WorldWideScience

Sample records for bridge ten millennia

  1. Communication Measures to Bridge Ten Millennia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebeok, Thomas A. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Research Center for Language and Semiotic Studies

    1984-04-01

    The Department of Energy created the Human Interference Task Force (HITF) in 1980 to investigate the problems connected with the postclosure, final marking of a filled nuclear waste repository. The task of the HITF is to devise a method of warning future generations not to mine or drill at that site unless they are aware of the consequences of their actions. Since the likelihood of human interference should be minimized for 10,000 years, an effective and long-lasting warning system must be designed. This report is a semiotic analysis of the problem, examining it in terms of the science or theory of messages and symbols. Because of the long period of time involved, the report recommends that a relay system of recoding messages be initiated; that the messages contain a mixture of iconic, indexical, and symbolic elements; and that a high degree of redundancy of messages be employed.

  2. Communication measures to bridge ten millennia. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebeok, T.A.

    1984-04-01

    The Department of Energy created the Human Interference Task Force (HITF) in 1980 to investigate the problems connected with the postclosure, final marking of a filled nuclear waste repository. The task of the HITF is to devise a method of warning future generations not to mine or drill at that site unless they are aware of the consequences of their actions. Since the likelihood of human interference should be minimized for 10,000 years, an effective and long-lasting warning system must be designed. This report is a semiotic analysis of the problem, examining it in terms of the science or theory of messages and symbols. Because of the long period of time involved, the report recommends that a relay system of recoding messages be initiated; that the messages contain a mixture of iconic, indexical, and symbolic elements; and that a high degree of redundancy of messages be employed.

  3. Bridging the Cultural Gap: Ten Steps toward a More Multicultural Youth Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Denise E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents ten steps toward a more multicultural youth library to help bridge cultural and linguistic gaps in public and school libraries. Topics include mission statements; physical environment; collection diversity; collaboration; bilingual materials; multicultural materials; community involvement; and appreciating diversity. (LRW)

  4. A History of Solar Activity over Millennia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya G. Usoskin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented here is a review of present knowledge of the long-term behavior of solar activity on a multi-millennial timescale, as reconstructed using the indirect proxy method. The concept of solar activity is discussed along with an overview of the special indices used to quantify different aspects of variable solar activity, with special emphasis upon sunspot number. Over long timescales, quantitative information about past solar activity can only be obtained using a method based upon indirect proxies, such as the cosmogenic isotopes 14C and 10Be in natural stratified archives (e.g., tree rings or ice cores. We give an historical overview of the development of the proxy-based method for past solar-activity reconstruction over millennia, as well as a description of the modern state. Special attention is paid to the verification and cross-calibration of reconstructions. It is argued that this method of cosmogenic isotopes makes a solid basis for studies of solar variability in the past on a long timescale (centuries to millennia during the Holocene. A separate section is devoted to reconstructions of strong solar energetic-particle (SEP events in the past, that suggest that the present-day average SEP flux is broadly consistent with estimates on longer timescales, and that the occurrence of extra-strong events is unlikely. Finally, the main features of the long-term evolution of solar magnetic activity, including the statistics of grand minima and maxima occurrence, are summarized and their possible implications, especially for solar/stellar dynamo theory, are discussed.

  5. A History of Solar Activity over Millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    2008-10-01

    Presented here is a review of present knowledge of the long-term behavior of solar activity on a multi-millennial timescale, as reconstructed using the indirect proxy method. The concept of solar activity is discussed along with an overview of the special indices used to quantify different aspects of variable solar activity, with special emphasis upon sunspot number. Over long timescales, quantitative information about past solar activity can only be obtained using a method based upon indirect proxy, such as the cosmogenic isotopes 14 C and 10Be in natural stratified archives (e.g., tree rings or ice cores). We give an historical overview of the development of the proxy-based method for past solar-activity reconstruction over millennia, as well as a description of the modern state. Special attention is paid to the verification and cross-calibration of reconstructions. It is argued that this method of cosmogenic isotopes makes a solid basis for studies of solar variability in the past on a long timescale (centuries to millennia) during the Holocene. A separate section is devoted to reconstructions of strong solar-energetic-particle (SEP) events in the past, that suggest that the present-day average SEP flux is broadly consistent with estimates on longer timescales, and that the occurrence of extra-strong events is unlikely. Finally, the main features of the long-term evolution of solar magnetic activity, including the statistics of grand minima and maxima occurrence, are summarized and their possible implications, especially for solar/stellar dynamo theory, are discussed.

  6. A History of Solar Activity over Millennia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usoskin Ilya G.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Presented here is a review of present knowledge of the long-term behavior of solar activity on a multi-millennial timescale, as reconstructed using the indirect proxy method.The concept of solar activity is discussed along with an overview of the special indices used to quantify different aspects of variable solar activity, with special emphasis upon sunspot number.Over long timescales, quantitative information about past solar activity can only be obtained using a method based upon indirect proxy, such as the cosmogenic isotopes 14C and 10Be in natural stratified archives (e.g., tree rings or ice cores. We give an historical overview of the development of the proxy-based method for past solar-activity reconstruction over millennia, as well as a description of the modern state. Special attention is paid to the verification and cross-calibration of reconstructions. It is argued that this method of cosmogenic isotopes makes a solid basis for studies of solar variability in the past on a long timescale (centuries to millennia during the Holocene.A separate section is devoted to reconstructions of strong solar–energetic-particle (SEP events in the past, that suggest that the present-day average SEP flux is broadly consistent with estimates on longer timescales, and that the occurrence of extra-strong events is unlikely.Finally, the main features of the long-term evolution of solar magnetic activity, including the statistics of grand minima and maxima occurrence, are summarized and their possible implications, especially for solar/stellar dynamo theory, are discussed.

  7. A History of Solar Activity over Millennia

    CERN Document Server

    Usoskin, Ilya G

    2013-01-01

    Presented here is a review of present knowledge of the long-term behavior of solar activity on a multi-millennial timescale, as reconstructed using the indirect proxy method. The concept of solar activity is discussed along with an overview of the special indices used to quantify different aspects of variable solar activity, with special emphasis upon sunspot number. Over long timescales, quantitative information about past solar activity can only be obtained using a method based upon indirect proxy, such as the cosmogenic isotopes 14C and 10Be in natural stratified archives (e.g., tree rings or ice cores). We give an historical overview of the development of the proxy-based method for past solar-activity reconstruction over millennia, as well as a description of the modern state. Special attention is paid to the verification and cross-calibration of reconstructions. It is argued that this method of cosmogenic isotopes makes a solid basis for studies of solar variability in the past on a long timescale (centu...

  8. Evolution of Toilets Worldwide through the Millennia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios P. Antoniou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, various civilizations developed methodologies for the collection and disposal of human waste. The methodologies throughout the centuries have been characterized by technological peaks on the one hand, and by the disappearance of the technologies and their reappearance on the other. The purpose of this article is to trace the development of sewage collection and transport with an emphasis on toilets in ancient civilizations. Evolution of the major achievements in the scientific fields of sanitation with emphasis on the lavatory (or toilets technologies through the centuries up to the present are presented. Valuable insights into ancient wastewater technologies and management with their apparent characteristics of durability, adaptability to the environment, and sustainability are provided. Gradual steps improved the engineering results until the establishment of the contemporary toilet system, which provides a combined solution for flushing, odor control, and the sanitation of sewerage. Even though the lack of proper toilet facilities for a great percentage of the present day global population is an embarrassing fact, the worldwide efforts through millennia for the acquisition of a well-engineered toilet were connected to the cultural level of each period.

  9. Millennia of Discord: The Controversial Educational Program of Isocrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Five years ago in "Theory and Research in Education", James R. Muir fired a new salvo in the debate regarding the merits of Isocrates' educational program, a controversy that has endured for more than two millennia. Was the Isocratean program misguided and lowbrow, as in the estimations of Plato and Aristotle--or was it the most successful program…

  10. Bridging the gaps among research, policy and practice in ten low- and middle-income countries: Development and testing of questionnaire for health-care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boupha Boungnong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reliability and validity of instruments used to survey health-care providers' views about and experiences with research evidence have seldom been examined. Methods Country teams from ten low- and middle-income countries (China, Ghana, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Laos, Mexico, Pakistan, Senegal and Tanzania participated in the development, translation, pilot-testing and administration of a questionnaire designed to measure health-care providers' views and activities related to improving their clinical practice and their awareness of, access to and use of research evidence, as well as changes in their clinical practice that they attribute to particular sources of research evidence that they have used. We use internal consistency as a measure of the questionnaire's reliability and, whenever possible, we use explanatory factor analyses to assess the degree to which questions that pertain to a single domain actually address common themes. We assess the questionnaire's face validity and content validity and, to a lesser extent, we also explore its criterion validity. Results The questionnaire has high internal consistency, with Cronbach's alphas between 0.7 and 0.9 for 16 of 20 domains and sub-domains (identified by factor analyses. Cronbach's alphas are greater than 0.9 for two domains, suggesting some item redundancy. Pre- and post-field work assessments indicate the questionnaire has good face validity and content validity. Our limited assessment of criterion validity shows weak but statistically significant associations between the general influence of research evidence among providers and more specific measures of providers' change in approach to preventing or treating a clinical condition. Conclusion Our analysis points to a number of strengths of the questionnaire - high internal consistency (reliability and good face and content validity - but also to areas where it can be shortened without losing important conceptual

  11. Eight millennia of matrilineal genetic continuity in the South Caucasus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margaryan, Ashot; Derenko, Miroslava; Hovhannisyan, Hrant

    2017-01-01

    The South Caucasus, situated between the Black and Caspian Seas, geographically links Europe with the Near East and has served as a crossroad for human migrations for many millennia [1–7]. Despite a vast archaeological record showing distinct cultural turnovers, the demographic events that shaped...... the human populations of this region is not known [8, 9]. To shed light on the maternal genetic history of the region, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial genomes of 52 ancient skeletons from present-day Armenia and Artsakh spanning 7,800 years and combined this dataset with 206 mitochondrial genomes...... is between modern Armenians and the ancient individuals, as also reflected in both network analyses and discriminant analysis of principal components. We used approximate Bayesian computation to test five different demographic scenarios explaining the formation of the modern Armenian gene pool. Despite well...

  12. The climate of the last two millennia off Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Fatima; Rodrigues, Teresa; Rufino, Marta; Naughton, Filipa; Gil, Isabelle; Salgueiro, Emilia; Stroynowski, Zuzia; Santos, Celia; Oliveira, Dulce; Domingues, Sandra; Drago, Teresa; Mil-Homens, Mario

    2017-04-01

    More than global or hemispheric variability, regional scale climate conditions are the ones that are highly relevant to ecosystems and societies. The Iberian Peninsula, at mid-latitude and the western extreme of the European continent, is a key point for climate reconstructions. In this study we combine a multi-proxy analyses of six inner-shelf high-sedimentation sites covering the last 2 millennia, that span along the Iberian margin from 41° N to 36 °N. This approach provides a latitudinal perspective of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) evolution as well as information on the continental conditions (mainly precipitation) and marine primary production at multi-decadal scale. Furthermore, a regional stack was constructed and compared to North Hemisphere (NH) and global climatological series in order to investigate the role of external forcing on regional climate. Results show a temporal SST variability comparable with the NH and European mean atmospheric temperature records for the last 2 millennia, over a long-term cooling trend that ends at the beginning of the 20th century. Reconstructed cold conditions, with an average of 0.5 °C colder SST in the north and 1.2°C in the south, encompassing most of the 15th to the 19th century, characterizes the Little Ice Age (LIA). During the 20th century SSTs are equivalent to pre-LIA, but marked by higher amplitude decadal oscillations, in particular after 1970, within the Great Solar Maximum. Precipitation is high in the northern sites at the beginning of the Medieval Warm Period and during the LIA in all records. Strong precipitation/ flood events occur in good agreement with the Tagus basin terrace ages and historical documentation and at times of major shifts in solar activity. Primary production shows a southward decrease specially clear for the Algarve site and an important shift at AD 1800, when the opposing trend in the southern and north sites points to a general weakening in upwelling intensity in the north

  13. The three lost millennia of the last deglaciation (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Edouard

    2013-04-01

    Looking back more than thirty years, climate history over the last period of deglaciation was seen to portray a smooth transition between the last glacial maximum (LGM) centered around 18,000 years ago (based on radiocarbon), and the beginning of the Holocene at about 10,000 years before present. At that time, the renowned CLIMAP group used the stratigraphy available to reconstruct the glacial world by averaging paleothermometric data over a wide time window, ranging between at least 14,000 and 24,000 yr BP, over which period climate was assumed to be rather stable. Even if northern European pollen records showed several phases of vegetation shift, the exact duration and spatial coverage of these shifts was unknown and their climatic significance was not well-enough understood to be separated from other biological effects, such as plant migration following ice-sheet demise. Significant progress came from mass spectrometry developments applied to isotope geochronology in the mid- and late- 1980s. This allowed the precise analysis of radiocarbon on small samples such as foraminifera in marine sediments and enabled the measurement of U-Th ages for accurate dating of corals and speleothems. These technological improvements permitted meaningful comparisons between proxy records from the various archives originating from all latitudes and longitudes. Today, it is clear that the old LGM time window corresponds to a period of more than ten millennia during which there was significant climate variability, including a prominent cooling event at the beginning of the deglaciation. This cooling event is known as the 'Oldest Dryas' by palynologists, as 'Heinrich Event #1' (H1) by paleoceanographers, and has even been dubbed the 'Mystery Interval' by prominent authors as they puzzled while attempting to synthesize and interpret its records. The H1 drastic cooling, attributed to a pulse-like injection of ice and meltwater into the North Atlantic, was first evidenced in 1987 in

  14. Railroad Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Bridges-Rail in the United States According to The National Bridge Inspection Standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (23 CFR 650.3), a bridge isA...

  15. Variations in the methane budget over the last two millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapart, C. J.

    2012-06-01

    Methane (CH4) is a strong greenhouse gas and even though its atmospheric abundance is lower than carbon dioxide (CO2), CH4 has a global warming potential twenty-five times larger than CO2 and its atmospheric abundance has drastically increased since 1800. Understanding the evolution of the CH4 atmospheric abundance is complex, because it is controlled by multiple sources (e.g. wetlands, biomass burning, ruminants, rice paddies and fossil fuel) and sinks, and large uncertainties exist on how sensitive those sources and sinks are to climate variability. The aim of this research is to understand the influence of climate variability and anthropogenic activity on the CH4 budget, i.e. the balance between the different sources and sinks, during the last two millennia. For this purpose a technique was developed to analyze the CH4 isotopic composition of air in ice cores. Analysis of the isotopic composition of CH4 preserved in ice cores provides evidence for the environmental drivers of variations in CH4 mixing ratios, because different sources and sinks affect the isotopic composition of CH4 uniquely. Our main results from air trapped in Greenland ice cores shows that the carbon isotopic composition (d13C) of CH4 underwent pronounced centennial-scale variations between 200 BC and 1600 AD without clear corresponding changes in CH4 mixing ratios. Two-box model calculations suggest that those centennial-scale variations in isotope ratios are due to changes in biomass burning and biogenic sources (e.g. wetlands, agriculture), which are correlated with both natural climate variability, including the Medieval Climate Anomaly and with changes in human population, land-use and important events in history as the expansion of the Roman Empire, the fall of the Han dynasty and the Medieval period. This shows that human activity had an impact on the methane budget already two thousand years ago and is likely responsible for the atmospheric methane increase in the atmosphere during

  16. The Rhine Delta - a record of sediment trapping over time scales from millennia to decades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, H.; Erkens, G.; van der Perk, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta forms a unique palaeo-environment to study both palaeogeography, and evolution of river avulsions and sediment trapping on a millennia timescale. It contains a relatively complete geological record, as a result of rapid aggradation during the Holocene, governed by

  17. Detecting plant-climate interactions over decades-millennia using NMR isotopomer analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Ina; Augusti, Angela; Köhler, Iris; Wieloch, Thomas; Zuidema, Pieter; Robertson, Iain; Nilsson, Mats; Marshall, John; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Increasing CO2 and climate change affect photosynthesis, which creates a critical influence on the global C cycle and on the future productivity of crops and forests. Manipulative experiments (e.g. FACE) impose step increases in [CO2], and are limited to few locations and to time spans of years, while responses over decades and centuries are critical for Earth system models. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a new method - isotopomer analysis - that allows deducing plant C metabolism by analysis of primary plant photosynthates (Ehlers et al., PNAS 2015, 15585) or tree rings. We apply the method to material from manipulation (CO2, T) experiments, and to remnant - including subfossil - plant material. Thus, metabolic responses can be identified in FACE experiments, and it can be tested to what degree these responses are maintained during gradual environmental changes over decades-millennia. Isotopomer proxies developed using FACE experiments can then be used to reconstruct physiological and climatic changes by retrospective analysis, thus bridging a gap between experimental plant sciences and paleo research. In experiments on annual plants, we have found that specific deuterium isotopomers in photosynthetic glucose reflect the ratio of oxygenation to carboxylation at Rubisco, a central metabolic branching that is the origin of the photorespiration flux in all C3 plants. We found that increasing atmospheric [CO2] over the 20th century has reduced the photorespiration / photosynthesis ratio in all investigated C3 species, with no evidence for acclimatory reactions by the plants. Results on the peat moss Spagnum fuscum suggest a mechanism for increasing peat accumulation rates, a major global C sink. For 12 tree species from five continents, we observe that the CO2 increase since industrialization has reduced the photorespiration / photosynthesis ratio. However, the observed reduction is ca. 50 % smaller than expected from CO2 manipulation experiments

  18. An Updated Paleosecular Variation Curve from Mesoamerica for Last Two Millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Arechalde, A. M.; Caballero-Miranda, C. I.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J. H.

    2008-05-01

    Early efforts for establishing an archeomagnetic reference curve for Mesoamerica failed due to the absence of reliable radiometric dates. Recently, numerous 14C data become available from Central Mexico (Teopancazco and Xalla in Teotihuacan area, Xochicalco, Templo Mayor, Tlatelolco, Cholula and Cacaxtla). In light of these new radiometric and magnetic information, we present here an updated secular variation curve for the last two millennia. In addition, a comparative analysis were carried out with southwest North American data (Lengylel and Eighmy , 2001).

  19. Myocardial Bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

  20. Non-pharmacological treatments for pain relief: TENS and acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutaux, Anne

    2017-02-20

    Acupuncture and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) are non-pharmacological methods that have been used for millennia to relieve pain. As with all complementary treatments, efficacy evaluations face two hurdles: the non-feasibility of double-blinding and the difficulty in identifying the optimal control population or treatment. Nevertheless, recent studies of good methodological quality have demonstrated benefits in many types of pain compared to conventional treatment. The mechanisms of action of acupuncture and TENS, which are increasingly well understood, involve endogenous pain control systems, cerebral plasticity, and nonspecific effects (e.g., expectations and placebo effect). No serious adverse effects have been reported. These data support the more widespread use of non-pharmacological pain management, most notably in patients with chronic pain inadequately relieved by medications alone.

  1. Two millennia of soil dynamics derived from ancient desert terraces using high resolution 3-D data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filin, Sagi; Arav, Reuma; Avni, Yoav

    2017-04-01

    Large areas in the arid southern Levant are dotted with ancient terrace-based agriculture systems which were irrigated by runoff harvesting techniques. They were constructed and maintained between the 3rd - 9th centuries AD and abandoned in the 10th century AD. During their 600 years of cultivation, these terraces documented the gradual aggradation of alluvial soils, erosion processes within the drainage basins, as well as flashflood damage. From their abandonment and onwards, they documented 1000 years and more of land degradation and soil erosion processes. Examination of these installations presents an opportunity to study natural and anthropogenic induced changes over almost two millennia. On a global scale, such an analysis is unique as it is rare to find intact manifestations of anthropogenic influences over such time-scales because of landscape dynamics. It is also rare to find a near millennia documentation of soil erosion processes. We study in this paper the aggradation processes within intact agriculture plots in the region surrounding the world heritage Roman-Byzantine ancient city of Avdat, Negev Highlands. We follow the complete cycle of the historical desert agriculture, from the configuration pre-dating the first anthropogenic intervention, through the centuries of cultivation, and up to the present erosion phase, which spans over more than a millennium. We use high resolution 3-D laser scans to document the erosion and the environmental dynamics during these two millennia. The high-resolution data is then utilized to compute siltation rates as well as erosion rates. The long-term measures of soil erosion and land degradation we present here significantly improve our understanding of the mechanism of long-term environmental change acting in arid environments. For sustainable desert inhabitation, the study offers insights into better planning of modern agriculture in similar zones as well as insights on strategies needed to protect such historical

  2. Summer temperature trend over the past two millennia using air content in Himalayan ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Himalayan ice cores display a factor-two decreasing trend of air content over the past two millennia, in contrast to the relatively stable values in Greenland and Antarctica ice cores over the same period. Because the air content can be related with the relative frequency and intensity of melt phenomena, its variations along the Himalayan ice cores provide an indication of summer temperature trend. Our reconstruction point toward an unprecedented warming trend in the 20th century but does not depict the usual trends associated with "Medieval Warm Period" (MWP, or "Little Ice Age" (LIA.

  3. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  4. National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NBI is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 600,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate Highways,...

  5. Three millennia of heavy rainfalls in Western Mediterranean: frequency, seasonality and atmospheric drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corella, J. P.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Vicente-Serrano, S. M.; Brauer, A.; Benito, G.

    2016-12-01

    Documenting subdecadal-scale heavy rainfall (HR) variability over several millennia can rarely be accomplished due to the paucity of high resolution, homogeneous and continuous proxy records. Here, using a unique, seasonally resolved lake record from southern Europe, we quantify temporal changes in extreme HR events for the last 2,800 years in this region and their correlation with negative phases of the Mediterranean Oscillation (MO). Notably, scarce HR dominated by a persistent positive MO mode characterizes the so-called Migration period (CE 370-670). Large hydroclimatic variability, particularly between CE 1012 and 1164, singles out the Medieval Climatic Anomaly, whereas more stationary HR conditions occurred between CE 1537 and 1805 coinciding with the Little Ice Age. This exceptional paleohydrological record highlights that the present-day trend towards strengthened hydrological deficit and less HR in the western Mediterranean is neither acute nor unusual in the context of Late Holocene hydrometeorological variability at centennial to decadal time scales.

  6. The last 7 millennia of vegetation and climate changes at Lago di Pergusa (central Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sadori

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate climate changes and human activities under the lens of palynology. Based on a new high-resolution pollen sequence (PG2 from Lago di Pergusa (667 m a.s.l., central Sicily, Italy covering the last 6700 yr, we propose a reconstruction of climate and landscape changes over the recent past in central Sicily. Compared to former studies from Lago di Pergusa (Sadori and Narcisi, 2001, this work provides a reconstruction of the evolution of vegetation and climate over the last millennia in central Sicily, indeed completing previous results with new pollen data, which is particularly detailed on the last 3000 yr. Joint actions of increasing dryness, climate oscillations, and human impact shaped the landscape of this privileged site. Lago di Pergusa, besides being the main inland lake of Sicily, is very sensitive to climate change and its territory was inhabited and exploited continuously since the Palaeolithic. The lake sediments turned out to be a good observatory for natural phenomena that occurred in the last thousands of years. Results of the pollen-based study are integrated with changes in magnetic susceptibility and a tephra layer characterization. The tephra layer was shown to be related to the Sicanians' event, radiocarbon dated at 3055 ± 75 yr BP (Sadori and Narcisi, 2001. We performed palaeoclimate reconstructions by MAT (Modern Analogues Technique and WAPLS (Weighted Average Partial Least Square. Palaeoclimate reconstructions based on the core show important climate fluctuations throughout the Holocene. Climate reconstruction points out four phases of cooling and enhanced wetness in the last three millennia (2600–2000, 1650–1100, 850–550, 400–200 cal BP, corresponding to the periods between 650–50 BC, and 300–850, 1100–1400, 1550–1750 AD, respectively. This appears to be the evidence of local responses to global climate oscillations during the recent past.

  7. Fire in ice: two millennia of Northern Hemisphere fire history from the Greenland NEEM ice core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zennaro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning is a major source of greenhouse gases and influences regional to global climate. Pre-industrial fire-history records from black carbon, charcoal and other proxies provide baseline estimates of biomass burning at local to global scales, but there remains a need for broad-scale fire proxies that span millennia in order to understand the role of fire in the carbon cycle and climate system. We use the specific biomarker levoglucosan, and multi-source black carbon and ammonium concentrations to reconstruct fire activity from the North Greenland Eemian (NEEM ice cores (77.49° N; 51.2° W, 2480 m a.s.l. over the past 2000 years. Increases in boreal fire activity (1000–1300 CE and 1500–1700 CE over multi-decadal timescales coincide with the most extensive central and northern Asian droughts of the past two millennia. The NEEM biomass burning tracers coincide with temperature changes throughout much of the past 2000 years except for during the extreme droughts, when precipitation changes are the dominant factor. Many of these multi-annual droughts are caused by monsoon failures, thus suggesting a connection between low and high latitude climate processes. North America is a primary source of biomass burning aerosols due to its relative proximity to the NEEM camp. During major fire events, however, isotopic analyses of dust, back-trajectories and links with levoglucosan peaks and regional drought reconstructions suggest that Siberia is also an important source of pyrogenic aerosols to Greenland.

  8. IREDA: ten years on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, I.M.

    1998-04-01

    The Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency has a ten-year history of promoting small hydro energy sources for many communities beyond the reach of the national grid. Sources of funding for hydro installations in India are mentioned. It is suggested that the expansion of the hydro schemes would benefit from greater co-ordination between central and state governments. (UK)

  9. Tens bij bevallingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuin-Nuis, F.D.F.

    2000-01-01

    TENS (Transcutane Electrische Neuro Stimulatie) is een pijnverlichtingsmethode die berust op de Gate Control Theory van Melzack en Wall. Door middel van electrische pulsen via de huid zou de geleiding van nociceptieve signalen (pijnprikkels) worden beïnvloed en zou het lichaam endorfinen aanmaken: l

  10. Affordances: Ten Years On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jill P.; Stillman, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago the construct, affordance, was rising in prominence in scholarly literature. A proliferation of different uses and meanings was evident. Beginning with its origin in the work of Gibson, we traced its development and use in various scholarly fields. This paper revisits our original question with respect to its utility in mathematics…

  11. Powers of ten

    CERN Multimedia

    Pyramid FILMS

    1977-01-01

    Powers of Ten is a 1977 short documentary film written and directed by Charles Eames and his wife, Ray. The film depicts the relative scale of the Universe in factors of ten (see also logarithmic scale and order of magnitude). The film begins with an aerial image of a man reclining on a blanket; the view is that of one meter across. The viewpoint, accompanied by expository voiceover, then slowly zooms out to a view ten meters across ( or 101 m in standard form), revealing that the man is picnicking in a park with a female companion. The zoom-out continues, to a view of 100 meters (102 m), then 1 kilometer (103 m), and so on, increasing the perspective—the picnic is revealed to be taking place near Soldier Field on Chicago's waterfront—and continuing to zoom out to a field of view of 1024 meters, or the size of the observable universe. The camera then zooms back in to the picnic, and then to views of negative powers of ten—10-1 m (10 centimeters), and so forth, until we are viewing a carbon nucl...

  12. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  13. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...... Belgrade), Leo Pekkala (Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media/MEKU), Julie Uldam (Network on Civic Engagement and Social Innovation) and Gabriella Velics (Community Media Forum Europe)....

  14. Mathematical bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu; Tetiva, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Building bridges between classical results and contemporary nonstandard problems, Mathematical Bridges embraces important topics in analysis and algebra from a problem-solving perspective. Blending old and new techniques, tactics and strategies used in solving challenging mathematical problems, readers will discover numerous genuine mathematical gems throughout that will heighten their appreciation of the inherent beauty of mathematics. Most of the problems are original to the authors and are intertwined in a well-motivated exposition driven by representative examples. The book is structured to assist the reader in formulating and proving conjectures, as well as devising solutions to important mathematical problems by making connections between various concepts and ideas from different areas of mathematics. Instructors and educators teaching problem-solving courses or organizing mathematics clubs, as well as motivated mathematics students from high school juniors to college seniors, will find Mathematical Bri...

  15. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  16. Ten Outstanding Women Chosen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    BEFORE the celebration of the 85th anniversary of International Women’s Day, the All-China Women’s Federation sponsored an activity to choose ten outstanding Chinese women, which involved the Ministries of Labor and Personnel, the General Political Department of the People’s Liberation Army, the All-China Federation of Trade Union, the Youth League of China, the China Association of Science and about a dozen Chinese news agencies. The results were recently announced, and including following women: Yue Xicui, one of the third generation of women aviators. Since she joined the air force she has accumulated 5,180 hours

  17. Permafrost peatland dynamics during the last millennia in NE European Russia and Finnish Lapland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Väliranta, Minna; Piilo, Sanna; Amesbury, Matthew; Gallego-Sala, Angela; Charman, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Permafrost peatlands cover vast areas in circum-Arctic regions. Since the 1980s, annual temperatures in these areas have risen by ca. 2 °C and warming is projected to continue. Accordingly, the large carbon store in these peatlands may therefore be threatened. Alternatively, warming may increase productivity more than decomposition and peat accumulation rates may increase. To better understand how high latitude permafrost peatlands have responded to recent warming and what might be their future fate, we carried out detailed studies on two permafrost peatlands in NE Russia and two in Finnish Lapland. Our study methods included high resolution testate amoeba, plant macrofossil, C/N analyses, together with 210Pb and radiocarbon dating. We reconstructed changes in hydrological conditions, plant composition, and peat and carbon accumulation rates. Our preliminary results showed large variations in peat accumulation rates even within a very small area. Furthermore, testate amoeba and plant macrofossil data suggest variations in hydrological conditions during the last millennia. In the future, we will compare our regional data derived from different peatlands to each other, to climate reconstructions and to measured meteorological data.

  18. Helium and thorium isotope constraints on African dust transport to the Bahamas over recent millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Christopher T.; McGee, David; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Boyle, Edward A.; Maloof, Adam C.

    2017-01-01

    Despite its potential linkages with North Atlantic climate, the variability in Saharan dust transport to the western North Atlantic over the past two millennia has not been well-characterized. A factor of 4 increase in dust production in sub-Saharan Africa has been attributed to the onset of Sahelian agriculture 200 yr ago. The regional extent of this anthropogenic dust increase, however, remains uncertain. Additionally, while millennial-scale cold periods of the last deglaciation have been associated with strong increases in North African dust emissions, few adequate records exist to observe dustiness during the Little Ice Age, a century-scale cooling of the North Atlantic (AD 1400-1800). In this study, we develop a new technique for the paired use of 230Th-normalized 232Th fluxes and 3He-normalized 4He fluxes in Bahamian tidal flat sediments. After justifying the fact that 230Th and 3He have had relatively constant sources to tidal flat and banktop waters, and accounting for the smoothing effect of bioturbation, a factor of 4 change in far-field dust transport to the western North Atlantic between the pre-industrial and modern era is not supported by our dust proxies over the past 2000 yr. Furthermore, we speculate why the response of western North Atlantic dust deposition associated with the Little Ice Age climate anomalies may have been modest compared to prior climatic events of the early Holocene or the last deglaciation.

  19. Fire in ice: two millennia of boreal forest fire history from the Greenland NEEM ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zennaro, P.; Kehrwald, N.; McConnell, J. R.; Schüpbach, S.; Maselli, O. J.; Marlon, J.; Vallelonga, P.; Leuenberger, D.; Zangrando, R.; Spolaor, A.; Borrotti, M.; Barbaro, E.; Gambaro, A.; Barbante, C.

    2014-10-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of greenhouse gases and influences regional to global climate. Pre-industrial fire-history records from black carbon, charcoal and other proxies provide baseline estimates of biomass burning at local to global scales spanning millennia, and are thus useful to examine the role of fire in the carbon cycle and climate system. Here we use the specific biomarker levoglucosan together with black carbon and ammonium concentrations from the North Greenland Eemian (NEEM) ice cores (77.49° N, 51.2° W; 2480 m a.s.l) over the past 2000 years to infer changes in boreal fire activity. Increases in boreal fire activity over the periods 1000-1300 CE and decreases during 700-900 CE coincide with high-latitude NH temperature changes. Levoglucosan concentrations in the NEEM ice cores peak between 1500 and 1700 CE, and most levoglucosan spikes coincide with the most extensive central and northern Asian droughts of the past millennium. Many of these multi-annual droughts are caused by Asian monsoon failures, thus suggesting a connection between low- and high-latitude climate processes. North America is a primary source of biomass burning aerosols due to its relative proximity to the Greenland Ice Cap. During major fire events, however, isotopic analyses of dust, back trajectories and links with levoglucosan peaks and regional drought reconstructions suggest that Siberia is also an important source of pyrogenic aerosols to Greenland.

  20. Two millennia of Mesoamerican monsoon variability driven by Pacific and Atlantic synergistic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachniet, Matthew S.; Asmerom, Yemane; Polyak, Victor; Bernal, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The drivers of Mesoamerican monsoon variability over the last two millennia remain poorly known because of a lack of precisely-dated and climate-calibrated proxy records. Here, we present a new high resolution (∼2 yrs) and precisely-dated (± 4 yr) wet season hydroclimate reconstruction for the Mesoamerican sector of the North American Monsoon over the past 2250 years based on two aragonite stalagmites from southwestern Mexico which replicate oxygen isotope variations over the 950-1950 CE interval. The reconstruction is quantitatively calibrated to instrumental rainfall variations in the Basin of Mexico. Comparisons to proxy indices of ocean-atmosphere circulation show a synergistic forcing by the North Atlantic and El Niño/Southern Oscillations, whereby monsoon strengthening coincided with a La Niña-like mode and a negative North Atlantic Oscillation, and vice versa for droughts. Our data suggest that weak monsoon intervals are associated with a strong North Atlantic subtropical high pressure system and a weak Intertropical convergence zone in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Population expansions at three major highland Mexico civilization of Teotihuacan, Tula, and Aztec Tenochtitlan were all associated with drought to pluvial transitions, suggesting that urban population growth was favored by increasing freshwater availability in the semi-arid Mexican highlands, and that this hydroclimatic change was controlled by Pacific and Atlantic Ocean forcing.

  1. Temperature and Rainfall Variability in the Northern Andes Over the Past Two Millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, T. M.; Bixler, C. W.; Mora, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies of tropical glaciers have shown that most are retreating rapidly, with some of the most dramatic changes occurring since the mid-1970s, most likely as a result of increasing global temperatures. However, a longer-term perspective is needed to place these changes in the context of natural climate variability. To better understand the climatological factors driving long-term variations in the mass balance of tropical glaciers, we reconstructed changes in precipitation and temperature in the northern tropical Andes using variations in the hydrogen isotope composition of sedimentary leaf waxes and branched GDGT distributions in a high-resolution varved sediment record from Lago Chingaza, Colombia. Br-GDGT derived temperatures are significantly correlated with instrumental temperature data and indicate that recent warming in the northern tropical Andes is unprecedented over the past two millennia. Furthermore, the magnitude of warming since the Little Ice Age is substantially larger than suggested by high latitude temperature reconstructions. Hydrogen isotope data indicated that colder conditions during the Little Ice Age were accompanied by a decrease in rainfall, likely associated with a southward shift in the position of the ITCZ. Over the past few centuries, warmer temperatures were accompanied by an increase in rainfall and a northward expansion of the tropical rainbelt. Together, these data suggest that the dominant control on the retreat of Andean glaciers has been the unprecedented rate and magnitude of recent warming.

  2. Upslope agricultural expansion caused mammal range contractions in China over the past two millennia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Shuqing; Xu, Chi; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    Extinctions of large mammals characterize the Late Quaternary, spanning from the Late Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. As their causes, apart from climate change, researchers have proposed anthropogenic factors with focus on roles of early foraging behaviors (e.g. hunting and using fire) and indu......Extinctions of large mammals characterize the Late Quaternary, spanning from the Late Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. As their causes, apart from climate change, researchers have proposed anthropogenic factors with focus on roles of early foraging behaviors (e.g. hunting and using fire......) and industrial development in mammal range contractions and final extinctions. However, much less is known about how such events have unfolded in agricultural societies that lie evolutionarily between Paleolithic ones and modern ones. To fill the gap, using spatiotemporal data derived from historical records...... in ancient China over the past two millennia, we analyzed the patterns of mammal range contractions and their associations with historical climate change and agricultural population dynamics. We found that it was the long-term upslope spread of agricultural population that consistently contracted the mammal...

  3. Ten years of PAMELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillantini, Piero

    2016-07-01

    Pamela experiment has been designed as a cosmic ray observatory at 1 AU, dedicated to the precise and high statistics study of CR fluxes on a three decades energy range, form a few tens MeV up to several hundred GeV region. It is the last step of the 'Russian-Italian Mission' (RIM) program born in 1992 between several Italian and Russian institutes and with the participation of the Royal Institute of Technology of Stockholm (Sweden) and the Siegen University (German). Launched the 16 June 2006 from Baikonur cosmodrome on board of the Resurs-DK1 Russian satellite by a Soyuz rocket in an elliptical (350-610 km) quasi polar orbit (70° inclination) it was activated on 21 June 2006, afterword has been in a continuous data taking mode for ten years. The Pamela program pays particular attention to the study of particles (protons and electrons) and antiparticles (antiprotons and positrons) energy spectra. It also includes search for possible signals of dark matter annihilation, search for primordial antimatter (antihelium), search for new Matter in the Universe (Strangelets?), study of cosmic-ray propagation, solar physics and solar modulation, terrestrial magnetosphere. This program is made possible thanks to the outstanding performance of the instrument, the low energy threshold, the quasi-polar orbit, the 10 years duration of the observation. Protons and helium nuclei are the most abundant components of the cosmic radiation and the precise measurements of their fluxes allow understanding the acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Their spectral shapes cannot be well described by a single power law: at 230-240 GV they exhibit an abrupt spectral hardening. They challenge the current paradigm of cosmic-ray acceleration in supernova remnants followed by diffusive propagation in the Galaxy. Of paramount importance is the discover of the anomalous increase of the positron flux at energies higher that 50 GeV (the so called 'Pamela anomaly'). The review of

  4. A pastoral landscape for millennia: Investigating pastoral mobility in northeastern Jordan using quantitative spatial analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Julia; Knitter, Daniel; Krause, Jan; Müller-Neuhof, Bernd; Schütt, Brigitta

    2017-04-01

    Northeastern Jordan is one of the few remaining regions in the Middle East where pastoral nomadism is still practiced. In this desert region, pastoral mobility is an adapted land use—able to cope with low rainfall rates, great seasonal and annual rainfall variations and thus heterogeneous vegetation and water availability. During winter, herders and their livestock move into the desert; in summer they move to the desert margins to places with perennial water supply. The system of mobile pastoralism was introduced during the Early Late Neolithic. Within the basaltic region of northeastern Jordan, there is a dense distribution of archeological remains; some of them can be linked to pastoral groups due to the herders' ancient practice of building agglomerations of sub-circular enclosures ('clustered enclosures') made of basalt boulders for corralling their flocks and domestic activities. The resulting features provide an excellent opportunity to investigate a pastoral landscape that has been frequently used by herders during the last eight to nine millennia. In this study, 9118 clustered enclosures in the northeastern Jordanian basalt desert have been systematically recorded using satellite imagery. In order to investigate potential migration or communication routes, grazing lands and social interactions of former pastoralists, we examine their first- and second-order characteristics using distance and density based approaches of point pattern analyses by integrating geomorphometric and geomorphological site properties. The results of this spatial analysis are combined with available archaeological data and a review on traditional herding practices in northeastern Jordan. Overall, the results demonstrate that the observed spatial distribution of clustered enclosures is influenced locally by natural characteristics but regionally by cultural practices.

  5. Mössbauer and XRD studies of Roman amphorae buried in the sea for two millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F. E.; Wagner, U.; Häusler, W.; Costa, B. F. O.; Blot, J.-Y.; Silva, A. J. M.; Bombico, S.

    2016-12-01

    During the years 2004-2007 many Roman amphora sherds were found in the sea near Cortiçais, off the southern coast of the Peniche peninsula on the Atlantic coast of Portugal. The amphorae are of the Haltern 70 type and stem from a shipwreck that has been dated to the time of the emperor Augustus, between about 15 BC and 15 AD. They were produced in the Roman Province of Baetica in the south of Spain and used to transport wine and other staple foods by sea to other Roman settlements. We have studied several fragments of these amphorae by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction in order to look for changes in the ceramic material caused by two millennia of exposure to sea water. For comparison Mössbauer data on a Haltern 70 type amphora handle excavated on land at the site of Castro do Vieito in the north of Portugal were used. The fragments on which we report here are a body sherd and two handles. The sherds show a visible layer structure. The different layers were studied separately. The Mössbauer spectra of the buff surface layers indicate that up to about 60 % of the iron is present as very fine goethite particles, which are superparamagnetic at RT but exhibit magnetically split spectra at 4.2 K. Their blocking temperature is around or even below 50 K. The goethite is too fine grained to be detected by X-ray diffraction. Re-firing experiments confirm the presence of goethite, which is found to convert to hematite between 300 and 600 ∘C. The results show that the iron in the silicate matrix of the ceramic material converts to goethite under the prolonged influence of the sea water, mainly in the outermost several millimetres and apparently depending on the nature of the ceramic material.

  6. AN UPDATE OF ITALIAN ARCHEAOINTENSITY DATA AND GEOMAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH VARIATION DURING THE LAST THREE MILLENNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tema, E.; Goguitchaichrili, A.

    2009-12-01

    Beside of the impressive cultural heritage and the abundant archaeological sites, Italian archaeointensity data are still sparse. We present here a new compilation and analysis of existing absolute intensity data in order to estimate the variation of the Earth’s magnetic field over the past three millennia. The current dataset consists of 140 intensity data mainly belonging to southern Italy. Vesuvius and Etna contribute 83 per cent of total while only 17 per cent comes from archaeological material. The time distribution is also irregular with the majority of determinations concentrated at the last four centuries. Still, older periods are very poorly covered. All data have been reduced at the latitude of Viterbo (42.45° N, 12.03° E) and plotted versus time. Data coming from historical volcanic eruptions show important discrepancies while those coming from archaeological material are still not sufficiently numerous to reliably describe the fine characteristics of geomagnetic field intensity variations. In order to increase the representativity of the data, archaeointensity results from nearby regions (approximately 700 km and 900 km radius from Viterbo) have been considered. The 700 km circle dataset still remains poor with only 20 additional data added. In contrast, the 900 km dataset includes 122 more archaeointensity data mainly coming from France, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Greece and Bulgaria that partially fill the gap between 4-7th centuries BC and 3-4th and 9-11th AD for which no Italian data are available. A preliminary Italian intensity secular variation curve has been calculated by using sliding windows of 100 years shifted by 50 years. The results have been compared with regional and global models predictions. Clearly more Italian archaeointensity data are still needed in order to draw a robust Italian intensity secular variation curve that could be used for archaeomagnetic dating in combination with directional data.

  7. Mössbauer and XRD studies of Roman amphorae buried in the sea for two millennia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, F. E., E-mail: fwagner@tum.de; Wagner, U.; Häusler, W. [Technical University of Munich, Physics Department E15 (Germany); Costa, B. F. O. [University of Coimbra, CFisUC, Physics Department (Portugal); Blot, J.-Y. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, CHAMFCSH (Portugal); Silva, A. J. M. [University of Coimbra, FCT/Centro de Estudos Arqueológicos das Universidades de Coimbra e do Porto (Portugal); Bombico, S. [University of Evora, CIDEHUS (Portugal)

    2016-12-15

    During the years 2004–2007 many Roman amphora sherds were found in the sea near Cortiçais, off the southern coast of the Peniche peninsula on the Atlantic coast of Portugal. The amphorae are of the Haltern 70 type and stem from a shipwreck that has been dated to the time of the emperor Augustus, between about 15 BC and 15 AD. They were produced in the Roman Province of Baetica in the south of Spain and used to transport wine and other staple foods by sea to other Roman settlements. We have studied several fragments of these amphorae by {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction in order to look for changes in the ceramic material caused by two millennia of exposure to sea water. For comparison Mössbauer data on a Haltern 70 type amphora handle excavated on land at the site of Castro do Vieito in the north of Portugal were used. The fragments on which we report here are a body sherd and two handles. The sherds show a visible layer structure. The different layers were studied separately. The Mössbauer spectra of the buff surface layers indicate that up to about 60 % of the iron is present as very fine goethite particles, which are superparamagnetic at RT but exhibit magnetically split spectra at 4.2 K. Their blocking temperature is around or even below 50 K. The goethite is too fine grained to be detected by X-ray diffraction. Re-firing experiments confirm the presence of goethite, which is found to convert to hematite between 300 and 600 {sup ∘}C. The results show that the iron in the silicate matrix of the ceramic material converts to goethite under the prolonged influence of the sea water, mainly in the outermost several millimetres and apparently depending on the nature of the ceramic material.

  8. Marine response to climate changes during the last five millennia in the central Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritelli, G.; Vallefuoco, M.; Di Rita, F.; Capotondi, L.; Bellucci, L. G.; Insinga, D. D.; Petrosino, P.; Bonomo, S.; Cacho, I.; Cascella, A.; Ferraro, L.; Florindo, F.; Lubritto, C.; Lurcock, P. C.; Magri, D.; Pelosi, N.; Rettori, R.; Lirer, F.

    2016-07-01

    We present a high-resolution paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last five millennia from a shallow water marine sedimentary record from the central Tyrrhenian Sea (Gulf of Gaeta) using planktonic foraminifera, pollen, oxygen stable isotope, tephrostratigrapy and magnetostratigrapy. This multiproxy approach allows to evidence and characterize nine time intervals associated with archaeological/cultural periods: Eneolithic (base of the core-ca. 2410 BCE), Early Bronze Age (ca. 2410 BCE-ca. 1900 BCE), Middle Bronze Age-Iron Age (ca. 1900 BCE-ca. 500 BCE), Roman Period (ca. 500 BCE-ca. 550 CE), Dark Age (ca. 550 CE-ca. 860 CE), Medieval Climate Anomaly (ca. 860 CE-ca. 1250 CE), Little Ice Age (ca. 1250 CE-ca. 1850 CE), Industrial Period (ca. 1850 CE-ca. 1950 CE), Modern Warm Period (ca. 1950 CE-present day). The reconstructed climatic evolution in the investigated sedimentary succession is coherent with the short-term climate variability documented at the Mediterranean scale. By integrating the planktonic foraminiferal turnover from carnivorous to herbivorous-opportunistic species, the oxygen isotope record and the pollen distribution, we document important modification from the onset of the Roman Period to the present-day. From ca. 500 CE upwards the documentation of the cooling trend punctuated by climate variability at secular scale evidenced by the short-term δ18O is very detailed. We hypothesise that the present day warm conditions started from the end of cold Maunder event. Additionally, we provide that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) directly affected the central Mediterranean region during the investigated time interval.

  9. Comments to the plenary presentation "Reconstructing Pre-Proto-Uralic typology spanning the millennia of linguistic evolution" by Juha Janhunen / Lśzl̤ Keresztes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keresztes, Lśzl̤

    2001-01-01

    Kommentaar: Janhunen, Juha. "Reconstructing Pre-Proto-Uralic typology spanning the millennia of linguistic evolution", Congressus nonus internationalis fenno-ugristarum. Tartu, 2000, 1, lk. 59-76. Ettekanne konverentsilt - Congressus internationalis fenno-ugristarum (9 : 2000 : Tartu)

  10. Comments to the plenary presentation "Reconstructing Pre-Proto-Uralic typology spanning the millennia of linguistic evolution" by Juha Janhunen / Lśzl̤ Keresztes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keresztes, Lśzl̤

    2001-01-01

    Kommentaar: Janhunen, Juha. "Reconstructing Pre-Proto-Uralic typology spanning the millennia of linguistic evolution", Congressus nonus internationalis fenno-ugristarum. Tartu, 2000, 1, lk. 59-76. Ettekanne konverentsilt - Congressus internationalis fenno-ugristarum (9 : 2000 : Tartu)

  11. The Ten Thousand Kims

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, Seung Ki; Kim, Beom Jun; 10.1088/1367-2630/13/7/073036

    2011-01-01

    In the Korean culture the family members are recorded in special family books. This makes it possible to follow the distribution of Korean family names far back in history. It is here shown that these name distributions are well described by a simple null model, the random group formation (RGF) model. This model makes it possible to predict how the name distributions change and these predictions are shown to be borne out. In particular, the RGF model predicts that, for married women entering a collection of family books in a certain year, the occurrence of the most common family name "Kim" should be directly proportional the total number of married women with the same proportionality constant for all the years. This prediction is also borne out to high degree. We speculate that it reflects some inherent social stability in the Korean culture. In addition, we obtain an estimate of the total population of the Korean culture down to year 500 AD, based on the RGF model and find about ten thousand Kims.

  12. The ten thousand Kims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung Ki; Minnhagen, Petter; Kim, Beom Jun

    2011-07-01

    In Korean culture, the names of family members are recorded in special family books. This makes it possible to follow the distribution of Korean family names far back in history. It is shown here that these name distributions are well described by a simple null model, the random group formation (RGF) model. This model makes it possible to predict how the name distributions change and these predictions are shown to be borne out. In particular, the RGF model predicts that for married women entering a collection of family books in a certain year, the occurrence of the most common family name 'Kim' should be directly proportional to the total number of married women with the same proportionality constant for all the years. This prediction is also borne out to a high degree. We speculate that it reflects some inherent social stability in the Korean culture. In addition, we obtain an estimate of the total population of the Korean culture down to the year 500 AD, based on the RGF model, and find about ten thousand Kims.

  13. Drought variability at the northern fringe of the Asian summer monsoon region over the past millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao; Kang, Shuyuan; Ljungqvist, Fredrik Charpentier; He, Minhui; Zhao, Yan; Qin, Chun

    2014-08-01

    The northern fringe of the Asian summer monsoon region (NASM) in China refers to the most northwestern extent of the Asian summer monsoon. Understanding the characteristics and underlying mechanisms of drought variability at long and short time-scales in the NASM region is of great importance, because present and future water shortages are of great concern. Here, we used newly developed and existing tree-ring, historical documentary and instrumental data available for the region to identify spatial and temporal patterns, and possible mechanisms of drought variability, over the past two millennia. We found that drought variations were roughly consistent in the western (the Qilian Mountains and Hexi Corridor) and eastern (the Great Bend of the Yellow River, referred to as GBYR) parts of the NASM on decadal to centennial timescales. We also identified the spatial extent of typical multi-decadal GBYR drought events based on historical dryness/wetness data and the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas. It was found that the two periods of drought, in AD 1625-1644 and 1975-1999, exhibited similar patterns: specifically, a wet west and a dry east in the NASM. Spatial characteristics of wetness and dryness were also broadly similar over these two periods, such that when drought occurred in the Karakoram Mountains, western Tianshan Mountains, the Pamirs, Mongolia, most of East Asia, the eastern Himalayas and Southeast Asia, a wet climate dominated in most parts of the Indian subcontinent. We suggest that the warm temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific might have been mainly responsible for the recent 1975-1999 drought. Possible causes of the drought of 1625-1644 were the combined effects of the weakened Asian summer monsoon and an associated southward shift of the Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone. These changes occurred due to a combination of Tibetan Plateau cooling together with more general Northern Hemisphere cooling, rather than being solely due to changes in the sea

  14. Evidence for Shifts in Indo-Pacific Hydrology over the Last Two Millennia from Indonesian Speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M. L.; Gagan, M. K.; Drysdale, R.; Kimbrough, A. K.; Johnson, K. R.; Cole, J. E.; Zhao, J.; Ayliffe, L. K.; Hellstrom, J.; Hantoro, W. S.

    2012-12-01

    A suite of climate proxy records from the tropical Pacific have provided detailed information on the behaviour of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and associated Pacific Walker Circulation (PWC) over the past millennium. However, there is still disagreement as to the precise evolution of this phenomenon, because some records have indicated that the PWC was stronger during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; ~950-1250 A.D. as defined in northern midlatitudes) and weaker during the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1450-1750 A.D.), whilst other records have suggested quite the opposite. These conflicting hypotheses are partly due to the lack of well-dated and continuous reconstructions of tropical Pacific climate, with the resolution capable of resolving the interannual ENSO and related decadal variability. Here we address these shortcomings by constructing an annually resolved record of Indonesian monsoon (IM) variability over the past two millennia from 18O/16O in speleothems situated within the ascending branch of the PWC in south-central Indonesia. Our replicated 18O/16O record reveals that the IM was substantially weaker (relative to modern) between ~950 and 1350 A.D., and became stronger immediately thereafter between ~1350 and 1700 A.D. These patterns, which are synchronous with other proxy records from the Indo-Pacific, are anti-phased with records of Indian and East Asian summer monsoon variability, suggesting that the latitudinal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone may have been responsible for the observed phase relationships between the northern- and southern-hemisphere low latitude regions. However, comparison of our IM record with hydrological records from the central/eastern equatorial Pacific shows marked anti-phasing between these regions too. Hence, zonal changes in the PWC may also explain the observed hydrologic shifts in Indonesia. Evidence for a weaker PWC during the MCA is provided by a time-space wavelet transform of our 18O/16O profile which

  15. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...

  16. Myocardial bridges of the coronary arteries in the human fetal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Yusuf Ozgür; Cavdar, Safiye; Yalin, Aymelek; Yener, Nuran; Ozdogmus, Omer

    2010-09-01

    During the last century, many investigators reported on myocardial bridges in the adult human heart. In the present study, 39 human fetal hearts (the mean gestastional age was 30 weeks) were studied for myocardial bridging, and the results were correlated with adult data. Among the 39 (27 male and 12 female) fetal hearts studied, 26 bridges were observed on 18 fetal hearts (46.2%). Ten of the bridges had one myocardial bridge, whereas double myocardial bridges were observed in eight fetal hearts. The most frequent myocardial bridges were observed on the left anterior descending artery (LAD), which had 13 bridges (50%). Eight (30.7%) myocardial bridges were on the diagonal artery, and on the posterior descending artery there were five (19.3%). Myocardial bridges were not observed on the circumflex artery. The data presented in this study may provide potentially useful information for the preoperative evaluation of the newborn and may have a clinical implication for sudden fetal death.

  17. Bridges in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Ang-Kun; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    A bridge in a graph is an edge whose removal disconnects the graph and increases the number of connected components. We calculate the fraction of bridges in a wide range of real-world networks and their randomized counterparts. We find that real networks typically have more bridges than their completely randomized counterparts, but very similar fraction of bridges as their degree-preserving randomizations. We define a new edge centrality measure, called bridgeness, to differentiate the importance of a bridge in damaging a network. We find that certain real networks have very large average and variance of bridgeness compared to their degree-preserving randomizations and other real networks. Finally, we offer an analytical framework to calculate the bridge fraction and average bridgeness for uncorrelated random networks with arbitrary degree distributions.

  18. Variability to sedimentary dynamics and climatic conditions during the last two millennia at sebkha Souassi in eastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essefi, Elhoucine; Jmaa, Hayet Ben; Touir, Jamel; Tagortig, Mohamed Ali; Yaicha, Chokri

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers work intended to study the interplay of sedimentary dynamics and climatic variability over the last two millennia within Tunisia's sebkha Souassi. Based on the Visual Core Description, and magnetic susceptibility, we date the core from sebkha Souassi to the last two millennia. Genetic grain-size distribution then provided a basis for the identification of six climatic stages, i.e. the Warming Present (WP), the Late Little Ice Age (Late LIA), the Early Little Ice Age (ELIA), the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA), the Dark Ages (DA), and the Roman Warm Period (RWP). The WP stretches across the uppermost 3 cm, with a high grey scale indicating a dry climate. The Late LIA is located between 3 and 7 cm, and the ELIA between 7 and 28 cm. Intermediate values for GS indicate that this stage may be classified as moderate. The MCA spanning from 28 to 40 cm is marked by a sharp decrease in GS indicative of a wet period. The DA appear along the part between 40 and 79 cm, a shift from light to dark sediments being recorded. The RWP in turn appears between 79 and 114 cm. Based on the grain-size distribution, two low-frequency cycles were identified, indicating radical global changes in climatic conditions, differential tectonics and groundwater fluctuations. High-frequency cycles in turn attest to local modifications of climatic conditions.

  19. 2007 China Harbor Ten People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2007 China Harbor Ten People elected the entrepreneurs who contributed a lot to port economy and enterprises this year trough their talent management.These ten people embody their social responsibility,professional skills,creative ability,and charming personality.Bearing full confidence in China's port economy,the port entrepreneurs are brave enough to explore a brand new area,so as to promote harbor economic development.

  20. Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taizhou Bridge lies between Taizhou, Zhenjiang and Changzhou City in Jiangsu Province. The total length of Taizhou Bridge is 62.088 kin. The whole line is designed by freeway codes with six lanes in two directions. The wholeinvestment is 9.37 billion RMB and the planned construction duration is 5.5 years. The main bridge crossing the Yangtze River is a continuous three-pylon two-span suspension bridge with the main span of 1 080 m. The bridge system is realized for the first time and ranks first in the world until now.

  1. Archaeological evidence for 9th and 8th millennia BC at Girmeler Cave near Tlos in SW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Takaoğlu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A mound settlement in front of the Girmeler Cave near the major Lycian city of Tlos in SW Turkey revealed evidence for occupation during the late 9th and 8th millennia BC. The ccupation is characterized by a structure with at least two layers of lime-plastered floor, hearths and bins and a wattle-and-daub superstructure, all pointing to a sedentary community engaged in intensive hunting and gathering. The trial trenches at Girmeler Cave also yielded evidence of an Early Pottery Neolithic period at the end of the 8th millennium BC. The remains of several buildings with terrazzo floors and wattle-and-daub superstructures were found. It is likely that the cave served as a sacred site in the Early Pottery Neolithic period. There was a hiatus between the late 9th/early 8th millennium BC and the Early Pottery Neolithic occupations at the site.

  2. Reading the geo-bioarchives of Ephesos: Human-environment interactions in Western Turkey during the last 8 millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Friederike; Knipping, Maria; Pint, Anna; Delile, Hugo; Wulf, Sabine; Laermanns, Hannes; Ladstätter, Sabine; Brückner, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    During Antiquity, Ephesos was an important harbour city. About 7 millennia ago the maximum Holocene transgression reached c. 20 km inland. Due to the progradation of the Küçük Menderes delta and its tributaries the coastline has continuously shifted westwards since then. Especially during Hellenistic time, the delta advanced for about 1.5 km, most probably because of human impact. Our interdisciplinary geoarchaeological research focuses on (i) the detection of spatial and temporal shifts of the coastline during the past millennia, together with estimations of sedimentation rates; (ii) the human impact on the landscape, especially in the environs of the Roman Harbour and canal which was constructed to maintain the connection to the sea; (iii) and the reconstruction of the vegetation history of the Ephesia. More than 30 core sequences were retrieved from geo-bioarchives. For a better understanding of the depositional environments, geochemical, sedimentological and palynological analyses, as well as the determination of the macro- and microfossils were carried out. Besides diagnostic ceramic finds, AMS-14C dating and tephrochronology was used for the chronological framework. Our drill cores enable us to reconstruct the coastline changes during the last millennia and to quantify sedimentation rates. Low sedimentation rates occurred from the 5th millennium BC to the 1st millennium BC; this fact contrasts with higher rates thereafter (most probably due to human activities as deforestation and agriculture). The second aim of the studies is to identify the anthropogenic influence in the sediments of the Roman Harbour. A stratified layer of 1.30 m thickness clearly proves the intensive harbour use between the 2nd cent. BC and the 5th cent. AD, the prosperity period of the city. The stratification probably results mainly from the discharge of sewage and waste of the city into the harbour. Heavy metal concentrations as copper also rise in this layer. In the harbour canal

  3. Sebkhas as ecological archives and the vegetation and landscape history of southeastern Tunisia during the last two millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, E.; Abichou, A.; Hachicha, T.; Pomel, S.; Salzmann, U.; Zouari, K.

    2002-05-01

    Sebkhas are temporary lacustrine systems depending on the number and extension of floodings. They may create laminated sediments which can be exploited as ecological archives. Contrary to those of meromictic lakes they are seasonal but not annual. After each flooding a detritus layer and a plasmo-condensed layer of bacteria and algae are formed in the water body or film and during the subsequent dessication a third subaeric layer of evaporites is build up. These laminae show a quasi-textile fabric and they can trap and conserve any dust and fine grained material. A high resolution pollendiagram covering the last two millennia as well as geochemical analysis from a southeastern Tunisian sebkha demonstrate the potentials of these ecological archives.

  4. The extra-tropical NH temperature in the last two millennia: reconstructions of low-frequency variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Christiansen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present two new multi-proxy reconstructions of the extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere (30–90° N mean temperature: a two-millennia long reconstruction reaching back to AD 1 based on 32 proxies and a 500-yr long reconstruction reaching back to AD 1500 based on 91 proxies. The proxies are of different types and of different resolutions (annual, annual-to-decadal, and decadal but all have previously been shown to relate to local or regional temperature. We use a reconstruction method, LOC, that recently has been shown to confidently reproduce low-frequency variability. Confidence intervals are obtained by an ensemble pseudo-proxy method that both estimates the variance and the bias of the reconstructions. The two-millennia long reconstruction shows a well defined Medieval Warm Period with a peak warming ca. AD 950–1050 reaching 0.7 °C relative to the reference period AD 1880–1960. The 500-yr long reconstruction confirms previous results obtained with the LOC method applied to a smaller proxy compilation; in particular it shows the Little Ice Age cumulating in AD 1580–1720 with a temperature minimum of −1.1 °C below the reference period. The reconstructed local temperatures, the magnitude of which are subject to wide confidence intervals, show a rather geographically homogeneous LIA while more geographical inhomogeneities are found for the Medieval Warm Period. Reconstructions based on different number of proxies show only small differences suggesting that LOC reconstructs 50-yr smoothed extra-tropical NH mean temperatures well and that low-frequency noise in the proxies is a relatively small problem.

  5. Ten-dimensional Supergravity Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Roo, Mees de; Kerstan, Sven; Riccioni, Fabio; Diaz Alonso, J.; Mornas, L.

    2006-01-01

    We show that the exisiting supergravity theories in ten dimensions can be extended with extra gauge fields whose rank is equal to the spacetime dimension. These gauge fields have vanishing field strength but nevertheless play an important role in the coupling of supergravity to spacetime filling bra

  6. Ten Rules of Academic Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Creative writers are well served with 'how to' guides, but just how much do they help? And how might they be relevant to academic authors? A recent survey of writing tips by twenty-eight creative authors has been condensed to the ten most relevant to the academic, supported by some comments on metho

  7. A Ten-Year Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip, Cyndi

    2016-01-01

    Five initiatives launched during Cyndi Phillip's term as American Association of School Librarians (AASL) President (2006-2007) continue to have an impact on school librarians ten years later. They include the rewriting of AASL's learning standards, introduction of the SKILLS Act, the presentation of the Crystal Apple Award to Scholastic Library…

  8. Ten Problems in Experimental Mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Kapoor, Vishaal; Weisstein, Eric

    2004-09-30

    This article was stimulated by the recent SIAM ''100 DigitChallenge'' of Nick Trefethen, beautifully described in a recent book. Indeed, these ten numeric challenge problems are also listed in a recent book by two of present authors, where they are followed by the ten symbolic/numeric challenge problems that are discussed in this article. Our intent was to present ten problems that are characteristic of the sorts of problems that commonly arise in ''experimental mathematics''. The challenge in each case is to obtain a high precision numeric evaluation of the quantity, and then, if possible, to obtain a symbolic answer, ideally one with proof. Our goal in this article is to provide solutions to these ten problems, and in the process present a concise account of how one combines symbolic and numeric computation, which may be termed ''hybrid computation'', in the process of mathematical discovery.

  9. Ten Rules of Academic Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Creative writers are well served with 'how to' guides, but just how much do they help? And how might they be relevant to academic authors? A recent survey of writing tips by twenty-eight creative authors has been condensed to the ten most relevant to the academic, supported by some comments on metho

  10. Ex post socio-economic assessment of the Oresund Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, M.Aa.; Rich, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an ex post socio-economic assessment of the Oresund Bridge conducted ten years after the opening in July 2000. The study applies historical micro data to re construct the travel pattern with no bridge in place and compare this to the current situation. To complete the socio.......2.A main advantage of analysing infrastructure ex post is the ability to learn and understand behavioural and methodological elements not foreseen at the ex ante stages. Following this we offer an extended discussion including two parts. Firstly we compare the ex ante predictions for the bridge...

  11. Bridge Crossing Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-07

    Requirement BCS Computer-controlled hydraulic actuation system to impart simulated crossing loads on an entire bridge structure undergoing fatigue test ...structure. Bridge test site with prepared embankments corresponding to the span and bank condition requirements of the bridge under test Conduct real...Center (AEC). (5) Sample size and number of crossings required. The number of required simulated crossings to conduct fatigue testing per the

  12. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Grubelich, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  13. Bridging the Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska; Murdock, Karen; Schmidt, Iben Julie

    2015-01-01

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures. Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ve...

  14. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska;

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  15. Ten tendencies of criminal justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jiahong

    2007-01-01

    A study of the global tendencies of criminal justice will help us design a more scientific and rational pathway for the reformation of existing criminal justice system of China. In the forthcoming several hundred years to come, theworld's criminal justice is to take on ten tendencies, that is, the tendency toward unity, civilization, science, rule of law, human rights, justice, efficiency,specialization, standardization and harmony.

  16. Ambient Vibration Test on Reinforced Concrete Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Nurul Shazwin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to determine dynamic characteristic of reinforced concrete (RC bridges by using ambient vibration test (AVT. The ambient vibration sources on bridges may come from traffic, wind, wave motion and seismic events. AVT describes the dynamic characteristics of the bridge and ground by measuring the natural frequencies using highly sensitive seismometer sensor. This test is beneficial due to light weight equipment and smaller number of operator required, cheap and easy to be handled. It is able to give a true picture of the bridge dynamic behavior without any artificial force excitation when vibration data is recorded. A three-span reinforced concrete bridge located in Sri Medan, Batu Pahat, Johor was measured by using microtremor equipment consist of three units of 1 Hz eigenfrequency passive sensors used in this test was performed in normal operating condition without excitation required from any active sources or short period noise perturbations. Ten measurements were conducted on the bridge deck and ten measurements on the ground surface in order to identify the natural frequencies of the bridge. Several peak frequencies were identified from three components of Fourier Amplitude Spectra (FAS in transverse (North-South, longitudinal (East-West and vertical (Up-Down direction as well as squared average Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR of ground response, computed by using Geopsy software. From the result, it was expected the bridge have five vibration modes frequencies in the range of 1.0 Hz and 7.0 Hz with the first two modes in the transverse and longitudinal direction having a frequency 1.0 Hz, the third mode is 2.2 Hz in transverse direction, fourth and fifth mode is 5.8 Hz and 7.0 Hz. For ground natural frequencies are in range 1.0 Hz to 1.3 Hz for North-South direction and 1.0 Hz to 1.6 Hz for East-West direction. Finally the results are compared with several empirical formulas for simple

  17. Intensity of the Earth's magnetic field in Greece during the last five millennia: New data from Greek pottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tema, Evdokia; Gómez-Paccard, Miriam; Kondopoulou, Despina; Almar, Ylenia

    2012-08-01

    curves for Greece and the South Balkan Peninsula, and the regional and global geomagnetic field models. Combined with previously published data from the area, they confirm that important changes of the Earth's magnetic field intensity occurred in Greece during the last five millennia. For some periods, the available archaeointensity data for the Balkan area show a large dispersion, even for data corresponding to high quality intensity standards, whereas for other periods their limited number prevents an accurate description of geomagnetic field intensity changes. This evidences the need of new reliable and well dated archaeointensity data in order to obtain a robust description of geomagnetic field intensity changes during the last five millennia in this area.

  18. Sustainable Bridge Infrastructure Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use...

  19. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  20. Bridge the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on photo projects organised for teenage refugees by the Society for Humanistic Photography (Berlin, Germany). These projects, named Bridge the Gap I (2015), and Bridge the Gap II (2016), were carried out in Berlin and brought together teenagers with refugee and German...

  1. U-opportunities why is ten equal to ten ?

    CERN Document Server

    Julia, B L

    2002-01-01

    It seems to me at this time that two recent developments may permit fast progress on our way to understand the symmetry structure of toroidally (compactified and) reduced M-theory. The first indication of a (possibly) thin spot in the wall that prevents us from deriving a priori the U-duality symmetries of these models is to be found in the analysis of the hyperbolic billiards that control the chaotic time evolution of (quasi)homogeneous anisotropic String, Supergravity or Einstein cosmologies near a spacelike singularity. What happens is that U-duality symmetry controls chaos via negative constant curvature. On the other hand it was noticed in 1982 that (symmetrizable) ''hyperbolic'' Kac-Moody algebras have maximal rank ten, exactly like superstring models and that two of these four rank ten algebras matched physical theories. My second reason for optimism actually predates also the previous breakthrough, it was the discovery in 1998 of surprising superalgebras extending U-dualities to all (p+1)-forms (assoc...

  2. Secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field in the Balkan region during the last eight millennia based on archaeomagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tema, E.; Kondopoulou, D.

    2011-08-01

    The first archaeomagnetic secular variation (SV) curves for the whole Southern Balkan Peninsula are presented. These are based on all data within a 700 km circle centred at Thessaloniki (40.60oN, 23.00oE). This data set consists of 325 directional and 625 intensity data mainly from Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and southern Hungary. Some data from southern Italy are also included. The sliding moving window technique, was used to calculate a continuous SV curve for intensity while the directional SV curves were calculated using the bivariate extension of the Fisher statistics. These curves are well constrained and clearly show the main features of the geomagnetic field variation in this region during the last eight millennia. Comparisons with the predictions of the SCHA.DIF.3K and SCHA.DIF.8K regional and the CALS7K.2 and ARCH3K.1 global geomagnetic field models show a good agreement for the last 3000 years but differences for older times. The Balkan SV curves identify several rapid changes of the geomagnetic field in eastern Europe and can be used as reference curves for archaeomagnetic dating in the Balkan Peninsula.

  3. A Generalized Framework for Different Drought Indices: Testing its Suitability in a Simulation of the last two Millennia for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Christoph C.; Baerenbold, Oliver; Gomez-Navarro, Juan Jose

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decades, different drought indices have been suggested in the literature. This study tackles the problem of how to characterize drought by defining a general framework and proposing a generalized family of drought indices that is flexible regarding the use of different water balance models. The sensitivity of various indices and its skill to represent drought conditions is evaluated using a regional model simulation in Europe spanning the last two millennia as test bed. The framework combines an exponentially damped memory with a normalization method based on quantile mapping. Both approaches are more robust and physically meaningful compared to the existing methods used to define drought indices. Still, framework is flexible with respect to the water balance, enabling users to adapt the index formulation to the data availability of different locations. Based on the framework, indices with different complex water balances are compared with each other. The comparison shows that a drought index considering only precipitation in the water balance is sufficient for Western to Central Europe. However, in the Mediterranean temperature effects via evapotranspiration need to be considered in order to produce meaningful indices representative of actual water deficit. Similarly, our results indicate that in north-eastern Europe and Scandinavia, snow and runoff effects needs to be considered in the index definition to obtain accurate results.

  4. 年产千万吨级综采工作面顺槽用桥式转载机设计计算%Design and Calculation of Bridge Stage Loader in Fully-mechanized Workface with Ten-million-ton Annual Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志国

    2014-01-01

    SZZ1350/525顺槽用桥式转载机是采煤工作面运输系统中的转载运输设备,其主要功能是把刮板输送机拉出的煤抬高转移到带式输送机上。根据煤矿生产的要求,对该转载机的输送能力、电动机功率和链条强度进行了详细的分析和计算。%SZZ1350/525 Bridge Stage Loader is a kind of intermediate transferring equipment used in transporting system in coal-cutting workface. Its main function is to raise and transfer the coal pulled out from the scraper conveyor onto the belt conveyor. This paper gives detailed analyses and calculations to the determination of transporting capacity, motor power, and chain strength of the BSL, based on coal mine working conditions.

  5. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  6. Ten Thousand Years of Solitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benford, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Pasqualetti, M.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

    1991-03-01

    This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Evaluating vehicular-induced bridge vibrations for energy harvesting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Matthew; Fasl, Jeremiah; Samaras, Vasilis A.; Wood, Sharon; Helwig, Todd; Lindenberg, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Highway bridges are vital links in the transportation network in the United States. Identifying possible safety problems in the approximately 600,000 bridges across the country is generally accomplished through labor-intensive, visual inspections. Ongoing research sponsored by NIST seeks to improve inspection practices by providing real-time, continuous monitoring technology for steel bridges. A wireless sensor network with a service life of ten years that is powered by an integrated energy harvester is targeted. In order to achieve the target ten-year life for the monitoring system, novel approaches to energy harvesting for use in recharging batteries are investigated. Three main sources of energy are evaluated: (a) vibrational energy, (b) solar energy, and (c) wind energy. Assessing the energy produced from vehicular-induced vibrations and converted through electromagnetic induction is the focus of this paper. The goal of the study is to process acceleration data and analyze the vibrational response of steel bridges to moving truck loads. Through spectral analysis and harvester modeling, the feasibility of vibration-based energy harvesting for longterm monitoring can be assessed. The effects of bridge conditions, ambient temperature, truck traffic patterns, and harvester position on the power content of the vibrations are investigated. With sensor nodes continually recharged, the proposed real-time monitoring system will operate off the power grid, thus reducing life cycle costs and enhancing inspection practices for state DOTs. This paper will present the results of estimating the vibration energy of a steel bridge in Texas.

  8. Bridge technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. As LANs have proliferated, new technologies and system concepts have come to the fore. One of the key issues is how to interconnect networks. One means of interconnection is to use a 'bridge'. Other competing technologies are repeaters, routers, and gateways. Bridges permit traffic isolation, connect network segments together and operate at the MAC layer. Further, because they operate at the MAC layer, they can handle a variety of protocols such as TCP/IP, SNA, and X.25. This report focuses on the specific technology of bridging two netw

  9. Approaching Conformality with Ten Flavors

    CERN Document Server

    Appelquist, Thomas; Buchoff, Michael I; Cheng, Michael; Cohen, Saul D; Fleming, George T; Kiskis, Joe; Lin, Meifeng; Na, Heechang; Neil, Ethan T; Osborn, James C; Rebbi, Claudio; Schaich, David; Schroeder, Chris; Voronov, Gennady; Vranas, Pavlos

    2012-01-01

    We present first results for lattice simulations, on a single volume, of the low-lying spectrum of an SU(3) Yang-Mills gauge theory with ten light fermions in the fundamental representation. Fits to the fermion mass dependence of various observables are found to be globally consistent with the hypothesis that this theory is within or just outside the strongly-coupled edge of the conformal window, with mass anomalous dimension approximately equal to 1 over the range of scales simulated. We stress that we cannot rule out the possibility of spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking at scales well below our infrared cutoff. We discuss important systematic effects, including finite-volume corrections, and consider directions for future improvement.

  10. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  11. State's First Bridge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Article with details on the state's first bridge that crossed the Noxubee River adjacent to the Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Boundary. Details also included...

  12. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  13. New archaeointensity results from archaeological sites and variation of the geomagnetic field intensity for the last 7 millennia in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, E.; Spatharas, V.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; Chauvin, A.; Kondopoulou, D.

    In this study six new intensity determinations are presented, obtained from five well dated archaeological sites, located in northern Greece and in Paros, Cyclades Islands. The fired structures consisted of ceramic and pottery kilns belonging to the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods. Between 8 and 21 samples of highly fired baked clays, tiles and bricks were taken, homogeneously distributed over the structures. The samples were analysed using the classical Thellier method, providing the past intensities and directions of the geomagnetic field recorded at each site. The intensity values have been corrected for anisotropy of thermal remanent magnetisation and cooling rate effects. Differences in the mean archaeointensities per site ranging from 1% to 11%, before and after TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections, were obtained. The new results indicate a decrease of 20% of the geomagnetic field strength in Greece, during the last four centuries BC. In order to compare our results with previously published data, a catalogue of archaeo- and palaeointensity results for the Aegean area has been established, covering the last 7 millennia. It consists of 336 data from Greece, western Turkey and Former Yugoslavia, collected from various authors. Weighting factors have been applied to these data, that then have been treated with a hierarchical Bayesian modelling, and a geomagnetic field intensity variation curve for Greece was constructed. A good agreement is observed when comparing the curve for Greece with the Bulgarian secular variation curve (SVC) for intensity. Satisfactory coincidence is also found with the archaeointensity data from Mesopotamia. Despite the presence of some time gaps, a more precise secular variation intensity curve has been constructed for Greece which, combined with a forthcoming directional SVC, will help for dating purposes.

  14. Germ Cell Intercellular Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Michael P.; Iwamori, Tokuko; Buchold, Gregory M.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Stable intercellular bridges are a conserved feature of gametogenesis in multicellular animals observed more than 100 years ago, but their function was unknown. Many of the components necessary for this structure have been identified through the study of cytokinesis in Drosophila; however, mammalian intercellular bridges have distinct properties from those of insects. Mammalian germ cell intercellular bridges are composed of general cytokinesis components with additional germ cell–specific factors including TEX14. TEX14 is an inactive kinase essential for the maintenance of stable intercellular bridges in gametes of both sexes but whose loss specifically impairs male meiosis. TEX14 acts to impede the terminal steps of abscission by competing for essential component CEP55, blocking its interaction in nongerm cells with ALIX and TSG101. Additionally, TEX14-interacting protein RBM44, whose localization in stabile intercellular bridges is limited to pachytene and secondary spermatocytes, may participate in processes such as RNA transport but is nonessential to the maintenance of intercellular bridge stability. PMID:21669984

  15. Ten out of ten for LHC decapole magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    CERN's Albert Ijspeert (left) and Avinash Puntambekar of the Indian CAT laboratory with the ten Indian decapole magnets on the test bench. Tests will be carried out by the LHC-MTA group. A batch of 10 superconducting decapole magnets for the LHC has just arrived at CERN from India. These will be used to correct for slight imperfections in the dipole magnets that will steer proton beams around CERN's new accelerator. All magnets have slight imperfections in the fields they produce, and in the LHC dipoles these will be corrected for using sextupoles and decapoles. The sextupoles were the first LHC magnets to be given the production green-light following successful tests of pre-series magnets last year (Bulletin 21/2000, 22 May 2000). Now it is the turn of pre-series decapoles to go on trial at CERN. Of the LHC's 1232 dipole magnets, half will use sextupole correctors only and the other half will use both sextupoles and decapoles. That means that a total of 616 pairs of decapoles are needed. Like the sextupole...

  16. Long Span Bridges in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The first Scandinavian bridge with a span of more than 500 m was the Lillebælt Suspension Bridge opened to traffic in 1970.Art the end of the 20th century the longest span of any European bridge is found in the Storebælt East Bridge with a main span of 1624 m. Also the third longest span in Europe...... is found in Scandinavia - the 1210 m span of the Höga Kusten Bridge in Sweden.The Kvarnsund Bridge in Norway was at the completion in 1991 the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world, and the span of 530 m is still thge longest for cable-stayed bridges in concrete. The Øresund Bridge with its sapn of 490...... m is the longest among cable-stayed bridges for both road and railway traffic....

  17. The aesthetic composite bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, R A

    1997-01-01

    New developments are constantly introduced in the search for the optimal treatment modality to restore a single anterior tooth. The patient attention has shifted to aesthetics of the restoration, biocompatibility of the dental materials utilized, conservative preparation of the teeth to be restored, and the retention of intact adjacent dentition. The learning objective of this article is to review the methods currently utilized and to present a recently introduced treatment modality--the two-component bridge, which combines the strength and resiliency of composite resin with the aesthetic advantages of porcelain. The technology of the material is reviewed, the predominantly lingual tooth preparation procedures are outlined, and the bridge try-in is described. The advantages of the two-component bridge are presented along with the contraindications and suggestions of careful case selection. Three cases with congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors in youthful patients are presented to supplement the theoretical outline and to describe and illustrate the clinical procedure.

  18. Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gülkan, Polat; Mahmoud, Khaled

    2016-01-01

      The book includes peer-reviewed contributions selected from presentations given at the Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014, held from August 11 – 13 in Istanbul, Turkey. It reports on the current challenges in bridge engineering faced by professionals around the globe, giving a special emphasis to recently developed techniques, innovations and opportunities. The book covers key topics in the field, including modeling and analysis methods; construction and erection techniques; design for extreme events and condition assessment and structural health monitoring. There is a balanced presentation of theory, research and practice. This book, which provides the readers with a comprehensive and timely reference guide on current practices in bridge engineering, is intended for professionals, academic researchers and students alike.

  19. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  20. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  1. BUILDING "BRIDGES" WITH QUALITY ASSURANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The papr describes how, rather than building "bridges" across centuries, quality assurance (QA) personnel have the opportunity to build bridges across technical disciplines, between public and private organizations, and between different QA groups. As reviewers and auditors of a...

  2. Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honari, S; Gibran, N S; Heimbach, D M; Gibbons, J; Pharmd; Cain, V; Engrav, L H

    2001-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a severe exfoliative disease of the skin and mucous membranes that results in high mortality. As the elderly population increases, the number of elderly patients with TEN can also be expected to increase. Elderly patients with comparably sized burn wounds usually have a poor prognosis. Our purpose was to determine whether elderly TEN patients exhibit similarly high mortality. A retrospective review was conducted of 52 patients treated for TEN from October 1991 through September 1998. Eleven patients were older than 65 years. All patients were treated according to our TEN protocol. Eight of 11 patients recovered, and 3 died. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) involvement for the patients who recovered was 24%, compared with 66% for the nonsurvivors. The survival rate for elderly patients (73%) compares well with that for those younger than 65 years (89%). Therefore, we propose that we should be aggressive in treating elderly patients with TEN.

  3. The Bridges Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnen, Elizabeth; Klie, Judy

    This report describes BRIDGES, an employment equity special measures training program developed by the City of Toronto (Ontario, Canada). It was designed to help women employees move from their traditional jobs into trades, technical or operation (TTO) jobs within their own organization. The program is a combination of classroom sessions, shop…

  4. Bridging a Cultural Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-01-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes--aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics--is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a…

  5. Building a Straw Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  6. DOE Information Bridge

    CERN Document Server

    United States. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information

    DOE Information Bridge, a component of EnergyFiles, provides free, convenient, and quick access to full-text DOE research and development reports in physics, chemistry, materials, biology, environmental sciences, energy technologies, engineering, computer and information science, renewable energy, and other topics. This vast collection includes over 43,000 reports that have been received and processed by OSTI since January 1995.

  7. Bridge over troubled water?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Nannestad, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2008-01-01

    The problem of integrating non-Western immigrants into Western welfare states is the focus of this paper. To address this issue, we suggest a social capital approach in which we apply the conceptual pair of bridging social capital (BR), which connects an individual to the broader social structure...

  8. Looking Beyond the Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Rosholm, Michael

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of the stepping-stone effect of temporary agency employment on unemployed workers. Using the timing-of-events approach, we not only investigate whether agency employment is a bridge into regular employment but also analyze its effect on post-unemployment wages...

  9. Bridging the Technological Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazow, Robert; And Others

    The aim of "Bridging the Technological Gap" (BTG), a federally funded demonstration project, is to use microcomputer technology in the rehabilitation of the psychiatrically disabled. Through the use of a custom designed microcomputer software package, clients receive remediation in areas of specific cognitive and behavioral deficits. The project…

  10. Building Bridges to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasta, Stephanie; Scott, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes a theme cycle called "Building Bridges to China" developed for third grade students that focuses on the similarities between the lives of children and families in China and the United States. Explains that the theme cycle addresses the National Geography Standards and three of the National Council for the Social Studies standards. (CMK)

  11. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.;

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  12. The Bridges of Taishun County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaJianhe

    2003-01-01

    The American film The Bridges of Madison County captured the imagination of many Chinese moviegoers with its bittersweet love story and scenes of rustic covered bridges. But the U.S. can't lay sole claim to such spectacular rural sights:China has its own county worldrenowned for unforgettable bridges.

  13. Dynamic Bridge Response for a Bridge-friendly Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Šmilauer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A truck with controlled semi-active suspensions traversing a bridge is examined for benefits to the bridge structure. The original concept of a road-friendly truck was extended to a bridge-friendly vehicle, using the same optimization tools. A half-car model with two independently driven axles is coupled with simply supported bridges (beam, slab model with the span range from 5 m to 50 m. Surface profile of the bridge deck is either stochastic or in the shape of a bump or a pot in the mid-span. Numerical integration in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment solves coupled dynamic equations of motion with optimized truck suspensions. The rear axle generates the prevailing load and to a great extent determines the bridge response. A significant decrease in contact road-tire forces is observed and the mid-span bridge deflections are on average smaller, when compared to commercial passive suspensions. 

  14. Forest-savanna- morichal dynamics in relation to fire and human occupation in the southern Gran Sabana (SE Venezuela) during the last millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Encarni; Rull, Valentí; Stansell, Nathan D.; Abbott, Mark B.; Nogué, Sandra; Bird, Broxton W.; Díaz, Wilmer A.

    2011-11-01

    The southern Gran Sabana (SE Venezuela) holds a particular type of neotropical savanna characterized by the local occurrence of morichales ( Mauritia palm swamps) , in a climate apparently more suitable for rain forests. We present a paleoecological analysis of the last millennia of Lake Chonita (4°39'N-61°0'W, 884 m elevation), based on biological and physico-chemical proxies. Savannas dominated the region during the last millennia, but a significant vegetation replacement occurred in recent times. The site was covered by a treeless savanna with nearby rainforests from 3640 to 2180 cal yr BP. Water levels were higher than today until about 2800 cal yr BP. Forests retreated since about 2180 cal yr BP onwards, likely influenced by a higher fire incidence that facilitated a dramatic expansion of morichales. The simultaneous appearance of charcoal particles and Mauritia pollen around 2000 cal yr BP supports the potential pyrophilous nature of this palm and the importance of fire for its recent expansion. The whole picture suggests human settlements similar to today - in which fire is an essential element - since around 2000 yr ago. Therefore, present-day southern Gran Sabana landscapes seem to have been the result of the synergy between biogeographical, climatic and anthropogenic factors, mostly fire.

  15. Simulation of multivariate diffusion bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Finch, Samuel; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose simple methods for multivariate diffusion bridge simulation, which plays a fundamental role in simulation-based likelihood and Bayesian inference for stochastic differential equations. By a novel application of classical coupling methods, the new approach generalizes a previously...... proposed simulation method for one-dimensional bridges to the mulit-variate setting. First a method of simulating approzimate, but often very accurate, diffusion bridges is proposed. These approximate bridges are used as proposal for easily implementable MCMC algorithms that produce exact diffusion bridges...

  16. Clinical experience with TENS and TENS combined with nitrous oxide-oxygen. Report of 371 patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Quarnstrom, F. C.; Milgrom, P.

    1989-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) alone or TENS combined with nitrous oxide-oxygen (N2O) was administered for restorative dentistry without local anesthesia to 371 adult patients. A total of 55% of TENS alone and 84% of TENS/N2O visits were rated successful. A total of 53% of TENS alone and 82% of TENS/N2O patients reported slight or no pain. In multivariable analyses, pain reports were related to the anesthesia technique and patient fear and unrelated to sex, race, age, toot...

  17. Ten Steps to Making Evaluation Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Nakaima, April

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes ten steps to make evaluations matter. The ten steps are a combination of the usual recommended practice such as developing program theory and implementing rigorous evaluation designs with a stronger focus on more unconventional steps including developing learning frameworks, exploring pathways of evaluation influence, and…

  18. Top-Ten IT Issues, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerman, Bret L.; Yang, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh annual EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey shows some very familiar themes among the top-ten IT issues of strategic importance to technology leaders in higher education. Indeed, all ten of the issues from the 2009 survey are back, albeit in a slightly different order. In addition, Strategic Planning returns as an issue of renewed…

  19. Top-Ten IT Issues, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerman, Bret L.; Yang, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh annual EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey shows some very familiar themes among the top-ten IT issues of strategic importance to technology leaders in higher education. Indeed, all ten of the issues from the 2009 survey are back, albeit in a slightly different order. In addition, Strategic Planning returns as an issue of renewed…

  20. Origin of porosity in arylene-bridged polysilsesquioxanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, D.W.; Loy, D.A.; Ulibarri, T.A.; Black, E.; Buss, R.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beaucage, G.B. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Materials Science and Engineering; Shea, K.J. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    The authors investigate the porosity of a series of xerogels prepared from arylene-bridged silsesquioxane xerogels as a function of organic bridging group, condensation catalyst and post-synthesis plasma treatment to remove the organic functionalities. They conclude that porosity is controlled by polymer-solvent phase separation in the solution with no evidence of organic-inorganic phase separation. As the polymer grows and crosslinks, it becomes increasingly incompatible with the solvent and eventually microphase separates. The domain structure is controlled by a balance of network elasticity and non-bonding polymer-solvent interactions. The bridging organic groups serve to ameliorate polymer-solvent incompatibility. As a result, when the polymer does eventually phase separate, the rather tightly crosslinked network limits domain size to tens of angstroms, substantially smaller than that observed in xerogels obtained from purely inorganic precursors where incompatibility drives phase separation earlier in the gelation sequence.

  1. Bridging as Coercive Accommodation

    CERN Document Server

    Bos, J W; Mineur, A M; Bos, Johan; Buitelaar, Paul; Mineur, Anne-Marie

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the notion of "bridging" in Discourse Representation Theory as a tool to account for discourse referents that have only been established implicitly, through the lexical semantics of other referents. In doing so, we use ideas from Generative Lexicon theory, to introduce antecedents for anaphoric expressions that cannot be "linked" to a proper antecedent, but that do not need to be "accommodated" because they have some connection to the network of discourse referents that is already established.

  2. Bridging Classroom Language Ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    GRENFELL, MICHAEL JAMES

    2012-01-01

    PUBLISHED Paper #5: Bridging Classroom Language Ethnography, New Literacy Studies and Bourdieu?s Social Philosophy: Principles and Practice The purpose of this paper is to analyze and synthesize the various ways that classroom language ethnography, NLS, and Bourdieu?s social philosophy, were integrated. The goal of the analysis and synthesis is to provide a fresh perspective and fruitful insights on literacy in all its manifestations that provides the foundations for a more robust...

  3. Environmental life cycle assessment comparison between two bridge types: reinforced concrete bridge and steel composite bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2013-01-01

    not been integrated into the decision-making process. This paper presents a systematic LCA method for quantifying the environmental impacts for bridges. The comparison study is performed between a reinforced concrete bridge and a steel bridge as an alternative design, with several key maintenance and EOL......The concept of sustainable construction has attracted an increased attention. Bridge infrastructures and their belonged construction activities consume considerable material and energy, which is responsible for large environmental burdens. However, the environmental assessment of bridges has...

  4. ALGORITHMS FOR TETRAHEDRAL NETWORK (TEN) GENERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Tetrahedral Network(TEN) is a powerful 3-D vector structure in GIS, which has a lot of advantages such as simple structure, fast topological relation processing and rapid visualization. The difficulty of TEN application is automatic creating data structure. Al though a raster algorithm has been introduced by some authors, the problems in accuracy, memory requirement, speed and integrity are still existent. In this paper, the raster algorithm is completed and a vector algorithm is presented after a 3-D data model and structure of TEN have been introducted. Finally, experiment, conclusion and future work are discussed.

  5. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook ... Treated in Hospital Emergency Departments, United States – 2014 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by ...

  6. The active-bridge oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessendorf, K.O.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes the Active-Bridge Oscillator (ABO), a new concept in high-stability oscillator design. The ABO is ab ridge-type oscillator design that is easly to design and overcomes many of the operational and design difficulties associated with standard bridge oscillator designs. The ABO will oscillate with a very stable output amplitude over a wide range of operating conditions without the use of an automatic-level-control (ALC). A standard bridge oscillator design requires an ALC to maintain the desired amplitude of oscillation. for this and other reasons, bridge oscilaltors are not used in mainstream designs. Bridge oscillators are generally relegated to relatively low-volume, high-performance applications. The Colpitts and Pierce designs are the most popular oscillators but are typically less stable than a bridge-type oscillator.

  7. Vulnerability of bridges to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Crosti, C.; Gentili, F.

    2012-01-01

    Even if recent effort in developing methodology and measures for design structures against fire and explosions has been mostly focused on buildings, bridges can also be very sensitive to those actions, as witnesses by some recent bridge accidents, which caused major economic losses and also...... endangered people safety in few cases. Purpose of this paper is making a focus on the state of the art of the research and current regulations concerning the response of bridges to fire. Several cases of bridge fires are reported and a focus is made on the occurrence and consequence of bridge fires......, considering both the costs deriving by structural damages and by limited serviceability and other indirect societal aspects. Few cases of recent bridge fire are reviewed in detail and structural consequences are highlighted, distinguishing between damages directly induced by fire and damages induced by local...

  8. Demonstration of dual-band infrared thermal imaging for bridge inspection. Phase II, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, P.F.; Del Grande, N.K.; Schaich, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Developing and implementing methods of effective bridge rehabilitation is a major issue for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The nation spends $5 billion annually to replace, rehabilitate or construct new bridges. According to the National Bridge Inventory, over 100,000 U.S. bridges are structurally deficient. About 40,000 of these bridges have advanced deck deterioration. The most common causes of serious deck deterioration is delamination. Delaminations result when steel reinforcements within the bridge deck corrode, creating gaps that separate the concrete into layers. A reliable inspection technology, capable of identifying delaminations, would represent a power new tool in bridge maintenance. To date, most bridge inspections rely on human interpretation of surface visual features of chain dragging. These methods are slow, disruptive, unreliable and raise serious safety concerns. Infrared thermal imaging detects subsurface delaminations and surface clutter, which is introduced by foreign material on the roadway. Typically, foreign material which is not always evident on a video tape image, produces a unique IR reflectance background unlike the thermal response of a subsurface delamination. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging to identify and remove nonthermal IR reflectance backgrounds from foreign material on the roadway. DBIR methods improve the performance of IR thermal imaging by a factor of ten, compared to single-band infrared (SBIR) methods. DBIR thermal imaging allows precise temperature measurement to reliably locate bridge deck delaminations and remove wavelength-dependent emissivity variations due to foreign material on the roadway.

  9. Bridge Aesthetics and Structural Honesty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In bridges the overall form must be chosen with due respect to the transmission of forces if efficient structures shall be created, The design must therefore be governed by experienced structural engineers - in some cases assisted by aesthetic advisers on specific issues. Some basic requirements...... decisive for choosing the form of trusses, arches and cable-stayed bridges are outlined, and several examples show bridges designed without giving priority to the structural aspects....

  10. Morphological aspects of myocardial bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujinović, Almira; Kulenović, Amela; Kapur, Eldan; Gojak, Refet

    2013-11-01

    Although some myocardial bridges can be asymptomatic, their presence often causes coronary disease either through direct compression of the "tunnel" segment or through stimulation and accelerated development of atherosclerosis in the segment proximally to the myocardial bridge. The studied material contained 30 human hearts received from the Department of Anatomy. The hearts were preserved 3 to 5 days in 10% formalin solution. Thereafter, the fatty tissue was removed and arterial blood vessels prepared by careful dissection with special reference to the presence of the myocardial bridges. Length and thickness of the bridges were measured by the precise electronic caliper. The angle between the myocardial bridge fibre axis and other axis of the crossed blood vessel was measured by a goniometer. The presence of the bridges was confirmed in 53.33% of the researched material, most frequently (43.33%) above the anterior interventricular branch. The mean length of the bridges was 14.64 ± 9.03 mm and the mean thickness was 1.23 ± 1.32 mm. Myocardial bridge fibres pass over the descending blood vessel at the angle of 10-90 degrees. The results obtained on a limited sample suggest that the muscular index of myocardial bridge is the highest for bridges located on RIA, but that the difference is not significant in relation to bridges located on other branches. The results obtained suggest that bridges located on other branches, not only those on RIA, could have a great contractive power and, consequently, a great compressive force, which would be exerted on the wall of a crossed blood vessel.

  11. Modular FRP Composite Bridge Deck

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The bridge infrastructure of the United States is in constant need of repair and rehabilitation. It is reported that 43% of the bridges in the USA have been identified as being structurally deficient or functionally obsolete due to corrosion. SuperdeckTM, a non-corrosive fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite bridge deck. The Deck is designed and engineered into a lightweight, strong and rigid structure that will not corrode. The deck sections, composed of hexagon and double-trapezoid profi...

  12. Bridging Literature and Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahab

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Two majors linguistics and literature in the schools of letters both in the state and private universities throughout Indonesia are commonly separated sharply. Courses of literature in the Department of Linguistics are offered minimally, such that the students of linguistics are not given a conducive atmosphere to express their literary appreciation. Likewise, courses of linguistics in the Department of Literature are very restricted, so that the students of literature are unable to analyze literary works from the points of linguistic view. This paper tries to bridge linguistics and literature. The attempt to bridge linguistics and literature is based on three postulates: (I literature consists of linguistic objects designed with an artistic end, (2 linguistic objects are formal objects, and (3 a formal account of linguistic object designed with an artistic end approximates a formal account of that artistic design. Two major directions in the approaches and emphases will be presented in the paper exogenous and endogenous. Exogenous approach tries to search for adequate description of (1 poetic language as contrasted with ordinary language, (2 language of a particular author contrasted with that of other authors, and (3 a particular literary work contrasted with other works of the same author. This part touches upon three areas of exogenous approach isolation, description, and characterization. Endogenous, on the hand, is based upon an assumption that a writer exhibits, probably without realizing it, certain systematic preferences for particular aspects of linguistic patterns. Planning a bridge between linguistics and literature is by no means without problems. Therefore, this paper also presents some possible solutions.

  13. Bridging Literature and Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahab

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two majors linguistics and literature in the schools of letters both in the state and private universities throughout Indonesia are commonly separated sharply. Courses of literature in the Department of Linguistics are offered minimally, such that the students of linguistics are not given a conducive atmosphere to express their literary appreciation. Likewise, courses of linguistics in the Department of Literature are very restricted, so that the students of literature are unable to analyze literary works from the points of linguistic view. This paper tries to bridge linguistics and literature. The attempt to bridge linguistics and literature is based on three postulates: (1 literature consists of linguistic objects designed with an artistic end, (2 linguistic objects are formal objects, and (3 a formal account of linguistic object designed with an artistic end approximates a formal account of that artistic design. Two major directions in the approaches and emphases will be presented in the paper exogenous and endogenous. Exogenous approach tries to search for adequate description of (1 poetic language as contrasted with ordinary language, (2 language of a particular author contrasted with that of other authors, and (3 a particular literary work contrasted with other works of the same author. This part touches upon three areas of exogenous approach isolation, description, and characterization. Endogenous, on the hand, is based upon an assumption that a writer exhibits, probably without realizing it, certain systematic preferences for particular aspects of linguistic patterns. Planning a bridge between linguistics and literature is by no means without problems. Therefore, this paper also presents some possible solutions.

  14. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst...

  15. Bridging The Inferential Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Walter F.; Shah, Nirav R.; Selna, Mark J.; Paulus, Ronald A.; Walker, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Most clinical decisions involve bridging the inferential gap: Clinicians are required to “fill in” where they lack knowledge or where no knowledge yet exists. In this context we consider how the inferential gap is a product, in part, of how knowledge is created, the limits to gaining access to such knowledge, and the variable ways in which knowledge is translated into decisions. We consider how electronic health records (EHRs) will help narrow this gap by accelerating the creation of evidence relevant to everyday practice needs and facilitating real-time use of knowledge in practice. PMID:17259202

  16. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even if the wi......With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...

  17. Modelling railway bridge asset management

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Bryant Linh Hai

    2014-01-01

    The UK has a long history in the railway industry with a large number of railway assets. Railway bridges form one of the major asset groups with more than 35,000 bridges. The majority of the bridge population are old being constructed over 100 years ago. Many of the bridges were not designed to meet the current network demand. With an expected increasing rate of deterioration due to the increasing traffic loads and intensities, the management authorities are faced with the difficult task of k...

  18. Regional influence of decadal to multidecadal Atlantic Oscillations during the last two millennia in Morocco, inferred from two high resolution δ18O speleothem records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Brahim, Yassine; Sifeddine, Abdelfettah; Khodri, Myriam; Bouchaou, Lhoussaine; Cruz, Francisco W.; Pérez-Zanón, Núria; Wassenburg, Jasper A.; Cheng, Hai

    2017-04-01

    Climate projections predict substantial increase of extreme heats and drought occurrences during the coming decades in Morocco. It is however not clear what can be attributed to natural climate variability and to anthropogenic forcing, as hydroclimate variations observed in areas such as Morocco are highly influenced by the Atlantic climate modes. Since observational data sets are too short to resolve properly natural modes of variability acting on decadal to multidecadal timescales, high resolution paleoclimate reconstructions are the only alternative to reconstruct climate variability in the remote past. Herein, we present two high resolution and well dated speleothems oxygen isotope (δ18O) records sampled from Chaara and Ifoulki caves (located in Northeastern and Southwestern Morocco respectively) to investigate hydroclimate variations during the last 2000 years. Our results are supported by a monitoring network of δ18O in precipitation from 17 stations in Morocco. The new paleoclimate records are discussed in the light of existing continental and marine paleoclimate proxies in Morocco to identify significant correlations at various lead times with the main reconstructed oceanic and atmospheric variability modes and possible climate teleconnections that have potentially influenced the climate during the last two millennia in Morocco. The results reveal substantial decadal to multidecadal swings between dry and humid periods, consistent with regional paleorecords. Evidence of dry conditions exist during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) period and the Climate Warm Period (CWP) and humid conditions during the Little Ice Age (LIA) period. Statistical analyses suggest that the climate of southwestern Morocco remained under the combined influence of both the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) over the last two millennia. Interestingly, the generally warmer MCA and colder LIA at longer multidecadal timescales probably

  19. Snow anomaly events from historical documents in eastern China during the past two millennia and implication for low-frequency variability of AO/NAO and PDO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Guoqiang; Sun, Qing; Wang, Xiaohua; Sun, Junying

    2008-07-01

    Models and instrumental data indicate that the spatial and temporal variations of snow cover are significantly related to atmospheric circulation (e.g. the AO/NAO). Here, we present historical snow anomaly events during the past two millennia that provide a unique temporal window to studying long-term AO/NAO, a prominent phenomenon in wintertime. Direct descriptions such as ``no snow during the winter'' and ``pray God for snow'' are interpreted as convincing evidence for snow anomalies. The variations of positive/negative snow abnormal events show clear decadal to century variations during the past two millennia. Based on the previous instrumental research and comparison with other reconstruction data, we suggest the Index of Abnormal Snow (IAS) may be an AO-like atmospheric variability. The winter during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) (AD 900-1300) might be strongly influenced by a predominantly positive AO with less snow condition, whereas the Little Ice Age (LIA) (AD 1300-1900) by negative AO concomitant with heavier snowfalls in East Asia. Our data show that a warm climate period (the MWP)/a cold period (the LIA) can be perturbed by a cold spell/a warm spell which are linked with a change in atmospheric circulation. Low-frequency variability of snow records may be intrinsic to the natural climate system. Although the dynamic mechanisms linking snow anomalies with atmospheric circulation (the AO/NAO, the PDO) is unclear on the decadal to century time scales, Pacific Ocean may play an important role in regulating atmospheric circulations since the IAS is highly correlated with the reconstruction of PDO.

  20. Bridging the gap with flipped classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Topperzer, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Bridging the gap with flipped classroom Hanne Selberg, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Martha Topperzer, University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark Background and aims Consistent with the strategy of increasing digitization and learner-centred teaching models...... in the nursing curriculum, we have reversed selected traditional lectures into simulation based teaching activities embedded in a ten week Pediatric Nursing module for third year nursing students. The current pilot study seeks to explore the impact on students’ learning and commitment when flipping the classroom...... using educational technologies such as online preparation contents and simulation based scenarios. Furthermore, the objective is to enhance theory-practice integration in the educational setting. Materials & Methods The flipped classroom model replaces three theoretical lectures addressing disease...

  1. A review of bridge scour monitoring techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.J. Prendergast; K. Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The high profile failure of the Malahide Viaduct in Dublin, Ireland, which is a part of the EU TEN-T network of critical transport links, was caused by foundation scour. Scour is a common soil-structure interaction problem. In light of current changes in climate, increasing frequency of flooding, coupled with the increasing magnitude of these flood events, will lead to a higher risk of bridge failure. Moni-toring scour is of paramount importance to ensure the continued safe operation of the aging bridge asset network. Most monitoring regimes are based on expensive underwater instrumentation that can often be subjected to damage during times of flooding, when scour risk is at its highest. This paper presents a critical review of existing scour monitoring equipments and methodologies with a particular focus on those using the dynamic response of the structure to indicate the existence and severity of the scour phenomenon affecting the structure. A sensitivity study on a recently developed monitoring method is also undertaken.

  2. A review of bridge scour monitoring techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Prendergast

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The high profile failure of the Malahide Viaduct in Dublin, Ireland, which is a part of the EU TEN-T network of critical transport links, was caused by foundation scour. Scour is a common soil-structure interaction problem. In light of current changes in climate, increasing frequency of flooding, coupled with the increasing magnitude of these flood events, will lead to a higher risk of bridge failure. Monitoring scour is of paramount importance to ensure the continued safe operation of the aging bridge asset network. Most monitoring regimes are based on expensive underwater instrumentation that can often be subjected to damage during times of flooding, when scour risk is at its highest. This paper presents a critical review of existing scour monitoring equipments and methodologies with a particular focus on those using the dynamic response of the structure to indicate the existence and severity of the scour phenomenon affecting the structure. A sensitivity study on a recently developed monitoring method is also undertaken.

  3. Fatigue tests on aluminium bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2004-01-01

    Traffic bridges are subjected to variable loads and should therefore be checked on fatigue. Especially low weight materials, like aluminium, are sensitive to fatigue, because the variable load is a substantial part of the total load. This paper shows the structural design of an aluminium bridge load

  4. Fatigue tests on aluminium bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2005-01-01

    Traffic bridges are subjected to variable loads and should therefore be checked on fatigue. Especially low weight materials, like aluminium, are sensitive to fatigue, because the variable load is a substantial part of the total load. This paper shows the structural design of an aluminium bridge load

  5. London Bridge Is Shaking Funny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Bridges generally don’t fall down without warning;they crack first. Searching for cracks is a tedious business,though, and bridge inspectors bave been known to miss them. Charles Farrar,a civil engineer at Los Alamos Na-

  6. Development of cooperative system bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; WAN Qi-bai; SHI Lei

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative system bridges comprise several basic structures that act jointly to improve structural characteristics. We delved into the historical development of cooperative system bridges. Cooperative systems are classified as different-load cooperative systems and same-load cooperative systems by distinguishing the modes of load distribution. For different-load cooperation, individual basic structures are at different positions in the direction along bridge axis and carry the loads separately. While for same-load cooperation, all basic structures overlap in geometrical locations and support the entire loads conjointly. The choosing of span ratios between basic structures, the design of connections of different-load cooperative systems were discussed as well as optimizations of relative rigidity for same-load cooperative systems which greatly influence structural characteristics. The general situation and several structural measurements of several cooperative bridges were demonstrated. This information can assist engineers in developing their concepts in cooperative systems and can lead to more efficient and economical cooperative bridges.

  7. REVIVAL PLANS, Ten Key Sectors Benefit?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yantai CHEN; Hongbo CAI; Yang XU

    2009-01-01

    @@ To revive China's industrial establishment during the biggest Great Depression in the world after World War Ⅱ,China's Central government has launched the "Revival Plans of Ten Key Sectors"plus the 4 trillion stimulus package in the early 2009.Formulated by the National Development and Planning Commission(NDRC).these revival plans aimed at reinvigorating"ten key sectors",to be specified.the iron and steel.automotive,shipbuilding,petrochemical,textile,light,nonferrous metals,equipment manufacturing,electronics and information technology,and logistics industrial sectors.

  8. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst......The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... groups, the sociology of work needs to develop a better understanding of the way in which linguistic diversity influences the formation of social capital, i.e. resources such as the trust and reciprocity inherent in social relations in such workplaces. Drawing on theories about intergroup contact...

  9. Electrothermally Tunable Bridge Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.

    2016-12-05

    This paper demonstrates experimentally, theoretically, and numerically a wide-range tunability of an in-plane clamped-clamped microbeam, bridge, and resonator compressed by a force due to electrothermal actuation. We demonstrate that a single resonator can be operated at a wide range of frequencies. The microbeam is actuated electrothermally, by passing a DC current through it. We show that when increasing the electrothermal voltage, the compressive stress inside the microbeam increases, which leads eventually to its buckling. Before buckling, the fundamental frequency decreases until it drops to very low values, almost to zero. After buckling, the fundamental frequency increases, which is shown to be as high as twice the original resonance frequency. Analytical results based on the Galerkin discretization of the Euler Bernoulli beam theory are generated and compared to the experimental data and to simulation results of a multi-physics finite-element model. A good agreement is found among all the results.

  10. Cascaded resonant bridge converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A converter for converting a low voltage direct current power source to a higher voltage, high frequency alternating current output for use in an electrical system where it is desired to use low weight cables and other circuit elements. The converter has a first stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which converts the direct current power source to an alternating current by means of switching elements that are operated by a variable frequency voltage regulator, a transformer to step up the voltage of the alternating current, and a rectifier bridge to convert the alternating current to a direct current first stage output. The converter further has a second stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which is connected in series to the first stage converter to receive its direct current output and convert it to a second stage high frequency alternating current output by means of switching elements that are operated by a fixed frequency oscillator. The voltage of the second stage output is controlled at a relatively constant value by controlling the first stage output voltage, which is accomplished by controlling the frequency of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller in response to second stage voltage. Fault tolerance in the event of a load short circuit is provided by making the operation of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller responsive to first and second stage current limiting devices. The second stage output is connected to a rectifier bridge whose output is connected to the input of the second stage to provide good regulation of output voltage wave form at low system loads.

  11. Torsional instability in suspension bridges: The Tacoma Narrows Bridge case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arioli, Gianni; Gazzola, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    All attempts of aeroelastic explanations for the torsional instability of suspension bridges have been somehow criticised and none of them is unanimously accepted by the scientific community. We suggest a new nonlinear model for a suspension bridge and we perform numerical experiments with the parameters corresponding to the collapsed Tacoma Narrows Bridge. We show that the thresholds of instability are in line with those observed the day of the collapse. Our analysis enables us to give a new explanation for the torsional instability, only based on the nonlinear behavior of the structure.

  12. Supersymmetric R4-actions in ten dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, M. de; Suelmann, H.; Wiedemann, A.

    1992-01-01

    We construct supersymmetric R+R4-actions in ten dimensions. Two invariants, of which the bosonic parts are known from string amplitude and sigma model calculations, are obtained. One of these invariants can be generalized to an R+F2+F4-invariant for supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to superg

  13. Orbits of Ten Visual Binary Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Novakovi(c)

    2007-01-01

    We present the orbits of ten visual binary stars:WDS 01015+6922.WDS 01424-0645,WDS 01461+6349,WDS 04374-0951,WDS 04478+5318,WDS 05255-0033,WDS 05491+6248,WDS 06404+4058,WDS 07479-1212,and WDS 18384+0850.We have also determined their masses,dynamical parallaxes and ephemerides.

  14. Ten recommendations for software engineering in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Janna; Haug, Kenneth; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Research in the context of data-driven science requires a backbone of well-written software, but scientific researchers are typically not trained at length in software engineering, the principles for creating better software products. To address this gap, in particular for young researchers new to programming, we give ten recommendations to ensure the usability, sustainability and practicality of research software.

  15. Strahlungsfelder und Strahlungsqualitäten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Hanno

    Das Kapitel beginnt mit einer Darstellung der wichtigsten Größen zur Beschreibung von Strahlungsfeldern. Diese Größen können sowohl auf die Teilchenzahl als auch auf die Teilchenenergie bezogen sein. Im zweiten Teil werden ausführlich die Verfahren zur Charakterisierung der Strahlungsqualitäten der verschiedenen in der Radiologie verwendeten Strahlungsarten dargestellt.

  16. Editor's Journal: Poor Elijah's Almanack Top Ten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Peter N.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on and responds to a list from the American Association of School Administrators detailing the "Top Ten Changes Affecting Students Since the 1960s." Argues that the list is part common sense, part nonsense, and part obvious. Concludes that there is almost nothing the schools can do about these problems because they are societal problems,…

  17. Czech, Slovak science ten years after split

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).

  18. TEN MASTER TEACHER AND PROGRAM AWARD PROGRAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOVACH, EDITH M.A.

    IN 1966 THE AMERICAN CLASSICAL LEAGUE HONORED THREE TEACHERS WITH ITS MASTER SECONDARY SCHOOL LATIN TEACHER AND PROGRAM AWARD. AMONG THE 32 PROGRAMS CITED FOR RECOGNITION, TEN (INCLUDING THOSE OF THE AWARD WINNERS) POSSESS CLEARLY INNOVATIVE FEATURES. IN BRIEF THEY FEATURE (1) A FIFTH YEAR ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM, LATIN AS INTRODUCTORY TO…

  19. Ten themes of viscous liquid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    Ten ‘themes' of viscous liquid physics are discussed with a focus on how they point to a general description of equilibrium viscous liquid dynamics (i.e., fluctuations) at a given temperature. This description is based on standard time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations for the density fields...

  20. 'Safe handling of nanotechnology' ten years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Andrew D.; Aitken, Robert J.

    2016-12-01

    In 2006, a group of scientists proposed five grand challenges to support the safe handling of nanotechnology. Ten years on, Andrew Maynard and Robert Aitken -- two of the original authors -- look at where we have come, and where we still need to go.

  1. Ten-year urban forestry action plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W." Jerry" Van Sambeek

    2017-01-01

    The Ten-year Urban Forestry Action Plan: 2016-2026 was published in September, 2015 (see http://www.urbanforestry.subr.edu/FinalActionPlan_Complete_11_17_15.pdf). This 260 page heavily illustrated document was prepared by the National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council (NUCFAC) under leadership and funding from the USDA Forest Service. The Plan's...

  2. Top-Ten IT Issues: 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Anne Scrivener; Yang, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the top-ten IT-related issues in terms of strategic importance to the institution, as revealed by the tenth annual EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. These IT-related issues include: (1) Funding IT; (2) Administrative/ERP Information Systems; (3) Security; (4) Infrastructure/Cyberinfrastructure; (5) Teaching and Learning with…

  3. National Bridge Inventory - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The NBI (NTAD 2015) is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 610,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate...

  4. Bridge Creek IMW database - Bridge Creek Restoration and Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek is thought to be limiting a population of ESA-listed steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A logical restoration approach...

  5. Reliability Assessment of Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Middleton, C. R.

    This paper is partly based on research performed for the Highways Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: concrete bridges". It contains the details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability...... profiles. These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for concrete bridges. This paper is to some extend based on Thoft-Christensen et. al. [1996], Thoft-Christensen [1996] et. al. and Thoft-Christensen [1996]....

  6. General design of Sutong Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xigang; Yuan Hong; Pei Minshan; Dai Jie; Xu Lin

    2009-01-01

    The main span of Sutong Bridge is a double-pylon, double-plane cable-stayed bridge with steel box girder, which has the world's longest central span of 1 088 m within cable-stayed bridges. To overcome problems caused by severe meteorological conditions, perplexing hydrological conditions, deep buried bedrock and higher navigation level, many new technics and methods were created. Keys including structural system, steel box girder, stayed cable, tower, pier, tower foundation, collision avoidance system, wind-resistance, seismic-resistance, structural nonlinear response and structural static stability were presented individually in this paper.

  7. Multi-proxy analyses of geo-bio-archives - a key to reconstruct major environmental and ecological changes in the Ephesia, W Turkey, during the last eight millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Friederike; Knipping, Maria; Pint, Anna; Krichel, Marc; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    This interdisciplinary geoarchaeological research in the environs of the ancient city of Ephesus (W Turkey) focuses on (i) Holocene landscape reconstruction along with sea-level changes, and (ii) human impact on landscape evolution. More than 200 sediment cores were retrieved from geo-bio-archives and analysed with a multi-proxy approach (geochemical, sedimentological, microfaunal, palynological, and parasitological methods). The Holocene palaeogeographic changes in the embayment of the Küçük Menderes (Kaystros) on the Aegean coast of Turkey with the famous ancient city of Ephesus are counted amongst the most dramatic ones in the Mediterranean. About seven millennia ago, the maximum marine transgression filled the Küçük Menderes graben up to 20 km inland. Since then, the coastline has continuously shifted westwards due to the progradation of the deltas of this river and its tributaries. Besides other natural factors, like sea level fluctuations and tectonics, the speed of delta progradation was mainly governed by the riverine sediment load, which, in turn, was very much dependent on the human impact on the vegetation cover of the drainage basins. The sedimentation rates confirm this assumption: While low rates occurred between the 5th and the 1st millennia BC (up to 1 mm/year), much higher rates (4 - 30 mm/year) can be calculated thereafter. In response to these dramatic environmental changes, human settlements and their harbours had to be relocated several times from the 1st millennium BC onwards. The Koressos harbour and the Roman harbour were important hubs for commerce with the islands in the Aegean Sea. The nowadays silted-up harbour basins are valuable geo-bio-archives. The Roman harbours inventory shows high heavy metal concentrations (lead, copper), fruit tree pollen and eggs of intestinal parasites from the 1st millennium BC until the 7th century AD, as evidence of intensive human impact during that period of time. The occurrence of organic compounds

  8. The Higgs Bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Roland E

    2013-01-01

    The particle recently discovered at the Large Hadron Collider near Geneva is almost certainly a Higgs boson, the long-sought completion of the Standard Model of particle physics. But this discovery, an achievement by more than six thousand scientists (including students), is actually much more than a mere capstone of the Standard Model. It instead represents a bridge from the Standard Model to exciting discoveries of the future, at higher energies or in other experiments, and to the properties of matter at very low temperatures. The mere existence of a particle with zero spin implies a need for new physics, with the most likely candidate being supersymmetry, which requires that every known particle has a superpartner yet to be discovered. And phenomena similar to the Higgs are seen in superconducting metals and superfluid gases at low temperatures, which extend down to a millionth or even a billionth of a degree Kelvin. So the discovery of a Higgs boson has a central place in our attempts both to achieve a tr...

  9. Mineral bridges in nacre revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Checa, Antonio G; Willinger, Marc-Georg

    2012-01-01

    We confirm with high-resolution techniques the existence of mineral bridges between superposed nacre tablets. In the towered nacre of both gastropods and the cephalopod Nautilus there are large bridges aligned along the tower axes, corresponding to gaps (150-200 nm) in the interlamellar membranes. Gaps are produced by the interaction of the nascent tablets with a surface membrane that covers the nacre compartment. In the terraced nacre of bivalves bridges associated with elongated gaps in the interlamellar membrane (> 100 nm) have mainly been found at or close to the edges of superposed parental tablets. To explain this placement, we hypothesize that the interlamellar membrane breaks due to differences in osmotic pressure across it when the interlamellar space below becomes reduced at an advanced stage of calcification. In no cases are the minor connections between superimposed tablets (< 60 nm), earlier reported to be mineral bridges, found to be such.

  10. The stories of two bridges in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    Public participation in bridge building was promoted by un habitat in the village of Mankrong. The neighbouring village did not participate in the construction of their bridge. The first flooding washed the second bridge down while the "participative bridge" stood up....

  11. CNPC's Ten Major Technological Events in 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Technological Development Department of CNPC

    2005-01-01

    @@ Editor's note: To make a timely introduction of the latest technologies developed by CNPC, Technological Development Department of CNPC entrusted Petroleum Economic & Technological Research Center of CNPC to appraise the oil company 's major technological developments. Based on three rounds of voting by nearly 100 oil experts, ten major technological events in 2004 are finally selected from more than 1 00 technological projects of CNPC according to the measurement standards of innovation, technological maturity, function and scientific value.

  12. Identification of ten new Galactic HII regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We discovered ten large HII regions in the Sino-German λ6 cm polarization survey of the Galactic plane. They have been identified according to their flat spectral indexes and the high ratio between the 60 μm infrared emission and the λ6 cm emission. The integrated flux densities as well as the sizes of these sources are given at 4800 MHz. Cross-identifications are made with other major radio catalogs.

  13. Ten new withanolides from Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Sheng-Tao; Liu, Ji-Kai; Li, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Ten new withanolides, including four perulactone-type withanolides, perulactones E-H (1-4), three 28-hydroxy-withanolides, withaperuvins I-K (5-7), and three other withanolides, withaperuvins L-N (8-10), together with six known compounds (11-16) were isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis peruviana. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D and 2D NMR, IR, HR-MS) and chemical methods.

  14. Ten years of monetary union in retrospect

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    1 January 1999 saw the start of the third and final phase of European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). Ten years on, membership has expanded from the initial 11 members to reach 16 countries by January 2009. This article reviews the first decade of monetary union from a number of angles. Monetary policy under EMU managed to secure historically low inflation, thereby creating the conditions for sustainable economic growth. Despite large relative price movements stemming from globalisation, i...

  15. Extreme rainfall activity in the Australian tropics reflects changes in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation over the last two millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniston, Rhawn F.; Villarini, Gabriele; Gonzales, Angelique N.; Wyrwoll, Karl-Heinz; Polyak, Victor J.; Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; Lachniet, Matthew S.; Wanamaker, Alan D.; Humphreys, William F.; Woods, David; Cugley, John

    2015-01-01

    Assessing temporal variability in extreme rainfall events before the historical era is complicated by the sparsity of long-term “direct” storm proxies. Here we present a 2,200-y-long, accurate, and precisely dated record of cave flooding events from the northwest Australian tropics that we interpret, based on an integrated analysis of meteorological data and sediment layers within stalagmites, as representing a proxy for extreme rainfall events derived primarily from tropical cyclones (TCs) and secondarily from the regional summer monsoon. This time series reveals substantial multicentennial variability in extreme rainfall, with elevated occurrence rates characterizing the twentieth century, 850–1450 CE (Common Era), and 50–400 CE; reduced activity marks 1450–1650 CE and 500–850 CE. These trends are similar to reconstructed numbers of TCs in the North Atlantic and Caribbean basins, and they form temporal and spatial patterns best explained by secular changes in the dominant mode of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the primary driver of modern TC variability. We thus attribute long-term shifts in cyclogenesis in both the central Australian and North Atlantic sectors over the past two millennia to entrenched El Niño or La Niña states of the tropical Pacific. The influence of ENSO on monsoon precipitation in this region of northwest Australia is muted, but ENSO-driven changes to the monsoon may have complemented changes to TC activity. PMID:25825740

  16. Stones of memory. The permanence of the megalithic phenomenon in the Iberian South-West during the Second and First Millennia BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Sanjuán, Leonardo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the temporal permanence of megalithic monuments in the Iberian south-west during the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. Firstly, a number of well-documented cases are described, discussing the specific circumstances of each of them (chronology, funerary ritual, spatial location, etc.. Secondly, an interpretation of the different ideological and social meanings that the utilisation of old megalithic monuments might have had for the communities of the second and first millennia BC is proposed.

    En este trabajo se examina el fenómeno de la permanencia temporal de los monumentos megalíticos en el Suroeste de la Península Ibérica durante la Edad del Bronce y la Edad del Hierro. En primer lugar se describen distintos casos documentados, detallándose las circunstancias específicas de cada uno de ellos (cronología, ritual funerario, localización espacial, etc.. En segundo lugar se propone una interpretación del diferente significado ideológico y social que para las formaciones sociales del II y I milenio ANE pudo tener la utilización de viejos monumentos megalíticos.

  17. Hydrological variability for the last two millennia: palynological and organic proxies extracted from lacustrine sediments of Lake Dahu, northeastern subtropical Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Zeng, F.; Wang, L.; Huh, C.; Lee, T.; Chan, Y.; Meyers, P. A.; Lee, M.; Chen, S.; Wu, J.; Wei, K.; Chen, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrological variability inferred from palynological composition and organic proxies extracted from a sediment core of Lake Dahu, northeastern subtropical Taiwan is presented for the last two millennia. The lake is situated at the foot of northeastern Shuehshan Range and the northwestern margin of Ilan Plain, an alluvial fan, which is formed by Lanyang River. The age model is figured by 210Pb and 4 14C dates for the ~12 m lacustrine sediment core. Two modes of sedimentation are distinguishable. During 0-1400 AD, high sedimentation rate (~0.8 cm/year) and content of spores and in association with several layers containing fine sands and silts existed, while low pollen abundance and organic matters, and rare Pediastrum. Massive suspension accompanying with high frequency of flood from Lanyang River were deposited in the Lake Dahu in the period. On the contrary, decrease of sedimentation rate and spores happened, whereas increasing abundance of pollens, Pediastrum, and organic materials since 1400 AD. Primary productivity might be raised since 1700 AD. An enriched trend in 13C in organic matters is witnessed during interval 1700-1900 AD, thereafter depleting in 13C till the contemporary age. It is suggested that high primary productivity coinciding with less negative signatures of delta 13C were resulted from strong lake water mixing triggered by strengthening East Asian winter monsoon during the Little ice Age. While the depleting trend is indicative of the Suess effect, dilution of the atmospheric 13CO2 by fossil-fuel derived carbon dioxide.

  18. EEG Correlates of Ten Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Yu, Jianwen; Song, Mengdi; Yu, Chun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Pei; Wang, Daifa; Zhang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the well documented neurophysiological findings on negative emotions, much less is known about positive emotions. In the present study, we explored the EEG correlates of ten different positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love). A group of 20 participants were invited to watch 30 short film clips with their EEGs simultaneously recorded. Distinct topographical patterns for different positive emotions were found for the correlation coefficients between the subjective ratings on the ten positive emotions per film clip and the corresponding EEG spectral powers in different frequency bands. Based on the similarities of the participants’ ratings on the ten positive emotions, these emotions were further clustered into three representative clusters, as ‘encouragement’ for awe, gratitude, hope, inspiration, pride, ‘playfulness’ for amusement, joy, interest, and ‘harmony’ for love, serenity. Using the EEG spectral powers as features, both the binary classification on the higher and lower ratings on these positive emotions and the binary classification between the three positive emotion clusters, achieved accuracies of approximately 80% and above. To our knowledge, our study provides the first piece of evidence on the EEG correlates of different positive emotions. PMID:28184194

  19. SURGERY OF SYMPTOMATIC MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Maghamipour N. Safaei

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial bridging with systolic compression of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD may be associated with myocardial ischemia. In symptomatic myocardial bridging unresponsive to medical treatment, surgical unroofing of the left LAD can be performed. Little information is available about the long-term prognosis of patients with this coronary anomaly after the surgical unroofing, so we decided to evaluate the result of this operation. A total of 26 patients underwent surgical unroofing of myocardial bridging. Patients had a myocardial bridge of at least 3 cm in length in the middle of LAD and with more than 70% compression during systole. Unroofing was performed with cardiopulmonary bypass in 16 and with off pump technique in 10 patients. In 6 patients repeat angiographies for control of myotomy were done. In one of them a nonsignificant 20% narrowing was seen. Postoperative scintigraphic and angiographic studies demonstrated restoration of coronary flow and myocardial perfusion without residual myocardial bridges under beta-stimulation in 24 patients. Two patients had residual narrowing. With off pump technique, 1 patient had perforation of the right ventricle and 1 patient underwent reoperation because of incomplete unroofing during the first operation. None of the patients with cardiopulmonary bypass technique had residual chest pain or other complications. Surgical unroofing of myocardial bridging with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass is a safe and easy procedure with low operative risk and with excellent functional results.

  20. Redundancy Evaluation of Fracture Critical Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Bapat, Amey Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Cases of brittle fractures in major bridges prompted AASHTO to publish its first fracture control plan in 1978. It focused on material and fabrication standards, and required periodic 24-month hands-on inspection of bridges with fracture critical members. The practical result of this plan was to significantly increase the life cycle cost of these bridges, rendering them uneconomical. Apart from the Point Pleasant Bridge that failed in 1967, no other bridge has collapsed in the USA following a...

  1. TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) for labour pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Richard

    2012-05-01

    Because TENS is applied inconsistently and not always in line with optimal TENS application theory, this may explain why TENS for labour pain appears to be effective in some individuals and not in others. This article reviews TENS theory, advises upon optimal TENS application for labour pain and discusses some of the limitations of TENS research on labour pain. TENS application for labour pain may include TENS applied to either side of the lower spine, set to 200 mus pulse duration and 100 pulses per second. As pain increases, TENS intensity should be increased and as pain decreases, TENS intensity should be reduced to maintain a strong but pain free intensity of stimulation. This application may particularly reduce back pain during labour.

  2. Ten tips for receiving feedback effectively in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algiraigri, Ali H

    2014-01-01

    Despite being recognized as a fundamental part of the educational process and emphasized for several decades in medical education, the influence of the feedback process is still suboptimal. This may not be surprising, because the focus is primarily centered on only one half of the process - the teachers. The learners are the targets of the feedback process and improvement needs to be shifted. Learners need to be empowered with the skills needed to receive and utilize feedback and compensate for less than ideal feedback delivery due to the busy clinical environment. Based on the available feedback literature and clinical experience regarding feedback, the author developed 10 tips to empower learners with the necessary skills to seek, receive, and handle feedback effectively, regardless of how it is delivered. Although, most of the tips are directed at the individual clinical trainee, this model can be utilized by clinical educators involved in learner development and serve as a framework for educational workshops or curriculum. Ten practical tips are identified that specifically address the learner's role in the feedback process. These tips not only help the learner to ask, receive, and handle the feedback, but will also ease the process for the teachers. Collectively, these tips help to overcome most, if not all, of the barriers to feedback and bridge the gaps in busy clinical practices. Feedback is a crucial element in the educational process and it is shown that we are still behind in the optimal use of it; thus, learners need to be taught how to better receive and utilize feedback. The focus in medical education needs to balance the two sides of the feedback process. It is time now to invest on the learner's development of skills that can be utilized in a busy day-to-day clinical practice.

  3. The Top Ten Algorithms in Data Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xindong

    2009-01-01

    From classification and clustering to statistical learning, association analysis, and link mining, this book covers the most important topics in data mining research. It presents the ten most influential algorithms used in the data mining community today. Each chapter provides a detailed description of the algorithm, a discussion of available software implementation, advanced topics, and exercises. With a simple data set, examples illustrate how each algorithm works and highlight the overall performance of each algorithm in a real-world application. Featuring contributions from leading researc

  4. Ten steps to successful poster presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardicre, Jayne; Devitt, Patric; Coad, Jane

    Receiving a letter confirming acceptance for you to present a poster at a conference can evoke mixed emotions. Joy, panic, fear and dread are among the many possible emotions and this is not exclusive to first time presenters. Developing an effective poster presentation is a skill that you can learn and can provide a rewarding way to present your work in a manner less intimidating than oral presentation (Shelledy, 2004). The key to successful poster presentation is meticulous, timely, well informed preparation. This article outlines ten steps to help guide you through the process to maximize your success.

  5. Ten essential skills for electrical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Dorr, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Engineers know that, as in any other discipline, getting a good job requires practical, up-to-date skills. An engineering degree provides a broad set of fundamentals. Ten Essential Skills applies those fundamentals to practical tasks required by employers. Written in a user-friendly, no-nonsense format, the book reviews practical skills using the latest tools and techniques, and features a companion website with interview practice problems and advanced material for readers wishing to pursue additional skills. With this book, aspiring and current engineers may approach job interviews confident

  6. The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge and the Storebælt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    With the completion of the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge and the Storebælt East Bridge the development of the suspension bridge technology in the 20th century has manifested itself in two impressive structures. With the present echnology may bridges of similar (and also more modest) dimensions...... will undoubtedly be built far into the next century. For bridges going beyond the spans of existing bridges it is, however, likely that new concepts will be developed....

  7. Weigh-in-motion and smart bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Leon L.

    1997-05-01

    The bridge Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system uses bridge structures as weigh scales to measure axle and gross vehicle weights and vehicle configurations without stopping or detouring the vehicles. Because the system is mobile and is almost invisible to the truck drivers, it can be used to collect unbiased traffic data for transportation and loadometer study. The WIM + RESPONSE system, which is an expansion of the original WIM system, was developed to collect additional bridge response data and perform bridge structural evaluation. These additional bridge response data provide bridge engineers with information necessary for improving bridge design and evaluation procedures. Bridge health monitoring and damage detection may also be conducted with long term installation of the WIM + RESPONSE system. This paper discusses what has been achieved by the WIM + RESPONSE system and how the system can be further improved to enhance its functions in a smart bridge.

  8. A strange bridge by Leonardo

    CERN Document Server

    Huylebrouck, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    On folio 855 recto of the Codex Atlanticus, Leonardo da Vinci drew three 'easily movable' bridges, but one of them is enigmatic: all 'replicas' in Leonardo museums and exhibitions come as a surprise, to say the least, to any engineer or architect whose attention is drawn to it. This is the case for models in Amboise (France), Chicago and Portland (USA), Florence (Italy) and for the one of the traveling exhibition by the Australian company 'Grande Exhibitions' that already visited 40 major cities in the world. All 'replicas' of the bridge model attributed to Leonardo have pillars standing on the deck of the bridge, while the deck is suspended by cables attached on these pillars. At first sight this problem does not catch the attention of the observer, as the bridge seems to be a mixed form of a beam and a suspension bridge, but it was not overlooked by my colleague architect-engineer Dr. Laurens Luyten (Gent, Belgium). Yet, after a TV-interview in Brussels so much pressure was exerted by some of the museum col...

  9. River ice jams at bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D. [New Brunswick Dept. of Transportation, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Beltaos, S. [National Water Research Institute, Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2000-12-01

    Ice jamming, known to cause high water levels at even moderate river flows, is described as both the main and least understood source of ice-related bridge damages. This paper describes a joint study by the New Brunswick Department of Transportation, the Department of the Environment, local governments, and the National Water Research Institute, designed to address problems associated with the interaction of ice jams and bridges. The study consists of collecting information at each of four sites in New Brunswick including: historical data on ice jam locations, causes, and water levels; channel bathymetry, width and slope within each study centred at the respective bridge; and documentation of ice conditions throughout the ice season, including measurement of ice cover thickness, observation of breakup mechanisms, times, causes, characteristics and possible impacts of ice jam release. Data analysis will include determination of high stages due to ice jams or surges caused by upstream ice jam releases, scour potential of surges, and quantification of the structure's capacity to restrain ice movement and to cause jams. The principal objective of the study is to advance beyond empiricism and to develop rational design criteria for bridges by anticipating the effects of climate changes and by incorporating local meteorological and hydrometric records into bridge design for added safety.

  10. Floating liquid bridge charge dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez; Gomes, Whyllerson Evaristo; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of liquid with electric fields is investigated in a configuration where up to 13 kV are applied between electrodes resulting in a 106 V/m electric field in the capillaries and where there is the formation of a free-standing fluid bridge in the interelectrode gap. The Mott-Gurney equation was fitted to the measured ionization current vs applied voltage curve which indicates that the ionization rate at the high-voltage anode electrode dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) interface and space charging in the interelectrode gap determine the floating liquid bridge current for a given cathode-to-anode voltage. Space charge effects were measured in the cathode becker and also at the liquid bridge since the ionized charges at the anode migrate to the bridge outer surface and decrease the interfacial tension from 43 mJ/m2 to 29 mJ/m2. Two distinct structural regions then form the bridge, a charged plastic (bulk modulus ˜100 MPa) conducting outer layer with a surface conductivity of ˜10-9 Ω-1, which shapes and supports the floating fluid structure, and an inner liquid cylinder, where DMSO molecules flow.

  11. Ten principles of good interdisciplinary team work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Booth, Andrew; Ariss, Steven; Smith, Tony; Enderby, Pam; Roots, Alison

    2013-05-10

    Interdisciplinary team work is increasingly prevalent, supported by policies and practices that bring care closer to the patient and challenge traditional professional boundaries. To date, there has been a great deal of emphasis on the processes of team work, and in some cases, outcomes. This study draws on two sources of knowledge to identify the attributes of a good interdisciplinary team; a published systematic review of the literature on interdisciplinary team work, and the perceptions of over 253 staff from 11 community rehabilitation and intermediate care teams in the UK. These data sources were merged using qualitative content analysis to arrive at a framework that identifies characteristics and proposes ten competencies that support effective interdisciplinary team work. Ten characteristics underpinning effective interdisciplinary team work were identified: positive leadership and management attributes; communication strategies and structures; personal rewards, training and development; appropriate resources and procedures; appropriate skill mix; supportive team climate; individual characteristics that support interdisciplinary team work; clarity of vision; quality and outcomes of care; and respecting and understanding roles. We propose competency statements that an effective interdisciplinary team functioning at a high level should demonstrate.

  12. New constraints on the most significant paleointensity change in Western Europe over the last two millennia. A non-dipolar origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Paccard, Miriam; Osete, María Luisa; Chauvin, Annick; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco J.; Pérez-Asensio, Manuel; Jiménez, Pedro; Lanos, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    Over the last years new evidences of several short-lived regional maxima of the geomagnetic field intensity at various times and locations have been defined. These features have important implications both for geomagnetic field modeling and for Earth's dynamo simulations. However, the nature, extent and underlying causes of these variations are still poorly understood. The major constraint for an adequate description of these important features is the absence of continuous detailed records and the current limited availability of precisely dated geomagnetic field recorders. In this context, archeological materials from superimposed strata covering long sequences of occupation provide a powerful tool to investigate the temporal variability of geomagnetic field strength at decadal and centennial time scales. In this work we report the archeomagnetic study of 79 potteries from Southeastern Spain collected in 14 different stratigraphic units. The chronological framework of the studied collection, ranging from the 9th to the 12th centuries, is based on historical/archeological data such as written sources and well-established typological and archeometric documentation on ceramics found on reference contexts in the area. Additionally, two radiocarbon dates obtained from two different stratigraphic units confirm the proposed chronological intervals. From classical Thellier and Thellier experiments including partial thermoremanent magnetization (pTRM) checks and TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections, height new high-quality mean intensities were derived. The new data provide an improved description of the sharp abrupt intensity decay that took place in Western Europe after the 800 AD intensity maximum, the most significant geomagnetic field intensity feature observed in Europe over the last two millennia. The new results confirm that several rapid intensity changes (with rates higher than 10 μT/century) took place in Western Europe during the recent history of the

  13. Change of PAHs with evolution of paddy soils from prehistoric to present over the last six millennia in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jin [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 88 North Huancheng Rd. of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Institute of Geosciences, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Cornelia, Mueller-Niggemann [Institute of Geosciences, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Wang, Minyan, E-mail: jz.zafu@gmail.com [Tianmu College of Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 252 Yijin Str.of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Cao, Zhihong [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Rd., Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Xiping, E-mail: luoxpzj@yahoo.com.cn [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 88 North Huancheng Rd. of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Wong, Minghung [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 88 North Huancheng Rd. of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, 224 Waterloo Rd., Kln., Hong Kong (China); Chen, Wei [Department of Ecology and Evolution, Frankfurt University, Max-Von-Laue Str. 13, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of hydroponics management on soil organic components with evolution of paddy soil over the last six millennia, PAHs, as a biomarker, as well as total organic carbon content were used to explore changes of paddy soil organic carbon in two entirely buried ancient paddy soil profiles. The results showed that hydroponics management can cause organic carbon deposition in rice paddy. The changing of total PAH concentrations was not always in accordance with the changing of total organic carbon contents in layers of the buried ancient paddy soils. The PAHs in 6280 BP prehistoric paddy soil layer was 3-ring > 5-ring > 4-ring > 6-ring, while in layers of the present paddy soil and the prehistoric upland were 3-ring > 4-ring > 5-ring > 6-ring. The contribution of phenanthrene to total PAHs in two profiles and the increasing ratio of phenanthrene to alkylated PAHs from parent material/6280 BP prehistoric upland to 6280 BP paddy suggested substantial increase of the anthropogenic influence of hydroponics management on rice paddy soil. And in view of the {sup 14}C age and bioremains in the two profiles, it was only possible for PAHs to be derived from hydroponics management with evolution of the paddy soils form the Neolithic age. Cadalene could be used as an indicator for biological sources of PAHs released by rice plant residues, and benzo[g,h,i]fluoranthene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene for pyrogenic sources released by field vegetation fires. - Highlights: ► Soil hydroponics management can cause SOC deposition in rice paddy. ► PAHs in buried ancient paddy soil profiles were mainly derived from anthropogenic hydroponics management. ► PAH, as a biomarker, was not suitable for tracing SOC change with evolution of paddy soil from the Neolithic age.

  14. Geoarchaeological results on the Northern Peruvian coast: environmental changes and societal responses in the Sechura Desert during the last two millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christol, Aurélien; Carré, Matthieu; Goepfert, Nicolas; Wuscher, Patrice; Vittori, Cécile; Béarez, Philippe; Mogollon, Valentin; Gutierrez, Belkys

    2017-04-01

    We present here recent results of a geoarchaeological study on the Northern coast of Peru. Concerning the scientific context, excavation of new or already known archaeological sites in the Sechura Desert, since 2012, revealed the high potential of the area to reconstruct Human-Environment interactions during the last two millennia at least. The present geographical setting with an arid and unoccupied coast contrasts with the past activities, as fishing and prepared fish trade, of prehispanic societies which have occupied the coast of the desert. These populations used some natural resources which are not available anymore nowadays (water, fish, mollusks, wood). A pluridisciplinary approach associating geomorphological, palaeoenvironmental and geoscientific methods, allows to reconstruct the past middles and landscapes in the vicinity of the archaeological sites. Deposits from the filling of the costal depression of Las Salinas closed by a sand bar and from a shore area at the Nunura's bay have been investigated in terms of sedimentary facies, of mollusc isotopic geochemistry, of ostracod identification and of radiocarbon datings. Results show the variability of the environments during the studied period and further during the Holocene, in terms of climate, landscapes or shoreline position, with e.g. succession of several lagoons in the Las Salinas depression. These data are obviously cross-studied with archaeological and archaeozoological data from excavations which confirm and supply environmental scenarios. Through this research, we aim to characterize the origins of environmental changes in this singular region of the world, between palaeoclimatic trends, ENSO events and geomorphological dynamics, and to determine the responses of societies to these latters, in space and time.

  15. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...... if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...... with the minimum acceptable surface temperature regarding surface condensation or mold growth, implemented in the Danish Building Regulations in 2010, and the calculation method for this temperature based on international standards is discussed. The introduction of the minimum acceptable surface temperature has...

  16. Contactless Bridge Weigh-in-Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Ojio, T.; Carey, Ciaran; O'Brien, Eugene J.; Doherty, C; Taylor, S E

    2016-01-01

    Bridge weigh-in-motion (WIM) uses existing bridges to find the weights of vehicles that pass overhead. Contactless bridge weigh-in-motion (cBWIM) uses bridges to weigh vehicles without the need for any sensors to be attached to the bridge. A camera is mounted on the back of a telescope, which magnifies the image to the extent that submillimeter bridge deflections can be measured accurately. A second camera is used to monitor traffic and to determine axle spacings. The two cameras are synchron...

  17. Bridging faults in BiCMOS circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sankaran M.; Malaiya, Yashwant K.; Jayasumana, Anura P.

    1993-01-01

    Combining the advantages of CMOS and bipolar, BiCMOS is emerging as a major technology for many high performance digital and mixed signal applications. Recent investigations revealed that bridging faults can be a major failure mode in IC's. Effects of bridging faults in BiCMOS circuits are presented. Bridging faults between logical units without feedback and logical units with feedback are considered. Several bridging faults can be detected by monitoring the power supply current (I(sub DDQ) monitoring). Effects of bridging faults and bridging resistance on output logic levels were examined along with their effects on noise immunity.

  18. An Expert System for Concrete Bridge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, J. de; Branco, F. A.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1997-01-01

    management systems are presently being implemented by bridge authorities in several countries. The prototype of an expert system for concrete bridge management is presented in this paper, with its functionality relying on two modules. The inspection module relies on a periodic acquisition of field......The importance of bridge repair versus new bridge construction has risen in recent decades due to high deterioration rates that have been observed in these structures. Budgets both for building new bridges and keeping the existing ones are always limited. To help rational decision-making, bridge...

  19. Balanced bridge feedback control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Boris J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In a system having a driver, a motor, and a mechanical plant, a multiloop feedback control apparatus for controlling the movement and/or positioning of a mechanical plant, the control apparatus has a first local bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of voltage and current at the output driver, and a second bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of force and velocity at the output of the motor. The control apparatus may further include an outer loop for feeding back a signal representing the angular velocity and/or position of the mechanical plant.

  20. Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.

    1999-02-08

    This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

  1. Optimum selection on bridge erection with floating crane in East China Sea Bridge and Hangzhou Bay Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunquan Qin; Pu Zhou; Youheng Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction With the rapid development of China′s economy, many bridges will be built over the Chinese coastal waters of Pacific Ocean. Among them, construction of East China Sea Bridge has been commenced in June 2001, and will be completed at the end of 2005, Hangzhou Bay Bridge was also started to construct in June 2003(Fig. 1). These two ultralong bridges are designed as twin expressway bridges standing side by side each carries a 3-lane one-way carriageway. The total width is 31.5m and 33.0m respectively. East China Sea Bridge starts from Nanhui District, Shanghai and extends to the Yangshan Deep Water Port Area, which is located at one of the Qiqu Islands. The total length of the bridge is about 31.0 km, in which 25 km are on the sea, and 22 km is in the unnavigable region. Hangzhou Bay Bridge across the mouth of Qiantang River.

  2. Is myocardial bridging a bridge connecting to cardiovascular events?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-jun

    2010-01-01

    @@ Coronary arteries and their major branches usually course on the surface of the heart in the subepicardial tissue. However, a muscle hber overlying the intramyocardial segment of an epicardial coronary artery was defined as myocardial bridging (MB), and subsequently the artery coursing within the myocardium is called a tunneled artery.

  3. Periprosthetic Knee Infection: Ten Strategies That Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Priscilla Ku; Diaz-Ledezma, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most serious complications following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The demand for TKA is rapidly increasing, resulting in a subsequent increase in infections involving knee prosthesis. Despite the existence of common management practices, the best approach for several aspects in the management of periprosthetic knee infection remains controversial. This review examines the current understanding in the management of the following aspects of PJI: preoperative risk stratification, preoperative antibiotics, preoperative skin preparation, outpatient diagnosis, assessing for infection in revision cases, improving culture utility, irrigation and debridement, one and two-stage revision, and patient prognostic information. Moreover, ten strategies for the management of periprosthetic knee infection based on available literature, and experience of the authors were reviewed. PMID:24368992

  4. The ten grand challenges of synthetic life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcar, Manuel; Danchin, Antoine; de Lorenzo, Victor; Dos Santos, Vitor A; Krasnogor, Natalio; Rasmussen, Steen; Moya, Andrés

    2011-06-01

    The construction of artificial life is one of the main scientific challenges of the Synthetic Biology era. Advances in DNA synthesis and a better understanding of regulatory processes make the goal of constructing the first artificial cell a realistic possibility. This would be both a fundamental scientific milestone and a starting point of a vast range of applications, from biofuel production to drug design. However, several major issues might hamper the objective of achieving an artificial cell. From the bottom-up to the selection-based strategies, this work encompasses the ten grand challenges synthetic biologists will have to be aware of in order to cope with the task of creating life in the lab.

  5. Review - Scripture of the Ten Kings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. Nietupski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Daniel Berounský (with Luboš Bělka, "Comparative Description of the Paintings". 2012. The Tibetan Version of the Scripture on the Ten Kings and the Quest for Chinese Influence on the Tibetan Perception of the Afterlife. Prague: Triton Publishing House. This book is a study of the various influences on the complex Tibetan visions of the afterlife. It is based on new text-critical research and includes an introduction and translation of a rare Tibetan manuscript entitled Scripture on the Ten Kings, housed in the National Gallery, Prague. The book includes extensive references to secondary scholarship, as well as collaborative work by competent scholars and an appended study of the text illustrations by Luboš Bělka From the outset, the book raises a range of interpretive questions of central importance to at least Tibetan and Asian studies. The author describes the plan of the book and its parameters in the Introduction, noting that the manuscript under study does not include tantric perspectives (12, and is instead more oriented to popular understanding and use. This is an important and controversial methodological position, consistent with the formalized one circulated in scholastic and monastic circles that emphasizes secrecy and limited access to fully developed tantric studies. This position can, however, be contrasted with, for example, the uses of texts noted by Cuevas (2003, and further emphasized by Prude (2005:1-3, who suggests more popular use of tantric texts. This view is discussed in detail by others, including Thurman (2006, in his obviously tantric-influenced introduction and translation of the..

  6. Simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten kinds of foods by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Jing; Xie, Na; Zhao, Shan; Wu, Yu-Chen; Li, Jiang; Wang, Zhi

    2015-08-15

    An improved micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method (MEKC) for the simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten different kinds of food samples was reported. An uncoated fused-silica capillary with 50 μm i.d. and 70 cm total length was used. Under the optimized conditions, the linear response was observed in the range of 1.2-200mg/L for the analytes. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and limits of quantitation (LOQ, S/N=10) ranging from 0.4 to 0.5mg/L and 1.2 to 1.5mg/L, respectively were obtained. The method was used for the determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in two FAPAS® (Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme) proficiency test samples (jam and chocolate cake). The results showed that the current method with simple sample pretreatment and small reagent consumption could meet the needs for routine analysis of the ten preservatives in ten types of food products.

  7. The Wien Bridge Oscillator Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2006-01-01

    A tutorial in which the Wien bridge family of oscillators is defined and investigated. Oscillators which do not fit into the Barkhausen criterion topology may be designed. A design procedure based on initial complex pole quality factor is reported. The dynamic transfer characteristic...

  8. Noise Considerations in Resistance Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Joseph M.

    1963-01-01

    A signal-to-noise analysis is made of the Wheatstone bridge, where the unknown and standard resistors may be at different temperatures, a situation which occurs in resistance thermometry. The limiting condition is assumed to be dissipation in the unknown resistor. It is shown that the ratio arms ...

  9. Intercellular bridges in vertebrate gastrulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Caneparo

    Full Text Available The developing zebrafish embryo has been the subject of many studies of regional patterning, stereotypical cell movements and changes in cell shape. To better study the morphological features of cells during gastrulation, we generated mosaic embryos expressing membrane attached Dendra2 to highlight cellular boundaries. We find that intercellular bridges join a significant fraction of epiblast cells in the zebrafish embryo, reaching several cell diameters in length and spanning across different regions of the developing embryos. These intercellular bridges are distinct from the cellular protrusions previously reported as extending from hypoblast cells (1-2 cellular diameters in length or epiblast cells (which were shorter. Most of the intercellular bridges were formed at pre-gastrula stages by the daughters of a dividing cell maintaining a membrane tether as they move apart after mitosis. These intercellular bridges persist during gastrulation and can mediate the transfer of proteins between distant cells. These findings reveal a surprising feature of the cellular landscape in zebrafish embryos and open new possibilities for cell-cell communication during gastrulation, with implications for modeling, cellular mechanics, and morphogenetic signaling.

  10. A Rapidly Deployable Bridge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    A Rapidly Deployable Bridge System Gareth R. Thomas1 and Bernard J. Sia2 1ATA Engineering, 11995 El Camino Real, San Diego, CA 92130; PH (858) 480...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) ATA Engineering,11995 El Camino Real,San Diego,CA,92130 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  11. Architectural engineering of FRP bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, J.E.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP's) in architectural and structural bridge design. The challenges and opportunities that come with this relatively new material are discussed. An inventory is made of recent engineers' solutions in FRP, followed by a discussion on architectural application of FRP's derived from the authors architectural practice.

  12. Bridge Aesthetics and Structural Honesty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In bridges the overall form must be chosen with due respect to the transmission of forces if efficient structures shall be created, The design must therefore be governed by experienced structural engineers - in some cases assisted by aesthetic advisers on specific issues. Some basic requirements...

  13. Architectural engineering of FRP bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.E.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP's) in architectural and structural bridge design. The challenges and opportunities that come with this relatively new material are discussed. An inventory is made of recent engineers' solutions in FRP, followed by a discussion on archit

  14. Vulnerability of bridges to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Crosti, C.; Gentili, F.

    2012-01-01

    , considering both the costs deriving by structural damages and by limited serviceability and other indirect societal aspects. Few cases of recent bridge fire are reviewed in detail and structural consequences are highlighted, distinguishing between damages directly induced by fire and damages induced by local...

  15. History of cable-stayed bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    The principle of supporting a bridge deck by inclined tension members leading to towers on either side of the span has been known for centuries. However, the real development of cable-stayed bridges did not begin before the 1950s. Since then the free span has been increased from 183 m...... in the Strömsund Bridge (from 1955) to 890 m in the Tatara Bridge (from 1999)....

  16. Field performance of timber bridges. 5, Little Salmon Creek stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Ritter; J. A. Kainz; G. J. Porter

    The Little Salmon Creek bridge was constructed in November 1988 on the Allegheny National Forest in Pennsylvania. The bridge is a simple span, single-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure that is approximately 26-ft long and 16-ft wide. The bridge is unique in that it is the first known stress-laminated timber bridge to be constructed of hardwood lumber. The...

  17. Field performance of timber bridges. 6, Hoffman Run stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Ritter; P. D. Hilbrich Lee; G. J. Porter

    The Hoffman Run bridge, located just outside Dahoga, Pennsylvania, was constructed in October 1990. The bridge is a simple-span, single-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure that is approximately 26 ft long and 16 ft wide. It is the second stress-laminated timber bridge to be constructed of hardwood lumber in Pennsylvania. The performance of the bridge was...

  18. Building Bridges One Line at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Cathy Murray

    2012-01-01

    In this article, first-grade students were taught the different kinds of lines that were part of the construction of various bridges--the curved lines of the arches of stone bridges, straight lines connecting the cables of a suspension bridge, vertical lines, horizontal lines, and so on. They gained practice in drawing structures and in fine brush…

  19. Comparison between Modern Violin Bridge and Baroque Violin Bridge by Photoelastic Observation and Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, Akihiro

    2004-05-01

    A comparison between the modern bridge and the baroque bridge of the violin by photoelastic observation was carried out. The relationship between the stress part and the hole is symmetric in the modern and baroque bridges. The measured spectral envelopes of baroque bridges are similar to those of modern bridges in D- or G-strings, and have peaks at a frequency higher than those of modern bridges in E-string. The visualization method as used in this study may provide hints for the design of violin bridges.

  20. Ten Years of ENA Imaging from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Pontus; Mitchell, Donald; Westlake, Joseph; Carbary, James; Paranicas, Christopher; Mauk, Barry; Krimigis, Stamatios

    2014-05-01

    In this presentation we will provide a detailed review of the science highlights of the ENA observations obtained by The Ion Neutral Camera (INCA) on board Cassini. Since the launch of Cassini, INCA has unveiled an invisible world of hot plasma and neutral gas of the two biggest objects of our solar system: the giant magnetosphere of Jupiter and Saturn. Although more than ten years ago, INCA captured the first ENA images of the Jovian system revealing magnetospheric dynamics and an asymmetric Europa neutral gas torus. Approaching Saturn, INCA observed variability of Saturn's magnetospheric activity in response to changes in solar wind dynamic pressure, which was contrary to expectations and current theories. In orbit around Saturn, INCA continued the surprises including the first imaging and global characterization of Titan's exosphere extended out to its gravitational Hill sphere; recurring injections correlating with periodic Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) bursts and magnetic field perturbations; and the discovery of energetic ionospheric outflow. Perhaps most significant, and the focal point of this presentation, is INCA's contribution to the understanding of global magnetospheric particle acceleration and transport, where the combination between ENA imaging and in-situ measurements have demonstrated that transport and acceleration of plasma is likely to occur in a two-step process. First, large-scale injections in the post-midnight sector accelerate and transport plasma in to about 12 RS up to energies of several hundreds of keV. Second, centrifugal interchange acts on the plasma inside of this region and provides further heating and transport in to about 6RS. We discuss this finding in the context of the two fundamental types of injections (or ENA intensifications) that INCA has revealed during its ten years of imaging. The first type is large-scale injections appearing beyond 12 RS in the post-midnight sector that have in many cases had an inward component

  1. Planktic foraminiferal assemblages from laminated sediments of the northeastern Arabian Sea: a high-resolution study over the last two millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, Philipp; Lückge, Andreas; Siccha, Michael; Kucera, Michal; Schulz, Hartmut

    2014-05-01

    Modern planktic foraminiferal assemblages in the Arabian Sea are largely controlled by seasonal shifts of surface water properties. Boreal summer (June-September) heating of the Asian landmass and Tibetan Plateau leads to northward migration of the ITCZ and develops an intense atmospheric pressure gradient. Strong monsoonal winds from the southwest lead to coastal- and open ocean upwelling, especially in the western Arabian Sea along the coast of Somalia and Oman. Opposite directed dry and cold winds lead to deep convective mixing during boreal winter (January-March) and breakup of the thermal stratification. Deepening of the mixed-layer thus enables nutrient transport into the photic zone with enhanced primary production. Here we study planktic foraminiferal assemblages from the dominantly winter monsoon controlled Pakistan Margin off Karachi. We sampled annually laminated sediments from box core SO90-39KG and ca. 2-m-long piston core SO130-275KL from the same station. High sedimentation rates and varve-like lamination provides a particular record with very precise age control. Box core 39KG offers a record of the last 100 years with 2-year-resolution and 275KL provides a ca. 10-year-resolution during the last 2100 years. We calculated foraminiferal flux rates after photometric identification and subtraction of light-colored event layers, consisting solely of terrigeneous matter to enable comparison with flux rates from sediment trap stations. We identified a total of 28 planktic foraminiferal (PF) species/morphotypes in the fraction >150μm. During the relatively short period of the past two millennia, several species showed comparatively large fluctuations on decadal time scales, not seen in bioturbated records. Globigerina bulloides, a species generally associated with high primary production rates, fluctuates between ca. 10% and 45%. Highest relative share was observed during periods 1593-1413, 1023-923, 483-393, 63- -7 years AD. Average PF accumulation rates

  2. Climate reconstruction for the last two millennia in central Iberia: The role of East Atlantic (EA), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and their interplay over the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, G.; Hernández, A.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Trigo, R. M.; Toro, M.; Granados, I.; Sáez, A.; Masqué, P.; Pueyo, J. J.; Rubio-Inglés, M. J.; Giralt, S.

    2016-10-01

    A multi-proxy characterization of the uppermost sedimentary infill of an Iberian alpine lake (Cimera, 2140 m a.s.l.) was performed to establish the climatic and environmental conditions for the Iberian Central Range (ICR) over the last two millennia. This multi-proxy characterization was used to reconstruct the intense runoff events, lake productivity and soil erosion in the lake catchment and interpret these factors in terms of temperature and precipitation variability. The Roman Period (RP; 200 BCE - 500 CE) beginning was characterized by an alternation between cold and warm periods as indicated by short-lived oscillations of intense runoff conditions and soil erosion, although warm conditions dominated the end of the period and the Early Middle Age (EMA; 500-900 CE) onset in the ICR. A noticeable decrease in intense runoff events and a progressive decrease in soil erosion during the late EMA indicated a shift to colder temperatures. In terms of precipitation, both the RP and EMA climate periods displayed a transition from dry to wet conditions that led to a decrease in lake productivity. The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 900-1300 CE) was characterized by warm and dry conditions with frequent intense runoff episodes and increases in lake productivity and soil erosion, whereas the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1300-1850 CE) showed the opposite characteristics. The Industrial Era (1850-2012 CE) presented an increase in lake productivity that likely demonstrates the influence of global warming. The spatio-temporal integration of the Cimera record with other Iberian reconstructions has been used to identify the main climate drivers over this region. During the RP and EMA, N-S and E-W humidity gradients were dominant, whereas during the MCA and LIA, these gradients were not evident. These differences could be ascribed to interactions between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and East Atlantic (EA) phases. During the RP, the general warm conditions and the E-W humidity

  3. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) for fibromyalgia in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, MI; Claydon, LS; Herbison, GP; Paley, CA; Jones, G.

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse events of TENS for fibromyalgia in adults. We will assess TENS on its own or added to usual care in comparisons with placebo (sham) TENS, usual care, or no treatment.

  4. ESTIMATION OF ECONOMIC EXPEDIENCY OF «BRIDGE-PRE-BRIDGE TERRITORY» SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lapko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers principles that form «Bridge-Pre-Bridge Territory» system. The method is proposed for calculation of expenses on technical research for development of projects on usage of pre-bridge territories. Usage of site class number for natural conditions makes it possible to estimate investment attractiveness of «Bridge-Pre-Bridge Territory» system.

  5. Comparative Genomics of Ten Solanaceous Plastomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Availability of complete plastid genomes of ten solanaceous species, Atropa belladonna, Capsicum annuum, Datura stramonium, Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana tomentosiformis, Nicotiana undulata, Solanum bulbocastanum, Solanum lycopersicum, and Solanum tuberosum provided us with an opportunity to conduct their in silico comparative analysis in depth. The size of complete chloroplast genomes and LSC and SSC regions of three species of Solanum is comparatively smaller than that of any other species studied till date (exception: SSC region of A. belladonna. AT content of coding regions was found to be less than noncoding regions. A duplicate copy of trnH gene in C. annuum and two alternative tRNA genes for proline in D. stramonium were observed for the first time in this analysis. Further, homology search revealed the presence of rps19 pseudogene and infA genes in A. belladonna and D. stramonium, a region identical to rps19 pseudogene in C. annum and orthologues of sprA gene in another six species. Among the eighteen intron-containing genes, 3 genes have two introns and 15 genes have one intron. The longest insertion was found in accD gene in C. annuum. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated protein coding sequences gave two clades, one for Nicotiana species and another for Solanum, Capsicum, Atropa, and Datura.

  6. Ten unanswered questions in multimodal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partan, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    The study of multimodal communication has become an active and vibrant field. This special issue of Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology brings together new developments in this rapidly expanding area. In this final contribution to the special issue, I look to the future and discuss ten questions in need of further work, touching on issues ranging from theoretical modeling and the evolution of behavior to molecular mechanisms and the development of behavior. In particular, I emphasize that the use of multimodal communication allows animals to switch between sensory channels when one channel becomes too noisy, and suggest that a better understanding of this process may help us both to understand the evolution of multisensory signaling and to predict the success of species facing environmental changes that affect signaling channels, such as urbanization and climate change. An expanded section is included on the effects of climate change on animal communication across sensory channels, urging researchers to pursue this topic due to the rapidity with which the environment is currently transforming.

  7. Ten years for the public Web

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ten years ago, CERN issued a statement declaring that a little known piece of software called the World Wide Web was in the public domain. Nowadays, the Web is an indispensable part of modern communications. The idea for the Web goes back to March 1989 when CERN Computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee wrote a proposal for a 'Distributed Information Management System' for the high-energy physics community. The Web was originaly conceived and developed to meet the demand for information sharing between scientists working all over the world. There were many obstacles in the 1980s to the effective exchange of information. There was, for example a great variety of computer and network systems, with hardly any common features. The main purpose of the web was to allow scientists to access information from any source in a consistent and simple way. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee's idea had become the World Wide Web, with its first server and browser running at CERN. Through 1991, the Web spread to other particle physics ...

  8. Button Osteoma: A Review of Ten Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Soo Yuhl; Sim, Hyun Bo; Kim, Min Ji; Jang, Yong Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won; Lee, Weon Ju

    2015-08-01

    Button osteoma presents as small circumscribed ivory-like lumps on the skull vault. Although not rare, its diagnosis can be challenging for dermatologists. To clarify the clinical characteristics of button osteoma by reviewing 10 cases. Ten patients diagnosed with button osteoma at the Department of Dermatology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, between January 2011 and August 2014 were enrolled. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and analyzed demographic and clinical characteristics including sex, age, sites, number of lesions, symptoms, duration, histopathological finding, radiological findings, and treatment. All patients presented with an asymptomatic small circumscribed hard lump fixed to a bony structure. There were 9 female and 1 male patient, and the mean age was 54 years (range, 28~61 years). The most common site was the forehead, and disease duration ranged from 2 weeks to more than 20 years. The differential diagnosis included cranial exostosis, ballooned osteoma, epidermal cyst, and lipoma. Simple radiography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography (CT) were used to make a confirmative diagnosis. Histopathological findings showed lamellated bony structures with poor vascularization. Ostectomy was performed for 5 patients, and no recurrence was detected within an average of 13.4 months after treatment. This review characterized button osteoma. Surgical excision is a useful therapeutic modality after CT-based diagnosis. Further studies with more patients are required to confirm the findings.

  9. Choledochal cysts: our ten year experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cianci, F

    2012-04-01

    We present our experience in the management of choledochal cysts from 1999 to 2009. A retrospective review of all charts with a diagnosis of choledochal cysts in our institution in this ten-year period. Data was collated using Excel. A total of 17 patients were diagnosed with choledochal cyst: 9 females and 8 males. The average age at diagnosis was 28 months (range from 0 to 9 years). The most common presenting symptoms were obstructive jaundice 6 (35%) and abdominal pain and vomiting 4 (23%). Ultrasound (US) was the initial diagnostic test in all cases with 4 patients requiring further investigations. All patients underwent Roux-en-Y Hepaticojejunostomy. The average length of stay was 11 days. Patients were followed up with Liver Function Tests (LFTS) and US 4-6 weeks post-operatively. Three patients developed complications including post-op collection, high drain output requiring blood transfusion and adhesive bowel obstruction. Our overall experience with choledochal cyst patients has been a positive one with effective management and low complication rates.

  10. Ten tips for authors of scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Tae

    2014-08-01

    Writing a good quality scientific article takes experience and skill. I propose 'Ten Tips' that may help to improve the quality of manuscripts for scholarly journals. It is advisable to draft first version of manuscript and revise it repeatedly for consistency and accuracy of the writing. During the drafting and revising the following tips can be considered: 1) focus on design to have proper content, conclusion, points compliant with scope of the target journal, appropriate authors and contributors list, and relevant references from widely visible sources; 2) format the manuscript in accordance with instructions to authors of the target journal; 3) ensure consistency and logical flow of ideas and scientific facts; 4) provide scientific confidence; 5) make your story interesting for your readers; 6) write up short, simple and attractive sentences; 7) bear in mind that properly composed and reflective titles increase chances of attracting more readers; 8) do not forget that well-structured and readable abstracts improve citability of your publications; 9) when revising adhere to the rule of 'First and Last' - open your text with topic paragraph and close it with resolution paragraph; 10) use connecting words linking sentences within a paragraph by repeating relevant keywords.

  11. Beginning Course Surveys: Bridges for Knowing and Bridges for Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Starr-Glass

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of a participant survey, administered at the outset of an online course, can provide information useful in the management of the learning environment and in its subsequent redesign. Such information can clarify participants’ prior experience, expectations, and demographics. But the very act of enquiring about the learner also signals the instructor’s social presence, relational interest, and desire to enter into an authentic dialogue. This study examines the use of participant surveys in online management courses. The first section discusses the informational bridges that this instrument provides. The second section considers survey responses to open-ended questions dealing with student sentiments. This analysis suggests that the survey plays a valuable part in accentuating social presence and in initiating relational bridges with participants.

  12. 33 CFR 115.70 - Advance approval of bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advance approval of bridges. 115... BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.70 Advance approval of bridges. (a) The General Bridge Act of 1946 requires the approval of the location and plans of bridges...

  13. Role of nanocrystalline silver dressings in the management of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and TEN/Stevens-Johnson syndrome overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Saxon D; Dodds, Annabel; Dixit, Shreya; Cooper, Alan

    2015-11-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) are severe mucocutaneous eruptions. There is currently no defined optimal approach to wound care. The objective of this study was to evaluate silver dressings in the wound-care management of TEN and SJS/TEN syndrome overlap with a retrospective case review of nine patients with TEN and SJS/TEN overlap presenting to our institution. Nanocrystalline silver dressings appear to be useful in the rapid commencement of healing in these patients. TEN and SJS/TEN overlap are rare conditions. This contributed to a relatively small number of cases included in the study. The ease of application, antimicrobial properties and low frequency of change make nanocrystalline silver dressings ideal in TEN/SJS.

  14. Performance analysis of LAN bridges and routers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajare, Ankur R.

    1991-01-01

    Bridges and routers are used to interconnect Local Area Networks (LANs). The performance of these devices is important since they can become bottlenecks in large multi-segment networks. Performance metrics and test methodology for bridges and routers were not standardized. Performance data reported by vendors is not applicable to the actual scenarios encountered in an operational network. However, vendor-provided data can be used to calibrate models of bridges and routers that, along with other models, yield performance data for a network. Several tools are available for modeling bridges and routers - Network II.5 was used. The results of the analysis of some bridges and routers are presented.

  15. "Take ten minutes": a dedicated ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy in the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, E K

    2010-09-01

    Multiple and inappropriate medications are often the cause for poor health status in the elderly. Medication reviews can improve prescribing. This study aimed to determine if a ten minute medication review by a general practitioner could reduce polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients. A prospective, randomised study was conducted. Patients over the age of 65 (n = 50) underwent a 10-minute medication review. Inappropriate medications, dosage errors, and discrepancies between prescribed versus actual medication being consumed were recorded. A questionnaire to assess satisfaction was completed following review. The mean number of medications taken by patients was reduced (p < 0.001). A medication was stopped in 35 (70%) patients. Inappropriate medications were detected in 27 (54%) patients and reduced (p < 0.001). Dose errors were detected in 16 (32%). A high level of patient satisfaction was reported. A ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy, improves prescribing and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.

  16. "Take ten minutes": a dedicated ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy in the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, E K

    2012-02-01

    Multiple and inappropriate medications are often the cause for poor health status in the elderly. Medication reviews can improve prescribing. This study aimed to determine if a ten minute medication review by a general practitioner could reduce polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients. A prospective, randomised study was conducted. Patients over the age of 65 (n = 50) underwent a 10-minute medication review. Inappropriate medications, dosage errors, and discrepancies between prescribed versus actual medication being consumed were recorded. A questionnaire to assess satisfaction was completed following review. The mean number of medications taken by patients was reduced (p < 0.001). A medication was stopped in 35 (70%) patients. Inappropriate medications were detected in 27 (54%) patients and reduced (p < 0.001). Dose errors were detected in 16 (32%). A high level of patient satisfaction was reported. A ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy, improves prescribing and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.

  17. The TEN-T core network and the Fehmarnbelt region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    This note is a snapshot picture, taken in early 2014, that places the Green STRING corridor project within the context of the TEN-T strategy and gives a summarized overview on the impact of this strategy in the region. Chapter 1 contains a summary of the TEN-T strategy today, chapter 2 presents...... the sources used for this note, chapter 3 presents all the relevant EU regulations with direct impact on the development of TEN-T corridors, chapter 4 gives practical examples of the challenges for the development of TEN-T corridors, chapter 5 pre-sents the national initiatives related to the TEN-T corridor...

  18. Problems associated with nondestructive evaluation of bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prine, David W.

    1995-05-01

    The US has 542,000 bridges that consume billions of dollars per year in construction, rehabilitation, and maintenance funds and which are the lifelines of US commerce. The 1992 ISTEA (Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act) mandates the implementation of a quantitative computerized bridge management system by 1996. A prime need of such a system are quantitative bridge inspection methods to feed accurate reliable condition information to the huge database of bridges. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will fill a critical need in the implementation of effective bridge management. However, many serious barriers exist to the widespread routine application of this technology to bridges. This paper provides an overview of the typical problems associated with applying NDE to bridges.

  19. Severe ASR damaged concrete bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonio Barbosa, Ricardo; Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and University of Southern Denmark (SDU) have conducted several full-scale experiments with severe ASR deteriorated bridges. This paper presents few and preliminary results from both the shear tests and the measuring of the material properties. The shear test...... show that the shear capacity is almost unaffected of ASR despite significant reduction in compressive concrete strength. Furthermore, measurements show a significant tensile reinforcement strain developed due to ASR expansion....

  20. Inspection Strategies for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In this paper an optimal inspection strategy for concrete bridges based on periodic routine and detailed inspections is presented. The failure mode considered is corrosion of the reinforcement due to chlorides. A simple modelling of the corrosion and of the inspection strategy is presented....... The optimal inspection strategy is determined from an optimization problem, where the design variables are time intervals between detailed inspections and the concrete cover. The strategy is illustrated on a simple structure, namely a reinforced concrete beam....

  1. Inspection Strategies for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In this paper an optimal inspection strategy for concrete bridges based on periodic routine and detailed inspections is presented. The failure mode considered is corrosion of the reinforcement due to chlorides. A simple modelling of the corrosion and of the inspection strategy is presented....... The optimal inspection strategy is determined from an optimization problem, where the design variables are time intervals between detailed inspections and the concrete cover. The strategy is illustrated on a simple structure, namely a reinforced concrete beam....

  2. Parabolic metamaterials and Dirac bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, D. J.; Movchan, N. V.; Movchan, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    A new class of multi-scale structures, referred to as `parabolic metamaterials' is introduced and studied in this paper. For an elastic two-dimensional triangular lattice, we identify dynamic regimes, which corresponds to so-called `Dirac Bridges' on the dispersion surfaces. Such regimes lead to a highly localised and focussed unidirectional beam when the lattice is excited. We also show that the flexural rigidities of elastic ligaments are essential in establishing the `parabolic metamaterial' regimes.

  3. Cross-Quint-Bridge Resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaman, David J.; Lieneweg, Udo; Buehler, Martin G.; Mantalas, Linda

    1991-01-01

    Integrated-circuit conductive test pattern intended to provide data on effects of design widths and design spacings upon actual widths of conductive lines. Provides for electrical measurements both on lines of unknown width and on features having known dimensions. Data from measurements on five bridges used to determine four parameters of mathematical model describing system. In principle, pattern determines effects of width and spacing and interaction between them.

  4. Cochleates bridged by drug molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Uwais M; Woo, Amy F; Plakogiannis, Fotios; Jin, Tuo; Zhu, Hua

    2008-11-03

    A new type of cochleate, able to microencapsulate water-soluble cationic drugs or peptides into its inter-lipid bi-layer space, was formed through interaction between negatively charged lipids and drugs or peptides acting as the inter-bi-layer bridges instead of multi-cationic metal ions. This new type of cochleate opened up to form large liposomes when treated with EDTA, suggesting that cationic organic molecules can be extracted from these cochleates in a way similar to multivalent metal ions from metal ion-bridged cochleates. Cochleates can be produced in sub-micron size using a method known as "hydrogel isolated cochleation" or simply by increasing the ratio of multivalent cationic peptides over negatively charged liposomes. When nanometer-sized cochleates and liposomes containing the same fluorescent labeled lipid component were incubated with human fibroblasts cells under identical conditions, cells exposed to cochleates showed bright fluorescent cell surfaces, whereas those incubated with liposomes did not. This result suggests that cochleates' edges made them fuse with the cell surfaces as compared to edge free liposomes. This mechanism of cochleates' fusion with cell membrane was supported by a bactericidal activity assay using tobramycin cochleates, which act by inhibiting intracellular ribosomes. Tobramycin bridged cochleates in nanometer size showed improved antibacterial activity than the drug's solution.

  5. Halliburton Composite Bridge Plug Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starbuck, J.M.; Luttrell, C.R.; Aramayo, G.

    2005-01-15

    The overall objectives of this CRADA were to assist Halliburton in analyzing a composite bridge plug and to determine why their original design was failing in the field. In Phase 1, finite element analyses were done on the original composite slip design and several alternative designs. The composite slip was the component in the bridge plug that was failing. The finite element code ABAQUS was used for these calculations and I-DEAS was used as the pre- and post-processor in the analyses. Several different designs and materials were analyzed and recommendations were made towards improving the design. In Phase 2, the objective was to develop finite element models that would accurately represent the deformations in the entire all-composite 4-1/2' diameter bridge plug assembly. The finite element code LS-DYNA was used and the results from this effort were intended to expand Halliburton's composite design and analysis capabilities with regard to developing future composite components for downhole tools. In addition to the finite element modeling, this effort involved the utilization of micromechanics to determine the necessary composite material properties that were needed as input for finite element codes.

  6. Tenåringsdrikking i utviklingspsykologisk perspektiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Pape

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGHvorfor er alkohol så populært blant unge mennesker? Dette viktige spørsmålet har vært gjenstand for fåempiriske studier. Forskningsbasert kunnskap om alkoholens positive sider og forsterkende egenskaper erderfor av begrenset omfang. Derimot har tallrike undersøkelser fokusert på ulike skadevirkninger som følgeav tenåringsdrikking. Resultatene av denne forskningen har bidratt til å understreke behovet for en aktivrusforebyggende innsats. Innsikt i alkoholens opplevde goder er imidlertid nødvendig for å kunne utvikleeffektive forebyggingsstrategier. På denne bakgrunn er søkelyset i artikkelen rettet mot psykososiale funksjonerved unge menneskers drikkevaner. Spørsmål knyttet til gruppepress og modell-læring vil også bli berørt.Hensikten er å formidle sentrale funn fra nyere forskning på feltet. Oppsummeringsvis tyder resultatene på atalkohol har en særlig appell til ungdom som er veltilpassede og sosialt anlagte. Samtidig ser det ut til atdrikking kan bidra til å fremme utviklingsprosessen i ungdomstida, men at det primært handler om indirekteeffekter. Hvilke implikasjoner de ulike funnene har mht. forebygging, er skissert i avslutningsdelen.Pape H. Teenage alcohol use from the perspective of psychological development.Nor J EpidemiolEWhy is alcohol so popular among young people? So far, few studies have addressed this important question.The body of scientific research on the positive and reinforcing aspects of drinking is accordingly of limitedextent. Numerous studies have focused on the harmful effects of teenage alcohol use and the findings clearlyunderscore the importance of primary prevention. Knowledge about the perceived advantages of alcohol useis needed to develop effective preventive programs, however. On this background, the article focuses onpsychosocial functions of youthful drinking. Findings from recent research regarding the link between alcoholuse and various indicators of adolescent

  7. Salt bridges: geometrically specific, designable interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Jason E; Kulp, Daniel W; DeGrado, William F

    2011-03-01

    Salt bridges occur frequently in proteins, providing conformational specificity and contributing to molecular recognition and catalysis. We present a comprehensive analysis of these interactions in protein structures by surveying a large database of protein structures. Salt bridges between Asp or Glu and His, Arg, or Lys display extremely well-defined geometric preferences. Several previously observed preferences are confirmed, and others that were previously unrecognized are discovered. Salt bridges are explored for their preferences for different separations in sequence and in space, geometric preferences within proteins and at protein-protein interfaces, co-operativity in networked salt bridges, inclusion within metal-binding sites, preference for acidic electrons, apparent conformational side chain entropy reduction on formation, and degree of burial. Salt bridges occur far more frequently between residues at close than distant sequence separations, but, at close distances, there remain strong preferences for salt bridges at specific separations. Specific types of complex salt bridges, involving three or more members, are also discovered. As we observe a strong relationship between the propensity to form a salt bridge and the placement of salt-bridging residues in protein sequences, we discuss the role that salt bridges might play in kinetically influencing protein folding and thermodynamically stabilizing the native conformation. We also develop a quantitative method to select appropriate crystal structure resolution and B-factor cutoffs. Detailed knowledge of these geometric and sequence dependences should aid de novo design and prediction algorithms.

  8. Simultaneous determination of ten compounds in two main ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research June 2017; 16 (6): 1407-1416 ..... Kajia bridge, Luhuo,. Sichuan. 5.17. 1.73. 1.01. 2.94 .... Construction Plan of Scientific Research. Innovation ... New Iridoid Glucoside from Pterocephalus hookeri.

  9. Decadal- to biennial scale variability of planktic foraminifera in the northeastern Arabian Sea during the last two millennia: evidence for winter monsoon forcing mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, Philipp; Lückge, Andreas; Siccha, Michael; Kucera, Michal; Schulz, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    The Asian monsoon system is controlling the hydrologic cycle, and thus the agricultural and economic prosperity of the worlds most densely populated region. Strong and moisture-laden winds from the southwest induce upwelling and significant productivity in the western Arabian Sea during boreal summer. During boreal winter, weaker dry and cold surface winds from the northeast nourish ocean productivity mainly in the northeastern Arabian Sea. Instrumental records spanning the last century are too short to understand how the monsoon system reacts to external forcing mechanisms and to accurately determine its natural variability. Compared to the summer monsoon component, the dynamics of the winter monsoon are virtually unknown, due to the lack of adequate archives that are affected only by winter conditions. Here we present a decadal- to biennial-scale resolution record of past winter monsoon variability over the last two millennia, based on census counts of planktic foraminifera from two laminated sediment cores collected offshore Pakistan. One shorter box core (SO90-39KG) spans the last 250 years with an average ~2-year resolution, whereas the longer piston core (SO130-275KL) spans the last 2,100 years with a 10-year resolution. We use Globigerina falconensis as a faunal indicator for winter conditions, a species that is most abundant during winter in the NE Arabian Sea (Peeters and Brummer, 2002; Schulz et al., 2002). Our results show that during the past 2,100 years G. falconensis varied with significant periodicities centered on ˜ 60, ˜ 53, ˜ 40, ˜ 34 and ˜ 29 years per cycle. Some of these periods closely match cycles that are known from proxy records of solar irradiance, suggesting a solar forcing on winter monsoon variability. During the past 250 years G. falconensis varied in correlation with the (11-year) Schwabe and the (22-year) Hale solar cycles. Furthermore, a significant ˜ 7 year cyclicity could indicate a teleconnection to the El Niño Southern

  10. Multi-millennia simulation of Greenland deglaciation from the Max-Plank-Institute Model (MPI-ISM) 2xCO2 simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabot, Vincent; Vizcaino, Miren; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Long-term ice sheet and climate coupled simulations are of great interest since they assess how the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) will respond to global warming and how GrIS changes will impact on the climate system. We have run the Max-Plank-Institute Earth System Model coupled with an Ice Sheet Model (SICOPOLIS) over a time period of 10500 years under two times CO2 forcing. This is a coupled atmosphere (ECHAM5T31), ocean (MPI-OM), dynamic vegetation (LPJ), and ice sheet (SICOPOLIS, 10 km horizontal resolution) model. Given the multi-millennia simulation, the horizontal spatial resolution of the atmospheric component is relatively coarse (3.75°). A time-saving technique (asynchronous coupling) is used once the global climate reaches quasi-equilibrium. In our doubling-CO2 simulation, the GrIS is expected to break up into two pieces (one ice cap in the far north on one ice sheet in the south and east) after 3000 years. During the first 500 simulation years, the GrIS climate and surface mass balance (SMB) are mainly affected by the greenhouse effect-forced climate change. After the simulated year 500, the global climate reaches quasi-equilibrium. Henceforth Greenland climate change is mainly due to ice sheet decay. GrIS albedo reduction enhances melt and acts as a powerful feedback for deglaciation. Due to increased cloudiness in the Arctic region as a result of global climate change, summer incoming shortwave radiation is substantially reduced over Greenland, reducing deglaciation rates. At the end of the simulation, Greenland becomes green with forest growing over the newly deglaciated regions. References: Helsen, M. M., van de Berg, W. J., van de Wal, R. S. W., van den Broeke, M. R., and Oerlemans, J. (2013), Coupled regional climate-ice-sheet simulation shows limited Greenland ice loss during the Eemian, Climate of the Past, 9, 1773-1788, doi: 10.5194/cp-9-1773-2013 Helsen, M. M., van de Wal, R. S. W., van den Broeke, M. R., van de Berg, W. J., and Oerlemans, J

  11. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) in dentistry- A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasat, Vikrant; Gupta, Aditi; Ladda, Ruchi; Kathariya, Mitesh; Saluja, Harish; Farooqui, Anjum-Ara

    2014-12-01

    Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological method which is widely used by medical and paramedical professionals for the management of acute and chronic pain in a variety of conditions. Similarly, it can be utilized for the management of pain during various dental procedures as well as pain due to various conditions affecting maxillofacial region. This review aims to provide an insight into clinical research evidence available for the analgesic and non analgesic uses of TENS in pediatric as well as adult patients related to the field of dentistry. Also, an attempt is made to briefly discuss history of therapeutic electricity, mechanism of action of TENS, components of TENs equipment, types, techniques of administration, advantages and contradictions of TENS. With this we hope to raise awareness among dental fraternity regarding its dental applications thereby increasing its use in dentistry. Key words:Dentistry, pain, TENS.

  12. Evaluation method research on prestressed concrete bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qiao; LIN Yang-zi; REN Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Considering the construction features of prestressed concrete bridge, the comprehensive evaluation method about the bridge damage conditions are studied. Particular attentions are paid on establishing a multi-level evaluation model for damaged prestressed concrete bridge, and the evaluation indices of the model as well as the rating standards are defined in the model. A normal relative function about the evaluation indices of each element is developed to calculate the relative degree, and for each element which is no sub-level elements. When evaluating the elements in sub-item level or index level of the model, the weights of elements that are pertained to one element are adopted, taking account of their deterioration degree. At the same time, the dam-age conditions of bridge are characterized by relative degree, element evaluation scale and structural technology mark of bridge ,so it agrees with Code for Maintenance of Highway Bridges and Culvers.

  13. Study on structural system of Sutong Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xigang; Pei Minshan; Yuan Hong; Xu Liping; Zhu Bin

    2009-01-01

    Sutong Bridge, whose layout is [ (100 + 100 + 300) + 1 088 + ( 300 + 100 + 100) ] m, marks the largest span of cable-stayed bridges in the world. The complex natural condition at the bridge site and the strict requirements for resistance of wind and seismic action make it crucial to choose a favorable structural system to assure the function and safety of the bridge. The comparison among several optional structural systems for Sutong Bridge is illustrated. After detailed analysis is carried out for viscous damper and hydraulic buffer, super liquid viscous damper with additional displacement limitation is designed for the first application in bridge engineering. The parameters for the damper is analyzed and studied and the dampers are installed suecessfuUy after quality tests.

  14. The origin of the future ten questions for the next ten years

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2006-01-01

    How did the universe begin? Where do galaxies come from? How do stars and planets form? Where do the material particles we are made of come from? How did life begin? Today we have only provisional answers to such questions. But scientific progress will improve these answers dramatically over the next ten years, predicts John Gribbin in this riveting book. He focuses on what we know—or think we know—about ten controversial, unanswered issues in the physical sciences and explains how current cutting-edge research may yield solutions in the very near future. With his trademark facility for engaging readers with or without a scientific background, the author explores ideas concerning the creation of the universe, the possibility of other forms of life, and the fate of the expanding cosmos. He examines “theories of everything,” including grand unified theories and string theory, and he discusses the Big Bang theory, the origin of structure and patterns of matter in the galaxies, and dark mass and dark ene...

  15. Thermal bridges - calculations, thermal bridge values and impact on energy consumption; Kuldebroer - Beregning, kuldebroverdier og innvirkning paa energibruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Thue, Jan Vincent; Blom, Peter; Dalehaug, Arvid; Aurlien, Tormod; Grynning, Steinar; Uvsloekk, Sivert

    2008-07-01

    This report presents the following: Definition of thermal bridge; Possible consequences of thermal bridges; Methods to decide thermal bridge value, inclusive by numerical calculation; Thermal bridge values for different constructions; A proposal for dynamic Thermal bridge atlas. The project report shows thermal bridge values for different constructions such as window insertion, transition between wall/ceiling, wall/floor, corners and ridge. Thermal bridge values for different kind of floor such as concrete, LECA and hollow core. (AG). refs., figs., tabs

  16. Myocardial bridging as a cause of acute myocardial infarction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiroglu Yunus

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systolic compression of a coronary artery by overlying myocardial tissue is termed myocardial bridging. Myocardial bridging usually has a benign prognosis, but some cases resulting in myocardial ischemia, infarction and sudden cardiac death have been reported. We are reporting a case of myocardial bridging which was complicated with acute myocardial infarction associated with inappropriate blood donation. Case presentation A 33 year-old-man was admitted to our emergency with acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction after a blood donation. The electrocardiography showed sinus rhythm and was consistent with an acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction. We decided to perform primary percutanous intervention (PCI. Myocardial bridging was observed in the mid segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery on coronary angiogram. PCI was canceled and medical follow up was decided. Blood transfusion was made because he had a deep anemia. A normal hemaglobin level and clinical reperfusion was achieved after ten hours by blood transfusion. At the one year follow up visit, our patient was healthy and had no cardiac complaints. Conclusions Myocardial bridging may cause acute myocardial infarction in various clinical conditions. Although the condition in this case caused profound anemia related acute myocardial infarction, its treatment and management was unusual.

  17. Endodontics pastes formulated with copaiba oil: action on oral microbiota and dentin bridge formation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gosuen Gonçalves Dias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the effect of pastes formulated with calcium hydroxide P.A. and different vehicles (saline solution - paste A and Copaifera langsdorffii Desfon oil - paste B on oral microorganisms and dentin bridge formation in dogs. The antimicrobial action of the pastes and their components was analysed by the minimum inhibitory concentration in agar gel technique. The components were diluted and tested on fifteen standard strains of microorganisms associated with endodontic diseases. The microorganisms were cultivated and after incubation data was analysed using One-Way ANOVA and Turkey's test (P≤0.05. Four superior incisors of ten animals were used to evaluate dentin bridge formation. Two incisors were capped with paste A (GA and two with paste B (GB. After 90 days, the teeth were extracted for histological analysis and the degree of dentin bridge formation evaluated. Data was analysed by the Kruskal-Wallis test (P<0.05. The pastes and their components were classified in the following decreasing order of antimicrobial action: calcium hydroxide P.A., paste A, paste B and Copaifera langsdorffii Desfon oil. Calcium hydroxide P.A. showed significantly higher antimicrobial action than the pastes or their vehicles. No significant difference was observed between the two pastes in dentin bridge formation. Based on the microorganisms studied, it can be concluded that the pastes analysed showed similar antimicrobial potential but differed significantly from their individual components. No significant difference was observed in dentin bridge formation between the different pastes tested.

  18. Mathematical Modelling of Bridges with SAP2000

    OpenAIRE

    Maraž, Miha

    2006-01-01

    The present work describes a relatively new programme module, which is enhanced in the recently released versions of SAP2000 software. The new module, called Bridge Modeler, is intended for simple, parametric mathematical modelling of bridges. The modelling procedure is explained on a test case through the steps of a user-friendly Bridge Wizard. For each step, we described the basic principles and the application possibilities as well as some limitations. We also explained two types of analys...

  19. Bridge Engineering-Oriented Parametric Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凌远; 李乔

    2004-01-01

    A new model is proposed to improve the efficiency of structural modeling. In this model, the bridge structural components are expressed with component description, parametric description and geometric description in a software system. This model provides both convenience and flexibility for users in structural modeling process. The object-oriented method is applied in the model implementation. A bridge analysis preprocessor is developed on the basis of this model. It provides an effective way for bridge modeling.

  20. Industrial steel hall with bridge grane

    OpenAIRE

    Jurejevčič, Nejc

    2016-01-01

    In introduction this diploma thesis describes all main characteristics of (single block)? industrial steel hall with bridge crane. Load arrangement on the supporting structure which covers general actions (snow load and wind action), self-weight and dynamic load of bridge crane was designed with moment resisting frame in transverse direction and frame with concentric diagonal bracing in longitudinual direction. Actions induced by crane bridge was considered in design of runway beam. Steel hal...

  1. Bridge engineering handbook construction and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Fah

    2014-01-01

    Over 140 experts, 14 countries, and 89 chapters are represented in the second edition of the Bridge Engineering Handbook. This extensive collection highlights bridge engineering specimens from around the world, contains detailed information on bridge engineering, and thoroughly explains the concepts and practical applications surrounding the subject.Published in five books: Fundamentals, Superstructure Design, Substructure Design, Seismic Design, and Construction and Maintenance, this new edition provides numerous worked-out examples that give readers step-by-step design procedures, includes c

  2. Dynamics and Statics of Nonaxisymmetric Liquid Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Resnick, Andrew H.; Slobozhanin, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigation of the stability of nonaxisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric bridges contained between equal and unequal radii disks as a function of Bond and Weber number with emphasis on the transition from unstable axisymmetric to stable nonaxisymmetric shapes, are conducted. Numerical analysis of the stability of nonaxisymmetric bridges between unequal disks for various orientations of the gravity vector is performed. Experimental and theoretical investigation of large (nonaxisymmetric) oscillations and breaking of liquid bridges are also conducted.

  3. Analysis of liquid bridge between spherical particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A pair of central moving spherical particles connected by a pendular liquid bridge with interstitial Newtonian fluid is often encountered in pariculate coalescence process. In this paper, by assuming perfect-wet condition, the effects of liquid volume and separation distance on static liquid bridge are analyzed, and the relation between rupture energy and liquid bridge volume is also studied. These points would be of significance in industrial processes related to adhesive particles.

  4. Nanoclusters a bridge across disciplines

    CERN Document Server

    Jena, Purusottam

    2010-01-01

    This comprehensive book on Nanoclusters comprises sixteen authoritative chapters written by leading researchers in the field. It provides insight into topics that are currently at the cutting edge of cluster science, with the main focus on metal and metal compound systems that are of particular interest in materials science, and also on aspects related to biology and medicine. While there are numerous books on clusters, the focus on clusters as a bridge across disciplines sets this book apart from others. Delivers cutting edge coverage of cluster science Covers a broad range of topics in

  5. Buddha and the bridging relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rahul

    2008-01-01

    The chapter reviews a classical Indian model of consciousness found in the Abhidhamma, a collection of seven treatises in the Pali Canon Tipitaka. The model was based on observations made during advanced vipassana practice, a first-person method taught by the Buddha. The climax of the model consists in the elucidation of 24 'Bridging Relations' causally linking the stream of consciousness, its contents and associated physical events. Review of such a model based on a specialized first-person technique could prove to be a resource of useful ideas providing directions for further research.

  6. Family Medicine: Bridge to Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting on the suicide of a close friend, this essay explores what comprises, and inspires a will to live, and how those in Family Medicine can address suicide risk even in the face of debilitating or terminal illness. Research indicates that the will to live is a measurable indicator of general well-being, distinct from depression, and an important predictor of a person's motivation to "hold on to life". As such, understanding what is at the heart of a desire to live should alter clinical practice. This essay offers ideas for ways in which to create bridges for patients that could help sustain life.

  7. A bridge to advanced mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sentilles, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This helpful workbook-style ""bridge"" book introduces students to the foundations of advanced mathematics, spanning the gap between a practically oriented calculus sequence and subsequent courses in algebra and analysis with a more theoretical slant. Part 1 focuses on logic and number systems, providing the most basic tools, examples, and motivation for the manner, method, and concerns of higher mathematics. Part 2 covers sets, relations, functions, infinite sets, and mathematical proofs and reasoning. Author Dennis Sentilles also discusses the history and development of mathematics as well a

  8. Review of Energy Harvesters Utilizing Bridge Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ullah Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For health monitoring of bridges, wireless acceleration sensor nodes (WASNs are normally used. In bridge environment, several forms of energy are available for operating WASNs that include wind, solar, acoustic, and vibration energy. However, only bridge vibration has the tendency to be utilized for embedded WASNs application in bridge structures. This paper reports on the recent advancements in the area of vibration energy harvesters (VEHs utilizing bridge oscillations. The bridge vibration is narrowband (1 to 40 Hz with low acceleration levels (0.01 to 3.8 g. For utilization of bridge vibration, electromagnetic based vibration energy harvesters (EM-VEHs and piezoelectric based vibration energy harvesters (PE-VEHs have been developed. The power generation of the reported EM-VEHs is in the range from 0.7 to 1450000 μW. However, the power production by the developed PE-VEHs ranges from 0.6 to 7700 μW. The overall size of most of the bridge VEHs is quite comparable and is in mesoscale. The resonant frequencies of EM-VEHs are on the lower side (0.13 to 27 Hz in comparison to PE-VEHs (1 to 120 Hz. The power densities reported for these bridge VEHs range from 0.01 to 9539.5 μW/cm3 and are quite enough to operate most of the commercial WASNs.

  9. CONDITION RATING SYSTEM FOR THAILAND'S CONCRETE BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventure H.W. Hadikusumo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bridge Management System is designed to maximise use of available data and determine the optimal strategy to perform necessary improvements to bridges in the most cost-effective manner. This paper provides a condition rating system to meet the requirements of Thailand’s Department of Highways (DOH. A rating system to assess the existing condition of bridges is proposed. Segmental inspection is developed to execute efficient element-level evaluations and collect data that demonstrate deterioration patterns in bridge elements. The paper also describes inspection procedures for field survey execution, which enables observed distresses at the level of sub-elements or members to be allocated. Recommendations from bridge experts reveal that the proposed rating system is robust, implementable in actual practice, and suitable for efficient application in evaluating the nation’s concrete highway bridges. Although the bridge condition rating was developed in response to the specific characteristics of Thailand’s bridges, the proposed methodology can easily be extended to other bridge agencies.

  10. Assessment of the Reliability of Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middleton, C. R.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    a significant shift in emphasis for the highways authorities around the world away from the design of new structures over to maintaining the existing infrastructure. As a result, bridge owners are seeking improved ways of inspecting, assessing, maintaining and repairing their existing stock of bridges...... in the wake of ever increasing traffic loads and volumes, and an ageing population of bridges subject to various mechanisms of deterioration. The goal is to optimise the allocation of limited resources whilst maintaining their bridges in a safe and serviceable condition. Reliability analysis is one tool being...

  11. A data management infrastructure for bridge monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seongwoon; Byun, Jaewook; Kim, Daeyoung; Sohn, Hoon; Bae, In Hwan; Law, Kincho H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses a data management infrastructure framework for bridge monitoring applications. As sensor technologies mature and become economically affordable, their deployment for bridge monitoring will continue to grow. Data management becomes a critical issue not only for storing the sensor data but also for integrating with the bridge model to support other functions, such as management, maintenance and inspection. The focus of this study is on the effective data management of bridge information and sensor data, which is crucial to structural health monitoring and life cycle management of bridge structures. We review the state-of-the-art of bridge information modeling and sensor data management, and propose a data management framework for bridge monitoring based on NoSQL database technologies that have been shown useful in handling high volume, time-series data and to flexibly deal with unstructured data schema. Specifically, Apache Cassandra and Mongo DB are deployed for the prototype implementation of the framework. This paper describes the database design for an XML-based Bridge Information Modeling (BrIM) schema, and the representation of sensor data using Sensor Model Language (SensorML). The proposed prototype data management framework is validated using data collected from the Yeongjong Bridge in Incheon, Korea.

  12. 23 CFR 650.409 - Evaluation of bridge inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of bridge inventory. 650.409 Section 650.409... Evaluation of bridge inventory. (a) Sufficiency rating of bridges. Upon receipt and evaluation of the bridge inventory, a sufficiency rating will be assigned to each bridge by the Secretary in accordance with...

  13. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  14. 23 CFR 650.807 - Bridges requiring a USCG permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bridges requiring a USCG permit. 650.807 Section 650.807... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.807 Bridges requiring a USCG... improvement or construction of a bridge over navigable waters except for the exemption exercised by FHWA...

  15. 33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65 Section 118.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a...

  16. 33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70 Section 118.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges....

  17. Finite element of multilayer surfacing systems on orthotropic steel bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Liu, X.; Scarpas, A.; Tzimiris, G.

    2013-01-01

    Light weight orthotropic steel bridge decks have been widely utilized for bridges in seismic zones, movable bridges and long span bridges. In the last three decades, severe problems were reported in relation to asphaltic surfacing materials on orthotropic steel deck bridges. Earlier investigations h

  18. Light-weight aluminium bridges and bridge decks. An overview of recent applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Kluyver, D. de

    2008-01-01

    The last decades have shown a large increase in the application of aluminium alloys for light-weight bridges. For bridge construction, aluminium alloys have some specific advantages, but also some points of attention. This paper deals with some recent projects of aluminium bridges, and for these pro

  19. Light-weight aluminium bridges and bridge decks. An overview of recent applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Kluyver, D. de

    2008-01-01

    The last decades have shown a large increase in the application of aluminium alloys for light-weight bridges. For bridge construction, aluminium alloys have some specific advantages, but also some points of attention. This paper deals with some recent projects of aluminium bridges, and for these

  20. Bridge Workshop : Enhancing Bridge Performance, February 21-22, 2008, Reston, Virginia : workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas Alampalli; Sheila Rimal Duwadi; Reagan Sentelle Herman; Danielle D. Kleinhans; Khaled Mahmoud; James C. Ray; James P. Wacker; Nur Yazdani

    2008-01-01

    The participants to the workshop were given the charge to discuss (1) bridge design issues including best practices in design and detailing that could be used to improve durability, extend service life and prevent premature deterioration, (2) performance measures needed to better determine bridge condition, (3) technologies that could be used to monitor bridge life and...

  1. Bridging history and social psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Yamamoto, Koji

    2012-01-01

    This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social psycholog......This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social...... psychologists can benefit from engaging with historical sources by being able to contextualise their findings and enrich their theoretical models. It is not only that all social and psychological phenomena have a history but this history is very much part of present-day and future developments. On the other...... hand historians can enhance their analysis of historical sources by drawing upon the conceptual tools developed in social psychology. They can “test” these tools and contribute to their validation and enrichment from completely different perspectives. Most important, as contributions to this special...

  2. Global monitoring concept for bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeister, Konrad; Santa, Ulrich

    2000-06-01

    Knowledge of the integrity of in-service structures on a continuous time basis is an ultimate objective for owners and maintenance authorities. The development of a life extension and/or replacement strategy for highway structures is a crucial point in an effective bridge management system. A key component of such a bridge management system is a means of surveillance techniques and determining the condition of an existing structure within the normative and budgetary constraints. Recent advances in sensing technologies and material/structure damage characterization combined with current developments in computations and communications have resulted in a significant interest in developing diagnostic technologies for monitoring the integrity of and for the detection of damages of structures. To identify anomalies and deterioration processes, it is essential to understand the relationships between the signal measurements and the real occurred phenomena. Therefore, the comparison of measured and calculated data in order to tune and validate the mechanical and numerical model assumptions is an integral part of any system analysis. Finally, the interpreted results of all measurements should be the basis for the condition assessment and the safety evaluation of a structure to facilitate replacement and repair decisions.

  3. The Bridge of Mandolin County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Juliette M.; Feindt, Jenny E.; Lewellyn, Eric P. B.; Walczak, Mary M.

    1999-12-01

    The Bridge of Mandolin County is a case designed to teach the general chemistry principles of molar mass, ions and aqueous reactions, solubility rules, and inorganic nomenclature. Through the instructor-facilitated class discussion, students consider the options before the Mandolin Town Council regarding deicing the newly constructed bridge connecting Mandolin with a large nearby city. The students must decipher contradictory claims made on behalf of sodium chloride, the traditional deicer, and calcium magnesium acetate, a new environmentally friendly deicer, to arrive at the most cost-effective and environmentally appropriate deicing product. As they work through the analysis they raise questions that can be addressed in a laboratory setting. Four optional role-playing experiments are included, which can be used by the students to gather information helpful to resolution of the case. The case is intended to be used over two class periods, with a laboratory period in between, though suggestions for other models are provided. Laboratory procedures include an EDTA titration for Ca2+ and Mg2+, a gravimetric analysis, a qualitative examination of ions and solubility, an introduction to freezing point depression and measurement, and an experimental design activity. This case can also successfully be used without alteration in non-majors chemistry or environmental chemistry courses, or upper-level analytical or environmental chemistry courses.

  4. Salt-bridge energetics in halophilic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Nayek

    Full Text Available Halophilic proteins have greater abundance of acidic over basic and very low bulky hydrophobic residues. Classical electrostatic stabilization was suggested as the key determinant for halophilic adaptation of protein. However, contribution of specific electrostatic interactions (i.e. salt-bridges to overall stability of halophilic proteins is yet to be understood. To understand this, we use Adaptive-Poison-Boltzmann-Solver Methods along with our home-built automation to workout net as well as associated component energy terms such as desolvation energy, bridge energy and background energy for 275 salt-bridges from 20 extremely halophilic proteins. We then perform extensive statistical analysis on general and energetic attributes on these salt-bridges. On average, 8 salt-bridges per 150 residues protein were observed which is almost twice than earlier report. Overall contributions of salt-bridges are -3.0 kcal mol-1. Majority (78% of salt-bridges in our dataset are stable and conserved in nature. Although, average contributions of component energy terms are equal, their individual details vary greatly from one another indicating their sensitivity to local micro-environment. Notably, 35% of salt-bridges in our database are buried and stable. Greater desolvation penalty of these buried salt-bridges are counteracted by stable network salt-bridges apart from favorable equal contributions of bridge and background terms. Recruitment of extensive network salt-bridges (46% with a net contribution of -5.0 kcal mol-1 per salt-bridge, seems to be a halophilic design wherein favorable average contribution of background term (-10 kcal mol-1 exceeds than that of bridge term (-7 kcal mol-1. Interiors of proteins from halophiles are seen to possess relatively higher abundance of charge and polar side chains than that of mesophiles which seems to be satisfied by cooperative network salt-bridges. Overall, our theoretical analyses provide insight into halophilic

  5. Ten Things Every Professor Should Know about Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kenneth; Dunlap, Joanna; Stevens, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This article describes ten key assessment practices for advancing student learning that all professors should be familiar with and strategically incorporate in their classrooms and programs. Each practice or concept is explained with examples and guidance for putting it into practice. The ten are: learning outcomes, performance assessments,…

  6. TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE-STIMULATION (TENS) IN RAYNAUDS-PHENOMENON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, P; DOMPELING, EC; VANSLOCHTERENVANDERBOOR, JC; KUIPERS, WD; SMIT, AJ

    1991-01-01

    Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been described as resulting in vasodilatation. The effect of 2 Hz TENS of the right hand during forty-five minutes on skin temperature and plethysmography of the third digit of both hands and feet and on transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcpO2) of the right h

  7. Higher Education's Top-Ten Strategic Technologies for 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajek, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The annual "EDUCAUSE" top-ten IT issues in higher education receives a great deal of interest and attention. IT and higher education leaders use it to calibrate their IT-related activities and inform their strategic planning. This year "EDUCAUSE" is introducing a complementary list: the top-ten strategic technologies in higher…

  8. Benchmark Dose Software Development and Maintenance Ten Berge Cxt Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is intended to provide an overview of beta version 1.0 of the implementation of a concentration-time (CxT) model originally programmed and provided by Wil ten Berge (referred to hereafter as the ten Berge model). The recoding and development described here represent ...

  9. Using TENS for pain control: the state of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Carol G T; Dailey, Dana L; Rakel, Barbara A; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2014-05-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a nonpharmacological intervention that activates a complex neuronal network to reduce pain by activating descending inhibitory systems in the central nervous system to reduce hyperalgesia. The evidence for TENS efficacy is conflicting and requires not only description but also critique. Population-specific systemic reviews and meta-analyses are emerging, indicating both HF and LF TENS being shown to provide analgesia, specifically when applied at a strong, nonpainful intensity. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the latest basic science and clinical evidence for TENS. Additional research is necessary to determine if TENS has effects specific to mechanical stimuli and/or beyond reduction of pain and will improve activity levels, function and quality of life.

  10. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for fibromyalgia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I; Claydon, Leica S; Herbison, G Peter; Jones, Gareth; Paley, Carole A

    2017-10-09

    Fibromyalgia is characterised by persistent, widespread pain; sleep problems; and fatigue. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is the delivery of pulsed electrical currents across the intact surface of the skin to stimulate peripheral nerves and is used extensively to manage painful conditions. TENS is inexpensive, safe, and can be self-administered. TENS reduces pain during movement in some people so it may be a useful adjunct to assist participation in exercise and activities of daily living. To date, there has been only one systematic review in 2012 which included TENS, amongst other treatments, for fibromyalgia, and the authors concluded that TENS was not effective. To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse events of TENS alone or added to usual care (including exercise) compared with placebo (sham) TENS; no treatment; exercise alone; or other treatment including medication, electroacupuncture, warmth therapy, or hydrotherapy for fibromyalgia in adults. We searched the following electronic databases up to 18 January 2017: CENTRAL (CRSO); MEDLINE (Ovid); Embase (Ovid); CINAHL (EBSCO); PsycINFO (Ovid); LILACS; PEDRO; Web of Science (ISI); AMED (Ovid); and SPORTDiscus (EBSCO). We also searched three trial registries. There were no language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-randomised trials of TENS treatment for pain associated with fibromyalgia in adults. We included cross-over and parallel-group trial designs. We included studies that evaluated TENS administered using non-invasive techniques at intensities that produced perceptible TENS sensations during stimulation at either the site of pain or over nerve bundles proximal (or near) to the site of pain. We included TENS administered as a sole treatment or TENS in combination with other treatments, and TENS given as a single treatment or as a course of treatments. Two review authors independently determined study eligibility by assessing each record and

  11. A Statistical Observation of Crowns and Bridges in 1988 Part 2 : Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 賢一; 小坂, 茂; 柳田, 史城; 稲生, 衡樹; 大島, 俊明; 高橋, 喜博; 岩井, 啓三; 甘利, 光治; 中根, 卓

    1991-01-01

    A study was made of 207 bridges which had been fabricated for patients at the Prosthodontic Clinic of Matsumoto Dental College during 1988. Some of results were as follows; 1) 47.3% of the patients were males and 52.7% were females. 2) 92.8% of the patients were between 20 and 69 years old. 3) 65.2%of the bridges were fabricated as 3-unit bridges. 4) 77.8% were fabricated as 1-pontic bridges. 5) There were fewer bridge retainers for the lower anterior segment than for other segments. 6) 52.3%...

  12. Lifetime Reliability Assessment of Concrete Slab Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    A procedure for lifetime assesment of the reliability of short concrete slab bridges is presented in the paper. Corrosion of the reinforcement is the deterioration mechanism used for estimating the reliability profiles for such bridges. The importance of using sensitivity measures is stressed. Fi...

  13. Re-Assessment of Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper two aspects of re-assessment of the reliability of concrete bridges are discussed namely modelling of the corrosion of reinforcement and updating of uncertain variables. The main reason for deterioration of concrete bridges is corrosion of the reinforcement. Therefore, modelling...

  14. The I-35W bridge Project Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    How can websites be used to rebuild trust?  In August 2007, the Interstate Highway 35-W bridge in Minneapolis, MN collapsed during rush hour.  Although many people were rescued and casualties were as limited as could be expected due to quick and effective intervention, the image of a major bridge...

  15. Active aerodynamic stabilisation of long suspension bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Henrik Ditlev; Sørensen, Paul Haase; Jannerup, Ole Erik

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the addition of actively controlled appendages (flaps) attached along the length of the bridge deck to dampen wind-induced oscillations in long suppension bridges. A novel approach using control systems methods for the analysis of dynamic stability is presented. In order to ma...

  16. Methods and tools for diagnosing bridge structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С.Ф. Філоненко

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available  In the paper is reviewed the methods and means, which used at technical diagnostic of bridge designs. The general approaches to technical diagnostic, the main methods, primary converters and hardwares, which used on static and dynamic tests of bridge designs are reviewed.

  17. General framework for bridge life cycle design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhai MA; Airong CHEN; Jun HE

    2009-01-01

    Based on a detailed illustration for bridge life cycle design which comprises the processes of service life design, aesthetics design, performance design, environ-mental and ecological design, inspection, maintenance and repair design as well as cost analysis, this paper presented a general framework for bridge life cycle design comprising three design phases and six design processes.

  18. COUPLING VIBRATION OF VEHICLE-BRIDGE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炎; 黄小清; 马友发

    2004-01-01

    By applying the sinusoidal wave mode to simulate the rugged surface of bridge deck,accounting for vehicle-bridge interaction and using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, a coupling vibration model of vehicle-bridge system was developed. The model was solved by mode analyzing method and Runge-Kutta method, and the dynamic response and the resonance curve of the bridge were obtained. It is found that there are two resonance regions, one represents the main resonance while the other the minor resonance, in the resonance curve. The influence due to the rugged surface, the vibration mode of bridge, and the interaction between vehicle and bridge on vibration of the system were discussed. Numerical results show that the influence due to these parameters is so significant that the effect of roughness of the bridge deck and the mode shape of the bridge can't be ignored and the vehicle velocity should be kept away from the critical speed of the vehicle.

  19. Bridges and the City: An Interdisciplinary Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Judith Y.; Goodman, Cecelia; Ridley, Theodora; Singer, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary project to help elementary school children discover the relationship among technology, history, and geography that involved the building of a model Brooklyn Bridge and considering the history and role of the real bridge. Suggestions for similar projects for other cities are appended. (JPB)

  20. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  1. Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, A.D.; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Skieller, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can...... Hall effect bridge sensors....

  2. Active aerodynamic stabilisation of long suspension bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Henrik Ditlev; Sørensen, Paul Haase; Jannerup, Ole Erik

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the addition of actively controlled appendages (flaps) attached along the length of the bridge deck to dampen wind-induced oscillations in long suppension bridges. A novel approach using control systems methods for the analysis of dynamic stability is presented. In order to ma...

  3. History of cable-stayed bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    The principle of supporting a bridge deck by inclined tension members leading to towers on either side of the span has been known for centuries. However, the real development of cable-stayed bridges did not begin before the 1950s. Since then the free span has been increased from 183 m in the Strö...

  4. Disturbance indicator benchmark for urban bridge construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J.; Vogel, R.; Thodesen, C.

    2013-01-01

    European bridges are today in a state of particular concern with over 50% of European urban bridges being more than 40 years old and thus requiring considerable maintenance or possibly even replacement [1]. This means that interventions in the present infrastructure have to be made while ensuring

  5. Passing the Einstein-Rosen bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Katanaev, M O

    2013-01-01

    We relax the requirement of geodesic completeness of a space-time. Instead, we require test particles trajectories to be smooth only in the physical sector. Test particles trajectories for Einstein--Rosen bridge are proved to be smooth in the physical sector, and particles can freely penetrate the bridge in both directions.

  6. Precast Pearl-Chain concrete arch bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    A Pearl-Chain Bridge is a closed-spandrel arch bridge consisting of a number of straight pre-fabricated so called Super-Light Deck elements put together in an arch shape by post-tensioning cables. Several Pearl-Chain arches can be positioned adjacent to each other by a crane to achieve a bridge...... the technology was used. We also study other important components and details in the Pearl-Chain Bridge concept and review the effects of different types of loads. A theoretical case study of a circular 30 m span Pearl-Chain Bridge is presented showing the influence of a number of parameters: The number of post-tensioning......, and gives a large positive bending moment below the load and a smaller negative bending moment in the unloaded side. When the Pearl-Chain Bridge concept is compared to other pre-fabricated arch bridge solutions we find a number of advantages when using Pearl-Chain Bridges: Straight elements, combination...

  7. Applications of Non-destructive methods (GPR and 3D Laser Scanner) in Historic Masonry Arch Bridge Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Amir; Banks, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    There exist approximately 70,000 masonry arch bridge spans (brick and stone) in the UK with tens of thousands more throughout Europe. A significant number of these bridges are still in operation and form part of the road and rail network systems in many countries. A great majority of these bridges are in desperate need of repair and maintenance. Applications of non-destructive testing methods such as ground penetrating radar (GPR), 3D laser scanning, accelerometer sensors and vibration detecting sensors amongst many others have been used to assess and monitor such structures in the past few years. This presentation provides results of the applications of a 2GHz GPR antenna system and a 3D laser scanner on a historic masonry arch bridge (the Old Bridge, Aylesford) located in Kent, in the south east of England. The older part of the bridge (the mid-span) is 860 years old. The bridge was the subject of a major alteration in 1811. This presentation forms part of a larger ongoing study which is using the two above mentioned non-destructive methods for long-term monitoring of the bridge. The adopted survey planning strategy and technique, data acquisition and processing as well as challenges encountered during actual survey and fieldworks have been discussed in this presentation. As a result of this study the position of different layers of the deck structure has been established with the identification of the original stone base of the bridge. This information in addition to the location of a number of structural ties (anchors - remedial work carried out previously) in the absence of reliable and accurate design details proved to be extremely useful for the modelling of the bridge using the finite element method. Results of the 3D laser scanning of the bridge have also been presented which have provided invaluable data essential for the accurate modelling of the bridge as well as the long term monitoring of the bridge. 2014 EGU-GA GI3.1 Session, organised by COST Action

  8. Optimum Maintenance Strategies for Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frangopol, Dan M.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Das, Parag C.;

    As bridges become older and maintenance costs become higher, transportation agencies are facing challenges related to implementation of optimal bridge management programs based on life cycle cost considerations. A reliability-based approach is necessary to find optimal solutions based on minimum...... expected life-cycle costs or maximum life-cycle benefits. This is because many maintenance activities can be associated with significant costs, but their effects on bridge safety can be minor. In this paper, the program of an investigation on optimum maintenance strategies for different bridge types...... is described. The end result of this investigation will be a general reliability-based framework to be used by the UK Highways Agency in order to plan optimal strategies for the maintenance of its bridge network so as to optimize whole-life costs....

  9. Seismic response of steel suspension bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, D.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Astaneh-Asl, A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Performing accurate, realistic numerical simulations of the seismic response of long-span bridges presents a significant challenge to the fields of earthquake engineering and seismology. Suspension bridges in particular represent some of the largest and most important man-made structures and ensuring the seismic integrity of these mega-structures is contingent on accurate estimations of earthquake ground motions and accurate computational simulations of the structure/foundation system response. A cooperative, multi-year research project between the Univ. of California and LLNL was recently initiated to study engineering and seismological issues essential for simulating the response of major structures. Part of this research project is focused on the response of the long-span bridges with the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge serving as a case study. This paper reports on the status of this multi-disciplinary research project with emphasis on the numerical simulation of the transient seismic response of the Bay Bridge.

  10. The I-35W bridge Project Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    How can websites be used to rebuild trust?  In August 2007, the Interstate Highway 35-W bridge in Minneapolis, MN collapsed during rush hour.  Although many people were rescued and casualties were as limited as could be expected due to quick and effective intervention, the image of a major bridge...... collapsing during rush hour damaged the Minnesota Department of Transportation's reputation and resulted in the loss of public trust for the organization.  The ensuing bridge reconstruction project included a project website intended to rebuild this trust through transparency, community involvement......, and the use of multimodal features.  This paper looks at the I35-W bridge reconstruction project in Minneapolis through web-based communication by the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) about the project. The MnDOT bridge reconstruction website will be examined using a combination of 1). Weick...

  11. Jumping from the Brooklyn Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, R J; Pizzi, W F; Richman, H; Tiefenbrun, J

    1987-07-01

    In an attempt to identify factors contributing to survival of free fall and impact, we evaluated the records of four patients who survived a jump from the Brooklyn Bridge into the East River in New York Harbor between 1977 and 1985. All four patients were male and ranged in age from 22 to 67 years. They had free falls of between 41.0 and 48.8 meters. All of the patients were brought to the hospital within 24 minutes of entering the water. Three of the four had emergency surgical treatment and the fourth patient had only minor injuries. All four patients survived the suicide attempts. The length of the hospital stay ranged from two to 26 days.

  12. Building bridges … and accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Lyn Evans, the LHC project leader, was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) to celebrate his role not just in building accelerators, but also in building bridges between nations. He was one of four notables honoured at the event on Friday 5 June, coinciding with the University’s 450th Anniversary. Lyn Evans arriving at the ceremony with Archbishop Desmond Tutu. "It was a big surprise when I found out I’d been nominated," recounts Evans, "but it was an even bigger surprise to find out with whom I’d been nominated". At the ceremony Evans was awarded the honorary doctorate along with three others: Archbishop Desmond Tutu, who was acclaimed for his fight against apartheid in South Africa, Mary Robinson, first woman president of Ireland and former United Nations’ high commissioner of human rights, and Pascal Lamy, Director-General of the World Trade Organization. The award ceremony, known as the �...

  13. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheimer, C; Carlsson, C A; Vedin, A; Wilhelmsson, C

    1986-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in the treatment of chronic stable severe angina pectoris. In a short-term study the effect of TENS was studied in 10 male patients with angina pectoris (functional class III and IV). All patients had previously been stabilized on long-term maximal oral treatment. The effects of the treatment were measured by means of repeated bicycle ergometer tests. All patients had an increased working capacity (16-85%), decreased ST segment depression and reduced recovery time during TENS. No adverse effects were observed. A long-term study of TENS on similarly selected patients showed beneficial effects in terms of pain reduction, reduced frequency of anginal attacks, increased physical activity and increased working capacity during bicycle ergometer tests. An invasive study was carried out with respect to systemic and coronary hemodynamics and myocardial metabolism during pacing provoked myocardial ischemia in 13 patients. The results showed that TENS led to an increased tolerance to pacing, improved lactate metabolism, less pronounced ST segment depression. A drop in systolic blood pressure during TENS treatment at identical pacing rates indicated a decreased afterload. An increased coronary flow to ischemic areas in the myocardium was supported by the fact that the rate pressure product during anginal pain increased during TENS.

  14. Xanthene-bridged cofacial bisporphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C J; Deng, Y; Heyduk, A F; Chang, C K; Nocera, D G

    2000-03-06

    The synthesis and characterization of cofacial bisporphyrins juxtaposed by xanthene-bridged pillars are presented. The one-pot preparation of the xanthene dialdehyde avoids the lengthy bridge synthesis accompanying other cofacial porphyrin systems, thus allowing for the facile preparation of homobimetallic zinc (10), copper (11), and nickel (12) complexes. The cofacial orientation of the two porphyrin macrocycles was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Structural data are provided for bisporphyrins 10-12: 10 (C79H82N8OZn2), triclinic, space group P1, a = 11.2671(2) A, b = 14.9809(2) A, c = 20.4852(2) A, alpha = 101.6680(10) degrees, beta = 100.8890(10) degrees, gamma = 101.8060(10) degrees, Z = 2; 11 (C79H82N8OCu2), triclinic, space group P1, a = 11.21410(10) A, b = 14.9539(5) A, c = 20.6915(7) A, alpha = 101.810(2) degrees, beta = 101.044(2) degrees, gamma = 101.722(2) degrees, Z = 2; 12 (C79H82N8ONi2), monoclinic, space group C2/c, a = 24.1671(4) A, b = 10.669 A, c = 50.5080(9) A, beta = 99.553(2) degrees, Z = 8. Exciton interactions between the porphyrin rings are apparent in electronic spectra, consistent with the cofacial superstructure. The combination of structural and spectroscopic data provides a basis for the design of additional metal derivatives for the activation of dioxygen and other small molecules.

  15. Implementation of Bridge Management System on Interurban Bridge in Maluku Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Marasabessy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bridges as transport infrastructures play a vital role in smoothing traffic flows. The success of a bridge in playing its role and serving its function depends on its management. The Directorate General of Highways of the Ministry of Public Work has used a system to manage bridges known as the Bridge Management System (BMS. The system allows a systematic plan and provides a uniform procedure for all bridge operation activities on the national and provincial level. Data from Implementation Agency of National Inter-Urban Roads of Area IX, Northern Maluku in 2011 indicates that the total length of national roads in Maluku Province is 15,238.01 M, with a total of 562 bridges. In Ambon Island, especially, there are 52 bridges totaling 1,176.25 m in length. The study was conducted at several inter-urban bridges in Maluku Province of Ambon Island: Wai Batu Merah, Wai Ruhu, Wai Lawa, Wai Yari and Wai Tua bridges. Assessment of bridge structure conditions was conducted visually to determine the conditions of the existing bridges comprehensively by referring to the Bridge Management System (BMS complemented with a computer-based Bridge Management Information System (BMIS. Condition scores for the five bridges—Wai Batu Merah, Wai Ruhu, Wai Lawa, Wai Yari, and Wai Tua, according to Bridge Management System, are 2, 1, 2, 1, and 2 respectively. The scores of the five bridges indicate that their physical condition can be categorized as good or with minor defects. Based on technical screening, the proposed treatment for Wai Batu Merah, Wai Ruhu, Wai Lawa, dan Wai Tua bridges is the rehabilitation of their sub-elements. As for the Wai Yari Bridge, the treatment will be maintained regularly. The defect repair costs are IDR 149,138,238.00, IDR 81,048,000.00, IDR 174,579,106.10, IDR 79,233,324.01 and IDR 238,323,258.60 for Wai Batu, Wai Ruhu, Wai Lawa, Wai Yari, and Wai Tua Bridges, respectively.

  16. Estimation of Tsunami Bore Forces on a Coastal Bridge Using an Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Mazinani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a procedure to estimate tsunami wave forces on coastal bridges through a novel method based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM and laboratory experiments. This research included three water depths, ten wave heights, and four bridge models with a variety of girders providing a total of 120 cases. The research was designed and adapted to estimate tsunami bore forces including horizontal force, vertical uplift and overturning moment on a coastal bridge. The experiments were carried out on 1:40 scaled concrete bridge models in a wave flume with dimensions of 24 m × 1.5 m × 2 m. Two six-axis load cells and four pressure sensors were installed to the base plate to measure forces. In the numerical procedure, estimation and prediction results of the ELM model were compared with Genetic Programming (GP and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs models. The experimental results showed an improvement in predictive accuracy, and capability of generalization could be achieved by the ELM approach in comparison with GP and ANN. Moreover, results indicated that the ELM models developed could be used with confidence for further work on formulating novel model predictive strategy for tsunami bore forces on a coastal bridge. The experimental results indicated that the new algorithm could produce good generalization performance in most cases and could learn thousands of times faster than conventional popular learning algorithms. Therefore, it can be conclusively obtained that utilization of ELM is certainly developing as an alternative approach to estimate the tsunami bore forces on a coastal bridge.

  17. Oscillations in a sunspot with light bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Ding; Huang, Zhenghua; Li, Bo; Su, Jiangtao; Yan, Yihua; Tan, Baolin

    2014-01-01

    Solar Optical Telescope onboard Hinode observed a sunspot (AR 11836) with two light bridges (LBs) on 31 Aug 2013. We analysed a 2-hour \\ion{Ca}{2} H emission intensity data set and detected strong 5-min oscillation power on both LBs and in the inner penumbra. The time-distance plot reveals that 5-min oscillation phase does not vary significantly along the thin bridge, indicating that the oscillations are likely to originate from the underneath. The slit taken along the central axis of the wide light bridge exhibits a standing wave feature. However, at the centre of the wide bridge, the 5-min oscillation power is found to be stronger than at its sides. Moreover, the time-distance plot across the wide bridge exhibits a herringbone pattern that indicates a counter-stream of two running waves originated at the bridge sides. Thus, the 5-min oscillations on the wide bridge also resemble the properties of running penumbral waves. The 5-min oscillations are suppressed in the umbra, while the 3-min oscillations occupy...

  18. Nonresponse error in mail surveys: top ten problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daly, Jeanette M; Jones, Julie K; Gereau, Patricia L; Levy, Barcey T

    2011-01-01

    ... utilizing the Dillman Total Design Method. Ten nonresponse error problems were identified, such as inserter machine gets sequence out of order, capitalization in databases, and mailing discarded by postal service...

  19. Nonresponse Error in Mail Surveys: Top Ten Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daly, Jeanette M; Jones, Julie K; Gereau, Patricia L; Levy, Barcey T

    2011-01-01

    ... utilizing the Dillman Total Design Method. Ten nonresponse error problems were identified, such as inserter machine gets sequence out of order, capitalization in databases, and mailing discarded by postal service...

  20. Managing mountain hardwoods - a ten-year appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R., Jr. Trimble

    1961-01-01

    Ten years ago - in 1949 - four 5-acre plots were established on the Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia, to show the effects upon mountain hardwoods of each of four management treatments.

  1. Ten LanReflect Bdmark Buildingseijing’s Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin; Lei; Li; Chen

    2002-01-01

    In the 1950s, 80s and 90s, ten landmarkbuildings that reflected Beijing’s development ofthe respective historical periods were selected.They are not only architectural models but alsosymbols of the time.

  2. Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil microbiological properties under ... Water shortage in most countries of the southern Mediterranean basin has led to the reuse of municipal wastewater for irrigation. ... Article Metrics.

  3. The Teacher and Malpractice: Ten Ways to Invite a Lawsuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Nathan L.

    1987-01-01

    Comments on the emerging concept in education of teacher malpractice, and identifies ten ways that teachers can be assured of entertaining a lawsuit in situations involving academic injury to students. (NKA)

  4. Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Ten Thousand Islands NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision...

  5. Ten Practices for Undermining the Effectiveness of Teaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamber, Sandee

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the ways middle school team teachers who have the team's best interests in mind actually engage in behaviors that undermine team effectiveness and trust. Provides a list of ten well-intended practices that erode team effectiveness. (JPB)

  6. Signal and noise in bridging PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaler David S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a variant of the standard PCR reaction termed bridging, or jumping, PCR the primer-bound sequences are originally on separate template molecules. Bridging can occur if, and only if, the templates contain a region of sequence similarity. A 3' end of synthesis in one round of synthesis that terminates in this region of similarity can prime on the other. In principle, Bridging PCR (BPCR can detect a subpopulation of one template that terminates synthesis in the region of sequence shared by the other template. This study considers the sensitivity and noise of BPCR as a quantitative assay for backbone interruptions. Bridging synthesis is also important to some methods for computing with DNA. Results In this study, BPCR was tested over a 328 base pair segment of the E. coli lac operon and a signal to noise ratio (S/N of approximately 10 was obtained under normal PCR conditions with Taq polymerase. With special precautions in the case of Taq or by using the Stoffel fragment the S/N was improved to 100, i.e. 1 part of cut input DNA yielded the same output as 100 parts of intact input DNA. Conclusions In the E. coli lac operator region studied here, depending on details of protocol, between 3 and 30% per kilobase of final PCR product resulted from bridging. Other systems are expected to differ in the proportion of product that is bridged consequent to PCR protocol and the sequence analyzed. In many cases physical bridging during PCR will have no informational consequence because the bridged templates are of identical sequence, but in a number of special cases bridging creates, or, destroys, information.

  7. Asymptotics of a horizontal liquid bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, M.; O'Brien, S. B. G.; Benilov, E. S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper uses asymptotic techniques to find the shape of a two dimensional liquid bridge suspended between two vertical walls. We model the equilibrium bridge shape using the Laplace-Young equation. We use the Bond number as a small parameter to deduce an asymptotic solution which is then compared with numerical solutions. The perturbation approach demonstrates that equilibrium is only possible if the contact angle lies within a hysteresis interval and the analysis relates the width of this interval to the Bond number. This result is verified by comparison with a global force balance. In addition, we examine the quasi-static evolution of such a two dimensional bridge.

  8. Gust loading on streamlined bridge decks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larose, Guy; Mann, Jakob

    1998-01-01

    The current analytical description of the buffeting action of wind on long-span bridges is based on the strip assumption. However, recent experiments on closed-box girder bridge decks have shown that this assumption is not valid and is the source of an important part of the error margin...... of the analytical prediction methods. In this paper, an analytical model that departs from the strip assumption is used to describe the gust loading on a thin airfoil. A parallel is drawn between the analytical model and direct measurements of gust loading on motionless closed-box girder bridge decks. Empirical...

  9. Building the clinical bridge: an Australian success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin's model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided.

  10. Building the Clinical Bridge: An Australian Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Wallis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin’s model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided.

  11. Calculations in bridge aeroelasticity via CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brar, P.S.; Raul, R.; Scanlan, R.H. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The central focus of the present study is the numerical calculation of flutter derivatives. These aeroelastic coefficients play an important role in determining the stability or instability of long, flexible structures under ambient wind loading. A class of Civil Engineering structures most susceptible to such an instability are long-span bridges of the cable-stayed or suspended-span variety. The disastrous collapse of the Tacoma Narrows suspension bridge in the recent past, due to a flutter instability, has been a big impetus in motivating studies in flutter of bridge decks.

  12. Transformation of the bridge during drop separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.; Prokhorov, V. E.

    2016-05-01

    The geometry of flows during separation of pendant drops of liquids with significantly different physical properties (alcohol, water, glycerin, oil) has been studied by high-speed video recording. The dynamics of the processes involving the formation of bridges of two characteristic shapes—slightly nonuniform in thickness and with thinning of the upper and lower ends—has been investigated. It has been shown that the shape change of the separated bridge has a number of stages determined by the properties of the liquid. As a result, the bridge is transformed into a small drop—a satellite drop.

  13. Closure technique for the hybrid girder cable stayed bridge of Edong Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Minghu; Tan Hao; Xu GuoPing; Zhao Canhui

    2012-01-01

    Based on Edong Yangtze River Bridge, which is the second longest hybrid girder cable stayed bridge with 926 m long main span, the influencing factors and crucial techniques of the main span closure method for long span hybrid girder cable stayed bridge are studied. After theoretical analysis, numerical evaluation and practical test, the loading assistant closure method is employed in Edong Yangtze River Bridge. The loading assistant closure method, with better thermal adaptability and less influence on bridge line and the forced status, can meet the requirements of the unstressed state control method. Based on the mentioned advantages, the loading assistant closure method is applicable to long span hybrid girder cable stayed bridges. The conclusion can provide a reference for the further design of the similar brid~es.

  14. Field performance of timber bridges. 12, Christian Hollow stress-laminated box-beam bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Wacker; S. C. Catherman; R. G. Winnett

    In January 1992, the Christian Hollow bridge was constructed in Steuben County, New York. The bridge is a single-span, stress-laminated box-beam superstructure that is 9.1 m long, 9.8 m wide, and 502 mm deep (30 ft long, 32 ft wide, and 19-3/4 in. deep). The performance of the bridge was continuously monitored for 28 months, beginning shortly after installation....

  15. Relaxation of liquid bridge after droplets coalescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangen Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relaxation of liquid bridge after the coalescence of two sessile droplets resting on an organic glass substrate both experimentally and theoretically. The liquid bridge is found to relax to its equilibrium shape via two distinct approaches: damped oscillation relaxation and underdamped relaxation. When the viscosity is low, damped oscillation shows up, in this approach, the liquid bridge undergoes a damped oscillation process until it reaches its stable shape. However, if the viscous effects become significant, underdamped relaxation occurs. In this case, the liquid bridge relaxes to its equilibrium state in a non-periodic decay mode. In depth analysis indicates that the damping rate and oscillation period of damped oscillation are related to an inertial-capillary time scale τc. These experimental results are also testified by our numerical simulations with COMSOL Multiphysics.

  16. Wheatstone bridge technique for magnetostriction measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, M

    1980-03-01

    A basic Wheatstone bridge, with additional electronic instrumentation, has been used in the measurement of magnetostriction. This method allows a resolution of approximately 10% on measurements of magnetostrictions less than 0.75 parts per million.

  17. VT Short Structures - Bridges and Culverts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Inspection data for structures (bridge and culvert) between 6 feet and 20 feet in length inspected on State road system. Stewards: Information Technology, Data...

  18. Pilot testing of a hydraulic bridge exciter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a hydraulic bridge exciter and its first pilot testing on a full scale railway bridge in service. The exciter is based on a hydraulic load cylinder with a capacity of 50 kN and is intended for controlled dynamic loading up to at least 50 Hz. The load is applied from underneath the bridge, enabling testing while the railway line is in service. The system is shown to produce constant load amplitude even at resonance. The exciter is used to experimentally determine frequency response functions at all sensor locations, which serve as valuable input for model updating and verification. An FE-model of the case study bridge has been developed that is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Allegheny County-Owned Bridges Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the location of bridges owned by Allegheny County as centroids. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s...

  20. Allegheny County-Owned Bridges Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the bridges owned by Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  1. Diode-quad bridge circuit means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D. R.; Dimeff, J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A transducer and frequency discriminator circuit is described including a four-terminal circulating diode bridge, a first pair of capacitors connected in series across two terminals of the bridge, and a second pair of capacitors, or other impedance elements, connected in series across the other two terminals of the bridge. A source of balanced alternating electrical energy for energizing the circuit is coupled between the commonly connected plates of the first pair of capacitors and the commonly connected plates of the second pair of capacitors. Due to the operation of the diode bridge, the sum of the resultant charges developed on the first pair of capacitors is proportional to the relationship between the respective capacitors of the second pair, and consequently, an output voltage taken across the first pair of capacitors will be proportional to that relationship.

  2. VT Long Structures - Bridges and Culverts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Inspection data for structures (bridge and culvert) greater than 20 feet in length inspected on both State and local road systems. Stewards: Information Technology,...

  3. Active Control of Long Bridges Using Flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H. I.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    The main problem in designing ultra-long span suspension bridges is flutter. A solution to this problem might be to introduce an active flap control system to increase the flutter wind velocity. The investigated flap control system consists of flaps integrated in the bridge girder so each flap...... is the streamlined part of the edge of the girder. Additional aerodynamic derivatives are shown for the flaps and it is shown how methods already developed can be used to estimate the flutter wind velocity for a bridge section with flaps. As an example, the flutter wind velocity is calculated for different flap...... configurations for a bridge section model by using aerodynamic derivatives for a flat plate. The example shows that different flap configurations can either increase or decrease the flutter wind velocity. for optimal flap configurations flutter will not occur....

  4. VT Short Structures - Bridges and Culverts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Inspection data for structures (bridge and culvert) between 6 feet and 20 feet in length inspected on State road system. Stewards: Information Technology, Data...

  5. Practical Approach to Fragility Analysis of Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasamin Rafie Nazari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Damages during past earthquakes reveal seismic vulnerability of bridge structures and the necessity of probabilistic approach toward seismic performance evaluation of bridges and its interpretation in terms of decision variables such as repair cost, downtime and life loss. This Procedure involves hazard analysis, structural analysis, damage analysis and loss analysis. The purpose of present study is reviewing different methods developed to derive fragility curves for damage analysis of bridges and demonstrating a simple procedure for fragility analysis using Microsoft Office Excel worksheet to reach probability of occurring predefined level of damage due to different levels of seismic demand parameters. The input of this procedure is the intensity of ground motion and the output is an appropriate estimate of the expected damage. Different observed damages of the bridges are discussed and compared the practical definition of damage states. Different methods of fragility analyses are discussed and a practical step by step example is illustrated.

  6. Identifying hidden sexual bridging communities in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Yoosik; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Williams, Chyvette T; Ouellet, Lawrence J

    2009-07-01

    Bridge populations can play a central role in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by providing transmission links between higher and lower prevalence populations. While social network methods are well suited to the study of bridge populations, analyses tend to focus on dyads (i.e., risk between drug and/or sex partners) and ignore bridges between distinct subpopulations. This study takes initial steps toward moving the analysis of sexual network linkages beyond individual and risk group levels to a community level in which Chicago's 77 community areas are examined as subpopulations for the purpose of identifying potential bridging communities. Of particular interest are "hidden" bridging communities; that is, areas with above-average levels of sexual ties with other areas but whose below-average AIDS prevalence may hide their potential importance for HIV prevention. Data for this analysis came from the first wave of recruiting at the Chicago Sexual Acquisition and Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Program site. Between August 2005 through October 2006, respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit users of heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine, men who have sex with men regardless of drug use, the sex partners of these two groups, and sex partners of the sex partners. In this cross-sectional study of the sexual transmission of HIV, participants completed a network-focused computer-assisted self-administered interview, which included questions about the geographic locations of sexual contacts with up to six recent partners. Bridging scores for each area were determined using a matrix representing Chicago's 77 community areas and were assessed using two measures: non-redundant ties and flow betweenness. Bridging measures and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case prevalence rates were plotted for each community area on charts representing four conditions: below-average bridging and AIDS prevalence, below-average bridging and above

  7. Detection of salt bridges to lysines in solution in barnase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Williamson, Michael P.; Hounslow, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    We show that salt bridges involving lysines can be detected by deuterium isotope effects on NMR chemical shifts of the sidechain amine. Lys27 in the ribonuclease barnase is salt bridged, and mutation of Arg69 to Lys retains a partially buried salt bridge. The salt bridges are functionally important....

  8. Inspection Based Evaluation of a Danish Road Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper it is shown how an inspection-based evaluation of a Danish road bridge may be performed using the BRIDGE1 and BRIDGE2 bridge management systems produced within the EC-supported research programme "Assessment of Performance and Optimal Strategies for Inspection and Maintenance...

  9. 33 CFR 118.80 - Lights on bascule bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on bascule bridges. 118.80 Section 118.80 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.80 Lights on bascule bridges. (a) Lift span lights. Each lift span...

  10. 33 CFR 118.90 - Bridges crossing channel obliquely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bridges crossing channel obliquely. 118.90 Section 118.90 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.90 Bridges crossing channel obliquely....

  11. 23 CFR 650.809 - Movable span bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movable span bridges. 650.809 Section 650.809 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.809 Movable span bridges. A fixed...

  12. 49 CFR 237.33 - Content of bridge management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content of bridge management programs. 237.33... Content of bridge management programs. Each bridge management program adopted in compliance with this part... spans, span lengths, and all other information necessary to provide for the management of bridge...

  13. 23 CFR 650.705 - Application for discretionary bridge funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650... cost, current average daily truck traffic and a narrative describing the existing bridge, the proposed new or rehabilitated bridge and other relevant factors which the State believes may warrant...

  14. Carbon-based tendons in the Dintelhaven Bridge, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervuurt, A.H.J.M.; Kaptijn, N.; Grundlehner, W.B.

    2003-01-01

    In mid-2001 the final two bridges over the River Dintelhaven in the harbour area of Rotterdam were put into use. Both bridges are concrete box girder bridges and have been erected using the balanced cantilever method. In the first bridge, with a main span of about 185 m, four (external) tendons each

  15. Micromechanical model of cross-over fibre bridging - Prediction of mixed mode bridging laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Gamstedt, E.K.; Østergaard, Rasmus Christian;

    2008-01-01

    on the observed bridging mechanism, a micromechanical model is developed for the prediction of macroscopic mixed mode bridging laws (stress-opening laws). The model predicts a high normal stress for very small openings, decreasing rapidly with increasing normal and tangential crack opening displacements......The fracture resistance of fibre composites can be greatly enhanced by crack bridging. In situ observations of mixed mode crack growth in a unidirectional carbon-fibre/epoxy composite reveal crack bridging by single fibres and by beam-like ligaments consisting of several fibres. Based...

  16. Arch bridges – unlocking their potential

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Adrian; Nanukuttan, Sreejith

    2016-01-01

    Arch bridges are strong, durable, aesthetically pleasing and require little maintenance but very few have been built since the early 1900s. However, this trend has changed as more than 60 FlexiArch bridges have been installed since the system was launched in 2007. The FlexiArch uses precast concrete voussoirs, requires neither corrodible reinforcement, nor centring, can be installed in hours and is contractor friendly. Details of this innovative method of construction and installation of arch...

  17. Earthquake Resistance of Integral Abutment Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    intermediate length bridges. Integral abutment construction eliminates joints and bearings which reduce long-term maintenance costs. However, in the absence of joints and bearings, the bridge abutments and foundations must be able to accommodate lateral movements from thermal expansion and contraction of the superstructure and from seismic events. Previous research has focused on the response to thermal expansion and contraction. The current research examines the response of integral abutment...

  18. Thermal Bridge Effects in Walls Separating Rowhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report the thermal bridge effects at internal wall/roof junctions in rowhouses are evaluated. The analysis is performed using a numerical calculation programme, and different solutions are evaluated with respect to extra heat loss and internal surface temperatures.......In this report the thermal bridge effects at internal wall/roof junctions in rowhouses are evaluated. The analysis is performed using a numerical calculation programme, and different solutions are evaluated with respect to extra heat loss and internal surface temperatures....

  19. Thermal Bridge Effects in Walls Separating Rowhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report the thermal bridge effects at internal wall/roof junctions in rowhouses are evaluated. The analysis is performed using a numerical calculation programme, and different solutions are evaluated with respect to extra heat loss and internal surface temperatures.......In this report the thermal bridge effects at internal wall/roof junctions in rowhouses are evaluated. The analysis is performed using a numerical calculation programme, and different solutions are evaluated with respect to extra heat loss and internal surface temperatures....

  20. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Enevoldsen, I.

    The present paper worked out as a part of a research project on "Dynamic amplification factor of vehicle loadings on smaller bridges" establishes a two-dimensional spectral description of the road roughness surface based on measurements from a Danish road using so-called Profilograph used by Danish...... to the bridge and the stochastic nature of the surface roughness are included into the model....

  1. External Prestressing Bridge Reinforcement Technology Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hanbing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Externally prestressed bridge can not only limit and reduce the cracks and deformation of the structure, improve the rigidity and bearing capacity of structure, improve the stress state of structure, but also have less interference for bridge operation when it is operating and have the good economic efficiency. This paper introduces the advantages and disadvantages of external prestressed strengthening technique, its calculation theory and construction technology described in detail, and finally the paper discusses the deficiency of existing research.

  2. I-5/Gilman advanced technology bridge project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Karbhari, Vistasp M.; Seible, Frieder

    2000-04-01

    The UCSD led I-5/Gilman Advanced Technology Bridge Project will design and construct a fully functional traffic bridge of advanced composite materials across Interstate 5 in La Jolla, California. Its objective is to demonstrate the use of advanced composite technologies developed by the aerospace industry in commercial applications to increase the life expectancy of new structures and for the rehabilitation of aging infrastructure components. The structure will be a 450 ft long, 60 ft wide cable-stayed bridge supported by a 150 ft A-frame pylon with two vehicular lanes, two bicycle lanes, pedestrian walkways and utility tunnels. The longitudinal girders and pylon will be carbon fiber shells filled with concrete. The transverse deck system will consist of hollow glass/carbon hybrid tubes and a polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete deck with an arch action. Selected cables will be composite. The bridge's structural behavior will be monitored to determine how advanced composite materials perform in civil infrastructure applications. The bridge will be instrumented to obtain performance and structural health data in real time and, where possible, in a remote fashion. The sensors applied to the bridge will include electrical resistance strain gages, fiberoptic Bragg gratings and accelerometers.

  3. Framework for Bridges Maintenance in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Abd Elkhalek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approaches for bridges maintenance is proven to be inefficient as they lead to random way of spending maintenance budget and deteriorating bridge conditions. In many cases, maintenance activities are performed due to user complaints. The objective of this paper is to develop a practical and reliable framework to manage the maintenance and repair activities of Bridges network in Egypt considering performance and budget limits. The model solves an optimization problem that maximizes the average condition of the network given the limited budget using Genetic Algorithm (GA. The main tasks of the system are bridge inventory, condition assessment, deterioration using markov model, and maintenance optimization. The developed model takes into account multiple parameters including serviceability requirements, budget allocation, element importance on structural safety and serviceability, bridge impact on network, and traffic. A questionnaire is conducted to complete the research scope. The proposed model is implemented in software, which provides a friendly user interface. The results of the framework are multi – year maintenance plan for the entire network for up to five years. A case study is presented for validating and testing the model with Data collected from “General Authority for Roads, Bridges and Land Transport” in Egypt.

  4. Foot force models of crowd dynamics on a wobbly bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Belykh, Igor; Jeter, Russell; Belykh, Vladamir

    2016-01-01

    Modern pedestrian and suspension bridges are designed using industry-standard packages, yet disastrous resonant vibrations are observed, necessitating multi-million dollar repairs. Recent examples include pedestrian induced vibrations during the openings of the Solf\\'erino Bridge in Paris in 1999 and the increased bouncing of the Squibb Park Bridge in Brooklyn in 2014. The most prominent example of an unstable lively bridge is the London Millennium Bridge which started wobbling as a result of...

  5. Nonresponse error in mail surveys: top ten problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Jeanette M; Jones, Julie K; Gereau, Patricia L; Levy, Barcey T

    2011-01-01

    Conducting mail surveys can result in nonresponse error, which occurs when the potential participant is unwilling to participate or impossible to contact. Nonresponse can result in a reduction in precision of the study and may bias results. The purpose of this paper is to describe and make readers aware of a top ten list of mailed survey problems affecting the response rate encountered over time with different research projects, while utilizing the Dillman Total Design Method. Ten nonresponse error problems were identified, such as inserter machine gets sequence out of order, capitalization in databases, and mailing discarded by postal service. These ten mishaps can potentiate nonresponse errors, but there are ways to minimize their frequency. Suggestions offered stem from our own experiences during research projects. Our goal is to increase researchers' knowledge of nonresponse error problems and to offer solutions which can decrease nonresponse error in future projects.

  6. Announcement of 2008 Top Ten News of China's Paper Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ [Editor's Note] The activity of "Top ten news selection for China's paper industry" has been carried out for 9 years without being noticed. This activity has been gained much support from leaders, experts and readers, is gaining ground in the industry, and its authority got much affirmation. After recommending by the leaders and experts from part of the local associations of Paper Industry Association and Technical Association of Paper Industry of the provinces, universities, institutions and companies, the final selection meeting was held on Dec 17, 2008 in Beijing and finally top ten news of China's paper industry in 2008 were selected. The activity of this year's top ten news selection has been firstly taken the form of interaction with our readers, which has met with the enthusiastic response of readers in less than a month's time.

  7. Nonresponse Error in Mail Surveys: Top Ten Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette M. Daly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting mail surveys can result in nonresponse error, which occurs when the potential participant is unwilling to participate or impossible to contact. Nonresponse can result in a reduction in precision of the study and may bias results. The purpose of this paper is to describe and make readers aware of a top ten list of mailed survey problems affecting the response rate encountered over time with different research projects, while utilizing the Dillman Total Design Method. Ten nonresponse error problems were identified, such as inserter machine gets sequence out of order, capitalization in databases, and mailing discarded by postal service. These ten mishaps can potentiate nonresponse errors, but there are ways to minimize their frequency. Suggestions offered stem from our own experiences during research projects. Our goal is to increase researchers' knowledge of nonresponse error problems and to offer solutions which can decrease nonresponse error in future projects.

  8. Amplitudes and Correlators to Ten Loops Using Simple, Graphical Bootstraps

    CERN Document Server

    Bourjaily, Jacob L; Tran, Vuong-Viet

    2016-01-01

    We introduce two new graphical-level relations among possible contributions to the four-point correlation function and scattering amplitude in planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. When combined with the rung rule, these prove powerful enough to fully determine both functions through ten loops. This then also yields the full five-point amplitude to eight loops and the parity-even part to nine loops. We derive these rules, illustrate their applications, compare their relative strengths for fixing coefficients, and survey some of the features of the previously unknown nine and ten loop expressions. Explicit formulae for amplitudes and correlators through ten loops are available at: http://goo.gl/JH0yEc.

  9. Amplitudes and correlators to ten loops using simple, graphical bootstraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Heslop, Paul; Tran, Vuong-Viet

    2016-11-01

    We introduce two new graphical-level relations among possible contributions to the four-point correlation function and scattering amplitude in planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. When combined with the rung rule, these prove powerful enough to fully determine both functions through ten loops. This then also yields the full five-point amplitude to eight loops and the parity-even part to nine loops. We derive these rules, illustrate their applications, compare their relative strengths for fixing coefficients, and survey some of the features of the previously unknown nine and ten loop expressions. Explicit formulae for amplitudes and correlators through ten loops are available at: http://goo.gl/JH0yEc.

  10. Fabrication of ten-fold photonic quasicrystalline structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, XiaoHong, E-mail: iexhsun@zzu.edu.cn; Wu, YuLong; Liu, Wen; Liu, Wei [Henan Key Laboratory of Laser and Opto-electric Information Technology, Zhengzhou University, Henan 450052 (China); Han, Juan; Jiang, Lei [Center for Bioengineering and Biotechnology, State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Compared to periodic crystals, quasicrystals have higher point group symmetry and are more favorable in achieving complete band-gaps. In this report, a top-cut prism interferometer is designed to fabricate ten-fold photonic quasicrystalline structures. By optimizing the exposing conditions and material characteristics, appropriate quasicrystals have been obtained in the SU8 photoresist films. Atomic Force Microscopy and laser diffraction are used to characterize the fabricated structures. The measurement results show the consistence between the theoretical design and experiments. This will provide guidance for the large-area and fast production of ten-fold quasicrystalline structures with high quality.

  11. Astrophysical parameters of ten new discovered open star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Tadross, A L; Osman, A; Ismail, N; Bakry, A

    2011-01-01

    We present here the fundamental parameters of ten open star clusters, nominated from Kronberger et al. (2006) who presented some new discovered stellar groups on the basis of 2MASS photometry and DSS visual images. Star counts and photometric parameters (radius, membership, distances, color excess, age, luminosity function, mass function, total mass, and the dynamical relaxation time) have been determined for these ten clusters for the first time. In order to calibrate our procedures, the main parameters (distance, age, and color excesses) have been re-estimated for another five clusters, which are studied by Kronberger et al. (2006) as well.

  12. Astrophysical parameters of ten poorly studied open star clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashraf Latif Tadross; Reda El-Bendary; Anas Osman; Nader Ismail; Abdel Aziz Bakry

    2012-01-01

    We present the fundamental parameters of ten open star clusters,nominated from Kronberger et al.who presented some newly discovered stellar groups on the basis of the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry and Digitized Sky Survey visual images.Star counts and photometric parameters (radius,membership,distance,color excess,age,luminosity function,mass function,total mass,and dynamical relaxation time) have been determined for these ten clusters for the first time.In order to calibrate our procedures,the main parameters (distance,age,and color excess) have been reestimated for another five clusters,which are also studied by Kronberger et al.

  13. Time in powers of ten natural phenomena and their timescales

    CERN Document Server

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    In this richly illustrated book, Nobel Laureate Gerard 't Hooft and Theoretical Physicist Stefan Vandoren describe the enormous diversity of natural phenomena that take place at different time scales. In the tradition of the bestseller Powers of Ten , the authors zoom in and out in time, each step with a factor of ten. Starting from one second, time scales are enlarged until processes are reached that take much longer than the age of the universe. After the largest possible eternities, the reader is treated to the shortest and fastest phenomena known. Then the authors increase with powers of t

  14. Role of multiprotein bridging factor 1 in archaea: bridging the domains?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de B.; Blombach, F.; Wu Hao,; Brouns, S.J.J.; Oost, van der J.

    2009-01-01

    MBF1 (multiprotein bridging factor 1) is a highly conserved protein in archaea and eukaryotes. It was originally identified as a mediator of the eukaryotic transcription regulator BmFTZ-F1 (Bombyx mori regulator of fushi tarazu). MBF1 was demonstrated to enhance transcription by forming a bridge bet

  15. A Tale of Five Bridges; the use of GNSS for Monitoring the Deflections of Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gethin Wyn; Brown, Christopher J.; Tang, Xu; Meng, Xiaolin; Ogundipe, Oluropo

    2014-11-01

    The first Bridge Monitoring surveying was carried out in 1996 by the authors, through attaching Ashtech ZXII GPS receivers onto the Humber Bridge' parapet, and gathering and further analysing the resulting 1 Hz RTK GPS data. Various surveys have subsequently been conducted on the Humber Bridge, the Millennium Bridge, the Forth Road Bridge, the Severn Suspension Bridge and the Avonmouth Viaduct. These were all carried out using survey grade carrier phase/pseudorange GPS and later GNSS receivers. These receivers were primarily dual frequency receivers, but the work has also investigated the use of single frequency receivers, gathering data at 1 Hz, 10 Hz, 20 Hz and even 100 Hz. Various aspects of the research conducted are reported here, as well as the historical approach. Conclusions are shown in the paper, as well as lessons learnt during the development of this work. The results are compared to various models that exist of the bridges' movements, and compare well. The results also illustrate that calculating the frequencies of the movements, as well as looking at the magnitudes of the movements, is an important aspect of this work. It is also shown that in instances where the magnitudes of the movements of the bridge under investigation are small, it is still possible to derive very accurate frequencies of the movements, in comparison to the existing models.

  16. Field performance of timber bridges. 11, Spearfish Creek stress-laminated box-beam bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Wacker; M. A. Ritter; K. Stanfill-McMillan

    The Spearfish Creek bridge was constructed in 1992 in Spearfish, South Dakota. It is a single-span, stress-laminated, box-beam superstructure. Performance of the bridge is being monitored for 5 years, beginning at installation. This report summarizes results for the first 3-1/2 years of monitoring and includes information on the design, construction, and field...

  17. Ten simple rules for making research software more robust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschuk, Morgan; Wilson, Greg

    2017-04-01

    Software produced for research, published and otherwise, suffers from a number of common problems that make it difficult or impossible to run outside the original institution or even off the primary developer's computer. We present ten simple rules to make such software robust enough to be run by anyone, anywhere, and thereby delight your users and collaborators.

  18. Reliability and validity of ten consumer activity trackers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooiman, Thea J.M.; Dontje, Manon L.; Sprenger, Siska R.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Schans, Cees P. van der; Groot, Martijn de

    2015-01-01

    Background: Activity trackers can potentially stimulate users to increase their physical activity behavior. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of ten consumer activity trackers for measuring step count in both laboratory and free-living conditions. Method: Healthy adul

  19. The Texas Ten Percent Plan's Impact on College Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Martorell, Paco; McFarlin, Isaac, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Texas Ten Percent Plan (TTP) provides students in the top 10 percent of their high-school class with automatic admission to any public university in the state, including the two flagship schools, the University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M. Texas created the policy in 1997 after a federal appellate court ruled that the state's previous…

  20. Eight to ten years follow-up after carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen Rathenborg, Lisbet; Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T

    1990-01-01

    Follow-up information was obtained on 185 patients who consecutively underwent carotid endarterectomy eight to ten years previously. Doppler ultrasound examination was performed in 59 patients who were still alive and living within 100 miles of the hospital. Using lifetable analysis, the annual r...

  1. Ten Nonfiction Books (for Adults) to Fall in Love with

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genco, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes ten nonfiction books she recommends for adults: (1) "My Reading Life" (Pat Conroy); (2) "Nothing to Envy: Ordinary Lives in North Korea" (Barbara Demick); (3) "Learning to Die in Miami: Confessions of a Refuge Boy" (Carlos Eire); (4) "The Perfect Shape + The Perfect Sauce =…

  2. Supersymmetric Chern-Simons terms in ten dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Roo, M. de

    1989-01-01

    We construct a supersymmetric extension of the Lorentz and Yang-Mills Chern-Simons terms in ten dimensions. In terms of dimensionful parameters α (Lorentz) and β (Yang-Mills), we obtain the complete O(α) supersymmetrization. Furthermore, we present the leading O(α2) and O(αβ) corrections requi

  3. Student Actor Ailments: Ten Ills and How To Cure Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Barbara Long

    2000-01-01

    Lists the top ten acting ailments often encountered in student actors, and offers advice to cure these ailments: the split personality, the beauty queen and the leading man, the comedian, the director in training, the moody one, the character-clueless, the loner, the mimic, the stage-frightened, and the opening night artist. (SR)

  4. Ten new bird species for Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Villalobos, José (Coordinador); Sandoval, Luis

    2012-01-01

    We report ten new bird species for Isla del Coco, Costa Rica. All observations were conducted during one-month period (October 2010) during autumn migration of birds to South America. These observations increase the number of bird species recorded on the island to 129.

  5. Reliability and validity of ten consumer activity trackers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Martijn de Groot; Thea J.M. Kooiman; Siska R. Sprenger; Manon L. Dontje; W.P. Krijnen; Dr. C.P. van der Schans

    2015-01-01

    Background: Activity trackers can potentially stimulate users to increase their physical activity behavior. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of ten consumer activity trackers for measuring step count in both laboratory and free-living conditions. Method: Healthy

  6. Ten-year-olds' reflections on their life in preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2016-01-01

    What do children think of their time in preschool? In the present study, twelve ten-year-old children collected data from their classmates. The children tend to remember their friends, and reflect on what games they played and with whom. Only about one in three respondents even mentioned the day...

  7. Effects of TENS and methylphenidate in tuberculous meningo-encephalistis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E.J.A.; Deursen, S.; Manen, S.R.; Ferenschild, K.C.M.P.

    2001-01-01

    Primary objective: Beneficial effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on cognition and behaviour were observed in a child with probable Herpes Simplex Encephalitis. Based on these positive findings, it was examined in the present case study whether a child who had been diagnose

  8. Manuelle Montage von Großgeräten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, Bruno

    Die manuelle Montage von Großgeräten — wie. z. B. Maschinen, Traktoren, Haushaltsgeräte, PKW-Motoren, LKW-Achsen, Schaltschränke usw. — wird in ihrer Montagestruktur vorrangig durch das Produktgewicht, die Produktabmessung und die Produktionsrate bestimmt.

  9. Web Research: Ten Tips for the Techno-Challenged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkins, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Most school administrators have a good conceptual grasp of technology and understand its value in education. Yet many are "closet techno-incompetents" when it comes to personal use. In this article, the author presents ten tips for the techno-challenged. The "advanced search" option, among others, is a helpful way to search for information.…

  10. Study on Microelements of Ten Consumed Fish Species by NAA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN; Guo-jun; XIAO; Cai-jin; JIN; Xiang-chun; YANG; Wei; ZHANG; Gui-ying; WANG; Ping-sheng; NI; Bang-fa

    2012-01-01

    <正>As the improvement of the living standard, people are more and more concerned about the safety of food currently. The fish is healthy food with more protein but less fat. We bought ten species of fish from the market, which are often eaten by Chinese, and analyzed the microelement of them by NAA.

  11. Ten Helpful Ideas for Teaching English to Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joan Kang

    2006-01-01

    This article offers ten suggestions for teaching young learners between the age of 7 and 12 based on language-teaching principles. They include supplementing activities with visuals, realia and movement; involving students in making visuals and realia; moving from activity to activity; teaching in themes; using stories and contexts familiar to…

  12. The Texas Ten Percent Plan's Impact on College Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Martorell, Paco; McFarlin, Isaac, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Texas Ten Percent Plan (TTP) provides students in the top 10 percent of their high-school class with automatic admission to any public university in the state, including the two flagship schools, the University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M. Texas created the policy in 1997 after a federal appellate court ruled that the state's previous…

  13. Fitting a Stochastic Model for Golden-Ten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, J.C.; van der Genugten, B.B.

    1996-01-01

    Golden-Ten is an observation game in which players try to predict the outcome of the motion of a ball rolling down the surface of a drum.This paper describes the motion of the ball as a stochastic model, based on a deterministic, mechanical model.To this end, the motion is split into several stages,

  14. The Teenage Expertise Network (TEN): An Online Ethnographic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicola F.; Humphry, Nicoli

    2012-01-01

    The take-up of digital technology by young people is a well-known phenomenon and has been subject to socio-cultural analysis in areas such as youth studies and cultural studies. The Teenage Expertise Network (TEN) research project investigates how teenagers develop technological expertise in techno-cultural contexts via the use of a purposefully…

  15. Designing an Educational Game with Ten Steps to Complex Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enfield, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Few instructional design (ID) models exist which are specific for developing educational games. Moreover, those extant ID models have not been rigorously evaluated. No ID models were found which focus on educational games with complex learning objectives. "Ten Steps to Complex Learning" (TSCL) is based on the four component instructional…

  16. The Reality of Comenius Projects in Ten Catalan Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Colón-Plana, Mar

    2012-01-01

    This paper submits a qualitative study on different aspects of Comenius projects undertaken in ten educational centres in Catalonia during the academic year 07- 08. The objectives of this paper are to present these projects within the realities of particular school contexts, to emphasize the strengths and weaknesses of the projects, the…

  17. Antibacterial activity of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, S; Speciale, A; Acquaviva, R; Ferlito, G; Ragusa, S; De Pasquale, R; Iauk, L

    2009-08-17

    Roots of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus (Schiffner) Merxm. & Podl. are widely used in veterinary folk medicine in Sicily (Italy) to diagnose and cure lower respiratory tract infections in cattle. This study intended to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the methanolic root extract of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus, and of the bufadienolide and ecdysteroid fractions extracted from its roots, against strains belonging to species commonly associated with respiratory tract infections. The phytochemical screening of the previously prepared plant extracts was carried out by chemical, thin-layer chromatography and spectroscopic methods. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the extracts against seven different standard bacterial strains was evaluated by broth microdilution. According to the present study, Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus roots contain bufadienolides and ecdysteroids, and the extracts containing these compounds, as well as the crude methanolic root extract, show antibacterial activity against microorganisms responsible for respiratory infections. In particular, the bufadienolide extract has the highest inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms, and, as the other extracts, shows the lowest MIC values (100mug/ml) against Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Since the roots of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus contain substances with antibacterial activity, the traditional use of this plant may also derive from its antibacterial properties.

  18. A critical comparison of ten disposable cup LCAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harst, van der E.J.M.; Potting, J.

    2013-01-01

    Disposable cups can be made from conventional petro-plastics, bioplastics, or paperboard (coated with petro-plastics or bioplastics). This study compared ten life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of disposable cups with the aim to evaluate the robustness of their results. The selected studies have

  19. Basic Research on Ten Years’ Sandplay Therapy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yue-yue; LU Zhi-bo

    2016-01-01

    Sandplay therapy research has been further developed and remarkable achievements have been made in the recent ten years in our country. Basic research focus on the character analysis of different people groups when it is the first sandplay by the player. Diagnostic group characteristics can be deduced from how they use sand toys and space as well as different theme presentations.

  20. Ten Immunization-Related Tips in Outpatient Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jerome

    2017-04-01

    Keeping up with immunization recommendations and implementing them can be an ongoing challenge for clinicians. Ten tips related to various immunizations given in the outpatient setting are presented, as well as resources useful to the clinician in his or her daily practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Net Survey: "Top Ten Mistakes" in Academic Web Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, Paula

    2000-01-01

    Highlights the top ten mistakes in academic Web design: (1) bloated graphics; (2) scaling images; (3) dense text; (4) lack of contrast; (5) font size; (6) looping animations; (7) courseware authoring software; (8) scrolling/long pages; (9) excessive download; and (10) the nothing site. Includes resources. (CMK)

  2. Technical descriptions of ten irrigation technologies for conserving energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Technical description of ten technologies which were researched to save energy in irrigated agriculture are presented. These technologies are: well design and development ground water supply system optimization, column and pump redesign, variable-speed pumping, pipe network optimization, reduced-pressure center-pivot systems, low-energy precision application, automated gated-pipe system, computerized irrigation scheduling, and instrumented irrigation scheduling. (MHR)

  3. Natural vibration dynamics of Rainbow Bridge, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. R.; Thorne, M. S.; Wood, J. R.; Doyle, S.; Stanfield, E.; White, B.

    2015-12-01

    We measured resonant frequencies of Rainbow Bridge, Utah, one of the world's longest rock spans, during a field experiment recording ambient vibration data. Measurements were generated over 20 hours on March 23-24, 2015 using two broadband three-component seismometers placed on the bridge, and compared to concurrent data from nearby reference stations 20 and 220 m distant. We identified seven distinct modes of vibration for Rainbow Bridge between 1 and 6 Hz. Data for each resonant frequency was then analyzed to determine the frequency-dependent polarization vector in an attempt to clarify mode shapes; e.g. the fundamental mode represents out-of-plane horizontal flexure. We compared experimental data to results of 3D numerical modal analysis, using a new photogrammetric model of Rainbow Bridge generated in this study imported into COMSOL Multiphysics. Results compare well with measured data for seven of the first eight modeled modes, matching vibrational frequencies and polarization orientations generally within 10%. Only predicted mode 6 was not explicitly apparent in our experimental data. Large site-to-reference spectral ratios resolved from experimental data indicate high amplification on the bridge as compared to nearby bedrock.

  4. A probabilistic bridge safety evaluation against floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kuo-Wei; Muto, Yasunori; Chen, Wei-Lun; Wu, Bang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    To further capture the influences of uncertain factors on river bridge safety evaluation, a probabilistic approach is adopted. Because this is a systematic and nonlinear problem, MPP-based reliability analyses are not suitable. A sampling approach such as a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) or importance sampling is often adopted. To enhance the efficiency of the sampling approach, this study utilizes Bayesian least squares support vector machines to construct a response surface followed by an MCS, providing a more precise safety index. Although there are several factors impacting the flood-resistant reliability of a bridge, previous experiences and studies show that the reliability of the bridge itself plays a key role. Thus, the goal of this study is to analyze the system reliability of a selected bridge that includes five limit states. The random variables considered here include the water surface elevation, water velocity, local scour depth, soil property and wind load. Because the first three variables are deeply affected by river hydraulics, a probabilistic HEC-RAS-based simulation is performed to capture the uncertainties in those random variables. The accuracy and variation of our solutions are confirmed by a direct MCS to ensure the applicability of the proposed approach. The results of a numerical example indicate that the proposed approach can efficiently provide an accurate bridge safety evaluation and maintain satisfactory variation.

  5. Using rotating liquid bridges as accelerometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanero, J.M. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica; Cabezas, G.; Acero, J.; Zayas, F.

    1999-07-01

    Liquid bridges have recently been proposed as fluid accelerometers that could be used to measure very small inertial forces under microgravity conditions [Meseguer et al., microgravity sci. technol. IX/2 (1996)]. The essential idea is to infer the values of such inertial forces from the liquid bridge interface contour, whose shape obviously depends on the values of such forces (apart from the bridge volume and the geometry of the supporting disks). Following a similar procedure, in this paper we explore the use of rotating axisymmetric liquid bridges to measure the residual axial gravity and the rotation rate of the liquid bridge regarded as a solid body. In light off the difficulties involved in performing experiments on Earth, the role of empirical data is played by an accurate numerical solution of the Young-Laplace equation. The values of both the axial gravity and angular speed are obtained by fitting the approximate analytical expressions derived in this paper to the numerical solution of the Young-Laplace equation. The comparison between the predicted and actual values of the variables of interest shows a satisfactory agreement, supporting the suitability of the procedure. (orig.)

  6. Ecological bridges and barriers in pelagic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Dana K.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Carlisle, Aaron; Scales, Kylie; Eveson, J. Paige; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Druon, Jean Noel; Fromentin, Jean-Marc

    2017-06-01

    Many highly mobile species are known to use persistent pathways or corridors to move between habitat patches in which conditions are favorable for particular activities, such as breeding or foraging. In the marine realm, environmental variability can lead to the development of temporary periods of anomalous oceanographic conditions that can connect individuals to areas of habitat outside a population's usual range, or alternatively, restrict individuals from areas usually within their range, thus acting as ecological bridges or ecological barriers. These temporary features can result in novel or irregular trophic interactions and changes in population spatial dynamics, and, therefore, may have significant implications for management of marine ecosystems. Here, we provide evidence of ecological bridges and barriers in different ocean regions, drawing upon five case studies in which particular oceanographic conditions have facilitated or restricted the movements of individuals from highly migratory species. We discuss the potential population-level significance of ecological bridges and barriers, with respect to the life history characteristics of different species, and inter- and intra-population variability in habitat use. Finally, we summarize the persistence of bridge dynamics with time, our ability to monitor bridges and barriers in a changing climate, and implications for forecasting future climate-mediated ecosystem change.

  7. Bridges in the random-cluster model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Metin Elçi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The random-cluster model, a correlated bond percolation model, unifies a range of important models of statistical mechanics in one description, including independent bond percolation, the Potts model and uniform spanning trees. By introducing a classification of edges based on their relevance to the connectivity we study the stability of clusters in this model. We prove several exact relations for general graphs that allow us to derive unambiguously the finite-size scaling behavior of the density of bridges and non-bridges. For percolation, we are also able to characterize the point for which clusters become maximally fragile and show that it is connected to the concept of the bridge load. Combining our exact treatment with further results from conformal field theory, we uncover a surprising behavior of the (normalized variance of the number of (non-bridges, showing that it diverges in two dimensions below the value 4cos2⁡(π/3=0.2315891⋯ of the cluster coupling q. Finally, we show that a partial or complete pruning of bridges from clusters enables estimates of the backbone fractal dimension that are much less encumbered by finite-size corrections than more conventional approaches.

  8. MINERAL BRIDGES OF NACRE AND ITS EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凡; 白以龙

    2001-01-01

    Nacre, or mother-of-pearl, is a kind of composites of aragonite platelets sandwiched between organic materials. Its excellent mechanical properties are thought to stem from the microarchitecture that is traditionally described as a "brick and mortar" arrangement. In this paper, a new microstructure, referred to as mineral bridge in the biomineralization, is directly observed in the organic matrix layers (mortar) of nacre. This is an indication that the organic matrix layer of nacre should be treated as a three-dimensional interface and the microarchitecture of nacre ought to be considered as a "brick-bridge-mortar" structure rather than the traditional one. Experiments and analyses show that the mineral bridges not only improve the mechanical properties of the organic matrix layers but also play an important role in the pattern of the crack extension in nacre.

  9. Fast Hough transform for automatic bridge extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiwei; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang; Zhang, Huaili

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, a new method to recognize bridge in the complicated background is presented. The algorithm takes full advantages of the characteristics of the bridge image. Firstly, the image is preprocessed and the object edges are extracted. Then according to the limitations of traditional Hough transform (HT), the extraction method of the image line segment characteristic of HT is improved, which eliminates spurious peaks on the basis of global and local thresholds, discriminates the position relation between two straight line segments, and merges segments with near endpoints, etc. Experiments show that this algorithm is more precise and efficient than traditional HT, moreover it can provide a complete description of the bridge in a complicated background.

  10. Influence of Icing on Bridge Cable Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koss, Holger; Frej Henningsen, Jesper; Olsen, Idar

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the relevance of ice accretion for wind-induced vibration of structural bridge cables has been recognised and became a subject of research in bridge engineering. Full-scale monitoring and observation indicate that light precipitation at moderate low temperatures between zero and -...... forces of different bridge cables types. The experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel facility capable amongst others to simulate incloud icing conditions........ The determination of these force coefficients require a proper simulation of the ice layer occurring under the specific climatic conditions, favouring real ice accretion over simplified artificial reproduction. The work presented in this paper was performed to study the influence of ice accretion on the aerodynamic...

  11. Ergonomic aspects of automation in navigation bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazet, A; Walraven, P L

    1971-06-01

    New ergonomic questions arise from the tendency toward increasing automation in maritime operations. Direct control of engines and rudder from the bridge promises improved ship control, provided that the operator can really exploit the technical improvements. To make such direct control most efficient, good ergonomic design is essential. A series of designs of navigation bridges is used to illustrate typical problems and situations. The building of full scale mock-ups of complete bridges is essential in order to handle the design as an integrated problem and to simulate the work situation. Such static mock-ups have been shown to be extremely useful in the discussion between builder, future user and adviser. An extension to dynamic simulation is necessary in order to study the actual work conditions in a new design.

  12. Building bridges within the bacterial chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dan; Loparo, Joseph J

    2015-03-01

    All organisms must dramatically compact their genomes to accommodate DNA within the cell. Bacteria use a set of DNA-binding proteins with low sequence specificity called nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) to assist in chromosome condensation and organization. By bending or bridging DNA, NAPs also facilitate chromosome segregation and regulate gene expression. Over the past decade, emerging single-molecule and chromosome conformation capture techniques have investigated the molecular mechanisms by which NAPs remodel and organize the bacterial chromosome. In this review we describe how such approaches reveal the biochemical mechanisms of three NAPs that are believed to facilitate DNA bridging: histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS), ParB, and structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC). These three proteins form qualitatively different DNA bridges, leading to varied effects on transcription and chromosome segregation.

  13. Myocardial bridges in dogs. II. Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Coutinho do Amaral

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors have studied the location of myocardial bridges in 134 hearts of different breed, pure dogs. After injection of Neoprene Latex or gelatine solution, the coronary arteries were dissected. Myocardial bridges (90.43% were observed in branches of the left coronary arteries, and 9.57% in branches of the right coronary arteries. The bridges' locations were: 37.23% in the dorsal portion; 28.72% in the medium portion; 21.28% in the ventral portion; 7.45% in the vertex portion; 3.19% simultaneously in the dorsal and medium portions and 2.13% simultaneously in the medium and ventral portions. Statistical differences were not observed between males and females.

  14. Stability of dynamic response of suspension bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsoni, Antonio; Ardito, Raffaele; Guerrieri, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The potential occurrence of internal parametric resonance phenomena has been recently indicated as a potential contributory cause of the appearance of critical dynamic states in long-span suspension bridges. At the same time, suspension bridges, in view of their flexibility, are prone to aeroelastic response, such as vortex shedding, torsional divergence and flutter. In this paper, a non-linear dynamic model of a suspension bridge is devised, with the purpose of providing a first attempt toward a unified framework for the study of aeroelastic and internal resonance instabilities. Inspired by the pioneering work of Herrmann and Hauger, the analyses have been based on a linearized formulation that is able to represent the main structural non-linear effects and the coupling given by aerodynamic forces. The results confirm that the interaction between aeroelastic effects and non-linear internal resonance leads to unstable conditions for wind speeds which can be lower than the critical threshold for standard aeroelastic predictions.

  15. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening...... projects at a minimum, it is necessary to perform accurate estimates of the dynamic amplification factor (defined as the dynamic load effect divided by the static load effect from the vehicles), so this quantity is neither over- nor underestimated. The principal aims of the present paper are to establish...... the numerical models for the mathematical models of the vehicles and the bridge from which the load amplification factors can be estimated assuming that the dynamic parameters of the vehicles and the modal parameters of the bridge are known....

  16. Operational modal analysis of road-rail bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso M.; Sampaio R. A. C.; de Souza R. M.; Silva E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) of the Bridge over the Tocantins River, a composite road-rail bridge located in the city of Marabá, state of Pará, northern Brazil. The bridge is part of the Carajás Railway, which is used by VALE Company to transport iron ore from “Serra dos Carajás”, the largest mineral reserve of the planet. The bridge has a length of 2310m, being the second longest road-rail bridge in Brazil. The study focused on the bridge central span (with ...

  17. MULTIPHASE BLASTING OF THE BRIDGE ACROSS THE DRENICA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Božić

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of new bridges on the sites of the existing ones require demolition of the old bridge. Due to closeness of newly erected bridge elements the fundations of old bridges are demolished by multiphase blasting process. The blasting of the piers and anchorages of the bridge across 'the Drenica river carrying the Balačevac—Goleš industrial railway was done in four phases. The piers and anchorages of a new bridge and its construction elements have been erected before (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. Extracorporeal Life Support Bridge to Ventricular Assist Device: The Double Bridge Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Silvana F; Lo, Casey; Murphy, Deirdre; Summerhayes, Robyn; Quayle, Margaret; Zimmet, Adam; Bailey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In patients requiring left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support, it can be difficult to ascertain suitability for long-term mechanical support with LVAD and eventual transplantation. LVAD implantation in a shocked patient is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Interest is growing in the utilization of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) as a bridge-to-bridge support for these critically unwell patients. Here, we reviewed our experience with ECLS double bridging. We hypothesized that ECLS double bridging would stabilize end-organ dysfunction and reduce ventricular assist device (VAD) implant perioperative mortality. We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data for 58 consecutive patients implanted with a continuous-flow LVAD between January 2010 and December 2013 at The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Twenty-three patients required ECLS support pre-LVAD while 35 patients underwent LVAD implantation without an ECLS bridge. Preoperative morbidity in the ECLS bridge group was reflected by increased postoperative intensive care duration, blood loss, blood product use, and postoperative renal failure, but without negative impact upon survival when compared with the no ECLS group. ECLS stabilization improved end-organ function pre-VAD implant with significant improvements in hepatic and renal dysfunction. This series demonstrates that the use of ECLS bridge to VAD stabilizes end-organ dysfunction and reduces VAD implant perioperative mortality from that traditionally reported in these "crash and burn" patients.

  19. Dragon bridge - the world largest dragon-shaped (ARCH steel bridge as element of smart city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinh Luong Minh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dragon Bridge - The world’s largest dragon-shaped steel bridge, with an installation cost of $85 million USD, features 6 lanes for two separate directions, 666 meters of undulating steel in the shape of a dragon in the Ly Dynasty, the symbol of prosperity in Vietnamese culture. This unique and beautifully lit bridge, which also breathes fire and sprays water. It’s the purposeful integration of the lighting hardware articulates the dragon’s form, and the fire-breathing dragon head. This project transcends the notion of monumental bridge with dynamic colour-changing lighting, creating an iconic sculpture in the skyline that is both reverent and whimsical. The signature feature of the bridge was the massive undulating support structure resembling a dragon flying over the river. The dragon is prominent in Vietnamese culture as a symbol of power and nobility. Dragon Bridge stands out as a model of innovation. It has received worldwide attention in the design community and from the global media for its unique arch support system. Dragon Bridge serves as an example of how aesthetic quality of a design can serve cultural, economic and functional purposes. The article presents design solutions of the object and the evaluation of the technical condition before putting the facility into service.

  20. The seismic response of concrete arch bridges (with focus on the Bixby Creek bridge Carmel, California)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehler, M; McCallen, D; Noble, C

    1999-06-01

    The analysis, and subsequent retrofit, of concrete arch bridges during recent years has relied heavily on the use of computational simulation. For seismic analysis in particular, computer simulation, typically utilizing linear approximations of structural behavior, has become standard practice. This report presents the results of a comprehensive study of the significance of model sophistication (i.e. linear vs. nonlinear) and pertinent modeling assumptions on the dynamic response of concrete arch bridges. The study uses the Bixby Creek Bridge, located in California, as a case study. In addition to presenting general recommendations for analysis of this class of structures, this report provides an independent evaluation of the proposed seismic retrofit for the Bixby Creek Bridge. Results from the study clearly illustrate a reduction of displacement drifts and redistribution of member forces brought on by the inclusion of material nonlinearity. The analyses demonstrate that accurate modeling of expansion joints, for the Bixby Creek Bridge in particular, is critical to achieve representative modal and transient behavior. The inclusion of near-field displacement pulses in ground motion records was shown to significantly increase demand on the relatively softer, longer period Bixby Creek Bridge arch. Stiffer, shorter period arches, however, are more likely susceptible to variable support motions arising from the canyon topography typical for this class of bridges.

  1. Composite timber-concrete road bridge structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić Dragoslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents preliminary design of the road bridge made of laminated timber. The supporting system of the main bearing elements is made of the laminated timber in the system of arch with three joints; the bridge slab is designed as continuous slab, made of nine equal fields; each pair is made as composite timber-concrete beam, where the road slab is made of concrete and the needle pieces are made of timber. Fundament is based on HW piles. All the elements are designed to Eurocode.

  2. Stability of a liquid bridge under vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benilov, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    We examine the stability of a vertical liquid bridge between two vertically vibrating, coaxial disks. Assuming that the vibration amplitude and period are much smaller than the mean distance between the disks and the global timescale, respectively, we employ the method of multiple scales to derive a set of asymptotic equations. The set is then used to examine the stability of a bridge of an almost cylindrical shape. It is shown that, if acting alone, gravity is a destabilizing influence, whereas vibration can weaken it or even eliminate altogether. Thus, counter-intuitively, vibration can stabilize an otherwise unstable capillary structure.

  3. Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, A. D.; Dalslet, B. T.; Skieller, D. H.; Lee, K. H.; Okkels, F.; Hansen, M. F.

    2010-07-01

    Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can be significantly enhanced by a geometric factor. For the samples in the present study, we demonstrate an enhancement of the sensor output by a factor of about 100 compared to cross-shaped sensors. The presented construction opens a new design and application area of the planar Hall effect, which we term planar Hall effect bridge sensors.

  4. Analysis of Biaxially Stressed Bridge Deck Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, Tommi Højer

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate state analysis of bridge deck plates at the intersection zone between main girders and transverse beams is complicated by biaxial membrane stresses, which may be in compression or tension in either direction depending on the bridge configuration and the specific location. This paper...... presents a detailed investigation of the ultimate capacity of simply supported plates subjected to biaxial loads. The full interaction domain of combinations of compressive and tensile loads has been investigated including a large number of imperfections. It was found that non-standard imperfection modes...

  5. V. Tormis: "Bridge of Song / Brian Hunt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hunt, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "V. Tormis: "Bridge of Song" - Bridge of Song; Singing aboard ship; Brides Farewell; Kihnu Island Wedding Songs; 17 Estonian Wedding Songs; Three Estonian Game Songs; Four Estonian Lullabies. Estonian Radio Choir / Toomas Kapten. Finlandia 4509 96937-2; 56:52 DDD; "People of Kalevala" - God protect us from war; Vespian Winter; Eagle Flew From the North East; Plague Memory; Vainamoinen's Words of Wisdom; The Seventeenth Rune of Kalevala. National Male Choir of Estonia. Finlandia 0630 12245-2; 56:52 DDD

  6. Construction Technology of Long Span Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    A large variety of construction methods are used during construction of major bridges, and in many cases the final structural system must be chosen with due respect to the construction process. Today the preferred construction methods are: the free-cantilever method, the launching method and the ......A large variety of construction methods are used during construction of major bridges, and in many cases the final structural system must be chosen with due respect to the construction process. Today the preferred construction methods are: the free-cantilever method, the launching method...

  7. A Bridge Deflection Monitoring with GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figurski, M.; Gałuszkiewicz, M.; Wrona, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces results of investigation carried on by The Applied Geomatics Section in Military University of Technology. Research includes possibilities of monitoring dynamic behavior of a bridge using high rate GPS data. Whole event was executed with collaboration of The Road and Bridge Management and The Warsaw Geodesy Company. Interdisciplinary approach with this project allows authors to get reliable information about investigating constructions and their respond for true traffic loading detected by GPS receivers. Way of compute data and used software (TRACK) are also shown in this paper.

  8. V. Tormis: "Bridge of Song / Brian Hunt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hunt, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "V. Tormis: "Bridge of Song" - Bridge of Song; Singing aboard ship; Brides Farewell; Kihnu Island Wedding Songs; 17 Estonian Wedding Songs; Three Estonian Game Songs; Four Estonian Lullabies. Estonian Radio Choir / Toomas Kapten. Finlandia 4509 96937-2; 56:52 DDD; "People of Kalevala" - God protect us from war; Vespian Winter; Eagle Flew From the North East; Plague Memory; Vainamoinen's Words of Wisdom; The Seventeenth Rune of Kalevala. National Male Choir of Estonia. Finlandia 0630 12245-2; 56:52 DDD

  9. Bridge Influence Line Estimation for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System

    OpenAIRE

    Ieng, Sio Song

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that estimates the influence line (IL) of a bridge using data collected when trucks pass over the sensors installed in the bridge. The algorithm is tested with data collected from the Millau Viaduct in France using a bridge weigh-in-motion (B-WIM) device. The algorithm uses the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and is compared with an old algorithm. The algorithm is more robust because it takes into account many signals for the estimation of the IL.

  10. Resolved astrometric orbits of ten O-type binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Bouquin, J -B Le; Gosset, E; De Becker, M; Duvert, G; Absil, O; Anthonioz, F; Berger, J -P; Ertel, S; Grellmann, R; Guieu, S; Kervella, P; Rabus, M; Willson, M

    2016-01-01

    Our long term aim is to derive model-independent stellar masses and distances for long period massive binaries by combining apparent astrometric orbit with double-lined radial velocity amplitudes (SB2). We follow-up ten O+O binaries with AMBER, PIONIER and GRAVITY at the VLTI. Here, we report about 130 astrometric observations over the last 7 years. We combine this dataset with distance estimates to compute the total mass of the systems. We also compute preliminary individual component masses for the five systems with available SB2 radial velocities. Nine over the ten binaries have their three dimensional orbit well constrained. Four of them are known colliding wind, non-thermal radio emitters, and thus constitute valuable targets for future high angular resolution radio imaging. Two binaries break the correlation between period and eccentricity tentatively observed in previous studies. It suggests either that massive star formation produce a wide range of systems, or that several binary formation mechanisms ...

  11. How green are the TEN-T core network corridors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    "Green corridors‟ is a concept introduced by the European Commission to enhance the provision of sustainable freight transport logistics services by concentrating freight traffic between major hubs and by relatively long distances. SuperGreen, a Coordination and Support Action aiming at further...... defining this concept, identified the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from an otherwise efficient one. The main thesis of this paper is that the „core network corridors‟ of the new TEN-T guidelines exhibit all these qualities and the vision of a green corridor network in Europe is close...... to reality. To support this thesis, and in continuation of the work of SuperGreen, the paper examines the proposed new „guidelines‟ for the development of the TEN-T after presenting a brief history of transport network development in Europe....

  12. Team learning in medical education: initial experiences at ten institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Nancy S; Haidet, Paul; Kelly, P Adam; Schneider, Virginia F; Seidel, Charles L; Richards, Boyd F

    2003-10-01

    In the midst of curricular reforms that frequently call for reducing lectures and increasing small-group teaching, there is a crisis in faculty time for teaching. This paper describes the initial experiences of ten institutions with team learning (TL), a teaching method which fosters small-group learning in a large-class setting. After initial pilot studies at one institution, nine additional institutions implemented TL in one or more courses. Within 18 months, TL has been used in 40 courses (from.5% to 100% of the time) and all ten institutions will increase its use next year. We surmise that this relatively rapid spread of TL into the medical curriculum is due to the sound pedagogy and efficiency of TL as well as the modest financial resources and support we have provided to partner institutions.

  13. Tensão prémenstrual e criminalidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Miranda

    1966-06-01

    Full Text Available Num estudo efetuado em 40 presidiárias, o autor verificou que a incidência da síndrome de tensão pré-menstrual foi de 35%. Entre os crimes de distribuição conhecida, 40% foram cometidos na primeira semana anterior ao fluxo menstrual; nessa época ocorreram 45,4% dos furtos, 47,3% dos crimes de violência e 53,8% dos homicídios. Durante o fluxo menstrual foram praticados 20% dos crimes. Verificou, ainda, que a ausência da síndrome de tensão pré-menstrual não implica em menor possibilidade da ocorrência de crimes na semana anterior ao fluxo menstrual.

  14. [THE TEN MOST CITED ARTICLES OF THE JOURNAL "NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-López, Ángeles; González-Gallego, Javier; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Tuñón, María Jesús; García-De-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Culebras, Jesús M

    2015-12-01

    After 36 years of continued publication of the journal Nutrición Hospitalaria, a list with the ten most cited articles published in it is elaborated. The top ten most cited articles in the world literature and stratification according to language, English or Spanish, subject, or period of time published are also analyzed. Nutr Hosp is the most important Ibero latin American nutrition journal. Nutr Hosp published 369 items in 2014 gaining the fourth position among all the world's journals devoted to nutrition. Article publication in English, or simultaneously in Spanish and English and Open Access policy probably benefit the number of citations. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. TEN KEY CONCEPTS AND THE SUCCESS OF ROMANIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Mirela TOMESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on ten key concepts which influence the success of theorganizations at the beginning of XXI century. The great changes generatedby globalization determine firms to be more competitive. This means that wehave to focus on: mission, leadership, emotional intelligence, innovation,organizational culture, human resources, total quality management, ethics,conflict management, brand, and the value offered to the clients.

  16. Ten Challenges of the Amyloid Hypothesis of Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2017-01-01

    The inability to effectively halt or cure Alzheimer's disease (AD), exacerbated by the recent failures of high-profile clinical trials, emphasizes the urgent need to understand the complex biochemistry of this major neurodegenerative disease. In this paper, ten central, current challenges...... as a background model of the disease, unify our understanding of the interplay between genetic and non-genetic risk factors, and combine into one framework both the familial and sporadic forms of the disease....

  17. Ten lessons for developing a health information website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottmann, Goetz; Street, Annette F

    2007-11-01

    This paper outlines ten lessons derived from the development of a palliative care website, www.pallcarevic.asn.au. The following program elements contributed to the success of the project: (1) peer and stakeholder participation; (2) response to a significant need; (3) networking skills; (4) administrative skills; (5) mediation of conflicts; (6) project management skills; (7) sourcing of good evidence; (8) iterative evaluation involving users and stakeholders; (9) iterative expert evaluation; and (10) a well thought through sustainability strategy.

  18. Ten Cases of Colovesical Fistula due to Sigmoid Diverticulitis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Colovesical fistula (CVF) resulting from colon diverticulosis is a comparatively rare disease, and neither the diagnosis nor treatment has been established. Our experience with CVF due to sigmoid diverticulitis over a 9-year period was reviewed to clarify the clinical presentation and diagnostic confirmation. Ten patients with CVF were identified in this period, and chief complaints, laboratory findings, presenting symptoms, diagnostic investigations, and subsequent treatments were reviewed. ...

  19. The Ten Commandments tra Vecchio e Nuovo Testamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Berti Raffaele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cecil B. DeMille adapted for the screen the biblical text of Exodus twice, and in both cases he devised sophisticated strategies for intersemiotic translation with the aim to create a great show for a popular Christian audience. This is the reason why The Ten Commandments cannot be considered a mere illustration of the biblical story but instead a complex fiction film, which uses the Bible only as a starting point.

  20. In vitro activity of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Fang; Candy, Kerdalidec; Melloul, Elise; Bernigaud, Charlotte; Chai, Ling; Darmon, Céline; Durand, Rémy; Botterel, Françoise; Chosidow, Olivier; Izri, Arezki; Huang, Weiyi; GUILLOT, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of alternative approaches in ectoparasite management is currently required. Essential oils have been demonstrated to exhibit fumigant and topical toxicity to a number of arthropods. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential efficacy of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei. Methods The major chemical components of the oils were identified by GC-MS analysis. Contact and fumigation bioassays were performed on Sarcoptes mites collected from experi...

  1. Ten inherited disorders in purebred dogs by functional breed groupings

    OpenAIRE

    Oberbauer, A. M.; Belanger, J. M.; Bellumori, T.; Bannasch, D.L.; Famula, T. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Analysis of 88,635 dogs seen at the University of California, Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1995 to 2010 identified ten inherited conditions having greater prevalence within the purebred dog population as compared to the mixed-breed dog population: aortic stenosis, atopy/allergic dermatitis, gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV), early onset cataracts, dilated cardiomyopathy, elbow dysplasia, epilepsy, hypothyroidism, intervertebral disk disease (IVDD), and hepatic po...

  2. Distinct fatty acid profile of ten brown macroalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Graça Silva; Pereira, Renato B.; Patrícia Valentão; Andrade, Paula B.; Carla Sousa

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has beneficial effects on human health. In this work, ten brown macroalgae species collected along the Portuguese west coast were studied for their fatty acids composition by GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis and derivatization. The results of this survey showed that different macroalgae from the same region display distinct fatty acids profile. Concerning ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic ac...

  3. Glucose response after a ten-week training in swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengoku, Y; Nakamura, K; Takeda, T; Nabekura, Y; Tsubakimoto, S

    2011-11-01

    The present study investigated the difference in blood glucose concentration (Glu) response during an incremental swimming test before and after a ten-week training period and verified whether blood glucose threshold (GT) could be determined in competitive swimmers. 7 elite male university swimmers participated in this study. 2 incremental swimming tests were conducted in a swimming flume before and after a ten-week training period. Blood lactate concentration (Bla) and Glu were measured after each swimming step, and the velocities of the lactate threshold (VLT) and glucose threshold (VGT) were analyzed. VLT increased significantly after training (1.21±0.06 m x s(-1) pre-training, 1.31±0.10 m x s(-1) post-training, pswimming intensity steps. GT was not determined at each trial. Our results show that lactate threshold (LT) improved significantly after the ten-week training period, while the Glu response during incremental swimming tests did not change. Therefore, GT could not be determined in elite competitive swimmers before and after training. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Six to Ten Digits Multiplication Fun Learning Using Puppet Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamiah Rosli, D.'oria; Ali, Azita; Peng, Lim Soo; Sujardi, Imam; Usodo, Budi; Adie Perdana, Fengky

    2017-01-01

    Logic and technical subjects require students to understand basic knowledge in mathematic. For instance, addition, minus, division and multiplication operations need to be mastered by students due to mathematic complexity as the learning mathematic grows higher. Weak foundation in mathematic also contribute to high failure rate in mathematic subjects in schools. In fact, students in primary schools are struggling to learn mathematic because they need to memorize formulas, multiplication or division operations. To date, this study will develop a puppet prototyping for learning mathematic for six to ten digits multiplication. Ten participants involved in the process of developing the prototype in this study. Students involved in the study were those from the intermediate class students whilst teachers were selected based on their vast knowledge and experiences and have more than five years of experience in teaching mathematic. Close participatory analysis will be used in the prototyping process as to fulfil the requirements of the students and teachers whom will use the puppet in learning six to ten digit multiplication in mathematic. Findings showed that, the students had a great time and fun learning experience in learning multiplication and they able to understand the concept of multiplication using puppet. Colour and materials of the puppet also help to attract student attention during learning. Additionally, students able to visualized and able to calculate accurate multiplication value and the puppet help them to recall in multiplying and adding the digits accordingly.

  5. Effective dose span of ten different cone beam CT devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottke, D; Patzelt, S; Poxleitner, P; Schulze, D

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation and reduction of dose are important issues. Since cone beam CT (CBCT) has been established now not just in dentistry, the number of acquired examinations continues to rise. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to compare the doses of available devices on the market owing to different exposition parameters, volumes and geometries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spans of effective doses (EDs) of ten different CBCT devices. 48 thermoluminescent dosemeters were placed in 24 sites in a RANDO(®) head phantom. Protocols with lowest exposition parameters and protocols with highest exposition parameters were performed for each of the ten devices. The ED was calculated from the measured energy doses according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection 2007 recommendations for each protocol and device, and the statistical values were evaluated afterwards. The calculation of the ED resulted in values between 17.2 µSv and 396 µSv for the ten devices. The mean values for protocols with lowest and highest exposition parameters were 31.6 µSv and 209 µSv, respectively. It was not the aim of this study to evaluate the image quality depending on different exposition parameters but to define the spans of EDs in which different CBCT devices work. There is a wide span of ED for different CBCT devices depending on the selected exposition parameters, required spatial resolution and many other factors.

  6. Metateoretiese vertrekpunte ten opsigte van wetenskaplike navorsing in die Liturgiek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barend J. de Klerk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Om die nuwe ontwikkelings in die Liturgiek grondig te kan beoordeel, moet na die metateoretiese onderbou van die verskillende standpunte gekyk word. Wanneer ’n navorser op die terrein van die Liturgiek nie hierdie wendings in sy metateoretiese vertrekpunte verreken nie, kan sodanige navorser of meegesleur word deur hierdie denkrigtings, of aan die ander kant, impulsief reaksionêr ’n onwetenskaplike oordeel daaroor uitspreek. Die navorsingsartikel het daarom ten doel om die eie reformatoriese metateoretiese vertrekpunte ten opsigte van die Liturgiek te probeer formuleer en om vas te stel wat die invloed daarvan is in die konteks van wendings in die denkklimaat asook die leefwêreld en kultuur waarin die wetenskaplike taak uitgevoer word. Hierdie navorsingsartikel het verder ten doel om ’n voorbeeld daar te stel hoe hierdie metateoretiese beskouing ’n navorsingsprojek kan stuur. Die wyse waarop God in die doop werksaam is en die effek daarvan op vergifnis en versoening in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks, is die voorbeeld van hoe ’n navorsingsprojek in die wetenskap van die Liturgiek aangepak kan word.

  7. Frictional amyloidosis in Oman - A study of ten cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Venkataram

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Macular amyloidosis is an important cause for cutaneous pigmentation, the aetiology of which is poorly understood. Friction has recently been implicated the causation of early lesions, referred to as frictional amyloidosis. Confirmation of diagnosis by the detect on of amyloid using histochemical stains is inconsistent. Ten patients with pigmentation suggestive of macular amyloidosis were studied with detailed history, clinical examination, biopsy for histochemistry and electron microscopy. Nine out of ten patients had a history of prolonged friction with various objects such as bath sponges, brushes, towels, plant sticks and leaves. Amyloid was demonstrated by histochemical staining in only six out of ten cases. In the remaining four cases, amyloid was detected by electron microscopy. These consisted of aggregates of non-branching, extracellular, intertwining fibres measuring between 200-500 nm in length and between 20-25 nm in diameter. The study confirms the role of friction in the causation of this condition. Histochemical stains are not always successful in the detection of amyloid and electron microscopy is helpful for confirming its presence. The term frictional amyloidosis aptly describes the condition.

  8. Violin bridge mobility analysis under in-plane excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-Zhong; Zhang, Guang-Ming; Ye, Bang-Yan; Liang, Li-Dong

    2013-11-08

    The vibration of a violin bridge is a dynamic contact vibration with two interfaces: strings-bridge, and bridge feet-top plate. In this paper, the mobility of an isolated bridge under in-plane excitation is explored using finite element modeling based on the contact vibration model. Numerical results show that the dynamic contact stiffness in the two contact interfaces has a great impact on the bridge mobility. A main resonance peak is observed in the frequency range of 2-3 kHz in the frequency response of the isolated bridge when the contact stiffness is smaller than a critical threshold. The main resonance peak frequency is affected by the contact stiffness as well. In order to verify the numerical findings, a novel experimental system is then designed on the basis of a piezoelectric dynamometer for bridge mobility analysis. Experimental results confirm the impact of the dynamic contact stiffness on the bridge mobility.

  9. CDC WONDER: Population - Bridged-Race July 1st Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Population - Bridged-Race July 1st Estimates online databases report bridged-race population estimates of the July 1st resident population of the United States,...

  10. Foot force models of crowd dynamics on a wobbly bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Belykh, Igor; Belykh, Vladamir

    2016-01-01

    Modern pedestrian and suspension bridges are designed using industry-standard packages, yet disastrous resonant vibrations are observed, necessitating multi-million dollar repairs. Recent examples include pedestrian induced vibrations during the openings of the Solf\\'erino Bridge in Paris in 1999 and the increased bouncing of the Squibb Park Bridge in Brooklyn in 2014. The most prominent example of an unstable lively bridge is the London Millennium Bridge which started wobbling as a result of pedestrian-bridge interactions. Pedestrian phase-locking due to footstep phase adjustment, is suspected to be the main cause of its large lateral vibrations; however, its role in the initiation of wobbling was debated. In this paper, we develop foot force models of pedestrians' response to bridge motion and detailed, yet analytically tractable models of crowd phase-locking. We use bio-mechanically inspired models of crowd lateral movement to investigate to what degree pedestrian synchrony must be present for a bridge to ...

  11. Hydraulic bridges in unsaturated coarse granular media: Influence of bridge size and conductivity on flow through clasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Jeevan A.; Nicholl, Michael J.

    2016-10-01

    Unsaturated flow in coarse granular media must pass through hydraulic bridges (e.g., pendular water, porous connections) that form a physical connection between adjoining clasts. Previous studies suggest that volumetric flow through a porous clast (Q) will be linearly dependent on the cross-sectional area of the hydraulic bridges, and understate the importance of bridge conductivity. Numerical simulations were performed to explore steady-state flow through a spherical clast with identical bridges located at the top and bottom. The cross-sectional area of the bridges relative to that of the clast (Ar) was varied across six orders of magnitude. The ratio of hydraulic conductivity between bridges and clasts (Kb/Kc) was varied across 12 orders of magnitude to consider resistive, neutral, and conductive bridges. Results show that hydraulic bridges place a primary control on both Q and flux distribution within the clast. For neutral and conductive bridges (Kb/Kc ≥1), Ar is the dominant factor in determining Q, while Kb/Kc is the primary control for resistive bridges (Kb/Kc < 1). For all bridges, Q shows a non-linear dependency on both Ar and Kb/Kc. The intra-clast flow distribution shifts outwards as Ar increases. Conductive bridges promote this process and resistive bridges impede it.

  12. Circuit bridging of components by smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.J.; Nowlen, S.P.; Anderson, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Smoke can adversely affect digital electronics; in the short term, it can lead to circuit bridging and in the long term to corrosion of metal parts. This report is a summary of the work to date and component-level tests by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control equipment. The component tests focused on short-term effects such as circuit bridging in typical components and the factors that can influence how much the smoke will affect them. These factors include the component technology and packaging, physical board protection, and environmental conditions such as the amount of smoke, temperature of burn, and humidity level. The likelihood of circuit bridging was tested by measuring leakage currents and converting those currents to resistance in ohms. Hermetically sealed ceramic packages were more resistant to smoke than plastic packages. Coating the boards with an acrylic spray provided some protection against circuit bridging. The smoke generation factors that affect the resistance the most are humidity, fuel level, and burn temperature. The use of CO{sub 2} as a fire suppressant, the presence of galvanic metal, and the presence of PVC did not significantly affect the outcome of these results.

  13. LPN/ADN Bridge Course. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jan; And Others

    This curriculum guide has been constructed in order to bridge the skills gap between licensed practical nursing (LPN) programs and associate degree nursing (ADN) programs in Missouri. The curriculum was developed through a cooperative effort by persons from both sectors. The curriculum contains four major units, each consisting of several lessons,…

  14. Steel plate reinforcement of orthotropic bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD research is focused on the reinforcement of fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks (OBD) by adding a second steel plate to the existing deck. The main idea is to stiffen the existing deck plate, which will reduce the stresses at the fatigue sensitive details and extend the fatigue li

  15. AFM plough YBCO micro bridges: substrate effects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Elkaseh, A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available AFM nanolithography was used as a novel cutting technique to define micro-size YBCO superconducting constrictions. Researchers studied the substrate effects on MgO and STO substrates and showed that the observed Shapiro steps from the bridges on STO...

  16. Thermal Bridge Effects in Window Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report thermal bridge effects in window grooves are analyzed. The analysis is performed using different thicknesses of the window groove insulation, to evaluate what the optimal solution is.All analysis in the report is performed using both 2- and 3-dimensional numerical analysis....

  17. 75 FR 41281 - Bridge Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... ineffective in the case of certain special inspections. For instance, if a highway vehicle strike occasions a... bridge had twice again been struck by a highway vehicle and inspected. This is not realistic, so the..., Preemptive effect. See 74 FR 41573. One commenter questioned whether the provisions in the proposed...

  18. New Program Builds Bridges for Hearing Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeannie

    1998-01-01

    Describes a new approach to teaching English-as-a-Second-Language to New Mexico elementary school students who have hearing impairments and whose dominant language is American Sign Language (ASL). These students must first acquire ASL as a bridge to learning English. Then, using the bilingual approach, they are able to focus on English literacy.…

  19. Fiber reinforced polymer composites for bridge structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra CANTORIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid advances in construction materials technology have led to the emergence of new materials with special properties, aiming at safety, economy and functionality of bridges structures. A class of structural materials which was originally developed many years ago, but recently caught the attention of engineers involved in the construction of bridges is fiber reinforced polymer composites. This paper provides an overview of fiber reinforced polymer composites used in bridge structures including types, properties, applications and future trends. The results of this study have revealed that this class of materials presents outstanding properties such as high specific strength, high fatigue and environmental resistance, lightweight, stiffness, magnetic transparency, highly cost-effective, and quick assembly, but in the same time high initial costs, lack of data on long-term field performance, low fire resistance. Fiber reinforced polymer composites were widely used in construction of different bridge structures such as: deck and tower, I-beams, tendons, cable stands and proved to be materials for future in this field.

  20. Ergonomic aspects of automation in navigation bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazet, A.; Walraven, P.L.

    1971-01-01

    New ergonomic questions arise from the tendency toward increasing automation in maritime operations. Direct control of engines and rudder from the bridge promises improved ship control, provided that the operator can really exploit the technical improvements. To make such direct control most efficie

  1. Bridging the digital divide with mobile services

    CERN Document Server

    Yelton, Andromeda

    2013-01-01

    In this issue of Library Technology Reports, Andromeda Yelton shows how libraries can build on the breadth of this population to help bridge the digital divide and provide even greater access to information. Yelton breaks down the demographics of mobile internet users, provides examples of how different libraries are reaching out to these populations, and suggests what the future may hold for this trend.

  2. Building Bridges to Better Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    This information dissemination report presents a brief introduction to the Building Bridges to Better Bilingual Education Program of the Central Board of Education of the City of New York. The primary aim of the program is to promote the linguistic and academic progress of those Title I eligible Spanish-speaking children whose achievement levels…

  3. The mechanics of ship impacts against bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    a glancing blow between the ship and the bridge structure. This model is based on rigid body mechanics and well suited for inclusion in a probabilistic analysis procedure. Finally, some empirical expressions are presented which relate the energy absorbed by crushing of ship structures to the maximum impact...

  4. Bridges with Trigonometry Equals Engineering Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathing, Ahmed L.

    2011-01-01

    Exemplary and fun technology education classes in high schools are always welcome. The author introduces bridge building to his ninth graders and other students who comprise the Introduction to Engineering and Technology course within the first two months of the fall semester. In Georgia, Introduction to Engineering and Technology is the first of…

  5. New Program Builds Bridges for Hearing Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeannie

    1998-01-01

    Describes a new approach to teaching English-as-a-Second-Language to New Mexico elementary school students who have hearing impairments and whose dominant language is American Sign Language (ASL). These students must first acquire ASL as a bridge to learning English. Then, using the bilingual approach, they are able to focus on English literacy.…

  6. Aeroelastic Stability of Suspension Bridges using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærdahl, Jesper Winther; Sørensen, Niels; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years large span suspension bridges with very thin and slender profiles have been built without proportional increasing torsional and bending stiffness. As a consequence large deformations at the mid-span can occur with risk of aeroelastic instability and structural failure. Analysis...

  7. Tutte Polynomial of Multi-Bridge Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A. Allagan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using a well-known recursion for computing the Tutte polynomial of any graph, we found explicit formulae for the Tutte polynomials of any multi-bridge graph and some $2-$tree graphs. Further, several recursive formulae for other graphs such as the fan and the wheel graphs are also discussed.

  8. Bridge monitoring using heterogeneous wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haran, Shivan; Kher, Shubhalaxmi; Mehndiratta, Vandana

    2010-03-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are proving to be a good fit where real time monitoring of multiple physical parameters is required. In many applications such as structural health monitoring, patient data monitoring, traffic accident monitoring and analysis, sensor networks may involve interface with conventional P2P systems and it is challenging to handle heterogeneous network systems. Heterogeneous deployments will become increasingly prevalent as it allows for systems to seamlessly integrate and interoperate especially when it comes to applications involving monitoring of large infrastructures. Such networks may have wireless sensor network overlaid on a conventional computer network to pick up data from one distant location and carry out the analysis after relaying it over to another distant location. This paper discusses monitoring of bridges using WSN. As a test bed, a heterogeneous network of WSN and conventional P2P together with a combination of sensing devices (including vibration and strain) is to be used on a bridge model. Issues related to condition assessment of the bridge for situations including faults, overloads, etc., as well as analysis of network and system performance will be discussed. When conducted under controlled conditions, this is an important step towards fine tuning the monitoring system for recommendation of permanent mounting of sensors and collecting data that can help in the development of new methods for inspection and evaluation of bridges. The proposed model, design, and issues therein will be discussed, along with its implementation and results.

  9. Images Bridging Home and Academic Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Sophia

    Often students are unable to draw upon their personal worlds and individual experiences to enrich their writing, suggesting a disparity between home and academic cultures. In light of this apparent disparity, teachers must try to bridge the gap, a task that is possible when the teacher focuses on the germinal, emotional, and unifying qualities of…

  10. RISK LEVEL ANALYSIS ON THE PREVENTIVE EROSION CAPACITY OF BRIDGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Deficiency of the Preventive Erosion Capacity (PEC) of a bridge pier is the main factor leading to bridge failures. In this paper, the PEC of bridge piers was analyzed using the stochastic analysis method. The definitions of the reliability and risk level of a bridge pier subjected to water erosion were proposed and a computational model for erosion depth and risk level in was suggested.

  11. Railroad Bridges in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, FEMA (1997) [railroad_bridges_FEMA_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of 32 Louisiana railroad bridges. The attributes include city (nearest?), county (sic), routefrom (city),...

  12. Nondestructive evaluation inspection of the Arlington Memorial Bridge using a robotic assisted bridge inspection tool (RABIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Boone, Shane D.; Zobel, Rob; Ghasemi, Hamid; Parvardeh, Hooman; Kee, Seong-Hoon

    2014-04-01

    The information presented in this report provides a detailed assessment of the condition of the Arlington Memorial Bridge (AMB) deck. The field-data collection was obtained by both the RABIT™ Bridge Inspection Tool and a number of semi-automated non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tools. The deployment of the semi-automated NDE tools was performed to inspect the AMB deck condition and also to validate data obtained by the RABIT™ Bridge Inspection Tool. Data mining and analysis were accomplished through enhanced data interpretation and visualization capabilities using advanced data integration, fusion, and 2D rendering. One of the major challenges that the research team had to overcome in assessing the condition of the AMB deck was the presence of an asphalt overlay on the entire bridge deck.

  13. Performance Assessment of Bridges Using GPS: The Juarez Bridge in Culiacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, G. E.; Gaxiola-Camacho, J. R.; Trejo, M.; Echagaray, J.; Guzman, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Performance assessment of bridges has become very important during recent years. Bridges around the world are aging, leading to the incorporation of efficient, reliable, and economic evaluation procedures. These techniques must assess properly the performance of bridges under several loading conditions in a real manner, representing the physics of the problem. Among several approaches, Global Positioning System (GPS) can be intelligently used for the performance evaluation of bridges. We focused on GPS, since it naturally produces position estimates as compared to seismic instruments that record either velocity or acceleration, and thus require an integration. There are several reasons that make the Juarez Bridge a case of study for evaluation: it is approximately 45 years old, it is a reinforced concrete structure, it connects two significant zones of the city, and its spans is closely to 200 meters long. In addition, thousands of vehicles and pedestrians use the Juarez Bridge every day, which make feasible the GPS performance assessment. Hence, in order to produce optimal position estimates, GPS data were collected during two consecutive hours at three different periods of the day for a whole week (Monday through Sunday), to represent three critical limit states of the bridge (mid-span and end-spans). GPS data were processed using the GAMIT/GLOBK software, considering 1-second sampling rate, 15-degree cutoff angle, ionosphere-free double-differenced (DD) carrier phase method, and precise final orbits disseminated by IGS (International GNSS Service). The displacements obtained from the above discussed procedure are compared with allowable values documented in bridge construction manuals. Reliability theory was used to evaluate the probability of failure of the bridge for the three periods of the day. In addition, a conclusion was made about the most risky day of the week for the use of the Juarez Bridge. It is expected that the results from the proposed research

  14. A calculation model for the noise from steel railway bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, M.H.A.; Thompson, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The sound level of a train crossing a steel railway bridge is usually about 10 dB higher than on plain track. In the Netherlands there are many such bridges which, for practical reasons, cannot be replaced by more intrinsically quiet concrete bridges. A computational model is described for the

  15. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, J. B.; Andersen, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  16. Reduction of Impact Noise of Trams on a Major Bridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Bosshaart, C.; Wessels, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    As part of a recent renovation of the Erasmus bridge in Rotterdam, improvements were made to reduce impact noise caused by trams passing a series of rai! joints. The bridge inciudes several different sections inciuding a bascule bridge and is in an inner city tocation with new adjacent apartment bui

  17. An effective Handling of Thermal Bridges in the EPBD Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erhorn, Hans; Erhorn-Kluttig, Heike; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    of thermal bridge effects to the energy balance, used software tools and thermal bridge atlases, available good practice guidance and promotion of good building practice to the execution quality and advanced thermal bridge driven technical developments. This report presents the gathered knowledge, draws...

  18. Seismic Performance of Multi-Span RC Railway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Barrau, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Presently, there is no clear method for determining the optimal railway bridge design for a particular ground type and expected seismic intensity. Four main types of RC bridge dominate the current multi-span railway bridge design trends – the Simply Supported Beam, Continuous Box-Girder (CBG), CBG...

  19. Reliability-Based Optimization for Maintenance Management in Bridge Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the problem of optimizing maintenance, repair and reconstruction decisions for bridge networks. Incorporating network topologies into bridge management problems is computationally difficult. Because of the interdependencies among networked bridges, they have to be analyzed together. Simulation-based numerical optimization techniques adopted in past research are limited to networks of moderate sizes. In this dissertation, novel approaches are developed to dete...

  20. 33 CFR 115.50 - Application for bridge permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... authority not necessary. Coast Guard approval of the location and plans for construction or modification of a bridge or causeway is not required for any bridge or causeway over waters which are not subject to... (historic use). This provision does not apply to bridges which connect the United States with any...

  1. Improving the Dynamics of Suspension Bridges using Active Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Improving the dynamics of suspension bridge using active control is discussed in this paper. The main dynamic problem with long suspension bridges is the aeroelastic phenomenon called flutter. Flutter oscillations of a bridge girder is a stability problem and the oscillations are perpendicular...

  2. Suspension Bridge Flutter for Girder with Separate Control Flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huynh, T.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Active vibration control of long span suspension bridge flutter using separated control flaps (SFSC) has shown to increase effectively the critical wind speed of bridges. In this paper, an SFSC calculation based on modal equations of the vertical and torsional motions of the bridge girder including...

  3. Renovation techniques for fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.B.P.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation presents the research into renovation techniques for orthotropic steel bridge decks. These techniques are needed to solve fatigue problems in the decks of these bridges, as several fatigue cracks have been detected in the deck structure of these bridges the last decade. A well-know

  4. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  5. Dynamic Vehicle Impact for Safety Assessment of Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    In this paper the dynamic amplification of vehicle load at minor highway bridges is considered for safety assessment of the load carrying capacity of bridges. The considered case is the most critical for bridges, i.e. the simultaneous passage of two heavy trucks. A short description...

  6. A calculation model for the noise from steel railway bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, M.H.A.; Thompson, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The sound level of a train crossing a steel railway bridge is usually about 10 dB higher than on plain track. In the Netherlands there are many such bridges which, for practical reasons, cannot be replaced by more intrinsically quiet concrete bridges. A computational model is described for the estim

  7. Future Trends in Reliability-Based Bridge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Future bridge management systems will be based on simple stochastic models predicting the residual strength of structural elements. The current deterministic management systems are not effective in optimizing e.g. the life cycle cost of a bridge or a system of bridges. A number of important factors...

  8. Resin-Bonded Bridges in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Johannes Hilbrandt van der

    1988-01-01

    In this thesis in vitro and in vivo studies on the clinical application of resin-bonded bridges are described and discussed. The development of different types of resin-bonded bridges is described in chapter 1. The bridges are often made by boding a cast metal retainer fitted with and artificial too

  9. Road Bridges and Culverts, Bridges layers located in GIS and Transportation database., Published in unknown, City of Roswell, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Bridges layers located in GIS and Transportation database.'. Data by this publisher are...

  10. Hydropower production from bridges in urban or suburban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucciarelli, Tullio; Sammartano, Vincenzo; Sinagra, Marco; Morreale, Gabriele; Ferreira, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    A new technology for hydropower production from rivers crossing urban or suburban areas is proposed, based on the use of Cross-Flow turbines having its axis horizontal and normal to the flow direction. A large part of the river cross-section could be covered by the turbine cross-section and this would generate a small, but consistent jump between the water levels of the inlet and the outlet sections. The turbine should be anchored to a pre-existing bridge and the total length of its axis should be of the same order of the bridge length. Due to the large axis extension, it should be possible to easily attain a gross power similar to the power produced with a more traditional installation, based on weirs or barrages, if single jumps of few tens of centimeters were added over a large number of bridges. If the bridges were set in urbanized areas, the production of electricity would be located close to its consumption, according to the smart grid requirements, and the hydrological basin at the bridge section (along with the corresponding discharge) would be greater than the basin of traditional plants located in more upstream locations. The maximum water level to be attained in the upstream section of the bridge should be the minimum among the following ones: 1) the level corresponding to the maximum flood allowed by the surrounding infra-structures, 2) the level corresponding to the maximum force allowed by the bridge structures. The resulting upstream water level hydrographs should be compatible with the river suspended and bed load equilibrium and with the requirement of the aquatic living population. The system should include a mechanism able to raise the turbine completely out of the water level, if required, for maintenance or other purposes. The complete lifting of the turbine could be used to: a) reconstruct the natural river bed profile during floods, b) allow the navigation or fish movements during some periods of the year, or even some hours of the day. A

  11. Introduction to Bayesian scientific computing ten lectures on subjective computing

    CERN Document Server

    Calvetti, Daniela

    2007-01-01

    A combination of the concepts subjective – or Bayesian – statistics and scientific computing, the book provides an integrated view across numerical linear algebra and computational statistics. Inverse problems act as the bridge between these two fields where the goal is to estimate an unknown parameter that is not directly observable by using measured data and a mathematical model linking the observed and the unknown. Inverse problems are closely related to statistical inference problems, where the observations are used to infer on an underlying probability distribution. This connection between statistical inference and inverse problems is a central topic of the book. Inverse problems are typically ill-posed: small uncertainties in data may propagate in huge uncertainties in the estimates of the unknowns. To cope with such problems, efficient regularization techniques are developed in the framework of numerical analysis. The counterpart of regularization in the framework of statistical inference is the us...

  12. From a thriving past to an uncertain future: Zooarchaeological evidence of two millennia of human impact on a large emblematic lizard (Iguana delicatissima) on the Guadeloupe Islands (French West Indies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochaton, C.; Bailon, S.; Ineich, I.; Breuil, M.; Tresset, A.; Grouard, S.

    2016-10-01

    Among the lizards in the Lesser Antillean Islands, iguanas are undoubtedly the most emblematic, especially the endemic species, Iguana delicatissima. However, although much effort is currently made for the conservation of this species as a result of the present biodiversity crisis, nearly nothing is known of the history of this animal on these islands during the last millennia. Here we present the first data relating to the distribution, morphology, and interaction of past iguanas with human populations in the Lesser Antilles. To do so, we review the archaeological Iguana remains collected over the past 15 years on the Guadeloupe Islands. Our results show that the only Iguana species occurring in pre-Columbian archaeological deposits is Iguana delicatissima. Moreover, we demonstrate that this species occurred on all the islands of Guadeloupe during pre-Columbian times and then suddenly became extinct between 1960 and 1990 on most of these islands. We also confirm the modern introduction of I. iguana to the Guadeloupe Islands. In addition, zooarchaeological research demonstrates that pre-Columbian human populations occasionally used iguanas as a source of food, but with no apparent impact on the native population. However, the first data relating to past size variations of I. delicatissima on the Guadeloupe Islands indicate that archaeological iguanas were much larger than the largest remnant modern specimens and that a marked decrease in body length (more than 20%) occurred in these lizards after contact with European populations. This evidence of widespread extinction and morphological change during modern times is another demonstration of the extensive effects of disturbance and selection induced by modern human societies on endemic insular faunas.

  13. Concrete bridge-borne low-frequency noise simulation based on train-track-bridge dynamic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Xu, Y. L.; Wu, D. J.

    2012-05-01

    Both the vibration of a railway bridge under a moving train and the associated bridge-borne noise are time-varying in nature. The former is commonly predicted in the time domain to take its time-varying and nonlinear properties into account, whereas acoustic computation is generally conducted in the frequency domain to obtain steady responses. This paper presents a general procedure for obtaining various characteristics of concrete bridge-borne low-frequency noise by bridging the gap between time-domain bridge vibration computation and frequency-domain bridge-borne noise simulation. The finite element method (FEM) is first used to solve the transient train-track-bridge dynamic interaction problem, with an emphasis on the local vibration of the bridge. The boundary element method (BEM) is then applied to find the frequency-dependent modal acoustic transfer vectors (MATVs). The time-domain sound pressure is finally obtained with the help of time-frequency transforms. The proposed procedure is applied to a real urban rail transit U-shaped concrete bridge to compute the bridge acceleration and bridge-borne noise, and these results are compared with the field measurement results. Both sets of results show the proposed procedure to be feasible and accurate and the dominant frequencies of concrete bridge-borne noise to range from 32 Hz to 100 Hz.

  14. Experimental investigation of different fill materials in arch bridges with particular focus on Pearl-Chain Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2016-01-01

    Pearl-Chain Bridge technology is a recently developed prefabricated arch solution for road and railway bridges allowing faster, more environmentally friendly, and cheaper bridge construction. This study compared the strength and durability properties of three different types of fill material to f...

  15. A Hierarchical Analysis of Bridge Decision Makers ... The Role of New Technology Adoption in the Timber Bridge Market: Special Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; Robert J. Bush; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    Bridge design engineers and local highway officials make bridge replacement decisions across the United States. The Analytical Hierarchy Process was used to characterize the bridge material selection decision of these individuals. State Department of Transportation engineers, private consulting engineers, and local highway officials were personally interviewed in...

  16. Fundamental Field Theory in Ten Dimensions and The Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Patwardhan, A

    2006-01-01

    A unified field theory in ten dimensions, of all interactions, can describe high energy processes occuring in the early universe. In such a theory transitions that give properties of the universe can occur due to the presence of algebraic and geometric structures. A correspondence between theory and observations of the universe is made, to obtain a new interpretation and properties. This paper consists of a field theory and cosmological model of dark and normal energy and matter, cosmological constant, acceleration and inflation in the early universe.

  17. Ten methods for calculating the uncertainty of measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jack

    2010-12-01

    While forensic laboratories are coming under increasing pressure to provide meaningful estimates of measurement uncertainty, there has been little discussion of this topic in the literature. This article summarizes ten bases for estimating this parameter: (1) proficiency tests; (2) readability limits; (3) independent reference materials; (4) operational limits applied during calibration; (5) expert judgment; (6) precision control samples without (6) and with (7) contributions from extramural sources of error; (8) error budgets; (9) historical performance; and (10) ruggedness tests. Based on the assumptions underlying each approach, the forensic community will need to apply a variety of discipline-specific approaches to arrive at satisfactory estimates of measurement uncertainty.

  18. Lessons learned from ten years of distance learning outreach*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatis, Craig; Gaines, Cynthia; Liu, Wei-Li; Gill, Michael; Ackerman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study tested the efficacy of providing distance learning with real-time videoconferencing to broaden high school student knowledge of health careers. Methods: A pilot program was tried out and extended over ten years to include other schools in four different time zones and the National Library of Medicine. Survey results, site visits, and continued school participation were used as effectiveness indicators. Student ratings, site visits, and ongoing discussions were used to evaluate critical factors in the program. Results: Nine program factors contributed to success. Conclusions: Synchronous communication can be effective for outreach to special populations given appropriate infrastructure, technology, program design, and implementation. PMID:25918486

  19. Lessons learned from ten years of distance learning outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatis, Craig; Gaines, Cynthia; Liu, Wei-Li; Gill, Michael; Ackerman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The study tested the efficacy of providing distance learning with real-time videoconferencing to broaden high school student knowledge of health careers. A pilot program was tried out and extended over ten years to include other schools in four different time zones and the National Library of Medicine. Survey results, site visits, and continued school participation were used as effectiveness indicators. Student ratings, site visits, and ongoing discussions were used to evaluate critical factors in the program. Nine program factors contributed to success. Synchronous communication can be effective for outreach to special populations given appropriate infrastructure, technology, program design, and implementation.

  20. Seismic Passive Control of Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam-Eddin M. Ali

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional modeling procedure is proposed for cable-stayed bridges with rubber, steel, and lead energy dissipation devices. The passive control technique is investigated by considering the response of bridge models with and without energy dissipation devices. The impact of various design parameters on the seismic response of current and future bridge designs is studied. Appropriate locations and properties of the passive devices can achieve better performance for cable-stayed bridges by balancing the significant reduction in earthquake-induced forces against tolerable displacements. Proper design of passive systems can help provide solutions for retro-fitting some existing bridges.