institute for Molecular Electronic Devices (RIMED), Osaka Prefecture University, 1-" 1Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Ogaki, Takuya; Aoki, Toru; Oda, Yukiko [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    Density functional theory calculations were performed on silylene-bridged cyclic tri- and tetrathienylenes, 1b and 2b, respectively. The results show that in comparison to their respective unbridged counterparts 1a and 2a, 1b and 2b have lower LUMO energies but similar reorganization energies for single electron transfer between 1b,2b and their respective radical anions 1b{sup •–},2b{sup •–}. The observations suggest that silylene bridging of π-conjugated systems can serve as a novel strategy for designing materials of n-type organic semiconductor.

  5. Composite veneers, crowns, and inlay bridges after orthodontic therapy--a three-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostálová, Tat'jana; Racek, Jaroslav; Lozeková, Eva; Rerichová, Martina

    2003-01-01

    Composite veneers, crowns, and adhesive bridges also can be a part of interdisciplinary therapy, namely, cooperation between orthodontics and prosthodontics. This study sought to systematically analyze patients treated orthodontically and prosthodontically with permanent teeth from a long-term point of view (three years). Forty-nine composite veneers, crowns, and adhesive bridges were inserted on the anterior teeth of 20 patients as a part of reshaping and reorientation of teeth after orthodontic therapy. The results indicated that composite resin restoration, including fiber-reinforcement restoration, is the treatment of choice in anterior dentition.

  6. Definite Discourse--New Reference in L1 and L2: A Study of Bridging in Mandarin, Korean, and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, Peter Robert

    2014-01-01

    Definite expressions may be used to introduce a referent into discourse when their familiarity between speaker and listener can be inferred, a strategy known as bridging. However, for a number of reasons, bridging may be difficult to acquire compared to the acquisition of indefinite introductions for noninferable referent types, with the native…

  7. Consistency assessment with global and bridging development strategies in emerging markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Chen, Josh; Quan, Hui; Shentu, Yue

    2013-11-01

    Global trial strategy with the participation of all major regions including countries from emerging markets surely increases new drug development efficiency. Nevertheless, there are circumstances in which some countries in emerging markets cannot join the original global trial. To evaluate the extrapolability of the original trial results to a new country, a bridging trial in the country has to be conducted. In this paper, we first evaluate the efficiency loss of the bridging trial strategy compared to that of the global trial strategy as a function of between-study variability from consistency assessment perspective. The provided evidence should encourage countries in emerging markets to make a greater effort to participate in the original global trial. We then discuss sample size requirement for desired assurance probability for consistency assessment based on various approaches for both global and bridging trial strategies. Examples are presented for numerical demonstration and comparisons.

  8. Zeros of the Jones Polynomial for Torus Knots and 2-bridge Knots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN You-fa; ZHANG Rong-wei; WANG Lin-lin; MA Xiao-sha

    2014-01-01

    We study zeros of the Jones polynomial and their distributions for torus knots and 2-bridge knots. We prove that e(2m+1)πi/2 and e(2m+1)πi/4(m is a positive integer) can not be the zeros of Jones polynomial for torus knots Tp,q by the knowledge of the trigonometric function. We elicit the normal form of Jones polynomials of the 2-bridge knot C (−2, 2, · · · , (−1)r 2) by the recursive form and discuss the distribution of their zeros.

  9. Colorimetric and electrochemical Pb2+ detection by imine-bridged tetrathiafulvalene-pyridine derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TUNG; ChenHo

    2009-01-01

    Imine-bridged TTF-π-pyridine derivatives, 2NTTF, 3NTTF and 4NTTF, were synthesized and the cation-binding study was performed. It is noted that with the addition of the micromolar concentration of Pb2+ to the solution, these compounds display remarkable changes in solution color, 1H NMR spectra and electrochemical properties. The nitrogen atom of the imine-bridge in 2NTTF not only serves as a π-conjugated spacer but also participates in the sensing and coordinating properties.

  10. Brugada syndrome: a case report of an unusual association with vasospastic angina and coronary myocardial bridging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazio, Massimo; Ghisio, Aldo; Coda, Luisella; Tidu, Massimo; Belli, Riccardo; Trinchero, Rita; Brusca, Antonio

    2002-04-01

    This report describes a case of an unusual association between vasospastic angina, coronary myocardial bridging, and Brugada syndrome. The patient complained of chest pain followed by rhythmic palpitation and syncope. Brugada syndrome ECG markers were documented with transient ST-segment elevation in lateral leads. A coronary angiogram showed a myocardial bridging in the left anterior descending artery and coronary vasospasm was reproduced after intracoronary ergonovine injection in the circumflex coronary artery. Ventricular fibrillation was induced by programmed electrical stimulation. The described association can be important because interaction between ischemia and Brugada syndrome electrophysiological substrate could modulate individual susceptibility to life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

  11. Extracellular Disulfide Bridges Serve Different Purposes in Two Homologous Chemokine Receptors, CCR1 and CCR5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rummel, Pia Cwarzko; Thiele, Stefanie; Hansen, Laerke Smidt

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the 7TM receptor-conserved disulfide bridge between transmembrane helix (TM) 3 and extracellular loop (ECL) 2, chemokine receptors contain a disulfide bridge between the N-terminus and what previously was believed to be ECL-3. Recent crystal- and NMR-structures of CXCR4 and CXCR1...... where dispensable for small-molecule activation. This indicates that CCR5 activity is independent of extracellular regions, whereas in CCR1, preserved folding of ECL2 is necessary for activation. These results indicate that conserved structural features in a receptor subgroup, does not necessarily...

  12. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  13. ESCRT-III assembly and cytokinetic abscission are induced by tension release in the intercellular bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafaurie-Janvore, Julie; Maiuri, Paolo; Wang, Irène; Pinot, Mathieu; Manneville, Jean-Baptiste; Betz, Timo; Balland, Martial; Piel, Matthieu

    2013-03-29

    The last step of cell division, cytokinesis, produces two daughter cells that remain connected by an intercellular bridge. This state often represents the longest stage of the division process. Severing the bridge (abscission) requires a well-described series of molecular events, but the trigger for abscission remains unknown. We found that pulling forces exerted by daughter cells on the intercellular bridge appear to regulate abscission. Counterintuitively, these forces prolonged connection, whereas a release of tension induced abscission. Tension release triggered the assembly of ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport-III), which was followed by membrane fission. This mechanism may allow daughter cells to remain connected until they have settled in their final locations, a process potentially important for tissue organization and morphogenesis.

  14. Drainage Structure Datasets and Effects on LiDAR-Derived Surface Flow Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruopu Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With extraordinary resolution and accuracy, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs have been increasingly used for watershed analyses and modeling by hydrologists, planners and engineers. Such high-accuracy DEMs have demonstrated their effectiveness in delineating watershed and drainage patterns at fine scales in low-relief terrains. However, these high-resolution datasets are usually only available as topographic DEMs rather than hydrologic DEMs, presenting greater land roughness that can affect natural flow accumulation. Specifically, locations of drainage structures such as road culverts and bridges were simulated as barriers to the passage of drainage. This paper proposed a geospatial method for producing LiDAR-derived hydrologic DEMs, which incorporates data collection of drainage structures (i.e., culverts and bridges, data preprocessing and burning of the drainage structures into DEMs. A case study of GIS-based watershed modeling in South Central Nebraska showed improved simulated surface water derivatives after the drainage structures were burned into the LiDAR-derived topographic DEMs. The paper culminates in a proposal and discussion of establishing a national or statewide drainage structure dataset.

  15. Evaluation of Bridges Subjected to Military Loading and Dynamic Hydraulic Effects: Review of Design Regulations, Selection Criteria, and Inspection Procedures for Bridge Railing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    crash tested system. Combination railing: A bicycle or pedestrian railing system added to a crashworthy bridge vehicular railing or barrier system...Devices) (Title 23 CFR Part 655 Subpart F): National standard for all traffic control devices installed on any street, highway, or bicycle trail open... trailer unit, and 36,000T is a tractor/tank trailer unit. The numeric portion of the test vehicle designation is the vehicle’s mass in kilograms. Tests

  16. Synthesis and spectral and redox properties of three triply bridged complexes of ruthenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobet, A.; Curry, M.E.; Evans, H.T.; Meyer, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Syntheses are described for the ligand-bridged complexes [(tpm)RuIII(??-O)(??-L)2RuIII(tpm) n+ (L = O2P(O)(OH), n = 0 (1); L = O2CO, n = 0 (2); L = O2CCH3, n = 2 (3); tpm is the tridentate, facial ligand tris(1-pyrazolyl)methane. The X-ray crystal structure of [(tpm)Ru(??-O)(??-O2P(O)(OH))2Ru(tpm)]??8H 2O was determined from three-dimensional X-ray counter data. The complex crystallizes in the trigonal space group P3221 with three molecules in a cell of dimensions a = 18.759 (4) A?? and c = 9.970 (6) A??. The structure was refined to a weighted R factor of 0.042 based on 1480 independent reflections with I ??? 3??(I). The structure reveals that the complex consists of two six-coordinate ruthenium atoms that are joined by a ??-oxo bridge (rRU-O = 1.87 A??; ???RuORu = 124.6??) and two ??-hydrogen phosphato bridges (average rRu-O = 2.07 A??) which are capped by two tpm ligands. The results of cyclic voltammetric and coulometric experiments show that the complexes undergo both oxidative and reductive processes in solution. Upon reduction, the ligand-bridged structure is lost and the monomer [(tpm)Ru(H2O)3]2+ appears quantitatively. All three complexes are diamagnetic in solution. The diamagnetism is a consequence of strong electronic coupling between the low-spin d5 Ru(III) metal ions through the oxo bridge and the relatively small Ru-O-Ru angle. ?? 1989 American Chemical Society.

  17. Particle bridging in dispersions by small charged molecules: chain length and rigidity, architecture and functional groups spatial position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yee-Kwong

    2007-11-07

    The particle bridging behaviour of dicarboxylic acid bolaform compounds such as fumaric, oxalic,trans-beta-hydromuconic, trans,trans- and cis,cis-muconic acids were evaluated in terms of their effects on the yield stress of alpha-Al(2)O(3) dispersions. The adsorption behaviour of these additives and their effects on the particle zeta potential were also determined. This study aims to understand and identify molecular factors essential for particle bridging. Very rigid compounds like trans,trans- and cis,cis-muconic and fumaric acids were identified as excellent bridging compounds from the large increase in the maximum gel strength. This strength enhancement increases with chain length and is due to more bridging molecules located in the larger spherical cap bridging area and participating in bridging. Cis,cis-muconic acid with the same chain length as fumaric acid displayed a greater bridging capability as its bolaform carboxylate groups possessed a greater lateral reach. Trans-beta-hydromuconic acid with a more flexible backbone displayed a much diminished particle bridging capability. This study has revealed a number of new molecular structural factors essential for particle bridging attribute. These are (a) the degree of backbone rigidity, (b) chain length, (c) spatial position and (d) lateral displacement of the bolaform charged group. For fumaric, trans,trans- and cis,cis-muconic acids, the maximum gel strength was not located at the pH of zero zeta potential. A particle bridging model taking into account of electrostatic repulsive interactions between the interacting particles was proposed to explain the maximum gel strength enhancement by the bolaform compounds.

  18. Hydrographic surveys of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers at selected bridges and through Bismarck, North Dakota, during the 2011 flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Strauch, Kellan R.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Transportation and the North Dakota State Water Commission, completed hydrographic surveys at six Missouri River bridges and one Yellowstone River bridge during the 2011 flood of the Missouri River system. Bridges surveyed are located near the cities of Cartwright, Buford, Williston, Washburn, and Bismarck, N. Dak. The river in the vicinity of the bridges and the channel through the city of Bismarck, N. Dak., were surveyed. The hydrographic surveys were conducted using a high-resolution multibeam echosounder (MBES), the RESON SeaBatTM 7125, during June 6–9 and June 28–July 9, 2011. The surveyed area at each bridge site extended 820 feet upstream from the bridge to 820 feet downstream from the bridge. The surveyed reach through Bismarck consisted of 18 miles of the main channel wherever depth was sufficient. Results from these emergency surveys aided the North Dakota Department of Transportation in evaluating the structural integrity of the bridges during high-flow conditions. In addition, the sustained high flows made feasible the surveying of a large section of the normally shallow channel with the MBES. In general, results from sequential bridge surveys showed that as discharge increased between the first and second surveys at a given site, there was a general trend of channel scour. Locally, complex responses of scour in some areas and deposition in other areas of the channel were identified. Similarly, scour around bridge piers also showed complex responses to the increase in flow between the two surveys. Results for the survey area of the river channel through Bismarck show that, in general, scour occurred around river structures or where the river has tight bends and channel narrowing. The data collected during the surveys are provided electronically in two different file formats: comma delimited text and CARIS Spatial ArchiveTM (CSARTM) format.

  19. Structural and functional characterization of the conserved salt bridge in mammalian paneth cell alpha-defensins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengren, K Johan; Daly, Norelle L; Fornander, Liselotte M;

    2006-01-01

    )-Crp4 peptide, in which a conserved Glu(15) residue was replaced by Asp. Structural analysis of the two peptides confirms the involvement of this Glu in a conserved salt bridge that is removed in the mutant because of the shortened side chain. Despite disruption of this structural feature, the peptide...... variant retains a well defined native fold because of a rearrangement of side chains, which result in compensating favorable interactions. Furthermore, salt bridge-deficient Crp4 mutants were tested for bactericidal effects and resistance to proteolytic degradation, and all of the variants had similar...

  20. Magnetocaloric effect and slow magnetic relaxation in two only azido bridged ferromagnetic tetranuclear metal clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiong-Peng; Zhao, Ran; Yang, Qian; Hu, Bo-Wen; Liu, Fu-Chen; Bu, Xian-He

    2013-10-28

    Two M(II) tetranuclear complexes bridged only by azido, Mn4(N3)(7.3)Cl(0.7)L4 (1) and Co4(N3)8L4 (2) in which the four M(II) ions are precisely coplanar bridged only by six azido anions, were obtained by using 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one (L) as a corner ligand. Magnetic studies indicate that ferromagnetic coupling was conducted by the azido anions between M(II) ions. At low temperature, 1 exhibits a large magnetocaloric effect and 2 shows field-induced multiple magnetic relaxations.

  1. Determine of velocity field with PIV and CFD during the flow around of bridge piers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picka D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the processing of specific junior research FAST-J-11-51/1456 which dealt with physical and CFD of the velocity field during the flow around of bridge piers. Physical modelling has been carried out in Laboratory of water management research in Institute of Water Structures in Brno University of Technology – Faculty of Civil Engineering. To measure of the velocity field in profile of bridge piers were used laser measuring method PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry. The results of PIV served as a basis for comparing experimental data with CFD results of this type of flow in the commercial software ANSYS CFX.

  2. 保定下车亭分水口门涵洞预留橡胶止水带修复%Baoding Xiacheting bleeder culvert reserved rubber waterstop patching solution analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利平; 张广扬

    2015-01-01

    通过对南水北调保定下车亭分水口门涵洞预留橡胶止水带不同修补方案的比选分析,提出了3种修补方案及具体施工工艺,总结出各方案的优缺点及具体的适用条件,为今后的相关工程问题提供借鉴。%Through the analysis and comparison of the South-to-North Water Diversion Baoding Xiacheting bleeder culvert reserved rubber waterstop patching solutions,put forward three kinds of repair plan and specific const-ruction technology, summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each scheme and the applicable conditions,provide reference for future related engineering problem.

  3. The Cyberspace Regionalization Project: Simultaneously Bridging the Digital and Racial Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jonathan

    The Cyberspace Regionalization Project uses advanced audio-visual telecommunications to bridge gaps of geography and socioeconomic status between two New Jersey high schools, one white and affluent and one black and low income. Using audio-visual links provided by Intel ProShare software and equipment, students and teachers from the two schools…

  4. A Narrative of Teacher Education in Canada: Multiculturalism, Technology, Bridging Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    This narrative paper investigates a number of enduring and emerging themes reflecting teacher education in Canada over the past 40 years, including changes in information and communication technology, bridging gaps in theory and practice, English as a second language, French immersion and multicultural teacher development. Canadian teacher…

  5. Modal analysis of a concrete highway bridge: Structural calculations and vibration-based results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, S.; Veerman, R.P.; Koenders, E.A.B.; Knobbe, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the field of civil infrastructure, Structural Health Monitoring systems are implemented more and more frequently with the aim to safeguard the safety and service-life of structures such as bridges and tunnels. Changes in the integrity of the material and/or structural properties of this class of

  6. Alkylenesulfanyl-bridged bithienyl cores for simultaneous tuning of electronic, filming, and thermal properties of oligothiophenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navacchia, Maria Luisa; Melucci, Manuela; Favaretto, Laura; Zanelli, Alberto; Gazzano, Massimo; Bongini, Alessandro; Barbarella, Giovanna

    2008-09-04

    DPY and DPE alkylenesulfanyl-bridged bithienyls were prepared by a highly effective ring-closing reaction via arylalkylsulfonium intermediate and used as inner cores in oligothiophenes. HOMO-LUMO energy levels, conformational flexibility, and intrinsic asymmetry of the cores are reflected in the electronic, film-forming, and thermal properties of the corresponding oligomers.

  7. Facebook Use and Social Capital: To Bond, To Bridge, or to Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min-Woo; D'Angelo, Jonathan; McLeod, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    This study employs the uses and gratification approach to investigate how different forms of Facebook use are linked to bridging social capital and bonding social capital. A survey of 152 college students was conducted to address research questions and to test hypotheses. Factor analysis identified six unique uses and gratifications: (a)…

  8. Embedded Electromechanical Impedance and Strain Sensors for Health Monitoring of a Concrete Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dansheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT is one of the piezoelectric smart materials, which has direct and converse piezoelectric effects and can serve as an active electromechanical impedance (EMI sensor. The design and fabrication processes of EMI sensors embedded into concrete structures are presented briefly. Subsequently, finite element modeling and modal analysis of a continuous rigid frame bridge are implemented by using ANSYS and MIDAS and validated by the field test results. Uppermost, a health monitoring technique by employing the embedded EMI and strain sensors is proposed in this paper. The technique is not based on any physical model and is sensitive to incipient structural changes for its high frequency characteristics. A practical study on health monitoring of the continuous rigid frame bridge is implemented based on the EMI and strain signatures. In this study, some EMI and strain sensors are embedded into the box-sectional girders. The electrical admittances of distributed EMI active sensors and the strains of concrete are measured when the bridge is under construction or in operation. Based on the electrical admittance and strain measurements, the health statuses of the continuous rigid frame bridge are monitored and evaluated successfully in the construction and operation stages using a root-mean-square deviation (RMSD index.

  9. Bridging and bonding interactions in higher education: social capital and students' academic and professional identity formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dorthe H; Jetten, Jolanda

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that graduates' achievements depend in important ways on their opportunities to develop an academic and a professional identity during their studies. Previous research has shown that students' socio-economic status (SES) and social capital prior to entering university affects their ability to obtain these identities in higher education. However, what is less well understood is whether social capital that is built during university studies shapes identity development, and if so, whether the social capital gained during university years impacts on academic and professional identity differently. In a qualitative study, we interviewed 26 Danish and 11 Australian university students about their social interaction experiences, their opportunities to develop bonding capital as well as bridging capital, and their academic and professional identity. Findings show that while bonding social capital with co-students facilitated academic identity formation, such social capital does not lead to professional identity development. We also found that the development of bridging social capital with educators facilitated students' professional identity formation. However, bonding social capital among students stood in the way of participating in bridging interaction with educators, thereby further hindering professional identity formation. Finally, while students' parental background did not affect the perceived difficulty of forming professional identity, there was a tendency for students from lower SES backgrounds to be more likely to make internal attributions while those from higher SES backgrounds were more likely to make external attributions for the failure to develop professional identity. Results point to the importance of creating opportunities for social interaction with educators at university because this facilitates the generation of bridging social capital, which, in turn, is essential for students' professional identity development.

  10. Measurements and analysis of vibrations at Virilla Bridge, national route N° 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Navarro-Henríquez

    2015-06-01

    The measurements allowed quantifying the vibration magnitudes and deformation in various sections of the bridge, on condition of vehicular traffic service (environmental performance. The experimental results are compared with computational analytical modeling of the structure and also with national and international standards.

  11. Bridging the Gap between Academic Research and Regional Development in the Basque Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, James; Larrea, Miren; Wilson, James R.; Aranguren, Mari Jose

    2012-01-01

    The discussion in this article focuses on how the gap between academic knowledge and regional development can be bridged, creating conditions for change processes between researchers and regional agents. Institutional entrepreneurs can create regional development organisations and research organisations, but in order to fulfil regional needs it is…

  12. Historical and Architectural Documentation of the Interurban Trolley Bridge at Three Mile Creek, Fort Riley, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    bridge for potential NRHP eligibility. 1.3.1 Archival research The project team utilized primary and secondary literature to determine the general...looked down idly from the Gothic windows of their varnished vehicle. And then it was gone, leaving behind only a dust cloud and a gently swaying

  13. Bridging Bilingual and Special Education: Opportunities for Transformative Change in Teacher Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Alberto M.; Brandon, Regina R.; Cadiero-Kaplan, Karen; Ramírez, Pablo C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the design and performance of ALAS (Acquisition of Language Skills and Academic Literacy) Teacher Education Project designed to bridge Biliteracy and Special Education teacher preparation. ALAS was designed by faculty in two higher education departments engaged in teacher preparation to respond to California's need for…

  14. African American and Youth Culture as a Bridge To Writing Development. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiri, Jabari

    A study examined whether the familiarity and competence that many African American students have with elements of rap music and culture could be used as a bridge to the production of other literate texts. Two high-school English teachers, one teaching at Fremont High School, East Oakland and the other teaching at Berkeley High School in Berkeley,…

  15. Bridging the gap between hospital and primary care : the pharmacist home visit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, Hendrik T; Koster, Ellen S; Stuijt, Clementine C M; van Dooren, Ad A; Bouvy, Marcel L

    2015-01-01

    Bridging the gap between hospital and primary care is important as transition from one healthcare setting to another increases the risk on drug-related problems and consequent readmissions. To reduce those risks, pharmacist interventions during and after hospitalization have been frequently studied,

  16. Virtual Communities of Practice: Bridging Research and Practice Using Web 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Laura A.; Koston, Zoe; Quartley, Marjorie; Adsit, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A significant dilemma for the health and human service professions continues to be the question of how best to bridge the divide between academic research and practice. Communities of practice have traditionally been a vehicle for collaborative research and for information exchange (Moore, 2008). Through collaboration, communities of practice have…

  17. Mechanism and Dynamics of Charge Transfer in Donor-Bridge-Acceptor Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorczak-Vos, N.

    2016-01-01

    Photoinduced charge transfer in organic materials is a fundamental process in various biological and technological areas. Donor-bridge-acceptor (DBA) molecules are used as model systems in numerous theoretical and experimental work to systematically study and unravel the underlying mechanisms of cha

  18. Effects of bridge exercises with a sling and vibrations on abdominal muscle thickness in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Won-tae

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to examine the changes in the thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA) and internal oblique (Io) muscles using ultrasonography in adults who performed bridge exercises with the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and a sling and received micro vibrations. In total, 32 subjects were divided into a therapy (n= 16) and control (n= 16) groups. The therapy group completed nine sets, with four repetitions, of bridge exercises with the sling and received vibrations. The control group completed nine sets, with four repetitions, of bridge exercises with the sling and did not receive vibrations. The thicknesses of the TrA and Io muscles were measured in both groups using ultrasonography before and after therapy. According to the pressure applied to the biofeedback unit, both groups showed significant changes in the thicknesses of the TrA and Io muscles after therapy (P 0.05). These findings indicate that approximately 15 minutes of vibrations during bridge exercises on unstable surfaces with a sling facilitates the activation of the deep trunk muscles and further enhances the activation of the TrA.

  19. Development of bridge-scour instrumentation for inspection and maintenance personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David S.; Landers, Mark N.; ,

    1993-01-01

    Inspecting bridges and monitoring scour during high flow can improve public transportation safety by providing early identification of scour and stream stability problems at bridges. Most bridge-inspection data are collected during low flow, when scour holes may have refilled. More than 25 percent of the States that responded to a questionnaire identified lack of adequate methodology and/or equipment as reasons for not collecting scour data during high-flow conditions. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, has begun to develop instrumentation for measuring scour that could be used by inspection and maintenance personnel during high-flow conditions. A variety of instruments and techniques for measuring scour were tested and evaluated in real-time bridge-scour data-collection studies by the USGS. In the National Scour study, fathometers were found to be superior to sounding weights and will be the primary bed-measuring instrument. The ability of low-cost fathometers and fish finders to locate the bed accurately is being evaluated. Simple and efficient methods for deploying the transducer during floods are also important for a successful measurement. The information and additional testing are being used to design new, portable scour-measuring systems.

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Work After Retirement: Examining Predictors of Bridge Employment, Continued Career Employment, and Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Misty M; Beehr, Terry A; Lepisto, Lawrence R

    2016-09-01

    Older employees are increasingly accepting bridge employment, which occurs when older workers take employment for pay after they retire from their main career. This study examined predictors of workers' decisions to engage in bridge employment versus full retirement and career employment. A national sample of 482 older people in the United States was surveyed regarding various work-related and nonwork related predictors of retirement decisions, and their retirement status was measured 5 years later. In bivariate analyses, both work-related variables (career goal achievement and experienced pressure to retire) and nonwork-related variables (psychological distress and traditional gender role orientation) predicted taking bridge employment, but in multinomial logistic regression, only nonwork variables had unique effects. Few predictors differentiated the bridge employed and fully retired groups. Nonwork variables were salient in making the decision to retire, and bridge employment may be conceptually more similar to full retirement than to career employment.