WorldWideScience

Sample records for bridge foundations

  1. Crystal growth under bridge foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon Tarragona, Anna; Alonso Pérez de Agreda, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    W(H)YDOC PhD Prize 2012, durant el 4th International Workshop of Young Doctors in Geomechanics W(H)YDOC 2012. A high-speed railway viaduct experienced a sustained heave at high rates after its construction. The pillars of the bridge are founded on an Eocene hard anhydritic-gypsiferous claystone by means of massive foundations. Field investigations identified an active layer below the piles’ tips where expansions occur as a result of gypsum crystal growth in discontinuities from supersatura...

  2. Risk assessment study on bridge foundation in deep overlying stratum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiangqun; Wang Jingguo; Liu Manhong

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis about the hydrogeological conditions and engineering geological conditions, this paper makes analysis on the possible risks of the deep overlying stratum foundation and establishes the risk evaluation index system during the foundation operating period. Such methods as analytic hierarchy process (AHP) , Delphi method and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method are adopted to make the quantitative analysis on the risk factors and establish the risk judgment model. According to the actual engineering of Taizhou Bridge, the paper evaluates the risk of the foundation during the operating period at the condition of deep overlying stratum. The evaluation results can provide the reference for the risk management of the bridge foundation durin~ the ooerating period.

  3. Comparison of seismic capacity/demand ratios of two kinds of foundation schemes of Taizhou Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yi; Peng Tianbo; Han Lei

    2012-01-01

    Pile group foundation and caisson foundation are two common foundation schemes of long-span bridges, and the seismic performances of the two kinds of foundations are different. Taking Taizhou Bridge as an example, which is the first kilometer level three-pylon two-span suspension bridge in the world, two foundation schemes are designed for the middle pylon, and two whole bridge models with two different foundation schemes of the middle pylon are established respectively in this paper. The effects of foundation-soil interaction are simulated by equivalent linear soil springs whose stiffnesses are calculated according to m method. Seismic capacity/demand ratios of the two models are calculated. The following conclusions can be drawn: the weak positions of the two schemes are not the same; if caisson foundation is adopted for the middle pylon, the weak position is the bearing capacity of the middle pylon foundation, while if pile group foundation is adopted for the middle pylon, the weak position is the bearing capacity of the side pylon foundation.

  4. GEOTECHNICAL MODELS OF THE ARCH FOUNDATIONS OF THE MASLENICA BRIDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Novosel

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available On the site of Maslenica bridge structural tectonic, geophysical and engineering geological investigations, geotechnical drilling and laboratory sample testings were performed. Maslenica anticline is characteristic for the investigated area. It is built from the limestone of Cretaceous age. The anticline has an asymmetrical form with the vergence of the axial plane towards the north. Reverse faults with recent activities are present. The recent activity was proved by the discovery of the broken stalactite with the displacement of 11 cm, whose age is 36000 years. On quite young stalactites (stalagmites in the cave on the west side, no displacements were noticed. For the next period of 500 years the maximal possible displacement of 2.0 cm is foreseen. Smaller caves with the dimensions of 1 m3, were formed on the intersections of the reverse faults and greater joints. The canyon Novsko ždrilo was formed in the fault shear zone with tectonic transport to the right. According to the range of fracture, three characteristic types of rock masses were separated by engineering geological investigations. According to »Geomechanical classification« (RMR the first type corresponds to II to III class, while the second type corresponds to IV class, and the third type corresponds to V class (mylonite. Because of the complexity of the terrain structure, original engineering geological bases of design have not enabled the direct application of the analysis of stress-strain behaviour. Because of that the simplified geotechnical models were done. They enabled the projecting of foundation in the rock mass and renewal of poor quality rock mass.

  5. Seismic bridge pier analysis for pile foundation by force and displacement based approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Singh NP.R.; Vinayak Hemant Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Seismic analysis of bridge pier supported on pile foundation requires consideration of soil-pile-structure (kinematic and inertial) interactions. This paper presents the design forces generated for bridge piers with varying height and constant diameter for medium and soft soils in earthquake probability zones considering contribution of soil-pile-structure interactions by developed analytical approaches. The results have shown that the difference in base sh...

  6. Numerical Modeling of the Lake Mary Road Bridge for Foundation Reuse Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitek, M. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bojanowski, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lottes, S. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This project uses numerical techniques to assess the structural integrity and capacity of the bridge foundations and, as a result, reduces the risk associated with reusing the same foundation for a new superstructure. Nondestructive test methods of different types were used in combination with the numerical modeling and analysis. The onsite tests included visual inspection, tomography, ground penetrating radar, drilling boreholes and coreholes, and the laboratory tests on recovered samples. The results were utilized to identify the current geometry of the structure with foundation, including the hidden geometry of the abutments and piers, and soil and foundation material properties. This data was used to build the numerical models and run computational analyses on a high performance computer cluster to assess the structural integrity of the bridge and foundations including the suitability of the foundation for reuse with a new superstructure and traffic that will increase the load on the foundations. Computational analysis is more cost-effective and gives an advantage of getting more detailed knowledge about the structural response. It also enables to go beyond non-destructive testing and find the failure conditions without destroying the structure under consideration.

  7. WAVE CURRENT FORCES ON THE PILE GROUP OF BASE FOUNDATION FOR THE EAST SEA BRIDGE, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the two structures of the bridge foundation designed for the East Sea Bridge, the wave current forces on four types of oblique piles, the pile group and the single piles at different positions in the pile group considering the effect of the super structures were experimentally investigated. The relationship between the wave current forces and the associated wave parameters, and the comparison of the wave current forces on the pile groups and the single piles were systematically analyzed. The group effectiveness and the reduction coefficient for the wave current forces on the group were examined for engineering design.

  8. Technical research on control of caisson construction for the middle tower foundation of Taizhou Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jianbo; Yang Yanhua; Zhang Yongtao; Du Song

    2011-01-01

    The real-time informational monitoring system is adopted in the construction of middle tower foundation of Taizhou Bridge for the first time. The geometric state of the caisson, the stress of upstream and downstream anchorage cables, underwater topography, the drag forces of the caisson cutting edge and frictional resistances of the sidewall and etc. are monitored in real time. According to the synthesized data analysis and decision-making system, the spatial states of the caisson are adjusted in time to locate and embed the deep water caisson precisely. The offset error of the caisson is less than 30 cm and the vertical error is 1/363 at the final stage. The control technology for construction of large caisson under deep water is concluded and would be helpful for the construction of bridge foundation in the future.

  9. Comprehensive Detection and Analysis of Defects in Foundation Pile of Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi-ren; HE Ji-shan; YANG Tian-chun

    2003-01-01

    In the process of piling ,there are many various defects in foundation pile of bridge such as mud-bearing,sediment-bearing, isolation, honeycomb, broken piles, and so on, showing physical and mechanical features of low-density and low-intensity. In fact, by using the comprehensive detection of acoustic transmission method, the reflected wave method as well as drill coring sample method, and the rational utilization of engineering geological condition in field, the characteristics, size and location of common defects of foundation pile of bridge can be accurately detected and judged and the integrity of piles and the quality of concrete can be impersonally estimated.comprehensive detecting and analyzing methods on this kind of piles are introduced briefly. The physical characters of defects and basic features of detecting curves and their corresponding relation are emphasized, and causes are analyzed in in detail in this paper.

  10. Probabilistic structural seismic performance assessment methodology and application to an actual bridge-foundation -ground system

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yuyi

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a probabilistic structural seismic performance assessment methodology. To facilitate, guide, and validate this development, the targeted methodology is applied to an actual bridge- foundation-ground system. First, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) predicts the possible earthquake ground motion intensities (IM) and their probabilities at the structure site based on the seismic environment. The result of PSHA is a seismic hazard curve that rep...

  11. Long-term settlement prediction of high-speed railway bridge pile foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨奇; 冷伍明; 张升; 聂如松; 魏丽敏; 赵春彦; 刘维正

    2014-01-01

    The process and characteristics of loading on high-speed railway bridge pile foundation were firstly obtained by means of field research and analysis, and the corresponding loading function was presented. One-dimensional consolidation equation of elastic multilayered soils was then established with single drainage or double drainages under multilevel loading. Moreover, the formulas for calculating effective stress and settlement were derived from the Laplace numerical inversion transform. The three-dimensional composite analysis method of bridge pile group was improved, where the actual load conditions of pile foundation could be simulated, and the consolidation characteristics of soil layers beneath pile were also taken into account. Eventually, a corresponding program named LTPGS was developed to improve the calculation efficiency. The comparison between long-term settlement obtained from the proposed method and the in-situ measurements of pile foundation was illustrated, and a close agreement is obtained. The error between computed and measured results is less than 1 mm, and it gradually reduces with time. It is shown that the proposed method can effectively simulate the long-term settlement of pile foundation and program LTPGS can provide a reliable estimation.

  12. Study on the Safety of the Foundation Rock Masses in the Tangkou Bank of the Taipinghu Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Taipinghu Bridge is an important project, and the safety of rock masses of its foundation is very crucial. This article analyzes the potential causes of the deformation of the rock masses of the bridge foundation, and uses the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua to analyze the geologic model. The simulating process shows that no mater in the excavating process or in the loading process the rock masses are suit for the engineering. The modeling and analyzing process can be used for reference.

  13. Seismic response of bridge pier on rigid caisson foundation in soil stratum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. Tsigginos; N. Gerolymos; D. Assimaki; G. Gazetas

    2008-01-01

    An analytical method to study the seismic response of a bridge pier supported on a rigid caisson foundation embedded in a deep soil stratum underlain by a homogeneous half space is developed. The method reproduces the kinematic and inertial responses, using translational and rotational distributed Winkler springs and dashpots to simulate the soil-caisson interaction. Closed-form solutions are given in the frequency domain for vertical harmonic S-wave excitation. Comparison with results from finite element (FE) analysis and other available solutions demonstrates the reliability of the model. Results from parametric studies are given for the kinematic and inertial responses. The modification of the fundamental period and damping ratio of the bridge due to soil-structure interaction is graphically illustrated.

  14. Experimental study on pile-end post-grouting piles for super large bridge pile foundations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiming GONG; Guoliang DAI; Haowen ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    The application of pile-end post-grouting piles for super-large bridge pile foundations in some important projects was introduced in this paper. There are totally 21 test piles. The maximum pile diameter varies from 2.5 m to 3 m, and the maximum length is 125m; the bearing capacity of the post-grouting piles is over ten thousands tons. Based on the test results, the bearing capacity,displacement, and beating characteristics before and after grouting were analyzed. The results show that the beating capacity of the piles is increased in different degrees after grouting although the technical parameters, including the patterns of grouting pipes, pressure, dosages of cement, duration of grouting lasting time, are different. However,the obtained values are very discrete. In addition, the calculation formula for the post-grouting piles under specified grouting condition was deduced based on the statistics analysis results of 57 test piles. The research results have been applied in the design of bridge foundation.

  15. 岩溶地区桥梁桩基施工方法%Karst Area Bridge Pile Foundation Job Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武建国

    2009-01-01

    Through some especially big bridge drill hole pile construction,introduced the limestone e.ave area bridge pile foundation construction often appears question, construction craft, quality detection and prevention processing measure.%通过某特大桥钻孔桩施工,介绍溶洞地区桥梁桩基施工常出现的问题、施工工艺、质量检测和预防处理措施.

  16. Seismic bridge pier analysis for pile foundation by force and displacement based approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh NP.R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic analysis of bridge pier supported on pile foundation requires consideration of soil-pile-structure (kinematic and inertial interactions. This paper presents the design forces generated for bridge piers with varying height and constant diameter for medium and soft soils in earthquake probability zones considering contribution of soil-pile-structure interactions by developed analytical approaches. The results have shown that the difference in base shear demand between force based and displacement based approach and that between capacity spectrum and displacement based method in general decreases with the increase in slenderness ratio of the pier. The base shear demand by non-linear time history analysis has been found to be much higher compared to that by other methods. The relationship between height and pier cross-section has been developed for different soils and seismic zones such that the base shear demands by force based and displacement based method are of the same order. The overall value of the slenderness ratio works out to be such that failure of the pile shall be as a short column for both medium and soft soil.

  17. Design and construction of scour protection for deep-water group pile foundation structures of two pylons in the Sutong Bridge project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Ping; Guan Yijun; Zhang Xiongwen; Zhang Qun; Zhou Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Sutong Bridge, as a world-record cable-stayed bridge with its main span exceeding 1 000 m constructed in Yangtze River estuary region in China, is located at a site with complicated hydrologic conditions and poor geotechnical conditions and therefore, scour protection will be a decisive factor for ensuring smooth and successful construction of this bridge. This paper, starting from structural description of deep-water group pile foundation, analyzes impact to the bridge safety introduced by scour and its protection and further presents different solutions of scour protection for foundation structures of this bridge.

  18. APPLICATION OF STEEL PIPE PILE LOADING TESTS TO DESIGN VERIFICATION OF FOUNDATION OF THE TOKYO GATE BRIDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Osamu; Kiyomiya, Osamu; Yoneyama, Haruo; Kawakami, Taiji

    Steel sheet pipe pile foundations with large diameter steel pipe sheet pile were used for the foundation of the main pier of the Tokyo Gateway bridge. However, as for the large diameter steel pipe pile, the bearing mechanism including a pile tip plugging effect is still unclear due to lack of the practical examinations even though loading tests are performed on Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway. In the light of the foregoing problems, static pile loading tests both vertical and horizontal directions, a dynamic loading test, and cone penetration tests we re conducted for determining proper design parameters of the ground for the foundations. Design parameters were determined rationally based on the tests results. Rational design verification was obtained from this research.

  19. Design and construction of Sutong Bridge deep-water main-pylon foundations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Huixing; Ouyang Xiaoyong; He Maosheng; Nie Qinlong; Wang Xiali

    2009-01-01

    This paper, from three aspects including construction conditions, foundation design and construction, introduces some considerations in the designing of main-pylon foundations and some practical measures to deal with certain unfavorable construction conditions, such as deep water, tidal effect, soft stratum and heavy traffic, during the construction of main-pylon foundations.

  20. Numerical analysis on bearing capacity of middle pylon caisson foundation of Taizhou Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun; Shao Guojian; Hu Feng; Gu Lijun

    2012-01-01

    Because of the computation difficulty of the beating capacity of large underwater caisson foundation on thick overburden layer ground, the geotechnieal software FLAC3D was utilized in the 3D numerical analysis on the bearing capacity of middle pylon foundation. From the computational results, it is concluded that the caisson foundation has a good bearing capacity on thick overburden layer ground and the beating capacity can be improved assuming that the soil near the area of basal comer is reinforced.

  1. Wireless monitoring of scour and re-deposited sediment evolution at bridge foundations based on soil electromagnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Panagiotis; Tarantino, Alessandro; Tachtatzis, Christos; Judd, Martin D.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic structures constitute the most vulnerable elements of transportation infrastructure. Recent increases in precipitation have resulted in severe and more frequent flash flooding incidents. This has put bridges over waterways at higher risk of failure due to scour. This study presents a new sensor for measuring scour depth variation and sediment deposition processes in the vicinity of the foundations to underpin systems for early warning of impending structural failure. The monitoring system consists of a probe with integrated electromagnetic sensors designed to detect changes in the dielectric permittivity of the surrounding bridge foundation. The probe is equipped with a wireless interface and was evaluated to assess its ability to detect scour and sediment deposition in various soil types and under temperature and water salinity conditions that would commonly occur in a practical installation environment. A novel methodology is also developed enabling discrimination between in situ and re-deposited sediment delivering vital information about the load bearing capacity of the foundation. The experimental approach was validated using ‘static’ scour simulations and real-time open channel flume experiments. Results indicate that the sensor is highly sensitive to underwater bed level variations and can provide an economical and accurate structural health monitoring alternative to existing instruments.

  2. Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, Casper

    A building will more likely collapse if it does not have any proper foundations. Similarly, the design philosophy of Triadic Game Design (TGD) needs to reside on solid building blocks, otherwise the concept will collapse as well. In this level I will elaborate on these building blocks. First I will explain what the general idea of TGD is. It is a design philosophy, for sure, but one which stresses that an “optimum” needs to be found in a design space constituted by three different worlds: Reality, Meaning, and Play. Additionally, these worlds need to be considered simultaneously and be treated equally. The latter requires balancing the worlds which may result in different tensions, within and between two or three of the worlds. I continue by discussing each of the worlds and showing their perspective on the field of games with a meaningful purpose. From this, we clearly see that it is feasible to think of each world and that the idea makes sense. I substantiate this further by relating the notion of player and similar approaches to this framework. This level is quite a tough pill to swallow yet essential for finishing the other levels. Do not cheat or simply skip this level, but just take a big cup of coffee or tea and start reading it.

  3. Foundation works for construction of Danube Bridge II Vidin (Bulgaria)-Calafat (Romania); Puente internacional sobre el rio Danubio entre las localidades de Vidin (Bulgaria) y Calafat (Rumania)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Martin, J.

    2011-07-01

    The Foundations works of the bridge over the the Danube River II has involved a new technical challenge due to the cathartics of depth and diameter of the piles, and the logistical and human, due to the hard environmental conditions for the execution. This work, awarded to FCC. Construction company in its two contracts. Access to the bridge and Main Bridge has required on the differenced sites, the use of a wide range of foundation systems, since driven precast piles to in in situ pile with permanent casing, installed by vibrating systems and excavated with benoto grabs systems. The enormous responsibility of this phase is evident in the intense camping of characterization tests with static load tests, dynamic and Osterberg cells, as well as control the campaign with Cross-hole tests in 100% of the piles in situ executed, that has allowed no only ensure the highest level of quality on the foundation elements, but also to take the most of the mechanical characteristics of soils provided. The complexity of the execution of more than 24,000 ml pile executed along the more than 2 years duration of the work reach the maximum expression in the more than 6,900 ml of in situ pile made from marine resources, with a maximum depths up to 80 m with 2 m diameter pile. The article intends to give an overview of the site and the execution, associating the different foundation methods used, and the problems that were detected. (Author)

  4. Application of Micropile in Bridge Foundation Reinforcing in Karst Region%微型桩在岩溶地区桥梁基础加固的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大伟; 段福财; 李钰

    2012-01-01

    A new safe reliable and cost efficient reinforcing scheme for bridge foundation is adopted in con- struction engineering of Daxing - Sinan Expressway in Guizhou. The characteristics and forcing of the reinforcing scheme is analyzed and the construction process is introduced briefly, providing references for bridge foundation re- inforcing at similar regions.%在贵州大兴至思南高速公路建设工程中采用了一种安全可靠、经济合理的新型桥梁基础加固方案。对该方案加固的特点、受力进行了分析,并简要介绍了其施工过程,为类似地区的桥梁基础加固提供参考。

  5. Treatment of Soft Soil Foundation in Construction Process of Bridge%桥梁施工过程中软土地基的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜

    2014-01-01

    This paper discussed the treatment method of soft soil foundation during the bridge construction process, aiming at to improve the ef iciency of construction, and at the same time, trying to avoid the occurrence of safety and quality acc-idents.%本文对桥梁施工过程中的软土地基的处理方法进行了探讨,旨在提高施工效率的同时,尽量避免安全质量事故的发生。

  6. 铁路营业线框架桥软土地基顶进施工技术%Jacking construction technology on soft soil foundation for frame bridge on railway business line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建龙

    2012-01-01

    The article introduces the overpass bridge engineering on Beizhong road on Xuan-Hang railway business line,describes the foundation and jacking construction technology on soft soil foundation for frame bridge,describes the existing line foundation and working pit monitoring and foundation pit dewatering method,and effectively complete the overpass bridge construction in the premise of guaranteeing safe business line.%介绍了宣杭铁路营业线环北中路立交桥工程概况,阐述了在软土地基处框架桥地基加固及顶进施工技术,并介绍了既有线路基及工作坑监测和基坑降水的方法,在确保营业线运营安全的情况下,优质高效地完成了立交桥施工。

  7. Corporate Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Heidi; Thusgaard Pedersen, Janni

    2013-01-01

    responsibility (CSR). The paper hence illuminates the fascinating and overlooked role of corporate foundations as potential bridges between business and civil society. It also informs theory on boundary organizations by clarifying challenges and limits of such institutions.......This paper aims to explore the potential of Danish corporate foundations as boundary organizations facilitating relationships between their founding companies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Hitherto, research has been silent about the role of corporate foundations in relation to cross......-sector partnerships. The results of this paper are based on interviews, participant observations, and organizational documents from a 19-month empirical study of a Danish corporate foundation. Findings suggest that corporate foundations have potential to act as boundary organizations and facilitate collaborative...

  8. Design of Main Pier Foundations for Guyumen Channel Bridge of Pingtan Strait Rail-cum-Road Bridge%平潭海峡公铁两用大桥鼓屿门航道桥主墩基础设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙英杰; 梅新咏

    2016-01-01

    平潭海峡公铁两用大桥鼓屿门航道桥采用主跨364 m的钢桁混合梁斜拉桥方案,桥址区水深流急、风大涌险、潮大浪高、地质复杂、冲刷严重、航道等级高、有效作业时间短。为适应该桥桥址气象、水文、地质等条件,考虑通航安全、技术可行及工程经济性等要求,确定采用高桩承台方案,并对φ3.0m、φ4.0m、φ4.5m钻孔桩基础方案进行比选,确定选用φ4.5m钻孔桩基础方案,按先平台后吊箱围堰的顺序施工。大直径桩基础中各桩采用单独配筋设计;防撞结构由吊箱围堰、V形防撞梁及联结系组成,采用可拆卸式设计,并在围堰外壁设置消波孔;钻孔桩采用KTY5000型动力头钻机,并配制PESF935型中压空压机循环排渣,利用泥浆护壁、锲齿或球齿滚刀钻头钻具切削岩面成孔;采用内径406 mm的单导管法施工水下C45混凝土。%The Guyumen Channel Bridge of the Pingtan Strait Rail‐cum‐Road Bridge adopts the scheme of a steel truss hybrid girder cable‐stayed bridge with a main span of 364 m .The construc‐tion of the bridge is constrained by the complex geological and hydrological conditions at the bridge site ,including deep water ,strong currents ,heavy winds ,hazardous torrents ,high tides and tur‐bulent waves ,severe scour ,high grade of navigational channel and tight efficient operation time . To suit the meteorological ,hydrological and geological conditions at the bridge site ,by considering the safety and technical feasibility and engineering economy ,it was determined that the elevated pile cap scheme be adopted .The pile foundations formed of bored piles respectively with 3 .0 m , 4 .0 m and 4 .5 m diameters were compared ,and the foundation scheme of 4 .5 m diameter bored piles was finally chosen .The foundation was constructed following the sequence of constructing the platform first and then the suspended box cofferdam .For the

  9. Building bridges to evidence-based practice: the MacArthur Foundation Child System and Treatment Enhancement Projects (Child STEPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenwald, Sonja K; Kelleher, Kelly; Weisz, John R

    2008-03-01

    The papers in this special issue describe research undertaken by the MacArthur Foundation-funded Research Network on Youth Mental Health. The project is designed to understand the challenges of implementing evidence-based treatments in community-based mental health practices. This Introduction and the following articles describe the impetus and conceptual framework underlying one cluster of the Network's activity-i.e., the Clinic Systems Project (CSP). The CSP studies examined the organizational and service system environments in a large national sample of community mental health and affiliated organizations that provide services to children. The main goal is to identify leverage points for, and barriers to, the adoption and implementation of evidence-based practices for children. PMID:18085433

  10. Skin Basement Membrane: The Foundation of Epidermal Integrity—BM Functions and Diverse Roles of Bridging Molecules Nidogen and Perlecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Breitkreutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis functions in skin as first defense line or barrier against environmental impacts, resting on extracellular matrix (ECM of the dermis underneath. Both compartments are connected by the basement membrane (BM, composed of a set of distinct glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Herein we are reviewing molecular aspects of BM structure, composition, and function regarding not only (i the dermoepidermal interface but also (ii the resident microvasculature, primarily focusing on the per se nonscaffold forming components perlecan and nidogen-1 and nidogen-2. Depletion or functional deficiencies of any BM component are lethal at some stage of development or around birth, though BM defects vary between organs and tissues. Lethality problems were overcome by developmental stage- and skin-specific gene targeting or by cell grafting and organotypic (3D cocultures of normal or defective cells, which allows recapitulating BM formation de novo. Thus, evidence is accumulating that BM assembly and turnover rely on mechanical properties and composition of the adjacent ECM and the dynamics of molecular assembly, including further “minor” local components, nidogens largely functioning as catalysts or molecular adaptors and perlecan as bridging stabilizer. Collectively, orchestration of BM assembly, remodeling, and the role of individual players herein are determined by the developmental, tissue-specific, or functional context.

  11. Foundation for Sarcoidosis Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Fail: FSR’s New Initiative to Bridge Gap between Industry Leaders, Researchers, and Patients Guest post ... 1 2 3 … 10 Next → Foundation for Sarcoidosis Research 1820 W. Webster Ave Suite 304 Chicago, Illinois ...

  12. Analysis of Soft Soil Foundation Treatment in Road and Bridge Construction%公路路桥施工中有关软土地基处理的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金山

    2015-01-01

    The roadbed condition directly determines the road and bridge can be used safely; take effective measures to deal with the soft soil foundation. On highway road and bridge construction on soft soil foundation treatment are analyzed, and the points for attention in the treatment of soft soil foundation discusses, in order to better implement the soft soil foundation treatment, improving road and bridge construction quality to do a little help.%路基条件直接决定着公路路桥建成后能否安全使用,采取有效措施处理好软土地基至关重要。对公路路桥施工中有关软土地基的处理进行了分析,对软土地基处理中的注意事项展开探讨,以期为更好地落实软土地基的处理、改善公路路桥施工质量略尽绵力。

  13. 牌头浦阳江特大桥深水基础圆形双壁钢围堰设计%Design of Round Double-wall Steel Cofferdam for Deepwater Foundation of Paltoupuyang River Super Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the double-wall steel cofferdam design technique of main bridge deepwater foundation in combination with the construction of deepwater round double-wall steel cofferdam for Paitoupuyang River Super Bridge to provide guidance for construction under similar hydro-geological conditions.%结合牌头浦阳江特大桥跨深静水双壁围堰施工实例,重点介绍主桥深水基础采用双壁钢围堰设计技术,对类似水纹地质条件下施工具有一定的指导意义。

  14. Development Analysis of Soft Soil Foundation Treatment Technology in Road and Bridge Engineering Construction%路桥工程施工中软土地基处理技术发展探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹忠

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the necessity of the soft foun-dation treatment in road and bridge construction, and discusses its technology development, hopes to improve the quality of t-he construction.%本文分析了路桥工程施工中处理软土地基的必要性,并就其技术发展进行了探讨,希望对提高施工质量有所助益。

  15. Characteristics of Vibration Response of Bridge Pile Foundation in Permafrost Regions under Locomotive Loading%机车荷载下多年冻土区桥梁桩基振动响应特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍元坤; 吴志坚; 陈拓; 马巍

    2011-01-01

    为研究多年冻土区机车振动荷载作用下桥梁桩基的动力响应特征,选取了多年冻土区清水河特大桥的两个桥梁桩基进行现场强震动测试.对测试数据进行加速度响应及傅里叶谱响应分析,得出桥梁桩基的振动响应衰减规律及振动能量的分布规律.在此基础上,结合有限元结构分析软件,运用瞬态动力分析法,选取一个测试桩为实例进行二维动力响应的数值计算,获得了机车过桥时桥梁桩基的位移响应及应力响应的变化规律.%In order to obtain the dynamic response characteristics of bridge pile foundation in permafrost regions under the effect of train vibration loading, strong vibration tests were carried out at two bridge pile foundations across the Qingshuihe River in permafrost region, The attenuation function of vibration response and the vibration energy distribution of the bridge pile foundation were obtained by analyzing the response of acceleration and response of Fourier Spectrum from the test data. On these in-situ test data, the dynamic finite element analysis method of transient dynamic analysis was applied to dynamic response numerical calculation on a test pile, as a case. Thus, the change rules of stress response and displacement response of the bridge pile foundation under the locomotive load are obtained.

  16. 泰州大桥中塔沉井基础承载力模型试验研究%Physics model experimental research on the bearing capability of the middle tower caission foundation of Taizhou Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮静; 胡丰

    2012-01-01

    泰州大桥中塔位于江中心,基础覆盖层高达200m.通过多方面比选,基础采用58 m×44 m四角倒圆的矩形沉井,高76 m.为确保泰州大桥中塔沉井基础的安全和稳定,开展了1∶100的模型试验,获取了泰州大桥沉井极限承载力以及沉井埋深、土体含水量、侧壁摩阻力对极限承载力的影响.%The foundation of the middle pylon of Taizhou Bridge is located above the overlying deposit with the height of 200 m in the water. The round rectangular caisson foundation with the plane dimension of 58 m × 44 m and the height of 76 m is employed. To verify the safety and stability of the middle pylon of Taizhou Bridge, a physics model with the scale of 1: 100 to the real structure is built up. The ultimate bearing capacity of the caisson foundation and the influence of sinking depth, soil moisture content, and the side wall friction on the bearing capacity are obtained.

  17. On design for concrete mix proportion C45 pile foundation at Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge%港珠澳大桥C45桩基混凝土配合比的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立斌; 郭冉冉; 李国刚

    2012-01-01

    The study undertakes the comparative optimization by applying the double mixed and separated addition of mineral admixtures, designs the C45 high-performance concrete which is suitable for the pile foundation construction at Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge and meets the high durability, and finds the fluidity of the separated addition fly ash is better than the one of the double mixed fly ash and mineral powder, and it can meet the design demands for the durability and strength, so it can be applied at large-diameter pile foundation construction, so as to provide the technical support for the pile foundation construction at later period of constructing Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge.%分别应用了双掺、单掺矿物掺合料的对比优化,设计出适合港珠澳大桥桩基施工并满足高耐久性的C45高性能混凝土,通过现场施工,发现单掺粉煤灰配比流动性优于双掺粉煤灰、矿粉,耐久性、强度均满足设计要求,更适用于大直径桩基施工,为港珠澳大桥桩基后期施工提供了技术支持。

  18. 利津黄河大桥西塔大直径超深钻孔桩施工%The Construction Technology for Large Diameter Deep Bored Pile of West Tower Foundation of Lijin Huanghe River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路鹏程

    2001-01-01

    The Yellow River Bridge at Lijin is a double pylon cable-stayed PC bridge with a main span of 310 m. The height of pylon is 98 m. The foundation of the west pylon is composed of 28 φ1.5 m borde piles whose depths amounts to 115 m. These piles were constructed with normal circulation boring machines. The construction technology is presented in this paper.%利津黄河大桥为主跨310 m的双塔预应力混凝土斜拉桥,塔高98 m,其中西塔基础由28根直径1.5 m、长达115 m大直径钻孔桩组成。介绍了钻孔桩正循环钻孔的施工工艺。

  19. THE NON-LINEAR INTERACTION OF BRIDGES CONSTRUCTIONS AND THEIR INFRASTRUCTURE WITH FOUNDATION OF DISCRETE FLEXIBLE LANDING OF COMMON VIEW FOR EXAMPLE: CALCULATIONS, EXPERIMENTS AND DYING OUT VIBRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kulyabko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the issues of increasing the possibilities of computer modeling of the dynamic interaction of bridge constructions and their infrastructure with moving transport and flows are considered.

  20. Scheme Comparison and Selection for Anchor Foundation of Maputo Bridge in Mozambique%莫桑比克马普托大桥锚碇基础方案比选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周健; 邹恩杰; 李元博; 孟令亮

    2014-01-01

    莫桑比克马普托(M aputo )大桥主桥为单跨680 m悬索桥,为确定马普托大桥锚碇基础方案,依据大桥桥位处的地质和水文情况,以及重力式锚碇的结构受力特点,针对锚碇基础基底持力层选择、施工工艺的适用性、技术可行性、经济性、合理性,分别对沉井基础和地下连续墙基础进行研究。研究结果表明:采用地下连续墙基础,施工期间可以避免由于地质情况变化带来的风险,如翻砂、突涌等;可以严格控制锚碇基础施工过程中对周围土体造成的沉降,最大限度地减少对周围铁路正常运营的影响。在确定地下连续墙基础形式后,针对施工过程中的突涌问题,对深地下连续墙和浅地下连续墙+灌浆帷幕+深井抽排水降低水头方案进行研究。研究结果表明:采用深地下连续墙基础,投入设备相对单一,施工工艺、工序简单,施工工效相对较高,施工工期较短,工期可控,应为马普托大桥合理的锚碇基础方案。%The main bridge of Maputo Bridge in Mozambique is a suspension bridge with a sin‐gle span of 680 m .In order to make a rational anchor foundation scheme ,the types of caisson foundation and underground diaphragm wall were studied in accordance with the geological and hydrological condition at the bridge site and the load bearing characteristics of gravity anchor .I‐tems such as the selection of the base bearing stratum for the anchor foundation ,feasibility of the construction techniques and the applicability ,economic performance and rationality of the tech‐niques were also taken into account in the study .The results of the study indicate that the adapta‐tion of the underground diaphragm wall foundation is able to avoid the risks induced by variation of geological condition ,such as quicksand and heavy‐piping ,and is possible to strictly control the surrounding soil settlement during the

  1. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska;

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  2. Bridging the Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska; Murdock, Karen; Schmidt, Iben Julie

    2015-01-01

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures. Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ve...

  3. Integral Abutment and Jointless Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian-Claudiu Comisu

    2005-01-01

    Integral bridges, or integral abutment and jointless bridges, as they are more commonly known in the USA, are constructed without any movement joints between spans or between spans and abutments. Typically these bridges have stub-type abutments supported on piles and continuous bridge deck from one embankment to the other. Foundations are usually designed to be small and flexible to facilitate horizontal movement or rocking of the support. Integrally bridges are simple or multiple span ones t...

  4. Research on the Construction Scheme of the Bridge Foundation in Deep Water in the Three Gorges Reservoir%三峡库区某大桥深水基础施工方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦清波; 王哲; 刘合耀

    2014-01-01

    某大桥位于三峡库区,桥址所在河谷呈“U”形。桥型设计为预应力混凝土连续刚构,主墩基础采用高桩承台基础。由于三峡水库从2009年开始正式蓄水,水库常年蓄水位在145~175 m之间变化,变幅达30 m,在水库里进行大型桥梁的基础施工存在水深大、施工期水位变幅大等困难。大桥在水库高水位时(长江枯水期)采用固定式施工平台施工桩基础,在低水位时(长江汛期)下放钢吊箱围堰施工承台及桥墩。该方案安全性高,经济性好,工期短且易于保证。%A bridge is located in the Three Gorges Reservoir,where the valley showsUType.The bridge is designed as prestressed concrete continuous rigid frame.The main pier foundation is high pile foundation.Because the Three Gorges Reservoir started water storage in 2009,and the perennial water level varies from 145 to 175m with a variation of 30m,there are difficulties in foundation con-struction of large bridges in the reservoir with great water depth and large variation range of water level in construction period.The pile foundation is constructed in the high water level of reservoirs (the Yangtze River during dry season)using a fixed type construction platform,and the cap and pier is constructed in the low water level (the Yangtze River flood)using steel suspension box cofferdam.The scheme has high security,good economy,and short construction period and is easy to be guaranteed.

  5. Motion Characteristics of Large-scale Bridge' Pile Foundation under Earthquake%地震作用下大型桥梁高桩基础的运动特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼梦麟; 李顺; 潘曦

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the motion characteristics of large-scale bridge's pile foundation under earthquake, the finite element model of soil-pile foundation's interactional system was established firstly as with the engineering object of No. 5 tower's foundation of Sutong Bridge. Then, by setting the result using hys-teretic damping method as the compared datum, the question that how to imitate the damping characteristic of soil subjected to seismic excitation in finite element program was discussed as to the result of seismic response of Sutong Bridge's No. 5 tower's free field. Obtaining damping parameters of this model, the motion characteristics of seismic response of this system under uniform excitation of horizontal bedrock ground motion can be analyzed. According to the results, the two caps of pile foundation bear rigid characteristics in response, which can be depicted approximately as the rigid horizontal translational motion, as well as the rigid vertical translational motion and rigid rotational motion of the center of each cap.%为分析地震作用下大型桥梁高桩基础的运动特性,首先以苏通大桥5号桥塔的基础为工程对象,建立土层-桩基础相互作用体系的有限元模型.然后结合苏通大桥5号桥塔基础所在场地,以采用滞后阻尼模型条件下苏通大桥5号桥塔处自由场的地震动响应为基准,讨论了如何在有限元程序中合理考虑土层在地震激励条件下的阻尼特性.最后在此基础上确定土层-桩基础相互作用体系有限元模型的阻尼参数,并进行基岩一致水平激励下的桥梁桩基础承台的地震响应分析.数值结果表明,桩基础承台的运动以刚体运动为主,可用水平方向上的刚体平动,两侧承台中心处的竖向刚体平动和刚体转动来近似描述.

  6. Research on the small bridge and culvert foundation in permafrost regions of Hulunbuir%呼伦贝尔市永冻土地区小桥涵基础研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周成龙; 焦同战

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of mastering the information of hydrology,geology,weather and so on accurately,simulating the temperature-field by integrating the basic theory of engineering cryopedology,land hydrology,groundwater dynamics and thermodynamics,and through the typicality experimental study,the rules and methods of the construction of the highway bridges and culverts in seasonal frozen earth regions are summarized,which can guide the construction of the small bridge and culvert in the frozen earth area such as Hulunbuir and provide theoretical basis to the construction of highway,railway,bridge and culvert foundation and building foundation.%在准确掌握冻土区水文、地质、气象等资料的基础上,综合工程冻土学、陆地水文学、地下水动力学、热力学的基础理论进行温度场数值模拟,并通过典型性试验研究,总结出在季冻土地区进行公路桥涵建设的规律和方法,为在呼伦贝尔及类似冻土地区进行小桥涵施工提供指导,并进一步为在高寒地区公路、铁路桥涵基础、房屋建筑基础提供理论依据。

  7. 桥梁桩基爆破施工对邻近埋地天然气管线的影响%INFLUENCE OF BLASTING CONSTRUCTION OF THE BRIDGE PILE FOUNDATION ON ADJACENT BURIED GAS PIPELINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐润婷; 李鹏飞; 苏华友

    2011-01-01

    The influence of blasting vibration induced by the bridge pile foundation construction on adjacent buried pipelines can't be ignored. According to blasting construction of bridge pile foundation located in Zhangjiakou-Shijiazhuang highway, the propagating regulation of vibration wave induced by blasting and influence of blasting vibration on adjacent buried gas pipelines were systematically studied by field test.The results show that it is necessary for quantity of one section explosive to be adjusted timely with the depth of pile foundation increasing; the interval time of millisecond blasting can regulate vibration velocity of blasting; the frequency of vibration wave had very little effect on buried gas pipeline. The research results provide reference and basis for the construction and design of similar project.%桥梁桩基爆破施工对邻近埋地管道的振动影响不容忽视.结合张石高速公路桥梁桩基爆破工程,通过现场试验较系统地研究了爆破振动波的传播规律及对邻近埋地天然气管线安全的影响.结果表明:单段药量随着桩基深度的增加需要适时调整,延时时间可调控爆破振动速度;爆破振动波频率对埋地管道的影响很小.研究结果为实际工程的施工和设计提供了参考和依据.

  8. NONLINEAR STATIC CALCULATION MODEL AND PSEUDO-STATIC TEST OF PILE GROUP BRIDGE FOUNDATIONS%桥梁群桩基础非线性静力计算模型及拟静力试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永亮; 陈兴冲; 孙建飞

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal bearing characteristics of bridge pile foundations can be analyzed by using linear elastic subgrade reaction method(m-method) when displacement of pile foundation is generally smaller. However, displacement of pile foundations is often larger under the effect of strong earthquakes. In order to understand the horizontal bearing capacity and deformation characteristics of pile foundations considering nonlinear behaviors of pile shaft and subsoil,a model of pile foundations is constructed. Failure mechanism,bearing capacity, deformation characteristics and hysteresis characteristics of pile foundations are studied by using pseudo-static test. A nonlinear static calculation model of pile group foundations is put forward under horizontal load. The elastoplasticity of pile shafts in variable axial loads is simulated by distributed PMM plastic hinge;and nonlinearity of subsoil is simulated by the curves of p-y,t-z and q-z,respectively,which have been given in the code of American API;where p is horizontal soil resistance at lateral of pile shaft;y is horizontal displacement;t is vertical frictional resistance around piles shaft;q is vertical bearing resistance at pile tip;z is vertical relative displacement of interface between pile and soil. The results show that:(1) The numerical results are in good agreement with those obtained from experiments. (2) Hysteretic characteristics of pile foundations can be simulated using Clough degradation bilinear model. (3) Weak positions of pile shaft are 0-4 times around the radius of pile below pile top. The results can provide references for evaluating seismic performance of bridge pile foundation using capacity spectrum method.%线弹性地基反力法(m 法)仅适用于正常使用时桥梁桩基础变位较小的情况,但在强震作用下基础的变位较大。为了研究桩基础在地基土及桩身进入非线性状态下的水平承载能力及变形特性,通过群桩基础缩尺比例模型,采用拟

  9. Performance-based seismic assessment of skewed bridges with and without considering soil-foundation interaction effects for various site classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotbi, Abdoul R.

    2014-09-01

    The seismic behavior of skewed bridges has not been well studied compared to straight bridges. Skewed bridges have shown extensive damage, especially due to deck rotation, shear keys failure, abutment unseating and column-bent drift. This research, therefore, aims to study the behavior of skewed and straight highway overpass bridges both with and without taking into account the effects of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) due to near-fault ground motions. Due to several sources of uncertainty associated with the ground motions, soil and structure, a probabilistic approach is needed. Thus, a probabilistic methodology similar to the one developed by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) has been utilized to assess the probability of damage due to various levels of shaking using appropriate intensity measures with minimum dispersions. The probabilistic analyses were performed for various bridge configurations and site conditions, including sand ranging from loose to dense and clay ranging from soft to stiff, in order to evaluate the effects. The results proved a considerable susceptibility of skewed bridges to deck rotation and shear keys displacement. It was also found that SSI had a decreasing effect on the damage probability for various demands compared to the fixed-base model without including SSI. However, deck rotation for all types of the soil and also abutment unseating for very loose sand and soft clay showed an increase in damage probability compared to the fixed-base model. The damage probability for various demands has also been found to decrease with an increase of soil strength for both sandy and clayey sites. With respect to the variations in the skew angle, an increase in skew angle has had an increasing effect on the amplitude of the seismic response for various demands. Deck rotation has been very sensitive to the increase in the skew angle; therefore, as the skew angle increased, the deck rotation responded accordingly

  10. 桥梁高桩承台基础抗震性能研究%Study of earthquake-resistant performance of high pile cap foundation of bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩振峰; 叶爱君

    2016-01-01

    文章通过3个钢筋混凝土群桩试件在低周反复荷载作用下的受力性能试验研究 ,讨论了群桩基础破坏形态及滞回特征 ,解释了其破坏机理 ,分析了土体参数、密实度及桩身自由段长度等对其延性的影响.结果表明 ,极限状态时 ,群桩结构受力模式会由地基梁模型转变为悬臂柱模型 ;减小自由长度和提高土体含水率都会增加其抗震性能.在OpenSees有限元框架中建立了群桩基础有限元模型 ,使用弹塑性纤维梁柱单元模拟桩体 ,采用非线性p-y单元模拟桩土相互作用 ;对模型进行了单调 Pushover分析 ,并且对分析结果与试验结果进行了比较 ,结果表明该模型能很好地模拟试验数据.%Firstly ,based on an experimental research on three reinforced concrete pile foundation specimens tested under low cyclic loads ,the destroy pattern and hysteretic characteristic of pile group foundation were discussed ,the destroy mechanism was explained ,and the effect of soil parameters ,compactness ,and free length of the pile on the foundation ductility was analyzed .The results show that the mechanical pattern of the foundation may change from the foundation beam model to the cantilever column model at the ultimate state ,and reducing free length of the pile and raising the moisture content of the soil can improve the earth-quake-resistant performance of the foundation .Secondly ,a finite element model of this foundation was built in the OpenSees framework .In the model ,the fiber element was used to simulate the pile shaft ,and the non-linear p-y element was used to simulate the soil-pile interaction .Thirdly ,the monotonic Pushover analysis was performed on the model ,and the results were compared with the test results .The results show good co-herence with the experimental data .

  11. 采空区不良效应下桥梁桩基的风险评价%Risk evaluation approach to the bridge pile foundation based on the adverse effects in the goaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓晓贵; 宋世芬; 陈一洲

    2016-01-01

    The paper takes the risk assessment of the bridge pile foundation in the goaf of an expressway,for instance,by establishing a finite element numerical model with the engineering procedure based on the MIDAS/GTS.As is known,in engineering practice,it is of great necessity to assess the goaf's adverse effects on the bridge pile foundation by resolving to further innovative methods and improved measures so as to work out the risk impacts accurately and ensure the bridge foundation construction quality.Just for the said purpose,we have done the risk estimation of the bridge pile foundation in the goaf of one expressway for instance,and built up the finite element numerical model with the procedure based on MIDAS/GTS.In addition,we have also gained the influential effects in different conditions and put forward some corresponding effective countermeasures for the risk control of the settlements of the goaf so as to protect the coal seams still under mining by the gravity stress and the settlement of the bridge pile foundation under loading after grouting in the goaf,etc.The results we have obtained show that the evaluation method helps to reduces the safeless factors influencing the bridge pile foundation construction and provides us with rich research experience and approach for the similar engineering prosperity in terms of safety risk assessment.Based on the simulation of the mechanism and the effects formed by the multi-stage progress of mined-out area,it can be concluded that the influence of the adverse effects on the risk management of the pile foundation construction can be of great significance and serious hardship to be overcome.As well,the paper can be expected to provides a beneficial supplement to the Assessment Guidelines for the Safety Risk evaluation for the Highway Bridge Project Construction under the goaf area (Trial Implementation).Furthermore,it is also of great theoretical and practical significance for controlling and predicting the risk aversion

  12. 大面积堆载引起高铁桥基变形处理对策研究%Remedy of Bridge Foundation Deformation Caused by Large-area Loading on High-speed Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱先锋

    2015-01-01

    The geometry state of high-speed railway track structure is directly related to the stability and smoothness of train travelling,and even safety.However,in soft soil area,because the surrounding environmental conditions changed,such as pumping,loading,excavation of foundation pit,etc.,which caused the subsidence deformation or horizontal displacement. Based on the upper bridge CPⅢ measurement data of some sectional high-speed railway,track inspection car and dynamic test results,with the foundation conditions and environmental changes,researchers carried on analysis of spatial-temporal relation and deformation mechanism between the large-area loading on the single side of the bridge and deformation of the bridge.Then the treatment scheme of monitoring and stress isolation with jet grouting pile and cement soil composite foun-dation was proposed.Meanwhile,the problems that should be paid attention to in the construction process are pointed out.%高速铁路轨道结构几何状态直接关系到高速列车运行的稳定性和平顺性,甚至安全性。但在软土地区常常因周边环境条件变化,如抽水、堆载、基坑开挖等,引起线路的沉降变形或水平偏移。基于某高铁区段桥梁上部CPⅢ测量数据、轨检小车及动检成果,结合场地地基条件和环境变化历程,分析了桥梁一侧大面积堆载与桥梁变形的时空对应关系和变形机理,提出了监测、应力隔离联合旋喷桩水泥土复合地基的处理方案。同时,提出了处理方案实施过程中应注意的有关问题。

  13. 武汉鹦鹉洲长江大桥北锚碇新型沉井基础设计%Design of New Type Caisson Foundation for North Anchorage of Yingwuzhou Changjiang River Bridge in Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明华; 杨灿文

    2011-01-01

    The main bridge of Yingwuzhou Changjiang River Bridge in Wuhan is a three-tower and four-span suspension bridge. After comparison of different design proposals, it was determined that a new type caisson structure of circular cross section and with multiple round wells would be used for the north anchorage foundation of the bridge. In the big size well in the center of the caisson, the crisscross diaphragm was set and along the periphery within the caisson, a number of small size wells were uniformly set. The caisson is 43 m high and has totally 8 lifts, of which the first lift is a steel shell concrete caisson and the rest parts of the caisson from the second to the eighth lifts are all of reinforced concrete caissons. In the construction of the caisson, the caisson was sunk down by no dewatering and the air curtain was provided in the caisson wall to reduce sinking difficulty and construction risk. The software FLAC3D was used to conduct numerical simulation and analysis of the construction process of the sinking and to evaluate the construction safety, the environmental effect caused by the construction and the deformation of the foundation to be applied with load after the bridge was put into operation. The results of the a-nalysis show that in the process of sinking the caisson in lifts, the caisson structure and ground deformation can meet the relevant requirements in the codes and the adverse influence of the construction on the ambient buildings and the river dyke can be effectively avoided.%武汉鹦鹉洲长江大桥主桥为三塔四跨悬索桥.该桥北锚碇基础经多方案比选采用多圆孔环形截面新型沉井结构.沉井中间大圆孔内设置十字形隔墙,圆环内沿圆周均布有小直径井孔.沉井总高43 m,共分8节,第1节为钢壳混凝土沉井,第2~8节均为钢筋混凝土沉井.北锚碇施工中采用不排水下沉、井壁增加空气幕等措施减小施工难度及风险.采用软件FLAC3D对沉井施工过程进

  14. A Study on Stability of Shallow Bridge Foundation During Tunnel Undercrossing Construction with Cusp Catastrophe Theory%隧道下穿施工影响下浅埋桥基稳定性的尖点突变评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢瑾荣; 周翠英; 程晔; 尤帆帆; 杜左雷

    2012-01-01

    新建隧道下穿既有桥梁基础,特别是浅埋桥基时会对其产生不利影响,将尖点突变理论引入隧道下穿施工影响下浅埋桥基的稳定性评价,根据浅埋桥基系统失稳特点确定尖点突变模型的控制变量和状态变量,由尖点突变势函数推导出桥基结构的行为曲面方程,建立描述隧道下穿施工影响下浅埋桥基失稳的数学模型;然后根据该模型将桥基稳定性状态分为稳定阶段、不稳定阶段和失稳破坏阶段,并将各阶段的划分界限严格量化,作为结构的失稳判据;最后将此方法应用于某工程实例,分析结果和工程监测结果的对比表明该方法具有良好的分辨能力与准确性,为开挖施工影响下的浅埋桥基稳定性评价提供了一条新的思路与方法.%New tunnel undercross construction would bring adversely affects to the existing bridge foundation, especially to shallow bridge foundation. The cusp catastrophe theory is led to the stability assessment of the shallow bridge foundation. First the control variable and the state variable are determined according to the instability characteristics of the shallow bridge foundation, and the mathematical model which reflects the instability process of the shallow bridge foundation is established; then the stability state of shallow bridge foundation is divided into stable phase, unstable phase and failure phase, and quantify the various phases as structure instability criterion. Last, the method is applied to an engineering project; the results indicate that this method has a good ability to distinguish and accuracy, and it provides a new thinking and method to stability assessment of shallow bridge foundation under excavation construction affecting.

  15. Test on waiting-time prediction pressure grouting for bridge pile foundation%桥梁群桩基础压力注浆静置时间预测试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福江; 马建林; 赵丹

    2014-01-01

    为了预测高速铁路桥梁群桩基础在压力注浆加固后的静置时间,提出无砟轨道铺设时间的合理建议。通过开展京沪高速铁路丹阳至昆山特大桥阳澄湖桥段群桩基础现场压力注浆试验,对试验段群桩基础架梁前后沉降全过程观测,得到近600 d实测沉降数据,结合《京沪沉降评估细则》及《客运专线无砟轨道评估技术指南》关于沉降稳定的判别标准,将实测沉降与曲线拟合法预测沉降进行对比分析,预测出群桩基础的静置时间。预测结果表明:从架梁后起算,未注浆群桩基础静置时间约为55~100 d;桩侧注浆群桩基础静置时间约为50~90 d;桩端注浆群桩基础静置时间约为30~55 d 。建议未注浆、桩侧注浆、桩端注浆群桩基础的无砟轨道铺设时间分别不宜少于架梁后100 d ,90 d和60 d 。%In order to predict the waiting time for the pile group foundation of the high-speed railway bridge by pressure grouting and strengthening, a reasonable advice of the time for the ballast less track laying is put forward. Through carrying out the field test for the pressure grouting in strengthening the pile group foundation on one section of the Danyang-Kunshan long-span Bridge of Yangcheng Lake on the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and the whole sedimentation process observation of the test section, 600 days’ measurement sedimentation data were obtained. By combining the criterions of steady subsidence of “Beijing-Shanghai Sedimentation Assessment Rules”with that of“the guideline of Evaluation Techniques to Unballasted Track on Passenger Dedicated Line”, the sedimentation data by actual measurement and the predicted data by curve fitting method were compared and analyzed. Then the waiting time of the pile foundation was predicted. The results show that after the girder erection, the waiting time of non-grouting pile group foundation is about 55 to 100 days

  16. Bucket foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    In this report, bearing behaviour and installation of bucket foundations are reviewed. Different methods and standards are compared with the experimental data presented in Foglia and Ibsen (2014a). The most important studies on these topics are suggested. The review is focused on the response...... of monopod bucket foundations supporting offshore wind turbines....

  17. Foundation Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Method of installing a bucket foundation structure comprising one, two, three or more skirts, into soils in a controlled manner. The method comprises two stages: a first stage being a design phase and the second stage being an installation phase. In the first stage, design parameters are determined...... relating to the loads on the finished foundation structure; soil profile on the location; allowable installation tolerances, which parameters are used to estimate the minimum diameter and length of the skirts of the bucket. The bucket size is used to simulate load situations and penetration into foundation...

  18. Railroad Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Bridges-Rail in the United States According to The National Bridge Inspection Standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (23 CFR 650.3), a bridge isA...

  19. Glaucoma Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Honors Presented at 2016 Think Tank Dinner The Glaucoma Foundation (TGF) has awarded Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt, PhD, ... Robert Ritch Award for Excellence and Innovation in Glaucoma for her distinguished career in glaucoma research. This ...

  20. Dysautonomia Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease most people have never heard of ... Familial Dysautonomia (FD) is a rare genetic neurological disorder that ... birth. (More about FD .) Research funded by the Dysautonomia Foundation has led to a number of breakthroughs ...

  1. The Ultrasonic Testing of the Yangtze River Terraces Bridge Foundation Engineering Analysis of Packet of Sand Case in Acoustic Pipe%长江阶地桥梁桩基工程超声波检测声测管包沙案例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊丽; 徐军

    2012-01-01

      Yangtze River Bridge construction is often located in the Yangtze River terraces, and the Yangtze River terraces with the characteristics of thick sand.Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge Pile Foundation Engineering uses ultrasonic nondes-tructive testing technology to detect al pile foundation, and as wel as uses ultrasonic testing, coring and borehole excavation in a comprehensive way, and then makes detailed identification of individual pile foundation shal ow acoustic tube wrapped Sand Mission , clod phenomenon, to ensure the quality of the pile foundation engineering,which has a good reference for similar projects.%  长江大桥的施工往往位于长江阶地,长江阶地具有砂层厚的特点。武汉某长江大桥桥梁桩基工程采用超声波无损检测技术,对所有桩基进行检测,并采用超声波检测、钻芯和凿洞开挖等综合手段,详细查明个别桩基浅部声测管包裹沙团、泥块的现象,保证了桩基工程质量,对类似工程具有很好的借鉴性。

  2. Applied Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    A central theme in the foundations of mathematics, dating back to D. Hilbert, can be paraphrased by the following question "How is it that abstract methods (`ideal elements´) can be used to prove `real´ statements e.g. about the natural numbers and is this use necessary in principle?"......A central theme in the foundations of mathematics, dating back to D. Hilbert, can be paraphrased by the following question "How is it that abstract methods (`ideal elements´) can be used to prove `real´ statements e.g. about the natural numbers and is this use necessary in principle?"...

  3. 酸性水环境下桥梁桩基混凝土的配制与耐久性研究%Preparation and Durability of Concrete for Bridge Pile Foundation in Acidic Water Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘江; 曾逢春; 蔡老虎; 王在喜; 邵然; 李北星

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the preparation of bridge pile foundation concrete in acidic water environment,the effect of mineral admixtures, water-binder (w/b) ratio and pH value of erosion environment on acid resistance of concrete is studied. Cement is replaced by fly ash (FA) with the incorporation amount from 20% to 50% or by ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) from 35% to 65%. The w/b ratio is 0. 35,0. 39 and 0. 43 respectively. The acidic environmental conditions are simulated by using sulfuric acid solution with the pH value 1,2 or 4. The corrosion process was monitored by measuring the compressive strength for a period of one year. The results showed that a reduce in the w/b ratio improved the acid resistance of concrete. It was found that the improvement effect of mineral admixture on acid attack of concrete is dependent on the type and dosage mixture admixture and the pH value of simulation erosion solution. The high volume fly ash concrete mixtures performed better than high volume ground granulated blast-furnace slag concrete mixtures.%针对酸性水环境下桥梁桩基混凝土的配制,研究了矿物掺合料、水胶比以及侵蚀溶液pH值对混凝土抗酸侵蚀性能的影响.混凝土的粉煤灰掺量从20%~50%变化,矿粉掺量从35 %~65%变化,水胶比分别取0.35、0.39、0.43,酸性水侵蚀环境通过pH值分别为1、2、4的硫酸溶液模拟,抗酸性能通过测定1年龄期的混凝土抗压强度变化率表征.结果表明,降低水胶比有利于提高混凝土的抗酸侵蚀性能;矿物掺合料对混凝土耐酸性能的改善作用与其品种、掺量及模拟侵蚀溶液的pH值大小有关.大掺量粉煤灰混凝土比大掺量矿渣粉混凝土具有更好的耐酸性能.

  4. Study on Effects of Foundation Elastic Stiffness on Seismic Responses of Railway Curved Beam Vibration-isolated Bridges%基础弹性刚度对铁路隔震曲线梁桥地震响应的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张震

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a vibration-isolated railway curved beam bridge is taken as an example to study the effects of foundation elastic stiffness. Considering pile-soil interaction, finite element model of the bridge was established based on finite element software ANSYS and time-history analyses of seismic responses were carried out under 7 typical seismic waves. After analyzing and comparing the results of seismic responses, some influence laws of foundation elastic stiffness on seismic responses of curved beam vibration-isolated bridge were obtained under hard soil condition.%以某铁路隔震曲线梁桥为例,基于有限元分析软件ANSYS,建立了考虑桩土相互作用的全桥有限元分析模型,并根据场地条件选取了7条典型地震波,对该桥进行了地震响应时程分析.对不同地震激励下的地震响应结果进行分析比较,得出坚硬场地条件下考虑桩土作用时,基础刚度对隔震曲线粱桥地震响应的一些影响规律.

  5. Wronski's Foundations of Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Roi

    2016-09-01

    Argument This paper reconstructs Wronski's philosophical foundations of mathematics. It uses his critique of Lagrange's algebraic analysis as a vignette to introduce the problems that he raised, and argues that these problems have not been properly appreciated by his contemporaries and subsequent commentators. The paper goes on to reconstruct Wronski's mathematical law of creation and his notions of theory and techne, in order to put his objections to Lagrange in their philosophical context. Finally, Wronski's proof of his universal law (the expansion of a given function by any series of functions) is reviewed in terms of the above reconstruction. I argue that Wronski's philosophical approach poses an alternative to the views of his contemporary mainstream mathematicians, which brings up the contingency of their choices, and bridges the foundational concerns of early modernity with those of the twentieth-century foundations crisis. I also argue that Wronski's views may be useful to contemporary philosophy of mathematical practice, if they are read against their metaphysical grain. PMID:27573997

  6. Wronski's Foundations of Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Roi

    2016-09-01

    Argument This paper reconstructs Wronski's philosophical foundations of mathematics. It uses his critique of Lagrange's algebraic analysis as a vignette to introduce the problems that he raised, and argues that these problems have not been properly appreciated by his contemporaries and subsequent commentators. The paper goes on to reconstruct Wronski's mathematical law of creation and his notions of theory and techne, in order to put his objections to Lagrange in their philosophical context. Finally, Wronski's proof of his universal law (the expansion of a given function by any series of functions) is reviewed in terms of the above reconstruction. I argue that Wronski's philosophical approach poses an alternative to the views of his contemporary mainstream mathematicians, which brings up the contingency of their choices, and bridges the foundational concerns of early modernity with those of the twentieth-century foundations crisis. I also argue that Wronski's views may be useful to contemporary philosophy of mathematical practice, if they are read against their metaphysical grain.

  7. A seismic performance evaluation method for a pile-foundation RC girder bridge considering three kinds of SSI effect%考虑SSI三种效应的桩基础RC梁式桥抗震性能评估方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江辉; 李杰; 杨庆山; 朱晞; 刘林

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic interaction among pile-soil-bridge system is a hot spot and a difficult problem of aseismic design of bridges, and the flexible foundation effect, kinematics effect and foundation damping effect should be reasonably considered. Here, by introducing a seismic demand spectrum modification algorithm of kinematics interaction effect and foundation damping one with FEMA440, an aseismic performance evaluation method taking effectively three kinds of SSI effect for a pile-foundation RC girder bridge into account was developed based on structural nonlinear static analysis method. With a highway RC continuous girder bridge as an example, the nonlinear static and dynamic analysis were conducted respectively for the aim of comparison with three kinds of design spectra and the corresponding artificial waves as inputs. The results under two earthquake levels showed that the seismic response of the bridge taking the 2nd and the 3rd kinds of effect into account with the proposed method is slightly smaller than that of the bridge taking the 1st kind of effect into account with the dynamic time-history method, and the proposed method can be used to evaluate effectively the aseismic performance of a pile-foundation bridge under the anticipated earthquake demand.%桩-土-桥动力相互作用是桥梁抗震研究的热点和难点问题,需合理考虑地基土柔度效应、运动学效应及阻尼效应的影响.采用基于性能点轨迹法的结构非线性静力分析方法,引入FEM A440针对土-结相互作用运动学效应、地基阻尼效应的地震动需求谱修正算法,探讨建立综合考虑桩-土相互作用三种效应的桩基础RC桥梁的抗震性能评估方法.以某高速公路RC连续梁桥为算例,分别以三种设计谱及相应的人工波为输入进行非线性静、动力方法验算对比,两个水准下的计算结果表明所建议方法在补充考虑后两种效应后,地震响应略小于以考虑第一种效应为主

  8. General design of Sutong Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xigang; Yuan Hong; Pei Minshan; Dai Jie; Xu Lin

    2009-01-01

    The main span of Sutong Bridge is a double-pylon, double-plane cable-stayed bridge with steel box girder, which has the world's longest central span of 1 088 m within cable-stayed bridges. To overcome problems caused by severe meteorological conditions, perplexing hydrological conditions, deep buried bedrock and higher navigation level, many new technics and methods were created. Keys including structural system, steel box girder, stayed cable, tower, pier, tower foundation, collision avoidance system, wind-resistance, seismic-resistance, structural nonlinear response and structural static stability were presented individually in this paper.

  9. Myocardial Bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

  10. 高填土路堤对既有大跨度桥梁桩基的影响分析与监测%Analysis and Field Monitoring on the Effect of High Earth Embankment on the Existing Large Span Bridge Pile foundations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋春雨; 季永兴; 孙磊

    2015-01-01

    哈尔滨市松花江北岸滨江大道工程穿越松花江跨江大桥。为减轻路堤填筑对桥桩的影响,基于垂向二维有限元模型及现场监测,研究了土工格栅加筋、钻孔灌注桩隔离及注浆处理等综合措施的可行性,并分析了路堤填筑过程中地基土及桥桩的变形。结果表明:土体加筋、钻孔灌注桩隔离及注浆处理等综合措施可有效减轻路堤填筑对桥桩的影响;路堤填筑对桥桩的影响主要集中在桥墩桩身的上部,桩身下部影响较小;桩基础附加沉降主要由承台上部填土所致,主动区加固措施对减小桥桩的水平位移效果比较明显。研究同时表明,垂向二维有限元模型因桩基简化为板桩墙,使得地层附加应力全部由桩基承担,被动区土层变形的计算结果偏小,桩基变形计算结果偏大。%Bingjiang Avenue is built along the north bank of Songhua River and runs through the Songpu Bridge in Haerbin city ,the provincial capital of Heilongjiang .The high embankment causes additional stresses in the ground layers affecting on the adjacent piles for the bridge abutment .In this paper ,a 2D FEM model was used to analyze the deforma-tions of soil layers and the performances of bridge piles during the construction .The field monitored data of settlements and lateral displacements were reported and discussed .The synthetic implements including geogrid ,bore piles for stress isolation and compaction grouting were studied for their feasibility on controlling the influences of high embankment on the bridge piles ,as well as the deformation of the foundation and the bridge piles .The results of computations and measure-ments in situ can be summarized as follows :the synthetic implements mentioned above can alleviate the influence of em-bankment construction on the adjacent bridge piles ;high embankment mainly affects on the performance of upper part of the piles ,while the lower parts are

  11. Analysis for Effect of Karst on Bridge Foundation Based on the Integrated Geophysical Exploration Method%岩溶对桥梁基础影响的综合物探分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓红; 柳群义

    2015-01-01

    古港互通主线跨线桥、B 匝道跨线桥基础场地发育溶沟、溶洞及溶蚀裂隙,为了查明岩溶发育范围、规模、埋深状况以及岩溶地质构造和控制因素等,对两桥梁及其附近进行了针对性的工程物理探测及其部分钻探验证工作。准确定位了场地岩溶发育情况,物探工作采用了音频大地电磁法、激发极化法(包括电测深和剖面法)和瞬变电磁法,分析了岩溶对桥梁基础的影响程度,结果表明:场地内岩溶发育,规模较大,且受构造控制明显,采取避绕或适宜处理措施后,场地整体仍处于稳定状态。%There exist developed karren,karst cave and karst fissure in the area of Gugan deck bridge and B ramp bridge,in order to find out the karst development scope,scale,the condition of buried depth and karst geological structure and the control factors,the specific physics detection of engineering and the drilling verification work are done nearby two Bridges.In order to determine the karst develop-ment situations from the macroscopic and microscopic,the integrated detection method are adopted,inclu-ding audio magnetotelluric method,the induced polarization method(including electric sounding and pro-filing)and transient electromagnetic method,to find out the influence degree of the karst on the bridge.The results show that the ground within the karst development is extensive,local development large water-eroded cave,controlled by the structure,and provides a certain direction,but after maneuver around or appropriate treatment,space is still in the stable state.

  12. Non-linear Seismic Response of CFST Arch Bridge Considering Foundation-structure Interaction%考虑地基-结构相互作用的钢管混凝土拱桥非线性地震响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 李术才; 杨学英; 张峰; 孙国富

    2012-01-01

    The linear and non-linear seismic responses of deck type long span concrete filled steel tube (CFST) arch bridge were analyzed considering foundation-structure interaction. Taking a deck type CFST arch bridge as studying object, a 3D viscoelastic artificial boundary was constructed to simulate the radiation damping and the elasticity recovery capacity of the medium at the far field, and the whole analytic model including the foundation and arch bridge was established. Inputting the Qian'an seismic wave which has amax - 0- 2g amplitude, the linear and nonlinear seismic responses of deck type long-span CFST arch bridge were analyzed considering foundation-structure interaction. The result shows that (1) the nonlinear influences are not ignorable when analyzing the bridge seismic response displacement, the displacement and bending moments My and Mz of main arch ribs of nonlinear seismic response are bigger than those of linear seismic response analysis; (2) the lower chord axial force at springer of nonlinear seismic response analysis is a bit bigger than that of linear seismic response analysis, the lower chord axial force at mid-span of nonlinear seismic response analysis is less than that of linear seismic response analysis.%考虑地基-结构相互作用情况,研究了上承式大跨度钢管混凝土拱桥线性及非线性地震响应.以其上承式钢管混凝土拱桥为工程背景,以三维粘弹性人工边界模拟远场地基的辐射阻尼和弹性恢复性能,建立了包括基岩和上部桥梁的整体分析模型,沿纵桥向输入amax=0.2g迁安地震波,在考虑地基-结构相互作用条件下研究了上承式大跨度钢管混凝土拱桥线性及非线性地震响应.研究表明非线性行为在桥梁进行地震响应位移分析时是不可忽视的,考虑非线性后拱肋地震响应位移计算结果增大,主拱肋部分截面弯矩My、Mz大于线性计算时结果;下弦管轴力在拱脚附近非线

  13. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way.......In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  14. Programmevaluierung Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Warta, Katharina; Good, Barbara; Geyer, Anton

    2009-01-01

    BRIDGE is an initiative funded by the Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT) that aims to close the “funding gap” between basic and applied research in stand-alone projects with the primary objective of jointly developing the potential of basic and applied research. BRIDGE acts as an  umbrella structure under which the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and the  Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) coordinate two thematically open funding programmes: The ...

  15. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics The Skin Cancer Foundation's Champions for Change Gala 2016 Learn ...

  16. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems.

  17. National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NBI is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 600,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate Highways,...

  18. 高速公路桥梁工程超深矩形深井基础施工%On foundation construction of ultra-deep rectangular deep well in expressway bridge project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠元

    2012-01-01

    Combining with the ultra-deep well construction of Laoyingyan Bridge of the eighth section of Huishui-Xingren expressway in Guizhou,the paper introduces the ultra-deep well construction technique of expressways bridge,adopts the manual hand-held pick or pickaxe for the upper gravel soil and gravel layer to excavate from the upper to lower layers,the full section smooth blasting technique to excavate in lower strong weathering and medium weathering limestone,the mast electric hoister to extract ballast,the ejector anchor primary support and the reinforced concrete wall protection,so it can fully complete the ultra-well construction with safety,excellence and efficiency.%结合贵州省惠水至兴仁高速公路八标段老鹰岩大桥超深深井施工实例,介绍了高速公路桥梁超深深井施工技术,上部碎石土、砾砂层采用人工手持风镐或十字镐从上到下逐层挖掘,下部强风化、中风化灰岩采用全断面光面爆破开挖,桅杆式电动卷扬机提碴,喷锚初期支护及钢筋混凝土护壁跟进,安全、优质、高效地完成了全部超深深井施工。

  19. 安庆长江铁路大桥主墩大型深水基础施工方案与关键技术%Construction Scheme and Key Construction Techniques for Large Deepwater Foundations of Main Piers of Anqing Changjiang River Railway Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    农代培; 季跃华; 徐炳法

    2012-01-01

    宁安铁路安庆长江铁路大桥主桥为双塔多跨连续钢桁梁斜拉桥,该桥3号、4号墩均采用高桩承台基础.为解决桩基汛期施工风险大和3号墩深水无覆盖层斜岩面环境下桩基施工平台搭建难题,经方案比选,3号、4号墩基础采用先围堰(直径56 m)后平台的双壁钢围堰施工方案.施工中采取了以下关键技术:3号墩围堰采用气囊法下河,4号墩围堰采用整体起吊下河;围堰采用无导向船重锚锚碇系统定位;采用活动插板法快速完成了斜岩面围堰底缺口封堵;围堰采取了分区封底施工.%The main bridge of Anqing Changjiang River Railway Bridge on Nanjing-Anqing Railway is a double-pylon and multi-span continuous steel truss girder cable-stayed bridge and the main piers No. 3 and No. 4 of the bridge are supported on the elevated pile cap foundations. To cope with the problems that the construction risk of the pile foundations would be high in the flood period and the setting-up of the working platform would be difficult for the foundation of the Pier No. 3 on the inclined rock surface in deepwater and without overburden, it was determined through comparison that the construction scheme of building the circular double-wall steel boxed cofferdams (each being 56 m in diameter) for the Piers No. 3 and No. 4 first and setting up the platforms late would be adopted. In the process of the construction, the following key techniques were applied, I. E. The cofferdam for the Pier No. 3 was launched to the river by the air bag method and the cofferdam for the Pier No. 4 was integrally lifted down to the river. Both the cofferdams were positioned at the pier sites by the heavy anchor anchorage systems without utilizing the guiding barges. The opening at the bottom of the cofferdam on the inclined rock surface was fast blockaded by the movable inserted steel plate method and the bases of the two cofferdams were sealed by tremie concrete in areas.

  20. 桥梁群桩基础抗震简化计算模型的适用性研究%Research on Applicability of Simplified Seismic Computational Model of Group Pile Foundations with Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永亮; 王培山; 陈兴冲

    2015-01-01

    本文对群桩基础常用的抗震简化计算模型进行对比分析,指出各计算模型间的差异。在此基础上,提出改进的分层文克尔弹簧模型,并在该模型中采用桩身的等效面积比η间接考虑桩侧摩阻力和桩底土竖向抗力的影响。分析结果表明:应用集中弹簧模型模拟桩基础的柔性效应时,应考虑耦联刚度的影响;应用分层文克尔弹簧模型模拟群桩基础的桩土相互作用时,应考虑桩侧摩阻力和桩底土抗力的影响;在改进的分层文克尔弹簧模型中,桩身的等效面积比η随桩长及桩底土竖向地基系数的增加而增大,随桩径的增加而减小,且η值越大,对桥墩及桩基础的地震响应影响越大,只有当η接近1.0时,方可采用分层文克尔弹簧模型进行抗震分析。%A variety of simplified seismic computational models mainly applied to group pile foundations were compared and then differences between them were pointed out . On this basis , an improved Layered Winkler spring model was put forward . The impact of lateral friction around piles and subsoil vertical resistance at pile tip was considered using the parameter ηin this model , which is equivalent area ratio of a pile . The results show that :The effect of the coupling stiffness should be considered when flexible constraint effect of pile foun‐dations was simulated by using concentrated spring model;The effect of lateral friction around piles and sub‐soil vertical resistance at pile tip should be considered when pile‐soil interaction of group pile foundations was simulated by adopting Layered Winkler spring model ;ηincreases with the increase of pile length and vertical foundation coefficient at pile tip , but decreases with the increase of pile diameter in the improved Layered Win‐kler spring model . The larger the ηvalue is , the greater the impact is on the seismic response of pier and pile foundation .Only when ηis close

  1. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...

  2. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...

  3. Study of displacements of a bridge abutment using FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wymysłowski Michał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Steel sheet piles are often used to support excavations for bridge foundations. When they are left in place in the permanent works, they have the potential to increase foundation bearing capacity and reduce displacements; but their presence is not usually taken into account in foundation design. In this article, the results of finite element analysis of a typical abutment foundation, with and without cover of sheet piles, are presented to demonstrate these effects. The structure described is located over the Więceminka river in the town of Kołobrzeg, Poland. It is a single-span road bridge with reinforced concrete slab.

  4. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  5. 桩基础桥梁的土-结构动力相互作用%Seismic response for pile-foundation bridges considering soil-structure dynamic interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙剑平; 朱日希

    2001-01-01

    首先以加权残差公式为基础,采用积分方程方法推导与桩基础对应的层状场地动力刚度矩阵公式,并用解析解验证了数值分析的计算结果;然后用子结构法联合积分方程方法和有限元法的计算结果,求解土-结构动力相互作用的地震响应;最后以芜湖长江大桥主跨斜拉桥长塔墩的地震响应为例,将本文的计算结果与Penzien模型的计算结果作了比较。%Based on the weighted-residual formulation, the integral expression and the formula for calculating the dynamic-stiffness matrix of pile group foundation by the indirect boundary-element method are derived. The formula of response [Np(z)] in a element with fixed boundary was derived by the Mathmatica. The dynamic-stiffness matrix was calculated by MATLAB program. The results which were validated by analytic solution can directly used to solve the soil-pile-structure interaction problem by the substructure method which connecting the finite-element method and the boundary-element method.

  6. Cooley's Anemia Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley's Anemia Foundation Leading the Fight against Thalassemia About Us Mission/Purpose History About Thomas Benton Cooley Medical Research ... Gabriella was diagnosed with thalassemia, and the Cooley’s Anemia Foundation continues to play an almost-daily role ...

  7. The Monopod Bucket Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmar, Christian LeBlanc; Ahle, Kim; Nielsen, Søren A.;

    2009-01-01

    Following the successful installation of a prototype of a monopod bucket foundation, also called a “monopod suction caisson”, at Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, in 2009, DONG Energy is currently developing a commercialization strategy. The monopod bucket foundation is a promising foundat......, further research, development and prototype testing are required, before the monopod bucket foundation can be commercialized.......Following the successful installation of a prototype of a monopod bucket foundation, also called a “monopod suction caisson”, at Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, in 2009, DONG Energy is currently developing a commercialization strategy. The monopod bucket foundation is a promising...... foundation concept for offshore wind turbines and can be installed using suction assisted penetration, combined with other installation methods. This selfinstalling foundation concept, may avoid the use of expensive jack-ups and scour protection, and thus significantly reduces installation costs. However...

  8. American Vitiligo Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life can acquire vitiligo Welcome to The American Vitiligo Foundation "Embracing Diversity" bracelets are available to help ... animal testing. Please Visit Our Donations Page American Vitiligo Research Foundation "We Walk By Faith, Not By ...

  9. Toxicology Education Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bodies and our world. Welcome to the Toxicology Education Foundation! Our mission is to enhance public understanding ... TEF In the Classroom Our Goal The Toxicology Education Foundation seeks to help build the public's understanding ...

  10. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We ... lives. Learn more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation supports a wide array of ...

  11. Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most current news and updates from the Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation. Life with PF Education & Support About PF ... open ! JOIN NOW We Imagine a World Without Pulmonary Fibrosis The Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation mobilizes people and resources ...

  12. Abutments influence in the dynamic response of bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Cutillas, Antonio; Gómez Lera, Sagrario; Alarcón Álvarez, Enrique

    1996-01-01

    A simplified analytical model of a short span bridge is proposed. The inertial interaction effects of pier foundations and abutments has been included in order to evaluate the response sensitivities to different soil-structure interaction variables. The modification of natural frequency and damping properties is shown for typical short span bridges of the integral deck-abutment type for longitudinal vibrations or general bridges for the transverse ones.

  13. Service Learning as a Transition into Foundation Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy P. Kropf

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Service learning is a pedagogical method to bridge classroom and community experiences for students. Although social work education has historically emphasized this connection through internship experiences, service learning can fill a different function within the curriculum. This article proposes a service learning experience to assist graduate students with the transition into their foundation field placement. Beneficial outcomes of using service learning as an educational bridge are discussed for students, faculty, and the social work program.

  14. 公安长江公铁两用特大桥4号墩基础施工关键技术%Key Techniques for Construction of Foundation of Pier No .4 of Gong′an Changjiang River Rail-cum-Road Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房保华

    2015-01-01

    T he main bridge of Gong′an Changjiang River Rail‐cum‐Road Bridge is a steel truss girder cable‐stayed bridge with double pylons and with span arrangement (98+182+518+182+98) m .The foundation of Pier No .4 of the bridge is the one of bored piles plus pile cap ,of which the piles are in variable diameters of 2 .8 m/3 .1 m ,the numbers of the piles are totally 36 and the pile cap ,designed in the rounded end shape ,is 58 .4 m long ,33 .6 m wide and 6 m high and is em‐bedded in the riverbed .The foundation of the pier was constructed by the scheme of double‐wall steel boxed cofferdam in the sequence that the cofferdam was set up first ,the working platform was late ,the boring of the piles was carried out first and the base sealing of the cofferdam was late and the pile cap was concreted finally .In the construction of the foundation ,the following key techniques were applied .The first lift of the cofferdam (68 .2 m long ,40 m wide and 16 m high) was integrally launched to the river by the air bag method .The first lift of the cofferdam ,the in‐ternal support trusses of the cofferdam and the steel casings at the pier site were used to form a semi‐floating boring platform .The bored piles were constructed by the air lifting reverse circula‐tion boring aided by the bored hole wall mud protection .At the time the construction of the bored piles was completed ,the cofferdam was lowered down ,the height of the cofferdam was extended , the water was pumped into the cofferdam ,the dredging inside the cofferdam was carried out and the cofferdam was sunk down .After the cofferdam was sunk down in place to the designed eleva‐tion and the base of the cofferdam was sealed in areas .The water inside the cofferdam was pumped out and the pile cap was finally concreted in two layers according to the workmanship of massive concrete .%公安长江公铁两用特大桥主桥为(98+182+518+182+98) m双塔钢桁梁斜拉桥,该桥4号主墩采用2.8m

  15. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…

  16. Modelling Foundations and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Modelling Foundations and Applications, held in Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark, in July 2012. The 20 revised full foundations track papers and 10 revised full applications track papers presented were carefully reviewed and sel...

  17. A bridge to advanced mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sentilles, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This helpful workbook-style ""bridge"" book introduces students to the foundations of advanced mathematics, spanning the gap between a practically oriented calculus sequence and subsequent courses in algebra and analysis with a more theoretical slant. Part 1 focuses on logic and number systems, providing the most basic tools, examples, and motivation for the manner, method, and concerns of higher mathematics. Part 2 covers sets, relations, functions, infinite sets, and mathematical proofs and reasoning. Author Dennis Sentilles also discusses the history and development of mathematics as well a

  18. 软土地层桥梁群桩基础桩土共同作用性状的非线性有限元分析%Nonlinear finite element analysis of pile-soil interaction of bridge pile group foundation in soft soil stratum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪优; 刘建华; 王星华; 蔡君君

    2012-01-01

    A three dimensional nonlinear finite element model of pile group foundation of a high-speed railway bridge was built. Combined with the corresponding data obtained from field tests, the rules of pile axial force, pile side friction force, soil additional stress, pore water pressure distribution, excess pore water pressure dissipation and settlement of pile group foundation were analyzed. The calculation results show that the axial forces of corner piles are larger than the side piles which are larger than the center piles; and the axial forces of corner piles and side piles reduce greatly along the pile body; and the axial forces of center piles decrease slowly. Moreover, the regular pattern of pile side friction is that the pile side friction measurement of corner piles are larger than the side piles which are larger than the center piles generally; and the amount of relative displacement between pile and soil is bigger on the upper and less on the lower. That is to say, the amount of relative displacement between pile and soil on the upper of pile is larger than on the middle and lower of pile. Furthermore, the soil additional stress and excess pore water pressure generated by external loads mainly concentrate in soil under the pile cap within a certain range; and their attenuation gradients decrease along the depth gradually. With the increasing of the consolidation time, the settlement of pile group foundation arrives to be stabilized.%通过对某高速铁路特大桥群桩基础进行三维非线性有限元分析,并结合现场试验得出的规律进行相应的对比分析,研究了软土地层桥梁群桩基础桩身轴力、桩侧摩阻力、基底土体附加应力、孔隙水压力分布、超孔隙水压力消散和群桩基础荷载沉降规律.计算结果表明,基桩所承受的轴力,角桩>边桩>中心桩,角桩和边桩的轴力沿桩身减小的幅度较大,而中心桩的轴力沿桩身减小的幅度稍小;各基桩桩侧摩阻力

  19. Case Study on 4000 m-span Cable-stayed Suspension Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Haijun Wang; Jiandong Wang; Hua Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the case studies for a cable-stayed suspension bridges proposed over the Tsugaru Strait, Japan. Center Bridge is designed as a compound bridge of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges with 4000 m super-long-span. Case studies about the effects of cable-stayed bridge length, the design of sub-cable, height and stiffness of main tower, type of foundation and length of side span on displacement were carried out. With appropriate design of above parameters, the compound...

  20. Children's Cardiomyopathy Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search The Children's Cardiomyopathy Foundation (CCF) is a national, non-profit organization focused on pediatric cardiomyopathy, a chronic disease of the heart muscle. CCF is dedicated to accelerating the search for ...

  1. Melanoma International Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 501(c)(3) charity, also registered as a non-profit charity in the state of Pennsylvania, certificate #29498 © 2013 Melanoma International Foundation. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of Use ...

  2. Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Into Relieved Are you experiencing symptoms linked to restless legs syndrome (RLS)? Find tools and support to help get ... I couldn’t sleep. Fortunately, I found the Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation and learned what type of doctor to ...

  3. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become a monthly donor Volunteer Support LIMA Cares Sponsored by Jenna's Rainbow Foundation Jenna's Corner Online Community Username Password Not a member yet? Join Now Forgot password? CBTF Blog How do you all feel?? By: Tom | Sunday, ...

  4. Hepatitis B Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 10 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  5. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... to make progress in “immunogenomics” Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  6. National Fragile X Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anthology Advocacy National Fragile X Foundation Advocacy Day STAR: Local Advocacy Agenda and Accomplishments Community Events International ... Feeding and Fragile X Toilet Training the Older Child Oppositional or Merely Anxious? Public or Private? Managing ...

  7. Kessler Foundation Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... download directions in PDF format >> Map it with Google Maps Our other location 1199 Pleasant Valley Way West ... download directions in PDF format >> Map it with Google Maps email us @ info@kesslerfoundation.org Kessler Foundation 2015 © | ...

  8. Cleft Palate Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish , and Mandarin ! Information on Cleft Lip and Palate Our booklets and factsheets address a variety of ... Bear. –Paige with her Cleftline™ teddy bear– Cleft Palate Foundation 1504 East Franklin Street, Suite 102 Chapel ...

  9. The foundations of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, Leonard J

    1972-01-01

    Classic analysis of the foundations of statistics and development of personal probability, one of the greatest controversies in modern statistical thought. Revised edition. Calculus, probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra are recommended.

  10. National Psoriasis Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... handle bullies in the classroom. Previous Next National Psoriasis Foundation provides you with the help you need to best manage your psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis, while promoting research to find ...

  11. Morris Animal Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the transmission of serious illnesses. Read more » Morris Animal Foundation Receives $750,000 Grant for Cancer Studies. ... Give Partners Become a Partner Meet Our Partners Animal Lovers Our Work Ways to Give Pet Health ...

  12. Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Percentage Donations Tribute Wall Other Giving/Fundraising Opportunities Bitcoin Donation Form FAQs Help us raise awareness and ... Percentage Donations Tribute Wall Other Giving/Fundraising Opportunities Bitcoin Donation Form FAQs © 2013 Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation, ...

  13. Prostate Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... P 2 rovocative Questions PCCTC Scientific Retreat Coffey-Holden Research News Faces of Prostate Cancer [4] Survivors ... Foundation News The Prostate Cancer Foundation’s 2016 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting accelerates advances in the ...

  14. National Emphysema Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... August 15, 2016 A recent study finds that music therapy benefits chronic obstructive p... July 04, 2016 A new recommendation from US Preventive Services Task Force is encoura... Copyright © 2016, National Emphysema Foundation, all rights reserved home ...

  15. Foundations of measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Suppes, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Foundations of Measurement offers the most coherently organized treatment of the topics and issues central to measurement. Much of the research involved has been scattered over several decades and a multitude of journals--available in many instances only to specialties. With the publication of Volumes two and three of this important work, Foundations of Measurement is the most comprehensive presentation in the area of measurement.

  16. Foundational aspects of security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzikokolakis, Konstantinos; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Palamidessi, Catuscia;

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security.......This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security....

  17. The Internet Inter-Orb Protocol Security Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Slowikowski

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a security bridge for the Internet protocol of interoperability amongst CORBA objects and the Internet inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP. The bridge helps in making accessible objects in the Internet and makes possible the access control to them. The bridge was realized in the popular request broker the Visigenic's VisiBroker under Windows 95/NT and Solaris 2.X operating systems. We describe two ways of locating the bridge in the request broker. The first means uses one name domain of broker and is not transparent for client. The second one uses two name domains and provides objects protection on the level of the Naming Service and is transparent lor the client. We also describe the variant ofthe second means with using GateKeeper server to support IIOP tunneling within HTTP. We emphasize the importance of a firewall, cooperating with a bridge. which is required for the purpose of providing object protection. The paper presents an original conception of security managing, basing on the ideas of users, groups and resources defined using the standard terms of CORBA, IIOP and TCP/IP, that allows to control positively and negatively the access to classes (interfaces, objects and also to their individual methods. This conception was effectively implemented in a functioning bridge. Further chapters describe the foundations and some details of the bridge implementation sueli as the use ofthe Interface Repository, cache memory application, thread synchronization and the way of synchronization of the configuration applet with the bridge's objects. We discuss the influence of these solutions on the efficiency ofthe bridge and its source code portability. We also present the general structure of the component objects ofthe bridge with a scheme. ln the next part we characterize the implementation foundations ofthe bridge manager, realized as an applet in Java, with the stress on the possibility of the bridge configuration through the

  18. CONSTITUTIONAL FOUNDATIONS OF JURISDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Jamal Batista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At the current stage of our State of Law there is no way to separate the study of the civil procedural law from the Federal Constitution, especially the jurisdiction, because it is in the Constitution that there are the legitimizing foundations of the jurisdiction institute. In this article, we carry on about the constitutional foundations of jurisdiction, such as: the principle of natural justice, principle of access to justice, principle of impartiality, principle of publicity, principle of motivation and principle of submission to res judicata. The conclusion is, after all, that jurisdiction, as one of the bulwarks of the citizen, finds in the “Citizen Constitution” of 1988 its foundations and decisive bases.

  19. Foundations of predictive analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, James

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the authors' two decades of experience in applied modeling and data mining, Foundations of Predictive Analytics presents the fundamental background required for analyzing data and building models for many practical applications, such as consumer behavior modeling, risk and marketing analytics, and other areas. It also discusses a variety of practical topics that are frequently missing from similar texts. The book begins with the statistical and linear algebra/matrix foundation of modeling methods, from distributions to cumulant and copula functions to Cornish--Fisher expansion and o

  20. Buckling of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the risk of structural buckling during installation of large-diameter bucket foundations is addressed using numerical methods. Imperfect geometries are introduced based on the pre-buckling mode shapes from a linear Eigenvalue buckling analysis. Various imperfect geometries are intr......In this paper, the risk of structural buckling during installation of large-diameter bucket foundations is addressed using numerical methods. Imperfect geometries are introduced based on the pre-buckling mode shapes from a linear Eigenvalue buckling analysis. Various imperfect geometries...

  1. Optimization Foundations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, H Ronald

    2011-01-01

    A thorough and highly accessible resource for analysts in a broad range of social sciences. Optimization: Foundations and Applications presents a series of approaches to the challenges faced by analysts who must find the best way to accomplish particular objectives, usually with the added complication of constraints on the available choices. Award-winning educator Ronald E. Miller provides detailed coverage of both classical, calculus-based approaches and newer, computer-based iterative methods. Dr. Miller lays a solid foundation for both linear and nonlinear models and quickly moves on to dis

  2. Professional Windows Workflow Foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Kitta, Todd

    2007-01-01

    If you want to gain the skills to build Windows Workflow Foundation solutions, then this is the book for you. It provides you with a clear, practical guide on how to develop workflow-based software and integrate it into existing technology landscapes. Throughout the pages, you'll also find numerous real-world examples and sample code that will help you to get started quickly.Each major area of Windows Workflow Foundation is explored in depth along with some of the fundamentals operations related to generic workflow applications. You'll also find detailed coverage on how to develop workflow in

  3. TCP/IP foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, Andrew G

    2006-01-01

    The world of IT is always evolving, but in every area there are stable, core concepts that anyone just setting out needed to know last year, needs to know this year, and will still need to know next year. The purpose of the Foundations series is to identify these concepts and present them in a way that gives you the strongest possible starting point, no matter what your endeavor. TCP/IP Foundations provides essential knowledge about the two protocols that form the basis for the Internet, as well as many other networks. What you learn here will benefit you in the short term, as you acquire and

  4. Foundations of Risk Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Aven, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Foundations of Risk Analysis presents the issues core to risk analysis - understanding what risk means, expressing risk, building risk models, addressing uncertainty, and applying probability models to real problems. The author provides the readers with the knowledge and basic thinking they require to successfully manage risk and uncertainty to support decision making. This updated edition reflects recent developments on risk and uncertainty concepts, representations and treatment. New material in Foundations of Risk Analysis includes:An up to date presentation of how to understand, define and

  5. Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction in Bridge Abutments

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Cutillas, Antonio; Mateo Bermejo, J.; Alarcón Álvarez, Enrique

    1996-01-01

    Strong motion obtained in instrumental short-span bridges show the importance of the abutments in the dynamic response of the whole structure. Many models have been used in order to take into account the influence of pier foundations although no reliable ones have been used to analyse the abutment performance. In this work three-dimensional Boundary Element models in frequency domain have been proposed and dimensionless dynamic stiffness of standard bridge abutments have been obtained.

  6. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...... to quantify the different structural configurations and allows a preliminary optimization of the main structure.Included are the most recent advances in structural design, corrosion protection of cables, aerodynamic safety, and erection procedures....

  7. Foundations of Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Volonté, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the foundations of corporate governance. The discussion includes a review on the modern corporation, transaction costs theory, agency costs theory, legal investor protection, investor protection by corporate governance and its various mechanisms, as well as an overview of the determinants of corporate governance.

  8. Foundation Fighting Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Boston VisionWalk Kick Off 8th Annual Central Ohio Golf For Sight Golf Classic San Antonio/Austin Chapter Speaker Series Presentations ... Foundation Fighting Blindness’ 2015 Annual Report. Read More Learn more about the latest retinal research news and ...

  9. Sjogren's Syndrome Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter, YouTube, Facebook, and Linkedin! anxiety © 2016 Sjögren’s Syndrome Foundation, Inc. 6707 Democracy Blvd, Ste 325, Bethesda, MD 20817 (Privacy Policy) 1-800 475-6473 · 301 530-4415 (Fax)

  10. Foundations of factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mulaik, Stanley A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Factor Analysis and Structural Theories Brief History of Factor Analysis as a Linear Model Example of Factor AnalysisMathematical Foundations for Factor Analysis Introduction Scalar AlgebraVectorsMatrix AlgebraDeterminants Treatment of Variables as Vectors Maxima and Minima of FunctionsComposite Variables and Linear Transformations Introduction Composite Variables Unweighted Composite VariablesDifferentially Weighted Composites Matrix EquationsMulti

  11. Impedance of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    solutions, finding that the present boundary-element-finite-element model provides accurate results. The influence of the soil properties as well as the skirt length of the foundation is analysed, and each dynamic stiffness component is computed as function of a non-dimensional frequency....

  12. Foundations for Farming Website

    OpenAIRE

    Foundations for Farming

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record This website provides information on the activities and outcomes of Foundations for Farming, an international NGO dedicated to promoting Conservation Agriculture as a means of poverty reduction and food security. The organization currently works in Zimbabwe, South Africa, and Malawi, hosting training sessions and facilitating the dissemination of Conservation Agriculture ideologies and practices.

  13. Empirical Design of Scour Protections around Monopile Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vos, L.; De Rouck, J.; Troch, P.;

    2011-01-01

    Together with new opportunities, offshore wind farms raise new engineering challenges. An important aspect relates to the erosion of bottom material around the foundation of the wind turbines, caused by the local increase of the wave and current induced flow velocities by the pile's presence...... protection around a monopile foundation in a combined wave and current climate. Due to the difficult physical processes involved in flow disturbance and displacement of bed protection material at the base of a foundation, the formula is based on the results of an experimental model study which is described....... Typically, the expected scour has a considerable impact on the stability and dynamic behavior of the wind turbine and a scour protection is placed to avoid erosion of the soil close to the foundation. Although much experience exists on the design of scour protections around bridge piers (which are placed...

  14. Optimum design methodologies for pile foundations in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Letsios

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of pile foundations in geotechnical engineering for supporting high-significance structures such as bridges, high-rise buildings, power plant stations, offshore platforms and museums, it becomes a necessity to find the best pile foundation design in terms of performance and economy. The number of piles required might exceed several hundreds or even thousands while the pile foundation cost might exceed 20% of the construction cost of the superstructure. In this work the problem of finding optimized designs of pile foundations is examined and is performed in accordance to two design code recommendations, namely Eurocode 7 and DIN 4014. The proposed structural optimization procedure is implemented in two real-world cases both located in London, UK in order to assess the efficiency of the proposed design formulation.

  15. Grouting for Pile Foundation Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Stoel, A.E.C.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the use of grouting methods for pile foundation improvement, a generic term that is used here to define both foundation renovation (increasing the bearing capacity of a pile foundation that has insufficient bearing capacity) and foundation protection (safeguarding the piles of the foundation against possible damage resulting from underground construction activities in the vicinity). A full-scale test, of which the general set-up and consistency check ar...

  16. Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taizhou Bridge lies between Taizhou, Zhenjiang and Changzhou City in Jiangsu Province. The total length of Taizhou Bridge is 62.088 kin. The whole line is designed by freeway codes with six lanes in two directions. The wholeinvestment is 9.37 billion RMB and the planned construction duration is 5.5 years. The main bridge crossing the Yangtze River is a continuous three-pylon two-span suspension bridge with the main span of 1 080 m. The bridge system is realized for the first time and ranks first in the world until now.

  17. Transient response of piles-bridge under horizontal excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱斌; 陈仁朋; 陈云敏

    2003-01-01

    Moving ships and other objects drifting on water often impact a bridge' s pile foundations. The mechanical model of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing was established, and a time-domain approach based on Finite-difference Method was developed for analyzing the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. For a single pile, good agreement between two computed results validated the present approach.The slenderness ratio of the pile, the pile-soil stiffness ratio and the type of the structure influence the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. The computed results showed that the stiffness of the structure determines the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing.

  18. Transient response of piles-bridge under horizontal excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱斌; 陈仁朋; 陈云敏

    2003-01-01

    Moving ships and other objects drifting on water often impact a bridge's pile foundations. The mechanical model of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing was established, and a time-domain approach based on Finite-difference Method was developed for analyzing the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. For a single pile, good agreement between two computed results validated the present approach. The slenderness ratio of the pile, the pile-soil stiffness ratio and the type of the structure influence the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. The computed results showed that the stiffness of the structure determines the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing.

  19. Netherlands foundation for radioastronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report of the board is followed by departmental reports from the Westerbork Telescope Group, Dwingeloo Telescope Group, Computer Group, Laboratory and Central Technical Services, Astronomy Group, Administration of the Foundation/General Affairs and Personnel Council. Astronomical reports describe radio astronomical research carried out by the Foundation staff and at the Kapteyn Laboratory Groningen, Leiden Observatory, Utrecht Observatory and the Laboratorio di Radioastronomia Bologna, Italy. Progress in the extension of the synthesis radio telescope and investigations into the possibility of substantially increasing the SRT data rate for solar observations, are outlined. Appendices shows the organisational structure, the names of the employees, the operating budget, the observing facilities at Westerbork and Dwingeloo, and the publications and reports published in 1978 and related to observations made with these facilities. (C.F.)

  20. Foundation doctors’ induction experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, Susan; Kellett, Joanne; Leinster, Sam J.

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well established that trainee doctors struggle with the transition from medical school to starting work and feel unprepared for many aspects of their new role. There is evidence that suitable induction experiences improve competence and confidence, but available data indicate that trainee doctors on the UK Foundation Programme are commonly not experiencing useful inductions. The aim of the reported research was to explore trainee doctors’ experiences with induction during the...

  1. Foundations of image science

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Harrison H

    2013-01-01

    Winner of the 2006 Joseph W. Goodman Book Writing Award! A comprehensive treatment of the principles, mathematics, and statistics of image science In today's visually oriented society, images play an important role in conveying messages. From seismic imaging to satellite images to medical images, our modern society would be lost without images to enhance our understanding of our health, our culture, and our world. Foundations of Image Science presents a comprehensive treatment of the principles, mathematics, and st

  2. Foundations for Intrusion Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, Ian D.; Parter, David W.; Rubin, Shai; Vernon, Mary K.

    2004-01-01

    We propose an infrastructure that helps a system administrator to identify a newly published vulnerability on the site hosts and to evaluate the vulnerability’s threat with respect to the administrator’s security priorities. The infrastructure foundation is the vulnerability semantics, a small set of attributes for vulnerability definition. We demonstrate that with a few attributes it is possible to define the majority of the known vulnerabilities in a way that (i) facilitates ...

  3. Mathematical foundations of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, R; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Foundations of Thermodynamics details the core concepts of the mathematical principles employed in thermodynamics. The book discusses the topics in a way that physical meanings are assigned to the theoretical terms. The coverage of the text includes the mechanical systems and adiabatic processes; topological considerations; and equilibrium states and potentials. The book also covers Galilean thermodynamics; symmetry in thermodynamics; and special relativistic thermodynamics. The book will be of great interest to practitioners and researchers of disciplines that deal with thermodyn

  4. Foundations of Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin H. Knuth; John Skilling

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple and clear foundation for finite inference that unites and significantly extends the approaches of Kolmogorov and Cox. Our approach is based on quantifying lattices of logical statements in a way that satisfies general lattice symmetries. With other applications such as measure theory in mind, our derivations assume minimal symmetries, relying on neither negation nor continuity nor differentiability. Each relevant symmetry corresponds to an axiom of quantification, and thes...

  5. Foundations of Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Chaitin, G. J.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses what can be proved about the foundations of mathematics using the notions of algorithm and information. The first part is retrospective, and presents a beautiful antique, Godel's proof, the first modern incompleteness theorem, Turing's halting problem, and a piece of postmodern metamathematics, the halting probability Omega. The second part looks forward to the new century and discusses the convergence of theoretical physics and theoretical computer science and hopes fo...

  6. Fractal Topology Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Porchon, Helene

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the foundation of a fractal topological space constructed via a family of nested topological spaces endowed with subspace topologies, where the number of topological spaces involved in this family is related to the appearance of new structures on it. The greater the number of topological spaces we use, the stronger the subspace topologies we obtain. The fractal manifold model is brought up as an illustration of space that is locally homeomorphic to the fractal topo...

  7. Foundations of chaotic mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Stephen; Ottino, Julio M

    2004-05-15

    The simplest mixing problem corresponds to the mixing of a fluid with itself; this case provides a foundation on which the subject rests. The objective here is to study mixing independently of the mechanisms used to create the motion and review elements of theory focusing mostly on mathematical foundations and minimal models. The flows under consideration will be of two types: two-dimensional (2D) 'blinking flows', or three-dimensional (3D) duct flows. Given that mixing in continuous 3D duct flows depends critically on cross-sectional mixing, and that many microfluidic applications involve continuous flows, we focus on the essential aspects of mixing in 2D flows, as they provide a foundation from which to base our understanding of more complex cases. The baker's transformation is taken as the centrepiece for describing the dynamical systems framework. In particular, a hierarchy of characterizations of mixing exist, Bernoulli --> mixing --> ergodic, ordered according to the quality of mixing (the strongest first). Most importantly for the design process, we show how the so-called linked twist maps function as a minimal picture of mixing, provide a mathematical structure for understanding the type of 2D flows that arise in many micromixers already built, and give conditions guaranteeing the best quality mixing. Extensions of these concepts lead to first-principle-based designs without resorting to lengthy computations.

  8. Physicians and foundation hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John; Black, Carol

    2003-01-01

    Foundation NHS Trusts will be constituted in the same way as Mutual Societies, and local people and patients will be invited to become subscribers. Subscribers will elect a board of governors who will appoint the non-executive directors of the Trusts. Foundation Trusts will be outside the performance management system, but will be subject to a regulator and to inspection. Contracts with commissioners will be legally enforceable. Issues discussed in the article include: financial borrowing; whether competition is being reintroduced; poaching staff; fears of a two-tier health service; fragmentation of the NHS; the impact on research and teaching; and the impact on the current 'target culture'. Local communities and patient groups may welcome involvement with their local hospitals, but special interest groups could be a danger. Foundation Trusts may bring back some of the better features of NHS Trusts as originally conceived, and offer better opportunities for clinicians to influence local policies and priorities. Fears of yet another organisational change are an important issue. Only time will tell whether the outcome will justify the effort the changes will involve. PMID:14703035

  9. 岛状多年冻土地区桥梁桩基回冻后承载力的静载与动测对比试验研究%STATIC AND DYNAMIC CONTRAST TEST FOR BEARING CAPACITY OF REFROZEN BRIDGE PILE FOUNDATION IN PATCHY PERMAFROST REGIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宇德忠; 程培峰; 季成; 崔志刚

    2015-01-01

    为了准确掌握岛状多年冻土地区桥梁钻孔灌注桩的回冻时间及桩基回冻后的承载力,在岛状多年冻土地区选择2个试验地点,每个试验地点浇筑了2根15 m长的试验桩,并在其中一根试验桩处布设温度监测系统,采集桩基回冻过程中的温度数据,根据温度监测结果判断桩基回冻状态,在桩基完成回冻后进行静载与动测试验,测出桩基极限承载力。监测及试验结果表明:试验桩所在区域岛状多年冻土地温约为-1.9℃,桩基完成回冻后桩身内部温度与桩侧1 m处的土体温度变化趋势相同,相同深度处的温差小于0.1℃;用静载法实测出的各土层回冻后的桩侧摩阻力值修正高应变动测法桩–土力学模型中的土层参数,计算曲线与实测曲线拟合较好;动测与静载试验所得到的桩基极限承载力误差为3.91%,试验结果相符合。研究成果可为类似冻土条件下的桩基设计及承载力检测提供理论依据。%To accurately know the refreezing time and capacity of the bridge bored pile constructed in polygonal permafrost regions,two test sites were chosen. Within each site,two 15 m test piles were built. The temperature monitoring system was established in one of the two sites to record and monitor the pile refreezing process. Based on the refreezing condition,static load and dynamic load tests were performed to determine the bearing capacity of the pile. Test results indicate that the mean permafrost temperature is-1.9℃. The trend of temperature change within the pile in refreezing process is similar to that of the permafrost temperature change 1 m beside the pile, which indicates that the difference of temperature change is smaller than 0.1℃. The calculated pile capacity fits well with the testing data by introducing the refreezing pile lateral frictional parameter to modify the soil mechanical model. The capacity error obtains from static load test

  10. Design of bridges against large tectonic deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.Anastasopoulost; G.Gazetas; V.Drosos; T.Georgarakos; R.Kourkoulis

    2008-01-01

    The engineering community has devoted much effort to understanding the response of soil-structure systems to seismic ground motions,but little attention to the effects of an outcropping fault offset.The 1999 earthquakes of Turkey and Taiwan,offering a variety of case histories of structural damage due to faulting,have (re)fueled the interest on the subject.This paper presents a methodology for design of bridges against tectonic deformation.The problem is decoupled in two analysis steps:the first (at the local level) deals with the response of a single pier and its foundation to fault rupture propagating through the soil,and the superstructure is modeled in a simplified manner;and the second (at the global level)investigates detailed models of the superstructure subjected to the support (differential) displacements of Step 1.A parametric study investigates typical models of viaduct and overpass bridges,founded on piles or caissons.Fixed-head piled foundations are shown to be rather vulnerable to faulting-induced deformation.End-bearing piles in particular are unable to survive bedrock offsets exceeding 10 cm.Floating piles perform better,and if combined with hinged pile-to-cap connections,they could survive much larger offsets.Soil resilience is beneficial in reducing pile distress.Caisson foundations are almost invariably successful.Statically-indeterminate superstructures are quite vulnerable,while statically-determinate are insensitive (allowing differential displacements and rotations without suffering any distress).For large-span cantilever construction bridges,where a statically determinate system is hardly an option,inserting resilient seismic isolation bearings is advantageous as long as ample seating can prevent the deck from falling off the supports.An actual application of the developed method is presented for a major bridge,demonstrating the feasibility of design against tectonic deformation.

  11. Dynamic analysis of a portal frame railway bridge using frequency dependent soil structure interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Arvidsson, Therese; Li, Jiajia

    2011-01-01

    With the development of high-speed railroads the dynamic behaviour of railroad bridges is increasingly important to explore. Deeper knowledge about the influence of different factors and what should be included in a model is essential if the designer shall be able to make reliable estimates of responses in existing and new structures. One factor is the soil-structure interaction (SSI), describing how the foundation of the bridge and the soil properties affect the behavior of the bridge under ...

  12. Scour around Offshore Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Juul; De Vos, Leen; Frigaard, Peter

    For the present report a testprogramme has been performed to determine the scour around offshore windturbine foundations.......For the present report a testprogramme has been performed to determine the scour around offshore windturbine foundations....

  13. Brain and Behavior Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View All > Donate DONATE TODAY! > The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation is committed to alleviating the suffering caused by ... in scientific research. Copyright © 2016 the brain & behavior research foundation Privacy Policy Legal Notices and Disclaimers

  14. American foundations : roles and contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut K. Anheier; Hammack, David

    2010-01-01

    Foundations play an essential part in the philanthropic activity that defines so much of American life. No other nation provides its foundations with so much autonomy and freedom of action as does the United States. Liberated both from the daily discipline of the market and from direct control by government, American foundations understandably attract great attention. As David Hammack and Helmut Anheier note in this volume, "Americans have criticized foundations for... their alleged conservat...

  15. Wave Forces on Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Juul; Frigaard, Peter

    A testprogramme has been performed to determine the wave forces on two types of foundations for an offshore windturbine. the tested foundation types are a monopile and cone. Furthermore the shaft of the cone has been tested.......A testprogramme has been performed to determine the wave forces on two types of foundations for an offshore windturbine. the tested foundation types are a monopile and cone. Furthermore the shaft of the cone has been tested....

  16. Concrete bridge prioritization system

    OpenAIRE

    Kesselring, Debbie Anne

    1995-01-01

    An alternative method of prioritization for concrete bridge maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation activities is required due to the inability of the current system to manage the increasing nmnber of aging concrete bridges. The Concrete Bridge Prioritization System was proposed because of its ability to address the critical technical parameters of safety and cost benefit in prioritization of funding and work allocation. The analysis includes four parts, service life assessment, s...

  17. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Grubelich, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  18. Mathematical foundations of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, Jerrold E

    1994-01-01

    This advanced-level study approaches mathematical foundations of three-dimensional elasticity using modern differential geometry and functional analysis. It is directed to mathematicians, engineers and physicists who wish to see this classical subject in a modern setting with examples of newer mathematical contributions. Prerequisites include a solid background in advanced calculus and the basics of geometry and functional analysis.The first two chapters cover the background geometry ― developed as needed ― and use this discussion to obtain the basic results on kinematics and dynamics of con

  19. Foundations of Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lev, Amnon

    of state power. This sets the modern state apart from the societies of the Middle Ages in which civil authority was either seen to be founded in religion (Christian doctrine) or in custom (Roman law). In the age of the modern state, it is law, or rather, constitutional doctrine that serves as the medium...... legal thought arises out of the ruins of natural law and it argues that, even as 20th century legal thought has distanced itself from natural law, it has not ceased to return to its fundamental problem: the problem of the foundation of power....

  20. Web services foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Bouguettaya, Athman; Daniel, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Web services and Service-Oriented Computing (SOC) have become thriving areas of academic research, joint university/industry research projects, and novel IT products on the market. SOC is the computing paradigm that uses Web services as building blocks for the engineering of composite, distributed applications out of the reusable application logic encapsulated by Web services. Web services could be considered the best-known and most standardized technology in use today for distributed computing over the Internet.Web Services Foundations is the first installment of a two-book collection coverin

  1. Instant Zurb Foundation 4

    CERN Document Server

    Arévalo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    A quick and easy guide that follows a practical approach to rapidly create responsive web pages using Foundation 4 framework, following the mobile-first philosophy.If you are a web developer who wants to get the most out of your HTML5/CSS/JavaScript skills, this book is ideal for you. It is assumed that you will have some experience with these languages, but for those who don't, you can also be up and running in an instant.

  2. Foundations of Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin H. Knuth

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple and clear foundation for finite inference that unites and significantly extends the approaches of Kolmogorov and Cox. Our approach is based on quantifying lattices of logical statements in a way that satisfies general lattice symmetries. With other applications such as measure theory in mind, our derivations assume minimal symmetries, relying on neither negation nor continuity nor differentiability. Each relevant symmetry corresponds to an axiom of quantification, and these axioms are used to derive a unique set of quantifying rules that form the familiar probability calculus. We also derive a unique quantification of divergence, entropy and information.

  3. Problem solving in foundation engineering using foundationPro

    CERN Document Server

    Yamin, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This book is at once a supplement to traditional foundation engineering textbooks and an independent problem-solving learning tool. The book is written primarily for university students majoring in civil or construction engineering taking foundation analysis and design courses to encourage them to solve design problems. Its main aim is to stimulate problem solving capability and foster self-directed learning. It also explains the use of the foundationPro software, available at no cost, and includes a set of foundation engineering applications. Taking a unique approach, Dr. Yamin summarizes the general step-by-step procedure to solve various foundation engineering problems, illustrates traditional applications of these steps with longhand solutions, and presents the foundationPro solutions. The special structure of the book allows it to be used in undergraduate and graduate foundation design and analysis courses in civil and construction engineering. The book stands as valuable resource for students, faculty, ...

  4. Herzog:A Bridge between Modernism and Postmodernism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽霞; 王宏; 史晓燕

    2013-01-01

    Herzog is one of Saul Bellow’s most successful novels, which laid a solid foundation for his winning the Oscar Award of Literature. This paper is intended to prove Herzog is a bridge between Modernism and Postmodernism by comparative study on the thematic and formal transformation of the whole novel based on textual analysis and Gerald Genette’s narratology theories.

  5. Mathematical foundations of biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Peter F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of biomechanics is the analysis of the structure and function of humans, animals, and plants by means of the methods of mechanics. Its foundations are in particular embedded in mathematics, physics, and informatics. Due to the inherent multidisciplinary character deriving from its aim, biomechanics has numerous connections and overlapping areas with biology, biochemistry, physiology, and pathophysiology, along with clinical medicine, so its range is enormously wide. This treatise is mainly meant to serve as an introduction and overview for readers and students who intend to acquire a basic understanding of the mathematical principles and mechanics that constitute the foundation of biomechanics; accordingly, its contents are limited to basic theoretical principles of general validity and long-range significance. Selected examples are included that are representative for the problems treated in biomechanics. Although ultimate mathematical generality is not in the foreground, an attempt is made to derive the theory from basic principles. A concise and systematic formulation is thereby intended with the aim that the reader is provided with a working knowledge. It is assumed that he or she is familiar with the principles of calculus, vector analysis, and linear algebra. PMID:21303323

  6. Static Behaviour of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim André

    as well as large-scale tests on bucket foundations subjected to low vertical load are performed during this work. Numerical simulations of the tests performed are carried out using the Mohr Coulomb material model and the commercial finite element code ABAQUS. Based on the present work, the finite element......One new foundation concept in relation to offshore wind turbines is bucket foundations. The concept is known from the oil and gas industry, though the load conditions here are significantly different. The bucket foundation can be used as monopod or e.g. tripod foundations for offshore wind turbines....... The monopod concept is investigated in this thesis, regarding the static behaviour from loads relevant to offshore wind turbines. The main issue in this concept is the rotational stiffness of the foundation and the combined capacity dominated by moments. The vertical bearing capacity of bucket foundations...

  7. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  8. The floating water bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled in two glass beakers which are in contact, a stable water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge. A detailed experimental analysis reveals static and dynamic structures as well as heat and mass transfer through this bridge

  9. Seismic Material Properties of Reinforced Concrete and Steel Casing Composite Concrete in Elevated Pile-Group Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Mi; Yuan Wancheng; Zhang Yue

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on the material mechanics properties of reinforced concrete and steel casing composite concrete under pseudo-static loads and their application in structure. Although elevated pile-group foundation is widely used in bridge, port and ocean engineering, the seismic performance of this type of foundation still need further study. Four scale-specimens of the elevated pile-group foundation were manufactured by these two kinds of concrete and seismic performance characteristic of ...

  10. Scientific foundations of engineering

    CERN Document Server

    McKnight, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Providing an overview of the foundations of engineering from a fundamental scientific and physical perspective, this book reinforces the basic scientific and mathematical principles which underpin a range of engineering disciplines and applications. It covers the basics of physics, including quantum physics, as well as some key topics in chemistry, making it a valuable resource for both students and professionals looking to gain a more coherent and interdisciplinary understanding of engineering systems. Throughout, the focus is on common features of physical systems (such as mechanical and electronic resonance), showing how the same underlying principles apply to different disciplines. Problems are provided at the end of each chapter including conceptual questions and examples to demonstrate the practical application of fundamental scientific principles. These include real-world examples, which are solvable using computational packages such as MATLAB.

  11. The foundation of physicianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuks, Abraham; Brawer, James; Boudreau, J Donald

    2012-01-01

    Although the practice of medicine continually changes in response to new biomedical understanding, novel technologies, and evolving cultural contexts, the ethical foundations of the clinical relationship between patient and physician paradoxically remain constant. There are fundamental characteristics with respect to character, behavior, and responsibilities that are descriptive of and necessary to the role of healer and that underpin the notion of physicianship. This article discusses the underlying characteristics or virtues that are necessary to the practice of medicine from the perspectives of three different philosophic traditions: the Aristotelian idea of phronesis as developed in the work of Edmund Pellegrino; the notion of alterity as framed by Emmanuel Levinas; and the attributes necessary to healing as laid out in the kabbala.

  12. Foundations of Quantum Decoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Gamble, John

    2008-01-01

    The conventional interpretation of quantum mechanics, though it permits a correspondence to classical physics, leaves the exact mechanism of transition unclear. Though this was only of philosophical importance throughout the twentieth century, over the past decade new technological developments, such as quantum computing, require a more thorough understanding of not just the result of quantum emergence, but also its mechanism. Quantum decoherence theory is the model that developed out of necessity to deal with the quantum-classical transition explicitly, and without external observers. In this thesis, we present a self-contained and rigorously argued full derivation of the master equation for quantum Brownian motion, one of the key results in quantum decoherence theory. We accomplish this from a foundational perspective, only assuming a few basic axioms of quantum mechanics and deriving their consequences. We then consider a physical example of the master equation and show that quantum decoherence successfull...

  13. Foundations of signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vetterli, Martin; Goyal, Vivek K

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive and engaging textbook introduces the basic principles and techniques of signal processing, from the fundamental ideas of signals and systems theory to real-world applications. Students are introduced to the powerful foundations of modern signal processing, including the basic geometry of Hilbert space, the mathematics of Fourier transforms, and essentials of sampling, interpolation, approximation and compression. The authors discuss real-world issues and hurdles to using these tools, and ways of adapting them to overcome problems of finiteness and localisation, the limitations of uncertainty and computational costs. Standard engineering notation is used throughout, making mathematical examples easy for students to follow, understand and apply. It includes over 150 homework problems and over 180 worked examples, specifically designed to test and expand students' understanding of the fundamentals of signal processing, and is accompanied by extensive online materials designed to aid learning, ...

  14. Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last day of March 1978 marked the completion of the first 3 years of operation of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. RERF was established on 1 April 1975 as successor to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission which had been in continuous operation since 1947. This record of the first 3 years of operation consists of selected reports and other documents prepared in the course of conducting the business of RERF and includes a brief history, a late radiation effects that might be conducted at RERF. The wisdom and thought given to the research program and its operation by the Scientific Council and the Board of Directors is reflected in the minutes of their meetings which are included in the Appendix. (Mori, K.)

  15. Foundations of Geomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andy

    The study of the magnetic field of the Earth, or geomagnetism, is one of the oldest lines of scientific enquiry. Indeed, it has often been said that William Gilbert's De Magnete, published in 1600 and predating Isaac Newton's Principia by 87 years, can claim to be the first true scientific textbook; his study was essentially the first of academic rather than practical interest.What then, we may ask, has been accomplished in the nearly 400 intervening years up to the publication of Foundations of Geomagnetism? In short, a wealth of observational evidence, considerable physical understanding, and a great deal of mathematical apparatus have accrued, placing the subject on a much surer footing.The latter two categories are described in considerable detail, and with attendant rigor, in this book. The sphericity of the Earth means that a frequent theme in the book is the solution of the partial differential equations of electrodynamics in a spherical geometry.

  16. Case Study on 4000 m-span Cable-stayed Suspension Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the case studies for a cable-stayed suspension bridges proposed over the Tsugaru Strait, Japan. Center Bridge is designed as a compound bridge of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges with 4000 m super-long-span. Case studies about the effects of cable-stayed bridge length, the design of sub-cable, height and stiffness of main tower, type of foundation and length of side span on displacement were carried out. With appropriate design of above parameters, the compound bridge can reduce horizontal displacement of main tower and vertical deflection in the central portion and enhance resistance to partial loading. The study reports the results based on these case studies.

  17. Dynamic characteristics analysis of mats of ballasted track on bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Kaiwei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete vehicle-ballasted track-bridge coupling dynamic model is established. A program to analyze dynamic characteristics is also invented, which is the first time to systematically analyze the dynamic characteristics of vehicles, tracks and bridges when using mats under ballast on the rigid foundation of bridge, in China. The results show that:(1 The mats under ballast are able to reduce vibration of the train and the wheel-rail forces by a certain extent, which increase the comforts of passengers.(2 The mats under ballast are able to reduce the stress of ballast, which has a great practical significance on avoiding ballast powdering and reducing maintenance work of ballast. (3 The mats under ballast are able to reduce the vibration of bridges. It has a great significance on avoiding the lateral flow deformation of ballast under dynamic loads, keeping good track geometry to ensure the safety of operation.

  18. The logical foundations of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hatcher, William S

    1981-01-01

    The Logical Foundations of Mathematics offers a study of the foundations of mathematics, stressing comparisons between and critical analyses of the major non-constructive foundational systems. The position of constructivism within the spectrum of foundational philosophies is discussed, along with the exact relationship between topos theory and set theory.Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to first-order logic. In particular, two complete systems of axioms and rules for the first-order predicate calculus are given, one for efficiency in proving metatheorems, and

  19. Bridge technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. As LANs have proliferated, new technologies and system concepts have come to the fore. One of the key issues is how to interconnect networks. One means of interconnection is to use a 'bridge'. Other competing technologies are repeaters, routers, and gateways. Bridges permit traffic isolation, connect network segments together and operate at the MAC layer. Further, because they operate at the MAC layer, they can handle a variety of protocols such as TCP/IP, SNA, and X.25. This report focuses on the specific technology of bridging two netw

  20. Wind loads analysis at the anchorages of the Talavera de la Reina cable stayed bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes wind tunnel tests performed on wind tunnel models of the Talavera de la Reina cable stayed bridge. The work describes the aeroelastic model construction and it is focused on the evaluation and analysis of the mean and peak wind loads at the tower foundation and the cable anchorages since these data can be very useful by the bridge manufacturer as a support for the bridge design. The work is part of a complete wind tunnel study carried out to analyze the aeroelastic stability of the bridge.

  1. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  2. Long Span Bridges in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The first Scandinavian bridge with a span of more than 500 m was the Lillebælt Suspension Bridge opened to traffic in 1970.Art the end of the 20th century the longest span of any European bridge is found in the Storebælt East Bridge with a main span of 1624 m. Also the third longest span in Europ...

  3. Corporate Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    Industrial foundations are self-governing non profit institutions that own business companies. This ownership structure is found in a fair number of Northern European companies, some of them successful world class competitors. Standard agency theory would predict foundation-owned companies...

  4. Antithetic Foundations of Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at decrypting the manner in which the foundations of Economics as a science and the meanings of the relevant explanatory formulas are being shaped. My analytical endeavor focuses on understanding the peculiarities of what is referred to as the object of study of the science known as Economics, an academic synthesis of concept-related breakthroughs regarding economicity. The explicit purpose of this analysis is to identify perennial benchmarks in economic cognition whereby this ensures its consistency. The implicit purpose is to shape a cognitive model in line with the specifics of the conceptual universe of Economics, as well as with the sources of the economic realities that are subject to a sui-generis relativism. The primary benefit of this endeavor consists in systemizing the conceptual prospects with an antithetic nature that allow for the explanations of the state of economic rationality and generate the understanding of what the source of economicity is and how it behaves. As such, the conclusions are marked by the stringent need of more precisely defining economic knowledge in order to match the changing nature of economic reality, as an expression that embraces the meeting point of two ontological vistas that are methodologically separated by some theories: human nature and human condition. Economics as a science thus features, apart from a conceptual substrate that needs to be spotted, an ontological background that needs to be revealed. The role played by this background appears to be most frequently ignored. The joint identification of both direct and contextual determinants for a sensitive area of humankind, i.e. the economy, is a direction to be followed by the royal path of rational knowledge.

  5. Earthquake damage potential and critical scour depth of bridges exposed to flood and seismic hazards under lateral seismic loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shin-Tai; Wang, Chun-Yao; Huang, Wen-Hsiu

    2015-12-01

    Many bridges located in seismic hazard regions suffer from serious foundation exposure caused by riverbed scour. Loss of surrounding soil significantly reduces the lateral strength of pile foundations. When the scour depth exceeds a critical level, the strength of the foundation is insufficient to withstand the imposed seismic demand, which induces the potential for unacceptable damage to the piles during an earthquake. This paper presents an analytical approach to assess the earthquake damage potential of bridges with foundation exposure and identify the critical scour depth that causes the seismic performance of a bridge to differ from the original design. The approach employs the well-accepted response spectrum analysis method to determine the maximum seismic response of a bridge. The damage potential of a bridge is assessed by comparing the imposed seismic demand with the strengths of the column and the foundation. The versatility of the analytical approach is illustrated with a numerical example and verified by the nonlinear finite element analysis. The analytical approach is also demonstrated to successfully determine the critical scour depth. Results highlight that relatively shallow scour depths can cause foundation damage during an earthquake, even for bridges designed to provide satisfactory seismic performance.

  6. Research on "bridge" mode of mine security production management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xi-wen; WANG Yi-gong

    2007-01-01

    Realized new break-through on the basis of existing security management theory, tentatively and creatively carried out "realizing management theory of mine security production" and proposed "bridge" mode of realizing green management theory. Green management theory has an integrated system structure. The green management system of mine security production includes three parts, the foundation of green system, the supervision system of green system operation and the safeguard system of green system.The key of "bridge" mode is to analyze the existing insecurity factors in the process of security production and establish corresponding regulations.

  7. NEWS: Solid foundations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Among the initiatives to be found at UK universities is a vocational award with the title `University Foundation Degree' at Nottingham Trent University. This qualification will be offered in 14 different subjects including four in the Faculty of Science and Mathematics, in the areas of applied biology, applied sciences, chemistry and physics. The courses will be available on a two-year full-time, three-year sandwich or a part-time basis. Set at a higher standard and specification than the Higher National Diplomas which it replaces, the UFD has been devised in consultation with industry and will cover the technical and specialist areas demanded by employers to combat skills shortages. The UFD in applied sciences concentrates on practical applications through laboratory, IT and project work, supported by lectures and seminars. At the end students can enter the employment market or transfer onto the second year of a degree course. Science-based careers including research and development would be the aim of those taking the UFD in physics. The first year develops the fundamentals of modern physics supported by studies in mathematics, IT and computer programming, whilst year 2 is vocational in nature with industrial problem solving and work experience as well as an academic theme associated with environmental aspects of the subject. Those who complete the UFD will be allowed automatic progression to a specified honours degree course and would normally be expected to study for a further two years for this award. However, those demonstrating an outstanding academic performance can transfer to the linked degree programme at the end of the first year via fast-track modules. Back in May the UK's Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) announced new standard benchmarks for degrees. These will be introduced into higher education institutions from 2002 to outline the knowledge, understanding and skills a student should gain from a particular higher education course. These benchmark

  8. Psychological Foundations of Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2016-01-01

    语言在我们的进化史中只是新近才出现的一种现象,而导致这惊人发展的力量是什么尚不清楚。我们知道部分原因是特化于语言功能的脑结构的演变。语言行为,和所有的行为一样,要通过脑结构的作用,但因为语言极其微妙并涉及多个方面,所以要在大脑中有一个特别复杂的表征。我们会看到,我们语言能力的各个方面,不是纯粹的抽象物,而是在闹中有独立的,能具体说明的表征。另外,语言的心理学基础研究会扩展我们对语言理解,语言产生和语言习得的讨论。这篇文章首先对语言的心理学基础做了一个简单的介绍使我们对为什么要做这个研究有一个清晰的观点。然后讨论了大脑机制和语言。不同的语言技能涉及脑的不同部位,遭受脑受伤的个体常常只是在语言的某些方面表现缺陷。接着描述了语言进程的侧化,对脑裂病人和正常人的研究表明,对大部分人来说,脑的左半球控制语言,特别是句法过程和语言产生,而右半球则是语用方面和语言理解。最后,对关于大脑的智力,性别和遗传因素和语言的关系做了简要的描述。%The emergence of language occurred only recently in our evolutionary history,and the set of forces that led to this extraordinary de-velopment is not yet clear.We do know that part of the story concerns the evolution of brain mechanisms specialized for language functions.Lan-guage behavior,like all behavior,is mediated by brain structures,but because language is extremely subtle and multifaceted,it has a particularly complex representation in the brain.We will learn that various aspects of our language capacity are not mere abstractions but rather have separate and specifiable representations in the brain.Moreover,the study of the psychological foundations of language extends our discussion of language comprehension,production and

  9. A Proposal for 4000m-span Cable-stayed Suspension Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a compound bridge of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges with 4000 m super-long-span over the Tsugaru Strait, Japan. Near to the main towers, cable-stayed bridges and prestressed concrete decks are proposed. It is helpful to enhance rigidity and endure the great axial compression force. In the center of the span, suspension bridges and steel box decks are stiffened by trusses, it can reduce self-weigh and the space between girders, thus contribute to aero-elastic stability. RCFT main tower, RC shell pier and RCFT jacket foundation can enhance rigidity and reduce self-weigh. As a result, the live-dead load ratio of proposal is 0.05 and it is equivalent to 2500m-span suspension bridge.

  10. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  11. Ship collisions against wind turbines, quays and bridge piers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2013-01-01

    Analytical procedures are presented for analysis of the external dynamics of ship collisions against bottom supported flexible as well as rigid offshore structures such as wind turbine structures, quays and bridge piers. Based on the principles of conservation of momentum and energy algebraic...... plays an important role for reduction of the structural damage. For gravity based foundations it is shown that provided some limited foundation displacements can be allowed then the requirements to the shear sliding force capacity can be reduced significantly. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group....

  12. Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gülkan, Polat; Mahmoud, Khaled

    2016-01-01

      The book includes peer-reviewed contributions selected from presentations given at the Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014, held from August 11 – 13 in Istanbul, Turkey. It reports on the current challenges in bridge engineering faced by professionals around the globe, giving a special emphasis to recently developed techniques, innovations and opportunities. The book covers key topics in the field, including modeling and analysis methods; construction and erection techniques; design for extreme events and condition assessment and structural health monitoring. There is a balanced presentation of theory, research and practice. This book, which provides the readers with a comprehensive and timely reference guide on current practices in bridge engineering, is intended for professionals, academic researchers and students alike.

  13. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools

  14. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providin gquality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in

  15. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in

  16. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation(RDF),founded in1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providingquality education for underprivileged rural children.RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in

  17. The Swiss National Science Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) is Switzerland's leading provider of scientific research funding.The SNSF annually supports some 7200 researchers, almost 80 percent of whom are aged 35 years or younger.

  18. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation (RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra

  19. Kaiser Family Foundation - Content Search

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Chartpacks, chartbooks, factsheets, reports, and slide presentations bring Kaiser Family Foundation information to life, and can be easily incorporated into your...

  20. Foundation for Film and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, G.

    1976-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive discussion on the Stichting Film en Wetenschap, SFW (Foundation for Film and Science), in Utrecht. Various aspects of the use of audio-visual aids in university teaching are looked at in detail. (Editor/RK)

  1. Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passon, Patrik; Hvenekær Rasmussen, Jørgen

    continued into 2015 it is even more important to drive down the costs of energy for renewable energy sources such as offshore wind energy in order to arrive at a sustainable future on a global level.Cost of energy reductions for offshore wind turbines (OWTs) can be achieved by optimizations on different......-wave correlations are typically subjected to sequential load calculation approaches in an iterative and collaborative process between foundation designer and wind turbine manufacturer. Involvement of these different design parties may be motivated by various aspects such as introduction of state-of-the-art design...... in the specific context of OWTs and individual foundation type characteristics. For example, modelling and load calculation approaches for jacket type foundations of OWTs are often inherited from existing experiences of monopile type foundations or from their counterparts in the offshore oil & gas industry...

  2. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enabled to enjoy the full interactive experience. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America Find a Doctor Find a ... Local Chapters News Events Search: What are Crohn's & Colitis? What is Crohn's Disease What is Ulcerative Colitis ...

  3. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  4. Experimental Research of Engine Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta-Elena Chiţan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries a compact presentation of experimental research of engine-foundations. The dynamic phenomena are so complex, that the vibrations cannot be estimated in the design stage. The design engineer of an engine foundation must foresee through a dynamic analysis of the vibrations, those measures that lead to the avoidance or limiting of the bad effects caused by the vibrations.

  5. Foundations of genetic algorithms 1991

    CERN Document Server

    FOGA

    1991-01-01

    Foundations of Genetic Algorithms 1991 (FOGA 1) discusses the theoretical foundations of genetic algorithms (GA) and classifier systems.This book compiles research papers on selection and convergence, coding and representation, problem hardness, deception, classifier system design, variation and recombination, parallelization, and population divergence. Other topics include the non-uniform Walsh-schema transform; spurious correlations and premature convergence in genetic algorithms; and variable default hierarchy separation in a classifier system. The grammar-based genetic algorithm; condition

  6. Physical Foundations of Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J M [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-07

    In 1952, Mme Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat published a major paper, Theoreme d'existence pour certains systemes d'equations aux derivees partielles non lineaires (Acta Math. 88 141-225), which laid the foundation for modern studies of the Cauchy problem in general relativity. The fiftieth anniversary of this event was celebrated with an eponymous Cargese Summer School in 2002. The proceedings of that summer school are summarized electronically (as audio, video, transparencies and lecture notes, where available) on a DVD archive included with this volume, and are also available on the internet. However the organizers decided that a separate volume describing the 'state of the art in mathematical general relativity' would be useful, and this book is the result. It includes some material not covered in the school and excludes some school material which has been covered adequately elsewhere. About one fifth of the book is devoted to a survey of Smoothness at Null Infinity and the Structure of Initial Data by Helmut Friedrich. This is a modern study of gravitational radiation, and the analysis of Einstein's equations. It is extremely helpful to survey all of this material, including some of the latest developments, using a consistent notation. This article is strongly recommended to anyone hoping to gain a foothold in this area. Lars Andersson has surveyed, in The Global Existence Problem in General Relativity, some results and conjectures about the global properties of 3+1-dimensional spacetimes with a compact Cauchy surface. Again it is very useful to have essentially all of the known results presented in a consistent notation. This material is not on the DVD. Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat has contributed a long research paper, Future Complete U(1) Symmetric Einsteinian Spacetimes, the Unpolarized Case. There is a non-linear stability theorem due to her and Vincent Moncrief in which spacetime is of the form M x R where M is a circle bundle over a compact

  7. Physical Foundations of Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1952, Mme Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat published a major paper, Theoreme d'existence pour certains systemes d'equations aux derivees partielles non lineaires (Acta Math. 88 141-225), which laid the foundation for modern studies of the Cauchy problem in general relativity. The fiftieth anniversary of this event was celebrated with an eponymous Cargese Summer School in 2002. The proceedings of that summer school are summarized electronically (as audio, video, transparencies and lecture notes, where available) on a DVD archive included with this volume, and are also available on the internet. However the organizers decided that a separate volume describing the 'state of the art in mathematical general relativity' would be useful, and this book is the result. It includes some material not covered in the school and excludes some school material which has been covered adequately elsewhere. About one fifth of the book is devoted to a survey of Smoothness at Null Infinity and the Structure of Initial Data by Helmut Friedrich. This is a modern study of gravitational radiation, and the analysis of Einstein's equations. It is extremely helpful to survey all of this material, including some of the latest developments, using a consistent notation. This article is strongly recommended to anyone hoping to gain a foothold in this area. Lars Andersson has surveyed, in The Global Existence Problem in General Relativity, some results and conjectures about the global properties of 3+1-dimensional spacetimes with a compact Cauchy surface. Again it is very useful to have essentially all of the known results presented in a consistent notation. This material is not on the DVD. Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat has contributed a long research paper, Future Complete U(1) Symmetric Einsteinian Spacetimes, the Unpolarized Case. There is a non-linear stability theorem due to her and Vincent Moncrief in which spacetime is of the form M x R where M is a circle bundle over a compact orientable surface of genus

  8. Seismic Analysis for Rigid-Framed Prestressed Reinforced Concrete Bridge in Tianjin Light Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁阳; 李楠; 李忠献

    2004-01-01

    The seismic analysis of a rigid-framed prestressed concrete bridge in Tianjin Light Railway is performed. A 3-D dynamic finite element model of the bridge is established considering the weakening effect caused by the soft soil foundation. After the dynamic characteristics are calculated in terms of natural frequencies and modes, the seismic analysis is carried out using the modal response spectrum method and the time-history method, respectively. Based on the calculated results, the reasonable design values are finally suggested as the basis of the seismic design of the bridge, and meanwhile the problems encountered were also analyzed. Finally, some conclusions are drawn as: 1) Despite the superiority of rigid-framed prestressed concrete bridge, the upper and lower ends of the piers of the bridge are proved to be the crucial parts of the bridge, which are easily destroyed under designed earthquake excitations and should be carefully analyzed and designed; 2) The soft soil foundation can possibly result in rather weakening of the lateral rigidity of the rigid-framed bridge, and should be paid considerable attention; 3) The modal response spectrum method, combined with time-history method, is suggested for the seismic analysis in engineering design of the rigid-framed prestressed concrete bridge.

  9. Price, Availability, and Youth Obesity: Evidence From Bridging the Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloupka, Frank J.; Powell, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    After a decade of analyzing environmental influences on substance use and its consequences among youth in the United States, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Bridging the Gap program has begun studying the effect of environmental factors on youth physical activity, diet, and weight outcomes. Much of this research has focused on access to food, as reflected by availability and price. Program researchers have documented disparities in access to healthy foods and opportunities for physical a...

  10. Centrifuge modeling of rocking-isolated inelastic RC bridge piers

    OpenAIRE

    Loli, Marianna; Knappett, Jonathan A; Brown, Michael J.; Anastasopoulos, Ioannis; GAZETAS, George

    2014-01-01

    Experimental proof is provided of an unconventional seismic design concept, which is based on deliberately underdesigning shallow foundations to promote intense rocking oscillations and thereby to dramatically improve the seismic resilience of structures. Termed rocking isolation, this new seismic design philosophy is investigated through a series of dynamic centrifuge experiments on properly scaled models of a modern reinforced concrete (RC) bridge pier. The experimental method reproduces th...

  11. Quantum Bidding in Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sadiq; Tavakoli, Armin; Kurant, Maciej; Pawłowski, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Quantum methods allow us to reduce communication complexity of some computational tasks, with several separated partners, beyond classical constraints. Nevertheless, experimental demonstrations of this have thus far been limited to some abstract problems, far away from real-life tasks. We show here, and demonstrate experimentally, that the power of reduction of communication complexity can be harnessed to gain an advantage in a famous, immensely popular, card game—bridge. The essence of a winning strategy in bridge is efficient communication between the partners. The rules of the game allow only a specific form of communication, of very low complexity (effectively, one has strong limitations on the number of exchanged bits). Surprisingly, our quantum technique does not violate the existing rules of the game (as there is no increase in information flow). We show that our quantum bridge auction corresponds to a biased nonlocal Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game, which is equivalent to a 2→1 quantum random access code. Thus, our experiment is also a realization of such protocols. However, this correspondence is not complete, which enables the bridge players to have efficient strategies regardless of the quality of their detectors.

  12. Bridge of Light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Lying gleaming white under a brooding sky,the Lhasa River Railway Bridge forms a gate to Lhasa City.Built as a part of Qinghai-Tibet Railway,on July 1,2011, the highest altitude railway in the world has been in service for five years. Lhasa,Tibet

  13. Bridge over troubled water?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Nannestad, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2008-01-01

    The problem of integrating non-Western immigrants into Western welfare states is the focus of this paper. To address this issue, we suggest a social capital approach in which we apply the conceptual pair of bridging social capital (BR), which connects an individual to the broader social structure...

  14. Building Bridges to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasta, Stephanie; Scott, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes a theme cycle called "Building Bridges to China" developed for third grade students that focuses on the similarities between the lives of children and families in China and the United States. Explains that the theme cycle addresses the National Geography Standards and three of the National Council for the Social Studies standards. (CMK)

  15. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.;

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  16. Dynamic Bridge Response for a Bridge-friendly Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Šmilauer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A truck with controlled semi-active suspensions traversing a bridge is examined for benefits to the bridge structure. The original concept of a road-friendly truck was extended to a bridge-friendly vehicle, using the same optimization tools. A half-car model with two independently driven axles is coupled with simply supported bridges (beam, slab model with the span range from 5 m to 50 m. Surface profile of the bridge deck is either stochastic or in the shape of a bump or a pot in the mid-span. Numerical integration in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment solves coupled dynamic equations of motion with optimized truck suspensions. The rear axle generates the prevailing load and to a great extent determines the bridge response. A significant decrease in contact road-tire forces is observed and the mid-span bridge deflections are on average smaller, when compared to commercial passive suspensions. 

  17. Scour Development around Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroescu, Ionut Emanuel; Frigaard, Peter Bak; Fejerskov, Morten

    2015-01-01

    The design without scour protection is a sensitive topic to most offshore developers, especially in the North Sea. However, newer research show that this concept is realistic if exists extended comprehension of the scour and backfill phenomena. The present paper shows comparative results for mono......The design without scour protection is a sensitive topic to most offshore developers, especially in the North Sea. However, newer research show that this concept is realistic if exists extended comprehension of the scour and backfill phenomena. The present paper shows comparative results...... for monopile and Bucket Foundation; using experimental analysis and real scour surveys around offshore installed Bucket Foundations. The main finding reflect that Bucket Foundation is a candidate for design without scour protection behaving like scour protected monopoles, in a variety of environmental...

  18. Macroelement modeling of shallow foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzigogos, Charisis; Salençon, J

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a new macroelement model for shallow foundations. The model is defined through a non-linear constitutive law written in terms of some generalized force and displacement parameters. The linear part of this constitutive law comes from the dynamic impedances of the foundation. The non-linear part comprises two mechanisms. One is due to the irreversible elastoplastic soil behavior: it is described with a bounding surface hypoplastic model, adapted for the description of the cyclic soil response. An original feature of the formulation is that the bounding surface is considered independently of the surface of ultimate loads of the system. The second mechanism is the detachment that can take place at the soil-footing interface (foundation uplift). It is totally reversible and non-dissipative and can thus be described by a phenomenological non-linear elastic model. The macroelement is qualitatively validated by application to soil-structure interaction analyses of simple real structures.

  19. Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin

    The world is currently facing serious problems brought about by oil dependence. Reducing oil consumption provides an opportunity to increase competitiveness, technological development, and progress. Wind energy is currently the most costcompetitive form of renewable energy, and there are strong...... the design of offshore wind turbine foundations. The work was divided into two main research efforts: geotechnical engineering experiments to gain insight into the behavior of offshore bucket foundations, and development of methods to improve the study of infiltration into unsaturated soils, an important...

  20. Professional Team Foundation Server 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Ed; Holliday, Grant; Keller, Brian

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to using Microsoft Team Foundation Server 2012 Team Foundation Server has become the leading Microsoft productivity tool for software management, and this book covers what developers need to know to use it effectively. Fully revised for the new features of TFS 2012, it provides developers and software project managers with step-by-step instructions and even assists those who are studying for the TFS 2012 certification exam. You'll find a broad overview of TFS, thorough coverage of core functions, a look at extensibility options, and more, written by Microsoft ins

  1. Physical foundations of technical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Malecki, I

    1969-01-01

    Physical Foundations of Technical Acoustics discusses theoretical foundations of acoustical engineering. It is not so much a technical compendium as a systematic statement of physical laws so conceived that technologists might find in it all the information they need to become acquainted with the physical meaning and mathematical expression of phenomena they encounter in their work. To facilitate the acquirement of notions, which lie beyond a layman's grasp, the plan of narration adopted consists in beginning with the simplest idealized cases and then gradually moving on to the truest possibl

  2. On the foundation of Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Blanco, Ricardo J

    2014-01-01

    This note is an extended version of "A note on the foundations of Mechanics", arXiv: 1404.1321 [math-ph]. A presentation of its contents was given in a talk in memorial homage to the professor Juan B. Sancho Guimer\\'a. For this reason, it was written in spanish language. The matter of the note is a systematic foundation of the most classical part of Mechanics. The content by sections is: 0)Notions and basic results, 1)Conservative systems 2) Time. Time constraints, 3) Proper time. Relativistic forces, 4)Electromagnetic fields, 5) On the Hamilton-Noether Principle, 6) Schr\\"odinger equation.

  3. ITIL Foundation exam study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gallacher, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Everything you need to prepare for the ITIL exam The ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) exam is the ultimate certification for IT service management. This essential resource is a complete guide to preparing for the ITIL Foundation exam and includes everything you need for success. Organized around the ITIL Foundation syllabus, the study guide addresses the ITIL Service Lifecycles, the ITIL processes, roles, and functions, and also thoroughly explains how the Service Lifecycle provides effective and efficient IT services. Offers an introduction to IT service management and ITI

  4. Professional Team Foundation Server 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Ed; Holliday, Grant; Keller, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Authoritative guide to TFS 2010 from a dream team of Microsoft insiders and MVPs!Microsoft Visual Studio Team Foundation Server (TFS) has evolved until it is now an essential tool for Microsoft?s Application Lifestyle Management suite of productivity tools, enabling collaboration within and among software development teams. By 2011, TFS will replace Microsoft?s leading source control system, VisualSourceSafe, resulting in an even greater demand for information about it. Professional Team Foundation Server 2010, written by an accomplished team of Microsoft insiders and Microsoft MVPs, provides

  5. Field test and numerical analysis on behaviors of low-cap pile foundation supporting bridged abutment subjected to embankment load%低承台桥台桩基侧向受力性状试验与数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂如松; 冷伍明; 杨奇; 岳健

    2012-01-01

    Based on field test results, a three-dimensional finite element method was set up to explore the settlement of the pile foundation, the bending moment of the piles, the horizontal movement of pile head, shear force and earth pressure on pile shafts with increasing embankment load behind the abutment wall. The results show that the calculated and measured results agree well; the lateral deformation of pile head and maximum bending moment of pile with the increase of embankment load increases linearly. In 20 m depth, the distribution of shear force along the pile depth is in "S" shaped pattern, the distribution of the earth pressure along the depth direction is of a parabola. The mechanical model of low-cap pile foundation is equivalent with the statically indeterminate beam of the pile head and pile embedded in a certain depth soil. The conclusions can be helpful and give references for pile design and construction.%基于现场测试结果,采用三维有限元技术分析低承台桥台桩基在台后路基填土过程中桩基沉降、桩身弯矩、桩顶水平变形、桩身剪力和桩侧附加水平挤压力随台后填土荷载增加的变化规律.研究结果表明:计算结果与实测结果吻合较好:桩顶水平变形和桩身最大弯矩随填土荷载的增加近似呈线性增加:深度方向20m范围内,桩身剪力图呈“S”型,桩侧附加水平挤压力图呈抛物线型.低承台桥台桩基力学模型等同于桩项和桩端嵌入一定深度、具有一定变位的超静定梁结构.本文所得结论可以为桥台桩基的设计和施工提供参考.

  6. Bridging the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    This article features LSAMP, the acronym for the 21-year-old Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation. The program, currently funded at $45 million annually and serving some 220,000 students, supports what the National Science Foundation (NSF) refers to as "sustained and comprehensive approaches to broadening participation (in STEM…

  7. [Retention of adhesive bridges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, F; De Boever, J

    1994-04-01

    Since the development of adhesive bridges in the early seventies, the retention and therefore the durability of these bridges has been tremendously improved. Conditioning of the non-precious metal by silanisation, careful acid etching of the enamel and the use of the appropriate composite resin are of prime importance. Furthermore, the meticulous preparation with enough interproximal embrace, occlusal rests, interocclusal clearance and cingulum stops is equally important. Including more teeth in the design does not necessarily lead to an improved retention. Besides the material and technical aspects, the whole clinical procedure needs much attention. The retention does not depend on one single factor, but on the precision of all the necessary clinical steps and on a well-defined selection of the material. In this way a five-year survival rate of close to 80% can be obtained. PMID:11830965

  8. BRIDGING SERVICE QUALITY GAPS

    OpenAIRE

    BARKATH UNISSA

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the Service quality gaps is one of the foremost areas of concern for amarketer. Service marketing is inherently different from product or goods marketing.Services are distinctively characterized by their intangible, heterogeneous, inseparableand perishable nature. The importance of the service sector in today's world is a verywidely accepted and renowned idea. “We are already experiencing a service society“services do have some basic characteristics which make them fundamentally diff...

  9. Bridging as Coercive Accommodation

    CERN Document Server

    Bos, J W; Mineur, A M; Bos, Johan; Buitelaar, Paul; Mineur, Anne-Marie

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the notion of "bridging" in Discourse Representation Theory as a tool to account for discourse referents that have only been established implicitly, through the lexical semantics of other referents. In doing so, we use ideas from Generative Lexicon theory, to introduce antecedents for anaphoric expressions that cannot be "linked" to a proper antecedent, but that do not need to be "accommodated" because they have some connection to the network of discourse referents that is already established.

  10. Nematic liquid crystal bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Susannah; Ellis, Perry; Vallamkondu, Jayalakshmi; Danemiller, Edward; Vernon, Mark; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    We study the effects of confining a nematic liquid crystal between two parallel glass plates with homeotropic boundary conditions for the director at all bounding surfaces. We find that the free surface of the nematic bridge is a surface of constant mean curvature. In addition, by changing the distance between the plates and the contact angle with the glass plates, we transition between loops and hedgehogs that can be either radial or hyperbolic.

  11. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...... in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should...

  12. Environmental life cycle assessment comparison between two bridge types: reinforced concrete bridge and steel composite bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2013-01-01

    not been integrated into the decision-making process. This paper presents a systematic LCA method for quantifying the environmental impacts for bridges. The comparison study is performed between a reinforced concrete bridge and a steel bridge as an alternative design, with several key maintenance and EOL......The concept of sustainable construction has attracted an increased attention. Bridge infrastructures and their belonged construction activities consume considerable material and energy, which is responsible for large environmental burdens. However, the environmental assessment of bridges has...

  13. Student Alumni Associations and Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberger, Patricia L., Ed.

    Papers from a conference on student alumni programs and foundations are presented. Contents are as follows: "How Student Alumni Programs Can Serve Your Institution," by Larry Weiss; "How to Start a Student Alumni Organization," by William Harlan; "Getting the Right Students: How, When, and Where" (Harlan); "Building Your Budget From Scratch," by…

  14. Theoretical foundations for collaboration engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolfschoten, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    Collaboration is often presented as the solution to numerous problems in business and society. However, collaboration is challenging, and collaboration support is not an off-the-shelf-product. This research offers theoretical foundations for Collaboration Engineering. Collaboration Engineering is an

  15. The Governance of Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa; Kuhn, Johan; Poulsen, Thomas;

    We study turnover among executives and directors in companies owned by Danish industrial foundations, which are held to be long term owners. Executives are members of the management board (direktionen), whereas directors a members of the supervisiory board (bestyrelsen). As expected, we find...

  16. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology. Rather than

  17. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation (RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providingquality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in AndhraPradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology. Rather than using the con-

  18. Cushing's Support and Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News in Southern California aired a segment on Cushing's Disease. VIEW THE VIDEO > Have You Had an EMS Experience for Adrenal Insufficiency? The CARES Foundation is looking for stories from patients who have had ... Spotlight Diagnosing Cushing's Webinar On May 7, 2016 Dr. James Findling ...

  19. Urban heritage, building maintenance: foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, L.G.W.

    1999-01-01

    What do we understand by the term 'foundations'? This general idea may embody the literal ' groundwork' that provides support for a building and may possibly include the entire structural works that serve to pre vent subsidence. Remarkably, in this definition the word 'groundwork' incorporates both

  20. Does Macroeconomics Need Microeconomic Foundations?

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    The author argues that it is microeconomics that needs foundations, not macroeconomics. Preferences need to be built on biology, and, in particular, on neuroscience. In contrast, macroeconomics could benefit from rationalizations of aggregate economic phenomena by non-equilibrium statistical physics.

  1. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation(RDF),founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children.RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra

  2. Foundations of Responsibility for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillen, Annemie

    2008-01-01

    Children's vulnerability asks for people taking up responsibility for children. In this contribution, three different ways of thinking on foundations of (ethical and spiritual) responsibility for children are discussed, namely, a liberalist, a social-constructivist and a naturalist paradigm. The author argues that cultural and natural elements are…

  3. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providingquality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college inAndhra Pradesh State,

  4. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation(RDF),founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children.RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology.Rather than using the

  5. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation(RDF),founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children.RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology.Rather than using the con-

  6. Behavior Modeling -- Foundations and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes revised selected papers from the six International Workshops on Behavior Modelling - Foundations and Applications, BM-FA, which took place annually between 2009 and 2014. The 9 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 58 papers...

  7. Team Foundation Server 2013 customization

    CERN Document Server

    Beeming, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This book utilizes a tutorial based approach, focused on the practical customization of key features of the Team Foundation Server for collaborative enterprise software projects.This practical guide is intended for those who want to extend TFS. This book is for intermediate users who have an understanding of TFS, and basic coding skills will be required for the more complex customizations.

  8. Principles for Foundations of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, John

    The significance of the foundations of education approach to teaching is apparent in the ideas of John Henry Newman, Karl Jaspers, Jose Ortega y Gasset, and Mortimer Adler. Newman maintained that there is a circle of knowledge and once this unity is ignored the result is distortion in the learners and in the knowledge. To retain the whole, the…

  9. Real-time seismic monitoring of the integrated cape girardeau bridge array and recorded earthquake response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the state of the art, real-time and broad-band seismic monitoring network implemented for the 1206 m [3956 ft] long, cable-stayed Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge in Cape Girardeau (MO), a new Mississippi River crossing, approximately 80 km from the epicentral region of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. The bridge was designed for a strong earthquake (magnitude 7.5 or greater) during the design life of the bridge. The monitoring network comprises a total of 84 channels of accelerometers deployed on the superstructure, pier foundations and at surface and downhole free-field arrays of the bridge. The paper also presents the high quality response data obtained from the network. Such data is aimed to be used by the owner, researchers and engineers to assess the performance of the bridge, to check design parameters, including the comparison of dynamic characteristics with actual response, and to better design future similar bridges. Preliminary analyses of ambient and low amplitude small earthquake data reveal specific response characteristics of the bridge and the free-field. There is evidence of coherent tower, cable, deck interaction that sometimes results in amplified ambient motions. Motions at the lowest tri-axial downhole accelerometers on both MO and IL sides are practically free from any feedback from the bridge. Motions at the mid-level and surface downhole accelerometers are influenced significantly by feedback due to amplified ambient motions of the bridge. Copyright ASCE 2006.

  10. Soil bentonite wall protects foundation from thrust faulting: analyses and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaee, Meysam; Anastasopoulos, I.; Gazetas, G.; Jafari, M. K.; Kamalian, M.

    2013-09-01

    When seismic thrust faults emerge on the ground surface, they are particularly damaging to buildings, bridges and lifelines that lie on the rupture path. To protect a structure founded on a rigid raft, a thick diaphragm-type soil bentonite wall (SBW) is installed in front of and near the foundation, at sufficient depth to intercept the propagating fault rupture. Extensive numerical analyses, verified against reduced-scale (1 g) split box physical model tests, reveal that such a wall, thanks to its high deformability and low shear resistance, "absorbs" the compressive thrust of the fault and forces the rupture to deviate upwards along its length. As a consequence, the foundation is left essentially intact. The effectiveness of SBW is demonstrated to depend on the exact location of the emerging fault and the magnitude of the fault offset. When the latter is large, the unprotected foundation experiences intolerable rigid-body rotation even if the foundation structural distress is not substantial.

  11. Foundations of scientific research (Foundations of Research Activities)

    OpenAIRE

    Glazunov, N. M.

    2012-01-01

    During years 2008 to 2011 author gives several courses on Foundations of Scientific Research at Computer Science Faculty of the National Aviation University in Kiev. This text presents material to lectures of the courses. It consists of 18 sections and some ideas of the manual can be seen from their titles. These include: General notions about scientific research. Ontologies and upper ontologies. Ontologies of object domains. Examples of Research Activity. Some Notions of the Theory of Finite...

  12. A review of bridge scour monitoring techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.J. Prendergast; K. Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The high profile failure of the Malahide Viaduct in Dublin, Ireland, which is a part of the EU TEN-T network of critical transport links, was caused by foundation scour. Scour is a common soil-structure interaction problem. In light of current changes in climate, increasing frequency of flooding, coupled with the increasing magnitude of these flood events, will lead to a higher risk of bridge failure. Moni-toring scour is of paramount importance to ensure the continued safe operation of the aging bridge asset network. Most monitoring regimes are based on expensive underwater instrumentation that can often be subjected to damage during times of flooding, when scour risk is at its highest. This paper presents a critical review of existing scour monitoring equipments and methodologies with a particular focus on those using the dynamic response of the structure to indicate the existence and severity of the scour phenomenon affecting the structure. A sensitivity study on a recently developed monitoring method is also undertaken.

  13. Vulnerability of bridges to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Crosti, C.; Gentili, F.

    2012-01-01

    Even if recent effort in developing methodology and measures for design structures against fire and explosions has been mostly focused on buildings, bridges can also be very sensitive to those actions, as witnesses by some recent bridge accidents, which caused major economic losses and also...... endangered people safety in few cases. Purpose of this paper is making a focus on the state of the art of the research and current regulations concerning the response of bridges to fire. Several cases of bridge fires are reported and a focus is made on the occurrence and consequence of bridge fires......, considering both the costs deriving by structural damages and by limited serviceability and other indirect societal aspects. Few cases of recent bridge fire are reviewed in detail and structural consequences are highlighted, distinguishing between damages directly induced by fire and damages induced by local...

  14. Philosophical foundations of human rights

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    What makes something a human right? What is the relationship between the moral foundations of human rights and human rights law? What are the difficulties of appealing to human rights? This book offers the first comprehensive survey of current thinking on the philosophical foundations of human rights. Divided into four parts, this book focusses firstly on the moral grounds of human rights, for example in our dignity, agency, interests or needs. 'Secondly, it looks at the implications that different moral perspectives on human rights bear for human rights law and politics. Thirdly, it discusses specific and topical human rights including freedom of expression and religion, security, health and more controversial rights such as a human right to subsistence. The final part discusses nuanced critical and reformative views on human rights from feminist, Kantian and relativist perspectives among others. The essays represent new and canonical research by leading scholars in the field. Each part is comprised of a set...

  15. Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin

    The world is currently facing serious problems brought about by oil dependence. Reducing oil consumption provides an opportunity to increase competitiveness,technological development, and progress. Wind energy is currently the most cost-competitive form of renewable energy, and there are strong...... engineering experiments to gain insight into the behavior of offshore bucket foundations, and development of methods to improve the study of infiltration intounsaturated soils, an important problem in geo-environmental engineering. The outcomes of the research have the potential to directly or indirectly...... reduce the risks and costsrelated to offshore geotechnics. The thesis examines: 1.Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations 2. Modeling of Water Flow through Porous Media The outcomes of each of the research contributions are summarized in four research articles, either directly or indirectly...

  16. Linear programming foundations and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderbei, Robert J

    2001-01-01

    Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions is an introduction to the field of optimization. The book emphasizes constrained optimization, beginning with a substantial treatment of linear programming, and proceeding to convex analysis, network flows, integer programming, quadratic programming, and convex optimization. The book is carefully written. Specific examples and concrete algorithms precede more abstract topics. Topics are clearly developed with a large number of numerical examples worked out in detail. Moreover, Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions underscores the purpose of optimization: to solve practical problems on a computer. Accordingly, the book is coordinated with free efficient C programs that implement the major algorithms studied: -The two-phase simplex method; -The primal-dual simplex method; -The path-following interior-point method; -The homogeneous self-dual methods. In addition, there are online JAVA applets that illustrate various pivot rules and variants of the simplex m...

  17. Theory of bridge aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Strømmen, Einar

    2006-01-01

    This text book is intended for studies in wind engineering, with focus on the stochastic theory of wind induced dynamic response calculations for slender bridges or other line ?like civil engineering type of structures. It contains the background assumptions and hypothesis as well as the development of the computational theory that is necessary for the prediction of wind induced fluctuating displacements and cross sectional forces. The simple cases of static and quasi-static structural response calculations are for the sake of completeness also included. The text is at an advanced level in the

  18. Cognitive Foundations for Visual Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Noonan, Christine F.; Franklin, Lyndsey

    2011-02-25

    In this report, we provide an overview of scientific/technical literature on information visualization and VA. Topics discussed include an update and overview of the extensive literature search conducted for this study, the nature and purpose of the field, major research thrusts, and scientific foundations. We review methodologies for evaluating and measuring the impact of VA technologies as well as taxonomies that have been proposed for various purposes to support the VA community. A cognitive science perspective underlies each of these discussions.

  19. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology. Rather than using the conventional method of rote memorization,RDF focuses on cultivating critical thinking skills and

  20. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation(RDF),founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children.RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology.Rather than using the conventional method of rote memorization,RDF focuses on cultivating critical thinking skills and encouraging students to understand and

  1. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation(RDF),founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children.RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology.Rather than using the conventional method of rote memorization,RDF focuses on cultivating critical thinking skills and encouraging students to understand and

  2. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology. Rather than using the conventional method of rote memorization,RDF focuses on cultivating critical thinking skills and encouraging students to

  3. Modelling railway bridge asset management

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Bryant Linh Hai

    2014-01-01

    The UK has a long history in the railway industry with a large number of railway assets. Railway bridges form one of the major asset groups with more than 35,000 bridges. The majority of the bridge population are old being constructed over 100 years ago. Many of the bridges were not designed to meet the current network demand. With an expected increasing rate of deterioration due to the increasing traffic loads and intensities, the management authorities are faced with the difficult task of k...

  4. Exploring the Science--Society Interface with a Bridging Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltax, Ariana L.; Kosinski-Collins, Melissa S.; Pontrello, Jason K.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development of a model for an optional, research-based course that bridges two existing, traditionally separate, introductory science courses. This research course provided freedom for students to design and implement new experiments on the basis of technical foundations built from enrollment in separate introductory…

  5. Study on the Safety of the Rock Mass in the Tongling Bank of Taipinghu Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Taipinghu Bridge is an important engineering construction, and the safety of rock mass of its foundation is very crucial. This article adopts FLAC 3D to analysis the geologic model. The simulating process shows that no mater the excavating process or the loading process the rock mass are safe. The modeling and analyzing process can be used for reference.

  6. Research and Teaching: Association of Summer Bridge Program Outcomes with STEM Retention of Targeted Demographic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasko, David L.; Ridgway, Judith S.; Waller, Rocquel J.; Olesik, Susan V.

    2016-01-01

    Retention of students to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major has been studied for four cohorts participating in a summer bridge program supported by the National Science Foundation. Students participated in a 6-week program prior to their first term of enrollment at a research-intensive land grant university. Comparisons…

  7. Soil-structure interaction modeling effects on seismic response of cable-stayed bridge tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheem, Shehata E. Abdel; Hayashikawa, Toshiro

    2013-12-01

    A nonlinear dynamic analysis, including soil-structure interaction, is developed to estimate the seismic response characteristics and to predict the earthquake response of cable-stayed bridge towers with spread foundation. An incremental iterative finite element technique is adopted for a more realistic dynamic analysis of nonlinear soil-foundation-superstructure interaction system under great-earthquake ground motion. Two different approaches to model soil foundation interaction are considered: nonlinear Winkler soil foundation model and linear lumped-parameter soil model. The numerical results show that the simplified lumped-parameter-model analysis provides a good prediction for the peak response, but it overestimates the acceleration response and underestimates the uplift force at the anchor between superstructure and pier. The soil bearing stress beneath the footing base is dramatically increased due to footing base uplift. The predominant contribution to the vertical response at footing base resulted from the massive foundation rocking rather than from the vertical excitation.

  8. Random vibration analysis of train-bridge under track irregularities and traveling seismic waves using train-slab track-bridge interaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Wen-Tao; Yu, Zhi-Wu; Chen, Ling-Kun; Lou, Ping

    2015-04-01

    The frequent use of bridges in high-speed railway lines greatly increases the probability that trains are running on bridges when earthquakes occur. This paper investigates the random vibrations of a high-speed train traversing a slab track on a continuous girder bridge subjected to track irregularities and traveling seismic waves by the pseudo-excitation method (PEM). To derive the equations of motion of the train-slab track-bridge interaction system, the multibody dynamics and finite element method models are used for the train and the track and bridge, respectively. By assuming track irregularities to be fully coherent random excitations with time lags between different wheels and seismic accelerations to be uniformly modulated, non-stationary random excitations with time lags between different foundations, the random load vectors of the equations of motion are transformed into a series of deterministic pseudo-excitations based on PEM and the wheel-rail contact relationship. A computer code is developed to obtain the time-dependent random responses of the entire system. As a case study, the random vibration characteristics of an ICE-3 high-speed train traversing a seven-span continuous girder bridge simultaneously excited by track irregularities and traveling seismic waves are analyzed. The influence of train speed and seismic wave propagation velocity on the random vibration characteristics of the bridge and train are discussed.

  9. Assessment of seismic performance of skew reinforced concrete box girder bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Pekcan, Gokhan

    2013-12-01

    The seismic vulnerability of highway bridges remains an important problem and has received increased attention as a consequence of unprecedented damage observed during several major earthquakes. A significant number of research studies have examined the performance of skew bridges under service and seismic loads. The results of these studies are particularly sensitive to modeling assumptions in view of the interacting parameters. In the present study, three-dimensional improved beam-stick models of two-span highway bridges with skew angles varying from 0° to 60° are developed to investigate the seismic response characteristics of skew box girder bridges. The relative accuracy of beam-stick models is verified against counterpart finite element models. The effect of various parameters and conditions on the overall seismic response was examined such as skew angle, ground motion intensity, soil condition, abutment support conditions, bridge aspect ratio, and foundation-base conditions. The study shows that the improved beam-stick models can be used to conduct accurate nonlinear time history analysis of skew bridges. Skew angle and interacting parameters were found to have significant effect on the behavior of skewed highway bridges. Furthermore, the performance of shear keys may have a predominant effect on the overall seismic response of the skew bridges.

  10. Run-up on Offshore Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vos, Leen; Larsen, Brian Juul; Frigaard, Peter

    For the present report a testprogramme has been performed to determine the run-up on offshore windturbine foundations.......For the present report a testprogramme has been performed to determine the run-up on offshore windturbine foundations....

  11. Progeria Research Foundation Diagnostic Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing The PRF Diagnostic Testing Program The Progeria Research Foundation, in association with a CLIA-approved diagnostics lab, ... please contact Dr. Leslie Gordon at The Progeria Research Foundation at info@progeriaresearch.org quick links Donate Now ...

  12. Founding a Foundation: A Mini Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Dale B.

    1981-01-01

    Lists factors contributing to the need for increased fund raising in community colleges. Discusses advantages of a foundation as a means of obtaining private funds. Delineates specifics of establishing, organizing, and implementing the Kalamazoo Valley Community College Foundation. (DMM)

  13. Fatigue tests on aluminium bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2005-01-01

    Traffic bridges are subjected to variable loads and should therefore be checked on fatigue. Especially low weight materials, like aluminium, are sensitive to fatigue, because the variable load is a substantial part of the total load. This paper shows the structural design of an aluminium bridge load

  14. Fatigue tests on aluminium bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2004-01-01

    Traffic bridges are subjected to variable loads and should therefore be checked on fatigue. Especially low weight materials, like aluminium, are sensitive to fatigue, because the variable load is a substantial part of the total load. This paper shows the structural design of an aluminium bridge load

  15. Compressor Foundation Analysis Tool(COFANTO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Lentzen, S.S.K; Zuada Coelho, B.E.; Galanti, F.M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Reciprocating compressors are generally supported on a heavy concrete foundation. In spite of the large inertia and stiffness of the foundation, problems can occur due to interaction between the mechanical installation and the foundation. Two types of problems may occur. In the first type, the inter

  16. Philanthropy and Private Foundations: Expanding Revenue Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummer, Carlee; Marshburn, Roxann

    2014-01-01

    As community colleges seek new revenue streams, philanthropic organizations, including college foundations and private funders, have already begun to influence both revenues and college programming. This chapter discusses the current role of philanthropy, especially private foundations such as the Lumina Foundation for Education and the Bill and…

  17. Development of cooperative system bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; WAN Qi-bai; SHI Lei

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative system bridges comprise several basic structures that act jointly to improve structural characteristics. We delved into the historical development of cooperative system bridges. Cooperative systems are classified as different-load cooperative systems and same-load cooperative systems by distinguishing the modes of load distribution. For different-load cooperation, individual basic structures are at different positions in the direction along bridge axis and carry the loads separately. While for same-load cooperation, all basic structures overlap in geometrical locations and support the entire loads conjointly. The choosing of span ratios between basic structures, the design of connections of different-load cooperative systems were discussed as well as optimizations of relative rigidity for same-load cooperative systems which greatly influence structural characteristics. The general situation and several structural measurements of several cooperative bridges were demonstrated. This information can assist engineers in developing their concepts in cooperative systems and can lead to more efficient and economical cooperative bridges.

  18. Foundations of combinatorics with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, Edward A

    2006-01-01

    This introduction to combinatorics, the foundation of the interaction between computer science and mathematics, is suitable for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in engineering, science, and mathematics.The four-part treatment begins with a section on counting and listing that covers basic counting, functions, decision trees, and sieving methods. The following section addresses fundamental concepts in graph theory and a sampler of graph topics. The third part examines a variety of applications relevant to computer science and mathematics, including induction and recursion, sorti

  19. Quantum mechanics foundations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, Donald Gary

    2006-01-01

    Progressing from the fundamentals of quantum mechanics (QM) to more complicated topics, Quantum Mechanics: Foundations and Applications provides advanced undergraduate and graduate students with a comprehensive examination of many applications that pertain to modern physics and engineering.Based on courses taught by the author, this textbook begins with an introductory chapter that reviews historical landmarks, discusses classical theory, and establishes a set of postulates. The next chapter demonstrates how to find the appropriate wave functions for a variety of physical systems in one dimens

  20. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation (RDF),founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology. Rather than using the conventional method of rote memorization,RDF focuses on cultivating critical thinking skills and encouraging students to understand and apply concepts. RDF does this through special programs such as Social Awareness,Youth Empowerment,

  1. Foundations of cryptography a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Goldreich, Oded

    2014-01-01

    Foundations of Cryptography surveys the main paradigms, approaches and techniques used to conceptualize, define and provide solutions to natural cryptographic problems. The author starts by presenting some of the central tools; that is, computational difficulty (in the form of one-way functions), pseudorandomness, and zero-knowledge proofs. Based on these tools, the emphasis is shifted to the treatment of basic applications such as encryption and signature schemes as well as the design of general secure cryptographic protocols. The author has created a unique overview that includes well over 1

  2. Letter to European Science Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Département de Linguistique AppliquéeEt de Didactique des languesDirecteur : Claude Springerhttp://dladl.u-strasbg.fr Dr. Rüdiger KleinEUROCORES Programme CoordinatorEuropean Science Foundation1, quai Lezay MarnésiaBP 90015F-67080 Strasbourg Cedex Strasbourg, le 22 mai 2006 Dear colleague, The Editorial Board of the journal ALSIC (Apprentissage des langues et système d’information et de communication which comprises 45 people from universities in 9 different countries was astonished to note...

  3. Foundations of wireless and electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Scroggie, M G

    1984-01-01

    Foundations of Wireless and Electronics, 10th Edition covers the cathode-ray and microwave tubes; modern pulse methods; f.m. detectors; basic processes of transmission; and reception, computers, and non-sinusoidal signal amplification. The book starts by giving a general overview of a complete electronic system, electricity and circuits, capacitance, and inductance. The text also discusses alternating currents (a.c.), including the frequency and phase of a.c.; the capacitance and inductance in a.c. circuits; and the capacitance and inductance in a series. Diodes, triode, transistor equivalent

  4. Foundational issues in evolution education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mike U.; Siegel, Harvey; McInerney, Joseph D.

    1995-01-01

    There is a great need for effective evolution education. This paper reviews some of the evidence that demonstrates that need and analyzes some of the foundational semantic, epistemological, and philosophical issues involved. This analysis is used to provide a functional understanding of the distinction between science and non-science. Special emphasis is placed the scientific meaning of the terms theory, hypothesis, fact, proof, evidence, and truth, focusing on the difference between religious belief and acceptance of a scientific theory. Science is viewed as theologically neutral and as not mutually exclusive from religion. Finally, a number of practical recommendations to the classroom biology teacher are presented.

  5. Ensemble Methods Foundations and Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zhi-Hua

    2012-01-01

    An up-to-date, self-contained introduction to a state-of-the-art machine learning approach, Ensemble Methods: Foundations and Algorithms shows how these accurate methods are used in real-world tasks. It gives you the necessary groundwork to carry out further research in this evolving field. After presenting background and terminology, the book covers the main algorithms and theories, including Boosting, Bagging, Random Forest, averaging and voting schemes, the Stacking method, mixture of experts, and diversity measures. It also discusses multiclass extension, noise tolerance, error-ambiguity a

  6. The shifting foundations of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kate; Aranda, Kay

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we argue that the concerns generated by the development of Foundation Degrees and the Assistant and Associate Practitioner roles have rekindled some of the unresolved debates regarding the status and identity of nursing and nurses. Through the application of the sociological theories of professionalisation and nostalgia we have identified the shifting and unresolved nature of nursing. We argue that these theories continue to have resonance in the current climate of change and 'upskilling' of the health care workforce and argue, that the shifts illuminated are perhaps so significant as to demonstrate that we have entered a post-nursing era.

  7. Electromagnetic foundations of electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Faria, J A Brandao

    2008-01-01

    The applications of electromagnetic phenomena within electrical engineering have been evolving and progressing at a fast pace. In contrast, the underlying principles have been stable for a long time and are not expected to undergo any changes. It is these electromagnetic field fundamentals that are the subject of discussion in this book with an emphasis on basic principles, concepts and governing laws that apply across the electrical engineering discipline. Electromagnetic Foundations of Electrical Engineering begins with an explanation of Maxwell's equations, from which the fundament

  8. Microsoft Windows Identity Foundation Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chanda, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    This book is written in a simple, easy to understand format, with lots of screenshots and step-by-step explanations.If you are a .NET developer looking forward to building access control in your applications using claims-based identity, then this is the best guide for you. This book is also an excellent choice for professionals and IT administrators trying to enable Single Sign-On across applications within the enterprise, and in the cloud spanning interoperable platforms. No previous knowledge on the subject is necessary, however a strong foundation in the C# programming language and .NET Fra

  9. Cascaded resonant bridge converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A converter for converting a low voltage direct current power source to a higher voltage, high frequency alternating current output for use in an electrical system where it is desired to use low weight cables and other circuit elements. The converter has a first stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which converts the direct current power source to an alternating current by means of switching elements that are operated by a variable frequency voltage regulator, a transformer to step up the voltage of the alternating current, and a rectifier bridge to convert the alternating current to a direct current first stage output. The converter further has a second stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which is connected in series to the first stage converter to receive its direct current output and convert it to a second stage high frequency alternating current output by means of switching elements that are operated by a fixed frequency oscillator. The voltage of the second stage output is controlled at a relatively constant value by controlling the first stage output voltage, which is accomplished by controlling the frequency of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller in response to second stage voltage. Fault tolerance in the event of a load short circuit is provided by making the operation of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller responsive to first and second stage current limiting devices. The second stage output is connected to a rectifier bridge whose output is connected to the input of the second stage to provide good regulation of output voltage wave form at low system loads.

  10. Instability of Bucket Foundations during Installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The bucket foundation is an upcoming technology for offshore wind turbines. The bucket foundation is a large cylindrical monopod foundation constructed as a thin steel shell structure. A bucket foundation does not require heavy installation equipment since it is installed by suction forces. The...... combination of a thin shell structure and suction forces leads to the fact that instability, in form of buckling, becomes a crucial issue during installation. The hydrostatic buckling pressure of the bucket foundation is addressed using three-dimensional, non-linear finite element analysis. The results of the...

  11. Stiffness Formulation of Flexible Bucket Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten; Larsen, Kim André

    as a substructure with predetermined properties. The interaction between the foundation and structure is expressed purely in terms of force and moment resultants, and their conjugate displacements and rotations. The Macro Model modelling the Bucket Foundation is suitable for implementation in an......The response of offshore wind turbines e.g. static, eigen frequencies and eigen modes, are affected by elastic properties of the foundation and the subsoil. The Elastic Macro Model is developed to evaluate the soil-structure interaction of flexible bucket foundations for offshore wind turbines so...... that it can be properly included and analysed in a composite structure-foundation system. The typical approach for analysing the structure-foundation system is to use a finite-element method. Such an approach is, however, inefficient and time consuming. The Elastic Macro Model describes the foundation...

  12. Mathematical Modeling of Local Scour at Slender and Wide Bridge Piers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef I. Hafez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existing equations for predicting local scour at bridge piers suffer from overprediction of the scour depths which results in higher foundation costs. To tackle this problem, a mathematical model for predicting bridge pier scour is developed herein based on an energy balance theory. The present study equation was compared to commonly used bridge scour equations using scour field data in USA. The developed equation has several advantages among which we have the following: it adds to the understanding of the physics of bridge pier scour, is valid for slender and wide piers, does not suffer from overprediction of scour depths, addresses clear water and live bed scour, and includes the effects of various characteristics of the bed material such as specific gravity (or density, porosity, size, and angle of repose. In addition, the developed equation accounts for the debris effect and aids in the design of scour mitigation methods such as collars, side bars, slots, and pier protective piles.

  13. Liquid-Bridge Breaking Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macner, Ashley; Steen, Paul

    2011-11-01

    Wet adhesion by liquid bridges in large arrays shows promise for use in lightweight, controllable on-demand devices. Applications include grab/release of wafer substrates, transport of micron-sized tiles for use in 3D printing and micro-dosing of personalized pharmaceutical drugs. By wetting and spreading, a drop can form a bridge and thereby ``grab'' a nearby solid substrate. By volume decrease or extension, the bridge can break. The breaking limit corresponds to bridge instability which can be predicted, knowing the static mechanical response of the bridge. Mechanical behaviors include force-volume (FV), pressure-volume (pV) and force-length (FL) responses. Instability crucially depends on the mode of failure - failure under constant-force or constant length are typical cases. We study single bridge equilibria for their breaking limits. FV diagrams for the pin-pin equal and pin-pin unequal radii boundary conditions for different bridge heights are measured in the laboratory. The FL response in the case of pin-pin equal radii is also measured. Results are compared to predictions of static theory. Static results are then used to compare to dynamical sequences where volume is driven quasistatically by syringe or an electro-osmotic pump. As the breaking limit is approached, the shape deformation accelerates leading to non-equilibrium shapes not captured by the static analysis.

  14. Settlement prediction and behaviour of pile foundations in deep clayey soil deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建林; 苏春晖; 石聪

    2014-01-01

    A new measurement technique is used to determine the settlement of bridge pile foundation and the thickness of deep compressed soft layer. The finite element Plaxis 3D foundation program is used in the analysis with a proposed empirical equation to modify the input parameters represented by the soil compression modulus. The results of the numerical analysis using the proposed empirical equation provide insight to the settlement analysis of pile groups in soft clayey soils;consequently, the finite element Plaxis 3D program can be a useful tool for numerical analysis. The numerical analysis is modified by adjusting the calculation of compression modulus from those obtained under pressure between 100-200 kPa by which the results of the settlement are modified and thus matching the realistic measurements. The absolute error is 3 mm which is accepted compared with the last researches. This scenario can be applied for the similar problems in the theoretical applications of deep foundations.

  15. Bridge Creek IMW database - Bridge Creek Restoration and Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek is thought to be limiting a population of ESA-listed steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A logical restoration...

  16. National Bridge Inventory - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The NBI (NTAD 2015) is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 610,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate...

  17. Complex Testing of the Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Adrijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the process of examining bridges. AB road bridge, founded on the columns by the Karpoš system and damaged due to erosive action of the river, is given as an example. The first tests of the bridge are conducted on the impact load of V 300, because of the appearance of longitudinal cracks. The results of the columns testing are presented in this paper, as well as the rehabilitation measures thus increasing the load capacity of the column.

  18. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker;

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...... if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...

  19. Reliability Assessment of Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Middleton, C. R.

    This paper is partly based on research performed for the Highways Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: concrete bridges". It contains the details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability...... profiles. These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for concrete bridges. This paper is to some extend based on Thoft-Christensen et. al. [1996], Thoft-Christensen [1996] et. al. and Thoft-Christensen [1996]....

  20. Modern Foundations of Light Transport Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessig, Christian

    Light transport simulation aims at the numerical computation of the propagation of visible electromagnetic energy in macroscopic environments. In this thesis, we develop the foundations for a modern theory of light transport simulation, unveiling the geometric structure of the continuous theory and providing a formulation of computational techniques that furnishes remarkably efficacy with only local information. Utilizing recent results from various communities, we develop the physical and mathematical structure of light transport from Maxwell's equations by studying a lifted representation of electromagnetic theory on the cotangent bundle. At the short wavelength limit, this yields a Hamiltonian description on six-dimensional phase space, with the classical formulation over the space of "positions and directions" resulting from a reduction to the five-dimensional cosphere bundle. We establish the connection between light transport and geometrical optics by a non-canonical Legendre transform, and we derive classical concepts from radiometry, such as radiance and irradiance, by considering measurements of the light energy density. We also show that in idealized environments light transport is a Lie-Poisson system for the group of symplectic diffeomorphisms, unveiling a tantalizing similarity between light transport and fluid dynamics. Using Stone's theorem, we also derive a functional analytic description of light transport. This bridges the gap to existing formulations in the literature and naturally leads to computational questions. We then address one of the central challenges for light transport simulation in everyday environments with scattering surfaces: how are efficient computations possible when the light energy density can only be evaluated pointwise? Using biorthogonal and possibly overcomplete bases formed by reproducing kernel functions, we develop a comprehensive theory for computational techniques that are restricted to pointwise information

  1. Effect of abutment modeling on the seismic response of bridge structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ady Aviram; Kevin R.Mackie; Bozidar Stojadinovic

    2008-01-01

    Abutment behavior significantly influences the seismic response of certain bridge structures.Specifically in the case of short bridges with relatively stiff superstructures typical of highway overpasses,embankment mobilization and inelastic behavior of the soil material under high shear deformation levels dominate the response of the bridge and its column bents.This paper investigates the sensitivity of bridge seismic response with respect to three different abutment modeling approaches.The abutment modeling approaches are based on three increasing levels of complexity that attempt to capture the critical components and modes of abutment response without the need to generate continuum models of the embankment,approach,and abutment foundations.Six existing reinforced concrete bridge structures,typical of Ordinary Bridges in California,are selected for the analysis.Nonlinear models of the bridges are developed in OpenSees.Three abutment model types of increasing complexity are developed for each bridge,denoted as roller,simplified,and spring abutments.The roller model contains only single-point constraints.The spring model contains discrete representations of backfill,bearing pad,shear key,and back wall behavior.The simplified model is a compromise between the efficient roller model and the comprehensive spring model.Modal,pushover,and nonlinear dynamic time history analyses are conducted for the six bridges using the three abutment models for each bridge.Comparisons of the analysis results show major differences in mode shapes and periods,ultimate base shear strength,as well as peak displacements of the column top obtained due to dynamic excitation.The adequacy of the three abutment models used in the study to realistically represent all major resistance mechanisms and components of the abutments,including an accurate estimation of their mass,stiffness,and nonlinear hysteretic behavior,is evaluated.Recommendations for abutment modeling are made.

  2. The Higgs Bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Roland E

    2013-01-01

    The particle recently discovered at the Large Hadron Collider near Geneva is almost certainly a Higgs boson, the long-sought completion of the Standard Model of particle physics. But this discovery, an achievement by more than six thousand scientists (including students), is actually much more than a mere capstone of the Standard Model. It instead represents a bridge from the Standard Model to exciting discoveries of the future, at higher energies or in other experiments, and to the properties of matter at very low temperatures. The mere existence of a particle with zero spin implies a need for new physics, with the most likely candidate being supersymmetry, which requires that every known particle has a superpartner yet to be discovered. And phenomena similar to the Higgs are seen in superconducting metals and superfluid gases at low temperatures, which extend down to a millionth or even a billionth of a degree Kelvin. So the discovery of a Higgs boson has a central place in our attempts both to achieve a tr...

  3. Mineral bridges in nacre revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Checa, Antonio G; Willinger, Marc-Georg

    2012-01-01

    We confirm with high-resolution techniques the existence of mineral bridges between superposed nacre tablets. In the towered nacre of both gastropods and the cephalopod Nautilus there are large bridges aligned along the tower axes, corresponding to gaps (150-200 nm) in the interlamellar membranes. Gaps are produced by the interaction of the nascent tablets with a surface membrane that covers the nacre compartment. In the terraced nacre of bivalves bridges associated with elongated gaps in the interlamellar membrane (> 100 nm) have mainly been found at or close to the edges of superposed parental tablets. To explain this placement, we hypothesize that the interlamellar membrane breaks due to differences in osmotic pressure across it when the interlamellar space below becomes reduced at an advanced stage of calcification. In no cases are the minor connections between superimposed tablets (< 60 nm), earlier reported to be mineral bridges, found to be such.

  4. Simulation of multivariate diffusion bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Finch, Samuel; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose simple methods for multivariate diffusion bridge simulation, which plays a fundamental role in simulation-based likelihood and Bayesian inference for stochastic differential equations. By a novel application of classical coupling methods, the new approach generalizes a previously...

  5. Applications of overburden conveyor bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachtschneider, H.

    1987-06-01

    In large scale surface mines of the capacities required today, a cross-pit operation with overburden conveyor bridges is the most economical method of overburden removal and disposal. In order to provide the production capacity required in surface mining equipment by the GDR brown coal industry, VEB Schwermaschinenbau Lauchhammerwerk undertook the design and manufacture of standard overburden conveyor bridges for cut heights of 34 m, 45 m and 60 m. All three base types may be equipped to match the site specific geological and geotechnical conditions, and to meet customer's demands. Specifications of the bridges are given as well as details of conveyor belt speeds, modifications to the standards, and number manufactured. Design problems faced with the 60 m bridge are discussed, together with details of the superstructure, method of operation, transportation rates, structural steel used, assembly and power supply. 5 refs.

  6. Bridge Culture of Langde Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Langde, a village in Leishan County ofsouthwestern Guizhou province, is known for itslarge number of unique bridges bearing the distinctdesign style of the Miao ethnic group. Animpressive variety of well-preserved ancient

  7. ANGIOGRAPHIC ASPECTS OF MYOCARDIAL BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha. M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The segment of epicardial coronary artery that traverses intramurally through the myocardium and bridged by a bunch of cardiac muscle fibers is called tunneled artery or intramural artery. The band of cardiac muscle fibers passing over the tunneled artery segment is named as myocardial bridge. During angiography milking effect is observed during systole due to the external pressure of muscle fibers on the tunneled artery that leads to narrowing of vessel lumen and further ischemia. Materials & Methods: It is a prospective study performed from 2012- 2015 in cardiac centers available around Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, South India. A total number of 2015 adult patients who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography were evaluated to detect myocardial bridges. With the informed consent the relevant data was collected from the patients and analyzed. Results: The prevalence of myocardial bridges was 3.17%. Among the 2015 patients 70.7% are males and 29.2% are females. Among 64 myocardial bridge positive cases 62.5% were male and 37.5% were female patients. Regarding coronary dominance 84% were right dominant and 14.4% were left dominant and 1.6% are balanced. The percentage incidence of myocardial bridging according to dominance was 3.01% for right dominant patients, 4.12% for left dominant patients and 3.1% for balanced dominant patients. In all the myocardial bridge positive cases they were located on the left anterior descending artery (LAD. According to diagnosis the patients with normal coronaries were 22.6%, patients with MILD CAD were 17.9%, patients with single vessel disease were 23.4%, patients with two vessel disease were 14.7% and the patients with triple vessel disease were 21.3%. The 64 myocardial bridging cases were grouped in to three groups according to their age. Incidence of double bridges was observed in 3 cases of which 66.7% males & 33.3% in females. Conclusion: These results show that Andhra Pradesh population are

  8. The stories of two bridges in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    Public participation in bridge building was promoted by un habitat in the village of Mankrong. The neighbouring village did not participate in the construction of their bridge. The first flooding washed the second bridge down while the "participative bridge" stood up....

  9. An Expert System for Concrete Bridge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, J. de; Branco, F. A.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle;

    1997-01-01

    The importance of bridge repair versus new bridge construction has risen in recent decades due to high deterioration rates that have been observed in these structures. Budgets both for building new bridges and keeping the existing ones are always limited. To help rational decision-making, bridge...

  10. Stability of liquid crystalline bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Milind P.; Tsige, Mesfin; Taylor, P. L.; Rosenblatt, Charles

    1999-02-01

    The stability of cylindrical bridges of the liquid crystal octylcyanobiphenyl in an immiscible liquid bath was investigated in the nematic and smectic A phases. In the nematic phase the bridge was found to destabilize at a length-to-diameter (slenderness) ratio R similar to that of ordinary Newtonian fluids. On the other hand, the Bingham behavior of the smectic A phase, i.e., an apparent yield stress, enabled the formation of stable columns with R well in excess of π.

  11. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    the hypothesis that time horizons are influenced by ownership structures and particularly that industrial foundations promote longtermism. Policymakers which are interested in promoting longtermism should allow and perhaps even encourage the creation of industrial foundations. More generally they should consider...... in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long......-term in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...

  12. Development of a Vehicle-Bridge-Soil Dynamic Interaction Model for Scour Damage Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Prendergast

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage detection in bridges using vibration-based methods is an area of growing research interest. Improved assessment methodologies combined with state-of-the-art sensor technology are rapidly making these approaches applicable for real-world structures. Applying these techniques to the detection and monitoring of scour around bridge foundations has remained challenging; however this area has gained attraction in recent years. Several authors have investigated a range of methods but there is still significant work required to achieve a rounded and widely applicable methodology to detect and monitor scour. This paper presents a novel Vehicle-Bridge-Soil Dynamic Interaction (VBSDI model which can be used to simulate the effect of scour on an integral bridge. The model outputs dynamic signals which can be analysed to determine modal parameters and the variation of these parameters with respect to scour can be examined. The key novelty of this model is that it is the first numerical model for simulating scour that combines a realistic vehicle loading model with a robust foundation soil response model. This paper provides a description of the model development and explains the mathematical theory underlying the model. Finally a case study application of the model using typical bridge, soil, and vehicle properties is provided.

  13. The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Anthony F.

    1987-01-01

    The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario is a non-profit volunteer-driven organization that is active in supporting research and education programs with the ultimate goal of reducing death and disability from heart disease and stroke. The Foundation has over 65 chapters across the province, a full-time staff of 130, and over 70,000 volunteers involved in various programs and fund-raising activities. Several of the Foundation's programs offer direct assistance to family physicians and their ...

  14. Adaptive plasticity model for bucket foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Barari, Amin; Larsen, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Based on experimental investigations, the literature proposes different methods for modeling the behavior and capacity of foundations subjected to combined loading. Generally, two methods are used to predict the behavior of foundations: traditional approaches and hardening plasticity solutions....... The first method is only capable of determining the capacity of the foundations and not the prepeak behavior. Thus, a new strain-hardening criterion is developed by calibrating failure criteria by employing data from small-scale tests on bucket foundations subjected to static loads. The shape of the yield...

  15. Monopod Bucket Foundations Under Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The monopod bucket foundation has the potential to become a cost-reducing substructure for offshore wind turbines. To avoid problems during the energy converter operation, the long-term effect of cyclic loading must be considered in the design of the foundation. In this paper, a 1-g testing rig...... is adopted to extend the knowledge of bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. The test setup is described, and a comprehensive experimental campaign is presented. The effect of some important system parameters on the long-term plastic rotation is analysed. Key aspects of the cyclic load behavior...... of bucket foundations are discussed....

  16. Integrating Real-time Bridge Scouring Monitoring System with Mobile Location-Based Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Bin Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Typhoons and torrential rains not only erode river beds and coasts and damage river-crossing structures, but also affect the geomorphology and topography of rivers and coasts. Additionally, typhoons and torrential rains cause debris flows and flooding in metropolitan areas and threaten the safety of people’s lives and properties. Disaster prevention and reduction of damage caused by typhoons and torrential rains have always been a crucial task of government agencies. Bridges in Taiwan are generally old and have insufficient shock resistance; some bridge foundations are also severely eroded and exposed. Because of global climate changes in recent years, rainfall has become comparatively heavy and rapid. Furthermore, the soil in mountain areas has softened because of factors such as earthquakes or human developments. Debris rushes down with rain every time a torrential rain strikes, significantly impacting the safety of bridges downstream. Although government bridge management units have made budget plans to progressively renovate dangerous old bridges, these bridges are still being use for traffic and transportation. These dangerous old bridges pose a serious threat to the safety of people when an earthquake, typhoon, or flood occurs. During typhoons and floods, increased water levels and changes of the scouring depths have dramatic effects on the safety of bridges. The bridge maintenance unit currently uses the water level and water flow conditions as references when determining whether to close a bridge; however, this is not a good permanent solution. A bridge scour monitoring and warning system that is stable, reliable, and operates normally under flood attacks is required for on-site installation and verification. In recent years, the applied technologies of smart phones have expanded beyond entertainment and communication. Mobile communications are used to transmit relevant information to bridge maintenance and management units and road

  17. Bridging radiation policy and science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientists, regulators, and policy makers from five continents and 20 countries reached consensus on a number of conclusions and recommendations regarding low-level ionizing radiation exposures at an international conference, 'Bridging Radiation Policy and Science,' at the Airlie Center in Warrenton, Virginia, 1-5 December 1999. The goal of the conference was to develop strategies for formulating national and international policy based on current scientific information in the context of economic, political, and social concerns. Specifically, attendees explored how to establish public policies with respect to radiation protection in view of the scientific uncertainties of the effects of low-level radiation [<100 millisievert (mSv)]. Conference participants agreed that science will not likely answer in the near future fundamental questions about the shape of the dose-response curve and mechanisms of effects of radiation at low doses. The conference endorsed the quest for a prudent and coherent radiation policy based on the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) 'evolving global framework'. The Conference participants agreed upon the following recommendations: Policy discussions on the regulation of radiation sources delivering low-level radiation should include references to natural background radiation. The conference supports the evolving global framework of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the safe use of radiation. The conference supports further development and evaluation of the ideas associated with the proposal on controllable dose. No radiation dose is below regulatory concern but certain levels should be below regulatory action, and appropriate dose levels should be established. Fundamental questions about the shape of the dose-response curve and mechanisms of effects of radiation at low doses are unlikely to be answered in the near future. Scientific research, including molecular and cellular radiobiology studies are critical in order

  18. Spatial embedded reinforcement of 20-node block element for analysis PC bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peiheng LONG; Xianting DU; Weizhen CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The formula for the contribution of prestressed reinforcement on embedded reinforcement element is derived according to the mechanical behavior of PC bridges and the foundational principle of finite element method. Mechanical concept is definite and examples val-idate the calculation results. Reinforcement element model allows generating a finite element mesh without taking into consideration the layout of reinforcements. Furthermore, the prestressing tendon may pass through the concrete elements in an arbitrary manner. It is an effective approach that the no-node loads are diverted from the tendons to the adjacent concrete elements. A useful arithmetic analysis of the spatial curved tendon PC Bridges is provided.

  19. Relativistic navigation a theoretical foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Turyshev, S G

    1996-01-01

    We present a theoretical foundation for relativistic astronomical measurements in curved space-time. In particular, we discuss a new iterative approach for describing the dynamics of an astronomical N-body system. To do this, we generalize the Fock-Chandrasekhar method of the weak-field and slow-motion approximation (WFSMA) and develop a theory of relativistic reference frames (RF) for a gravitationally bounded many-extended-body problem. In any proper RF constructed in the immediate vicinity of an arbitrary body, the N-body solutions of the gravitational field equations are presented as a sum of the Riemann-flat inertial space-time, the gravitational field generated by the body itself, the unperturbed solutions for each body in the system transformed to the coordinates of this proper RF, and the gravitational interaction term. We develop the basic concept of a general theory of the celestial RFs applicable to a wide class of metric theories of gravity with an arbitrary model of matter distribution. We apply ...

  20. Hybrid reliability model for fatigue reliability analysis of steel bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹珊珊; 雷俊卿

    2016-01-01

    A kind of hybrid reliability model is presented to solve the fatigue reliability problems of steel bridges. The cumulative damage model is one kind of the models used in fatigue reliability analysis. The parameter characteristics of the model can be described as probabilistic and interval. The two-stage hybrid reliability model is given with a theoretical foundation and a solving algorithm to solve the hybrid reliability problems. The theoretical foundation is established by the consistency relationships of interval reliability model and probability reliability model with normally distributed variables in theory. The solving process is combined with the definition of interval reliability index and the probabilistic algorithm. With the consideration of the parameter characteristics of theS−N curve, the cumulative damage model with hybrid variables is given based on the standards from different countries. Lastly, a case of steel structure in the Neville Island Bridge is analyzed to verify the applicability of the hybrid reliability model in fatigue reliability analysis based on the AASHTO.

  1. Dynamic characterization and damage detection in the I-40 bridge over the Rio Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Baker, W.E.; Bell, T.M.; Cone, K.M.; Darling, T.W.; Duffey, T.A.; Eklund, A.; Migliori, A.

    1994-06-01

    In the 1960`s and 1970`s over 2500 bridges were built in the U.S. with a design similar to those on Interstate 40 over the Rio Grande in Albuquerque, New Mexico. These bridges were built without structural redundancy and typically have only two plate girders carrying the entire dead and live loads. Failure of either girder is assumed to produce catastrophic failure of the bridge, hence these bridges are referred to as fracture-critical bridges. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) have provided funds to New Mexico State University (NMSU) through the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department (NMSH&TD) and The Alliance For Transportation Research (ATR) for evaluation and testing of the existing fracture critical bridges over the Rio Grande. Because the 1-40 bridges over the Rio Grande were to be razed during the summer of 1993, the investigators were able to introduce simulated fatigue cracks, similar to those observed in the field, into the structure in order to test various damage identification methods and to observe the changes in load paths through the structure caused by the cracking. To support this research effort, NMSU contracted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform experimental modal analyses, and to develop experimentally verified numerical models of the bridge. Scientists from the LANL`s Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group (P-10) applied state-of-the-art sensors and data acquisition software to the modal tests. Engineers from the LANL`s Advanced Engineering Technology Group (MEE-13) conducted ambient and forced vibration tests to verify detailed and simplified finite element models of the bridge. Forced vibration testing was done in conjunction with engineers from Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) who provided and operated a hydraulic shaker.

  2. Liberating Foundations of Art and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Fern

    2012-01-01

    Research concerning the basic course known as Foundations of Art and Design strengthens the pedagogical approach for K-16 art and design education. The version of Foundations introduced to America by Josef Albers, although hardly changed, is shown to have continued, timeless relevance. Next, a sequential, implicit logic is revealed in linking the…

  3. Scour and Scour Protection for Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Juul; Frigaard, Peter

    A test programme has been performed to determine the necessary scour protection around a various types of foundation for an offshore windturbine. Furthermore the unprotected scour depths have been investigated.......A test programme has been performed to determine the necessary scour protection around a various types of foundation for an offshore windturbine. Furthermore the unprotected scour depths have been investigated....

  4. Wave Forces on Offshore Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Juul; Frigaard, Peter

    The present report on the wave forces is the first report on the Borkum Riff project. A testprogramme has been performed to dertermine the wave forces on windturbine foundations.......The present report on the wave forces is the first report on the Borkum Riff project. A testprogramme has been performed to dertermine the wave forces on windturbine foundations....

  5. Scour and Scour Protection for Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Juul; Frigaard, Peter

    A test programme has been performed to determine the scour around a bucket foundation for an offshore windturbine. furthermore the necessary scour protection has been investigated.......A test programme has been performed to determine the scour around a bucket foundation for an offshore windturbine. furthermore the necessary scour protection has been investigated....

  6. Prototype bucket foundation for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten

    The first full scale prototype bucket foundation for wind turbines has been installed in October 2002 at Aalborg University offshore test facility in Frederikshavn, Denmark. The suction caisson and the wind turbine have been equipped with an online monitoring system, consisting of 15 accelerometers...... capable of simulating dynamic frequency dependent behaviour of the structure-foundation system....

  7. Floating liquid bridge charge dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez; Gomes, Whyllerson Evaristo; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of liquid with electric fields is investigated in a configuration where up to 13 kV are applied between electrodes resulting in a 106 V/m electric field in the capillaries and where there is the formation of a free-standing fluid bridge in the interelectrode gap. The Mott-Gurney equation was fitted to the measured ionization current vs applied voltage curve which indicates that the ionization rate at the high-voltage anode electrode dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) interface and space charging in the interelectrode gap determine the floating liquid bridge current for a given cathode-to-anode voltage. Space charge effects were measured in the cathode becker and also at the liquid bridge since the ionized charges at the anode migrate to the bridge outer surface and decrease the interfacial tension from 43 mJ/m2 to 29 mJ/m2. Two distinct structural regions then form the bridge, a charged plastic (bulk modulus ˜100 MPa) conducting outer layer with a surface conductivity of ˜10-9 Ω-1, which shapes and supports the floating fluid structure, and an inner liquid cylinder, where DMSO molecules flow.

  8. A strange bridge by Leonardo

    CERN Document Server

    Huylebrouck, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    On folio 855 recto of the Codex Atlanticus, Leonardo da Vinci drew three 'easily movable' bridges, but one of them is enigmatic: all 'replicas' in Leonardo museums and exhibitions come as a surprise, to say the least, to any engineer or architect whose attention is drawn to it. This is the case for models in Amboise (France), Chicago and Portland (USA), Florence (Italy) and for the one of the traveling exhibition by the Australian company 'Grande Exhibitions' that already visited 40 major cities in the world. All 'replicas' of the bridge model attributed to Leonardo have pillars standing on the deck of the bridge, while the deck is suspended by cables attached on these pillars. At first sight this problem does not catch the attention of the observer, as the bridge seems to be a mixed form of a beam and a suspension bridge, but it was not overlooked by my colleague architect-engineer Dr. Laurens Luyten (Gent, Belgium). Yet, after a TV-interview in Brussels so much pressure was exerted by some of the museum col...

  9. Density functional theory: Foundations reviewed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryachko, Eugene S., E-mail: eugene.kryachko@ulg.ac.be [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev, 03680 (Ukraine); Ludeña, Eduardo V., E-mail: popluabe@yahoo.es [Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, IVIC, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Prometheus Program, Senescyt (Ecuador); Grupo Ecuatoriano para el Estudio Experimental y Teórico de Nanosistemas, GETNano, USFQ, N104-E, Quito (Ecuador); Escuela Politécnica Superior del Litoral, ESPOL, Guayaquil (Ecuador)

    2014-11-10

    Guided by the above motto (quotation), we review a broad range of issues lying at the foundations of Density Functional Theory, DFT, a theory which is currently omnipresent in our everyday computational study of atoms and molecules, solids and nano-materials, and which lies at the heart of modern many-body computational technologies. The key goal is to demonstrate that there are definitely the ways to improve DFT. We start by considering DFT in the larger context provided by reduced density matrix theory (RDMT) and natural orbital functional theory (NOFT), and examine the implications that N-representability conditions on the second-order reduced density matrix (2-RDM) have not only on RDMT and NOFT but, also, by extension, on the functionals of DFT. This examination is timely in view of the fact that necessary and sufficient N-representability conditions on the 2-RDM have recently been attained. In the second place, we review some problems appearing in the original formulation of the first Hohenberg–Kohn theorem which is still a subject of some controversy. In this vein we recall Lieb’s comment on this proof and the extension to this proof given by Pino et al. (2009), and in this context examine the conditions that must be met in order that the one-to-one correspondence between ground-state densities and external potentials remains valid for finite subspaces (namely, the subspaces where all Kohn–Sham solutions are obtained in practical applications). We also consider the issue of whether the Kohn–Sham equations can be derived from basic principles or whether they are postulated. We examine this problem in relation to ab initio DFT. The possibility of postulating arbitrary Kohn–Sham-type equations, where the effective potential is by definition some arbitrary mixture of local and non-local terms, is discussed. We also deal with the issue of whether there exists a universal functional, or whether one should advocate instead the construction of problem

  10. Forward the Foundation: Local Education Foundations Offer an Alternative Source for School Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Young, Susan

    2007-01-01

    February's column "Going Corporate" discussed ideas for approaching private foundations for funding. Some districts take this idea several steps further by partnering with the community and local businesses to establish a not-for-profit foundation, or local education foundation (LEF). It probably comes as no surprise that the idea of forming a LEF…

  11. Monopod bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The monopod bucket foundation can be a cost-reducing sub-structure for offshore wind turbines. To avoid problems during the turbine operation, the long-term effect of cyclic loading must be considered in the design of the foundation. In this paper a 1g testing rig is adopted to extend the knowledge...... on bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. The test setup is described in detail and a comprehensive experimental campaign is presented. The foundation is subjected to cyclic overturning moment, cyclic horizontal loading and constant vertical loading, acting on the same plane for thousands...... of cycles. Three buckets with different embedment ratios are tested. The data interpretation is focused on the long-term permanent rotation of the foundation and, particularly, on understanding how the controlling variables influence the potential for rotation accumulation. New and more general parameters...

  12. Bridging history and social psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Yamamoto, Koji

    2012-01-01

    This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social...... hand historians can enhance their analysis of historical sources by drawing upon the conceptual tools developed in social psychology. They can “test” these tools and contribute to their validation and enrichment from completely different perspectives. Most important, as contributions to this special......-traditionalized societies—a distinction that lies at the heart of many social psychology accounts of the world we live in. The present editorial will introduce and consider this act of bridging history and social psychology by focusing on three main questions: What is the bridge made of? How can the two disciplines...

  13. Evaluation of streambed scour at bridges over tidal waterways in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Jeffrey S.; Schauer, Paul V.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering Center’s River Analysis System model, and scour depths were calculated using methods recommended by the Federal Highway Administration. Computed contraction-scour depths were greater than 2.0 feet at five bridges and computed pier-scour depths were 4.0 feet or greater at 15 bridges. The potential for streambed scour by both coastal and riverine processes at the bridges considered in this study were evaluated, ranked, and summed to determine a cumulative risk factor for each bridge. Possible factors that could mitigate the scour risks were investigated at 22 bridges that had high individual or cumulative rankings. Mitigating factors such as piers founded in bedrock, deep pier foundations relative to scour depths, and lack of observed scour during field measurements were documented for 13 sites, but additional study and monitoring is needed to better quantify the streambed scour potential for nine sites. Three bridges prone to being affected by storm surges will require more data collection and possibly complex hydrodynamic modeling to accurately quantify the streambed scour potential. Continuous monitoring of water-surface and streambed elevation at one or more piers is needed for two bridges to better understand the tidal and riverine influences on streambed scour.

  14. Effects of structural characterizations on fragility functions of bridges subject to seismic shaking and lateral spreading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zhang; Yili Huo; Scott J.Brandenberg; Pirooz Kashighandi

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the seismic vulnerability of different classes of typical bridges in California when subjected to seismic shaking or liquefaction-induced lateral spreading.The detailed structural configurations in terms of superstructure type,connection,continuity at support and foundation type,etc.render different damage resistant capability.Six classes of bridges are established based on their anticipated failure mechanisms under earthquake shaking.The numerical models that are capable of simulating the complex soil-structure interaction effects,nonlinear behavior of columns and connections are developed for each bridge class.The dynamic responses are obtained using nonlinear time history analyses for a suite of 250 earthquake motions with increasing intensity.An equivalent static analysis procedure is also implemented to evaluate the vulnerability of the bridges when subjected to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading.Fragility functions for each bridge class are derived and compared for both seismic shaking (based on nonlinear dynamic analyses) and lateral spreading (based on equivalent static analyses) for different performance states.The study finds that the fragility functions due to either ground shaking or lateral spreading show significant correlation with the structural characterizations,but differences emerge for ground shaking and lateral spreading conditions.Structural properties that will mostly affect the bridges' damage resistant capacity are also idantified.

  15. Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.

    1999-02-08

    This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

  16. Bridge Number and Conway Products

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Ryan C.

    2007-01-01

    Schubert proved that, given a composite link $K$ with summands $K_{1}$ and $K_{2}$, the bridge number of $K$ satisfies the following equation: $$\\beta(K)=\\beta(K_{1})+\\beta(K_{2})-1.$$ In ``Conway Produts and Links with Multiple Bridge Surfaces", Scharlemann and Tomova proved that, given links $K_{1}$ and $K_{2}$, there is a Conway product $K_{1}\\times_{c}K_{2}$ such that $$\\beta(K_{1}\\times_{c} K_{2}) \\leq \\beta(K_{1}) + \\beta(K_{2}) - 1$$ In this paper, we define the generalized Conway prod...

  17. Environmentally Friendly Solution to Ground Hazards in Design of Bridges in Earthquake Prone Areas Using Timber Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Bridges are major elements of infrastructure in all societies. Their safety and continued serviceability guaranties the transportation and emergency access in urban and rural areas. However, these important structures are subject to earthquake induced damages in structure and foundations. The basic approach to the proper support of foundations are a) distribution of imposed loads to foundation in a way they can resist those loads without excessive settlement and failure; b) modification of foundation ground with various available methods; and c) combination of "a" and "b". The engineers has to face the task of designing the foundations meeting all safely and serviceability criteria but sometimes when there are numerous environmental and financial constrains, the use of some traditional methods become inevitable. This paper explains the application of timber piles to improve ground resistance to liquefaction and to secure the abutments of short to medium length bridges in an earthquake/liquefaction prone area in Bohol Island, Philippines. The limitations of using the common ground improvement methods (i.e., injection, dynamic compaction) because of either environmental or financial concerns along with the abundance of timber in the area made the engineers to use a network of timber piles behind the backwalls of the bridge abutments. The suggested timber pile network is simulated by numerical methods and its safety is examined. The results show that the compaction caused by driving of the piles and bearing capacity provided by timbers reduce the settlement and lateral movements due to service and earthquake induced loads.

  18. Optimum selection on bridge erection with floating crane in East China Sea Bridge and Hangzhou Bay Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunquan Qin; Pu Zhou; Youheng Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction With the rapid development of China′s economy, many bridges will be built over the Chinese coastal waters of Pacific Ocean. Among them, construction of East China Sea Bridge has been commenced in June 2001, and will be completed at the end of 2005, Hangzhou Bay Bridge was also started to construct in June 2003(Fig. 1). These two ultralong bridges are designed as twin expressway bridges standing side by side each carries a 3-lane one-way carriageway. The total width is 31.5m and 33.0m respectively. East China Sea Bridge starts from Nanhui District, Shanghai and extends to the Yangshan Deep Water Port Area, which is located at one of the Qiqu Islands. The total length of the bridge is about 31.0 km, in which 25 km are on the sea, and 22 km is in the unnavigable region. Hangzhou Bay Bridge across the mouth of Qiantang River.

  19. Is myocardial bridging a bridge connecting to cardiovascular events?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-jun

    2010-01-01

    @@ Coronary arteries and their major branches usually course on the surface of the heart in the subepicardial tissue. However, a muscle hber overlying the intramyocardial segment of an epicardial coronary artery was defined as myocardial bridging (MB), and subsequently the artery coursing within the myocardium is called a tunneled artery.

  20. 谈公路桥梁沉降段路基路面施工%Discussion on subgrade pavement construction of highway bridge subsidence section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路海清

    2015-01-01

    简述了公路桥梁沉降引发的危害性,通过分析台背地基、路堤、桥头搭板末端发生变形的基本原理,从地基处理、填料控制等方面探讨了公路桥梁沉降段路基路面施工的措施,以避免公路桥梁沉降现象的发生。%The thesis describes highway bridge subsidence hazards,analyzes basic principles of abutment foundation,subgrade,bridge head board deformation,and explores subgrade pavement construction measures of highway bridge subsidence section from aspects of foundation treat-ment,filling material control and so on,with a view to avoid highway bridge subsidence.

  1. Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge——The first kilometer level three-pylon two-span suspension bridge in the world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Jianchi

    2011-01-01

    Taizhou Bridge, located at the middle of Jiangsu Province, connecting Taizhou City and Zhenjiang City, started in Dec. 2007. The bridge is the first kilometer level three-pylon suspension bridge in the world, and it adopts longitudinal herringbone shape steel middle pylon for the first time in the world. The foundation of the middle tower is the deepest underwater caisson in soil on earth. A great many of technical innovations such as the design techniques of three-pylon suspension bridge,precisely locating and bottom-sealing techniques of the large scale caisson foundation,manufacturing, combination techniques of steel and concrete in the middle tower, welding of extra thick steel plate,manufacture and control techniques of abnormal sections of the middle tower and so on were introduced.

  2. The design philosophy and bridge's technical innovation of Hong Kong- Zhuhai-Macao Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Fanchao; Liu Minghu; Wu Weisheng; Zhang Gejun; Zhang Liang

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the project overview, construction goal and design philosophy of Hong Kong- Zhuhai-Macao Bridge. Based on large scale, factory production, standardization and assemble line, the innova- tive concept is taken as the general principle for design with the emphasis on description of the new material, new technology, new construction method and new equipment used in the design. The application of innovative technology has provided a solid foundation and favorable guarantee for project quality and design service life

  3. Advanced Laboratory Setup for Testing Offshore Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Dam; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a test setup for testing small-scale offshore foundations under realistic conditions of high pore-water pressure and high impact loads. The actuator, used for loading has enough capacity to apply sufficient force and displacement to achieve both drained and undrained failure...... modes for small-scale offshore foundations. Results from trial tests on two small-scale bucket foundations, subjected to transient or cyclic loading, are presented. Tests showed that cavitation limits the undrained bearing capacity. Hence, a high pore-water pressure is important for simulating offshore...

  4. Foundations for a theory of gravitation theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, K. S.; Lee, D. L.; Lightman, A. P.

    1972-01-01

    A foundation is laid for future analyses of gravitation theories. This foundation is applicable to any theory formulated in terms of geometric objects defined on a 4-dimensional spacetime manifold. The foundation consists of (1) a glossary of fundamental concepts; (2) a theorem that delineates the overlap between Lagrangian-based theories and metric theories; (3) a conjecture (due to Schiff) that the Weak Equivalence Principle implies the Einstein Equivalence Principle; and (4) a plausibility argument supporting this conjecture for the special case of relativistic, Lagrangian-based theories.

  5. Philosophical foundations of interpretations of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Bezlepkin, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the reason for the diversity of interpretations of quantum mechanics is that they are not connected by continuity relations with classical physics, and also the reason is the impossibility of operationalist definition of the vector of state. The problem lies in the incompatibility of the philosophical foundations of interpretations, which results in the difficulty of building a unified picture of the world. To solve the problem, we identify general philosophical foundation of interpretations of quantum mechanics and built their classification. We also show that in more general theories, the part of which is quantum mechanics, it is possible to integrate (reconcile) the philosophical foundations of interpretations.

  6. Architectural engineering of FRP bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, J.E.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP's) in architectural and structural bridge design. The challenges and opportunities that come with this relatively new material are discussed. An inventory is made of recent engineers' solutions in FRP, followed by a discussion on architectural application of FRP's derived from the authors architectural practice.

  7. Instability of the capillary bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Gounseti; Hoepffner, Jerome

    2014-11-01

    Capillary adhesion is a physical mechanism that maintains two bodies in contact by capillarity through a liquid ligament. The capillary bridge is an idealization of this capillary adhesion. In this study we first focus on the classical case of the stability of the capillary bridge. Secondly we study a slightly more complex configuration, imagining a flow in the capillary bridge as in the case of the dynamics of the neck of a liquid ligament, in its withdrawal under the effect of capillarity. Inspired by the experiments on soap films of Plateau, the configuration analyzed consists of an initially axisymmetric, mass of fluid held by surface tension forces between two parallel, coaxial, solid pipes of the same diameter. The results presented are obtained by numerical simulations using the free software, Gerris Flow Solver. We first focus on the capillary Venturi. In the static configuration the stability diagram of the capillary bridge obtained is in perfect agreement with the results of Lev A. Slobozhanin. In the dynamic case we develop a matlab code based on the one dimensional equations of Eggers and Dupont. The comparison of the bifurcation diagram obtained and the numerical simulations shows a good agreement.

  8. Bridge Aesthetics and Structural Honesty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In bridges the overall form must be chosen with due respect to the transmission of forces if efficient structures shall be created, The design must therefore be governed by experienced structural engineers - in some cases assisted by aesthetic advisers on specific issues. Some basic requirements...

  9. The Wien Bridge Oscillator Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2006-01-01

    A tutorial in which the Wien bridge family of oscillators is defined and investigated. Oscillators which do not fit into the Barkhausen criterion topology may be designed. A design procedure based on initial complex pole quality factor is reported. The dynamic transfer characteristic...

  10. Architectural engineering of FRP bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.E.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP's) in architectural and structural bridge design. The challenges and opportunities that come with this relatively new material are discussed. An inventory is made of recent engineers' solutions in FRP, followed by a discussion on archit

  11. Intercellular bridges in vertebrate gastrulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Caneparo

    Full Text Available The developing zebrafish embryo has been the subject of many studies of regional patterning, stereotypical cell movements and changes in cell shape. To better study the morphological features of cells during gastrulation, we generated mosaic embryos expressing membrane attached Dendra2 to highlight cellular boundaries. We find that intercellular bridges join a significant fraction of epiblast cells in the zebrafish embryo, reaching several cell diameters in length and spanning across different regions of the developing embryos. These intercellular bridges are distinct from the cellular protrusions previously reported as extending from hypoblast cells (1-2 cellular diameters in length or epiblast cells (which were shorter. Most of the intercellular bridges were formed at pre-gastrula stages by the daughters of a dividing cell maintaining a membrane tether as they move apart after mitosis. These intercellular bridges persist during gastrulation and can mediate the transfer of proteins between distant cells. These findings reveal a surprising feature of the cellular landscape in zebrafish embryos and open new possibilities for cell-cell communication during gastrulation, with implications for modeling, cellular mechanics, and morphogenetic signaling.

  12. Damage investigation of girder bridges under the Wenchuan earthquake and corresponding seismic design recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianzhong; Peng Tianbo; Xu yan

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of girder bridges on National Highway 213 and the Doujiangyan-Wenchuan expressway after the Wenchuan earthquake showed that typical types of damage included:span collapses due to unseating at expansion joints;shear key failure;and damage of the expansion joint due to the slide-induced large relative displacement between the bottom of the girder and the top of the laminated-rubber bearing.This slide,however,can actually act as a form of isolation for the substructure,and as a result,the piers and foundation of most of the bridges on state route 213 suffered minor damage.The exception was the Baihua Bridge,which suffered severe damage.Corresponding seismic design recommendations are presented based on this investigation.

  13. Dynamic identification of paradela historic railway bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Luís F.; Valente, Isabel; Guimarães, Paulo; Vazquez, Kevin; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2013-01-01

    Paradela Bridge is a metallic bridge located along the bank of the Tua River in northern Portugal. While the bridge is not currently in service, its structure is representative of many metallic truss structures built across the country between the 19th and the 20th century. The construction of the Paradela Bridge was completed in 1886 and served for about 120 years connecting northern Portugal. Tua Line belongs to the Douro area that UNESCO recently declared as world heritage. This work acqui...

  14. Transition Slabs of Integral Abutment Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Dreier, Damien; Muttoni, Aurelio; BURDET, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decades, an increasing number of bridges with integral abutment have been built in Switzerland. This type of bridge offers various advantages over standard bridges with abutments, equipped with expansion joints and bearings that require regular inspection and maintenance. One main concern of integral abutment bridges is related to the soil-structure interaction, in particular between the transition slab and the embankment. To avoid any expansion joints, transition slabs are dire...

  15. Path transformations of first passage bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoin, Jean

    2003-01-01

    We define the first passage bridge from 0 to $\\lambda$ as the Brownian motion on the time interval $[0,1]$ conditioned to first hit $\\lambda$ at time 1. We show that this process may be related to the Brownian bridge, the Bessel bridge or the Brownian excursion via some path transformations, the main one being an extension of Vervaat's transformation. We also propose an extension of these results to certain bridges with cyclically exchangeable increments.

  16. 47 CFR 80.331 - Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. 80..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.331 Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. (a) Vessels... position). I plan to (give proposed course of action). Over. (3) (Coast station), this is (vessel's...

  17. Diagnosis of pathologies in bridges of the road system in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleovir José MILANI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure is an indispensable and decisive requirement for the economic development of a country; it is directly linked to the set of structural economic activities and serves as the foundation for the development of other activities. In this context, the bridges have fundamental importance to the social and economical development of the cities, because the roads are to ensure the entry of inputs on farms, as well as the disposal of products and free movement of populations. The aim of this study is to present a survey of the existing bridges in the south region of Brazil, more specifically in the city of Pato Branco, identifying the most recurrent damages, in order to provide bases to administrators, with the intention of ensuring the correct functioning of the transport infrastructure and in the preservation of public property and security for the users. Data collection was conducted through visits, using the method of visual and photographic records. After the analysis was done, we identified several pathological manifestations, both in concrete and wood bridges, such as moisture stains, cracks, corrosion, erosion, clogging of drains; wood decay, lack of verticality of the pillars and foundation repression, among others. Moreover, there was little or no maintenance on the existing bridges. Similar conditions can be observed in most cities in the south region of the country.

  18. Astrophysics. An introduction into theory and foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are covered: general and physical foundations, star burning, Jeans instability, protostars, radiation transport, stellar energy sources, models for burning stars and compact objects, white dwarfs, neutron stars, pulsars and black holes, stability theory, collapsing objects

  19. Sartre: A Possible Foundation for Educational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstow, Bonnie

    1983-01-01

    The claim by Khemais Benhamida and others that Jean-Paul Sartre's philosophy is too hostile and restrictive to serve as the foundation of progressive educational theory is based on an incomplete understanding of the philosopher's work. (IS)

  20. Removal of failed crown and bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashu; Rahul, G R; Poduval, Soorya T; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-07-01

    Crown and bridge have life span of many years but they fail for a number of reasons. Over the years, many devices have been designed to remove crowns and bridges from abutment teeth. While the removal of temporary crowns and bridges is usually very straightforward, the removal of a definitive cast crown with unknown cement is more challenging. Removal is often by destructive means. There are a number of circumstances, however, in which conservative disassembly would aid the practitioner in completing restorative/endodontic procedures. There are different mechanisms available to remove a failed crown or bridge. But there is no information published about the classification of available systems for crown and bridge removal. So it is logical to classify these systems into different groups which can help a clinician in choosing a particular type of system depending upon the clinical situation. The aim of this article is to provide a classification for various crown and bridge removal systems; describe how a number of systems work; and when and why they might be used. A PubMed search of English literature was conducted up to January 2010 using the terms: Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. Additionally, the bibliographies of 3 previous reviews, their cross references as well as articles published in various journals like International Endodontic Journal, Journal of Endodontics and were manually searched. Key words:Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. PMID:24558549

  1. Remediation: Higher Education's Bridge to Nowhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete College America, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The intentions were noble. It was hoped that remediation programs would be an academic bridge from poor high school preparation to college readiness. Sadly, remediation has become instead higher education's "Bridge to Nowhere." This broken remedial bridge is travelled by some 1.7 million beginning students each year, most of whom will…

  2. Comparison between Modern Violin Bridge and Baroque Violin Bridge by Photoelastic Observation and Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, Akihiro

    2004-05-01

    A comparison between the modern bridge and the baroque bridge of the violin by photoelastic observation was carried out. The relationship between the stress part and the hole is symmetric in the modern and baroque bridges. The measured spectral envelopes of baroque bridges are similar to those of modern bridges in D- or G-strings, and have peaks at a frequency higher than those of modern bridges in E-string. The visualization method as used in this study may provide hints for the design of violin bridges.

  3. Corporatism As A Totalitaristic Foundation And Practicism

    OpenAIRE

    Slobodan Lakic

    2012-01-01

    Based on the liberal concept of management and generating profit, capitalism disappeared from the world economic and political scene during the Great Economic Crisis. The expansion of mega corporations, primarily from the USA, was enabled by Anglo-Saxon fascist political-economic world order and state favoring - global control mechanism. The fascist order was in propulsion owing to a combination of leftist economic and political foundations and rightist oppressive practicism. As a foundation ...

  4. Nordic Corporate Governance and Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    The Nordic countries have attracted considerable attention in recent years as a benchmark for good governance. However, while the political governance characteristics of the Nordic model – particularly the welfare state - are well understood, its corporate governance characteristics remain elusive...... to the international audience. This paper therefore reviews the Nordic corporate governance model with special emphasis on a unique ownership structure, industrial foundations (foundations that own business companies). Rather than a meticulous description of details it emphasizes the Nordic model as a mode...

  5. Transforming a foundation into a cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ramón Manzano Malaxechevarría

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author charts a path between entities that meet needs in the general interest such as foundations and others which are neither entities of general interest nor have purely mercantile legal personality such as cooperatives. Transforming a foundation into a cooperative calls for a broad interpretation of the principle of free will that the legislation wishes to foster.Received: 12.02.2013Accepted: 20.04.2013

  6. CENTRIFUGAL VIBRATION TEST OF RC PILE FOUNDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Shunichi; Tsutsumiuchi, Takahiro; Otsuka, Rinna; Ito, Koji; Ejiri, Joji

    It is necessary that nonlinear responses of structures are clarified by soil-structure interaction analysis for the purpose of evaluating the seismic performances of underground structure or foundation structure. In this research, centrifuge shake table tests of reinforced concrete pile foundation installed in the liquefied ground were conducted. Then, finite element analyses for the tests were conducted to confirm an applicability of the analytical method by comparing the experimental results and analytical results.

  7. Foundations of microprogramming architecture, software and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawala, Ashok K

    1976-01-01

    Foundations of Microprogramming: Architecture, Software, and Applications discusses the foundations and trends in microprogramming, focusing on the architectural, software, and application aspects of microprogramming. The book reviews microprocessors, microprogramming concepts, and characteristics, as well as the architectural features in microprogrammed computers. The text explains support software and the different hierarchies or levels of languages. These include assembler languages which are mnemonic or symbolic representation of machine commands; the procedure oriented machine-dependent;

  8. Health legacy foundations: a new census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggel, Sabrina Jones; Brandon, William P

    2014-01-01

    Health care merger and acquisition activity has increased since enactment of the Affordable Care Act in 2010. Proceeds from transactions involving nonprofit hospitals, health systems, and health plans will endow philanthropic foundations, collectively known as health legacy foundations. Building on work by Grantmakers In Health, we undertook a systematic search for these foundations and generated a newly updated, comprehensive database. We found 306 organizations in forty-three states that have been endowed with proceeds from the sale, merger, lease, joint venture, or other restructuring of nonprofit health care assets. These health legacy foundations had $26.2 billion in assets in 2010. Concentrated in the southern United States, foundations originating from hospitals and specialty care facilities (86.6 percent) held mean assets of $64.7 million per funder and typically restricted grants to local communities. Foundations formed from health plans (13.4 percent) held higher mean assets ($222 million), usually served larger areas, and were more likely to engage in health care advocacy. Recent transactions involving smaller and stand-alone nonprofit hospitals will infuse many more communities with unprecedented charitable wealth. PMID:24395949

  9. Foundations on Expansive Soils; A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Kalantari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes various types of foundation designs to be considered for structural engineering projects when the subsoil foundation consists of expansive or swelling soils. Among civil and architectural engineers expansive soils are known to be difficult foundation materials and problematic. These type of soils swell when they are subjected to moistures and shrink due to moisture loss. Because of this different behaviour upon wetting and drying, they cause minor to major structural damages to pavements as well as buildings. Every year millions of dollars spent dealing with the consequences of swelling soils. For design of foundations on swelling soil, it is first essential to recognize and evaluate the soil based on its swelling potential, and then determining the most proper foundation design that can be constructed on this problematic soil. In general, this study presents some of the most common techniques to evaluate the swelling potential of expansive soils. Also, it discusses problems associated with swelling soil, classification of structural damages caused to buildings, and various foundation designs to combat the problems based on the degree of detrimental effects of swelling potential to civil engineering projects.

  10. The foundation of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Joseph A

    2003-05-01

    Self-esteem is a simplistic term for varied and complex mental states pertaining to how one views oneself. It takes but little research in the voluminous literature to see the vagueness and inconsistencies in its various definitions. Even more problematic is the uncertainty concerning its foundational components. The importance of having a solid definition and specific ideas about the foundational components of self-esteem is that both pave the way to recognizing its causes; to predicting effects from those causes; and to organizing the trouble-shooting process for locating those philosophical flaws or psychological scars which lead to low self-esteem. The purpose of this paper is to offer a common ground for thinking about self-esteem at its most basic level. In order to distinguish the "basic level" from the rest of the components of self-esteem, let us liken it to a skyscraper building. Here, the focus is on the building's "underground foundation" and the base upon which that foundation rests. The base is a definition that allows for the assessment of the foundation. The underground foundation itself consists of the mental building blocks called self-meaning, self-identity, self-image, and self-concepts. To help illustrate their interactions, a few of the "masks" and "faces" of self-esteem will be mentioned. What is not being addressed is the "above ground structure"--those theories and manifestations dealt with by most mental health specialists.

  11. Application of 3D sonar seepage detecting technology in deep foundation pit projects:case of anchorage base of Miaozui Yangtze River Bridge at Yichang, Hubei%三维声纳渗流探测技术在深基坑工程中的应用——以湖北宜昌庙嘴长江大桥锚碇基坑工程为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敏; 郭晓刚; 董志超

    2015-01-01

    为了在深基坑开挖前提前判断基坑侧壁渗漏点的具体位置,以紧邻长江边的深基坑为工程背景,简要介绍了三维声纳渗流探测的原理,侧重论述了声纳探测技术的实施方法及具体施工布置要求. 通过对基坑地连墙外各观测孔声纳渗流检测数据的计算分析、类比和评估,较为全面掌握了基坑在内外水头作用下的渗流情况. 在实际开挖过程中,通过现场观测,声纳探测的渗漏点与现场情况基本一致. 总结了声纳探测技术的优缺点,从应用需求上指出了下步应探索的领域.%Taking a deep foundation pit projects near to Yangtze River as a case, we applied 3D sonar seepage detecting meth-od to master the side wall seepage condition before the pit excavation. The principle of 3D sonar seepage detecting is introduced, especially the detecting procedure as well as the detail construction layout are discussed. By analyzing and comparing the sonar detecting data outside the diaphragm wall of foundation pit, we understood the overall condition of pit seepage under the influence of outside-inside water head. In the later foundation pit excavation, the detecting results provided by sonar detecting were in ac-cordance with the measured data. Finally, the pros and cons of sonar detecting technology are summarized, and the next explora-tion field is pointed out in terms of application requirement.

  12. Comprehensive Real-Time Bridge Health Monitoring System of Tongtai Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Su-su; Gao Yong-tao; Pan Dan-guang

    2015-01-01

    Tongtai Bridge is the world’s largest suspension curve-girder-skew-arch bridge, which is located in Zhangjiakou, China. The understanding of mechanics characteristics is limited to such complex bridges, so it is necessary to establish reliable health monitoring system to investigate the static and dynamic responses and monitor the safety of the bridge. A comprehensive real-time bridge health monitoring system is establish, which includes four aspects: sensor system, data acquisition and trans...

  13. 75 FR 45600 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, August 17, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  14. 75 FR 2844 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, January 26, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  15. 75 FR 14418 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, April 13, 2010, 9:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  16. Beyond food: a foundation species facilitates its own predator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agüera, A.; van de Koppel, J.; Jansen, J.M.; Smaal, A.C.; Bouma , T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Facilitation by foundation species can play a critical role in structuring ecological communities. As environmental stress increases, generally more organisms become dependent on the stress buffering provided by foundation species. As such, foundation species may even facilitate their own predators,

  17. New Concept for Durable Concrete Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Damek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This master’s thesis covers the design of a post-tensioned concrete bridge in Trondheim municipality in Norway, in collaboration with Statens vegvesen (SVV). The concept of the bridge is inspired by Egg-Graben-Brücke in Austria, which was designed and built without steel reinforcement in the bridge deck. The idea is to eliminate steel reinforcement which can corrode in the bridge deck. The total length of the bridge is 73 meters and it is divided into 3 spans. The crosssection ...

  18. New design equations for estimation of ultimate bearing capacity of shallow foundations resting on rock masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir H Alavi; Ehsan Sadrossadat

    2016-01-01

    Rock masses are commonly used as the underlying layer of important structures such as bridges, dams and transportation constructions. The success of a foundation design for such structures mainly depends on the accuracy of estimating the bearing capacity of rock beneath them. Several traditional numerical approaches are proposed for the estimation of the bearing capacity of foundations resting on rock masses to avoid performing elaborate and expensive experimental studies. Despite this fact, there still exists a serious need to develop more robust predictive models. This paper proposes new nonlinear prediction models for the ultimate bearing capacity of shallow foundations resting on non-fractured rock masses using a novel evolutionary computational approach, called linear genetic programming. A comprehen-sive set of rock socket, centrifuge rock socket, plate load and large-scaled footing load test results is used to develop the models. In order to verify the validity of the models, the sensitivity analysis is conducted and discussed. The results indicate that the proposed models accurately characterize the bearing capacity of shallow foundations. The correlation coefficients between the experimental and predicted bearing capacity values are equal to 0.95 and 0.96 for the best LGP models. Moreover, the derived models reach a notably better prediction performance than the traditional equations.

  19. Concept Study of Foundation Systems for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina, Salvador Devant; Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Analysis of possible foundation solution for Wave Energy Converters (WEC) is presented by investigating and optimizing novel foundation systems recently developed for offshore wind turbines. Gravity based, pile and bucket foundations are innovative foundation systems that are analyzed. Concept...... studies for all three foundation systems, geotehcnical design methods of foundations and discussion about the differences in the means of structural design, installation and cost are presented in the paper....

  20. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    Vibration of a bridge structure due to the passage of vehicles is an important consideration in the design of bridges. Further, a common problem in bridge engineering practice in these years is the upgrading of minor highway bridges (=5-20 m) to carry heavier loads partly due to a tendency...... of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening...... the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  1. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    Vibration of a bridge structure due to the passage of vehicles is an important consideration in the design of bridges. Further, a common problem in bridge engineering practice in these years is the upgrading of minor highway bridges (=5-20 m) to carry heavier loads partly due to a tendency...... of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening...... the numerical models for the mathematical models of the vehicles and the bridge from which the load amplification factors can be estimated assuming that the dynamic parameters of the vehicles and the modal parameters of the bridge are known....

  2. Hydraulic modeling and scour analysis for the San Francisco - Oakland Bay Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, J.G.; Smith, E.D.; Sheppard, D.M.; Odeh, M.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine potential maximum scour depths for the foundations of the replacement east span of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, as part of the ongoing structural design. This effort presented unique challenges as strong tidal currents, large depths, and cohesive bottom sediments characterize the site. The authors met these challenges with a multi-faceted approach to the problem. First, design current velocities were determined using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of San Francisco Bay in conjunction with ADCP hydrographic surveys. Analytical scour calculations were performed and live-bed flume tests of the proposed foundations were also conducted. Finally, two separate methodologies were used to interpret the physical model tests in order to calculate potential scour depths around the foundations. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  3. Full-bridge capacitive extensometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Randall D.

    1993-08-01

    Capacitive transducers have proven to be very effective sensors of small displacements, because of inherent stability and noninvasive high resolution. The most versatile ones have been those of a differential type, in which two elements are altered in opposite directions in response to change of the system parameter being monitored. Oftentimes, this differential pair has been incorporated into a bridge circuit, which is a useful means for employing synchronous detection to improve signal to noise ratios. Unlike previous differential capacitive dilatometers which used only two active capacitors, the present sensor is a full-bridge type, which is well suited to measuring low-level thermal expansions. This analog sensor is capable of 0.1 μm resolution anywhere within a range of several centimeters, with a linearity of 0.1%. Its user friendly output can be put on a strip chart recorder or directed to a computer for sophisticated data analysis.

  4. Noise Considerations in Resistance Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Joseph M.

    1963-01-01

    thermometry, where the noise in the unknown resistor will predominate strongly. An impedance step-up device (transformer or tuned circuit) is valuable in raising the bridge signal and noise level above the noise of the first amplifier tube. However, as the step-up ratio is increased, two counterfactors appear......, namely, noise in the loss resistance of the step-up device, and grid current noise. There is therefore an optimum step-up ratio, which has been found. The step-up device is permitted to have a different temperature from the unknown and standard resistors, to evaluate the advantage of cooling it....... With certain assumptions about the noise and grid current of the first tube it is found that the equivalent temperature of a unity ratio (Mueller) bridge used for liquid helium measurements may be 400°K....

  5. An Optimized Elasto-Plastic Subgrade Reaction For Modeling The Response Of A Nonlinear Foundation For A Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Richard Paul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geotechnical and structural engineers are faced with a difficult task when their designs interact with each other. For complex projects, this is more the norm than the exception. In order to help bridge that gap, a method for modeling the behavior of a foundation using a simple elasto-plastic subgrade reaction was developed. The method uses an optimization technique to position 4-6 springs along a pile foundation to produce similar load deflection characteristics that were modeled by more sophisticated geotechnical finite element software. The methodology uses an Excel spreadsheet for accepting user input and delivering an optimized subgrade spring stiffness, yield, and position along the pile. In this way, the behavior developed from the geotechnical software can be transferred to the structural analysis software. The optimization is achieved through the solver add-in within Excel. Additionally, a beam on a nonlinear elastic foundation model is used to compute deflections of the optimized subgrade reaction configuration.

  6. An Optimized Elasto-Plastic Subgrade Reaction For Modeling The Response Of A Nonlinear Foundation For A Structural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard Paul

    2015-09-01

    Geotechnical and structural engineers are faced with a difficult task when their designs interact with each other. For complex projects, this is more the norm than the exception. In order to help bridge that gap, a method for modeling the behavior of a foundation using a simple elasto-plastic subgrade reaction was developed. The method uses an optimization technique to position 4-6 springs along a pile foundation to produce similar load deflection characteristics that were modeled by more sophisticated geotechnical finite element software. The methodology uses an Excel spreadsheet for accepting user input and delivering an optimized subgrade spring stiffness, yield, and position along the pile. In this way, the behavior developed from the geotechnical software can be transferred to the structural analysis software. The optimization is achieved through the solver add-in within Excel. Additionally, a beam on a nonlinear elastic foundation model is used to compute deflections of the optimized subgrade reaction configuration.

  7. Stability of Axisymmetric Liquid Bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Boris

    2016-01-01

    We study stability of axisymmetric liquid bridges between two axisymmetric solid bodies in the absence of gravity under arbitrary asymmetric perturbations which are expanded into a set of angular Fourier modes. We determine the stability region boundary for every angular mode in case of both fixed and free contact lines. Application of this approach allows us to demonstrate existence of stable convex nodoid menisci between two spheres.

  8. 2015 Bridge Inspection ERC Training

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, Merril

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will discuss recent changes to the County Bridge Inspection Program from the perspective of both the FHWA and INDOT. We will also discuss the responsibilities of the local public agency’s (LPA’s) employee in responsible charge (ERC) with respect to managing this program. As this course is a yearly requirement, all county ERCs are encouraged to attend. Pre-registering is strongly encouraged by e-mailing your contact information to .

  9. The Bridge Program - Participant Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Rönnqvist, Riitta; Hakonen, Anu; Vartiainen, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The Nokia Bridge Program was established in summer 2011 in order to "make the best of the restructuring: create meaningful opportunities for individuals and local economies impacted by workforce reductions" and to "assist individuals in re-employment". This document reports whether and how the program helped individuals avoid the known negative effects of job loss and find meaningful re-employment. The document also reports how affected employees formed perceptions about Nokia´s fairness and ...

  10. Inspection Strategies for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In this paper an optimal inspection strategy for concrete bridges based on periodic routine and detailed inspections is presented. The failure mode considered is corrosion of the reinforcement due to chlorides. A simple modelling of the corrosion and of the inspection strategy is presented....... The optimal inspection strategy is determined from an optimization problem, where the design variables are time intervals between detailed inspections and the concrete cover. The strategy is illustrated on a simple structure, namely a reinforced concrete beam....

  11. Parabolic metamaterials and Dirac bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, D. J.; Movchan, N. V.; Movchan, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    A new class of multi-scale structures, referred to as `parabolic metamaterials' is introduced and studied in this paper. For an elastic two-dimensional triangular lattice, we identify dynamic regimes, which corresponds to so-called `Dirac Bridges' on the dispersion surfaces. Such regimes lead to a highly localised and focussed unidirectional beam when the lattice is excited. We also show that the flexural rigidities of elastic ligaments are essential in establishing the `parabolic metamaterial' regimes.

  12. Severe ASR damaged concrete bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonio Barbosa, Ricardo; Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and University of Southern Denmark (SDU) have conducted several full-scale experiments with severe ASR deteriorated bridges. This paper presents few and preliminary results from both the shear tests and the measuring of the material properties. The shear test...... show that the shear capacity is almost unaffected of ASR despite significant reduction in compressive concrete strength. Furthermore, measurements show a significant tensile reinforcement strain developed due to ASR expansion....

  13. Halliburton Composite Bridge Plug Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starbuck, J.M.; Luttrell, C.R.; Aramayo, G.

    2005-01-15

    The overall objectives of this CRADA were to assist Halliburton in analyzing a composite bridge plug and to determine why their original design was failing in the field. In Phase 1, finite element analyses were done on the original composite slip design and several alternative designs. The composite slip was the component in the bridge plug that was failing. The finite element code ABAQUS was used for these calculations and I-DEAS was used as the pre- and post-processor in the analyses. Several different designs and materials were analyzed and recommendations were made towards improving the design. In Phase 2, the objective was to develop finite element models that would accurately represent the deformations in the entire all-composite 4-1/2' diameter bridge plug assembly. The finite element code LS-DYNA was used and the results from this effort were intended to expand Halliburton's composite design and analysis capabilities with regard to developing future composite components for downhole tools. In addition to the finite element modeling, this effort involved the utilization of micromechanics to determine the necessary composite material properties that were needed as input for finite element codes.

  14. Bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi

    To enable a prosperous development of offshore wind energy, economically feasible technologies must be developed. The monopod bucket foundation is likely to become a cost-effective sub-structure for offshore wind turbines and has the potential to make offshore wind more cost-competitive in the en......To enable a prosperous development of offshore wind energy, economically feasible technologies must be developed. The monopod bucket foundation is likely to become a cost-effective sub-structure for offshore wind turbines and has the potential to make offshore wind more cost......-competitive in the energy market. This thesis addresses issues concerning monopod bucket foundations in the hope of providing tools and ideas that could be used to optimize the design of this sub-structure. The work is focussed on the behaviour of bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. Other related...... with the loading rate. Though, there is no difference in the initial stiffness. Pore pressure transducers inside and around the foundations recorded the distribution of the pore water pressure during loading.Horizontal and rotational displacements are not found to be influenced by the loading rate. A comprehensive...

  15. Finite element analysis of the I-40 bridge over the Rio Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, P.A.; Jauregui, D.V.; Vigil, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    In the 1960s and 1970s numerous bridges were built in the US with a design similar to those on Interstate 40 (I-40) over the Rio Grande in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) have provided funds to New Mexico State University (NMSU) through the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department (NMSH and TD) and The Alliance For Transportation Research (ATR) for evaluation and testing of the existing fracture-critical bridges over the Rio Grande. Because the I-40 Bridges over the Rio Grande were to be razed during the summer of 1993, the investigators were able to introduce damage into the structure in order to test various damage identification methods and to observe the changes in load paths through the structure caused by the cracking. To support this research effort, NMSU contracted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform experimental modal analyses, and to develop experimentally verified numerical models of the bridge. A previous report (LA-12767-MS) summarizes the results of the experimental modal analyses. This report summarizes the numerical analyses of the bridges and compares the results of these analyses to the experimental results.

  16. Streambed scour evaluations and conditions at selected bridge sites in Alaska, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebee, Robin A.; Schauer, Paul V.

    2015-11-19

    Streambed scour potential was evaluated at 18 river- and stream-spanning bridges in Alaska that have unknown foundation details or a lack of existing scour analysis. All sites were evaluated for stream stability and long-term scour potential. Contraction scour and abutment scour were calculated for 17 bridges, and pier scour was calculated for 7 bridges that had piers. Vertical contraction (pressure flow) scour was calculated for sites with overtopping floods (where the modeled water surface was higher than the superstructure of the bridge). In most cases, hydraulic models of the 1- and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability floods (also known as the 100- and 500-year floods, respectively) were used to derive hydraulic variables for the scour calculations. Alternate flood values were used in scour calculations for sites where smaller floods overtopped a bridge or where standard flood-frequency estimation techniques did not apply. Scour was also calculated for large recorded floods at several sites. Equations for scour in cohesive soils were used for sites where streambed sediment was silt-sized or smaller.

  17. Indian practice on estimation of scour around bridge piers—A comment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Umesh C Kothyari

    2007-06-01

    Well-laid foundation is mostly provided in road and railway bridges in India over large and medium-sized rivers. The age-old Lacey–Inglis method is used for estimation of the design scour depth around bridge elements such as pier, abutment, guide bank, spur and groyene. Codal provisions are seen to produce too large a scour depth around bridge elements resulting in bridge sub-structures that lead to increased construction costs. Limitations that exist in the codes of practice are illustrated in this paper using examples. The methods recently developed for estimation of the scour are described. New railway and road bridges are required to be built in large numbers in the near future across several rivers to strengthen such infrastructure in the country. It is strongly felt that provisions in the existing codes of practice for determination of design scour depth require immediate review. The present paper provides a critical note on the practices followed in India for estimating the design scour depth.

  18. Overall Design and Study of South and North Bridges of Xiazhang Sea-Crossing Bridge%厦漳跨海大桥南、北汊桥总体设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福敏; 罗强; 李军

    2013-01-01

    厦漳跨海大桥主要由北汊桥、海门岛立交及收费服务区、南汊桥、海平立交四大部分组成,全长9.333 km.为适应复杂的自然与建设条件,对该桥桥位方案进行比选,并对项目中关键控制性工程(北汊主桥、南汊主桥)的桥型方案进行研究.经研究,最终确定北汊主桥采用主跨780m的五跨连续钢箱梁斜拉桥方案,南汊主桥采用主跨300 m的结合梁斜拉桥方案.针对项目中复杂的地质条件、高地震烈度和恶劣的风环境,分别采取设置适应性强的桩基础,对较差的桩基地质注浆;按抗震要求进行构造设计,在主桥塔梁处设置纵向阻尼器,引桥设置减隔震支座;北汊主桥采用一种翼型扶手栏杆、南汊主桥采用分流板抗风等措施进行处理.%The Xiazhang Sea-Crossing Bridge,totally 9.333 km long,is composed of four major parts of the north bridge,Haimen Island interchange and toll service area,south bridge and Haiping interchange.To accommodate the complicated natural and construction conditions of the bridge,the bridge site schemes were compared and the bridge type schemes for the critical control projects (the north and south main bridges) were studied.According to the study,it was finally determined that the 5-span continuous steel box girder cable-stayed bridge with a main span 780 m would be adopted for the north main bridge and the composite girder cable-stayed bridge with a main span 300 m would be adopted for the south main bridge.In consideration of the complicated geologic conditions,high intensity earthquake and harsh wind environment,the well adaptive pile foundations were respectively utilized.For the pile foundations at the locations with poor geology,the foundations would be grouted.The structures of the bridge were designed in compliance with the seismic resistance requirements.At the connections between the pylons and girders of the main bridges,the longitudinal dampers were arranged and on the piers

  19. Topics in modern physics theoretical foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Walecka, John Dirk

    2013-01-01

    While the two previous books entitled Introduction to Modern Physics: Theoretical Foundations and Advanced Modern Physics: Theoretical Foundations exposed the reader to the foundations and frontiers of today's physics, the goal of this third volume is to cover in some detail several topics omitted in the essentially linear progression of the first two. This book is divided into three parts. Part 1 is on quantum mechanics. Analytic solutions to the Schrödinger equation are developed for some basic systems. The analysis is then formalized, concluding with a set of postulates for the theory. Part 2 is on applications of quantum mechanics: approximation methods for bound states, scattering theory, time-dependent perturbation theory, and electromagnetic radiation and quantum electrodynamics. Part 3 covers some selected topics in relativistic quantum field theory: discrete symmetries, the Heisenberg picture, and the Feynman rules for quantum chromodynamics. The three volumes in this series taken together provide ...

  20. Al- Khwarizmi and axiomatic foundation of algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper intends to investigate the axiomatic foundations of algebra, as they were presented in the book of algebra of al-Khwarizmi (9 th century), and as they were developed in many subsequent Arabic works. The paper gives also a description of algebra evolution towards a discipline independent ofgeometry and arithmetic: the two disciplines whosemarriage had led to its birth.By an in depth reading of some details in the text of al Khwarizmi , we concluded that this mathematician intended to lay down the axiomatic foundations of that new discipline. His resort to arithmetical and geometrical means was a way of making his theory more accessible. He used them to justify the axioms: those that were not explicitly introduced per se, and those that were remained implicit. The paper also relies on some unedited writingsof al-Khwarizmi's successors, which could shedlight on the ways they used to consolidate the foundations of algebra and improve its methods. (author)

  1. The theoretical foundations of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Baaquie, Belal E

    2013-01-01

    The Theoretical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics addresses fundamental issues that are not discussed in most books on quantum mechanics. This book focuses on analyzing the underlying principles of quantum mechanics and explaining the conceptual and theoretical underpinning of quantum mechanics. In particular, the concepts of quantum indeterminacy, quantum measurement and quantum superposition are analyzed to clarify the concepts that are implicit in the formulation of quantum mechanics. The Schrodinger equation is never solved in the book. Rather, the discussion on the fundamentals of quantum mechanics is treated in a rigorous manner based on the mathematics of quantum mechanics. The new concept of the interplay of empirical and trans-empirical constructs in quantum mechanics is introduced to clarify the foundations of quantum mechanics and to explain the counter-intuitive construction of nature in quantum mechanics. The Theoretical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics is aimed at the advanced undergraduate and a...

  2. Dynamic Properties of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads

    ages structurally over its service life. Well-covered in the field of earthquake engineering, the dynamic response of civil engineering structures is highly dependent on the impedance of the soil–foundation system. For offshore wind turbine applications, however, the hysteretical and geometrical......, there is a general consensus that offshore wind-generated electricity is still too expensive to be competitive with conventional energy sources. As a consequence, the overall weight of the turbine and foundation is kept to a minimum resulting in a flexible and dynamically active structural system—even at low...... frequencies. The highly variable and cyclic loads on the rotor, tower and foundation, caused by wind and wave loads as well as low-frequent excitations from the rotor blades, all demand special fatigue design considerations and create an even greater demand for a fuller appreciation of how the wind turbine...

  3. Analysis of foundations on reinforced soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B. S.; Poulos, H. G.

    1980-10-01

    A finite element model of reinforced earth is used to investigate the increase in bearing capacity and stiffness of a foundation due to the placement of reinforcement in the soil. The analysis is used to examine the effect of reinforcement on the load settlement behavior of a strip foundation founded on a c-theta soil. It is shown that the improvement in foundation performance depends on both the number of reinforcing layers and on the concentration (surface area per unit width of footing) of the reinforcement. The case of a footing on a reinforced soil mass overlying a cavity or a very soft zone is also analyzed, and the reinforced soil is shown to result in a significant improvement in footing performance.

  4. Expert Meeting Report. Foundations Research Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, C. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Huelman, P. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Carmody, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership held an expert meeting on Foundations–Research Results on November 15, 2011, in Minneapolis, MN. Audience participation was actively encouraged during each presentation to uncover needs and promote dialog among researchers and industry professionals. Key results were: greater understanding of the role of moisture transport through foundation and insulation materials and its potential impact on building durability; greater understanding of the role of foundation type in the process of selecting an insulation system for energy performance and building durability; need for research to quantify the risks associated with insulation processes to better enable users to weigh costs and benefits against the existing conditions of a home; need for improved performance modeling capabilities that address variations in foundation types and soil conditions.

  5. Kellogg Foundation Initiative: Rewriting the Way Foundations Do Business in Indian Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Describes the multi-million dollar initiative announced by W. K. Kellogg Foundation in 1995 to support the Native American Higher Education Initiative, and how the Kellogg initiative deserves attention from the nation as a whole because it is attempting to fundamentally rewrite the way foundations do business with Indian communities. (VWC)

  6. Nondestructive evaluation techniques for enhanced bridge inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.; Benson, S.; Durbin, P.; Del Grande, N.; Haskins, J.; Brown, A.; Schneberk, D.

    1993-10-01

    Nondestructive evaluation of bridges is a critical aspect in the US aging infrastructure problem. For example in California there are 26,000 bridges, 3000 are made of steel, and of the steel bridges, 1000 are fracture critical. California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Federal Highway Administration, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are collaborating to develop and field NDE techniques to improve bridge inspections. We have demonstrated our NDE technologies on several bridge inspection applications. An early collaboration was to ultrasonically evaluate the steel pins in the E-9 pier on the San Francisco Bay Bridge. Following the Loma-Prieta earthquake in 1989 and the road way collapse at the E-9 pier, a complete nondestructive evaluation was conducted by Caltrans inspectors and several ultrasonic indications were noted. LLNL worked with Caltrans to help identify the source of these reflections. Another project was to digitally enhance high energy radiographs of bridge components such as cable end caps. We demonstrated our ability to improve the detection of corrosion and fiber breakage inside the end cap. An extension of this technology is limited view computer tomography (CT). We implemented our limited view CT software and produced cross-sectional views of bridge cables from digitized radiographic films. Most recently, we are developing dual band infrared imaging techniques to assess bridge decks for delaminations. We have demonstrated the potential of our NDE technology for enhancing the inspection of the country`s aging bridges.

  7. Relativity foundations & philosophy of science & technology

    CERN Document Server

    Angel, Roger B

    1980-01-01

    Relativity: The Theory and its Philosophy provides a completely self-contained treatment of the philosophical foundations of the theory of relativity. It also surveys the most essential mathematical techniques and concepts that are indispensable to an understanding of the foundations of both the special and general theories of relativity. In short, the book includes a crash course in applied mathematics, ranging from elementary trigonometry to the classical tensor calculus.Comprised of 11 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to fundamental mathematical concepts such as sets, relatio

  8. History on foundation of Korea nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reports the history on foundation of Korea nuclear power from 1955 to 1980, which is divided ten chapters. The contents of this book are domestic and foreign affairs before foundation of nuclear power center, establishment of nuclear power and research center, early activity and internal conflict about nuclear power center, study for nuclear power business and commercialization of the studying ordeal over nuclear power administration and new phase, dispute for jurisdiction on nuclear power business and the process, permission for nuclear reactor, regulation and local administration, the process of deliberation and decision of reactor 3. 4 in Yonggwang, introduction of nuclear reprocessing facilities and activities for social organization.

  9. Cyber warfare building the scientific foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Subrahmanian, VS; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    This book features a wide spectrum of the latest computer science research relating to cyber warfare, including military and policy dimensions. It is the first book to explore the scientific foundation of cyber warfare and features research from the areas of artificial intelligence, game theory, programming languages, graph theory and more. The high-level approach and emphasis on scientific rigor provides insights on ways to improve cyber warfare defense worldwide. Cyber Warfare: Building the Scientific Foundation targets researchers and practitioners working in cyber security, especially gove

  10. Impact of foundation properties on seismic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic response of the NPP structures depends on the foundation properties twice. First, “free-field excitation” depends on soil/rock layering; second, soil-structure interaction also depends on soil/rock profile. Extreme cases of soil foundation profile are homogeneous half-space and soil layer resting on rigid rock. These two site profiles are principally different in behavior. Each particular site is usually somewhere in between. It is important to know the type of site in order to predict seismic response of NPP structures. (author)

  11. Mastering Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Callahan, C A

    2011-01-01

    Everything IT professionals need to create collaborative solutions. SharePoint Foundation 2010 is the newest version of a powerful collaboration tool used in many Exchange-enabled organizations. This book gets network professionals and business application administrators up to speed on the updates, features, and installation procedures, preparing them to create powerful collaboration structures for their companies.: Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 is the successor to Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 and is used with Microsoft Office SharePoint Server to enable collaboration; this guide pre

  12. Design of Cable-Stayed Bridge of Caofeidian Industry Zone Bridge No.1%曹妃甸工业区1号桥斜拉桥设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 卢永成; 周伟翔; 邵长宇

    2011-01-01

    The Caofeidian Industry Zone Bridge No. 1 is composed of navigable span bridge, non-navigable span bridges and approach bridges and is located in the cold and strong earthquake region in the northern part of China. A summarized account of the design of the navigable span bridge of the bridge is presented herewith. In accordance with the construction conditions and landscape requirements, the navigable span bridge is designed as a single pylon and single cable plane cable-stayed bridge with span arrangement 2 X 138 m, the pylon is the column pylon in shape of boat sail. The anchorage zone in the pylon is the steel anchor box exposed outside the pylon. The main girder is the steel and concrete composite girder having three cells and a single box. The stay cables are made up of φ7 mm galvanized parallel steel wires and the foundation of the pylon pier is the group pile foundation. The research of seismic resistance of the bridge show that for a major single pylon cable-stayed bridge located in the strong earthquake region, the rigid fixity system of pylon, girder and pier should be possibly avoided in order to reduce seismic response of the bridge structure.%曹妃甸工业区1号桥位于北方寒冷强震区,由通航孔桥、非通航孔桥及引桥组成,综述该桥通航孔桥设计.根据建设条件及景观要求,通航孔桥为跨径2×138 m独塔单索面斜拉桥;桥塔为独柱形,造型为船帆式;索塔锚固区采用外露式钢锚箱方案;主梁采用单箱三室钢-混凝土箱形结合梁;斜拉索采用φ7 mm镀锌平行钢丝;桥塔墩采用群桩基础.抗震性能研究表明,强震区大型独塔斜拉桥应尽量避免采用塔、梁、墩固结体系,以减小桥梁结构的地震响应.

  13. Vibration Based Wind Turbine Tower Foundation Design Utilizing Soil-Foundation-Structure Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Satari, P. E. Mohamed; Hussain, S. E. Saif

    2008-07-01

    Wind turbines have been used to generate electricity as an alternative energy source to conventional fossil fuels. This case study is for multiple wind towers located at different villages in Alaska where severe arctic weather conditions exist. The towers are supported by two different types of foundations; large mat or deep piles foundations. Initially, a Reinforced Concrete (RC) mat foundation was utilized to provide the system with vertical and lateral support. Where soil conditions required it, a pile foundation solution was devised utilizing a 30″ thick RC mat containing an embedded steel grillage of W18 beams supported by 20″-24″ grouted or un-grouted piles. The mixing and casting of concrete in-situ has become the major source of cost and difficulty of construction at these remote Alaska sites. An all-steel foundation was proposed for faster installation and lower cost, but was found to impact the natural frequencies of the structural system by significantly softening the foundation system. The tower-foundation support structure thus became near-resonant with the operational frequencies of the wind turbine leading to a likelihood of structural instability or even collapse. A detailed 3D Finite-Element model of the original tower-foundation-pile system with RC foundation was created using SAP2000. Soil springs were included in the model based on soil properties obtained from the geotechnical consultant. The natural frequency from the model was verified against the tower manufacturer analytical and the experimental values. Where piles were used, numerous iterations were carried out to eliminate the need for the RC and optimize the design. An optimized design was achieved with enough separation between the natural and operational frequencies to prevent damage to the structural system eliminating the need for any RC encasement to the steel foundation or grouting to the piles.

  14. Design of Main Bridge of Shuangyudao Bridge in Zhangzhou Development Zone%漳州开发区双鱼岛大桥主桥设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶小兰; 李涛; 姚建军

    2013-01-01

    Main bridge of Shuangyudao Bridge in Fujian Zhangzhou Development Zone is a 36m +2×66m +36m cable-stayed bridge with single pylon and double cable planes, and its girders are fish-belly prestressed concrete continuous box girders, cable pylon is twin-dolphin gate-typed steel tower, piers are in elliptic shape and bored pile foundation is adopted. This paper introduces design of all major structures, analyzes stresses on girder, cable pylon, stayed cable and steel anchor box of the bridge by establishing finite-element integral and local computational models and introduces its construction scheme.%福建省漳州开发区双鱼岛大桥主桥为36 m+2×66 m+36 m独塔双索面斜拉桥,主梁采用鱼腹式预应力混凝土连续箱梁,索塔为双鱼门型钢塔,桥墩为椭圆造型,采用钻孔灌注桩基础.介绍该桥各主要结构的设计,通过建立有限元整体计算模型及局部计算模型对该桥主梁、索塔、斜拉索、钢锚箱的受力进行分析并对其施工方案进行介绍.

  15. Implementation of a new Foundations Concept for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    The foundation principles for the recent major offshore wind farm projects in Europe have been dominated by two types of foundation solutions, the gravitational foundation and the monopile. A fully operational 3.0 MW offshore wind turbine was installed on a prototype of the bucket foundation...

  16. Study on structural system of Sutong Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xigang; Pei Minshan; Yuan Hong; Xu Liping; Zhu Bin

    2009-01-01

    Sutong Bridge, whose layout is [ (100 + 100 + 300) + 1 088 + ( 300 + 100 + 100) ] m, marks the largest span of cable-stayed bridges in the world. The complex natural condition at the bridge site and the strict requirements for resistance of wind and seismic action make it crucial to choose a favorable structural system to assure the function and safety of the bridge. The comparison among several optional structural systems for Sutong Bridge is illustrated. After detailed analysis is carried out for viscous damper and hydraulic buffer, super liquid viscous damper with additional displacement limitation is designed for the first application in bridge engineering. The parameters for the damper is analyzed and studied and the dampers are installed suecessfuUy after quality tests.

  17. Evaluation method research on prestressed concrete bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qiao; LIN Yang-zi; REN Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Considering the construction features of prestressed concrete bridge, the comprehensive evaluation method about the bridge damage conditions are studied. Particular attentions are paid on establishing a multi-level evaluation model for damaged prestressed concrete bridge, and the evaluation indices of the model as well as the rating standards are defined in the model. A normal relative function about the evaluation indices of each element is developed to calculate the relative degree, and for each element which is no sub-level elements. When evaluating the elements in sub-item level or index level of the model, the weights of elements that are pertained to one element are adopted, taking account of their deterioration degree. At the same time, the dam-age conditions of bridge are characterized by relative degree, element evaluation scale and structural technology mark of bridge ,so it agrees with Code for Maintenance of Highway Bridges and Culvers.

  18. Seismic Evaluation of Highway Bridges - Phase 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, J.A.; Pan, Austin D.; Mwakasisi, Frank Thompson

    1996-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to establish the guidelines for screening, assessing, and ranking Indiana bridges for seismic upgrade. The outcome of the study is a complete strategy for the detailed structural assessment of Indiana highway bridges subjected to seismic forces. The structural evaluation is conducted using a nonlinear time-history analysis of the bridge for simulated or actual records. The specific soil conditions at the site are accounted in terms of the ground motio...

  19. REPORT: BioMedBridges standards workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Conte, Nathalie; Hancocks, Tom; Suhr, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This workshop, co-organized by BioMedBridges WP3 and 12, was held on 24-25 June and hosted by BioMedBridges partners at VUMC in Amsterdam. Attendees included BioMedBridges personnel, members from the ESFRI BMS research infrastructures and invited external experts from existing standards organisations. The following aspects of data standardisation were explored: Defining entity identifiers and identifiers best practice Development of a Meta models and Mappings Registry for bio...

  20. Analysis of liquid bridge between spherical particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A pair of central moving spherical particles connected by a pendular liquid bridge with interstitial Newtonian fluid is often encountered in pariculate coalescence process. In this paper, by assuming perfect-wet condition, the effects of liquid volume and separation distance on static liquid bridge are analyzed, and the relation between rupture energy and liquid bridge volume is also studied. These points would be of significance in industrial processes related to adhesive particles.

  1. Bridge engineering handbook construction and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Fah

    2014-01-01

    Over 140 experts, 14 countries, and 89 chapters are represented in the second edition of the Bridge Engineering Handbook. This extensive collection highlights bridge engineering specimens from around the world, contains detailed information on bridge engineering, and thoroughly explains the concepts and practical applications surrounding the subject.Published in five books: Fundamentals, Superstructure Design, Substructure Design, Seismic Design, and Construction and Maintenance, this new edition provides numerous worked-out examples that give readers step-by-step design procedures, includes c

  2. Markovian Bridges: Weak continuity and pathwise constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Chaumont, Loïc; Uribe Bravo, Gerónimo

    2009-01-01

    A Markovian bridge is a probability measure taken from a disintegration of the law of an initial part of the path of a Markov process given its terminal value. As such, Markovian bridges admit a natural parameterization in terms of the state space of the process. In the context of Feller processes with continuous transition densities, we construct by weak convergence considerations the only versions of Markovian bridges which are weakly continuous with respect to their parameter. We use this ...

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of a Norwegian Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Dequidt, Thomas Charles Edouard

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology aims at evaluating the environmental impacts of a product or system from a holistic approach. In this methodology, all life cycle phases of the product are identified and assessed, from the raw material acquisition to the end-of-life phase. This master thesis is dealing with the LCA of a Norwegian bridge. First, a literature review is realized by going through 14 bridge LCA references. Then, a detailed description of bridge LCA methodology ...

  4. Bridge Engineering-Oriented Parametric Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凌远; 李乔

    2004-01-01

    A new model is proposed to improve the efficiency of structural modeling. In this model, the bridge structural components are expressed with component description, parametric description and geometric description in a software system. This model provides both convenience and flexibility for users in structural modeling process. The object-oriented method is applied in the model implementation. A bridge analysis preprocessor is developed on the basis of this model. It provides an effective way for bridge modeling.

  5. Dynamics and Statics of Nonaxisymmetric Liquid Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Resnick, Andrew H.; Slobozhanin, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigation of the stability of nonaxisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric bridges contained between equal and unequal radii disks as a function of Bond and Weber number with emphasis on the transition from unstable axisymmetric to stable nonaxisymmetric shapes, are conducted. Numerical analysis of the stability of nonaxisymmetric bridges between unequal disks for various orientations of the gravity vector is performed. Experimental and theoretical investigation of large (nonaxisymmetric) oscillations and breaking of liquid bridges are also conducted.

  6. Maximal liquid bridges between horizontal cylinders

    OpenAIRE

    Cooray, Himantha; Huppert, Herbert E.; Neufeld, Jerome A

    2016-01-01

    We investigate two-dimensional liquid bridges trapped between pairs of identical horizontal cylinders. The cylinders support forces due to surface tension and hydrostatic pressure which balance the weight of the liquid. The shape of the liquid bridge is determined by analytically solving the nonlinear Laplace-Young equation. Parameters that maximize the trapping capacity (defined as the cross-sectional area of the liquid bridge) are then determined. The results show that these parameters can ...

  7. Axisymmetric long liquid bridges stability and resonances

    OpenAIRE

    Meseguer Ruiz, José; Sanz Andres, Angel Pedro; Perales Perales, José Manuel

    1990-01-01

    In this paper mathematical expressions for minimum-volume stability limits and resonance frequencies of axisymmetric long liquid bridges are presented. These expressions are valid for a wide range of liquid bridge configurations, accounting for ef-fects like unequal disks and axial microgravity in the case of minimum-volume stability limits,and unequal disks, axial microgravity,non-zero viscosity and liquid bridge volume different from the cylindrical one in the case of resonance frequenc...

  8. Interactive data visualization foundations, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Matthew; Keim, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Interactive Data Visualization: Foundations, Techniques, and Applications, Second Edition provides all the theory, details, and tools necessary to build visualizations and systems involving the visualization of data. In color throughout, it explains basic terminology and concepts, algorithmic and software engineering issues, and commonly used techniques and high-level algorithms. Full source code is provided for completing implementations.

  9. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirber, T.; Mosiman, G.; Ojczyk, C.

    2014-10-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4" wide by 4' to 5' deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  10. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirber, T. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States); Mosiman, G. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States); Ojczyk, C. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4 inches wide by 4 feet to 5 feet deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  11. Towards Axiomatic Foundations for Defuzzification Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Thiele, Helmut

    1998-01-01

    The starting point of the paper presented are the well-known defuzzification procedures on the one hand and approaches to axiomatize the concept of defuzzification, on the other hand. We present a new attempt to build up an axiomatic foundation for defuzzification theory using the theory of groups and the theory of partially ordered sets, and in particular, the theory of GALOIS connections.

  12. Theoretical Foundations for Website Design Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kristin

    2002-01-01

    Considers how theoretical foundations in website design courses can facilitate students learning the genres of Internet communication. Proposes ways that theories can be integrated into website design courses. Focuses on two students' website portfolios and ways they utilize genre theory and activity theory discussed in class to produce websites…

  13. Scientific foundations of structural policy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Grygoriyeva

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the theoretical foundations of scientific investigation of the interrelation of sectoral (technological) and institutional aspects of structural policy in Ukraine. In the article it is substantiated the concept modernization of metallurgy and mechanical engineering sectors. This concept considers the modernization of metallurgy and mechanical engineering as a single institutional and technological complex.

  14. The Philosophical Foundations of Lifelong Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Aristotle

    The current lifelong learning movement, the new force toward global education, owes much to the League of Nations and the United Nations that sponsored an expanded multiracial "polis." Its philosophical foundations go back, however, to ancient China, India, and especially Greece, where philosophers and scientists got their creative stimulus from…

  15. Vibrations of machine foundations and surrounding soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Koten, H.; Hoogenboom, P.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Rotating or pulsing machines are often placed on concrete foundations supported by soil. The machines cause vibrations in the building and in the surrounding soil. This paper provides information, formulas and calculation examples to predict these vibrations. The formulas have been experimentally te

  16. The Philosophical Foundations of Modern Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Dr Keekok

    2011-01-01

    An exploration of the philosophical foundation of modern medicine which explains why such a medicine possesses the characteristics it does and where precisely its strengths as well as its weaknesses lie. Written in plain English, it should be accessible to anyone who is intellectually curious, lay persons and medical professionals alike.

  17. Theoretical Foundations of Rorschach by Piotrowski.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, William C.

    2005-01-01

    The writer has tried to lift the veil of mystery from the Rorschach Cards by uncovering in simple form the ten basic principles of Zygmunt Protrowski which can be considered the foundation stones of Rorschach; they are composed of psycho-justifications as well as meaningful administrative procedures allowing the reader broader understanding of…

  18. Binary Relations as a Foundation of Mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, J.; Barendsen, E.; Capretta, V.; Geuvers, H.; Niqui, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a theory for binary relations in the Zermelo-Fraenkel style. We choose for ZFCU, a variant of ZFC Set theory in which the Axiom of Foundation is replaced by an axiom allowing for non-wellfounded sets. The theory of binary relations is shown to be equi-consistent ZFCU by constructing a mo

  19. Response of Rubble Foundation to Dynamic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1994-01-01

    The soil beneath vertical monolithic structures is subjected to a combination of static load due to the submerged weight of the structure and stochastic non-stationary loads as a result of the wave loads on the vertical wall. The stress conditions in the soil below a foundation exposed to both...

  20. Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David, Ed.; Land, Susan, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments" provides students, faculty, and instructional designers with a clear, concise introduction to the major pedagogical and psychological theories and their implications for the design of new learning environments for schools, universities, or corporations. Leading experts describe the most important…

  1. Excavations and Foundations in Soft Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempfert, Hans-Georg; Gebreselassie, Berhane

    The book reviews the experiences with, as well as recent developments and research results on excavations and foundations in and on soft soil deposits. Geotechnical design and execution of civil engineering structures on very soft soils are usually associated with substantial difficulties.

  2. Observed variations of monopile foundation stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehave, Dan; Thilsted, C.L.; Diaz, Alberto Troya

    2015-01-01

    The soil-structure stiffness of monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines has a high impact on the fatigue loading during normal operating conditions. Thus, a robust design must consider the evolution of pile-soil stiffness over the lifetime of the wind farm. This paper present and discuss ...

  3. Corner Office Interview: Gates Foundation's Deborah Jacobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    U.S. libraries gave the world a top talent when Deborah Jacobs left her transformational role as City Librarian of Seattle in 2008 to head the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Global Libraries program, the international sibling to the U.S. Libraries program. The initiative fosters national-scale projects with grantees in transitioning countries…

  4. Foundations of computer science : lecture notes

    OpenAIRE

    Escardó, Martín

    2005-01-01

    Lecture given at Foundations of Computer Science, 2nd term In this part of the module are studied data structures and algorithms. The firts module have been treated some data structures (e.g. arrays, lists, stacks, queues) and some algorithms (e.g. linear search and binary search).

  5. Perfect Bayesian equilibrium. Part II: epistemic foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanno, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    In a companion paper we introduced a general notion of perfect Bayesian equilibrium which can be applied to arbitrary extensive-form games. The essential ingredient of the proposed definition is the qualitative notion of AGM-consistency. In this paper we provide an epistemic foundation for AGM-consistency based on the AGM theory of belief revision.

  6. Readiness, Behavior, and Foundational Mathematics Course Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kevin; Zelenka, Richard; Buonaguidi, Larry; Beckman, Robert; Casillas, Alex; Crouse, Jill; Allen, Jeff; Hanson, Mary Ann; Acton, Tara; Robbins, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of math readiness and student course behavior (e.g., attendance, participation, homework completion) on knowledge gain and course success using two samples of students enrolled in foundational skills (noncredit-bearing) mathematics courses. As hypothesized, entering student mathematics readiness and course behavior…

  7. About The Rural Developm ent Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one juniorcollege in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and

  8. Physico-mathematical foundations of relativistic cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Domingos

    2013-01-01

    I briefly present the foundations of relativistic cosmology, which are, General Relativity Theory and the Cosmological Principle. I discuss some relativistic models, namely, "Einstein static universe" and "Friedmann universes". The classical bibliographic references for the relevant tensorial demonstrations are indicated whenever necessary, although the calculations themselves are not shown.

  9. Response of Rubble Foundation to Dynamic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1993-01-01

    The soil beneath vertical monolithic structures is subjected to a combination of static load due to the submerged weight of the structure and stochastic non-stationary loads as a result of the wave loads on the vertical wall. The stress conditions in the soil below a foundation exposed to both st...

  10. Vibrations of a pipe on elastic foundations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S V Lilkova-Markova; D S Lolov

    2004-06-01

    A cantilevered pipe subjected to external transverse (or lateral) force is investigated. Two cases of elastic foundations are considered: rotational and both linear and rotational. The major findings are the variations in frequency with flow velocity and displacements at different points and times.

  11. The Foundations of Modern Time Series Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, Professor Terence C

    2011-01-01

    This book develops the analysis of Time Series from its formal beginnings in the 1890s through to the publication of Box and Jenkins' watershed publication in 1970, showing how these methods laid the foundations for the modern techniques of Time Series analysis that are in use today.

  12. Foundational Academic Development: Building Collegiality across Divides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Catherine; Reid, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    There is limited research into the effectiveness of non-accredited foundational courses for new academic staff. An ongoing issue is that of attention and anxiety overload in the critical first period of employment when the challenges of establishing oneself in a new collegial environment are most acute. Approaches to addressing this issue may be…

  13. Industrial Foundations in the Danish Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    -owned companies account for 5-10% of the Danish economy depending on measurement. However, they constitute the bulk of Danish stock market capitalization and R&D expenditure, and they also contribute disproportionally to international business activity. Finally the industrial foundations make charitable donations...

  14. The Emotional Foundations of Social Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Heather K.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2008-01-01

    The infant and toddler years are a watershed of development in the emotional domain. These skills lay the foundation for positive social interactions, and ultimately, academic and life success. This article describes the development of three skills that are central in creating successful relationships: expressing emotion, understanding emotion,…

  15. Mining Foundations, Trust and Funds : A Sourcebook

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2010-01-01

    Mining operations increasingly exist in remote parts of developing countries, and with the combined challenges in public services delivery and development assistance, this is drawing the mining sector further into catalyzing development at local, regional and national levels. Responding to this multifaceted trend, the mining sector has increasingly turned to foundations, trusts and funds a...

  16. Foundation: Transforming data bases into knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, R. B.; Carnes, James R.; Cutts, Dannie E.

    1987-01-01

    One approach to transforming information stored in relational data bases into knowledge based representations and back again is described. This system, called Foundation, allows knowledge bases to take advantage of vast amounts of pre-existing data. A benefit of this approach is inspection, and even population, of data bases through an intelligent knowledge-based front-end.

  17. Status of Supersymmetry: Foundations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    We review some aspects of the foundations of supersymmetry as a conjectural in­variance of the Laws of Nature. This symmetry bypasses the Coleman-Mandula Theorem by enlarging the funda­mental space -time symmetries to the Superworld. Application of supersymmetry to particle physics requires its spontaneous breaking, as it happens for the electroweak symmetry of the Standard Model.

  18. Nanoclusters a bridge across disciplines

    CERN Document Server

    Jena, Purusottam

    2010-01-01

    This comprehensive book on Nanoclusters comprises sixteen authoritative chapters written by leading researchers in the field. It provides insight into topics that are currently at the cutting edge of cluster science, with the main focus on metal and metal compound systems that are of particular interest in materials science, and also on aspects related to biology and medicine. While there are numerous books on clusters, the focus on clusters as a bridge across disciplines sets this book apart from others. Delivers cutting edge coverage of cluster science Covers a broad range of topics in

  19. Family Medicine: Bridge to Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting on the suicide of a close friend, this essay explores what comprises, and inspires a will to live, and how those in Family Medicine can address suicide risk even in the face of debilitating or terminal illness. Research indicates that the will to live is a measurable indicator of general well-being, distinct from depression, and an important predictor of a person's motivation to "hold on to life". As such, understanding what is at the heart of a desire to live should alter clinical practice. This essay offers ideas for ways in which to create bridges for patients that could help sustain life.

  20. Myocardial bridges: morphological and functional aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    A.G. Ferreira; Trotter, S E; König, B; Décourt, L V; Fox, K; Olsen, E G

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the arrangement of myocardial bridges. DESIGN--A necropsy study of 90 consecutive hearts (56 male, 34 female). RESULTS--Myocardial bridges, either single or multiple, were seen in 50 (55.6%) of the 90 hearts. The left anterior descending artery was the most commonly affected artery. Thirty five of the 50 hearts which contained in total 41 muscle bridges were dissected further with a magnifying glass. Two different types of muscle bridges could be identified. Thirty one of...

  1. A data management infrastructure for bridge monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seongwoon; Byun, Jaewook; Kim, Daeyoung; Sohn, Hoon; Bae, In Hwan; Law, Kincho H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses a data management infrastructure framework for bridge monitoring applications. As sensor technologies mature and become economically affordable, their deployment for bridge monitoring will continue to grow. Data management becomes a critical issue not only for storing the sensor data but also for integrating with the bridge model to support other functions, such as management, maintenance and inspection. The focus of this study is on the effective data management of bridge information and sensor data, which is crucial to structural health monitoring and life cycle management of bridge structures. We review the state-of-the-art of bridge information modeling and sensor data management, and propose a data management framework for bridge monitoring based on NoSQL database technologies that have been shown useful in handling high volume, time-series data and to flexibly deal with unstructured data schema. Specifically, Apache Cassandra and Mongo DB are deployed for the prototype implementation of the framework. This paper describes the database design for an XML-based Bridge Information Modeling (BrIM) schema, and the representation of sensor data using Sensor Model Language (SensorML). The proposed prototype data management framework is validated using data collected from the Yeongjong Bridge in Incheon, Korea.

  2. Review of Energy Harvesters Utilizing Bridge Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ullah Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For health monitoring of bridges, wireless acceleration sensor nodes (WASNs are normally used. In bridge environment, several forms of energy are available for operating WASNs that include wind, solar, acoustic, and vibration energy. However, only bridge vibration has the tendency to be utilized for embedded WASNs application in bridge structures. This paper reports on the recent advancements in the area of vibration energy harvesters (VEHs utilizing bridge oscillations. The bridge vibration is narrowband (1 to 40 Hz with low acceleration levels (0.01 to 3.8 g. For utilization of bridge vibration, electromagnetic based vibration energy harvesters (EM-VEHs and piezoelectric based vibration energy harvesters (PE-VEHs have been developed. The power generation of the reported EM-VEHs is in the range from 0.7 to 1450000 μW. However, the power production by the developed PE-VEHs ranges from 0.6 to 7700 μW. The overall size of most of the bridge VEHs is quite comparable and is in mesoscale. The resonant frequencies of EM-VEHs are on the lower side (0.13 to 27 Hz in comparison to PE-VEHs (1 to 120 Hz. The power densities reported for these bridge VEHs range from 0.01 to 9539.5 μW/cm3 and are quite enough to operate most of the commercial WASNs.

  3. Gust loading on streamlined bridge decks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larose, Guy; Mann, Jakob

    1998-01-01

    The current analytical description of the buffeting action of wind on long-span bridges is based on the strip assumption. However, recent experiments on closed-box girder bridge decks have shown that this assumption is not valid and is the source of an important part of the error margin of the an......The current analytical description of the buffeting action of wind on long-span bridges is based on the strip assumption. However, recent experiments on closed-box girder bridge decks have shown that this assumption is not valid and is the source of an important part of the error margin...

  4. A search for a systematic method to bridge between pre-harvest, post-harvest, and consumer research aimed at increasing fruit consumption: The "Vasco da Gama" process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertschinger, L.; Corelli-Grappadelli, L.; Derkx, M.P.M.; Hall, S.; Kockerols, K.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Steiner, S.; Lans, van der I.A.; Schaik, van A.C.R.; Zimmermann, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of ISAFRUIT to increase fruit consumption has strong foundations in the new knowledge created by a multidisciplinary team of natural and social scientists addressing critical aspects of the multi-faceted fruit chain. Bridging the gap between disciplines proved to be a substantial challenge,

  5. Three Essays on Foundation Owned Firms in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Draheim, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three research papers on foundation owned firms in Germany, which are structured into three chapters. All chapters and their respective main research results are briefly summarized below.There are several prominent examples of foundation owned firms, such as Aldi, Bosch, Lidl, ThyssenKrupp, and ZF Friedrichshafen. Foundation owned firms are firms that are fully or partially owned by a foundation. A foundation is a legal entity without owners that is set up by a ...

  6. Pile foundation of nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of pile foundation used for nuclear power plant structures, considering the experience gained by the designers of the Angra Nuclear Power Plant, Units 2 and 3 in Brazil is dealt with. The general concept of the pile foundations, including types and execution of the piles, is described briefly. Then the two basic models, i.e. the static model and the dynamic one, used in the design are shown, and the pertinent design assumptions as related to the Angra project are mentioned. The criteria which established the loading capacity of the piles are discussed and the geological conditions of the Angra site are also explained briefly, justifying the reasons why pile foundations are necessary in this project. After that, the design procedures and particularly the tools - i.e. the computer programs - are described. It is noted that the relatively simple but always time consuming job of loading determination calculations can be computerized too, as it was done on this project through the computer program SEASA. The interesting aspects of soil/structure interaction, applicable to static models, are covered in detail, showing the theoretical base wich was used in the program PILMAT. Then the advantage resulting from computerizing of the job of pile reinforcement design are mentioned, describing briefly the jobs done by the two special programs PILDES and PILTAB. The point is stressed that the effort computerizing the structural design of this project was not so much due to the required accuracy of the calculations, but mainly due to the need to save on the design time, as to allow to perform the design task within the relatively tight time schedule. A conclusion can be drawn that design of pile foundations for nuclear power plant structures is a more complex task than the design of bearing type of foundation for the same structures, but that the task can be always made easier when the design process can be computerized. (Author)

  7. 49 CFR 237.101 - Scheduling of bridge inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scheduling of bridge inspections. 237.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.101 Scheduling of bridge inspections. (a) Each bridge management program shall include a provision for scheduling...

  8. Finite element of multilayer surfacing systems on orthotropic steel bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Liu, X.; Scarpas, A.; Tzimiris, G.

    2013-01-01

    Light weight orthotropic steel bridge decks have been widely utilized for bridges in seismic zones, movable bridges and long span bridges. In the last three decades, severe problems were reported in relation to asphaltic surfacing materials on orthotropic steel deck bridges. Earlier investigations h

  9. Effects of seismic devices on transverse responses of piers in the Sutong Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xing; Camara, Alfredo; Ye, Aijun

    2015-12-01

    The Sutong Bridge in China opened to traffic in 2008, and is an arterial connection between the cities of Nantong and Suzhou. It is a cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 1,088 m. Due to a tight construction schedule and lack of suitable seismic devices at the time, fixed supports were installed between the piers and the girder in the transverse direction. As a result, significant transverse seismic forces could occur in the piers and foundations, especially during a return period of a 2500-year earthquake. Therefore, the piers, foundations and fixed bearings had to be designed extraordinarily strong. However, when larger earthquakes occur, the bearings, piers and foundations are still vulnerable. The recent rapid developments in seismic technology and the performance-based design approach offer a better opportunity to optimize the transverse seismic design for the Sutong Bridge piers. The optimized design can be applied to the Sutong Bridge (as a retrofit), as well as other bridges. Seismic design alternatives utilizing viscous fluid dampers (VFD), or friction pendulum sliding bearings (FPSB), or transverse yielding metallic dampers (TYMD) are thoroughly studied in this work, and the results are compared with those from the current condition with fixed transverse supports and a hypothetical condition in which only sliding bearings are provided on top of the piers (the girder can move "freely" in the transverse direction during the earthquake, except for frictional forces of the sliding bearings). Parametric analyses were performed to optimize the design of these proposed seismic devices. From the comparison of the peak bridge responses in these configurations, it was found that both VFD and TYMD are very effective in the reduction of transverse seismic forces in piers, while at the same time keeping the relative transverse displacements between piers and the box girder within acceptable limits. However, compared to VFD, TYMD do not interact with the

  10. The Bridge of Mandolin County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Juliette M.; Feindt, Jenny E.; Lewellyn, Eric P. B.; Walczak, Mary M.

    1999-12-01

    The Bridge of Mandolin County is a case designed to teach the general chemistry principles of molar mass, ions and aqueous reactions, solubility rules, and inorganic nomenclature. Through the instructor-facilitated class discussion, students consider the options before the Mandolin Town Council regarding deicing the newly constructed bridge connecting Mandolin with a large nearby city. The students must decipher contradictory claims made on behalf of sodium chloride, the traditional deicer, and calcium magnesium acetate, a new environmentally friendly deicer, to arrive at the most cost-effective and environmentally appropriate deicing product. As they work through the analysis they raise questions that can be addressed in a laboratory setting. Four optional role-playing experiments are included, which can be used by the students to gather information helpful to resolution of the case. The case is intended to be used over two class periods, with a laboratory period in between, though suggestions for other models are provided. Laboratory procedures include an EDTA titration for Ca2+ and Mg2+, a gravimetric analysis, a qualitative examination of ions and solubility, an introduction to freezing point depression and measurement, and an experimental design activity. This case can also successfully be used without alteration in non-majors chemistry or environmental chemistry courses, or upper-level analytical or environmental chemistry courses.

  11. SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE FOR WIND TURBINE FOUNDATIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERNDT,M.L.

    2004-06-01

    The use of wind power to generate electricity continues to grow, especially given commitments by various countries throughout the world to ensure that a significant percentage of energy comes from renewable sources. In order to meet such objectives, increasingly larger turbines with higher capacity are being developed. The engineering aspects of larger turbine development tend to focus on design and materials for blades and towers. However, foundations are also a critical component of large wind turbines and represent a significant cost of wind energy projects. Ongoing wind research at BNL is examining two areas: (a) structural response analysis of wind turbine-tower-foundation systems and (b) materials engineering of foundations. This work is investigating the dynamic interactions in wind turbine systems, which in turn assists the wind industry in achieving improved reliability and more cost efficient foundation designs. The results reported herein cover initial studies of concrete mix designs for large wind turbine foundations and how these may be tailored to reduce cost and incorporate sustainability and life cycle concepts. The approach taken was to investigate material substitutions so that the environmental, energy and CO{sub 2}-impact of concrete could be reduced. The use of high volumes of ''waste'' materials in concrete was examined. These materials included fly ash, blast furnace slag and recycled concrete aggregate. In addition, the use of steel fiber reinforcement as a means to improve mechanical properties and potentially reduce the amount of bar reinforcement in concrete foundations was studied. Four basic mixes were considered. These were: (1) conventional mix with no material substitutions, (2) 50% replacement of cement with fly ash, (3) 50% replacement of cement with blast furnace slag and (4) 25% replacement of cement with fly ash and 25% replacement with blast furnace slag. Variations on these mixes included the addition of 1

  12. Assessment of Soil-Structure Interaction in Seismic Bridge Pier Analysis Using Force and Displacement Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. N. P.; Vinayak, Hemant Kumar

    2015-11-01

    The seismic analysis carried out assuming foundation to be perfectly rigid and bonded to the soil underneath is far from truth and therefore, the soil-structure interaction effect on the dynamic behavior of the bridge pier should be considered. The assessment of soil-structure effect on the design force generated has been estimated using Force based, Capacity Spectrum and Direct Displacement based methods considering fixed and flexible foundations. For this purpose a single cantilever bridge pier of constant diameter with varying heights has been considered for the analysis in different type of soils and earthquake zones. The study has revealed that soil-Structure Interaction index is negative in some cases, especially in soft soil, implying base shear demand being greater than that of fixed base contrary to the traditional views.

  13. Assessment of Soil-Structure Interaction in Seismic Bridge Pier Analysis Using Force and Displacement Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh R N P

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The seismic analysis carried out assuming foundation to be perfectly rigid and bonded to the soil underneath is far from truth and therefore, the soil-structure interaction effect on the dynamic behavior of the bridge pier should be considered. The assessment of soil-structure effect on the design force generated has been estimated using Force based, Capacity Spectrum and Direct Displacement based methods considering fixed and flexible foundations. For this purpose a single cantilever bridge pier of constant diameter with varying heights has been considered for the analysis in different type of soils and earthquake zones. The study has revealed that soil-Structure Interaction index is negative in some cases, especially in soft soil, implying base shear demand being greater than that of fixed base contrary to the traditional views.

  14. Method of Installing a Foundation in the Sea Bed and Such Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to a seabed foundation 11) for an offshore facility, comprising a primary pressure chamber 17) connected to a primary pump 1S) and one or more secondary pressure chambers 19) connected to one or more secondary pumps 110).According to an embodiment of the invention, said...... primary pump is a suction pump and said secondary pump is a pressure pump. The invention further relates to a method 112) of installing said foundation on the seabed 119), which comprises the steps of activating 114) said primary pump to create negative pressure in the primary pressure chamber 17), so...... that the foundation sinks into the seabed, and activating 115) said one or more secondary pumps 110) to create positive pressures in the secondary pressure chambers 19), so as to control the alignment of the foundation with respect to a substantially horizontal axis 116)during the sinking into the seabed....

  15. Design of Main Bridge of Xi′nan Bridge in Guigang City,Guangxi%广西贵港西南大桥主桥设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠霞; 张巨生

    2015-01-01

    广西贵港市西南大桥主桥为(46+88+280+88+46) m双塔双索面预应力混凝土边主梁斜拉桥。主梁采用等高度带悬臂的矩形混凝土边主梁与“工”字形钢横梁相结合的形式,整幅桥面宽36.5m,设双向2.0%横坡。桥塔采用“鱼”状流线弧形框架钢筋混凝土结构,塔柱高102.5 m,采用外侧为“D”形圆弧段的箱形截面。桥塔设上、下横梁,均采用预应力混凝土单箱单室结构。全桥共设136根斜拉索,斜拉索采用φs 15.2 m m镀锌钢绞线索,空间双索面扇形布置。桥塔墩采用分离式基础,上、下游分离式基础中心距34.7 m ,其下各设9根φ2.5 m钻孔桩。承台为正方形钢筋混凝土结构。4号墩顶面设一圆端形塔座。%The main bridge of the Xi′nan Bridge in Guigang City ,Guangxi is a prestressed concrete edge main girders cable‐stayed bridge with double pylons ,double cable planes and with span arrangement (46+88+280+88+46) m .T he main girders of the bridge are of the structural type combining the rectangular concrete edge main girders having constant depth and cantilevers with the I‐shape steel cross beams .The width of the whole bridge deck is 36 .5 m and the deck is provided with dual 2 .0% transverse slopes .A pylon of the bridge is the“fish”‐shape streamlined arc frame reinforced concrete structure that is 102 .5 m in height and the outer side of the pylon is of the“D”‐shape round arc box section .The upper and lower cross beams of the pylon are all the prestressed concrete single‐cell single‐box structures .There are totally 136 stay cables arranged for the whole bridge .The stay cables are the φs 15 .2 mm galvanized steel wire strand cables and are arranged in fan shape and spatial double cable planes .The pylon pier is supported on the sep‐arated foundations .T he center‐to‐center distance of the foundations on the upstream and dow n‐stream sides is 34 .7

  16. Seismic Material Properties of Reinforced Concrete and Steel Casing Composite Concrete in Elevated Pile-Group Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Mi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the material mechanics properties of reinforced concrete and steel casing composite concrete under pseudo-static loads and their application in structure. Although elevated pile-group foundation is widely used in bridge, port and ocean engineering, the seismic performance of this type of foundation still need further study. Four scale-specimens of the elevated pile-group foundation were manufactured by these two kinds of concrete and seismic performance characteristic of each specimen were compared. Meanwhile, the special soil box was designed and built to consider soil-pile-superstructure interaction. According to the test result, the peak strength of strengthening specimens is about 1.77 times of the others and the ultimate displacement is 1.66 times of the RC specimens. Additionally, the dissipated hysteric energy capability of strengthening specimens is more than 2.15 times of the others as the equivalent viscous damping ratio is reduced by 50%. The pinching effect of first two specimens is more obvious than latter two specimens and the hysteretic loops of reinforced specimens are more plumpness. The pseudo-static tests also provided the data to quantitatively assessment the positive effect of steel casing composite concrete in aseismatic design of bridge.

  17. Bridge Lock-up Device System

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The Colebrand Lock-up Device (LUD) provides additional substructure strength to resist seismic forces as a structural shock transmission unit for highway bridges. This system can provide a temporary rigid link between bridge structural members under seismic, braking, or other fast-acting type loads, while permitting slow thermal movements.

  18. Paul Dirac:. Building Bridges of the Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laurie M.

    2003-12-01

    Paul Dirac was a brilliant and original thinker. He used his physical intuition and his ideal of mathematical beauty to construct bridges between major areas of physics. This article discusses several such important works, including the bridge between quantum mechanics and relativity that led to his prediction of the existence of antimatter.

  19. History of cable-stayed bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    The principle of supporting a bridge deck by inclined tension members leading to towers on either side of the span has been known for centuries. However, the real development of cable-stayed bridges did not begin before the 1950s. Since then the free span has been increased from 183 m in the Strö...

  20. COUPLING VIBRATION OF VEHICLE-BRIDGE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炎; 黄小清; 马友发

    2004-01-01

    By applying the sinusoidal wave mode to simulate the rugged surface of bridge deck,accounting for vehicle-bridge interaction and using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, a coupling vibration model of vehicle-bridge system was developed. The model was solved by mode analyzing method and Runge-Kutta method, and the dynamic response and the resonance curve of the bridge were obtained. It is found that there are two resonance regions, one represents the main resonance while the other the minor resonance, in the resonance curve. The influence due to the rugged surface, the vibration mode of bridge, and the interaction between vehicle and bridge on vibration of the system were discussed. Numerical results show that the influence due to these parameters is so significant that the effect of roughness of the bridge deck and the mode shape of the bridge can't be ignored and the vehicle velocity should be kept away from the critical speed of the vehicle.

  1. A STUDY OF BARRIERS IN BRIDGING COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Niteen V. Dandekar

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to make a thought provoking discussion on the role barriers in bridging communication. It focuses on the concept of communication, process and the role of language related barriers in bridging communication. It studies the significance of communication in modern human life.

  2. General framework for bridge life cycle design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhai MA; Airong CHEN; Jun HE

    2009-01-01

    Based on a detailed illustration for bridge life cycle design which comprises the processes of service life design, aesthetics design, performance design, environ-mental and ecological design, inspection, maintenance and repair design as well as cost analysis, this paper presented a general framework for bridge life cycle design comprising three design phases and six design processes.

  3. Active aerodynamic stabilisation of long suspension bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Henrik Ditlev; Sørensen, Paul Haase; Jannerup, Ole Erik

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the addition of actively controlled appendages (flaps) attached along the length of the bridge deck to dampen wind-induced oscillations in long suppension bridges. A novel approach using control systems methods for the analysis of dynamic stability is presented. In order to ma...

  4. Lifetime Reliability Assessment of Concrete Slab Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    A procedure for lifetime assesment of the reliability of short concrete slab bridges is presented in the paper. Corrosion of the reinforcement is the deterioration mechanism used for estimating the reliability profiles for such bridges. The importance of using sensitivity measures is stressed...

  5. Re-Assessment of Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper two aspects of re-assessment of the reliability of concrete bridges are discussed namely modelling of the corrosion of reinforcement and updating of uncertain variables. The main reason for deterioration of concrete bridges is corrosion of the reinforcement. Therefore, modelling...

  6. Globalising the classical foundations of IPE thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Helleiner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current efforts to teach and research the historical foundations of IPE thought in classical political economy in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries centre largely on European and American thinkers. If a more extensive 'global conversation' is to be fostered in the field today, the perspectives of thinkers in other regions need to be recognised, and brought into the mainstream of its intellectual history. As a first step towards 'globalising' the classical foundations of IPE thought, this article demonstrates some ways in which thinkers located beyond Europe and the United States engaged with and contributed to debates associated with the three well-known classical traditions on which current IPE scholarship often draws: economic liberalism, economic nationalism and Marxism. It also reveals the extensive nature of 'global conversations' about IPE issues in this earlier era.

  7. On the Foundations of Superstring Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Superstring theory is an extension of conventional quantum field theory that allows for stringlike and branelike material objects besides pointlike particles. The basic foundations on which the theory is built are amazingly shaky, and, equally amazingly, it seems to be this lack of solid foundations to which the theory owes its strength. We emphasize that such a situation is legitimate only in the development phases of a new doctrine. Eventually, a more solidly founded structure must be sought. Although it is advertised as a "candidate theory of quantum gravity", we claim that string theory may not be exactly that. Rather, just like quantum field theory itself, it is a general mathematical framework for a class of theories. Its major flaw could be that it still embraces a Copenhagen view on the relation between quantum mechanics and reality, while any "theory of everything", that is, a theory for the entire cosmos, should do better than that.

  8. Quantum theory informational foundations and foils

    CERN Document Server

    Spekkens, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This book provides the first unified overview of the burgeoning research area at the interface between Quantum Foundations and Quantum Information.  Topics include: operational alternatives to quantum theory, information-theoretic reconstructions of the quantum formalism, mathematical frameworks for operational theories, and device-independent features of the set of quantum correlations. Powered by the injection of fresh ideas from the field of Quantum Information and Computation, the foundations of Quantum Mechanics are in the midst of a renaissance. The last two decades have seen an explosion of new results and research directions, attracting broad interest in the scientific community. The variety and number of different approaches, however, makes it challenging for a newcomer to obtain a big picture of the field and of its high-level goals. Here, fourteen original contributions from leading experts in the field cover some of the most promising research directions that have emerged in the new wave of quant...

  9. A Foundation Theory of Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2006-01-01

    The nRules are empirical regularities that were discovered in macroscopic situations where the outcome is known. When they are projected theoretically into the microscopic domain they predict a novel ontology including the frequent collapse of an atomic wave function, thereby defining an nRule based foundation theory. Future experiments can potentially discriminate between this and other foundation theories of (non-relativistic) quantum mechanics. Important features of the nRules are: (1) they introduce probability through probability current rather than the Born rule, (2) they are valid independent of size (micro or macroscopic), (3) they apply to individual trials, not just to ensembles of trials. (4) they allow all observers to be continuously included in the system without ambiguity, (5) they account for the collapse of the wave function without introducing new or using old physical constants, and (6) in dense environments they provide a high frequency of stochastic localizations of quantum mechanical obj...

  10. Kant's Schematism and the Foundations of Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    we---on the background of schematism---get a characterization of Kant's concept of 'object'. This takes me to an analysis of the ontology and epistemology of mathematics. Kant understood himself as a philosopher in contact with science. It was science which he wanted to provide a foundation for. I...... general frame work, which functions as a foundation for an understanding of the epistemology and ontology of mathematics....... show that, contrary to Kant's own intentions, he was not up-to-date on mathematics. And in fact, it was because of this that it was possible for him to formulate his rather rigid theory concerning the unique characterizations of intuition and understanding. I show how phenomena in the mathematics of...

  11. Technique in Cleft Rhinoplasty: The Foundation Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassner, Holger G; Schwan, Franziska; Haubner, Frank; Suárez, Gustavo A; Vielsmeier, Veronika

    2016-04-01

    Secondary cleft rhinoplasty represents a particular surgical challenge. The authors have identified the deficit in skeletal projection of the cleft-sided piriform rim as an important contributor to the pathology. A graft is described to augment the piriform crest on the cleft side. This foundation graft is suture fixated to the piriform crest after complete release of all soft tissue attachments to the alar base. The foundation graft is articulated with a long alar strut graft, which allows for powerful projection of the cleft-sided nasal tip. An advancement flap of vestibular skin is described to correct the vestibular stenosis. A transplant of diced cartilage in fascia is added to augment maxillary soft tissue volume. Subjective and objective measures of form and function are presented in a retrospective series of five cases, illustrating the efficacy of the techniques described. PMID:27097143

  12. Design for Huaxi Bridge in Highway around Guiyang City%贵阳环城高速公路花溪大桥设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金令

    2012-01-01

    Huaxi Bridge is a super large bridge across above Huaxi reservoir in the south line of Guiyang City Highway. The main bridge, which is a 192 m half-through concrete-filled steel tube arch bridge with 29.3 m in full width ( bi-direction four lanes plus sidewalks) and 100 km/h design speed, is the key bridge and controlling project of the whole line. The author illustrates the general design situation of the bridge, including bridge-type selection, design parameters, structure details and construction methods. According to the situations at the bridge site, Huaxi Bridge is the first bridge using the technologies such as triangular space truss arch, cutting caisson foundation, self-compacting concrete-filled steel tube in Guizhou region, which can give some references for the same type of bridge constructions in mountainous karst area.%花溪大桥为贵阳环城高速公路南环线跨越花溪水库的一座特大型桥梁,主桥为192 m的中承式钢管混凝土拱桥,大桥全宽29.3 m(双向四车道+人行道),设计速度100 km/h,是全线重点桥梁和控制性工程.介绍该桥的总体设计情况,包括桥式选择、设计参数、构造细节、施工方法.根据桥址处的条件大桥在贵州地区首次采用了三角形空间桁架拱、挖井基础、自密实钢管混凝土等技术,对多山岩溶地区同类型桥梁建设具有参考意义.

  13. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Exploratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosiman, G.; Wagner, R.; Schirber, T.

    2013-02-01

    The key objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the feasibility of the development or adoption of technologies that would enable a large percentage of existing homes in cold climates to apply a combination 'excavationless' soil removal process with appropriate insulation and water management on the exterior of existing foundations at a low cost. Our approach was to explore existing excavation and material technologies and systems to discover whether potential successful combinations existed.

  14. Baumgarten‘s foundation of modern aesthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Grubor Nebojša

    2015-01-01

    The paper explains Baumgarten’s foundation of modern aesthetics as the science of sensible cognition. The paper first examines mentalistic paradigm in modern philosophy as an intellectual background of Baumgarten’s philosophy and aesthetics (I). This is followed by consideration of Baumgarten’s definitions of aesthetics from Philosophical meditations of pertaining to some matters concerning poetry (1735), Metaphysics (1739) and Aesthetics (1750) (II). Final...

  15. Measuring the foundation of Homeland Security

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew, David A.

    2007-01-01

    CHDS State/Local This thesis provides a self-assessment tool to compel discussion concerning Homeland Security teamwork. Building on the research of others who have focused on collaboration and teamwork as essential for Homeland Security, it is proclaimed that teamwork is the foundation on which Homeland Security capabilities must be built. The purpose of this thesis is to define the components of teamwork amongst the local multidiscipline organizations with a common Homeland Security ...

  16. Foundation of statistical energy analysis in vibroacoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bot, A

    2015-01-01

    This title deals with the statistical theory of sound and vibration. The foundation of statistical energy analysis is presented in great detail. In the modal approach, an introduction to random vibration with application to complex systems having a large number of modes is provided. For the wave approach, the phenomena of propagation, group speed, and energy transport are extensively discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the emergence of diffuse field, the central concept of the theory.

  17. Foundations of a Universal Theory of Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Wagh, Sanjay M

    2005-01-01

    Earlier, we had presented \\cite{heuristic} heuristic arguments to show that a {\\em natural unification} of the ideas of the quantum theory and those underlying the general principle of relativity is achievable by way of the measure theory and the theory of dynamical systems. Here, in Part I, we provide the complete physical foundations for this, to be called, the {\\em Universal Theory of Relativity}. Newton's theory and the special theory of relativity arise, situationally, in this Universal ...

  18. The Institutional Foundations of China's Market Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Yingyi Qian

    1999-01-01

    April 1999 This paper intends to properly account for China's two decades of market transition by examining its institutional foundations. The journey of transition is analyzed as a two-stage process. In the first stage (1978-93), the system was reformed to unleash the standard forces of incentives, hard budget constraints, and competition, but the underlying institutional forms and mechanisms are far from conventional: reforming government through regional decentralization; entry and expansi...

  19. Competition in generation: The economic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper sets out the economic foundations that underlie competitive markets in electricity generation. It moves from a general formulation of a competitive market to discuss traditional models of optimal electricity pricing. It shows how an auction market can produce the same results and discusses the option of bilateral trading. Models of market power, which can lead to higher prices and reduced efficiency, are then discussed. The final part of the paper deals with network effects

  20. Colwell tapped for National Scince Foundation post

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    President Clinton has announced his intent to nominate Rita Colwell as deputy director of the National Science Foundation.Colwell, president of the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute and a professor of microbiology at the university, has been active in national and international research and teaching in the areas of marine biotechnology and the molecular genetics of marine and estuarine bacteria, including the microbiology of the Chesapeake Bay.